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Sample records for iraq politics elections

  1. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly exhibiting peaceful competition but continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting...

  2. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... The Administration is expressing optimism that the passage of key laws in 2008, including a law to govern new provincial elections to held in early 2009, will heal remaining rifts and continue to reduce violence...

  3. Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Attention in this discussion of Iraq is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Iraq. In 1986, Iraq's population was estimated to be 16 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000; life expectancy is 56.1 years. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Almost 75% of the population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basra to the Persian Gulf. The 2 largest ethnic groups are Arabas and Kurds; other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, and Armenians. Iraq, once known as Mesopotamia, was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations. Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century A.D. In the 8th century, the Abassid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad, and by 1638 Baghdad had become a frontier outpost of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of World War I, Iraq became a British-mandated territory. When it was declared independent in 1932, the Hashemite family ruled as a constitutional monarchy. In 1945, Iraq joined the UN and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Ba'ath Party rules Iraq through the 9-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The RCC's president (chief of state and supreme commander of the armed forces) is elected by a 2/3 majority of the RCC. A Council of Ministers, appointed by the RCC, has administrative and some legislative responsibilities. A 250-member National Assembly was elected on June 20, 1980, in the 1st elections since the end of the monarchy, with another National Assembly election held in October 1984. The Ba'ath Party controls the government. The Iraqi regime does not tolerate opposition. The economy of Iraq is characterized by a heavy dependence on oil exports and an emphasis on development through central planning. Economic performance deteriorated in 1986 because of the sharp

  4. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    .... As 2009 began, there was renewed maneuvering by opponents of Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki who view him as authoritarian and might try to replace him, particularly if his party had fared poorly...

  5. Women, Politics, Elections, and Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gerald R.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the historical development of women's legal and political status in the United States, focusing on suffrage, the three "waves" of women's movements, and access to elected office. Discusses three impediments of electing women candidates to public office: (1) solidarity; (2) political culture; and (3) the impact of the single-member…

  6. Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

  7. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    devoting significant resources to that plan. On April 30, 2012, the COR enacted a law to facilitate elimination of trafficking in persons, both sexual ...human rights reports have noted continuing instances of harassment and intimidation of journalists who write about corruption and the lack of government...extradite him to the United States, but Iraq released him in November 2012 and he returned to Lebanon , despite U.S. efforts to persuade Iraq to keep

  8. Political Broadcast Advertising and Primary Election Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, John

    1974-01-01

    Results of a research project which hypothisized that: Other things being equal, the heavier a candidate's usage of broadcast advertising in a primary election campaign, the greater will be his share of the votes in the election. (Author/HB)

  9. Political budget cycles and election outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses two empirical questions. Is fiscal policy affected by upcoming elections? If so, do election-motivated fiscal policies enhance the probability of re-election of the incumbent? Employing data for 65 democratic countries over 1975-2005 in a semi-pooled panel model, we find that in

  10. Europe – political cleavage in the French presidential elections .

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Pătruţiu Balteș

    2012-01-01

    The French presidential elections of 2012 brought a new political approach concerning the candidates speech, because Europe became one of the main electoral themes within a national election. In full European economic crisis, the French people seem more than ever interested about the future of European construction, and in this context, the presidential candidates had to tackle this topic of interest in their election campaign. Analyzing the speeches of the first three candidates among the Fr...

  11. Electoral Politics and Election Outcomes in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2006-09-16

    Sep 16, 2006 ... section of the presidential and National Assembly Elections Act. The change .... of its functions, such as registering voters and supervising the conduct of ..... civil rights as well as civic duties, including the need to contest ...

  12. Personality, Political Behavior, and Political Views about Mexico’s 2012 Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Moreno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available People’s electoral behavior is understood as political predispositions and attitudes in specific institutional contexts. Recent scholarly work has included personality as a key explanatory factor in individual-level models of political participation. In this paper we build upon these recent efforts. We utilize the Big Five approach to assess the effects of different personality traits on people’s likelihood of political engagement during the 2012 presidential election in Mexico. We focus on the effects of personality on voting in the election and on individual views about the integrity of the electoral process. We use post election survey data collected for the Comparative National Elections Project in the 2012 Mexican presidential election. Our findings show that extraversion is a critical individual-level factor accounting for the propensity to turnout in this election as well as to encourage political discussion with family members, friends, neighbors, and co-workers.

  13. Political Marketing Activity In Simultaneous Regional Elections 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMA Suyanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional head election system was change in 2015. It has impact on political marketing strategy to all stake holders, such as political party and candidatures.The purposes of this research is to analyzeashifting ofpolitical marketing issueson regional election 2015. The research approach uses the mix method with the type of sequential explanatory. The subjects of this research are the candidates, election successful teams or supporting team, and young voters. Location of research based on cluster system district and sub district in Bandung, Cianjur, Magelang, Sleman, and Medan. The data are collected through techniques of questionnaires to young voters; interview to candidates, election successful teams and young voters, as well as the documentation of media and data on Regional General Elections Commission (KPUD. There are also triangular data techniqueinterviews with the General Elections Commission (KPU, the community and supporting team, and documentation and questionnaire form. The result shows that the system of political marketing has already started shifting from product, promotion, price, place, and people known as the 5Ps from mostly dominated by Political Partyinto the role of PEOPLE as candidature in influensing the voters. The Result also tells that shifting from using convetional media into almost using digital media was powerfull.

  14. It's complicated: Facebook users' political participation in the 2008 election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitak, Jessica; Zube, Paul; Smock, Andrew; Carr, Caleb T; Ellison, Nicole; Lampe, Cliff

    2011-03-01

    In the 2008 U.S. presidential election, social network sites such as Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. But do political activities on Facebook affect political participation among young voters, a group traditionally perceived as apathetic in regard to civic engagement? Or do these activities represent another example of feel-good participation that has little real-world impact, a concept often referred to as "slacktivism"? Results from a survey of undergraduate students (N = 683) at a large public university in the Midwestern United States conducted in the month prior to the election found that students tend to engage in lightweight political participation both on Facebook and in other venues. Furthermore, two OLS regressions found that political activity on Facebook (e.g., posting a politically oriented status update, becoming a "fan" of a candidate) is a significant predictor of other forms of political participation (e.g., volunteering for an organizing, signing a paper or online petition), and that a number of factors--including intensity of Facebook use and the political activity users see their friends performing on the site--predict political activity on Facebook. Students' perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific kinds of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored.

  15. Local election blogs: Networking among the political elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock Segaard, Signe; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of social media (essentially blogs) in the 2011 Norwegian local election campaigns. We commence by developing a framework for investigating political communication using the social media that conceptualises the horizontal and vertical conversation along two dimensions...... in the local election campaign. While candidates say they want to connect with the electorate, in practice they are networking with each other. Our findings are discussed in light of the institutional setting in which the blogging take place, and the specific social media under investigation.......: participants and interaction. Next, we apply our framework in a case study of election blogs in twelve Norwegian municipalities using multiple data sources. In contrast to the democratic vision of social media, our analysis demonstrates that election blogs are primarily used by those who are politically active...

  16. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  17. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-04

    which 10 seats are elected by Kuchi nomads ) and a selected 102 seat upper house (Meshrano Jirga, House of Elders). The upper house is selected as...Ghazni; 9 in Badakhshan, Konduz, and Faryab; 8 in Helmand; and 2 to 6 in the remaining provinces. Ten are reserved for Kuchis ( nomads ). Afghanistan...Islamic clergy. One of his vice presidential running mates was Ismail Khan, a faction leader discussed above. The ticket polled in the single digits

  18. American Political Discourse: Irony in Pre-Election Campaign 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Александровна Горностаева

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the analysis of American modern political discourse, mainly the field connected with the pre-election campaign 2016. It explores primary genres of political discourse (speeches, announcements, debates, party programmes, as well as secondary genres (commentaries, discussions, interpretation, political interviews. Owing to the fact that political communication embraces the whole range of informal political processes in society, the field of research includes the so-called informal political socializing. The aim of the paper is to study the use of irony and its functions in political discourse. The data used for the study were taken from candidates’ speeches, interviews with political and public figures, and recent witty sayings/comments. The study is based on the theory of critical discourse analysis (M. Bilig 2007, Teun A. van Dijk 2009, N. Fairclough 1996, P. Graham 2007, J. Lemke 2007, S. Scollon 2007, political discourse analysis (A. Beard 2001, D. Ponton 2011 etc. and theory of irony (L. Alba-Juez 2014, S. Attardo 2007, R. Giora 2001, 2003, L. Hutcheon 2005, B. Komlosi 2010 etc.. The analysis showed that irony is a frequent communicative strategy used by politicians in pre-election campaigns, it performs different functions, such as aggression, defense, entertainment and some others and plays a positive role in commucation with the audience. When used expertly, irony contributes to making political discourse more expressive and convincing. An ironic politician is a better manipulator of public opinion than one unable to use irony.

  19. Online Political Campaigning during the 2014 Regional Elections in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baranowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the analysis and evaluation of political communication on a regional level. Without any doubt, the Internet revolution affected electoral campaigning on every level. Online campaigning before local elections is often marginalized by political scientists and other scholars researching political marketing. However, the question emerges: are the candidates aware of the possibilities that new media has brought to political communication? Content analysis of all the major online communication tools has allowed the author to analyze the patterns of using websites, official Facebook profiles and Twitter accounts of candidates during the 2014 Lower Silesian Regional assembly elections. The Lower Silesian Voivodeship is among the fastest developing regions in Poland with high Internet penetration rate. Is the Internet campaign treated as a second-class way to communicate with potential voters, or is it perceived as an opportunity to reach electorate online?

  20. Local election: does bureaucracy become one of main political power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muryanto; Musthafa Sembiring, Walid

    2018-03-01

    This writing aims to analyze the emergence of bureaucracy as one of political power in local level after the local election is held in Indonesia. Due to information authorization, media network, and stable structure, the bureaucracy soon transforms into political power which can compete with the other political power at the local level. In Medan local election in 2010 and 2015 has evidently proven the power of bureaucracy network in winning the bureaucrat-background candidates. As methods of the research, the researcher held a Focus-Group Discussion (FGD) and had an in-depth interview with ten bureaucracy elites in Medan and local political elites. The observation and Focus-Group Discussion (FGD) are analyzed using qualitative analysis technique typology. The result states that the bureaucracy network in Medan has been used in a massive way as the political power of winning. The structure of bureaucracy – from the top to the low – is involved in the winning. The most governmental programs were applied to attract the mass’ sympathy toward the candidates. The bureaucratic proximity to media network is also used to do a campaign in a massive way. The conclusion of the research is that bureaucracy emerges as a new, massive, effective local political power in the local election.

  1. Expectations about Expectations of the Public. Political Elections and the Segmentation of the Political Public

    OpenAIRE

    Kusche, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that expectations about particularistic expectations of the political public play in the relationship between political actors and voters. It questions the systems-theoretical assumption that political elections and public communication about politics create an unknown public and that parties therefore can attract voters only with the help of relatively universalistic programs. Beyond the universalism induced by the mass media parties and politicians utilize opp...

  2. Zimbabwean Politics in the Post-2013 Election Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Raftopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 elections in Zimbabwe confirmed the grip of Mugabe and ZANU-PF on Zimbabwean politics. The electoral outcome was the result of a combination of factors that included not only the longterm legacy of ZANU-PF’s coercive politics, constructed through a radical nationalist discourse, but also the changes in the social structure of the country as a result of the reconfiguration of Zimbabwe’s political economy since the late 1990s. In the aftermath of the 2013 elections, the enormous economic constraints confronting the country have forced the Mugabe regime to take a more conciliatory tone as it seeks to re-engage with the West in the search for economic assistance. In its attempts to find a path through these economic challenges, ZANU-PF must also contend with the growing battle for succession within the party as Mugabe’s rule draws to an end.

  3. The dilemma of ethical political communication in South African elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Fourie

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In view of South Africa’s diversity, its unresolved issues of race and complex social legacy, election campaigns are highly sensitive. From a Reformed Christian perspective, a critical question is: To what extent is the political culture infused by the Biblical imperatives of brotherly love, respect and compassion? Given the growing use of adversarial political advertising the following two questions arise and are specifically addressed: • Could it realistically be expected of Christian political communicators in a secular country such as South Africa to communicate with full respect to people at all times, or should they be excused if they try to win at all costs? and • How do political theorists view the issue? In answering these questions, social responsibility and the need for social harmony as precondition for free and fair political activities, as well as a Biblical perspective on communication are addressed. In view of these theoretical points of departure the role of emotional messages is discussed and evaluated. It is argued that all advertising, but specifically political advertising in an emotionally charged atmosphere such as an election campaign, could have a direct negative impact on social harmony and is therefore Biblically unacceptable. Examples from previous South African general elections are discussed and evaluated from a Biblical viewpoint. It is argued that parties should not merely campaign with the aim of winning an election, but rather with the intention of respecting voters while campaigning. Simultaneously they could promote democracy within a fragile social context. Any victory outside of these parameters will not stand the test of a Biblical critique. However, it would seem extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prescribe in any detail which types of negative advertisements are acceptable and which are not.

  4. Social Networks on Spanish Politics: Twitter on 2011 Election Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Izquierdo Labella

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twitter broke during the campaign of the Spanish regional and municipal elections of May 2011 with great strength as a field over the electoral battle. Most of the communication equipment of the leading candidates made extensive use of this new tool making it an additional tool to conventional media. Thus it was found inthe race for the presidency of the Community of Madrid and the mayor at City Hall of Madrid. Five months later, his strength was multiplied during the November elections, consolidating Twitter as another tool for candidates, journalists and citizens in the political debate.

  5. Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y

    2003-07-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  6. Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  7. Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Politics and 'Other Means'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Iran has a robust program to exert influence in Iraq to limit American power projection capability in the Middle East, ensure the Iraqi government does not pose a threat to Iran, and build a reliable...

  8. Globalization, political orientation and wage inequality: From Donald Trump’s election to Angela Merkal’s re-election

    OpenAIRE

    MAMOON, Dawood

    2018-01-01

    Abstract. The recent election results in US, Germany, Japan and China and vote for BRIXIT in Britian suggest that political outcomes increasingly relate to the economic, political and social orientation in both developed and developing countries. Countries that have not promoted social and economic harmony in the country - democracy eventually puts the pressure through the discontent local polity resulting in election outcomes similar to US presidential elections in 2016. To avoid anti-global...

  9. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  10. Political ideology: its structure, functions, and elective affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T; Federico, Christopher M; Napier, Jaime L

    2009-01-01

    Ideology has re-emerged as an important topic of inquiry among social, personality, and political psychologists. In this review, we examine recent theory and research concerning the structure, contents, and functions of ideological belief systems. We begin by defining the construct and placing it in historical and philosophical context. We then examine different perspectives on how many (and what types of) dimensions individuals use to organize their political opinions. We investigate (a) how and to what extent individuals acquire the discursive contents associated with various ideologies, and (b) the social-psychological functions that these ideologies serve for those who adopt them. Our review highlights "elective affinities" between situational and dispositional needs of individuals and groups and the structure and contents of specific ideologies. Finally, we consider the consequences of ideology, especially with respect to attitudes, evaluations, and processes of system justification.

  11. Processing the War in Iraq while Learning about American Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, David M.

    2010-01-01

    When political knowledge is scarce, affective attitudes, which can consist of emotion-driven feelings regarding political figures, government, country, and foreign nations, often assist policy judgment. Based on pre- and post-surveys administered in Introduction to American Politics courses, fall 2003-fall 2005, this study examines how political…

  12. Public Sphere - Political Advertisement Relationship in Turkey: Analysing Political Advertisements of JDP in General Elections 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Dağtaş

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public sphere is a social space, open to active individual access and free discussion, rescued from state intervention, where communicative action free from violence and individual benefits is undertaken; and rational-critical discourse is built. Political advertisement is the type advertising which aims at directing voters or the government to a particular action, having them adopt a certain view or approach. The concept of political advertising emerged with the practice of using commercial advertising techniques to promote a party, candidate or an idea. Justice and Development Party (JDP, has been ruling Turkey since 2002. The leader of the party is Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is a conservative party and has carried out some practices that could be regarded as negative. Anti-secular attitudes are also among these practices. Thus, analysing the political advertisements of JDP has proved to be interesting. Public sphere studies are mostly conducted through news stories and columns in media. In that sense, it is significant to analyse political advertisements in terms of public sphere. In this study, the political advertisements of the ruling Justice and Development Party (JDP in the process of Turkish General Parliamentary Election, 2011 have been analysed. The political advertisements in question have been analysed via Sabah newspaper. The reason for choosing Sabah is that it supports JDP as an example of partisan press. The samples have been taken from 2 weeks before the elections. Accordingly, as a full-page advertisement is published every day, 14 political advertisement analyses have been conducted in total. Political advertisements have been analysed using qualitative text analysis. As the study follows the path of public place-political advertising relationship, it finds meaning in itself.

  13. Socio-political structure of Mersin at the basis of the results of the local elections

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan

    2012-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the political structure of Mersin and its place in the general political structure of Turkey by using methods and techniques of political sociology. Structural-functionalist was used as the theoretical base. To achieve this goal, the results of the Turkish local elections in last 50 years (were examined. First of all, the formation of political power in Turkey and the overall operation and changing regularities at the bases of the local elections were evaluated. Se...

  14. Getting to grips with election night forecasting: Predicting the unpredictable world of politics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Holloway, Jennifer P

    2009-04-23

    Full Text Available , it is an exhilarating experience being at the IEC's headquarters during the elections. "The whole building is abuzz, with political parties and media representatives all having their own booths and swarming around the floor. We have found that the smaller parties... with. Election night forecasting Predicting the unpredictable world of politics On 22 April 2009, after the voting population has used its right to cast its individual votes in the fourth democratic elections of South Africa, a team...

  15. SH’ISM AND STATE IN CONTEMPORARY IRAQ: FROM DISCRIMINATION TO POLITICAL POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius LAZĂR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a reflection and an analysis of the evolution of Iraqi Shi’a in relation to the national construction processes of the state and its interactions with its regional geopolitical environment where religious identities represent a decisive element in shaping the behaviors of states or of different under- or over-state actors. The core of the research is represented by the political phenomenology of Iraqi Shi’as, but it is always contextualized within the broader context of domestic politics in Iraq and the multiple dynamics of the Persian Gulf and of the Middle East in general.

  16. #IranVotes: Political Discourse on Iranian Twitter during the 2016 Parliamentary Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Marchant, James; Sabeti, Amin; Bowen, Kyle; Kelly, John; Heacock Jones, Rebekah Ann

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we map and analyze the content and structural features of the Iranian Twittersphere as exhibited over the course of the 2016 legislative elections in order to identify the communities that developed around various political, social, and cultural issues and to assess the influence of online political campaigning that emerged on the platform over the course of the election campaign. Given Iran’s ongoing efforts to control and restrict freedom of expression around numerous politic...

  17. Talking Politics on Twitter: Gender, Elections, and Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon C. McGregor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As campaign discussions increasingly circulate within social media, it is important to understand the characteristics of these conversations. Specifically, we ask whether well-documented patterns of gendered bias against women candidates persist in socially networked political discussions. Theorizing power dynamics as relational, we use dialectic configurations between actors as independent variables determining network measures as outcomes. Our goal is to assess relational power granted to candidates through Twitter conversations about them and whether they change depending on the gender of their opponent. Based on more than a quarter of a million tweets about 50 candidates for state-wide offices during the 2014 US elections, results suggest that when a woman opposes a man, the conversation revolves around her, but she retains a smaller portion of rhetorical share. We find that gender affects network structure—women candidates are both more central and more replied to when they run against men. Despite the potential for social media to disrupt deeply rooted gender bias, our findings suggest that the structure of networked discussions about male and female candidates still results in a differential distribution of relational power.

  18. Socio-political structure of Turkey in general elections (since 1950 up to 1980)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arslan

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to analyse socio-political structure of Turkish society at the basis of the results of Turkish General elections since 1950 up to 1980. Documentary and historical research techniques will be employed during the study.

  19. Teaching Politics in Secondary Education: Analyzing Instructional Methods from the 2008 Presidential Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journell, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the instructional methods of four high school government teachers during their coverage of the 2008 presidential election. By analyzing the ways in which these teachers attempted to generate interest in the election and further their students' conceptualization of politics, the author seeks to better understand political…

  20. Political Engagement during a Presidential Election Year: A Case Study of Media Literacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Elia; Moeller, Susan; Yuan, Yacong

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory, mixed-methods study uses data gathered during the previous U.S. presidential election in 2012 to evaluate student political engagement and digital culture. Survey results and media diary entries revealed that college students enrolled in a media literacy course during Super Tuesday or Election Day gravitated toward low-barrier…

  1. Social Media Use and Online Political Participation Among College Students During the US Election 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei “Chris” Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 4,556 US college students were surveyed immediately after Election 2012 to investigate what social media–related psychological and behavioral factors predicted their online political participation. Structural equation modeling and hierarchical multiple regression results showed that online social capital, political self-efficacy, and Facebook group participation were positive predictors of online political participation, while social trust did not directly influence online political participation. General political use of Facebook and Twitter was a positive predictor of online political participation; however, extensive Facebook and Twitter use was a negative predictor. Implications for research and political practice are discussed.

  2. Gendered Hate Speech and Political Discourse in Recent U.S. Elections and in Postsocialist Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2013-01-01

    In her article "Gendered Hate Speech and Political Discourse in Recent U.S. Elections and in Postsocialist Hungary" Louise O. Vasvári illustrates gendered political discourse in the U.S. through a case study of the 2008 presidential campaign. While the campaign turned into a plebiscite on gender and sexual politics with Hillary Clinton and other female political figures depicted in the most traditionally misogynist terms, Barack Obama has in some leftist circles been seen as an empathetic fig...

  3. 11 CFR 102.5 - Organizations financing political activity in connection with Federal and non-Federal elections...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: Accounts and accounting. 102.5 Section 102.5 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL... connection with non-Federal elections. Administrative expenses for State, district, and local party... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organizations financing political activity in...

  4. The multidimensional politics of inequality: taking stock of identity politics in the U.S. Presidential election of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Leslie; Orloff, Ann Shola

    2017-11-01

    Many Democrats hoped that a particular kind of identity politics - women's - would help Hillary Clinton win the White House. In the aftermath of the election, some commentators bemoaned the fact that a majority of white women had voted for Trump, and called it a kind of betrayal, underlining their expectation that women would naturally, on the basis of their gender identity, support a woman with women-friendly politics. Indeed, this kind of thinking about identity politics has been widespread with reference to a number of demographic groups. Meanwhile, identity politics is lamented from the right and left by those who favour a greater emphasis on class-based inequalities, or a greater national identity, some of whom blame identity politics for spawning or justifying a backlash of right-leaning populism in the US. We argue for a turn to a more robust definition of identity as multidimensional and politically mediated for understanding political alignments over the past several decades. The multidimensionality of inequality - intersectionality or complex inequality - is widely accepted in the study of gender and race across the social science disciplines but has yet to be as successfully integrated into studies of electoral politics. Thinking about women's positioning in systems of complex inequality, and how the political parties have or have not articulated the concerns of different groups of women, helps us to understand the 2016 election, as well as past and potentially future political developments. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  5. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  6. Citizens' Political Information Behaviors during Elections on Twitter in South Korea: Information Worlds of Opinion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Sue

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated South Korean citizens' political information behaviors on Twitter during the 2014 Seoul Mayoral election. By using the mixed methods design of network analysis, tweet content analysis, and interviews, this research examined how citizens collaboratively engaged in the political communication and deliberation via Twitter…

  7. From prowar soldier to antiwar activist: Change and continuity in the narratives of political conversion among Iraq War veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2016-01-01

    This study examines conversion narratives of Iraq War military veterans who have become antiwar political activists. I examine how antiwar veterans construct and emplot prewar, wartime, and postwar narrative periods to shape and reclaim their moral identities as patriots fighting for a just cause, and how through a communal antiwar story they work to both...

  8. The political Change in Greece. The parliamentary elections in January 2015 in a critical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrozacharakis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    The Greek parliamentary elections in January .2015 led to a foreseeable change in government. The coalition government between the conservative Nea Dimokratia and of the socialist PASOK, become replaced. by a coalition government between the left wing coalition party SYRIZA and the extreme right-wing ANEL ( "Independent Greeks"}, The cause for this radical political shift is located in the latent anger of the citizens in relation to the political elites of Greece and their politics in the las...

  9. Diverse politics, diverse news coverage? A longitudinal study of diversity in Dutch political news during two decades of election campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, A.M.J.; Jacobi, C.; Ruigrok, N.; van Atteveldt, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Although diverse political news has been recognized as a requirement for a well-functioning democracy, longitudinal research into this topic is sparse. In this article, we analyse the development of diversity in election coverage in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2012. We distinguish between

  10. Diverse Politics, Diverse News Coverage? A Longitudinal Study of Diversity of Dutch Political News During Two Decades of Election Campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, A.M.J.; Jacobi, C.; Ruigrok, N.

    2014-01-01

    Although diverse political news has been recognized a requirement for a well functioning democracy, longitudinal research into this topic is sparse. In this paper, we analyze the development of diversity in election coverage in the Netherlands between 1994 and 2012. We distinguish between diversity

  11. Weather conditions and political party vote share in Dutch national parliament elections, 1971-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinga, Rob; Te Grotenhuis, Manfred; Pelzer, Ben

    2012-11-01

    Inclement weather on election day is widely seen to benefit certain political parties at the expense of others. Empirical evidence for this weather-vote share hypothesis is sparse however. We examine the effects of rainfall and temperature on share of the votes of eight political parties that participated in 13 national parliament elections, held in the Netherlands from 1971 to 2010. This paper merges the election results for all Dutch municipalities with election-day weather observations drawn from all official weather stations well distributed over the country. We find that the weather parameters affect the election results in a statistically and politically significant way. Whereas the Christian Democratic party benefits from substantial rain (10 mm) on voting day by gaining one extra seat in the 150-seat Dutch national parliament, the left-wing Social Democratic (Labor) and the Socialist parties are found to suffer from cold and wet conditions. Cold (5°C) and rainy (10 mm) election day weather causes the latter parties to lose one or two parliamentary seats.

  12. Democracy and Multiparty Politics in Africa Recent Elections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shift from one-party to multiparty politics in many African countries has made the issue of democratisation a crucially equally important part of the development agenda. Efforts to create an economically enabling environment and build administrative and other capacities will be wasted if the political context is not ...

  13. Political Marketing Success: An Investigation on 2015 Iranian Parliamentary Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Lotfi Ashtiani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates factors affecting the success of political marketing by basing on a fieldwork. To evaluate proposed hypotheses, a questionnaire was used to collect data. This research’s statistical society includes citizens of Arak city by using proportional sampling method and reaches 287 completed questionnaires. According to the data analysis, the results indicate that the market–oriented strategy adoption, doing of effective research about voters, voters division, candidates status and creation and management of mental image have the positive effect on the political marketing. Given the importance of political marketing and proper use of the marketing techniques in the campaigns and realizations of successful political marketing, this study introduces advantages of political marketing and explains how to use it and provides a conceptual model.

  14. Effectiveness of political advertising in the electoral process: experience on extraordinary presidential elections – 2014 in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Muzychenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The place and role of political advertising and political agitation in the electoral process as an example of extraordinary presidential elections - 2014in Ukraine are analyzed in the paper. It’s revealed a concept of «political advertising» within the Ukrainian legislation and the peculiarities of the legal regulation of its implementation during the presidential elections in Ukraine. Restrictions relating to forms of political agitation and the volume of financing. It was found that political advertising is a form of agitation and can be financed only with specially crafted by candidate election fund, the size of which, unlike elections to representative bodies of power is not limited. The analysis of the election funds of candidates in terms of establishing relationship between costs and result, which is one of the performance criteria of political advertising effectiveness in the electoral process. For this purpose, analysis of the cost structure of election funds, which are dominated by the cost of the media used. Also examines distribution channels of political advertising and the quality of the TV election advertising products. It is proved that political advertising affects electoral behavior, but direct relationship between the election’s success and amount invested in the political campaign funds are not found. That suggests the expediency consideration of other factors influence the electoral behavior, such as political program of applicants, their political experience, subjective preferences of voters and more.

  15. Polarization in the media during an election campaign: A dynamic network model predicting support and attack among political actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Nooy, W.; Kleinnijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    In multiparty election campaigns, many political parties and candidates compete for media attention, voters, and a government majority. Negative campaigning, which is often newsworthy, is an attractive strategy in the competition for media attention. However, political support for another party

  16. Polarization in the media during an election campaign: a dynamic network model predicting support and attack among political actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooy, W.; Kleinnijenhuis, J.

    2013-01-01

    In multiparty election campaigns, many political parties and candidates compete for media attention, voters, and a government majority. Negative campaigning, which is often newsworthy, is an attractive strategy in the competition for media attention. However, political support for another party

  17. The Influence of Social Media Towards Student Political Participation During the 2014 Indonesian Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Kholid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to examine the political par- ticipation of social media users particularly of Facebook and Twitter during the 2014 Indonesian presidential election. The data collection was per- formed through survey with accidental sampling methods. Samples were taken from population of undergraduate students of political and social sci- ences faculty at five universities in Yogyakarta namely UGM, UIN Sunan Kalijaga, UMY, UNY and UPN “Veteran” Yogyakarta. Using statistic descriptive, this research conceptualizes the political participation of social media users while the relations of social me- dia and political participation is analyzed through OLS Regression. The findings indicated that the level of political participation of the social media users during the election was categorized as good. How- ever, the facilities offered by the two social media applications were not maximally used to supporting political participation activities. On the other hand, the result OLS regression shows that there were positive and significant correlations and influences of social media towards the political participation of its users during the election even though the per- centage was small.

  18. Political Socialization Media of Selayar Islands General Election

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Gau Kadir; Nurlinah; Rahmatullah

    2017-01-01

    - This paper aims to identify the most influential political socialization media in shaping the political culture of maritime communities in the Selayar Islands District. The research method used is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods with data collection methods in the form of surveys, interviews and document studies. Data analysis uses quantitative analysis in the form of cross-tabulation of data and qualitative analysis. The results showed that there was no significant...

  19. Iran's Influence in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Iran is building substantial influence in post-Saddam Iraq, in large part because the dominant parties in Iraq have long-standing ideological, political, and religious sectarian ties to Tehran. A key U.S...

  20. POLITICAL ISLAM IN TUNISIA: ELECTORAL CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS OF 2004 AND 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Martínez Fuentes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key points in the future of today’s political transition in Tunisia lies in the Islamists’ willingness to cooperate with the rest of the political parties to promote political change, as well as their electoral performance in the next elections. The aim of this article is to help reduce uncertainty on this issue, by clarifying its antecedents. With this aim, the author adopts as the article’s area of study the strategic-relational dimensions of Tunisia’s Islamist party’s performance in elections. With this in mind, the author analyses the types of interaction that the Islamist party maintained in the presidential elections of 2004 and 2009 with the other political and social parties that were critical of the Ben Ali regime, and examines its causes. As a result of this, the study concludes that up to now, both the party’s alignment with certain secular political and social actors from the structure of opposition to the Ben Ali regime, and its policy of confrontation with certain others, has not been based on any programmatic issue, nor on any issues of sensitivity or religious conception, but rather on the struggle to head political change and to lead a new government.

  1. A multi-level geographical study of Italian political elections from Twitter data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Pammolli, Fabio; Pompa, Gabriele; Puliga, Michelangelo; Riccaboni, Massimo; Riotta, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the behavior of Italian Twitter users during national political elections. We monitor the volumes of the tweets related to the leaders of the various political parties and we compare them to the elections results. Furthermore, we study the topics that are associated with the co-occurrence of two politicians in the same tweet. We cannot conclude, from a simple statistical analysis of tweet volume and their time evolution, that it is possible to precisely predict the election outcome (or at least not in our case of study that was characterized by a "too-close-to-call" scenario). On the other hand, we found that the volume of tweets and their change in time provide a very good proxy of the final results. We present this analysis both at a national level and at smaller levels, ranging from the regions composing the country to macro-areas (North, Center, South).

  2. The professionalization of political communication? a longitudinal analysis of Dutch election campaign posters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of Dutch election posters in the period from 1946 to 2006. Based on the literature on the professionalization of political communication, several hypotheses are formulated regarding changes in textual and visual elements of those posters. These hypotheses focus on

  3. Does campaign finance imply political favors? The case of the 1998 Brazilian elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides empirical evidence that campaign contributions are strongly associated with expectations of future firm-specific political favors. Using a novel dataset, we find that during the 1998 elections in Brazil higher campaign contributions to federal deputies were robustly associated

  4. CANDIDATES IN THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS IN ROMANIA (2014: THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN POLITICAL MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Patrut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of social media has drawn the attention of the specialists from the political marketing because it contributes quickly and efficiently to the increase of the political product’s visibility and appeals to its supporters for content creation and viral promotion of the political messages. In addition, the candidate can communicate directly with the citizens and may involve them in creating virtual communities. In our study we briefly present the way in which social media was used, timidly at first, during the campaign for the 2008 parliamentary elections, for the 2009 presidential elections and for the 2012 local and parliamentary elections. The importance of social media increased during the 2012 Romanian presidential impeachment referendum and contributed decisively to rallying voters to go to the polls and, implicitly, to the Klaus Iohannis’s victory in the 2014 presidential elections. We have focused especially on Facebook, as social network, because it has managed to attract the largest number of users in Romania. The success of the 2.0 political actors does not imply (only to use the network as an alternative news channel, but especially to establish the bidirectional connection and constant interaction with virtual friends.

  5. Action Movie in Election Day: Eraser (1996, Arnold Chwarzenegger and Other Politics Medias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabro Boaz Steibel

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore methodological frontiers between movie theory and political ommunication studies. When identifying traces of how politics, art and entertainment interact, it is possible to understand how movie celebrities can act as politicians, and vice versa. Arnold Schwarzenegger is a world famous actor who has twice won the Californian gubernatorial election. The principal purpose of this article is not to discuss political spectacle or analyse Schwarzenegger’s approach to government. The idea is to understand how a film in which Schwarzenegger starred over a decade ago (Eraser, 1996 has influenced his campaign image construction. The article’s methodological basis is a collective text by the Editors of Cahiers du Cinéma, based on John Ford’s Young Mr. Lincoln (1939. Its methodology allows us to observe important characteristics of Schwarzenegger’s role in the Eraser movie, which are then compared to the 2002 election scenario.

  6. Political parties and the EU in national election campaigns: who talks about Europe, and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senninger, Roman; Wagner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    addressed as well as their framing. We argue that issue-based strategies and government participation may provide important reasons why parties only mobilize selectively on EU issues. We test our expectations using data from party press releases in Austrian general election campaigns in 2008 and 2013. We......This paper examines political party mobilization on European Union issues during national election campaigns. We consider which actors talk about the EU, specifically which parties and which actors within parties, as well as how these actors talk about the EU, specifically the types of EU issues...

  7. Political parties and forestry relations in Turkey’s general elections in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdoğan Atmış

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Political parties have important roles in the political decision making process on identifying the demand for public goods and services. In this context, political parties have significant impacts on identification and implementation of forestry policies. Their election manifestos/declarations have statements on forests and forestry, which are important sources of information for those parties' forestry policies. In this study, election manifestos of 11 parties that participated in the general elections that took place on June 7, 2015 and November 1, 2015 in Turkey were studied. Data were analysed with “Document Analyses” and “Content Analyses”, then evaluated under eight titles. As a result of these assessments, the conclusion was that; there are significant differences between the parties' approaches to forests: some of them consider the forest not as an entity but as a source of income, developing populist discourses that are sure to appeal to the general public, through ambitious or impossible promises. It can also be said that the political parties fail to base their views on forests on reliable data.

  8. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukor, Ali R; Klazinga, Niek S; Kringos, Dionne S

    2017-08-23

    This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and political crises. The descriptive analysis used a framework operationalizing Starfield's classic primary care model for health services research. A scoping review was performed using relevant sources, and expert consultations were conducted for completing and validating data. The descriptive analysis presents a complex narrative of a primary care system undergoing classical developmental processes of transitioning middle-income countries. The system is simultaneously under tremendous pressure to adapt to the continuously changing, complex and resource-intensive needs of sub-populations exhibiting varying morbidity patterns, within the context of protracted security, humanitarian, economic, and political crises. Despite exhibiting significant resilience in the face of the ongoing crises, the continued influx of IDPs and Syrian refugees, coupled with extremely limited resources and weak governance at policy, organizational and clinical levels threaten the sustainability of KRI's public primary care system. Diverse trajectories to the strengthening and development of primary care are underway by local and international actors, notably the World Bank, RAND Corporation, UN organizations and USAID, focusing on varying imperatives related to the protracted humanitarian and economic crises. The convergence, interaction and outcomes of the diverse initiatives and policy approaches in relation to the development of KRI's primary care system are complex and highly uncertain. A common vision of primary care is required to align resources, initiatives and policies, and to enable synergy between all local and international actors involved in the developmental and humanitarian response. Further

  9. Political Behavior of Women's Voter of Mojokerto City on Legislative Election 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irtanto Irtanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of democratization and the role of the mass media have an impact on the behavior of women voters. This research used a descriptive quantitative approach with the aim to identifying the role of institutions of socialization and media information on the legislative elections 2014, and to know the preferences of women’s voter in determining their political choice and to know the exposure of mass media and the appeal of political advertising from political parties. The results indicate that the institution of socialization and information media on the legislative elections 2014 was instrumental in disseminating information and introduce the candidates to the voters. The preferences of women’s voter in determining their political choices from the sociological side is more considering the religious background, professional organizations, origin of place, family information, and intellectuality of the candidates. From the psychological side, most women tend to consider the emotional closeness, similarity of political parties, the integrity, the same interest. The political preferences of rational considerations tend to the issue of the candidate experience and success in leading the organization, whether it locally or nationally, intellectuality and the quality of candidates, campaign issues, vision and mission, programs, credibility, commitment, personality, modest, good performance, good capability, clean image and performance, and closeness with ordinary people.

  10. How natural disasters affect citizens’ political attitudes? Case of Georgia 2012 parliamentary election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nino Machurishvili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of research about evaluation natural disasters influence on citizens political attitudes reviewing Georgia 2012 parliamentary election case – election result in the eastern part of Georgia, taking into consideration 2012 summer flood, which preceded voting in four districts of Kakheti. Paper aim is to answer theoretically and empirically important question: How social welfare is related to the district-level election outcomes. Theoretical framework is a theory of retrospective voting. Research is based on a qualitative research methodology, basic methodological approach being the method of case study. In the frame of the research two alternative hypothesis are tested. Present paper will contribute to the academic debates around the issue of citizens retrospective voting.

  11. The impact of dark tetrad traits on political orientation and extremism: an analysis in the course of a presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duspara, Boris; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    Previous research on personality and political attitudes has been conducted in countries where political parties from the center dominate the political system. In the present research ( N = 675), we focus on the relationship between the dark side of human personality and political orientation and extremism, respectively, in the course of a presidential election where the two candidates represent either left-wing or right-wing political policies. Narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and everyday sadism were associated with right-wing political orientation, whereas narcissism and psychopathy were associated with political extremism. Moreover, the relationships between personality and right-wing political orientation and extremism, respectively, were relatively independent from each other.

  12. Between Democratic Security and Democratic Legality. Constitutional Politics and Presidential Re-election in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Boesten

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the political and legal debate of the declaration of unconstitutionality of the referendum that sought the re-election presidential second term in 2010. On the other hand, it exposes the debate between those who spoke of bias and political argument in the court ruling related to the idea of “democratic security”; while others speak of the persistence of “democratic legality” consisting of autonomy guaranteed legal reasoning from deliberative processes. Finally, it is noted that the degree of institutionalization of discourse of the Court is an important factor that speaks in favor of it’s independence.

  13. Politics representation scenarios and elec toral behavior - study case: Porto Alegre's municipal elections in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to reflect about the influence of the political surveys in the definition of the electoral behavior analyzing the scenarios of political representation, the mechanism of public opinion formation and the specificities of the behavior of the gaucho electorate. We believe the publicity built upon the surveys had a great impact in the Porto Alegre mayor election results in 2004. The methodology we chose was the qualitative approach, that is, content analysis. In the end, we confirm the behavior of the gaucho electorate shows a receptive predisposing to the appeal to the useful vote.

  14. Voters’ Perception of Cultural Elements in Political Advertising for the April 2011 General Elections in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Nkemdilim Ijeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Popular appeals explored by political advertisers for elections include showing a clearunderstanding ofpressing societal issues and demonstrating the possession of appropriate responsesto them as well as emphasis on experience relevant to the position being sought or one’s track recordsin other spheres of human endeavour. In addition to the aforementionedappeals, this study observesthat some political advertisers for the April 2011general elections in Nigeria incorporated culturalelements such as native languages; cultural dressing; emphasis on candidates’ cultural affinities bybirth, history, marriage and chieftaincy titles; cultural music and dances; cultural norms, values andideologies; as well as visits to and endorsements of candidates by traditional rulers. Voters perceivedthis in good light and majority indicated that they were attracted by these cultural elements to thepolitical advertisements and learnt about the candidates from them. However, a minority of themindicated that these incorporated cultural elements actually influenced their voting decisions. Thesefindings, emanating from a content analysis of selected political advertisements for the elections,tally with the notion of agenda setting theory of mass communication that the media can tell peoplewhat to think about but never what to think.

  15. Politics and Leadership on Facebook During the 2012 Romanian Parliamentary Elections and the 2014 Euro-parliamentary Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florența TOADER

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the communicational strategies used by Romanian politicians on Facebook in order to promote leadership values during the 2012 parliamentary elections and the 2014 euro-parliamentary campaign. In an era in which mass-media are commercialized, fragmented and lean towards infotainment, social media are a useful tool for politicians, where they can promote their own values and campaign topics, without following media logic. In this context, we should address the following question: to what extent online communication platforms are effectively used by politicians to interact with their followers? In the same time, to what extent do candidates use their controlled media space to promote values of political leadership, to legitimate political power or to mobilize voters? In order to study this subject, dispositive analysis was used, to reveal the way candidates interact with followers and the discursive techniques used to promote leadership. Results show that Romanian politicians do employ Facebook to promote leadership and to legitimate power, but Facebook isn’t used at its full potential in terms of web 2.0 features.

  16. The Political Geography of Voters and Political Participation: Evidence from Local Election in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The praxis of political issue including voter turnout and political participation does not exist in a vacuum. Therefore, geographical and spatial issues are frequently engaged and even embedded into it. Thus, this article is written with one purpose: to investigate the spatial relationship of voter turnout and their political participation. As stated earlier, the complexity of the political analysis based on geography will take us on a multidimensional approach that includes social, cultural and economy. However, this article starts the discussion from spatial analysis by using a map that illustrates the administrative boundaries of a region, then determining whether one region is adjacent to another. In this case, Moran’s I is used to determine the spatial autocorrelation of voter turnout and political participation. The result indicates that the voter turnout and political participation in one region are adjacent to each other. Possible reasons for the result are discussed in this article.

  17. Socio-political structure of Turkey in general elections since 1980 military intervention up to date (last 23 years)

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan; Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyze socio-political structure of Turkish society at the basis of the results of Turkish General elections since 1983 up to date. Documentary and historical research techniques will be employed during the study.

  18. Building a Political Settlement: The International Approach to Kenya’s 2008 Post-Election Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuti Kanyinga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from an empirical study of the 2008 Kenyan crisis, aimed at exploring the role and effectiveness of the international development and diplomatic communities’ response. This response involved working to ameliorate the fragile political environment that followed the disputed 2007 elections. Thus, this case study was selected as an archetype to demonstrate how international actors can work cooperatively on political settlements. The key objective of this research is to analyse and share lessons about how those international actors present in Kenya engaged with the evolving political settlement to address the conflict. This study draws upon evolving political economy and political settlement debates in its analysis and uses the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD Fragile States Principles as a framework. Adopting such an analytical lens encourages examination of the multiple, context-specific underlying dynamics that influenced the role of international actors during this period of political transition. It also enables a study of the operational factors facing external actors when they attempt to work more politically, and recognition of how carefully these actors need to use the limited role they have in shaping the internal institutional arrangements and dynamics of the countries within which they work. The study’s main findings indicate that in the 2008 post-election period the international development and diplomatic communities collectively commanded substantive influence over the nature and trajectory of Kenya’s evolving political settlement. It argues that these actors enhanced their influence over many important political issues principally as a result of applying good practice in fragile situations: understanding the context, adopting a unified and legitimate stance, coordinating and collaborating closely and acting fast to prevent conflict. They also laid the foundations for

  19. The German federal election of 2009: The challenge of participatory cultures in political campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Jungherr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, political actors have to act in online communication environments. There they meet overlapping networked publics with different levels of participatory cultures and varying expectations of participation in the (remaking and co-production of political content. This challenges political actors used to a top-down approach to communication. Meanwhile, online users are increasingly politically involved as legislatures all over the world become more active in regulating communication environments online. These new political actors often share participatory practices and have high levels of new media skills. Now they are challenged to adapt these bottom-up participatory cultures to the traditional political environment. This paper examines these adaption processes by examining three examples from the campaign for the German federal election of 2009. These examples include the attempt of Germany's conservative party (CDU to encourage their supporters to adapt participatory practices, the German Social Democrats' (SPD top-down production and distribution of online content that mimicked the look and feel of user-generated content, and the bottom-up emergence of political flash mobs.

  20. The Role of Volunteers and Political Participation in the 2012 Jakarta Gubernatorial Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suaedy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes that occurred in the Jakarta 2012 election may be seen as a change in Indonesia’s social movements and election tradition. They marked a social movement with special characteristics; specifically, a ‘partisan’ movement, led by the successful Jokowi–Ahok ticket. The partisan social movement also changed the tradition of money politics, which has always coloured general and local elections in Indonesia. This paper found four main factors in Jokowi–Ahok’s victory. The first was their reputations and track records of leadership and consistency, which, secondly, encouraged unpaid volunteers to motivate the public to participate in the election and vote for the pair. Thirdly, in contrast to previous social movements in Indonesia, the volunteers did not just work to overthrow the current leadership and replace it, and then distance themselves, but instead continued to monitor the candidates; some managed government directly, while others took watch dog position. Fourthly, the relationship between volunteers and local government was not necessarily oppositional. As such, they were partisan not only in that they were supporters of a pair of candidates, but also in their promotion and support of openness, anti-corruption efforts and provision of maximum public services.

  1. Analyzing the positioning of political competitors on relevant policy conflict dimensions within the 2014 EU Europarliamentary elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Arpad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the positioning of Romanian political competitor for the European elections 2014 on most relevant dimensions of political conflict relevant to all European Union member countries. I analyze the political programs of the Romanian political parties realized within the euandi project. Even though not all dimensions are considered relevant in the context of political debate in Romania, the mapping provides a detailed picture of the current positioning of the main political competitors in the context of breaking USL and the creation of a new coalition government.

  2. The 2000 election and the future of U.S. politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R

    2001-01-01

    After presenting data on how various ethnic/racial and income groups cast their votes in the 2000 presidential election, this article addresses the question of why Al Gore did well enough to beat George W. Bush in the popular vote but not well enough to prevent Bush from achieving a virtual tie. The author challenges some arguments put forward--Gore's being "too much of a populist" and not running on the achievements of the Clinton administration--and, based on poll data, suggests that more important to voters were problems of trust, cultural conservatism, and generic anti-government sentiment. These findings on the 2000 election suggest a number of possibilities about the political future and some ways in which the Democratic Party might develop its program to win back voters.

  3. The Use of Facebook in National Election Campaigns: Politics as Usual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    The uptake of online media in election campaigning is leading to speculations about the transformation of politics and cyber-democracy. Politicians running for seats in Parliament are increasingly using online media to disseminate information to potential voters and building dynamic, online communities. Drawing on an online survey of the Facebook networks of the two top candidates running for seats in the 2007 Danish Parliament election, this study suggests that the online sphere is primarily populated by users who already know the candidates through the traditional channels of party organizations, and that they do not expect to influence the policy of their candidates. Instead, users view Facebook mainly as an information channel and as a means to gain social prestige.

  4. Environmental concern and the political process in France: Patterns of the 1981 elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The environment as a political cause emerged on the national scene in France in 1978, when the ''green'' party captured an impressive share of the initial parliamentary vote. In the presidential election of April, 1981, the environmental candidate ran moderately well, polling over one million votes and leading all other minority and special interest party candidates. In subsequent parliamentary elections (June, 1981), however, ''green'' candidates attracted only about half of their 1978 support, a decline attributable largely to the success of socialist candidates. Despite this setback, it is possible to identify persistent areas of strong environmental electoral support in Alsace, the Paris metropolitan area, the Rhone-Alpes region, and to a lesser extent lower Normandy and Brittany

  5. Socio-political structure of samsun at the bases of the results of the local elections since 1960

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to analyze socio-political structure of Samsun at the basis of the results of Turkish Local elections since 1963 up to 1984. Also, the place of Samsun in the Turkish political life will be examined, and the similarities-differences with the whole Turkish society will be discussed. Documentary and historical research techniques will be used during the study.

  6. Ideological Consumerism in Colombian Elections, 2015: Links Between Political Ideology, Twitter Activity, and Electoral Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Jorge E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere. The electoral results proved to be strongly associated with tweets and retweets and not with the linguistic content of their ideologies or politicians' followers in Twitter. Finally, suggestions for new ways to analyze electoral processes are discussed. PMID:28080152

  7. Ideological Consumerism in Colombian Elections, 2015: Links Between Political Ideology, Twitter Activity, and Electoral Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Juan C; Camargo, Jorge E

    2017-01-01

    Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere. The electoral results proved to be strongly associated with tweets and retweets and not with the linguistic content of their ideologies or politicians' followers in Twitter. Finally, suggestions for new ways to analyze electoral processes are discussed.

  8. Primary care in an unstable security, humanitarian, economic and political context: the Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukor, Ali R.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Kringos, Dionne S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study presents a descriptive synthesis of Kurdistan Region of Iraq's (KRI) primary care system, which is undergoing comprehensive primary care reforms within the context of a cross-cutting structural economic adjustment program and protracted security, humanitarian, economic and

  9. The impact of dark tetrad traits on political orientation and extremism: an analysis in the course of a presidential election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Duspara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on personality and political attitudes has been conducted in countries where political parties from the center dominate the political system. In the present research (N = 675, we focus on the relationship between the dark side of human personality and political orientation and extremism, respectively, in the course of a presidential election where the two candidates represent either left-wing or right-wing political policies. Narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and everyday sadism were associated with right-wing political orientation, whereas narcissism and psychopathy were associated with political extremism. Moreover, the relationships between personality and right-wing political orientation and extremism, respectively, were relatively independent from each other. Keywords: Political science, Sociology, Psychology

  10. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction...

  11. The Bodies Politic: Chronic Health Conditions and Voter Turnout in the 2008 Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Rahn, Wendy M

    2015-12-01

    Health policy researchers often evaluate the social and economic consequences of chronic illness, but rarely have they considered the implications of chronic illness on one important form of political participation: voting. However, if chronic illnesses--already unequally distributed in society--are associated with differential rates of voter turnout, then these inequalities in democratic representation could, in turn, produce further health inequity. In this study, we use data from eight states from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to examine the associations between having diagnoses of five chronic conditions and turnout in the 2008 US presidential election. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and some health-related confounding factors, we find that individuals with cancer diagnoses are more likely to vote, while those with heart disease diagnoses are less likely to vote. These associations differ by race and educational status; notably, African Americans and those with lower education with cancer are even more likely to turn out to vote than whites and those with more education with cancer. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of health social movements and the role of health organizations in shaping political processes, important directions for the study of health politics. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  12. “Nobody’s free until everybody’s free”: Rethinking feminist politics in the 2014 Swedish election campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Filimonov, Kirill

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hegemonic articulation of ‘feminist politics’ by the Swedish political party Feminist Initiative (Feministiskt initiativ) during 2014 national parliamentary election campaign. The analysis is carried out on two levels: the construction of the hegemonic project of feminist politics and the construction of an antagonist.      Deploying the discourse-theoretical approach by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe as well as the theories of radical democracy and intersectionalit...

  13. The Ideal Concept of Presidential Threshold Arrangement to Achieve Constitutional Rights of New Political Parties in a simultaneous general election in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mukhtarrija; I gusti Ayu Ketut Rachmi Handayani; Agus Riwanto

    2018-01-01

    This study raises the legal issue against the enactment of Law No. 7 of 2017 on General Elections in Indonesia. The law has violated the constitutional rights of new political parties of the simultaneous general election participants that began in 2017. The injustice is seen in article 222 which requires the provision of presidential threshold for political parties nominating the president and vice-presidential pairs based on the results of general elections in 2014. If this provision is appl...

  14. Iraq's Tourism Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Dabidian; Mohammed Wafaa Al-Ani; Christopher Hassaan Francke; Ahmed Redwan

    2013-01-01

    While it will require further political stability and security, tourism in Iraq stands to be a major growth sector. The Iraqi tourism sector is currently underdeveloped and in a state of neglect, due to decades of war, closed regimes and recurrent instability and insecurity. However, as Iraq continues to develop and stabilizes, it can begin to meet its tremendous potential as a global tour...

  15. Surfing citizens and floating voters : Results of an online survey of visitors to political web sites during the Dutch 2002 General Elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogers, Marcel; Voerman, Gerrit

    This article assesses the role of political web sites in the campaign for the Dutch parliamentary elections of 2002. It presents the results of an online survey of 18,000 visitors to political Web sites to examine how far, 1) political Web sites can engage people in politics and, 2) party Web sites

  16. Effects of first time voters’ political social media use on electoral behaviour - A smartphone-based measurement of media exposure to political information in an election campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes; Jensen, Camilla

    in citizens’ political media diet. Especially social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter or YouTube offer an up-to-date stream of information, easy to tune in and with personalized content citizens (or at least their network) are interested in. A recent study by PEW (Mitchell, Gottfried & Matsa, 2015...... for young citizens in an election campaign. Second, it will concentrate on their social media use to gain not only gain information about the platform first time voters use, but digging deeper to distinguish between types of content their social media exposure to political information consists of. Third......, it will determine what effect the exposure to political information on different media channels can have on electoral participation and their first vote in a national election....

  17. Politicization beyond politics: Narratives and mechanisms of Iraq War veterans’ activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Flores

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the implications of military service for the political attitudes, behaviors, and activism of military veterans. This article considers how promission and antiwar veterans’ narrate their experiences of becoming political activists and the mechanisms that effect that transition. The research draws on narratives from 40 members of the...

  18. FROM CONVENIENT HIBERNATION TO CIRCUMSTANTIAL DESPERATION: HATE SPEECH, PARTY POLITICAL COMMUNICATION AND THE NIGERIA’S 2015 GENERAL ELECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Omilusi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Until a few months to the 2015 general elections, many political parties that have conveniently hibernated for a better part of their existence, perhaps owing to lack of proper organizational structure or support base, uncoordinated programmes or were registered because of pecuniary gains or admittance of anticipated poor electoral outing, suddenly began to jostle for political space. The main opposition party and the ruling party were either perfecting a merger processes or engulfed in internal wrangling such that communication with the electorate on fundamental issues became inconsequential. In fact, the two dominant parties, the Peoples Democratic Party and All Progressive Congress only produced their presidential candidates less than five months to the election; and the electoral campaign assumed desperate contestation in a climate of prejudice and intolerance. Hate speeches and violence were the hallmarks of their electoral campaigns. The 2015 general elections therefore, offer a unique context to interrogate the place of party political communication in an emerging democracy and specifically how hate campaigns among political gladiators/contending parties could generate violence, and if not tamed, derail democratic consolidation. This essay affirms that hate speech is not only inspired by some social circumstances but also part of a general democratic process. It attests to the fact that Nigerian politicians have become more desperate and daring in taking and retaining political power; and more intolerant of opposition, criticism and efforts at replacing them. Relying extensively on secondary sources with the aid of descriptive and narrative tools, this essay concludes that the political culture of a country determines the behavior and attitude of the population towards the political system and that democratic transition from one administration to another, particularly in emerging democracies, has often been accompanied by violence

  19. Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    The issue of women's rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly...

  20. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation: In-group Favoritism among Republicans and Democrats during a US National Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2018-04-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before ( n = 362) and after ( n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners' outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis ( r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups.

  1. The Role of the Internet in Political Communication and Encouraging Political Civic Engagement in Croatia: The 2007 Election Campaign on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Bebić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Undertaking a content analysis and analyzing the literature corresponding both to the role of the Internet in modern election campaigns (cyber campaigning, as well as that which assesses the crisis of public communication and the democratic potential of the Internet, this article explores: a how and to what extent did Croatian political parties utilize the marketing potential of the Internet during the 2007 parliamentary elections; and b how and to what extent did they use the Internet to encourage citizens(on or offline to participate in the political sphere. The results indicate that during the 2007 Croatian Parliamentary elections, political parties only partially utilized the potential advantages of Internet marketing. An analysis of the elements of interactivity revealed that campaigning parties generally did not use the Internet as a means to engage voters. The results in this study, however, confirm a number of trends found in other countries. The use of the Internet as an instrument to engage citizens online and increase political participation has not confirmed the optimistic predictions surrounding this issue.

  2. On Conflict Transformation in Iraq: Democracy and its Effect on Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Aaron S

    2007-01-01

    .... The level of violence in Iraq gradually increased as Iraq progressed from the first national elections in January 2005 to a constitutional referendum and then subsequent elections in December 2005...

  3. Local Elections and Parliamentary Political Representation. Trampoline for Men and Obstacle for Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Băluță

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Local elections might be perceived as gender neutral when it comes to women’s descriptive representation in the Parliament. However, according to quantitative and qualitative data from the 2016 elections, I argue that local elections play a role in the larger economy of gender and legislative elections. Together with other factors, local elections shape a more favorable context for men than for women. Local elections are important for nominating candidates and ranking them. Local elections are a filter for the legislative electoral lists, represent a pipeline for legislative recruitment and they also boost control over the party list. From a gender perspective neither of the three is favorable to women.

  4. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... The initial section of the report, "Stability and Security in Iraq," describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, economic progress, and achieving a stable security environment in Iraq...

  5. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ... of the report, "Stability and Security in Iraq," describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, strengthening economic activity, and achieving a stable security environment in Iraq...

  6. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs

  7. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. [Centre for Global Energy Studies, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs.

  8. Political Content in Social Work Education as Reported by Elected Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Shannon R.

    2011-01-01

    As a profession, social work has encouraged its members to run for public office to translate the values and ethics of social work into public policy. This study of 416 elected social workers around the country provides insight into the experiences of these elected social workers in their social work education. The classes, skills, activities,…

  9. Barisan Nasional – Political Dominance and the General Elections of 2004 in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Julian C.H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how the Barisan Nasional (National Front, BN) coalition has held power in Malaysia since that country’s independence in 1957. The first of two perspectives taken in this examination looks at the practical impediments to opposition party participation during general elections. This is refracted through the prism of the campaign during the 2004 general elections of a Parti KeADILan Rakyat candidate. The second perspective looks at the broader cultural environm...

  10. The effects of surprise political events on quoted firms: The March 2004 election in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Pau; Trillas, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    In the last days of the electoral campaign for the 2004 general election in Spain, on Thursday March 11th 2004, a series of simultaneous terror attacks caused the death of 191 persons in commuting trains in the capital Madrid. Four days later, the opposition party won the election, against all predictions that were made prior to the terror attacks. This change in expectations presents a unique opportunity to take advantage of event study techniques to test some politico-economic hypotheses. T...

  11. Conflicts and politics in the Tana Delta, Kenya : an analysis of the 2012-2013 clashes and the general and presidential elections 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study connects the topic of natural resource conflicts with political elements, especially elections and looks into clashes between a pastoralist (Orma) and an agricultural (Pokomo) community in Kenya. It analyses the clashes in the Tana delta which escalated in August 2012 from a political

  12. Appealing to the female vote. Dutch political parties and their approach of women voters in general election campaigns, c. 1922-1980

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, H.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the effects of female enfranchisement on the nature of political identity formation in Dutch election campaigns between 1922 and the early 1980s. It argues that women voters played a key role in the imagination of the Netherlands as a ‘pillarised society’ in which political

  13. Ideological Homogeneity, School Leadership, and Political Intolerance in Secondary Education: A Study of Three High Schools during the 2008 Presidential Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journell, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This study reports findings from a qualitative case study of three high schools during the 2008 presidential election. The schools appeared to promote the political ideologies of their corresponding populations, and in the two predominately ideologically homogenous schools, political intolerance often appeared to affect teachers' instruction and…

  14. U.S. Anticorruption Efforts in Iraq: Progress Made in Implementing Revised Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel, Robert; Haigler, Dan; Hlinka, Joan

    2008-01-01

    .... anticorruption activities in Iraq. SIGIR instituted reviews of these programs in recognition of the significant detrimental effect corruption has on Iraq's economic, social, and political reconstruction...

  15. Socio-political structure of Tokat at the bases of the local elections

    OpenAIRE

    D. Ali Arslan; Mehmet Karataş; Sadettin Baştürk; Gülten Arslan

    2013-01-01

    The major ofjective of this study was to examine and discuss the political structure of Tokat and its place in the general political structure of Turkish society by using methods and techniques of political sociology. Structural-functionalist approach was used as the theoretical base. In the other words the formation of political power in Tokat and the overall operation and changing regularities were investigated. Both the province of Tokat and Tokat city center selected as the sampling group...

  16. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... The first section of the report, Stability and Security in Iraq, describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, strengthening economic activity, and achieving a stable...

  17. The politics of health care reforms in U.S. presidential elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    This article analyzes why people in the United States have major problems in accessing medical care that are due to financial constraints. The author suggests that the cause of these problems is the way in which medical care and elections are funded in the United States, with private sources being the largest component in the funding of both activities. The article includes a comparison of funding of the electoral process in the United States with similar electoral processes in the countries of the European Union, and postulates that privatization of the funding of U.S. elections (primary and general) is responsible for privatization of the funding of medical care-the root of people's problem in paying for their medical care. Privatization of election funding gives undue power to the economic, financial, and professional groups that dominate medicine in the United States.

  18. LOCAL POLITICAL DYNAMICS IN THE GENERAL ELECTION DIRECTLY CONDUCTED TO VOTE FOR DISTRICT HEADS (PILKADA IN BADUNG REGENCY IN 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anak Agung Gede Oka Wisnumurti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The general election directly conducted to vote for the regent and vice regent(Pemilihan Kepala Daerah, abbreviated to Pilkada by the people in Badung Regency in2005 was the first one. The people’s direct involvement in the local political life movedhighly dynamically. The struggle for power by various strengths affected variousdimensions of the people’s lives; therefore, it is interesting to investigate the localpolitical dynamics in the Pilkada directly conducted in Badung Regency in 2005 in theperspective of cultural studies. There are three problems formulated in this study. Theyare (1 what was the dynamics of the Pilkada directly conducted in Badung Regency in2005 like?; (2 how the relation of strengths affected the local political dynamics in thePilkada directly conducted in Badung Regency in 2005?; (3 what were the implicationsand meanings of the local political dynamics of the Pilkada directly conducted in BadungRegency in 2005?The results of the study show that fluctuative changes took place continuouslywith regard to the form and functions of societal structure. Culturally, the people’sideology changed from being mono centric into being multi centric. The relation ofstrengths became segmented into three main strengths forming a new formation ofstrength referred to as trisula. This led to an institutional configuration, differentiation ofpower and locality sedimentation, and provided meanings to competition and tolerance,emancipatory, political comodification, adaptive leadership and local democratic culturalstrengthening.

  19. Romanticizing Bureaucratic Leadership? The Politics of How Elected Officials Attribute Responsibility for Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul A.; Moynihan, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    A core task for elected officials is to hold bureaucratic leaders responsible, but how do they determine if public managers actually influence outcomes? We propose that partisan and leadership heuristics affect how politicians apply a logic of individualized responsibility, i.e. focus on individu...

  20. Socialization and Political Culture of Women in Positions of Popular Election. Municipality Presidents in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Chávez Arellano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the forms of socialization and political culture of some women who had positions of representatives of municipalities in rural communities in Tlaxcala, México. We presume that the ways of assuming and exercising power are closely linked to a  political culture that begins in the family and secured in various social spaces such as school, political parties or unions. The analysis in this paper is based on testimonies obtained from 14 women who were municipal presidents between 1992 and 2010, a period that frames the beginning of political alternation in Mexico.

  1. Self-presentation and Discreditation – the Key Strategies of the Preelection Political Discourse (as Exemplified in the Pre-election Tweets of D. Trump and H. Clinton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Sergeeva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of self-presentation and discreditation are considered as the main strategies of the pre-election virtual discourse. The language units, used at tactics realization of communicative strategies, promote necessary political image formation during the election campaign. Tactics of «incrimination» (strategy of discreditation is frequently used in D. Trump’s tweets, whereas H. Clinton prefers tactics «consolidation» (strategy of selfpresentation.

  2. Worldviews: The Spatial Ground of Political Reasoning in Dutch Election Manifestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    A discourse approach was developed to identify explicit perspectivisation afforded by conceptual and narrative structures in political texts. The hypothesis is that the ground perspective of political rationale is packaged in ‘worldviews’ that guide ideologically motivated attitudes. This pilot

  3. Political Storytelling on Instagram: Key Aspects of Alexander Van der Bellen's Successful 2016 Presidential Election Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhart, Karin; Bernhardt, Petra

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the strategic use of Instagram in election campaigns for the office of the Austrian Federal President in 2016. Based on a comprehensive visual analysis of 504 Instagram posts from Green-backed but independent presidential candidate Alexander Van der Bellen, who resulted as winner after almost one year of campaigning, this contribution reconstructs key aspects of digital storytelling on Instagram. By identifying relevant image types central to the self-representation of ...

  4. FIGHT AMONG POLITICAL ACTORS ON PRINTED MEDIA AS PART OF GENERAL ELECTION HELD TO VOTE FOR REGENT OF BANGLI REGENCY IN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ras Amanda Gelgel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era of after reformation, Indonesia has developed rapidly enough in political sector and mass media freedom. In the local level such as in Bangli Regency, Bali Province, the fight among political actors on the printed mass media took place when the general election to vote for the regent was held. The general election which was held to vote for the regent was full of dynamism in which the candidates fought against one another on the longer mass media. The problems of the present study are as follows: (1 what was the fight among political actors on the printed media when the general election was held to vote the regent of Bangli Regency in 2010 like?; (2 the factors leading to it?; and (3 what was the impact and meaning of the fight among the political actors on the printed media? The theories used in the present study were the theory of discourse of relation of knowledge and power, the theory of the impact of media such as the agenda setting, the theory of framing, the theory of media text analysis, the theory of hegemony, and the theory of capital. The research method used was the qualitative approach with critical paradigm.  The forms of the fight among political actors took place in the arenas of news articles, advertorials, advertisements, and paid articles. The fight taking place in these arenas started from the fight for the self-image of the actors to the political issue. The factors leading to it was political factor, economic factor, and mass media. The fight among the political actors affected political sector, economic sector, and cultural sector. The fight among the political actors on the printed media contained pragmatic meaning of the media and political actors, the image, popular life style, and change of political culture in Bangli. 

  5. The Politics of Hope and Despair: The Effect of Presidential Election Outcomes on Suicide Rates*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Timothy J.; Dunn, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This article examines the effect of election outcomes on suicide rates by combining the theory of social integration developed by Durkheim with the models of rational choice used in economics. Methods Theory predicts that states with a greater percentage of residents who supported the losing candidate would tend to exhibit a relative increase in suicide rates. However, being around others who also supported the losing candidate may indicate a greater degree of social integration at the local level, thereby lowering relative suicide rates. We therefore use fixed-effects regression of state suicide rates from 1981 to 2005 on state election outcomes during presidential elections to determine which effect is stronger. Results We find that the local effect of social integration is dominant. The suicide rate when a state supports the losing candidate will tend to be lower than if the state had supported the winning candidate—4.6 percent lower for males and 5.3 percent lower for females. Conclusion Social integration works at many levels; it not only affects suicide risk directly, but can mediate other shocks that influence suicide risk. PMID:20645463

  6. Socialization and Political Culture of Women in Positions of Popular Election. Municipality Presidents in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Chávez Arellano; Verónica Vázquez García

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the forms of socialization and political culture of some women who had positions of representatives of municipalities in rural communities in Tlaxcala, México. We presume that the ways of assuming and exercising power are closely linked to a  political culture that begins in the family and secured in various social spaces such as school, political parties or unions. The analysis in this paper is based on testimonies obtained from 14 women who were municipal presidents...

  7. Politicization during the 2012 U.S. Presidential Elections: bridging the personal and the political through an identity content approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Zwinkels, Felicity; van Zomeren, Martijn; Postmes, Tom

    2015-03-01

    We investigated U.S. citizens' politicization (i.e., switching from not self-defining to self-defining as an active political party supporter) during the 2012 U.S. Presidential Elections. We used a novel identity content approach to explore qualitative changes in overlap between personal and politicized identity traits. We collected longitudinal data from a community sample of U.S. citizens (N = 760), tracking whether and how personal and politicized identity content developed: two months before (T1), immediately before (T2), and 2 months after (T3) the election. We explored a subsample of participants who met inclusion criteria (n = 115), comparing 87 participants who did not politicize with 28 participants who self-labeled as unpoliticized at T1, but politicized at T2/T3. Results confirmed hypotheses: Only politicizers showed greater integration between their personal and politicized identity content over time; moreover, identity content was a significant positive predictor of politicization and action engagement. We discuss the value of identity content for politicization research. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. FCJ-165 Obama Trolling: Memes, Salutes and an Agonistic Politics in the 2012 Presidential Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Burroughs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2012 presidential campaign an explosion of photo-shopped images circulated that depicted President Obama as unpatriotic. The ‘crotch salute’, ‘left-hand salute’, and ‘Veterans Day non-salute’ serve as case studies for understanding the role of trolling in the public sphere and Internet politics in an era of social networks and circulation. This paper tracks the cultural practices and logics of ‘sharing’ political memes and conceptualises memes as part of an agonistic public sphere and media ecology. Obama trolling is facilitated through the techno-cultural affordances of memes, which can only become public because of their mimetic form and sterilised partial anonymity. The paper seeks to conceptualise trolling as a broader cultural practice, which can be considered political. Normative assumptions about these memes would portray this trafficking as destructive to deliberative democracy but when understood as a generative cultural practice, trolling becomes central to articulating political emotions in social networks. Photo-shopped Obama salutes, in addition to Big Bird, binder, and bayonet memes, express not only political identities but also larger cultural values within networked popular culture.

  9. Celebrity Politics: Correlates of Voting for Celebrities in Philippine Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa C. David

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is common in the Philippines for celebrities in entertainment, news, and sports to run for public office and win, even with little experience in political life and limited education. The preponderance of celebrities in politics is often identif ied in the public discourse as a problem with important implications on national policy. This paper examines empirical correlates of voter preference for celebrity Presidential candidates with data from a nationally-representative survey. It finds support for the hypotheses that the likelihood of voting for celebrity candidates for President and Vice President is associated with education, television exposure, and residence in the capital city. The findings are discussed in the context of political knowledge and its role in shaping voter preferences.

  10. Teaching the Election with Purpose: Toward a Framework of Racial Media Literacy and [Socio] Political Consciousness When Discussing Elections in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Infusing content about elections has not been an issue for social studies teachers, but rather contextualizing race discourse in discussions of elections has served as a curricular cessation for social studies teachers. This is especially concerning given that teachers' attempts to remain neutral with regards to race consequently results in a lack…

  11. U.S. Presidential Election – 2012: trends tone in marketing and political PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Peru-Bălan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of political PR strategies used in the U.S. presidential campaign of November 6, 2012. Also, we elucidated electoral profiles of the two candidates-Republican and Democrat - campaign themes impact on American voting decision. Article contains U.S. electoral marketing trend analysis, design principles of electoral spots, negative advertising in campaign.

  12. U.S. Presidential Election – 2012: trends tone in marketing and political PR

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia Peru-Bălan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a synthesis of political PR strategies used in the U.S. presidential campaign of November 6, 2012. Also, we elucidated electoral profiles of the two candidates-Republican and Democrat - campaign themes impact on American voting decision. Article contains U.S. electoral marketing trend analysis, design principles of electoral spots, negative advertising in campaign.

  13. Winning Faces Vary by Ideology: How Nonverbal Source Cues Influence Election and Communication Success in Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2016-01-01

    -looking sources have better success in attracting votes and policy support. Yet, are all nonverbal source cues similarly received irrespective of audience, or does their reception vary across audiences? Specifically, we ask whether some physical traits are received positively by some audiences but backfire...... for others. Utilizing research on ideological stereotypes and the determinants of facial preferences, we focus on the relationship between the facial dominance of the source and the ideology of the receiver. Across five studies, we demonstrate that a dominant face is a winning face when the audience...... is conservative but backfires and decreases success when the audience is liberal. On the other hand, a non-dominant face constitutes a winning face among liberal audiences but backfires among conservatives. These effects seemingly stem from deep-seated psychological responses and shape both the election...

  14. Comparing the democratic value of Facebook discussions across the profiles of Spanish political candidates during the 2011 General Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Valera Ordaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the democratic value of user-generated comments on the Facebook profiles of three Spanish candidates during the Spanish General Election campaign of 2011 through a content analysis that operationalizes deliberative democracy. The findings show that these online spaces do not meet deliberative standards, but that they still serve democratic functions, such as citizen self-expression, democratic socialization and reinforcement of social cohesion among party activists and sympathizers. Moreover, results indicate that democratic value might vary depending on the size of the party where talk takes place. Political conversation on the walls of hegemonic candidates who belong to big consolidated political parties is mostly oriented towards self-expression and features some ideological diversity, so that individuals are sporadically confronted with diversity. For its part, talk on the Facebook profile of the minor candidate lacks fundamental disagreement but includes more in-group interaction, allowing minority ideological spheres for the cultivation of social cohesion and the construction of collective narratives in favorable discursive conditions.

  15. Romanian’s Legislative Elections or Confirmation of the Political Periphery Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Giugăl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite a formal liberal-democratic society and a supposed legal-rational authority (according to German sociologist Max Weber’s definition, post-communist Romania has continued to be a semi-peripheral country based on status. The perpetuation of the organization model where the personal status always prevails is the main effect on the parties appeared in post-communist political and economic context, which is basically the same as in interwar and communist periods. Thus parties’ development is closely linked to the charisma of their members, and their connection with the electorate/society has no sense concerning political ideology (as it is dominated by the context and electoral clientelism of short notice – one electoral cycle.

  16. Student Perception towards Personal Branding of Political Leaders on Twitter Ahead of Presidential Election 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Asrining Wulan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent technology developments bring improvement for communication studies. Computer mediated communication (CMC theory ispotential to rapid messages send using computer with internet connection. Twitter is one of well-known social media, which is used by large number of societies, including our president candidates, e.g. Prabowo Subianto and Aburizal Bakrie. Majority twitter users are teenagers, because teenagers are active society and they use twitter to let themselves know about their upcoming president. Active society had explained in uses and gratification theory. This study aims to identify college student’s perception about politician’s personal branding on twitter lately before the election on 2014. This research is a descriptive research which used qualitative approach, and equipped with content analysis. This research usednon probability sampling to select the main informants, and also snowball sampling method. Results show that college student’s perceptionstowards Prabowo Subianto’s twitter were better than their perceptions to Aburizal Bakrie’s although Aburizal twitter’s management is much betterand friendly. Active and positive responses from college students didn’t influenced by politician’s personal branding. There are eight concepts in personal branding, known as the eight of law of personal branding. From the eight concepts, Prabowo Subianto known as a well behavior person with high nationalism while Aburizal Bakrie had very well law of visibility in twitter’s management.Key words : Perception of college students as twitter user, Politician’s Personal Branding

  17. 'Not our war, not our country': contents and contexts of Scottish political rhetoric and popular understandings during the invasion of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcheroth, Guy; Reicher, Steve

    2014-03-01

    Recent research has questioned the traditional assumption that populations inevitably rally round their national leaders in times of war and suggested instead that whether this occurs depends upon political communication and mass media coverage. In this study, we provide systematic analysis of the debate in Scotland over the invasion of Iraq in 2003. We examine how the conflict was construed as either for or against the national interest, and how the way this is done is linked to different dimensions of context. First, we provide a mixed-methods analysis of debates in the Scottish Parliament. We show that anti-war speakers from Scottish separatist parties map opposition to the war onto a series of collectively consistent and temporarily flexible categorical oppositions, starting with a familiar antinomy between Scottish people and British rulers (before the invasion), and then shifting to broader oppositions between subjugated people and imperial powers (after the invasion). By contrast, speakers from other parties appear less consistent and less flexible in the nature of their arguments. Second, we examine the opinions of a population sample on the war, how these opinions relate to understandings of Scottish identity and how the media context is pivotal in the translation of anti-war opinions into votes for separatist/anti-war political parties. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. 78 FR 76032 - Date of Political Party Nominations of Candidates for Special Primary Elections in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ...: Robert M. Knop, Assistant General Counsel, or Cheryl A.F. Hemsley, Attorney, 999 E Street NW., Washington... party committee votes to nominate the party's candidate for the special general election, not the date... primary elections in New York from contributions for special general elections. \\1\\ See 2 U.S.C. 441a(a)(1...

  19. Serbian Elections 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Pavlović

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Elections in Serbia have been held quite often over the past 26 years. Yet, of all elections that have taken place since the introduction of the multiparty system in 1990, the elections held on April 24 2016, were the most confusing. They were held early, but were neither a product of political, nor economic crisis. So why were they necessary?

  20. Political Storytelling on Instagram: Key Aspects of Alexander Van der Bellen’s Successful 2016 Presidential Election Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Liebhart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the strategic use of Instagram in election campaigns for the office of the Austrian Federal President in 2016. Based on a comprehensive visual analysis of 504 Instagram posts from Green-backed but independent presidential candidate Alexander Van der Bellen, who resulted as winner after almost one year of campaigning, this contribution reconstructs key aspects of digital storytelling on Instagram. By identifying relevant image types central to the self-representation of the candidate, this article shows how a politician makes use of a digital platform in order to project and manage desired images. The salience of image types allows for the reconstruction of underlying visual strategies: (1 the highlighting of the candidate’s biography (biographical strategy, (2 the presentation of his campaign team (team strategy, and (3 the presentation of the candidate as a legitimate office holder (incumbent strategy. The article thus sheds light on visual aspects of digital storytelling as relevant factor of political communication.

  1. Redefining the political moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

  2. A Big Social Media Data Study of the 2017 German Federal Election Based on Social Set Analysis of Political Party Facebook Pages with SoSeVi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flesch, Benjamin; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    We present a big social media data study that comprises of 1 million individuals who interact with Facebook pages of the seven major political parties CDU, CSU, SPD, FDP, Greens, Die Linke and AfD during the 2017 German federal election. Our study uses the Social Set Analysis (SSA) approach, which...... is based on the sociology of associations, mathematics of set theory, and advanced visual analytics of event studies. We illustrate the capabilities of SSA through the most recent version of our Social Set Analysis (SoSeVi) tool, which enables us to deep dive into Facebook activity concerning the election....... We explore a significant gender-based difference between female and male interactions with political party Facebook pages. Furthermore, we perform a multi-faceted analysis of social media interactions using gender detection, user segmentation and retention analysis, and visualize our findings...

  3. The Digital Architectures of Social Media: Comparing Political Campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 U.S. Election

    OpenAIRE

    Bossetta, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The present study argues that political communication on social media is mediated by a platform’s digital architecture – the technical protocols that enable, constrain, and shape user behavior in a virtual space. A framework for understanding digital architectures is introduced, and four platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat) are compared along the typology. Using the 2016 U.S. elections as a case, interviews with three Republican digital strategists are complimented with soci...

  4. Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coipuram, Jr, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The war with Iraq, which began on March 19, 2003, has now moved into a new phase as a result of coalition forces controlling all of the major cites in Iraq and the demise of the Iraqi political and military leadership...

  5. Mission Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This video summarizes the activities of the IAEA inspection teams, assisted by the UN Special Commission on Iraq, to uncover, neutralize and prevent the restart of Iraq's military nuclear programme. It documents the destruction or rendering harmless of various sites and equipment used for nuclear weapon development, sometimes under very difficult conditions, and points out the necessity of establishing a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring system for the future

  6. BETWEEN BROADCASTING POLITICAL MESSAGES AND INTERACTING WITH VOTERS : The use of Twitter during the 2010 UK general election campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, Todd; Broersma, Marcel; Hazelhoff, Karin; van't Haar, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Politicians across Western democracies are increasingly adopting and experimenting with Twitter, particularly during election time. The purpose of this article is to investigate how candidates are using it during an election campaign. The aim is to create a typology of the various ways in which

  7. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    .... However, there are concerns that the Kurds are using their political strength to serve their own interests at the expense of a unified Iraq, in the process inflaming long-standing Turkish concerns...

  8. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181.1 The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  9. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... 1308 of Public Law 110-28. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  10. The energy-political programmes of the parties in the State Parliament of Sachsen-Anhalt prior to the State election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grupe, H.

    1994-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles taking a close look at the essential statements in the energy and environmental policy programmes of the politically relevant parties and comparing them with one another. The series begins with the political programmes of the parties represented in the State Parliament of Sachsen-Anhalt (where an election is forthcoming on June 26, 1994), as submitted to the editor of this journal in answer to his inquiry. The analysis is preceded by a brief summary of the most important geographical and energy-economic data and the range of political parties in this State Parliament in order to illustrate the boundary conditions. (orig./UA) [de

  11. The Vote of the Mexican Immigrants. An Analysis of the Results of the 2006 Presidential Election, to the light of political behavior theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgt. Octavio Adolfo Pérez Preciado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2 of July of the 2006, the Mexican residents abroad could for the first time voted in a presidential election. According to the results given by the electoral federal institute (IFE, Felipe Calderon, candidate by the National Action Party (PAN of right oriented, was the one that obtained the majority of these suffrages, followed by Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, candidate of the “alliance for the good of the people,” of leftist orientation. These was the most competitive election ever take place in Mexico. In the essay, electoral results of this election are analyzed to the light of different theories about the voting behavior of the emigrants. We concludes the vote of the Mexicans abroad reproduces and reflects so much the way in which the emigrants in their native place vote, as well as the political and cultural influence that exerts the conduct of the voter the political and electoral system of the new country of residence.

  12. MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS ON THE FRONT PAGES OF DAILY NEWSPAPERS: A comparison between newspaper journalism in two cities with different political configurations and its effect on mass democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Urizzi Cervi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses front-page headlines concerning the 2008municipal electoral disputes in Brazilian daily newspapers. The front pages of two newspapers were analyzed: Gazeta do Povo and Jornal da Manhã. The first is distributed regionally and is published in Curitiba, the capital of Paraná state. The second has local circulation and is restricted to the interior of Paraná state. For comparative purposes, the type of visibility given to the municipal elections in each newspaper was evaluated, with the goal of identifying the importance of electoral campaigning in the news. The discussion centers on the role of the media in the dissemination of politically relevant information, taking into consideration the electoral context. While in Curitiba the incumbent mayor was re-elected in the first round with almost 80% of the votes, indicating a lack of a real electoral dispute, in Ponta Grossa the candidate for re-election won in the runoff election with a less than 4% advantage over the runner-up. The analysis questions the need to consider the social context to explain journalistic production. 

  13. Providing Comfort to Iraq’s Kurds: Forming a De Facto Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Awe, 151. 30 Saddam Hussein out of office, and after making an abortive attempt at an Iraqi military coup soon after the KRG elections, the...Liberation Act was a shift in U.S. policy on Iraq, a shift 111 Caryle Murphy, “ Economy Tests Kurds Self...Rule,” Washington Post, 10 May 1994, https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1994/05/10/ economy -tests-kurds-self-rule/0d701c66- dbc0-4e92-937b

  14. Credibility enacted : Understanding the meaning of credible political leadership in the Dutch parliamentary election campaign of 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuydam, Sabine; Hendriks, Frank

    2018-01-01

    In times of perception politics, the credibility of electoral candidates is a crucial asset in political marketing. This raises the question to which political leaders citizens attribute credibility and how political credibility is gained and lost through media performance. We analyze and compare

  15. Credibility enacted : Understanding the meaning of credible political leadership in the Dutch parliamentary election campaign of 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuydam, Sabine; Hendriks, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In times of perception politics, the credibility of electoral candidates is a crucial asset in political marketing. This raises the question to which political leaders citizens attribute credibility and how political credibility is gained and lost through media performance. We analyze and compare

  16. The Potential for Normal Political Relations between the United States and Iran Following Presidential Elections in Each Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    impossible to focus on strictly a unilateral basis alone since it influences the entire region 4 based on the success or failure of this...operation is requested a simple physiological exam is required, and if the doctor believes the soon to be transgender is honest, then an operation can...multi-lateral agreements will have to include Iraq, Israel, Palestine, Russia, and China due to the sheer volume of business and existing

  17. Transformation of Mental Health Care for U.S. Soldiers and Families During the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars: Where Science and Politics Intersect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Charles W; Ivany, Christopher G; Brusher, Edward A; Brown, Millard D; Shero, John C; Adler, Amy B; Warner, Christopher H; Orman, David T

    2016-04-01

    The cumulative strain of 14 years of war on service members, veterans, and their families, together with continuing global threats and the unique stresses of military service, are likely to be felt for years to come. Scientific as well as political factors have influenced how the military has addressed the mental health needs resulting from these wars. Two important differences between mental health care delivered during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars and previous wars are the degree to which research has directly informed care and the consolidated management of services. The U.S. Army Medical Command implemented programmatic changes to ensure delivery of high-quality standardized mental health services, including centralized workload management; consolidation of psychiatry, psychology, psychiatric nursing, and social work services under integrated behavioral health departments; creation of satellite mental health clinics embedded within brigade work areas; incorporation of mental health providers into primary care; routine mental health screening throughout soldiers' careers; standardization of clinical outcome measures; and improved services for family members. This transformation has been accompanied by reduction in psychiatric hospitalizations and improved continuity of care. Challenges remain, however, including continued underutilization of services by those most in need, problems with treatment of substance use disorders, overuse of opioid medications, concerns with the structure of care for chronic postdeployment (including postconcussion) symptoms, and ongoing questions concerning the causes of historically high suicide rates, efficacy of resilience training initiatives, and research priorities. It is critical to ensure that remaining gaps are addressed and that knowledge gained during these wars is retained and further evolved.

  18. A Brush Up on the ‘2015 Presidential Election of Nigeria’: The Chemistry between Religio-Political Manoeuvres and Propaganda Stratagems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Abah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Religious bigotry and misinterpretation to serve personal interest in our world today have given birth to incessant wars, lawless and reckless killings, genocides and the birth of dreadful terrorism. Nonetheless, there is a paucity of empirical evidence on the topic in question. The objectives of this paper are to examine: (a the use of religion as a tool for political propaganda in the 2015 Presidential Election; (b the reason why politicians make use of religion for propaganda; (c the effects of using political propaganda. The study employed content, and descriptive analysis to synthesise data from newspapers, books and online works. Findings reveal that some key political parties made use of religion as a tool for political propaganda, at different ranges in print and electronic media. In effect, the use of religion by politicians was mainly due to the country’s regional divided front when it comes to religious beliefs; northern Muslims and the southern Christians. This abuse of religious rights breeds pathological hatred among the populace and there is a need to implement the tenets of secularism within the political framework to aid peace building.

  19. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation: In-group Favoritism among Republicans and Democrats during a US National Election

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict

  20. Social influence and political mobilization: Further evidence from a randomized experiment in the 2012 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jason J; Bond, Robert M; Bakshy, Eytan; Eckles, Dean; Fowler, James H

    2017-01-01

    A large-scale experiment during the 2010 U.S. Congressional Election demonstrated a positive effect of an online get-out-the-vote message on real world voting behavior. Here, we report results from a replication of the experiment conducted during the U.S. Presidential Election in 2012. In spite of the fact that get-out-the-vote messages typically yield smaller effects during high-stakes elections due to saturation of mobilization efforts from many sources, a significant increase in voting was again observed. Voting also increased significantly among the close friends of those who received the message to go to the polls, and the total effect on the friends was likely larger than the direct effect, suggesting that understanding social influence effects is potentially even more important than understanding the direct effects of messaging. These results replicate earlier work and they add to growing evidence that online social networks can be instrumental for spreading offline behaviors.

  1. Ascribing beliefs to ingroup and outgroup political candidates: neural correlates of perspective-taking, issue importance and days until the election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Spunt, Robert P; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-03-05

    We used the five weeks leading up to the 2008 presidential election as a backdrop to examine the ways that the brain processes attitudes and beliefs under different circumstances. We examined individual differences in personal issue importance and trait perspective-taking, as well as the temporal context in which attitude representation took place (i.e. number of days until the election). Finally, we examined the extent to which similar or dissimilar processes were recruited when considering the attitudes of political ingroup and outgroup candidates. Brain regions involved in social cognition and theory of mind, and to a lesser extent the limbic system, were modulated by these factors. Higher issue importance led to greater recruitment of neural regions involved in social cognition, across target perspectives. Higher trait perspective-taking was also associated with greater recruitment of several regions involved in social cognition, but differed depending on target perspective; greater activity was observed in prefrontal regions associated with social cognition when considering the perspective of one's own candidate compared with the opponent, and this effect was amplified closer to the election. Taken together, these results highlight ways in which ability and motivational relevance modulate socio-affective processing of the attitudes of others.

  2. Social media in political communication and the use of twitter in the 2011 general elections in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktutan, Günseli; Binark, Mutlu; Çomu, Tuğrul; Doğu, Burak; İslamoğlu, Gözde; Telli Aydemir, Aslı

    2012-01-01

    This study is a part of a comprehensive research supported by TÜBİTAK SOBAG (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey - Social Sciences and Humanities Research Grant Group), which investigates with quantitative and qualitative methods the practices involved in the usage of the social media by political parties and political party leaders as a channel/area for political communication. The aim for this study is to demonstrate, within the framework of the developing citizenshi...

  3. Informed Switchers? How the Impact of Election News Exposure on Vote Change Depends on Political Information Efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, S.; Bos, L.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in electoral volatility in European democracies has raised the question of whether volatile voters are just randomly switching or actually making more informed vote choices. This study addresses this question by examining the underlying mechanisms through which election news exposure

  4. Mass Media and Consensus Politics: A Critical Evaluation of the Coverage of the 1980 Presidential Election Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Charles; Stovall, Jim

    Presidential candidates in the United States tend to seek consensus rather than to try to discover new answers to problems and to convince voters that they should be elected to implement those answers. Reporters in the mass media emphasize objectivity and fairness in their reporting. This emphasis produces an intense interest in the…

  5. Social influence and political mobilization: Further evidence from a randomized experiment in the 2012 U.S. presidential election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Jones

    Full Text Available A large-scale experiment during the 2010 U.S. Congressional Election demonstrated a positive effect of an online get-out-the-vote message on real world voting behavior. Here, we report results from a replication of the experiment conducted during the U.S. Presidential Election in 2012. In spite of the fact that get-out-the-vote messages typically yield smaller effects during high-stakes elections due to saturation of mobilization efforts from many sources, a significant increase in voting was again observed. Voting also increased significantly among the close friends of those who received the message to go to the polls, and the total effect on the friends was likely larger than the direct effect, suggesting that understanding social influence effects is potentially even more important than understanding the direct effects of messaging. These results replicate earlier work and they add to growing evidence that online social networks can be instrumental for spreading offline behaviors.

  6. Negotiating the Political Self on Social Media Platforms An In-Depth Study of Image-Management in an Election-Campaign in a Multi-Party Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Svensson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The elections 2010 were the first in Sweden where social media platforms were used to a large extent by politicians and parties in their campaigns. In this paper we follow the liberal parliamentarian Nina Larsson, who in tandem with traditional election campaigning used social media platforms with the guidance of a local communication agency, Hello Clarice. The paper is theoretically grounded in an understanding of our time as late modern, of social media use as expressive and web campaigning as to large extent revolving around image-management. The research question that will be attended to in this paper is how Nina Larsson used social media platforms in her campaign negotiate the image of herself. The methods used for empirical data-gathering are inspired by (nethnography, with both participant observation online and offline, interviews as well as content analyses of Nina's social media postings. Results indicate that she used social media platforms to control her political image, to amplify selected text - texts that often originated in offline/broadcast media – and to negotiate a position within the Liberal Party rather than to deliberate with potential voters.

  7. Japan's 2014 General Election: Political Bots, Right-Wing Internet Activism, and Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's Hidden Nationalist Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Fabian; Evert, Stefan; Heinrich, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we present results on the identification and behavioral analysis of social bots in a sample of 542,584 Tweets, collected before and after Japan's 2014 general election. Typical forms of bot activity include massive Retweeting and repeated posting of (nearly) the same message, sometimes used in combination. We focus on the second method and present (1) a case study on several patterns of bot activity, (2) methodological considerations on the automatic identification of such patterns and the prerequisite near-duplicate detection, and (3) we give qualitative insights into the purposes behind the usage of social/political bots. We argue that it was in the latency of the semi-public sphere of social media-and not in the visible or manifest public sphere (official campaign platform, mass media)-where Shinzō Abe's hidden nationalist agenda interlocked and overlapped with the one propagated by organizations such as Nippon Kaigi and Internet right-wingers (netto uyo) during the election campaign, the latter potentially forming an enormous online support army of Abe's agenda.

  8. Reconstructing Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Economic hardship and violence (political and criminal) feed on each other: heightened popular dissatisfaction and unemployment swell insurgent ranks and the growing insurgency further hampers development...

  9. Türkiye’de Genel Seçim Kampanyaları (1950-2002 Political Elections In Turkey (1950-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan DUMAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Printed and visual media have the power of guiding the society asideological apparatuses. As advertisements reflect societal values anddaily relationships, they can be evaluated as cultural texts that makean entry to history. Mc Luhan argues that advertising is one of therichest and most loyal social activities. Thus, political advertisementsonce more unfold the old relationship of politics and communicationthat is rooted back to history of humanity. Political parties are theparticipations of voters in political life. Analysing political campaignspave the way for social analysis as well. From past to present, politicalparties and leaders have benefited from the art of communication andpossibilities of technology. In accordance with the developments in thefield, it can be observed that strategies and tactics employed in politicalcampaigns have been advanced likewise. 1950 elections, that enabledthe society to reveal its free will through voting, has a significant placein Turkish political history as the beginning of democracy-politicscommunicationtriangle.This article aims to indicate prominent features of parties byanalysing political campaigns in Turkey between 1950 and 2002 andtheir message strategies. Political advertisements that are used inpolitical campaigns provide the basis of research. This study intends toevaluate the transformation of political communication and politicalcampaigns in Turkey and its historical background by conveying thecampaigns through descriptive narration and analysing posters andprinted advertisements in elections. Results of the study reveal thatpolitical parties develop discourses in the light of their visions andmissions; there is an increase in negative political advertisements whilerival parties employ similar policies; additionally, it was observed thatparties that provide positive and hopeful discourses gain victory in thepolitical race. In this study mainly government and the main oppositionparties

  10. Political conservatism, authoritarianism, and societal threat: voting for Republican representatives in U.S. Congressional elections from 1946 to 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-07-01

    The author found that the degree of national societal threat preceding congressional elections from 1946 to 1992 was positively associated with the mean state percentage of people voting for Republican representatives, supporting a conventional threat-authoritarianism hypothesis. However, threat was positively associated with the mean state percentage of people voting for Republican representatives in conservative states but not in liberal states, and the conventional threat-authoritarianism link was entirely driven by the relation in conservative states. The author classified states with a composite measure (alpha = .92) on the basis of state ideological identification, religious fundamentalism, composite policy liberalism, Republican Party elite ideology, and Democratic Party elite ideology. These results offer support to an interactive threat-authoritarianism hypothesis derived from the authoritarian dynamic theory of K. Stenner (2005), which postulates that only authoritarian persons are activated to manifest authoritarian behavior in times of normative threat. Also, the author discusses potential alternative explanations on the basis of system justification, need for closure, and terror-management theories.

  11. Election of candidates to municipal presidency of political parties in Ciudad Juarez and as practice and internal democracy strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Sarabia Ríos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The internal democratic of political parties are one of the numerous analyses that can be performed on an electoral process. In this regard, this document aims to understand the logic of development of internal democracy in the party organizations in Ciudad Juarez, focusing on one aspect of it: the selection of candidates. The observation of the selection of candidates for municipal office in the last decade in Ciudad Juarez allowed to comment the advantages and disadvantages for the internal democratic life of party, to understand its development level and the logic that motivates their evolution or turn to be attractive only for external voting and not for the militants.

  12. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-20

    and half of whom would be elected by direct, lected medicine and milk for children and told the world secret balloting, about the killing of civilians...the continua- nomic siege on Iraq and banning milk from reaching the tion of campaigns of pressure and the blockade. Conser- children and elderly...organizations, which are characterized by ment. falsehood, falsification of facts, the shirking of responsi- bility, insistence on pushing for the

  13. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... by Section 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  14. Neural bases of motivated reasoning: an FMRI study of emotional constraints on partisan political judgment in the 2004 U.S. Presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westen, Drew; Blagov, Pavel S; Harenski, Keith; Kilts, Clint; Hamann, Stephan

    2006-11-01

    Research on political judgment and decision-making has converged with decades of research in clinical and social psychology suggesting the ubiquity of emotion-biased motivated reasoning. Motivated reasoning is a form of implicit emotion regulation in which the brain converges on judgments that minimize negative and maximize positive affect states associated with threat to or attainment of motives. To what extent motivated reasoning engages neural circuits involved in "cold" reasoning and conscious emotion regulation (e.g., suppression) is, however, unknown. We used functional neuroimaging to study the neural responses of 30 committed partisans during the U.S. Presidential election of 2004. We presented subjects with reasoning tasks involving judgments about information threatening to their own candidate, the opposing candidate, or neutral control targets. Motivated reasoning was associated with activations of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, and lateral orbital cortex. As predicted, motivated reasoning was not associated with neural activity in regions previously linked to cold reasoning tasks and conscious (explicit) emotion regulation. The findings provide the first neuroimaging evidence for phenomena variously described as motivated reasoning, implicit emotion regulation, and psychological defense. They suggest that motivated reasoning is qualitatively distinct from reasoning when people do not have a strong emotional stake in the conclusions reached.

  15. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enay, P.

    1995-11-01

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq's ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq's oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime's chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq's oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq's eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan's defection and the Kurdish and Shi'ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  16. Dynamic elections and ideological polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunnari, S.; Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2017), s. 505-534 ISSN 1047-1987 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : elections * political polarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  17. Dynamic elections and ideological polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunnari, S.; Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2017), s. 505-534 ISSN 1047-1987 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : elections * political polarization Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 3.361, year: 2016

  18. All quiet on election day? International election observation and incentives for pre-election violence in African elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daxecker, U.E.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that the increasing international interest in elections as exemplified by the rise of international election monitoring induces temporal shifts in the use of violent intimidation by political actors. The presence of international electoral missions lowers the potential for

  19. The Domestic Politics of War - The Iraq War Debate as Viewed Through Three Different Perspectives: Diversionary Theory of War, Coercive Diplomacy, and the Invitation to Struggle Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the Watergate affair ―all contributed to efforts by the legislative branch to reassert its foreign policy prerogatives‖ at the beginning of the...distract attention away from his alleged scandals in the United States.10 Ostrom and Job were one of the first to write about diversionary theory...opinion and threatened the November elections for the Republicans.1 In addition, the corporate scandal at Enron implicated administration

  20. Two Dogs Fight and a Third Grabs the Bone. Reasons for the Electoral Success of Unexpected Candidates – the Croatian Political Scene after the Last Two Parliamentary Election Cycles (2015–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikucka-Wójtowicz Dominika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The last two years in Croatian politics can be seen as an important turning point. The most recent two parliamentary election cycles (2015-2016, as well as the presidential race held a year earlier, were both more interesting and more unpredictable than the previous elections. The objective of this article is to analyse and identify their distinguishing features as well as their significance and implications for the further functioning of the Croatian political scene. Owing to the fact that in both electoral cycles an important voice in the shape of the ruling coalition went to the party that came third in the election and, also surprisingly, this was both a newly established formation and to a great extent with an anti-establishment appeal, particular attention is focused on the appearance on the party scene of new political groupings. The article attempts to place them within the framework of the existing new party typologies and point to the main reasons for their electoral success, as well as evaluating their chances for survival on the party scene.

  1. The Politics of Electoral Reforms in Post-Communist Countries : The 6 March 2005 Parliamentary elections in the Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    Sulima, Snejana

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with the March 6th 2005 parliamentary election in the Republic of Moldova. It mentions the changes that occurred in the electoral system after the 1991 declaration of independence of the country. The article cites electoral legislation, describes the running of the electoral process and analyses the election results of the 2006 process. It also contains information about the implication of international bodies in the Moldavian elections.

  2. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  3. Executing Host Nation Elections in a Post-Conflict Environment: The CJTF's Role

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ocasio-Santiago, Jose H

    2007-01-01

    Recent conflicts in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq have shown that elections are a critical element in the success of post-conflict operations and the transitioning of a host nation...

  4. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Huri Yaseen; Hani Shakir; YM Hajah Tenku Mazuwana Bt. T. Mansor

    2016-01-01

    Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study al...

  5. Oil Federalism In Iraq: Resource Curse, Patronage Networks and Stability. Case Studies of Baghdad, Kurdistan and the Advent of ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Bilal A.

    Petroleum wealth is the lifeblood of Iraq, with the potential to promote prosperity, or become a curse that destabilizes the country and interrupts its economic and political development. The management and sharing of petroleum wealth has been at the center of economic, political and security developments in Iraq since the country's invasion in 2003. This study analyzes Iraq's experiment with petrofederalism, the influence of different actors (e.g. international oil companies and ISIS), and the emergence of Iraqi Kurdistan as a petroregion. Using case study method, it demonstrates how patronage politics exacerbated resource curse in Iraq and resulted in instability.

  6. Consequences of Iraq war on petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of the last Iraq conflict on the petroleum market can be analyzed under two different aspects: one is the will of the USA to re-establish a political stability in a country which represents an important oil reserve for their future supplies, the other is a US-Russia cooperation/rivalry in a region of prime importance for both countries which are in competition for the exploitation of the Caspian sea hydrocarbon resources. (J.S.)

  7. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  8. When negativity goes local: political advertising in three local elections in México / Cuando la negatividad llega a lo local: publicidad política en tres elecciones estatales en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Echeverría Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Political advertising research has been scarce in México, were attention is mainly given to presidential campaigns. Nevertheless, there are 32 States each celebrating gubernatorial elections every six years and recently there have been strong indicators that local elections are shifting into a spree of negative advertising. This study, thus, focuses on three recent gubernatorial races in contrasting states such as Baja California (2007 in the northern border, Yucatán (2007 in the Southeast, and Mexico City (2006. The paper sets out to explore the content characteristics of these campaigns’ political advertising comparing between political parties and states, using a content analysis method and the key variables of issues and communication strategies. We suggests that negativism cannot be defined without taking into account the context in which an election occurs, and that ‘sanitizing’ political campaigns might turn political contests into a self-referencing exercise that does little to serve voter’s information needsLa investigación sobre publicidad política ha sido escasa en México y se ha centrado principalmente en las campañas presidenciales. Sin embargo, existen 32 estados que celebran elecciones gubernamentales cada seis años y en donde recientemente se ha manifestado una ola de publicidad televisiva negativa. Este estudio se enfoca, por tanto, en tres campañas gubernamentales recientes en lugares tan contrastantes como Baja California (2007 en la frontera norte, Yucatán (2007 en el sureste, y la Ciudad de México (2006; en ellas se exploran las características de la publicidad política comparando a los partidos políticos y los estados, utilizando para ello el método de análisis de contenido con énfasis en las variables de los temas y de las estrategias comunicativas. Concluimos que el negativismo no puede ser definido sin tomar en cuenta el contexto en el cual ocurre la elección, y que “blanquear” las campa

  9. "Saddam is Iraq: Iraq is Saddam"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Post, Jerrold

    2002-01-01

    .... To provide a framework for this complex political leader, a comprehensive political psychology profile has been developed, and his actions since the crisis analyzed in the context of this political...

  10. Palestinian Elections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    .... In 2002, the Palestinian Authority (PA), under increasing internal and external pressure, announced a so-called 100-Day Reform Plan for institutional reform and elections in order to rejuvenate PA leadership...

  11. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  12. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  13. Iraq: A Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Jon C., Ed.

    Accused of harboring and supporting terrorists, Saddam Hussein's country of Iraq sits at the top of a short list of targets in United States war on terrorism. Iraq is a country about twice the size of the state of Idaho with a population of over 22 million. The country relies on oil for its economic well-being and controls what some estimate to be…

  14. The Digital Architectures of Social Media: Comparing Political Campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 U.S. Election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossetta, Michael

    2018-01-01

    (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat) are compared along the typology. Using the 2016 U.S. elections as a case, interviews with three Republican digital strategists are complimented with social media data to qualify the study’s theoretical claim that a platform’s network structure, functionality...

  15. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  16. DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    material or documents which have a bearing on elections. A legal ..... This enabled us to announce the results in three days after voting day compared to six days in 1999. ... Attempts to build a democracy without viable political parties have failed. Political parties play a vital role in the market place of political ideas and.

  17. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  18. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...

  19. Stock market volatiltity around national elections

    OpenAIRE

    Bialkowski, Jedrzej; Gottschalk, Katrin; Wisniewski, Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates a sample of 27 OECD countries to test whether national elections induce higher stock market volatility. It is found that the country-specific component of index return variance can easily double during the week around an Election Day, which shows that investors are surprised by the election outcome. Several factors, such as a narrow margin of victory, lack of compulsory voting laws, change in the political orientation of the government, or the failure to form a coaliti...

  20. Stock Market Volatility around National Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Bialkowski, Jedrzej; Gottschalk, Katrin; Wisniewski, Tomasz Piotr

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates a sample of 27 OECD countries to test whether national elections induce higher stock market volatility. It is found that the countryspecific component of index return variance can easily double during the week around an Election Day, which shows that investors are surprised by the election outcome. Several factors, such as a narrow margin of victory, lack of compulsory voting laws, change in the political orientation of the government, or the failure to form a coalitio...

  1. Political Public Relations Campaign for Election of Mayor and Deputy Mayor of Solok Period 2016-2020, Creative Design Coordinator Division

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjaya, Lovegi David; M.Si, Agus Naryoso; M.Si, Much Yulianto; Gono, Joyo M S; Ayun, Primada Qurrota

    2016-01-01

    Public relations, as one of the strategies are quite effective for building the image, as well as long-term relationship with the community or public. This strategy is often combined with a political strategy to win a pair of political party candidates, which is the background of the writing of this scientific work ; the intention to won Irzal Ilyas and Alfauzi Bote as pair of political candidates to become mayor and deputy mayor of Solok period 2016-2021. There need to be applied various eff...

  2. DEMOCRATIC ELECTIONS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    in electoral events by political parties, the electorate and civil society organisations. 2 ... the independent model, elections are managed by an EMB which is institutionally .... entrenched ethnic or racially exclusive interests. In a country with a ...

  3. Older Voters and the 1992 Presidential Election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binstock, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines what is known about one element of the politics of aging--the voting behavior of older persons in recent presidential elections--and suggests areas of research on the 1992 election that may tell something about how far, and how soon, proponents of generational equity will be able to move toward dismantling policies that benefit older…

  4. Uganda's 2006 multiparty elections: consolidating democracy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in conditions where such elections are shrouded in constitutional manipulation, political opaqueness, greed and consolidation of personal rule, they may instead, entrench an authoritarian regime. This article looks at the effects of the recent multiparty elections on the process of democratization and peace building ...

  5. Trust in Internet Election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Ronquillo, Lorena; Schürmann, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Decryption and Counting Ceremony held in conjunction with the internet voting trial on election day in the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development of Norway in 2013. We examine the organizers' ambition of making the decryption and counting of electronic votes...... public in order to sustain trust in internet voting. We introduce a pragmatic approach to trust that emphasises the inseparability of truth from witnessing it. Based on this and on a description of how the event was made observable and how the complexities in the counting process were disclosed, we...... discuss what we term economy of truth from the perspective of the IT community involved in the ceremony. We claim that broadening the economy of truth by including more explicitly social and political perspectives in the ceremony, and in internet elections in general, and how witnessing is brought about...

  6. Politics, economics and the price of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki Yamani, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes petroleum price instability in connection with politics intrusion into the oil business. The author shows the dominant position of OPEC on petroleum market during the 70s and the 80s, the influence of Iranian revolution, Iran / Iraq war and Kuwait invasion by Iraq on petroleum price evolution. 5 figs

  7. Political Role of Tribes : Analysis of Tribalism, Islamism and Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Political Role of Tribes : Analysis of Tribalism, Islamism and Gender in Iraq, Jordan ... When countries such as Jordan and Yemen adopted political pluralism, the ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  8. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  9. ``Models'' CAVEAT EMPTOR!!!: ``Toy Models Too-Often Yield Toy-Results''!!!: Statistics, Polls, Politics, Economics, Elections!!!: GRAPH/Network-Physics: ``Equal-Distribution for All'' TRUMP-ED BEC ``Winner-Take-All'' ``Doctor Livingston I Presume?''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibus-Norquist, R. N. C.-Grover; Bush-Romney, G. W.-Willard-Mitt; Dimon, J. P.; Adelson-Koch, Sheldon-Charles-David-Sheldon; Krugman-Axelrod, Paul-David; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; D. N. C./O. F. P./''47''%/50% Collaboration; R. N. C./G. O. P./''53''%/49% Collaboration; Nyt/Wp/Cnn/Msnbc/Pbs/Npr/Ft Collaboration; Ftn/Fnc/Fox/Wsj/Fbn Collaboration; Lb/Jpmc/Bs/Boa/Ml/Wamu/S&P/Fitch/Moodys/Nmis Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    ``Models''? CAVEAT EMPTOR!!!: ``Toy Models Too-Often Yield Toy-Results''!!!: Goldenfeld[``The Role of Models in Physics'', in Lects.on Phase-Transitions & R.-G.(92)-p.32-33!!!]: statistics(Silver{[NYTimes; Bensinger, ``Math-Geerks Clearly-Defeated Pundits'', LATimes, (11/9/12)])}, polls, politics, economics, elections!!!: GRAPH/network/net/...-PHYSICS Barabasi-Albert[RMP (02)] (r,t)-space VERSUS(???) [Where's the Inverse/ Dual/Integral-Transform???] (Benjamin)Franklin(1795)-Fourier(1795; 1897;1822)-Laplace(1850)-Mellin (1902) Brillouin(1922)-...(k,)-space, {Hubbard [The World According to Wavelets,Peters (96)-p.14!!!/p.246: refs.-F2!!!]},and then (2) Albert-Barabasi[]Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION (BEC) versus Bianconi[pvt.-comm.; arXiv:cond-mat/0204506; ...] -Barabasi [???] Fermi-Dirac

  10. Germany after Federal elections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzballa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The political, economical and social situation in Germany after the election and attitude to nuclear energy are summarised. The Coalition agreement include: 1.Extension of the remaining lifetimes of the nuclear power plants (Nuclear Power considered as “Bridging technology”; Safety first; Skimming of additional profits) 2. No nuclear new builds in Germany 3. Approval and promotion (loan guarantees) of nuclear exports 4. Reversal of the moratorium regarding the exploration of Gorleben salt dome (Completion of the exploration; International Peer Review Group) 5.Further research regarding competence preservation and safety

  11. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system.

  12. Criminals, Militias, and Insurgents: Organized Crime in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    continuity with the Hussein regime. Although many of the players changed, the game remained much the same. As one smuggler commented, “We use the... Salon News, March 20, 2008, available at www.salon.com/news/ feature/2008/03/20/iraq_roundtable/, hereafter cited as “Robbing the Cradle.” 58...has not been accompanied by widespread acceptance of collective identity or shared rules of the political game . The structure of politics and

  13. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  14. A STUDY OF SIGNS: The Political Advertisements in Presidential Election Campaign of Indonesia 2014 based on the Peirce’s Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In general election especially presidential election, it will have a special thing like in using advertisements for doing a campaign. In 2014, Indonesia has two candidates for becoming the first position as president and vice president. It is interested in analyzing the signs of advertisements that becomes their personal branding using semiotics analysis. This paper focuses on Peirce’s theory that is related to the signs which are able to be defined as three categories; Icon, Index and Symbol. There are many signs in personal branding of each candidate such as Prabowo-Hatta has a nationalist enthusiasm for Indonesia. Then, Jokowi-JK has an eternal spirit for working. Of course, the analysis is interested in analyzing to know more the meaning of signs because it is able to be an effective to use in campaign for getting many voters in a polling day. Therefore, as society has to be critical in this thing for choosing the right man as president and vice president of Indonesia.

  15. The experience of the 2008 General Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Peytibi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The last elections, on 9 March 2008, were the first Spanish general elections where the Internet played a major role in the electoral campaign. It entered in the campaign in a way different from how it had done up until then, not just in general elections, but in any election in Spain.

    Even though political parties continued to have their web pages, with news, biographies of the candidates, planned events, electoral programme, etc., five clear changes were observed in how the campaigns were run online, changes which have also been observed in other countries.

  16. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  17. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  18. Mobile Election

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Elena; Lovitskii, Vladimir; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David

    2009-01-01

    Mobile phones have the potential of fostering political mobilisation. There is a significant political power in mobile technology. Like the Internet, mobile phones facilitate communication and rapid access to information. Compared to the Internet, however, mobile phone diffusion has reached a larger proportion of the population in most countries, and thus the impact of this new medium is conceivably greater. There are now more mobile phones in the UK than there are people (ave...

  19. The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...

  20. A Data-Driven Voter Guide for U.S. Elections: Adapting Quantitative Measures of the Preferences and Priorities of Political Elites to Help Voters Learn About Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bonica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet-based voter advice applications have experienced tremendous growth across Europe in recent years but have yet to be widely adopted in the United States. By comparison, the candidate-centered U.S. electoral system, which routinely requires voters to consider dozens of candidates across a dizzying array of local, state, and federal offices each time they cast a ballot, introduces challenges of scale to the systematic provision of information. Only recently have methodological advances combined with the rapid growth in publicly available data on candidates and their supporters to bring a comprehensive data-driven voter guide within reach. This paper introduces a set of newly developed software tools for collecting, disambiguating, and merging large amounts of data on candidates and other political elites. It then demonstrates how statistical methods developed by political scientists to measure the preferences and expressed priorities of politicians can be adapted to help voters learn about candidates.

  1. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, Anna

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  2. Second-rate election campaigning? An analysis of campaign styles in European parliamentary elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vreese, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on professionalization of political campaigns is strongly biased toward first-order (national) elections and the U.S. and U.K. contexts. This study expands that scope. Based on a survey of candidates for the 2004 European elections in eight European Union countries, we tested whether

  3. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  4. Recapturing U.S. Grand Strategy: Shaping Iraq Success with Post-Conflict Lessons from Europe and Japan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gannon, Richard K

    2008-01-01

    .... Next the author reviews pre-Iraq planning by the Department of State and the Department of Defense followed by a review of economic theory and the role economics has played in the growth of political freedom...

  5. Health problems in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E D

    1992-02-22

    Iraq is faced with large scale public health problems that have been caused by the destruction to their infrastructure during the Gulf war. Humanitarian aid is needed in order to avoid a large scale human disaster. In 1988 73% of Iraq's population lived in urban areas. The loss of electrical generating capacity has affected hospitals, water purification and sewage treatment. Iraq had made great strides int he health of their people with an infant mortality rate of 42/1000 in 1990 and 52./1000 for children under 5. The international study team's survey of over 9000 households revealed surprising evidence of widespread chronic malnutrition. Based on accepted mortality as a baseline, data suggests that mortality among Iraqi infants and children under 5 doubled in 1991. The current food ration provides only half of the energy requirement and with rapidly accelerating inflation, the cost of food while only make the situation worse. The UN Disaster Relief Office has received $1.059 billion from donor countries; but, only half of the requested $14 million has been funded through Unicef. This money is needed to meet basic requirements for water, sanitation, antibiotics, and vaccines. The UN Security Council approved resolutions 706 and 712 which would have allowed Iraq to sell $1.6 billion for foodstuffs, medicines, and materials and supplies necessary to civilian needs subject to monitoring and supervision to ensure equitable distribution. The Iraqi government has not met the requirements of 706 and 712 because of the monitoring conditions, so no money has been issued. More money is needed if humanitarian organizations are to do their work. Only $29 million of the $145 million needed for the 1st half of this year has been pledged.

  6. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  7. How campaigns enhance European issues voting during European Parliament elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beach, Derek; Møller Hansen, Kasper; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2017-01-01

    Based on findings from the literature on campaign effects on the one hand, and the literature on European Parliament elections on the other, we propose a model of European Parliamentary elections in which the campaign shift the calculus of electoral support, making differences in national political...... allegiances less important and attitudes about the European project more important by informing voters of and getting them interested in European politics. In effect, we argue that the political campaign leading up to the election makes European Parliament elections less second-order. While previous studies...... have demonstrated that EU attitudes can matter for voting behavior in European Parliament elections, existing research has drawn on post-election surveys that do not enable us to capture campaign effects. Our contribution is to assess the impact of a campaign by utilizing a rolling cross sectional...

  8. Restoring Politics to Political History

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1982-01-01

    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  9. Presidential elections: centrality, context, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Junior Olavo Brasil de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The author argues that the conjugation of certain democratic, socioeconomic and political factors has led to the "nationalization" of presidential elections in Brazil since 1960. The expansion of the electoral market resulting from urbanization and the growth of the electorate, together with the progressive removal of the obstacles to voting - due to income, gender, age, and education - has democratized the electoral process by diversifying the social structure of the electorate. Since then, the president's election has ceased to depend solely upon rural political forces and now involves multiple combinations of rural and urban political forces. Candidates can no longer count on specific social groups in order to guarantee their election, and need to widen their appeal. Based on the results of the direct presidential elections of 1960, 1989, 1994 and 1998, the author contends that the "nationalization" of the vote is part of the political integration of Brazilian society and that this, together with the social complexity of the electorate, means that the candidate's appeal and political stance need to be more wide-ranging in order to prevent potential conflicts from arising during the election campaign.

  10. DefenseLink Special: Iraq Parliamentary Election, December 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time * Quantico Students Get History Lesson * Iraqi, Coalition Officials Put Plan in Place * Conditions Preparations * Bush: Democracy in Action Photo, caption follows VOTER - An Iraqi woman flashes her finger which

  11. Iraq's bomb: Blueprints and artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    After more than half a year of investigating Iraq's clandestine nuclear program, UN and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors found the biggest remaining piece of the puzzle: details of Iraq's effort to design and develop a nuclear explosive device. On September 22, an inspection team - the seventh sent by the UN Special Commission to uncover Iraq's weapons of mass destruction - discovered the nuclear weapons program archives at program headquarters in Baghdad. Many of the documents found there recorded Iraq's plans and progress. Less than a week earlier, Rahim Al-Kital, Iraq's ambassador to the IAEA, informed the agency's 1991 conference in Vienna that Iraq had already 'told the United Nations everything,' and that inspectors were 'guessing' about a nuclear weapons program that did not exist. But the find put an end to any doubts that Iraq's secret effort to enrich uranium was for weapons purposes. The documents showed that since 1988 or 1989 Iraq had invested heavily in facilities to develop and make nuclear weapons. By mid 1990, Iraqi scientists had made some progress in understanding how a relatively crude nuclear explosive device with a core of highly enriched uranium would work, and they had done some experiments on parts of the technology. By that time, an experimental program was under way for using shaped conventional charges to activate a nuclear explosion by uniformly compressing a uranium sphere. But on the eve of the Kuwait invasion, Iraqi experts still had many theoretical and experimental questions to answer

  12. Astronomy in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  13. Controlul exercitat de serviciile secrete din România asupra politicii și presei – metatemă a alegerilor prezidențiale din 2014 (The Control of the Secret Services Over Politics and Media – Metatheme of the Presidential Election in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminița KOHALMI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The last Romanian presidential elections have been marked – more than in any other post-communist electoral races – by the public debate regarding the control of the secret services over politics and media. This research is focused on the presidential elections in 2014 and aims to analyze the subsequent items of this theme, its media impact, and its effect on the confidence that Romanians have in intelligence organizations, politics and media. This research is not aimed at discerning truth from fiction in the debates that have taken place with regards to the chosen theme. The results of the study validate the hypothesis that public interventions with regards to the theme have a medium and long term potential to shift the balance of power in Romania, by slicing antinomies on legal, institutional and ethical operation of intelligence into a democratic society.

  14. Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Saff Association

    2013-01-01

    2013 Elections to Staff Council   Vote! Make your voice heard and be many to elect the new Staff Council. More details on the elections can be found on the Staff Association web site (https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/elections-2013).   Timetable elections Monday 28 October to Monday 11 November, 12:00 am voting Monday 18 and Monday 25 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 19 November, Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 3 December, first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure is monitored by the Election Committee.

  15. Three consequences of the 2012 general elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Buti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an analysis of the 2012 general elections and their consequences on the Romanian political system. The variables analysed in the study are: the effective number of parties (N, the level of electoral disproportionality (G and the nature of bicameralism. Although measured indicators appear to call for an institutional approach and a formal analysis, the article tries to capture and simultaneously takes into account the functional dimension of the political system too. Thus, the consequences of the 2012 parliamentary elections reveal not necessarily the imbalance in the party system or the improvisation of a delegitimized electoral formula, but rather the current makeshift relationships between actors.

  16. Electoral Mobilization for European Parliament Elections – A Portuguese Quasi-Experimental Plan for The 2004/2009 Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge De Sá

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The European Parliament (EP elections have registered high rates of abstention and Portugal is no different from all the other EU countries. From a relational marketing paradigm, we have tried to define the concept of local proximity-based political communication, the grounds for a research program based on a quasi-experimental plan aimed at verifying a set of assumptions on the effects of local proximity-based political communication on the mobilization of Portuguese voters for the EP elections of 2004 and 2009. The results are clear: the proximity-based political communication generated significant electoral mobilization in those two elections.

  17. Political Communication and Women: A Course Proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Judith S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a course proposal for an undergraduate course entitled "Political Communication and Women." Includes six units with instructional objectives, bibliographies, and student activities. The course is designed to identify the special needs of women in elective politics. (JMF)

  18. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history

  19. The 1995 Parliamentary Elections in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Moten

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The parliamentary elections in Malaysia have brought about a significant change in the distribution of partisanship in the electorate. It redefined the relationships between social groups and party support and have enhanced the political stability of the country. The Barisan Nasional's victory, attributable to a booming economy, full employment, and superior organization and finance, signalled a vote of confidence in the politics of accommodation characterised by tolerance, mutual cooperation, and compromise.

  20. The 1995 Parliamentary Elections in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rashid Moten; Tunku Mohar bin Tunku M. Mokhtar

    1995-01-01

    The parliamentary elections in Malaysia have brought about a significant change in the distribution of partisanship in the electorate. It redefined the relationships between social groups and party support and have enhanced the political stability of the country. The Barisan Nasional's victory, attributable to a booming economy, full employment, and superior organization and finance, signalled a vote of confidence in the politics of accommodation characterised by tolerance, mutual cooperation...

  1. Efforts of the British Empire to Build a State in Iraq After the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study searches for the policies carried out by the British Empire in Mesopotamia where the British invaded during the First World War. However, it will be convenient to know the political, social and economic background of Iraq or Mesopotamia as a general outline to understand the period clearly. Therefore, we have primarily tried to explain the overview of pre-invasion in Iraq. The traditional social structure of the Iraqi population and their relationship with the administration and each other have been questioned in the context of national identity. Then the developments in Iraq after the invasion have been discussed.The strategies which the Britain used to rule Iraq and the public’s reaction to this strategy have been investigated. In this context, the facts and the events such as the Mandate, 1920 Arab Revolt, the Cairo Conference of 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq have been focused. It has been endeavored to per-form an analysis to understand the present problems in Iraq by discussing the cause and effect relations of the facts and the events. The research has been prepared by benefiting from a rich bibliography based on the scientific works of the experts for Iraq and the Middle East. As a result, this research has revealed the difficulties in ruling Iraq both internally and externally due to its sui generis political, social and economic conditions and found out that the mistakes made in the nation building process have caused the instability occured at the present time in the country.

  2. The effect of Malaysia general election on stock market returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Venus Khim-Sen; Rowland, Racquel

    2016-01-01

    During the latest episode of general election held in Malaysia, it is observed that the FBMKLCI index was lifted 62.52 points in a day soon after the announcement of election outcome. Moreover, the index registered a highest gain of 96.29 points in the middle of the intra-day trade. This suggests that investors who had got the right direction could make profitable intra-day trading the next trading day of the general election date. Results from statistical analysis uncover significant before-election-effect and after-election-effect from the most recent general elections held in Malaysia. Different subsets of macroeconomic variables are found to have significant role on stock market return depending on the market situation. Remarkably, when there was close fight between the two major political parties during the 2008 and 2013 election years, political uncertainty showed up its negative and significant role in influencing the stock market return. The major implication of these findings is that while investors may seek abnormal returns before and after the next general election, which is around the corner, they will have to pay attention on the influence of macroeconomic variables and political uncertainty on stock market return during the election year.

  3. Outwitting the Professor of Politics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Kenyan general election of 2002, which put an end to Daniel Arap Moi's 24-year rule, has been subjected to much political analysis. The article takes as its point of departure the politico-religious movement Mungiki and the movement's own narratives of its role in the elections. Mungiki's nar...

  4. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq: Report to Congress in Accordance with the Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2007 (Section 9010, Public Law 109-289)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    This report to Congress includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in Section 9010, DoD Defense Appropriations Act 2007...

  5. Voting Behavior in Parliamentary Elections in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řádek Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Department of Political Science at Alexander Dubcek University in Trencin prepared its own exit poll during election day on March 5, 2016. The survey asked seven questions that were aimed at determining the preferences of the respondents concerning not only the current but also past general elections. Interviewers surveyed the choice of political party or movement in parliamentary elections in 2016 as well as preferences in past elections. Followed by questions concerning motivation to vote - when did the respondents decide to go to vote and what or who inspired this decision. The survey also tried to found out how many preferential votes did the voters give to the candidates of political parties and movements. Final question asked about expectations for the future of individual respondents. This article is the information output of the survey. The interviewers were 124 university students and its return was 1,612 sheets. The aim of this paper is to communicate the findings of this unique survey, which is unprecedented in the Slovak political science.

  6. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    councils)2 often composed of designated notables, are key mechanisms for making authoritative decisions or dispensing justice. Some of these mechanisms...directly in support of Afghan women, including women’s empowerment, maternal and child health and nutrition, funding the Ministry of Women’s Affairs

  7. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Labour and Development Party, the National Solidarity Party of Afghanistan’s Youth, the Republican Party, and the National Congress Party of Afghanistan...There is no law specifically banning sexual harassment , and women are routinely jailed for zina—a term meaning adultery, and a crime under the

  8. Afghanistan: Politics, Elections, and Government Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    competent bureaucracy, as does widespread illiteracy . President Hamid Karzai has accepted U.S. help to build emerging anti-corruption institutions, but...Karzai’s grandfather was head of the consultative National Council during King Zahir Shah’s reign. He attended university in India and supported the...Culture Seyyed Makhdum Raheen, who had been serving as Ambassador to India . 24 Fidler

  9. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  10. Election '88: Teacher Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Social Studies Education.

    This materials packet contains information on teaching about the electoral process and the elections of 1988, and on participation in a mock election for students whose schools would take part in the 1988 North Carolina Mock Election. Suggestions for teachers' preparations are given, including a classroom skit and a mock candidates' election…

  11. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  12. IT based social media impacts on Indonesian general legislative elections 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah, Leon Andretti

    2014-01-01

    The information technology applications in cyberspace (the internet) are currently dominated by social media. The author investigates and explores the advantages of social media implementation of any political party in Indonesian general legislative elections 2014. There are twelve national political parties participating in the election as contestants plus three local political parties in Aceh. In this research, author focus on national political parties only. The author visited, analyzed, a...

  13. 76 FR 33285 - Filing Dates for the Nevada Special Election in the 2nd Congressional District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... 2nd Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for... members of major or minor political parties on the special general election ballot until candidates are... INFORMATION: On May 12, 2011, the Commission approved the filing dates for the Special General Election in the...

  14. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  15. Elections in the Muslim World, 1990-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul Wahid A. Al-Zandani

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aggregate data analysis of elections held between 1990 and 2002 in the Muslim world show that most of these elections belong to the non-democratic category and these elections were mostly non-competitive. Approximately, 98% of the Muslim world people do not enjoy full political liberty. About 96% of the people in the Muslim world enjoy the right to vote, but their votes hardly result in transfer of power. However, there are four countries in the Muslim world, Bangladesh, Iran, Malaysia and Mali, where elections are relatively free and fair.

  16. How has the presidential election affected young Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJonckheere, Melissa; Fisher, Andre; Chang, Tammy

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 presidential election season and subsequent political events have had physical and emotional impacts on youth. We collected qualitative insights from 14 to 24 year olds across the US related to these events over time. Open-ended probes were sent via text message at three time points before and after the 2016 presidential election. The majority of youth reported emotional stress during all three time points, and female participants were significantly more likely to experience emotional responses. White participants were more likely to report negative symptoms than their peers both pre-election and at 4-months post-election. While preliminary, the results indicate that feelings of stress, anxiety, and fear have persisted in the months following the election, particularly for young women. Additional research is needed to examine the long-term effects of political events on the emotional and physical health of youth.

  17. Critical Analysis of 2012 Local Elections in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Karic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical analyzes of 2012 local elections in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Since 1995 the local elections and its political and electoral system have been based on the Dayton Peace Agreement (DPA. According to DPA Bosnia-Herzegovina has the multiparty system and regular and free elections. These local elections were held amidst continuously renewed political turmoil at the cantonal, entity and state levels. 2012 local elections results have shown that the HDZ and SDA continued to dominate politics at the local level in the Federation of BiH while in the RS, position of SNSD has been strongly shaken by very good performance of SDS. The SDA won majority of votes in Bosniak majority areas while SDS and HDZ secured their votes in the Serb and Croat majority areas respectively. In the Federation of BiH, SDP and SBB suffered dramatic fall in votes comparing to the last general elections while in the RS, SNSD, which has dominated politics since 2006 lost significant number of votes, mayoral posts and municipality seats to SDS and some other political parties such as PDP, SP and DNS.

  18. Panorama 2011: Iraq: making its return to the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.; Sabathier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling some of the world's largest reserves of oil and natural gas, Iraq boasts major assets in attracting foreign investment. While there is limited risk involved in exploration, the political environment and security needs for personnel and facilities pose omnipresent risks for investors. As a result, the country is facing immense human, political, financial and technological hurdles in its hopes of capturing a leading role in the international hydrocarbons market. (author)

  19. Countering the Hidden Hand: A Study of Iranian Influence in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    108 Ibid., 24. 109 Hala Mundhir Fattah and Frank Caso , A Brief History of Iraq (New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, 2009), 213, https...al-Sadr to de -escalate his aggression towards the U.S., and he subsequently disbanded much of his militia to focus on politics.147 Instead of...of Iranian influence within the network. What is interesting is the inclusion of some of the top political leadership in the militia-related clusters

  20. The 2011 Danish Election - Summary of the 2011 Danish election campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nicolas Hopmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 15, 2011 a record-high turn-out of 88 percent of the approx. 4 million Danes eligible to vote for the Danish parliament, the Folketing, was reached. This paper gives a short descriptive summary of the 2011 Danish election campaign. Irrespective of which side would win the position as primeminister, one thing was given: an exceptional era in Danish politics was coming to an end. After ten years of a Right Liberal-Conservative minority government supported by the Danish People's Party, Danish poli-tics would return to its classic modus operandi of centrist parties determining the prime-minister. By a margin of a few thousand votes, the red block won the elections and the new prime minister of Denmark is the Social Democrat Helle Thorning-Schmidt. This article describes the political context prior to the election campaign, the course of the election campaign, furthermore it presents the election results in a historical perspective and shortly discusses the challenges the new government is facing.

  1. Nigeria and Democratic Progress by Elections in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Carbone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elections do not always advance democratisation, yet they can. We outline a democratisation-by-elections model according to which the opportunities for political change opened up by each electoral round build on previous election-related democratic progress. We focus on Nigeria, interpret the recent executive turnover in light of previous elections, and set the country within the comparative context of Africa’s democratisation. Using a new Africa Leadership Change dataset, we use election-related events to examine the diverse routes that African regimes have taken since 1990. The analysis highlights two major syndromes: democratic stagnation and recession. In a sizeable group, however, the institutionalisation of democracy has been making gradual progress. While there is no predetermined way to advance democracy, the reiteration of elections can be instrumental in such advancement.

  2. Local Election Campaign in Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock Segaard, Signe; Agger Nielsen, Jeppe

    candidates, content registration of local blogs, and log file data of local blogs through Google Analytics). In contrast to the democratic vision for social media the analysis demonstrates that the election blogs primarily are used by those who are most politically active in advance. The analysis also shows...... and their actual behavior in social media. The experiences from the Norwegian local elections indicate that the usage of social media has not yet constituted a vital democratic frontier. The myth that the “tone" in online debates always is hard, concise and person fixed has also been disproved....

  3. Vote Buying In Lampung Local Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Cahyadi Kurniawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Vote buying in elections, both general elections and local elections is a phenomenon in Indonesian politics. Lampung Province has implemented direct elections simultaneously in December 2015 and February 2017. This study explains that vote buying can change voter choice in three regional head elections in Lampung Province. This study was conducted with the object of research residing in Way Kanan District on July 2014, Pringsewu District on February 2016 and Bandar Lampung City on November 2015. This study used a survey approach, using stratified random sampling method. The survey conducted on 662 respondents in each county or district and city object being studied. The results show that voters believe that vote buying will happen in local elections.Voters may be influenced their choice if given relief goods, gifts of money or the provision of project. The thesis in this study is vote buying can change voting choice of voters.

  4. Stock Market Volatility Dynamics around National Elections : Empirical Evidence from Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kon Wah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a sample of 8 Asian countries to test whether the stock market volatility would be induced higher during national election periods. Our empirical findings show the country-specific component of variance in election periods can easily reach up to 43% higher than the no election periods. It indicates that the investors are shocked with the election outcomes and investors’ sentiments are affected by the political events, no matter how well the preparation is made by inves...

  5. Web campaigning in the 2009 European Parliament elections: A cross-national comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.; Cunha, C.

    2013-01-01

    Political communication has transformed drastically since the Internet made its way into the political arena. Political parties seem unable to do without a website or a social networking profile any longer, particularly in election campaigns. One of the many approaches to studying online political

  6. The Ghana 2000 Elections: Voter Choice and Electoral Decisions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to earlier assertions that Ghanaians pay attention not so much to regime performance and achievements as they reach their political decisions, we show empirically that the Ghanaians could also choose between parties and candidates when deciding on an election. (A. J. of Political Science: 2001 6(1): 69-88) ...

  7. Election Campaigns on the Internet: How are Voters Affected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    2010-01-01

      This article investigates whether political use of the Internet affects users politically. Using a combination of log- and survey data from a study of Internet use during the Danish 2007 parliamentary election, a number of hypotheses are tested. The investigation finds that 30% of the survey re...

  8. Movimentos sociais e eleições: por uma compreensão mais ampla do contexto político da contestação Social movements and elections: toward a broader understanding of the political context of contention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug Mcadam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Por que duas literaturas cognatas - estudos eleitorais e de movimentos sociais - seguem trajetórias paralelas e pouco dialogam? E o que se pode fazer para conectá-las no futuro? Partindo de seu trabalho com Charles Tilly sobre as dinâmicas do confronto (Dynamics of Contention, 2001, Dough McAdam e Sydney Tarrow analisam as conexões entre movimentos sociais e eleições, propõem um conjunto articulado de vínculos entre eleições e movimentos sociais e aplicam sua abordagem a um exame preliminar das relações entre eleições, movimentos e políticas de confronto racial nos Estados Unidos.Why do two cognate literatures - social movements and electoral studies -travel along parallel paths with little conversation between them? And what can be done to connect them in the future? Drawing ontheir work with the late Charles Tilly on Dynamics of Contention (2001, Doug McAdam and Sidney Tarrow examine the reciprocal links between movements and elections, propose a mechanism-based set of linkages between elections and social movements, and apply their approach in a preliminary examination of the relations between elections, movements and the politics of racial contention in the United States.

  9. Did Iraq Cheat the United Nations? Underpricing, Bribes, and the Oil for Food Program

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Tai Hsieh; Enrico Moretti

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 through early 2003, the United Nations Oil for Food Program allowed Iraq to export oil in exchange for humanitarian supplies. We measure the extent to which this program was corrupted by Iraq's attempts to deliberately set the price of its oil below market prices in an effort to solicit bribes, both in the form of direct cash bribes and in the form of political favors, from the buyers of the underpriced oil. We infer the magnitude of the potential bribe by comparing the gap between ...

  10. Second-Rate Coverage of Second-Order Elections: Czech and Slovak Elections to the EP in the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kovář

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Elections to the European Parliament (EP are considered second-order national elections (SOE. The SOE model suggests that there is a qualitative difference between different types of elections depending on the perception of what is at stake. Compared to first order elections, in second order elections there is less at stake because they do not determine the composition of government. Given that voters behave differently in second-order elections, the question arises: do the media also consider second-order elections less interesting and therefore devote to them less coverage? The media play a crucial role in informing citizens about such events as elections; they function as intermediaries between the electorate and the political arena. However, little is known about how EU issues are covered in the media, particularly in the new EU member states. Conducting a content analysis and applying the second-order election model, this paper analyses TV news coverage of the 2004 and 2009 European elections in the Czech Republic and Slovakia in a comparative fashion. The findings are discussed in the light of existing research literature on the EU’s legitimacy as well as its alleged democratic and communication deficit, not least because the EU relies on the media in strengthening (albeit indirectly its legitimacy by increasing citizen awareness of its activities.

  11. Hospitality, Tourism, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W. Litvin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Government policy has a significant impact on the hospitality and tourism industry, but it is unclear if political leaders fully understand this economic sector when crafting policies. This article offers new research about the direct involvement of industry practitioners in the political process, by analyzing the backgrounds of legislators in the six New England states. The data indicate that only 3% of these legislators have current or former careers related to hospitality and tourism. The author suggests that practitioners should seek election to political office, to better influence government policy.

  12. Electing Not to Fight: Elections as a Mechanism of Deradicalisation after the Irish Civil War 1922–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Kissane

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Much research into the relationship between democratisation and conflict argues that holding elections soon after civil war, when nationalist issues still resonate, is likely to see voters elect to fight. This paper explores a case where elections had the opposite effect. Examination of the relationship between election results and political developments, as well as geographical voting patterns, demonstrates that elections were the primary mechanism for the deradicalisation of Irish politics after the civil war of 1922–23. Elections served as a mechanism for arbitration, selection, and coordination between more and less radical elites and their bases of support. Once the new state had shown its strength it had to accommodate gradual change, while electoral losers had to show they could reconcile change with stability. Elections helped establish credibility in both respects without altering the state-society relationship, suggesting that deradicalisation was dependent on state performance, and thus on some shared conception of the state. This combination of credibility, electoral legitimacy, and state performance, enabled a revolutionary elite, schooled in both constitutional and revolutionary politics, to deradicalise Irish nationalism after independence.

  13. Political actors playing games: Theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamm, A.

    2015-01-01

    Political actors exert enormous influence over our daily lives. Their influence on economic activities cannot be underestimated. Voters determine the distribution of political power, political candidates choose policy platforms that they intend to enact if elected, and legislators bargain to arrive

  14. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  15. A Political Campaign Strategy and Campaign Theme : How to Win a Political Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    河村, 直幸; Kawamura, Naoyuki

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research paper is to introduce a political campaign strategy. A political campaign should do on a scientific system and needs effective strategy. Before political campaign begin, a candidate and its campaigner needs to analyze election district and sample voter opinion. An election campaign needs campaign theme. The creation of campaign theme needs careful and elaborate planning. A style of campaign varies according to incumbent or challenger. The developing of an effective po...

  16. Political participation of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenhouten, Christine L; Malakar, Crystalmichelle L; Kubsch, Sylvia; Block, Derryl E; Gallagher-Lepak, Susan

    2011-08-01

    Level of political participation and factors contributing to participation were measured among Midwest RNs (n = 468) via an online survey (Cronbach's α = .95). Respondents reported engaging in primarily "low cost" activities (e.g., voting, discussing politics, and contacting elected officials), with fewer reporting speaking at public gatherings, participating in demonstrations, and membership in nursing organizations. Psychological engagement was most predictive (p political participation with the dimensions of political interest, political efficacy, and political information/knowledge highly significant (p political participation (p political content and did not prepare them for political participation. Findings showed that nurse educators and leaders of professional nursing organizations need to model and cultivate greater psychological engagement among students and nurses.

  17. Democratic Dawn? Civil Society and Elections in Myanmar 2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lidauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the general elections in Myanmar in November 2010 were widely condemned, both national and international actors approached the by-elections of April 2012 as a political rite-de-passage to improve relations between the government and the opposition inside, and between the former pariah state and the international community outside the country. An undercurrent to the government-led transition process from an authoritarian to a formally more democratic regime was the development of a politically oriented civil society that found ways to engage in the electoral process. This article describes the emerging spaces of election-related civil society activism in the forms of civic and voter education, national election observation, and election-related agency in the media. Noting that, in particular, election observation offers connections for civil society to regional and international debates, the paper draws preliminary conclusions about further developments ahead of the general elections in Myanmar expected for 2015.

  18. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... assistance, the strengthening of Iraq's security forces, evident in the recent transfer of security responsibilities in Anbar and Babylon to Iraqi control, the incremental improvement in essential...

  19. The Ethnic Hate Speech was Networked: What Social Media Online Political Discussions Reveal about the 2013 General Elections in Kenya / El discurso étnico del odio se difundió por las redes. Análisis de las discusiones políticas en las redes sociales dur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Mwende Maweu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This chapter examines if the increased political discussions on social media especially Twitter and Face Book before and after the March 4th, 2013 general elections in Kenya translated to a more robust Alternative Public Sphere that broke the hegemony of the traditional media as Agenda setters or an alternative space for the audience to vent out their frustrations and grievances about the election. In the last most contentious elections in 2007, in Kenya, both new and old media were blamed for fueling ethnic hate speech which culminated into the 2007/ 2008 post election violence. It is argued in this chapter that although voting patterns in the March 2013 elections were clearly along ethnic lines just like in 2007, there was no physical post election violence like was the case in 2008. What was clearly evident was Ethnic hate speech before and after the general elections on social media networks. We therefore observe that unlike in 2008 where ethnic violence was fought in the streets, in the 2013 general elections, the ‘Ethnic War was Networked’. The chapter analyses the content of some of the messages send on Twitter and Face Book to argue that social media platforms only acted as alternative spaces for Kenyans to fight out their ethnic political wars and not alternative public spheres for constructive political deliberation. The chapter concludes by observing that social media networks in the 2013 general elections in Kenya acted as ‘Opiums of the Masses’ only serving the function of keeping Kenya ‘quiet and peaceful’ to prevent a repeat of the 2008 post election violence, but not alternative public spheres to facilitate constructive political deliberation. En este artículo se analiza si el aumento de las discusiones políticas sobre las redes sociales, especialmente Twitter y Facebook, antes y después de las elecciones generales en Kenia del 04 de marzo de 2013, se tradujeron en una esfera pública alternativa sólida que

  20. 11 CFR 100.85 - Legal or accounting services to political party committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal or accounting services to political party committees. 100.85 Section 100.85 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.85 Legal or accounting services to political party...

  1. 11 CFR 100.145 - Legal or accounting services to political party committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal or accounting services to political party committees. 100.145 Section 100.145 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.145 Legal or accounting services to political...

  2. 11 CFR 100.86 - Legal or accounting services to other political committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal or accounting services to other political committees. 100.86 Section 100.86 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.86 Legal or accounting services to other political...

  3. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  4. Consequences of Iraq war on petroleum market; Les consequences de la guerre d'Iraq sur le marche du petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percebois, J. [Montpellier-1 Univ., 34 (France); Centre de Recherche en Economie, et Droit de l' Energie, Universite de Montpellier-1, Faculte des Sciences Economiques, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2004-07-01

    The consequences of the last Iraq conflict on the petroleum market can be analyzed under two different aspects: one is the will of the USA to re-establish a political stability in a country which represents an important oil reserve for their future supplies, the other is a US-Russia cooperation/rivalry in a region of prime importance for both countries which are in competition for the exploitation of the Caspian sea hydrocarbon resources. (J.S.)

  5. How has the presidential election affected young Americans?

    OpenAIRE

    DeJonckheere, Melissa; Fisher, Andre; Chang, Tammy

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 presidential election season and subsequent political events have had physical and emotional impacts on youth. We collected qualitative insights from 14 to 24 year olds across the US related to these events over time. Open-ended probes were sent via text message at three time points before and after the 2016 presidential election. The majority of youth reported emotional stress during all three time points, and female participants were significantly more likely to experience emotiona...

  6. Iraq: Government Formation and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Elections in 2005 produced a permanent constitution and a broad-based but Shiite-led government that has been unwilling or unable to take major steps to reduce Sunni popular resentment and is showing...

  7. The Singapore general election 1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jinshan; Elklit, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The parliamentary eklection in singapore in January 1997 is examined, as is the particular electoral system ('the party block vote') which is found to be a central element in the electoral strategy of the ruling party, PAP. the functioning of this rare electoral system is, however, only one eleme...... in explaining how PAP has been able to win comfortable majorities in the House. The analysis contributes to the understandi9ng of how a semi-democratic regime can stay in power. The political and electoral process in relation to the 1997 election is also analysed......The parliamentary eklection in singapore in January 1997 is examined, as is the particular electoral system ('the party block vote') which is found to be a central element in the electoral strategy of the ruling party, PAP. the functioning of this rare electoral system is, however, only one element...

  8. The Legal Policy Of The General Election As An Independent Commission A Review Of Indonesian Election 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josner Simanjuntak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Legal Institution of the General Election in Indonesia has an important role in the process of elections to realize the sovereignty of the people. The legal institution is independent as mandated of the Indonesian constitution The 1945 Constitution. In the Election organizers as a chapter of the 1945 Constitution stating that the Election Commission shall be independent and impartial toward participating in the election and political party. However in practice this task is not easy and can be run smoothly it is difficult to maintain a balanced relationship between the participant election commissions. This research is a descriptive analytic one using juridical normative approach to study the legal principles legal synchronization. The technique being used to gather data is librarian research supported by field research using interview and questionnaire technique. The data being gathered are analyzed qualitatively. The result of the research shows that the legal institution the general election in undertaking has not been independent as expected because for institutional and administrative for has not been independence and not impartiality and not professionalism. The rules in the process of elections is it not the election system and achievement of justice.

  9. The retrospection of Romania presidential elections of 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Iustina Tuzu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to take a radiograph of Romania presidential elections of 2014, starting from a general framework in which these elections were held, continuing with issues and debates that characterized this context and ending with international reactions regarding the new elected-president in the foreign press and from the officials. This radiograph brings a series of questions: was the final result of these elections an accident? Was it an express of confidence for the successful candidate or the result of discontent with the current political system, a vote of hope? In this regard, I consider absolutely necessary to understand how the president was elected, the reasons behind this choice and especially if the hopes of voters will be reflected in the work of Klaus Iohannis during his term.

  10. Mexican Public Opinion in the aftermath of the 2006 Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Moreno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I analyze public opinion about the 2006 Mexican presidential election in the context of the post–election conflict. My goal is to determine which individual–level variables influenced opinions about the post–election conflict. The analysis focuses on individual positions about the election fairness, confidence in the electoral Tribunal, claims for a full recount, and the public's stands on street protests and mobilization, among others. I use the Mexican component of the Comparative National Election Project (CNEP, conducted for the first time in Mexico in 2006 as a two–wave, preelection and postelection, panel design. The results highlight the importance of political predispositions in the analysis of public opinion in Mexico.

  11. The Politics of Violence, Truth, and Reconciliation in the Arab Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book treats political and cultural attempts to create truth and reconciliation processes in the Arab Middle Eat. It contains studies of Morocco, Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Syria.......This book treats political and cultural attempts to create truth and reconciliation processes in the Arab Middle Eat. It contains studies of Morocco, Algeria, Sudan, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Syria....

  12. Can Information Increase Turnout in European Parliament Elections?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Esben; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect of information on turnout at a European Parliament election in Denmark. We utilize a quasi-experimental design to sidestep the substantial problems related to causal inference associated with identifying the effect of information. Specifically, we look at a group of Danish...... first-time voters, some of whom were exogenously exposed to information in the run-up to the 2014 European Parliament election, by participating in a one-day workshop about EU (European Union) politics. We find that those who participated were more knowledgeable about and more likely to vote...... in the upcoming European Parliament election. This suggests that increasing political participation in the EU could, in part, be a matter of exposing the European public to more information about EU politics....

  13. 25 CFR 700.557 - Political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... governments, even though such elections are not partisan in the usual meaning of the word. With respect to... petitions, posters, or other political materials during working hours or on Commission premises. (5) Engage...

  14. Relationships between Political Development and Intervention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    London, David T

    2006-01-01

    .... The Congo's political development from the 1700s to 1960 resulted in a democratically elected Congolese administration that at the time of independence was unable to operate the national government or the economy...

  15. General Election 2004: Empirical Validation of Voting Pattern in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Arabi Idid

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test the effects of the politically related socio-economic issues, personality of the new Prime Minister and the perceived strength of the ruling party, Barisan Nasional (BN, in influencing the outcomes of elections. It uses the data from the Star-IIUM Survey 2004 and the official election results of general election 2004 for the three northern states of Malaysia and applies the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The study found that the personal attributes of the Prime Minister, the strength of the ruling party and the campaign issues positively influenced the popular votes secured by the BN candidates.

  16. Elections in the Muslim World, 1990-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Abdul Wahid A. Al-Zandani

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Aggregate data analysis of elections held between 1990 and 2002 in the Muslim world show that most of these elections belong to the non-democratic category and these elections were mostly non-competitive. Approximately, 98% of the Muslim world people do not enjoy full political liberty. About 96% of the people in the Muslim world enjoy the right to vote, but their votes hardly result in transfer of power. However, there are four countries in the Muslim world, Bangladesh, Iran, Malay...

  17. Elective course planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2011-01-01

    Efficient planning increasingly becomes an indispensable tool for management of both companies and public organizations. This is also the case for high school management in Denmark, because the growing individual freedom of the students to choose courses makes planning much more complex. Due...... to reforms, elective courses are today an important part of the curriculum, and elective courses are a good way to make high school education more attractive for the students. In this article, the problem of planning the elective courses is modeled using integer programming and three different solution...... for the Elective Course Planning Problem has been described in the literature before. The proposed algorithms are tested on data sets from 98 of the 150 high schools in Denmark. The tests show that for the majority of the problems, the optimal solution can be obtained within the one hour time bound. Furthermore...

  18. 2016 Presidential Election Durham

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — Voting totals for the 2016 Presidential Election by voting method and precinct. Voting Method Definitions: PROV = Provisional IN-PERSON = In PersonABS-1STOP =...

  19. IAEA inspections and Iraq's nuclear capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1992-04-01

    It is reported that IAEA teams have been investigating Iraq's nuclear capabilities since May 1991 and following the Gulf War under terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 directed at eliminating Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and means to produce and use them. A chronology of the events as well as the IAEA plan of further actions are described

  20. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Meshkab Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) is June 2010. This WTP project, funded by $23.1 million Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) and $46.9...Forces - Iraq USG U.S. Government VBIED Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device WG Working Group WTO World Trade Organization WTP Water

  1. State Independent Electoral Commissions and local government elections in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson O. Olaniyi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many state governments have not been allowing their State Independent Electoral Commissions (SIECs to conduct elections as at when due but rather settle for ‘caretaker committees’. Where elections have been conducted, the party in control of a state apparatus has been known to have cleared the polls. The general objective of this study is to assess the impact of electoral contest at the local government level on the political development of Nigeria. Specific objectives include (1 assessing the role of the political executives of a state in the determination of representation at the local government level in Nigeria; and (2 assessing the activities of SIECs in the management of local government polls. This study adopts comparative cum case study approach to analysing local government polls in Nigeria. This is discussed on a geopolitical basis. Some of the findings of the study include: (1 local government election in Nigeria is not given premium position by many state governments in the political landscape of their state because of the fear of playing into the hands of their political rivals; and (2 SIECs are only independent in name and not in practice. The study recommends, among others, that (1 the country should adopt the arrangement in the aborted Third Republic where the country’s EMB was empowered to conduct all elections at all levels of government and (2 local government elections in Nigeria should key into the electoral process of the country in all ramifications.

  2. Political Marketing Mix in Indonesia Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Simbolon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reform era has changed the paradigm of Indonesian politics. Multiparty system has demanded a political party to be able to compete for their constituents. Article aimed to convey a political marketing concept that can helppolitical parties in planning a strategy to win the election. Research method used descriptive method analysis. The results suggest that the approach of the marketing mix that includes the product, price, place, and promotion areapproaches that are very helpful in presenting a plan to win the marketing strategy of political parties in elections.

  3. Strategic Effects of the Conflict with Iraq: Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max G

    2003-01-01

    .... military action against Iraq; the role of America in the region after the war with Iraq; the nature of security partnerships in the region after the war with Iraq; and the effect that war with Iraq will have on the war on terrorism in the region.

  4. Political consequences of the electoral calendar in Latin America: Advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous and separate parliamentary and presidential elections Consecuencias políticas del calendario electoral en América latina: ventajas y desventajas de elecciones simultáneas o separadas para presidente y legislatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Enrique MOLINA V.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the ideas put forward by Shugart and Carey (1992 and Mainwaring and Shugart (1997 regarding the combined effect of presidential electoral systems and the timing of the parliamentary elections over political representation and governability. The hypotheses of these authors are contrasted with the results of Latin American presidential elections (1996-2000. The conclusion is reached that, as expected, the timing of presidential and parliamentary elections and the electoral system for president tend to influence the chance that the party or coalition of the president has a sizeable or majority parliamentary representation.El trabajo analiza los planteamientos desarrollados por Shugart y Carey (1992 y Mainwaring y Shugart (1997 con relación al efecto que sobre la gobernabilidad y la representatividad tienen las distintas combinaciones de sistema electoral para presidente de la República con la fecha en que se realizan las elecciones legislativas (simultáneas o separadas con las presidenciales, confrontando las hipótesis que se derivan de estos análisis con los resultados de las elecciones presidenciales celebradas en los países de América Latina entre 1996 y 2000. Se llega a la conclusión de que los resultados electorales tienden a corroborar las hipótesis sobre el efecto combinado del calendario electoral y el sistema electoral presidencial sobre la gobernabilidad y la representatividad, y en particular sobre la posibilidad de que el presidente electo cuente con una fuerza parlamentaria mayoritaria o sólida.

  5. Lexis in Political Ideas on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Renugah Ramanathan; Tan Bee Hoon; Shamala Paramasivam

    2017-01-01

    Ideologies in political discourse have been keen research topics as they provide various views of an issue or event. The prominent aspect of ideology is that it attempts to bridge the political activism to the social world that reflects the authenticity of political figures. This study aims to compare the ideological notions in the political tweets of Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak (henceforth, Najib) and Prime Minister Narendra Modi (henceforth, Modi) during the election campaigns. The disco...

  6. "The Kurds and the Role of Kurdistan Region in Developing Iraq" Where are Iraq and the Iraqi Kurds heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonymous, Student Author

    Iraq remains one of the hot topics in world politics today and probably more so in the coming decades, with its Kurds as an ever-evolving puzzle of the country's domestic stability and regional conflict. In modern history, the Kurds' resistance to "occupiers" of their region became more evident with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, following which they were promised their independence. Due to reasons explained in Chapter One--with energy and oil being some of these reasons--this independence, however, led to nothing but fading ink on dusty paper. Since the Kurds were only partially assimilated into their host states, they were treated as though they had a status apart from the host state, yet the host state denied Kurdish efforts to achieve self-determination. In some cases, the host state denied the very existence of the Kurdish culture. This created an ambiguous situation in which Kurds variously saw themselves as nationals of their host states or as Kurds or as both. For the purpose of this thesis, attention will be given mainly to Iraqi Kurds and their struggle for the right to self-determination which they were finally able to achieve following the Gulf War in early 1990s, leading to the establishment of a regional Kurdish government in Northern Iraq (explained in Chapter Two). Chapter Three will focus on what some of the ways to mediate such disputes may be, including the introduction of renewable energy such as wind and solar energy. It will demonstrate how Iraq can take advantage of wind and solar energy as alternative means to oil, by which the country's economy can diversify, and the security situation and ecological conditions can improve. This thesis will further focus on some of the potential challenges in Iraq that may surface in the future, and whether the Kurds can play a role in stabilising the country by remaining part of it, and if so, what may be some of the responsibilities of the Arabs of Iraq in order to provide the required incentives to

  7. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  8. Gaps in Political Interest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...... sought to measure respondents’ general interest in politics by asking them how often they follow public affairs. In this article, we uncover novel sources of measurement error concerning this question. We first show that other nationally representative surveys that frequently use this item deliver...... drastically higher estimates of mass interest. We then use a survey experiment included on a wave of the ANES’ Evaluating Government and Society Surveys (EGSS) to explore the influence of question order in explaining this systemic gap in survey results. We show that placing batteries of political...

  9. Electives during Medical Internship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sultan, Ali I.; Parashar, Shyam K; Al-Ghamdi, Abulmohsin A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of study was to find out the reasons for selecting elective rotations during a rotating medical internship.One hundred and seventy-eight medical interns in the College of Medicine, King Faisal University,Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period March 2001 to August 2002 completed a questionnaire for their selection reasons with responses on a scale of 1-5.The study comprised 60% males and 98.3% Saudis. The most frequently chosen elective is Dermatology 28.1% ,radiology 20.8%, anesthesia 9.6% and otorhinolaryngology (ear, nose and throat [ENT]) 9%. Significantly, more males (89.2%) chose radiology rotation and more females (75%) chose ENT rotation.The leading reasons to choose an elective rotations are;1, to gain broad medical training and education,2, to assist in choice of future speciality and,3, being relevant to future speciality .The mean score for ENT and dermatology is higher than radiology and anesthesia for the response to participate in medical practice in different institute , while dermatology is higher than anesthesia for response to help for getting aceptance for job in the same instituteand radiology is higher than ENT and anesthesia for the response i t has infrequent or no night duties . The reason chosen reflect the educational value of electives and their important role in choosing future career. Dermatology and radiology rotations are most popular electives ,with additional and though different reasons. (author)

  10. Lessons from post-war Iraq for the international full-scope safeguards regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.

    1993-01-01

    The discovery after the Gulf War of the extensive Iraqi nuclear weapon program severely shook public confidence in the nuclear non-proliferation regime in general, and the safeguards program of the IAEA under the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, in particular. Iraq provided the justification for evaluating the safeguards regime under new political circumstances, so that appropriate corrective measures could be taken when necessary. It is now up to the individual states within the international system to take advantage of this opportunity

  11. Overseas Voter Mobilisation in Singapore: Implications from Malaysia’s 13th General Election

    OpenAIRE

    James Gomez; Rusdi Omar

    2013-01-01

    "This paper discusses voter mobilisation and other election-related activities of Malaysian voters living, studying and working in Singapore in the context of Malaysia's 13th general election (GE13). According to the World Bank, nearly 400,000 Malaysians reside in the city-state. Thus these figures represent a significant Malaysian voter pool based in Singapore. Efforts to mobilise these voters for general elections or other causes have political implications for both countries, which became ...

  12. Information Seeking Behaviour of Senior High School Student on General Election: Case Study In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rachman, Margareta Aulia; Rachman, Yeni Budi

    2018-01-01

    The development of information technology affects students in searching and finding information, particularly information regarding the General Election. The explosion of information on mass media about the elections resulted impact (both positive and negative) to the potential voters. Nowadays, media plays role as a tool for political parties to lead public opinion to support their parties. Based on the data provided by General Election Commission (KPU) in 2014, 20% of voters were identified...

  13. Information Seeking Behaviour of Senior High School Student on General Election in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Margareta Aulia Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The development of information technology affects students in searching and finding information, particularly information regarding the General Election. Theexplosion of information on mass media about the elections resulted impact (both positive and negative) to the potential voters. Nowadays, media plays role as a tool for political parties to lead public opinion to support their parties. Based on the data provided by General Election Commission (KPU) in 2014, 20% of voters were identified ...

  14. The Election System of the Swiss Confederation: Counting of Votes and Establishment of Election Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A. Tarnavskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the author covers the process of counting the votes and the disclosure rules of establishment the election results in the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland along with other EU member states pays special attention to the determination of the election results. According to Art. 149 para. 2 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation the elections to the National Council, which is one of two chambers of the Federal Assembly, are held according to proportional representation system. The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is used for allocating seats in National Council of the Swiss Con federation. However the above mentioned system for determining the quota of votes per each mandate creates ambiguous opinions among Swiss scientists and legal experts, which frequently comes up in discussions whether to modify it or not. In this article, the author also gives a brief description of the main political parties in Switzerland and statistics of seats allocation in 49 legislature of National Council following the elections of October 23, 2011. As a result, the author provides the full information on the process of votes counting and establishment of election results in the Swiss Confederation. The material presented in this article is particularly interesting and relevant in terms of improving the electoral legislation in the Russian Federation. The information presented by the author will be useful to all parties interested in electoral law.

  15. Iranian Tentacles into Iraq: The Basis and Extent of Iranian Influence into Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.iucc.ac.il/academia (accessed May 10, 2009), video . 2 Kenneth Katzman, “Iran’s Activities and Influence in Iraq,” (Washington, D.C...population at large. The Iranian ulama play a significant role in Iraq because Iranian religious men dominate the Shia clergy in Iraq. The majority of the...University Press, 2004. Banuazizi, Ali. Iranian Nationality and the Persian Language. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1992. Bell, Gertrude. The

  16. The Hadia story: digital storytelling in election campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Bakøy, Eva; Kalnes, Øyvind

    2010-01-01

    Digital storytelling in election campaigns is a relatively recent phenomenon, which needs to be investigated in order to enhance our understanding of changes and developments in modern political communication. This article is an analysis of how the Norwegian-Pakistani Labour politician, Hadia Tajik, has used digital storytelling to construct her political identity, and a discussion of the consequences of her experiments with this genre. The focus is on the five video stories she released duri...

  17. Return on interactivity? The characteristics and effectiveness of Web sites during the 2010 Dutch local elections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Vliegenthart, R.; Kruikemeier, S.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the use of interactive features (i.e., discussion and participation features) on the Web sites of Dutch political parties during the 2010 local elections campaign and investigates whether a relationship exists between interactivity and election results. A manual content

  18. Discomfiture of democracy? The 2005 election crisis in Ethiopia and its aftermath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I assess the nature and the impact of the May 2005 Ethiopian parliamentary elections on Ethiopian politics. The elections, although controversial and flawed, showed significant gains for the opposition but led to a crisis of the entire democratization process. I revisit Ethiopian

  19. Using Intrade.com to Teach Campaign Strategies in the 2008 U.S. Presidential Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    During the six weeks before the 2008 elections, I conducted a contest for the 72 students enrolled in my upper-division course Campaigns and Elections. Using contract prices posted by Intrade.com, an electronic gaming market based in Dublin, I asked students to choose among 10 political outcomes. The "contracts" earned by each choice…

  20. Displaying Voter Gains and Losses: Local Government Elections in South Africa for 2011 and 2016

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available of voter behavior between two subsequent local government elections from 2011 and 2016. The percentage voter gains and losses for the top three political parties in South Africa are shown. In the election of 2016, the ruling African National Congress (ANC...

  1. Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Politics and 'Other Means'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... Second, Iran uses the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and Qods Force (QF) to provide aid in the form of paramilitary training, weapons, and equipment to various Iraqi militant groups, including Moqtada al-Sadr's Jaysh al-Mahdi (JAM...

  2. Digital Trace Data in the Study of Public Opinion : An Indicator of Attention Toward Politics Rather Than Political Support

    OpenAIRE

    Jungherr, Andreas; Schoen, Harald; Posegga, Oliver; Jürgens, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relationship between metrics documenting politics-related Twitter activity with election results and trends in opinion polls. Various studies have proposed the possibility of inferring public opinion based on digital trace data collected on Twitter and even the possibility to predict election results based on aggregates of mentions of political actors. Yet, a systematic attempt at a validation of Twitter as an indicator for political support is lacking. In this...

  3. Quantitative analysis of gender stereotypes and information aggregation in a national election.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Tumminello

    Full Text Available By analyzing a database of a questionnaire answered by a large majority of candidates and elected in a parliamentary election, we quantitatively verify that (i female candidates on average present political profiles which are more compassionate and more concerned with social welfare issues than male candidates and (ii the voting procedure acts as a process of information aggregation. Our results show that information aggregation proceeds with at least two distinct paths. In the first case candidates characterize themselves with a political profile aiming to describe the profile of the majority of voters. This is typically the case of candidates of political parties which are competing for the center of the various political dimensions. In the second case, candidates choose a political profile manifesting a clear difference from opposite political profiles endorsed by candidates of a political party positioned at the opposite extreme of some political dimension.

  4. Wishful thinking in the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizan, Zlatan; Miller, Jeffrey C; Johar, Omesh

    2010-01-01

    In elections, political preferences are strongly linked to the expectations of the electoral winner-people usually expect their favorite candidate to win. This link could be driven by wishful thinking (a biasing influence of preferences), driven by a biasing influence of expectations on one's wishes, or produced spuriously. To examine these competing possibilities in the 2008 U.S. presidential election, a longitudinal study assessed uncommitted young voters' electoral expectations and preferences over four time points during the month before the election. The findings indicated clear support for wishful thinking: Over time, people's preferences shaped their expectations, but the reverse was not the case. Moreover, these relations were larger among those more strongly identified with their political party and held even when perceptions of general candidate popularity were taken into account. Finally, changes in electoral expectations were consequential, as they shaped disappointment in the electoral results even after taking candidate preferences into account.

  5. The 13th Malaysian general election: Uncertainties and expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moniruzzaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia held its 13th general election on May 5, 2013 which was a contest between two coalitions, the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN and the opposition Pakatan Rakyat (PR. The latter’s expectations for an outright win did not materialise. The election results have shown a rather status quo with minor losses and gains for the two coalitions. This study analysed the 13th election and found a number of noticeable trends. The Chinese voters have voted overwhelmingly for the opposition. The political culture of Malaysia is also shifting toward more participatory type with increased social and economic mobility. The days of one-party dominance in Malaysia are apparently over. The electoral politics in Malaysia might become more polarised along ethnic lines which may require reshuffling of its coalition framework and design.

  6. How Election Polls Shape Voting Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is fou...... that the effect of polls vary across sociodemographic groups, the results imply that bandwagon behaviour is based not on social or political contingencies, such as media or political institution, but on fundamentals of political cognition....... of a bandwagon effect among Danish voters. When voters are exposed to a news story describing either an upwards or downwards movement for either a small or large party, they tend to move their voting intentions in the according direction. The effect is strongest in the positive direction – that is, when a party......This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is found...

  7. Elections and landmark policies in Tanzania and Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Much of the relevant literature on Africa downplays the salience of elections for policy-making and implementation. Instead, the importance of factors such as clientelism, ethnicity, organized interest group and donor influence, is emphasized. We argue that, in addition, elections now motivate...... political elites to focus on policies they perceive to be able to gain votes. This is based on analyses of six landmark decisions made during the last fifteen years in the social, productive and public finance sectors in Tanzania and Uganda. Such policies share a number of key characteristics......: they are clearly identifiable with the party in power; citizens country-wide are targeted; and policy implementation aim at immediate, visible results. The influence of elections on policy making and implementation could therefore be more significant in countries where elections are more competitive than...

  8. Policies and Polls: Elections and Land Conflicts in Paser, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of direct bupati (district head) elections on local politics with regard to land confl icts in the district of Paser, Indonesia. I discuss the position and influence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in this process and their usage of adat-based land claims.

  9. Policy and Polls. Elections and Land Conflicts in Paser, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the impact of direct bupati (district head) elections on local politics with regard to land confl icts in the district of Paser, Indonesia. I discuss the position and influence of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in this process and their usage of adat-based land claims.

  10. The French Election Marks The End Of France's Traditional Parties

    OpenAIRE

    Perrineau, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    For the first time in more than 60 years, the republic’s top presidential candidates don’t belong to either of the major parties. After an unprecedented electoral campaign characterized by multiple political upheavals, the first round of France’s presidential elections has confirmed that the republic is in the midst of a radical renewal. [First paragraphs

  11. The Irish legislative gender quota: The first election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Mary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 legislative gender quotas were introduced as part of the Fine Gael/Labour coalition government’s political reform agenda. The legislation specifies that payments to political parties ‘shall be reduced by 50 per cent, unless at least 30 per cent of the candidates whose candidatures were authenticated by the qualified party at the preceding general election were women and at least 30 per cent were men’. The 30 per cent gender threshold came into effect at the 2016 general election. Research demonstrates that gender quotas work to increase women’s political descriptive representation, but to do so, political parties must engage with them in ‘goodwill’, be ‘wellintentioned’ or place women in ‘winnable seats’. This article examines if this was the case at the 2016 general election. Using statistics, as well as drawing from interviews with party strategists, the article assesses the impact of gender quotas on women’s candidate selection and election. We conclude that parties did embrace the spirit of the gender quota law but resistance remains.

  12. Promoting Election-Related Policy Practice among Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna

    2016-01-01

    Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…

  13. Changes in subjective well-being following the U.S. Presidential election of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lench, Heather C; Levine, Linda J; Perez, Kenneth A; Carpenter, Zari Koelbel; Carlson, Steven J; Tibbett, Tom

    2018-03-01

    This investigation examined predictors of changes over time in subjective well-being (SWB) after the 2016 United States presidential election. Two indicators of SWB-general happiness and life satisfaction-were assessed three weeks before the election, the week of the election, three weeks later, and six months later. Partisanship predicted both indicators of SWB, with Trump supporters experiencing improved SWB after the election, Clinton supporters experiencing worsened SWB after the election, and those who viewed both candidates as bad also experiencing worsened SWB after the election. The impact of the election on SWB decreased over time, with all participants returning to baseline life satisfaction six months after the election. Trump supporters and those who viewed both candidates as bad for the country also returned to baseline general happiness six months after the election. Clinton supporters, in contrast, remained below baseline levels of general happiness six months after the election. Moral and political values, and exposure to media inconsistent with those values, predicted lasting change in subjective well-being. National events can affect how people perceive the overall quality of their lives and these effects are exacerbated when moral and political values are involved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Vote. Election Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This election-education program is designed to help develop an informed electorate and to instill in future voters an appreciation of the importance of the right to vote. It provides a framework for discussions of the electoral process and gives students an opportunity to face the responsibilities and challenges associated with citizenship and…

  15. Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Elections to fill all seats in the Staff Council are being organized this month. The voting takes place from the 31st of October to the 14th of November, at noon. As you may have noted when reading Echo, many issues concerning our employment conditions are on the agenda of the coming months and will keep the next Staff Council very busy. So, make your voice heard and take part in the elections for a new Staff Council. By doing so, you will be encouraging the men and women who will be representing you over the next two years and they will doubtless appreciate your gratitude. Every member of the Staff Association will have received an email containing a link to the webpage which will allow voting. If you are a member of the Staff Association and you did not receive such an email, please contact the Staff Association secretariat (staff.association@cern.ch). Do not forget to vote * * * * * * * Vote Make your voice heard and be many to elect the new Staff Council. More details on the election...

  16. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ..., %%Strategy for Victory," the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists...

  17. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as growing sectarian violence...

  18. Iran's Activities and Influences in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S...

  19. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... At the same time, mounting U.S. casualties and financial costs stimulated debate within the United States over whether the initial goals of the intervention -- a stable, democratic Iraq that is a partner in the global war...

  20. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This report to Congress, Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, is submitted pursuant to Section 9010 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2007, Public Law 109-289 as amended by Section...

  1. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  2. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime, but during 2004-2007 much of Iraq was wracked by violence caused by Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, resulting Sunni-Shiite...

  3. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  4. Theoretical approaches to elections defining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Lebedeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical approaches to elections defining develop the nature, essence and content of elections, help to determine their place and a role as one of the major national law institutions in democratic system.

  5. Politics in the Consulting Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M; Steele, Thomas E

    2017-07-01

    The recent presidential campaign and election have had a strong impact on many patients and clinicians. This guest column and its introduction by Dr Eric Plakun, who edits the psychotherapy section of the journal, note the inevitability that we will all self-disclose, while describing some of the pros and cons and impacts of self-disclosure of a clinician's political perspectives.

  6. African Journal of Political Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay examines the role which the Nigerian media played in the transition from military rule to elected civilian government. It observes that the immediate political context of the transition was a post-Abacha liberalizing military administration as well as a resurgent civil society. This context meant that the media was able ...

  7. Lexis in Political Ideas on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renugah Ramanathan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ideologies in political discourse have been keen research topics as they provide various views of an issue or event. The prominent aspect of ideology is that it attempts to bridge the political activism to the social world that reflects the authenticity of political figures. This study aims to compare the ideological notions in the political tweets of Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak (henceforth, Najib and Prime Minister Narendra Modi (henceforth, Modi during the election campaigns. The discourse between both the political premiers are compared in relation to their active participation on Twitter in Asia. Data were collected over a period of 3 months during the election campaigns of both the countries which were from February to April 2013 in Malaysia and January to March 2014 in India. The study follows the qualitative research design by employing Fairclough’s three dimensional model in analyzing the lexical choices and the formation of ideas. The presence of various ideologies in the tweets portray the consensual power of the political leaders as the citizens accepts the former’s principles, ideologies and moral values. Hence, this study is significant because the study increases political awareness among citizens and provides insights on how language is employed by both leaders from different political coalition. Besides, this study produces knowledge that helps society to understand how 140 character can be a powerful tool in disseminating ideas during national elections and making election a success.

  8. Thi Qar Bee Farm Thi Qar, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    vegetation and fields where bees once gathered pollen and beekeepers face hardships from droughts and lack of financial assistance. 1...of equipment, and provided training to the bee farmers. General topography of the area was flat with vacant or agricultural land extending for a...OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION THI QAR BEE FARM THI QAR, IRAQ SIGIR PA--09--188

  9. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J R; Danneels, J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kenagy, W D [U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security, Washington, DC (United States); Phillips, C J; Chesser, R K [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  10. Perceptions of political leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Schmitz, J; Murray, Gregg R

    2017-01-01

    Partisan identification is a fundamental force in individual and mass political behavior around the world. Informed by scholarship on human sociality, coalitional psychology, and group behavior, this research argues that partisan identification, like many other group-based behaviors, is influenced by forces of evolution. If correct, then party identifiers should exhibit adaptive behaviors when making group-related political decisions. The authors test this assertion with citizen assessments of the relative physical formidability of competing leaders, an important adaptive factor in leader evaluations. Using original and novel data collected during the contextually different 2008 and 2012 U.S. presidential elections, as well as two distinct measures obtained during both elections, this article presents evidence that partisans overestimate the physical stature of the presidential candidate of their own party compared with the stature of the candidate of the opposition party. These findings suggest that the power of party identification on political behavior may be attributable to the fact that modern political parties address problems similar to the problems groups faced in human ancestral times.

  11. Temporalités à l’épreuve de la parité Temporalities and the Gender Parity test. Gender parity and professional, family and political temporalities among women elected to public office in medium-sized French towns (2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Della Sudda

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose de mettre en lumière l’articulation des différents temps sociaux et des régimes de temporalité qui président à l’entrée en politique des élus hommes et femmes dans une ville moyenne française en 2001. Il interroge une éventuelle spécificité de genre dans la façon de percevoir le temps et de l’organiser chez les élu-e-s selon trois régimes de temporalités. L’« entrée en politique » est présentée comme une rupture ou une continuation selon les configurations : novice plutôt que profane, les élues disposent de savoir-faire acquis hors du champ politique qui sont convertis en ressource à cette occasion. L’appréhension du temps par les élus et les élues témoigne d’un effet du genre sur l’articulation des temps sociaux : tue chez les élus, elle est perçue comme problématique chez la majorité des élues. Mais le genre n’explique par tout, la situation dans le parcours de vie au moment de l’entrée en politique influe sur la façon de ressentir l’articulation des temps sociaux. Cette réflexion permet d’isoler les effets du genre mais aussi de l’âge dans ces trajectoires militantes en confrontant les parcours et les discours des élus des deux sexes.This paper seeks to shed some light on the harmonization between various social times and the temporality governing the entry of men and women into politics. It poses the question as to whether perceptions of time and temporality may be gender-specific. Depending on configurations, “going into politics” is presented as either change or continuity: novice rather than “profane”, on this occasion elected female candidates convert the “savoir-faire” acquired outside the political arena into a resource. Analyzing the perception of time reveals a gender effect on how social times work together: whereas elected male candidates do not even mention it, the majority of women in public office perceive it as problematic

  12. Alliances, party-switching and pork-barrel politics: the Dominican Republic 2010 legislative elections Aliados, tránsfugas y barrilitos: las elecciones legislativas de 2010 en República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén BENITO SÁNCHEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the explanatory factors of the outcome of the legislative and municipal elections of 2010 in Dominican Republic and the recent transformation experienced by the Dominican party system from a tripartism to a plural bipartism.. The leadership of President Fernández, its image, popularity, and pragmatism, are the key factors in the electoral success of the PLD, favored by endemic factionalism into the PRD and the progressive collapse of the PRSC as well. In this context, the PLD consolidated its electoral dominance thanks to the support of minority parties and will control the Legislative branch for the next six years.Este artículo analiza las claves explicativas de los resultados de las elecciones legislativas y municipales de 2010 en República Dominicana así como de la reciente transformación que ha experimentado el sistema de partidos dominicano, del tripartidismo al bipartidismo plural. El liderazgo del presidente Leonel Fernández, su imagen, popularidad y pragmatismo son la clave del éxito electoral del PLD, favorecido también por el faccionalismo endémico del PRD y la descomposición progresiva del PRSC. En esta contienda, el PLD consolida su dominio electoral gracias al apoyo de los partidos minoritarios y se asegura el control del Legislativo durante los próximos seis años.

  13. A Typology of Political Participation Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutceac Segesten, Anamaria; Bossetta, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how, and to what extent, citizens use Twitter as a platform for political mobilization in an electoral context. Conceptualizing political participation as a process, we develop a typology of political participation designed to isolate mobilizing calls for action from...... the rest of the political discussion online. Based on Twitter data collected one week prior to the 2015 British general election, we then identify the top 100 most retweeted accounts using the hashtag #GE2015, classify them by actor type, and perform a content analysis of their Twitter posts according...... to our typology. Our results show that that citizens – not political parties – are the primary initiators and sharers of political calls for action leading up to the election. However, this finding is largely due to an uneven distribution of citizen-driven mobilizing activity. A small number of highly...

  14. Changes in Timisoara City Hall After 16 years – The 2012 Local Elections. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Turșie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Local elections 2012 have found Timisoara in a long lasting situation of political exceptionalism: the mayor in office, coming from an almost dissoluted party was reaching the end of his forth mandate. My paper has three parts: at the beginning I have explained the so called ‘Timisoara’s political exceptionalism’; then, I have analyzed the electoral strategies of the candidates for 2012 local elections and the importance of their reaction to an unforeseen situation that appeared during the electoral campaign; at the end, I have analyzed the election results.

  15. Color-Coding Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gross

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the 2000 Presidential election between George H. W. Bush and Al Gore, journalists often used the terms blue states and red states to describe the political landscape within the United States. This article studies the framing of these terms during the years 2004 through 2007. Using latent and manifest qualitative content analyses, six different news media frames were found in a sample of 337 newspaper articles. Two hypotheses were also tested indicating that framing patterns varied slightly by time period and article types. However, the argument that increased levels of political polarization in the United States have been created by predominantly conflict-oriented coverage may not be true. Instead, these terms became journalistic heuristics that were used to organize how people think about politics in a way that fit with contemporary media practices, and there is no single agreed upon interpretation of these terms within this reporting.

  16. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  17. Exploring Affordances of Social Media Use in Election Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    case study of the political parties’ use of Facebook in the Danish general election in 2011. Our preliminary findings reveal three main categories of affordances that the political parties wish to pursue: 1) they want to facilitate direct communication to promote political interests and create room...... for dialogue in a controlled environment, 2) they want to project an image of authenticity through an informal media, and 3) they want to create interaction and involvement through dynamic relationships with voters. A closer look at the parties’ actual use of Facebook reveals that their intention of generating...

  18. And after the elections!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    What happens to the newly elected, and the re-elected delegates after the election of the new Staff Council? (see Écho No 47-48 / 2016). It is the outgoing Staff Council which is responsible for preparing the new staff representatives to take on their new roles. To do this, information days are organized in the form of assizes. This year they took place on November 23 in the afternoon; as well as on November 24, bringing together the new Staff Council. These days mainly aim to inform delegates about the role of the Staff Association (SA) at CERN, ist the organs, committees, forums, etc.; with whom the SA interacts, how the work of the Staff Association is organization, the issues on which it works (e.g., the Five-Yearly Review..). These days are like a kind of "induction". Inform, but not only! Assizes are also aiming to integrate the newcomers, inviting them to discover the various internal committees of the SA, explaining to them the challenges ahead as well as defining the act...

  19. And after the Elections!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    What happens to the newly elected, and the re-elected delegates after the election of the new Staff Council? It is the outgoing Staff Council which is responsible for preparing the new staff representatives to take on their new roles. To do this, information days are organized in the form of assizes. This year they will take place on November 27 in the morning; as well as on November 28, bringing together the new Staff Council. These days mainly aim to inform delegates about the role of the Staff Association (SA) at CERN, the bodies, committees, forums, etc.; with whom the SA interacts, how the work of the SA is organized, the issues on which it works. These days are like a kind of "induction". Inform, but not only! Assizes are also aiming to integrate the newcomers, inviting them to discover the various internal committees of the SA, explaining to them the challenges ahead as well as defining the action plan for 2018. They offer new delegates, if they wish, a godparent (a kind of mentor). I...

  20. Nigerian Election Management Bodies and their Associated Election Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Etila Shaibu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined the challenges that confront Election Management Bodies (EMBs in conducting free and fair elections in Nigeria. It aligns with the position of extant literature on the subject that elections in Nigeria have been anything but free and fair, and argues that all the EMBs that have so far conducted elections in Nigeria are complicit in perpetrating electoral malpractices. In other words, though there are external factors that undermine the conduct of free, fair and credible elections in Nigeria, EMBs in Nigeria also present themselves as willing tools in the hands of politicians to compromise the integrity of the electoral process. The number of litigations and level of both international and local denunciations that attend every election in Nigeria underscores the magnitude of electoral malfeasance inherent in the elections conducted by successive EMBs in Nigeria. The paper analysed the major challenges that inhibit the conduct of free and fair elections in Nigeria and proffered solutions to them. Relying heavily on the documentary methods of data collection, the paper concludes that until all these challenges confronting EMBs in Nigeria in the conduct of free and fair elections are comprehensively addressed, credible elections will continue to be a mirage in the country.

  1. Integrating Islamist Militants into the Political Process : Palestinian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrating Islamist Militants into the Political Process : Palestinian Hamas. The striking victory of Hamas in the elections of January 2006 raises questions about the integration of Islamists into the Palestinian political system. This project, which is part of a larger program of research on the role of political parties in the Middle ...

  2. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Michuda Y.P.; Ridha F.

    2012-01-01

    Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA), and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a con...

  3. Constitutional reform processes and political parties : principles for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in

  4. The Patterns and Dynamics of Revolution: Insights into Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    197. 80 Rabasa, 56. 26 81 Ibid., 53. 82 Roger Cohen. 83 Crane and Terrill, 33. 84 Andrew Krepinevich, "Iraq and Vietnam: Deja vu all over Again?" 8...in Iraq." Christian Science Monitor, 20 September 2004, 1. Krepinevich, Andrew. "Iraq and Vietnam: Deja vu all over Again?" Center for Strategic and

  5. 11 CFR 100.146 - Legal or accounting services to other political committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal or accounting services to other political committees. 100.146 Section 100.146 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.146 Legal or accounting services to other...

  6. Pre-Emption and Precedent: The Significance of Iraq (1981) and Syria (2007) for an Israeli Response to an Iranian Nuclear Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    served as a liaison with the French to ensure only U235, enriched uranium, was sent to Iraq. While Meshad was unwilling to work with undercover Mossad...supported Hossein Mousavi, Ahmadinejad‘s primary opposition candidate in the June 2010 presidential election.167 According to The Economist , Ali Mohammadi...hoflr20&div=16&id=&page= (accessed 14 May 2011). Economist . ―Who killed the professor? New light is being cast on the strange death of an Iranian

  7. Nonverbal Messages in Televised Presidential Political Advertising--Pragmatic Politics with Electoral Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Delia B.

    Television politics, emphasizing emotions over rational decision making, has been accused of warping the political process, especially in the election of the president. In the incomplete medium--the collection of dots--that is television, the viewer completes the circle of communication, filling in the image with his or her own attitudes. The…

  8. The world oil market after the Iraq-Kuwait crisis: Economic and politicoeconomic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The recent crisis in the Gulf (Iraq's temporary annexation of Kuwait) will presumably inflict enormous damage on future oil markets on both sides, consumers and producers. Consumers will be aware of the potential insecurity of the oil supply from the Arab-Persian Gulf, ironically, at a time when OPEC members (others than Iraq and Kuwait) stood up to their commitment. The reason for this lack of confidence is that political objectives may dominate conventional economic goals so that the future oil market becomes unpredictable and potentially insecure. As a consequence, consumers may conserve even in period of low oil prices so that billions and billions of (opportunity) dollars might be wasted. Vertical integration may be a way to mitigate this insecurity and to increase the credibility of a reliable supply. Presumably the easiest way to regain some of the consumers' confidence seems to be to again offer the international oil companies larger responsibility for the oil market

  9. Political Dynamics and Security in the Arabian Peninsula Through the 1990s,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Moreover, not only were historical and ideological differences between Syria and Iraq present, but Dam- ascus had supported Iran throughout the Iran...Iraq wanted to rebuild its war-dam- aged facilities as well as expand its industrial capacity., The need to show something for the war, coupled with a...outlooks, Gulf shaykhdoms articulated na- tional security policies through age -old political survival techniques. By 1992, however, and in large

  10. The Electoral Geography of the 2016 Presidential Election in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgian-Ionuţ GUŢOIU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Portugal elected a new president in January, this year. While the campaign was rather atypical, with a majority of independent candidates and a low involvement of the parties, we employ here an analysis of the election’s electoral geography, in order to identify if the geographical partisan delimitations influenced the electoral outcome. At this election a clear political geographical divide existed between the urban North and the rural South. Our findings suggest that the geographical distribution of the votes follows the candidates’ ideological identity.

  11. Introduction: Contextualizing and Interpreting the 15th Lok Sabha Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balveer Arora

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the papers presented in this special issue of SAMAJ are the outcome of a workshop organised by the Centre de Sciences Humaines in New Delhi in July 2009. By then the results of the 2009 general elections had been largely commented upon already. The workshop was therefore not meant to discuss electoral results per se, but rather to have specialists discuss papers that considered elections as an analyzer of political dynamics that most authors usually studied in more ordinary times. As ...

  12. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveeva, Anna [Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK).

  13. RESULTS OF 2011 STATE DUMA ELECTIONS: SOCIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Fedotova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Sociological forecasting of political processes arose as a powerful industry. Nevertheless, results of the polls conducted by the major agencies diverged significantly with the voting in 2011 State Duma elections. The article analyses major complications in forecasting results of elections using sociological data, including psychological factors, role of mass media and administrative resource. The author identifies strategies of the opposition, as well as proves predominant importance of Vladimir Putin for the electoral success of the ruling party on the basis of the polls.

  14. When psychology and politics commingle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbilis, Jean M

    2018-05-01

    Psychologists' work is always impacted by political events. Donald Trump's election raised many questions regarding my work with clients and students. How would they be impacted? What would they need? How would I respond? How transparent would I be? Students needed to process it. Most clients wanted to talk about it. However, reactions and needs of those who wanted to talk about it varied, and a few did not want to talk about it at all. Nevertheless, the election has been a royal road to the therapeutic alliance and interventions with clients, and it has been a path to deeper learning for students. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Improving Student Assessments of Elections: The Use of Information Literacy and a Course-Embedded Librarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booke, Paula; Wiebe, Todd J.

    2017-01-01

    The study of U.S. elections as a part of introductory political science courses has become an increasingly difficult endeavour as students encounter the ever-changing landscape of electoral politics. Instructors seeking to equip students with the skills needed to navigate this complex terrain may look for partnerships with library faculty and…

  16. Political Ideology, Trust, and Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363

  17. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Iraq; (b) Relating to travel and activities for the conduct of the official business of the United... travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq. 575.207 Section 575.207 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.207 Prohibited transactions relating to travel to...

  18. Maintaining Identity Political Culture In Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, AM; Sudrajat, A.; Affandi, A.; Raditya, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the portrayal of traditional political cultures in West Kalimantan Province, a growing of election process. Results showed that Political life in Indonesia leads to modern political culture after experiencing a change of paradigm of political life. Political life in Indonesia leads to modern political culture after experiencing a change of paradigm of political life. Beginning Indonesia’s independence in the Old Order Phase, the politics used using the ideological paradigm, subsequent to the New Order Period used the political paradigm of unification and simplification of political parties but in practice it became the strategy of the State’s rulers to facilitate subjugating its citizens. After entering the reform era, several phenomena of political culture are displayed, some are using modern paradigm by giving women the widest possible role in political parties, and so on. Besides that there is the opposite of displaying and practicing traditional political culture, this is as it runs in West Borneo Province. The change of political culture in the modern direction is different from the political culture of the citizens in terms of who will be chosen, most West Borneo Province residents determine their political choice by using traditional patterns.

  19. 2017 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Make your voice heard, support your candidates! We hope that you will be many to vote and to elect the new Staff Council! By doing so, you can support and encourage the women and men, who will represent you over the next two years. The voting takes place from 23 October to 13 November, at noon at https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/elections-2017. Elections Timetable Monday 13 November, at noon Closing date for voting Tuesday 21 November and Tuesday 5 December Publication of the results in Echo Monday 27 and Tuesday 28 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 5 December (afternoon) First meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure will be monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 21 November and 5 December. Candidates for the 2017 Elections

  20. 2011 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Vote Elections to fill all seats in the Staff Council are being organized this month. Voting will begin on Monday 31 October. Make your voice heard and be many to elect the new Staff Council. By doing so, you will be encouraging the men and women who will  represent you over the next two years and they will doubtless appreciate your gratitude. More details on the elections can be found on the Staff Association web site. (http://association.web.cern.ch) Elections Timetable Monday 31 October, at noon start date for voting Monday 14 November, at noon closing date for voting Monday 21 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 22 and Wednesday 29 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 6 December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure is monitored by the Election Committee. 

  1. 2015 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Asscociation

    2015-01-01

    Make your voice heard, support your candidates! Be many to vote and to elect the new Staff Council. By doing so, you will be encouraging the men and women who will represent you over the next two years and they will without doubt appreciate your gratitude. The voting takes place from the 26th of October to the 9th of November, at noon at https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/elections-2015.   Elections Timetable Monday 9 November, at noon Closing date for voting Monday 16 and Monday 23 November, publication of the results in Echo Tuesday 8 December, at 10.00 a.m. first meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The voting procedure will be monitored by the Election Committee, which is also in charge of announcing the results in Echo on 16 and 24 November. Candidates for the 2015 elections

  2. The specifics of marketing in strategic planning of election campaigns in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Shinkarenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a number of issues related to common approaches to strategic planning of election campaigns and its specificity in the conditions of modern Ukraine. Examines the role of strategic planning in the process of organizing and conducting election campaigns, various types of strategies used. Provides information on the types of strategies that were used by Ukrainian political parties and blocs in the election period of 2014 to the Verkhovna Rada.In the article the analysis of some (the problem is very wide, to talk about the possibility completely to solve it within a short studies key aspects of strategic planning of election campaigns. And, on the other hand, examples of the use of such approaches in recent election campaigns to be implemented in Ukraine. Strategic planning of election campaigns stands as the most important aspect of their organization, which defines the content of the campaign, we have what you need to send a potential electorate to vote a certain way. The development strategy of the campaign is a necessary stage of its organization, requires the use of experienced creative professionals and a number of methods and technologies designed to achieve the desired candidate or political party participating in the election result. Distinguish the different types and varieties of election campaign strategies, which vary according to the type of elections, the resources, the order of candidates on the configuration of the election campaign, used substantive and technological approaches, as well as the rhythm of the implementation of the election campaign. Determined that in parliamentary elections in 2014, all parties entered the Parliament, including the Opposition bloc, has used various strategies that in some way determined their electoral success.

  3. Applied Formal Methods for Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jian

    development time, or second dynamically, i.e. monitoring while an implementation is used during an election, or after the election is over, for forensic analysis. This thesis contains two chapters on this subject: the chapter Analyzing Implementations of Election Technologies describes a technique...... process. The chapter Measuring Voter Lines describes an automated data collection method for measuring voters' waiting time, and discusses statistical models designed to provide an understanding of the voter behavior in polling stations....

  4. Political balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopmann, David Nicolas; Van Aelst, Peter; Salgado, Susana

    2017-01-01

    Before every election campaign, the French Conseil supérieur de l’audiovisuel (CSA) publishes detailed rules on how much news coverage candidates are allowed to have vis-à-vis one another in the electronic media to ensure what it calls pluralisme politique (e.g., CSA 2011). Also outside election ...

  5. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  6. THE VALUE OF A PERSONAL BRAND IN THE ELECTIONS. THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR ELECTION LAWS APPLIED IN LOCAL ELECTIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHIUȚĂ OVIDIU-AUREL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the concepts of brand equity and brand value as found in the professional scientific literature and proposes an innovative research approach of the brand value of uninominal candidates running in the local elections in Romania in 2012 or of any other candidates that run in similar elections in terms of voting procedures. The originality of the paper consists in the fact that we have created a formula that will be used to measure the brand equity of these candidates depending on the results obtained by the party whose candidate is running in the elections, as compared to the other candidates and the other parties. This paper presents the methodology used to validate these formulae for measuring the theoretical score that should have been reached by a party’s candidate whose brand equals zero. In order to identify the contribution of the candidate’s brand to the respective result in our future research, we will make the difference and calculate the ratio between the real score and this theoretical score for a null personal brand. The present research, conducted from a positive perspective, resorts to a behavioural approach that allowsfor the measurement of the personal brand of candidates running for elections in certain electoral systems. This research is valuable for professionals as well as one can identify the candidates that are unsuitable for future elections, since a negative brand equity, accompanied by increased awareness (reached during the most recent elections, at the latest can hardly be turned into a positive image. Moreover, this analysis can be used in the internal assessments conducted by each political party after elections.

  7. How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruikemeier, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the content characteristics of Twitter during an election campaign, and the relationship between candidates’ style of online campaigning (i.e., politically personalized and interactive communication) and electoral support for those candidates. Thereby, it provides a better

  8. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    ... who was first elected in 1998. Under Ch vez, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new constitution in place, a new unicameral legislature, and even a new name for the country, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela...

  9. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  10. Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P; Olhero, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Under the populist rule of President Hugo Ch vez, first elected in 1998 and most recently reelected to a six-year term in December 2006, Venezuela has undergone enormous political changes, with a new...

  11. 77 FR 26659 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing in Designated Localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... following activities: (1) Run as independent candidates for election to partisan political office in... contribution as, or on behalf of, an independent candidate for partisan political office in elections for local...) Solicit, accept, or receive uncompensated volunteer services as an independent candidate, or on behalf of...

  12. Overseas Voter Mobilisation in Singapore: Implications from Malaysia’s 13th General Election

    OpenAIRE

    James Gomez; Rusdi Omar

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses voter mobilisation and other election-related activities of Malaysian voters living, studying and working in Singapore in the context of Malaysia’s 13th general election (GE13). According to the World Bank, nearly 400,000 Malaysians reside in the city-state. Thus these figures represent a significant Malaysian voter pool based in Singapore. Efforts to mobilise these voters for general elections or other causes have political implications for both countries, which became...

  13. Women Making Politics in Rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prag, Ebbe

    Since the Senegalese local elections in 1996, women have increasingly entered the local political arena in rural councils and municipalities. This book addresses the question of how women act politically, what interests they defend and how they influence resource allocation. The author argues...... that structural changes have opened space for resourceful women to enter local politics. However women's mobilisation does not radically break with the clientelist and factional dynamics of Senegalese politics. Women leaders often start their career in party politics as result of co-optation by male political...... leaders, but they do not continue as passive objects of male manipulation. Senegalese female politicians demonstrate that they are capable of taking up political positions using the local women's groups and the Women's Federation as political backyard and support. They create networks that can...

  14. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact with staf...

  15. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact with staff...

  16. ELECTIONS - Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    CERN - EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH PENSION FUND ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate: First name: Michel Name: Goossens The CERN/ESO Pension Fund represents, for most staff, the sole source of income when they retire. The health of our Pension Fund is thus of the utmost importance to ensure the payment of pensions up to the death of the last beneficiary. The 2003 actuarial review showed a large deficit and several corrective measures have already been taken. The next months will see the results of the 2006 actuarial review. We hope they will show that the measures taken last year are going in the right direction. However, we must remain proactive since further measures will no doubt be necessary. New and imaginative proposals must be prepared and discussed in the widest possible forum, by regular direct contact ...

  17. ELECTIONS PENSION FUND

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    ORGANISATION EUROPEENNE POUR LA RECHERCHE NUCLEAIRE CERN EUROPEAN ORGANIZATION FOR NUCLEAR RESEARCH CAISSE DE PENSIONS / PENSION FUND Caisse de Pensions - ELECTIONS - Pension Fund This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund. Candidate : Name : CHIAVERI First Name : Enrico I have been a CERN staff member since 1973 and have always been interested in our working conditions. As a member of the Executive Committee of the Staff Association I participated from 1980 to 1984 in the Working Group on Pensions mandated by the CERN Council. This commitment led to my becoming a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund in 1983, since when I have taken an active part in various commissions and working groups (Real Estate Asset Management Committee, Working Group on Actuarial Matters etc.); in so doing I have gained a thorough knowledge of different areas of the Pension Fund. Since ...

  18. Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Elections to fill all seats in the Staff Council are being organized this month. The voting takes place from the 28 of October to the 11th of November, at noon. As you may have noted when reading Echo, many issues concerning our employment conditions are on the agenda of the coming months, and in particular the Five-yearly-Review 2015, subject of the questionnaire that you probably recently filled out. All this will keep the next Staff Council very busy indeed. So, make your voice heard and take part in the elections for a new Staff Council. By doing so, you will be encouraging the men and women who will be representing you over the next two years and they will doubtless appreciate your gratitude. Every member of the Staff Association will have received an email containing a link to the webpage which will allow voting. If you are a member of the Staff Association and you did not receive such an email, please contact the Staff Association secretariat (staff.association@cern.ch). Do not forget to v...

  19. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  20. The Electability of Women Candidates in The Election of Central Java DPRD in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyah Fitriyah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to analyze the factors supporting the electability of women candidates in Central Java DPRD election 2014. This type of research is descriptive. Techniques of data collection used the in-depth interviews with all women members of the Central Java DPRD election results 2014. Data processing techniques are data reduction, data display, concluding and verifying. The study found women candidate’s electability factors because they master/control the political capital, social capital and economics capital. By political capital (party officials so candidate nominated in small number candidacy and electoral district party base. Social capital (activists of social/professional organizations support the loyalty and solidity candidate team and candidate voice, and economics capital to support the political cost. Some of them have kinship with the party elite /social elite so openly their access to social and politics capital. An open list proportional electoral system makes it difficult increasing women representation if not followed party policy affirmations committed. In order to reach the 30% the representation of women in the legislature should be intervention laws forcing the party implementing gender justice policies candidacyPenelitian ini bermaksud menganalisa  faktor-faktor pendukung keterpilihan caleg perempuan di DPRD Jawa Tengah dalam Pemilu 2014. Tipe penelitian ini deskriptif.Teknik pengumpulan data  menggunakan wawancara mendalam terhadap seluruh perempuan anggota DPRD Jawa Tengah hasil Pemilu 2014. Teknik pengolahan data dalam penelitian ini adalah reduksi data, display data, penarikan kesimpulan dan verifikasi. Hasil Penelitian menemukan faktor-faktor keterpilihan caleg perempuan karena mereka menguasai modal politik (pengurus partai sehingga dicalonkan dinomor urut kecil dan dapil basis partai, modal sosial (pengurus organisasi sosial/profesi yang membantu kerja dan mendapat dukungan suara, dan modal ekonomi untuk biaya

  1. Childrearing Violence and Child Adjustment Following Exposure to Kenyan Post-election Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ann T; Oburu, Paul; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bacchini, Dario

    2014-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's exposure to short-term political violence and the relation between childrearing violence and child adjustment following widespread violence that erupted in Kisumu, Kenya after the disputed presidential election in December 2007. Mothers of 100 Luo children (mean age = 8.46 years, 61% female) reported on their own use of childrearing violence at Time 1, approximately 4 months after the disputed election, and again at Times 2 ( n = 95) and 3 ( n = 95), approximately 12 and 24 months later, respectively. At Time 2, mothers reported about post-election violence directed at them and about their children's exposure to post-election violence. Children reported about their own externalizing behaviors at Times 1, 2, and 3. Children's exposure to post-election violence was related to Time 2 externalizing behavior, and childrearing violence at Time 1 predicted child externalizing behavior at Time 2. Exposure to post-election violence was not directly related to either childrearing violence or children's externalizing behavior by Time 3, although children's externalizing at Time 2 predicted more childrearing violence at Time 3. These results support earlier work that links childrearing violence and children's exposure to political violence with increases in child externalizing behavior, but examined these links in the under-studied area of short-term political violence. Even though sudden and severe political violence may subside significantly in weeks or months, increased attention to long-term effects on parenting and child adjustment is warranted.

  2. "Izbori '95" na Hrvatskoj televiziji i u novinama (TV and Newspaper Coverage of the 1995 Elections in Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovic, Branislava

    1995-01-01

    Presents the results of empirical research of media coverage of recent elections in Croatia. Uses qualitative analysis to examine coverage on broadcasts and in weekly and daily newspapers. Concludes that coverage of political parties was uneven. (PA)

  3. PRE-ELECTIONAL DECREASE OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Miličević

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic business cycle models test whether the current government has the ability to reduce unemployment in pre-election period. First opportunistic business cycle models tested regressions using unemployment rate as the dependent variable, and for explanatory variables used unemployment rate in the previous two periods and political dummy variable defined as unity several quarters prior to election and zero elsewhere. Such models did not find evidence of opportunistic cycle for unemployment. Haynes and Stone in their model estimated regressions using unemployment as the dependent variable and sixteen dummy variables as explanatory variables (one for each quarter in the Presidential electoral term. Results showed that unemployment has roughly sinusoidal sixteen quarter cycle, where unemployment troughs on average the quarter of the election. Mentioned models are tested with data for the United States for the period from 1948 to 2011 where regressions results coincide with models mentioned in the article.

  4. 76 FR 52287 - Political Activity-Federal Employees Residing In Designated Localities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... designated by OPM may: (1) Run as independent candidates for election to partisan political office in... political contribution as, or on behalf of, an independent candidate for partisan political office in... independent candidate, or on behalf of an independent candidate, for local partisan political office, in...

  5. (re)Articulating Feminism A Discourse Analysis of Sweden's Feminist Initiative Election Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Filimonov, Kirill; Svensson, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study campaign material of the Swedish party Feminist Initiative (FI) during the 2014 parliamentary election campaign in Sweden. Approaching the topic from discourse-theoretical and intersectional perspectives, we ask how the inclusion of various social groups into the hegemonic project of feminist politics becomes possible, what was constructed as an antagonist to feminist politics, and in what ways it impeded FI to realise such politics. Our findings show that intersectio...

  6. Covering the vote: UK coverage of Brexit, Jeremy Corbyn, and the 2017 General Election

    OpenAIRE

    Alnahed, Sumaya

    2018-01-01

    The need to examine how news media (print, broadcast, and online) cover political events rests in no small part on journalism’s role as a 'fourth estate' or a 'watchdog'. Both terms refer to the role of journalists in keeping government to account, through reporting in a manner that produces a knowledgeable and critical electorate. This paper argues that the current political climate in the UK, Brexit, the ensuing 2017 General Election, and the introduction of controversial political figures ...

  7. From NGO activism to party politics : the prospects for the emergence of an Indonesian Green Political Party.

    OpenAIRE

    Nerbråten, Gisle

    2005-01-01

    Politically, 2004 was an important year for Indonesia, the world s third largest, at least nominal, democracy. Faced with elections for the national Peoples Representative Assembly (DPR), the national Regional Representative Council (DPD), the Provincial and Regency/City Peoples Representative Assemblies (DPRDs), as well as two rounds of direct presidential elections, the country has in many ways shown political maturity. They have accomplished these challenges and avoided some of the pitfa...

  8. [Organising an instrumental elective abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Politically Induced Regulatory Risk and Independent Regulatory Agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Strausz, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty in election outcomes generates politically induced regulatory risk. Political parties' risk attitudes towards such risk depend on a fluctuation effect that hurts both parties and an output--expansion effect that benefits at least one party. Notwithstanding the parties' risk attitudes, political parties have incentives to negotiate away all regulatory risk by pre-electoral bargaining. Efficient pre-electoral bargaining outcomes fully eliminate politically induced regulatory risk. P...

  10. Oasis in Iraq: Universities Flourish in Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    The campus of Salahadin University--peaceful, bustling, and collegial-- is a rare sight in Iraq, where sectarian violence has brought the higher education system to the verge of collapse. Home to the country's historically repressed four million to five million ethnic Kurds, it is an oasis of stability and tranquility while much of the rest of…

  11. The Ayatollahs and Democracy in Contemporary Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Juan R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Iraqi Shiism is undergoing profound changes, leading to new elaborations of the relationship between clerics and democratic principles in an Islamic state. The Najaf tradition of thinking about Shiite Islam and the modern state in Iraq, which first developed during the Iranian constitutional

  12. Bayesian inference on proportional elections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hideki Vatanabe Brunello

    Full Text Available Polls for majoritarian voting systems usually show estimates of the percentage of votes for each candidate. However, proportional vote systems do not necessarily guarantee the candidate with the most percentage of votes will be elected. Thus, traditional methods used in majoritarian elections cannot be applied on proportional elections. In this context, the purpose of this paper was to perform a Bayesian inference on proportional elections considering the Brazilian system of seats distribution. More specifically, a methodology to answer the probability that a given party will have representation on the chamber of deputies was developed. Inferences were made on a Bayesian scenario using the Monte Carlo simulation technique, and the developed methodology was applied on data from the Brazilian elections for Members of the Legislative Assembly and Federal Chamber of Deputies in 2010. A performance rate was also presented to evaluate the efficiency of the methodology. Calculations and simulations were carried out using the free R statistical software.

  13. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya; Violence de la rente petroliere. Algerie, Irak, Libye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, L. [CERI-Sciences Po, 75006 - Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  14. The Parliamentary Election in the Czech Republic, October 2013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stegmaier, M.; Linek, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 1 (2014), s. 385-388 ISSN 0261-3794 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP408/12/1474 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : elections * Czech republic * new parties Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Science s Impact factor: 1.182, year: 2014 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0261379414000298

  15. The 2013 Elections in Honduras: End of Bipartisanship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barrachina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In late 2013 Honduras experienced one of the most important elections in its history. After withdrawal of the presence of Manuel Zelaya in 2009, and the government of Porfirio "Pepe" Lobo (2010-2014, the traditional Honduran bipartisanship and the strong emergence of the "left" in the political scene was first questioned. Besides the Partido Nacional and the Partido Liberal, the Partido Libertad y Refundación and the Partido Anticorrupción have achieved significant results. The party structures of the Partido Nacional and the Partido Liberal, however, have maintained as a key political forces in the Honduran political system, having preserved the political leadership of the country's major cities.

  16. Suffrage in the Rural Province of Antioquia. The Manizales Cabildo elections of 1852

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Andres Monsalvo Mendoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at examining the electoral process of 1852 in order to elect the chairs for the Manizales Cabildo. The article describes and analyzes the political electoral voting practices in a rural and recently founded society. The archival sources for this work are the electoral acts, electoral protocols, official correspondence and census of the Manizales Cabildo. This corpus allows for the construction of a typology of the suffragist, the assembly and elect chairs, as well as of voting rhythms during the 8 day assembly. The hypothesis is that, thanks to their condition as a direct elections with a public voting system, these elections allowed the economic elite (represented in the founders and members of the evaluation committees for the assignment of plots of land to new colonizers to constitute itself as a political hierarchy through voting processes.

  17. The Hadia Story: Digital Storytelling in Election Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bakøy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital storytelling in election campaigns is a relatively recent phenomenon, which needs to be investigated in order to enhance our understanding of changes and developments in modern political communication. This article is an analysis of how the Norwegian-Pakistani Labour politician, Hadia Tajik, has used digital storytelling to construct her political identity, and a discussion of the consequences of her experiments with this genre. The focus is on the five video stories she released during the 2009 parliamentary election campaign and the reactions they evoked on the net and in the traditional media during the same (time period. During the 2009 electoral campaign Tajik moved from being a relatively unknown politician to becoming a political household name and the only member of the new Parliament with a migrant background. The digital stories were instrumental in this development for numerous reasons, the most important probably being that they gave her prime time television coverage. Norwegian news media have in general been very concerned with Web 2.0 and Tajik’s videos were regarded as an innovative kind of political communication. The videos also functioned as an effective marketing tool on the net. As an integral part of her extensive viral network, they attracted numerous views and they were with a few exceptions met with positive reactions. This was probably due to their relatively high production values and their catch-all communication strategy that downplayed her ethnic, educational and political background and emphasized her universal human qualities.

  18. Constituency Orientation in Irish Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The constituency orientation of Irish politicians is a recurring topic in Irish political science. Its analysis has predominantly focused on TDs. This article uses a content analysis of candidate video statements in the general election 2016 in order to assess the strength of constituency...... this pattern, indicated by the weak constituency orientation in Dublin and Cork constituencies. Results also indicate differences between parties and some political statuses, while the gender of the candidates is of no relevance. Although the material does not permit a clear distinction between effects...... of political culture and short-term considerations, taken together the results indicate that localism in Irish politics matters, but in more complicated ways than usually depicted....

  19. Politics as Fights and Games of Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    This dissertation investigates the characteristics and consequences of political news coverage. It focuses on two features of contemporary mass media journalism: (1) the framing of politics as strategic games, and (2) the coverage of politicians’ negative campaigning. The dissertation shows that ...... that this type of media coverage can increase political cynicism, that it may also affect more fundamental civic attitudes such as political efficacy, and that it might not necessarily be what the news consumers want.......This dissertation investigates the characteristics and consequences of political news coverage. It focuses on two features of contemporary mass media journalism: (1) the framing of politics as strategic games, and (2) the coverage of politicians’ negative campaigning. The dissertation shows...... that contemporary media coverage is characterized by a very strong focus on the strategic aspects of politics, especially during election campaigns and in particular when covering negative campaigning. Furthermore, through a survey experiment and analyses of survey panel-data, the dissertation also shows...

  20. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr, Stuart W

    2007-01-01

    .... relief and reconstruction program in Iraq. Two notable developments frame this Report. First, total relief and reconstruction investment for Iraq from all sources the United States, Iraq, and other donors passed...

  1. Post-Transition Violence in Iraq (2004-2005): The Military Perspective of an Insider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karam, Jabbar N

    2006-01-01

    .... Governing Iraq has been complicated by the violence Iraq is have since suffered. The nature of this violence in the regions north and west of Baghdad must be analyzed to provide a solution for a safe and secure Iraq...

  2. The 2013 general elections in Malaysia: An analysis of online news portals

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim, Azahar; Mohd Sani, Mohd Azizuddin

    2016-01-01

    This research analyzed the coverage of online news portals during the election campaign in Malaysia's 13th General Election on 5th May 2013. There were two types of news portals chosen for this research: 1) the mainstream online news portals, namely The Star Online, Berita Harian Online, Bernama Online and Utusan Online; and 2) the alternative news portals consisting of political parties' publications: the Harakah Daily, Roketkini and Keadilan Daily; and the independent news portals of The Ma...

  3. How Election Polls Shape Voting Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Olav; Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates how election information such as opinion polls can influence voting intention. The bandwagon effect claims that voters ‘float along’: a party experiencing increased support receives more support, and vice versa. Through a large national survey experiment, evidence is found...... of a bandwagon effect among Danish voters. When voters are exposed to a news story describing either an upwards or downwards movement for either a small or large party, they tend to move their voting intentions in the according direction. The effect is strongest in the positive direction – that is, when a party...... experiences increased support, more follows. Consistent effects are found across two different parties for a diverse national sample in a political context very different from earlier research on the bandwagon effects. Considering previous research and the fact that evidence is not found that suggests...

  4. The Myth of the Angry Voters: Parliamentary Election in Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žúborová Viera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent parliamentary elections which took place in The Slovak Republic in March 2016 opened for many national and international commentators the bottled of demons from the past history of Slovakia. For the first time a Far right extremist political party entered into parliament and held seats there. They gained more than some standard political parties and also were not dubbed as the “black” horse of this election. As they were not measured by public opinion. The main purpose of this article is to analyze the fundamental purpose of voters that had elected this political party and on the other hand the main reason that has opened the parliamentary door to such a political entity that was not visible in the previous electoral periods or played any important role in the independence of Slovak republic. Our main assumption will be that which is taken from the media analysis before the parliamentary election and public opinion research. Our main variable from the external environment will be the migration refugee crisis and the rhetoric of political parties acting at national level. We can assume that this was one of the main reason for the entry of this political party within others which were “hidden” or covered by this crisis and were not mediatized in the media.

  5. 11 CFR 109.33 - May a political party committee assign its coordinated party expenditure authority to another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL COORDINATED AND INDEPENDENT EXPENDITURES (2 U.S.C. 431(17... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a political party committee assign its... committee includes a subordinate committee of a State committee and includes a district or local committee...

  6. Certification of ICTs in Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Barrat, Jordi; Bolo, Eden

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technologies play a critical role in the administration and organization of modern elections. Any breakdown of an election technology, security breach or programming error can incur tremendous cost for the electoral management body (EMB)—and may undermine voters’ trust......, starting during the feasibility study, and especially if it is bound by law to provide such a certification. The evaluation reports and related documents can also be used to increase the transparency of the election, improve the dialogue between EMBs and voters, and increase the EMB’s credibility....

  7. PATTERNS OF INTERNET AND TRADITIONAL MEDIA USE FOR POLITICAL INFORMATION AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Zaini Abu Bakar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing academic interest in the role of new communication technology in the political process in Asia. The increasing influence of the Internet to diffuse political information may have facilitated high voter involvement in the political process in this region. This study examines patterns of on-line and traditional news media use among people who have access to the Internet in Malaysia. The results show an association between the use of the Internet and traditional media -- newspapers, television, and radio -- for political information among the respondents interviewed. This study suggests that the Internet is widely used to gather political information, but its use for this purpose is not replacing the newspapers and television. There is also an indication that the Internet users participate online in a limited number of political activities. However, the political knowledge gained from the Internet does not seem to influence the respondents’ choice of political candidate in elections.

  8. Elections in November

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Become a delegate, it’s simple! CERN’s employment conditions have had a rather hard time over the past few years. The Staff Association, with the support of the staff, has managed to avoid the worst on many occasions. The next few years will be decisive, which is why we must continue to be on the scene, active, a source of proposals, and a real negotiating partner. The Staff Association is your only formal representative vis-à-vis the Management and the Member States, and the Staff Council your voice. A rapidly evolving Staff Association In November, all 60 seats in the Staff Council must be filled. All delegates are therefore outgoing. About a dozen current delegates have informed us that they will not stand for election again, which corresponds to a standard turnover. We thank these outgoing delegates for their past investment. If you are interested in the work of the Staff Association, become involved. We need new, talented, enthusiastic people who are willing to inv...

  9. PENSION FUND - ELECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: MAURIN First Name: Guy I have been a member of the personnel since 1967 and as early as 1972 I was involved, in my capacity as President of the Staff Association, in the improvement of the Pension Fund benefits. As for most of us the Pension Fund is the only social provident scheme to which we belong, it is important to ensure that it is well managed and in balance. As a member of the Governing Board since 1974 and Vice-Chairman of this Board since 1977, I have continued to pursue these objectives. One of the main responsibilities of the Governing Board is our asset investment policy. The Investment Committee, of which I am Chairman, must have an overall view of the management of our 4 billion Swiss francs and seek the best yield with minimum risk. The investment structure must continuously be adapted i...

  10. PENSION FUND - ELECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    This candidature has been duly registered and is hereby presented in accordance with paragraph 6.h of the Regulations for Elections to the Governing Board of the Pension Fund.   Candidate: Name: RANJARD First Name: Florence Having been a member of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund since 1983 as Guy Maurin’s alternate, I am standing for a further 3-year term of office. Over the past few years work has concentrated essentially on following items: Monitoring of the work of the fund managers and their performances. The three-yearly study of the Fund’s actuarial situation. The pension guarantees ­ second phase. The Fund is approaching its maturity: the level of benefits exceeds contributions. In this context it has to strike a suitable balance between management of the risk from a dynamic investment policy, while by a prudent policy avoiding any significant loss of its capital. These will be my concerns within the Governing Board of the Pension Fund if you give me your support.

  11. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  12. The Reforms to the Presidential Re-election in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Treminio Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the topic of the constitutional changes regulating the presidential re-election in Latin America. It establishes historical segments of change and it deals particularly with the so-called 21st century’s “Re-election Wave”. The main objective of the present work is to develop a characterization of the cases that have taken place according to the type of re-election reform outcome and the decision process preceding it. This approach is intended to clarify the routes followed in achieving a certain constitutional result and shed light on the factors that shape this new political trend in Latin America.

  13. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  14. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  15. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  16. Teaching about Presidential Elections. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontz, Thomas S.; Nixon, William A.

    Although elections are an annual theme in many social studies classrooms, presidential election years prompt increased interest among students in the electoral process and offer an opportunity to teach about a national election as it happens. This ERIC Digest describes the legal requirements and traditions of U.S. presidential elections, processes…

  17. 5 CFR 2422.28 - Runoff elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runoff elections. 2422.28 Section 2422.28... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.28 Runoff elections. (a) When a runoff may be held. A runoff election is required in an election involving at least three (3) choices, one of...

  18. Getting elections right? Measuring electoral integrity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ham, C.T.

    2015-01-01

    Holding elections has become a global norm. Unfortunately, the integrity of elections varies strongly, ranging from “free and fair” elections with genuine contestation to “façade” elections marred by manipulation and fraud. Clearly, electoral integrity is a topic of increasing concern. Yet electoral

  19. 5 CFR 847.303 - Election forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election forms. 847.303 Section 847.303...) ELECTIONS OF RETIREMENT COVERAGE BY CURRENT AND FORMER EMPLOYEES OF NONAPPROPRIATED FUND INSTRUMENTALITIES Procedures for Elections Under the Retroactive Provisions § 847.303 Election forms. (a) Eligible employees...

  20. Rationalism and Future Political Islam in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurus Shalihin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Muslim rationality in legislative and executive election, and also to understand the reason why they choose national party, or Islamic party based on the alkali data of legislative and executive election in West Sumatera from 2004-2009 periods. The paradigm of research is a rational choice theory. This paradigm helps to understand the political behavior of Muslim in West Sumatera in legislative and executive election of 2004-2009 period. Finally, the research finds out that Muslim in West Sumatera always make a political choice rationale, and ignore the primordial consideration to choose the party. This fact is crucial factor why the Islamic party was lost in West Sumatera, and other places in Indonesia.

  1. IAEA receives Iraq's nuclear-related declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei, announced that the IAEA received this evening, Sunday, 8 December 2002, at its Headquarters in Vienna, an approximately 2400 page declaration on Iraq's nuclear programme. The declaration consists of about 2100 pages in English and 300 pages in Arabic. The declaration was submitted by the Government of Iraq in response to paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (8 November 2002), which requires Iraq to provide to UNMOVIC, the IAEA and to the Security Council, not later than 30 days of the date of that resolution, with 'currently accurate, full, and complete declaration of all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles, and other delivery systems... as well as all other chemical, biological, and nuclear programmes, including any which it claims are for purposes not related to weapon production or material'. 'The IAEA will immediately begin to assess this important new document,' said Mr. ElBaradei, 'including the painstaking and systematic cross-checking of the information provided by Iraq against information which the IAEA already has, information that it expects to receive from other Member States, as contemplated in resolution 1441, and results of past and present Agency verification activities.' Complete assessment of the declaration will be time consuming, particularly in light of the need to translate the 300 pages of Arabic text into English. However, the IAEA expects to be able to provide a preliminary analysis of the document to the Security Council within the next ten days, with a fuller assessment to be provided when it reports to the Council at the end of January. (IAEA)

  2. Beyond Political Rhetoric and Discourse: What Type of Educational, Socio-Economic, and Political Change Should Educators Expect of President Barack Obama?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orelus, Pierre W.

    2009-01-01

    This article critically analyzes Obama's singular political victory. The author begins by laying out current racial, socio-economic, educational and political challenges that await President-elect Obama. He goes on to analyze Obama's political discourse and then questions whether or not Obama would be able to meet these challenges. The author…

  3. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars

    in the early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  4. Political Campaigns Get Personal with Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    On Election Day in 2006, some students at the University of Texas at Austin were prodded by startlingly personal calls from Democratic Party supporters. As political campaigns look to corral young voters, those calls could be a harbinger of things to come in 2008: campaigns going after students through contact information that public colleges are…

  5. Do political budget cycles really exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.; Haan, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Most recent cross-country studies on election-motivated fiscal policy assume that the data can be pooled. As various tests suggest that our data for some 70 democratic countries for the period 1970–2007 cannot be pooled, we use the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) estimator to test whether Political Budget

  6. Politics and Radio in the 1924 Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Dave

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the relation between radio broadcasting and politics in the 1924 presidential campaign, focusing on newspaper and magazine coverage. Notes radio's influence on candidate image, the aspect of censorship, and the use of radio during the campaign and after the election. (MM)

  7. Getting the message across: perceived effectiveness of political campaign communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spanje, J.; Boomgaarden, H.G.; Elenbaas, M.; Vliegenthart, R.; Azrout, R.; Schuck, A.R.T.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Do political actors communicate effectively during electoral campaigns? We introduce a novel concept in electoral research, the "perceived effectiveness of political parties' election campaigns." This evaluation concentrates on the extent to which a party is seen as getting its message across to the

  8. How Politicians Make Decisions: A Political Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Fatás, Enrique; Neugebauer, Tibor; Tamborero, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    The present paper reports on a political choice experiment with elected real-world politicians. A questionnaire on political and public issues is taken to examine whether prospect theory predicts the responses of experts from the field better than rational choice theory. The results indicate that framing effects exist but that expertise may weaken the deviation from rational choice.

  9. Rally as a Political Public Relations Strategy for Public Acceptance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the assessment of the use of rally as a political public relations strategy for public acceptance of a political party during the 2015 presidential elections in Lagos State. Public relations uses tactical methods of communication to build relations between an organisation and its internal and external publics.

  10. A Functional Approach to Televised Political Spots: Acclaiming, Attacking, Defending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Pier, P. M.; Blaney, Joseph R.

    1997-01-01

    Articulates a theoretical framework for understanding the fundamental functions of political advertising (acclaiming, attacking, defending) which occur on the twin grounds of policy considerations and character. Applies this theory of political discourse to presidential general election television spots from 1980-1996, finding that Democrats and…

  11. Political Corruption And Poverty In Nigeria | Faloore | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From preindependence era to date, political corruption and its attendant problems in forms of vote buying, election rigging and manipulation, outright embezzlement by politicians have negatively affected the lives of Nigerians. This has led to increased political apathy and distrust in the country's fledging democratic ideals.

  12. Sit-Tight Syndrome and Tenure Elongation in African Politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The post-independence politics of African countries has been dominated by the phenomenon of sit-tight African heads of state and government who had acceeded to office by election or coup d'etat. This paper examines this recurring problem in post-independence African politics by examining its general and specific ...

  13. Liberian Political Culture | Yoder | Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As Liberians seek to restore their nation, much of the emphasis has been on formal political systems such as elections, the executive, regional authorities, the military, the judiciary, or the national legislature. The following essay argues that it will be equally important to understand and reshape Liberia's political culture ...

  14. The Media's Role in Political Campaigns. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This digest examines the relationship between the political process and the media. The digest discusses the ramifications of advertising in politics; the role of the televised debate in elections; individual voter characteristics and the media; and media coverage and campaign awareness. Fifteen references are attached. (RS)

  15. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  16. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  17. Political participation as an integral part of individuals’ identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Udzhmadzhuridze

    2014-07-01

    Author examined the main types and forms of political participation. The most common types are involved in the elections, the relationship with political organizations and visiting congresses of political organizations. It is established that political participation of individuals across the all variety of its manifestations, is an expression of civic culture of a particular society. In many states for citizens there is the usual practice of political participation, but only in democratic countries individuals will do this voluntarily and without coercion. Only voluntary political participation and awareness of it, is a manifestation of personal attitudes and beliefs. The author traced that political participation as an integral part of political culture is transmitted from generation to generation through the institutions of socialization in society. The most effective institutions of socialization influence on young people. The political socialization research has revealed the transfer of political ideals and habits between generations.

  18. Digital Agenda-Setting:Measuring mainstream and social media influence during the UK 2015 election campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Martin John Edwards; Ramsay, Gordon Neil

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the setting up and managing of ‘Election Unspun’, an experimental news content analysis project, and its main findings. In the end, the project collected every tweet from more than 3,000 political actors and influencers, analysed the national newspapers’ coverage and websites of ITV News, Sky News and Channel 4 News and the UK versions of the Huffington Post and Buzzfeed Politics during the 2015 general election campaign in the UK. It concludes that, despite the plethora o...

  19. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec , mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  20. An analysis of the declining support for the ANC during the 2011 South African local government elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Twala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Local government elections are notorious for low voter turnout, but the May 2011 elections in South Africa showed a record 58 percent of the 24 million registered voters. In South Africa, local government matters and not just because it provides a pointer to what might happen in the provincial and national elections due in 2014, but helps in determining the readiness of the African Nation Congress in providing basic services to the different communities. Interestingly, these elections were preceded by service delivery protests against the ANC. The article is an analysis of the decreased support for the ANC during the 2011 local government elections. The multifaceted reasons behind the boiling cauldron of this decline in support for the ANC are scrutinised. Underpinning this decline in support often lie deep and complex factors which can be uncovered through a careful analysis of the ANC’s campaigning strategies ahead of these elections; the media which has been accused of rampant sensationalism; service delivery protests and mudslinging from other political parties. However, it is not the author’s intention in this article to deal with how other parties fared during these elections, but to highlight their impact on the declined support received by the ANC in the elections. The discussion is presented in four parts: the first presents an exploratory discussion on the theory of local government in the sphere of governance. The second part discusses some key strategies and tactics used by the ANC in attempts to galvanise support, as well as the challenges encountered. The third deals with the opposition parties’ machinery in preventing the ANC from getting a majority vote during the election. Lastly, the article concludes by highlighting the lessons learnt by the ANC during these elections within the framework of electoral politics in South Africa. Keywords: local election 2011, African National Congress (ANC, local government.  Disciplines

  1. Violent deaths of media workers associated with conflict in Iraq, 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Collinson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The violent deaths of media workers is a critical issue worldwide, especially in areas of political and social instability. Such deaths can be a particular concern as they may undermine the development and functioning of an open and democratic society.Method. Data on the violent deaths of media workers in Iraq for ten years (2003–2012 were systematically collated from five international databases. Analyses included time trends, weapons involved, nationality of the deceased, outcome for perpetrators and location of death.Results. During this ten-year period, there were 199 violent deaths of media workers in Iraq. The annual number increased substantially after the invasion in 2003 (peaking at n = 47 in 2007 and then declined (n = 5 in 2012. The peak years (2006–2007 for these deaths matched the peak years for estimated violent deaths among civilians. Most of the media worker deaths (85% were Iraqi nationals. Some were killed whilst on assignment in the field (39% and 28% involved a preceding threat. Common perpetrators of the violence were: political groups (45%, and coalition forces (9%, but the source of the violence was often unknown (29%. None of the perpetrators have subsequently been prosecuted (as of April 2014. For each violent death of a media worker, an average of 3.1 other people were also killed in the same attack (range 0–100 other deaths.Discussion. This analysis highlights the high number of homicides of media workers in Iraq in this conflict period, in addition to the apparently total level of impunity. One of the potential solutions may be establishing a functioning legal system that apprehends offenders and puts them on trial. The relatively high quality of data on violent deaths in this occupational group, suggests that it could act as one sentinel population within a broader surveillance system of societal violence in conflict zones.

  2. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  3. International electives in neurology training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer L.; Coleman, Mary E.; Engstrom, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the current status of global health training and humanitarian relief opportunities in US and Canadian postgraduate neurology programs. Background: There is a growing interest among North American trainees to pursue medical electives in low- and middle-income countries. Such training opportunities provide many educational and humanitarian benefits but also pose several challenges related to organization, human resources, funding, and trainee and patient safety. The current support and engagement of neurology postgraduate training programs for trainees to pursue international rotations is unknown. Methods: A survey was distributed to all program directors in the United States and Canada (December 2012–February 2013) through the American Academy of Neurology to assess the training opportunities, institutional partnerships, and support available for international neurology electives. Results: Approximately half of responding programs (53%) allow residents to pursue global health–related electives, and 11% reported that at least 1 trainee participated in humanitarian relief during training (survey response rate 61%, 143/234 program directors). Canadian programs were more likely to allow residents to pursue international electives than US programs (10/11, 91% vs 65/129, 50%, p = 0.023). The number of trainees participating in international electives was low: 0%–9% of residents (55% of programs) and 10%–19% of residents (21% of programs). Lack of funding was the most commonly cited reason for residents not participating in global health electives. If funding was available, 93% of program directors stated there would be time for residents to participate. Most program directors (75%) were interested in further information on global health electives. Conclusions: In spite of high perceived interest, only half of US neurology training programs include international electives, mostly due to a reported lack of funding. By contrast, the majority

  4. The Game Frame and Political Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2012-01-01

    Several observational and experimental studies have confirmed the ‘spiral of cynicism’ hypothesis: the tendency of the news media to cover politics through a game frame, which focuses on political strategy instead of political issues, leads to cynicism about election campaigns and politicians amo...... on a survey among the electorate and a content analysis of political coverage in newspapers. The study shows that exposure to the game frame is indeed associated with lower levels of internal efficacy, even when controlling for potentially confounding variables.......Several observational and experimental studies have confirmed the ‘spiral of cynicism’ hypothesis: the tendency of the news media to cover politics through a game frame, which focuses on political strategy instead of political issues, leads to cynicism about election campaigns and politicians among...... the electorate. However, such cynicism may in itself be somewhat inconsequential, and so this article suggests that we move beyond cynicism regarding specific electoral campaigns or politicians, and that we turn our attention towards political efficacy. This is done in an empirical study, which is based...

  5. European Union: Gender and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    to provide for an adequate representation of women's needs and interests. The legal standards on political equality of men and women have been incorporated into the international and regional legal frameworks. Yet, the international conventions, declarations, optional protocols, strategies, action plans and recommendations for policy-makers at different levels have not generated a significant change in the general attitude to political equality of men and women. Why is it so? Women are underrepresented whenever the number of women in the elected bodies of authority is unproportional to the total number of women in the general population; such exclusion of women from politics is unjust because it diminishes the quality of political debate and undermines the essence of democratic legitimacy. For the past ten years, the academic community has been involved in a debate on different aspects of women's political representation. Within the framework of feminist research on gender, politics and state, the discussions have focused on the following issues: what are the benefits of increasing the number of women in politics; will the increase of female MPs in parliament change the nature of politics (given that it may be a chance to articulate women's perspective and discuss women's problems and interests; do women MPs make a difference in political life (and, if so, in what circumstances; and what kind of changes may be expected from their participation in politics? Most discussions have focused on establishing and analyzing the mutual relations between the descriptive and substantive women's representation in politics, primarily concerning the issue whether the increase in the number of female MPs contributes to increasing their interest in representing women's political interests. The quota system, which has been applied in the EU counties as a response to the problem of women's underrepresentation in politics, and the introduction of women's policy agencies (aimed at

  6. 5 CFR 733.105 - Permitted political activities-employees who reside in designated localities and are employed in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... under § 733.107 may: (1) Run as independent candidates for election to partisan political office in... political contribution as, or on behalf of, an independent candidate for partisan political office in... uncompensated volunteer services as, or on behalf of, an independent candidate for partisan political office in...

  7. Political Market Orientation: A Framework for Understanding Relationship Structures in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This article is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. In our article, we demonstrate how Ormrod...... strive for contextual sensitivity. By adopting this approach it is hoped that the fears noted by political scientists that political marketing is solely concerned with applying standard management models to political parties with the resulting emphasis on communication tactics at election time, together......’s conceptual model of political market orientation complements political science models of party organization by drawing attention to the competing interests of stakeholders in shaping party strategy and organizational structure. We treat parties as a multitude of actors rather than as monolithic entities...

  8. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  9. Reaching, Engaging and Bonding with Voters on Social Media: The Case of 2014/2015 Croatian Presidential Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Sinčić Ćorić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the ways in which presidential candidates utilise social media as a tool in their election campaigns in order to democratise politics and political representation. The study is based on a content analysis of statements published on the official Facebook and Twitter pages of candidates in the 2014/2015 Croatian presidential elections. The results show that candidates did not use social media to reach, engage and form stronger bonds with potential voters. By failing to do so, they have missed an opportunity to bring disenchanted voters back into the political arena and potentially increase the legitimacy of the democratic processes.

  10. Newcomers in Politics? The Success of New Political Parties in the Slovak and Czech Republic after 2010?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viera Žúborová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The last election in the Slovak and Czech Republic was special. It not only took place before the official electoral period (pre-elections, but new political parties were “again” successful. The article focuses not only on both elections in the last two years in a comparative perspective, but it analyses the opportunity structure of success as well, including types of new political parties (according to Lucardie. The article seeks to answer the question: why are new political parties electorally successful, able to break into parliament and even become part of a coalition government? We assume that the emergence and success of new political parties in both countries relied on the ability to promote “old” ideas in a new fashion, colloquially referred to as “new suits” or “old” ideological flows in new breeze.

  11. Thinking ahead about reproductive health: contingency planning and emergency preparedness in crisis situations (Iraq and West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLargy, Pamela; Alakbarov, Ramiz

    2004-09-01

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) coordinated efforts to integrate RH into contingency planning for the 2003 Iraq crisis and the 2003 regional response for displaced populations in West Africa. Using UNFPA's network of country offices in the Middle East, staff developed logistics plans, conducted workshops and pre-positioned RH supplies. Though refugee movements did not occur, the contingency planning enhanced the response capacity of UNFPA offices and made it possible to rapidly provide assistance inside Iraq. In West Africa, multi-country workshops and follow-up resulted in country-level and regional action plans useful during the renewed crises of 2003; scarce funding, however, limited their full implementation. UNFPA's experiences show that contingency planning requires committing resources for crises, some of which will not occur; new staff skills; and follow-up. Moreover, RH is considered by some to be additional to the core elements of contingency planning. RH's political sensitivity, particularly with certain donors, further complicated integrated planning.

  12. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three ... Outputs. Journal articles. Problems of the national and the ethnic/sectarian in Iraq [Arabic language]. Download PDF. Reports. State of social sciences in Iraq ...

  13. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  14. Iraq's shop-till-you-drop nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a series of articles that began in March 1991, the authors have tried to separate fact from fiction about Iraq's ability to build nuclear weapons and to produce material to fuel them. After exposing Iraq's efforts to enrich uranium and design an atomic bomb, UN and IAEA experts zeroed in on how Iraq put its program together. The basic answer is that along with determination and persistence, Iraq had a great deal of foreign help. Iraq's 'Petrochemical Three,' the secret nuclear program conducted under the authority of its Atomic Energy Commission with links to the Defense Ministry and the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, received massive infusions of money and resources. Like the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bombs in the United States, Iraq's program simultaneously pursued a number of different technical avenues to the bomb. Not knowing which efforts would succeed, Iraq poured billions of dollars into its multifaceted quest. Providing for these programs required the establishment of elaborate procurement networks in Europe, North America, and Asia. Like the technical quest, the procurement effort was carried out on many fronts at once. Diplomacy and secrecy were required, because few companies would knowingly supply a nuclear weapons program, or even a secret nuclear program that was ostensibly for civil purposes. Iraq showed great ingenuity in hiding its purchases behind such innocuous pursuits as automobile manufacturing, dairy production, and oil refining

  15. 2017 Elections to Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Make your voice heard, support your candidates! After verification by the Electoral Commission, all candidates for the elections to the Staff Council have been registered. It is now up to you, members of the Staff Association, to vote for the candidate(s) of your choice. We hope that you will be many to vote and to elect the new Staff Council! By doing so, you can support and encourage the women and men, who will represent you over the next two years. We are using an electronic voting system; all you need to do is click the link below and follow the instructions on the screen. https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/elections-2017 The deadline for voting is Monday, 13 November at midday (12 pm). Elections Timetable Monday 13 November, at noon Closing date for voting Tuesday 21 November and Tuesday 5 December Publication of the results in Echo Monday 27 and Tuesday 28 November Staff Association Assizes Tuesday 5 December (afternoon) First meeting of the new Staff Council and election of the new Executive Committee The ...

  16. The Hispanic Immigrant Voter and the Classic American Voter: Presidential Support in the 2012 Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Lewis-Beck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In their classic 1960 work, Angus Campbell and his colleagues offer a model to explain political behavior. They posit a funnel of causality, whereby the causal flow moved from remote long-term forces, such as socio-demographics and party identification, to more immediate short-term forces, such as issues and candidates, finally arriving at the vote choice itself. This explanation has withstood the test of time in studies of the United States and other democracies. The question at hand in this article is how Latin American immigrants comport themselves in the national political environment of the United States. Can the political preferences of Hispanic immigrants be explained pretty much the way the political preferences of native-born Americans can be explained? In other words, does the funnel of causality apply to them? Our findings, based on analysis of 2012 American National Election Study and Latino Immigrant National Election Study survey data, indicate that it does.

  17. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  18. Corporate political activities, religiosity and corporate decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Yik Pui

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the recent increase in corporate political spending and the Supreme Court’s decision in allowing firms to freely use their treasury funds for political purposes (Citizens United v Federal Election Commission, 2010), this study examines the impact of corporate political activity (CPA) on its decision making. CPA is defined as the firm’s total annual lobbying expenses arising from the engagement of internal and external lobbyists while corporate decision making is measured in terms...

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan...

  20. Marketing campaigns and politics – british experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Sarajlić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available By gaining political power, individuals and political par¬ties at the same time gain the power to shape not only political but also public life. An accelerated growth of mass media communication has led to the development of various means and techniques of political marketing. This in turn requires certain adjustments to political campaigns and programs, out of which only those adapted to the new communication environment may succeed. Marketing in terms of politics and especially negative comparative advertising, which is becoming increasingly more present and intense in political campaigning, opens a series of ethical questions. Among others, these include whether such advertising in politics is effective, to what extent and what its consequences are. The goal of this paper is to present the main characteristics of political marketing, the effectiveness of the methods and techniques used in the course of elect¬ion campaigning, their consequences and basic differences between political marketing and products and services marketing. A special emphasis will be placed on the presentation of political marketing of Great Britain, which has a long tradition in utilizing marketing methods and techniques in the political arena. Moreover, political moves made by politicians and political parties in Great Britain certainly make a good starting point for shaping an optimal political strategy in other countries, while at the same time taking into account the particulars of a specific political and social environment. Content analysis methodology was used in the preparation of this paper and all the data were gathered from secondary sources.

  1. A psychodynamic perspective on elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-11-01

    In a democracy, elections are the way in which the collective thought processes of the voters arrive at a decision to direct their government. The author explores how the individual voter assesses and resolves many conflicting internal and external forces to arrive at a vote. The midterm elections of 2010 illustrate the parallel between individual resolution of conflicting forces and the process of a campaign leading to the outcome of an election. The psychodynamic concepts of conflict and compromise, affects, aggression, unconscious forces, mechanisms of defense, superego, and the ego's integrative functions are evident in both the individual voter and the collective electoral process. The author expresses concern about the historical vulnerability of democracies and the unbalancing effect of allowing limitless infusion of anonymous corporate money to pour into campaigns.

  2. "Ladlad" and Parrhesiastic Pedagogy: Unfurling LGBT Politics and Education in the Global South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the political and educational activism of "Ladlad," the first lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) political party in the Philippines and the only existing LGBT political party in the world. Founded in 2003, "Ladlad" fielded candidates for the 2010 national election in the Philippines, amidst…

  3. Team Teaching Political Communication: The 2000 Campus U.S. Presidential Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Keith T.; Jefferson, Kurt W.

    The closeness of the 2000 presidential election clearly demonstrated that the country was divided philosophically and politically. The authors of this paper, a speech communication professor and a political science professor at Westminster College in Missouri, capitalized on that division based upon their diametrically opposed political views by…

  4. Negotiating Media ‘Balance’ in Malaysia’s 2013 General Election

    OpenAIRE

    Ross TAPSELL

    2013-01-01

    "This article will discuss recent trends in Malaysia's media surrounding the 2013 general election (GE13). It will argue that the GE13 produced two important trends in the media industry. First, there was increased political-party participation in social media, citizen journalism and blogging. In fact, it practically led to a 'cyberwar' between political parties, making the realm of the online and social media increasingly polarised and partisan. Second, many mainstream media outlets in Malay...

  5. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2010: series of public opinion surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Benkovic, Vanesa

    2011-10-15

    To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking.

  6. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2009: series of public opinion surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar; Džakula, Aleksandar; Benković, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. Methods The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Results Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Conclusion Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking. PMID:21990075

  7. Constitutional reform processes and political parties: principles for practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in constitution-building processes. The publication shows that although country-specific reform processes may be unique in terms of objectives, context, popular involvement, and achievements, they go ...

  8. Overseas Voter Mobilisation in Singapore: Implications from Malaysia’s 13th General Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses voter mobilisation and other election-related activities of Malaysian voters living, studying and working in Singapore in the context of Malaysia’s 13th general election (GE13. According to the World Bank, nearly 400,000 Malaysians reside in the city-state. Thus these figures represent a significant Malaysian voter pool based in Singapore. Efforts to mobilise these voters for general elections or other causes have political implications for both countries, which became apparent following Singapore-based Malaysians’ activities to encourage Malaysians to return home to cast their votes during the 13th general election. Singapore’s strict public assembly laws led to several legal issues related to the voter mobilisation and election campaign activities undertaken by Malaysians in the city-state. These legal issues became a source of friction between the two countries during the elections as government leaders and authorities on both sides of the causeway accused the other of interfering in domestic political matters. Given the growing number of Malaysians in Singapore and the likely repeat of Malaysian voter mobilisation activities in Singapore in the run-up to the fourteenth general election (GE14 in 2018, issues related to the election activities of Malaysian voters in Singapore stand to be another set of factors that will shape the health of bilateral relations between these two countries.

  9. 2014 Election forecast - a post-election analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ittmann, HW

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available General elections are held every five years in South Africa. During the 12 to 24 hour period after the close of the voting booths, the expected final results are of huge interest to the electorate and politicians. In the past, the Council...

  10. Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining

  11. Municipal and Cantonal Elections in France in 2008

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Communication from the Department of Human Resources and from the Relations with the Host States Service 1 - Members of the personnel wishing to stand as candidates in municipal and cantonal elections in France in 2008 are reminded of their obligation to comply with the provisions of Chapter I, section 3, Conduct, of the Organization’s Staff Rules and Regulations and with the pertinent implementation texts. 2 - Members of the personnel wishing to stand as candidates in municipal elections must first notify the Director-General in writing. 3 - Members of the personnel wishing to engage in political activities must refrain from any act or activity that is incompatible with their functions or which could be materially or morally prejudicial to the Organization. 4 - In particular, standing as a candidate for the post of, and serving a term of office as, a town councillor are considered to be compatible with the status of member of the personnel. However, the functions of mayo...

  12. The 2014 Elections and the Brazilian Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian party system presents a paradox. Although the Workers Party (PT and the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB have controlled presidential elections for the last 20 years, their force at the other levels of electoral competition has not grown. The objective of this study is to undertake a discussion of this situation through the 2014 general elections. After attempting to explain why successive challengers have not been able to change the structure of competition for the Brazilian presidency, I will analyze the relation established between the pattern observed at this level and the other “connected” electoral disputes—both those for state executive and federal legislative office. The general conclusion is that even if the pattern continues, it is quite improbable that this will significantly impact the other levels of national political party competition.

  13. The abortion issue in the 1980 elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, D; Burlison, J

    1983-01-01

    The political opponents of legal abortion achieved considerable gains in the 1980 American elections. A president who was committed to a strong antiabortion position was elected, and antiabortion candidates prevailed in six out of seven Senate races that pitted supporters against opponents of legal abortion and in seven out of nine similar confrontations in the House races. However, it is not clear that abortion was an overriding or decisive factor in determining those outcomes. Democrats and Republicans, Carter voters and Reagan voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion. The presidential voter groups were divided on several other issues, and along income and racial lines, to a far greater extent than they were on abortion. Voters were not likely to name abortion as one of the more important problems facing the nation. Carter supporters rated abortion as more important than did Reagan supporters. Although the party platforms and the presidential candidates were clearly differentiated in their abortion stands, these differences were not well communicated to the citizenry. When voters attempted to describe the position of each candidate on abortion, they displayed a great deal of uncertainty, error and confusion. In the key Senate races, those who voted for the prochoice candidates held more liberal abortion attitudes than those who voted for the right-to-life candidates. This difference, although statistically significant, was not great, and was smaller than the differences related to several other issues--such as attitudes toward the role of government, women's rights and economic policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Politics, Economy, and Ideology in Iraqi Kurdistan since 2003: Enduring Trends and Novel Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leezenberg, M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2003 war, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq has followed a distinct trajectory, the roots of which lie in its emergence as a de facto autonomous entity in the wake of the 1991 Gulf War. This paper traces the development between 2003 and 2013 of the main political, economic, and ideological

  15. Have IAEA safety precautions failed in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1981-01-01

    Israel's air raid on the Tamuz-1 research reactor (Osirak) in Iraq has given new impetus to the discussion of the potential and limits of international control as carried out by the IAEA in the framework of the non-proliferation treaty. A lack of faith in the effectiveness of IAEA control must be assuemd to be one of the main reasons for this attack. Prof. Grimm, vice chairman of the nuclear safeguards department of the International Atomic Energy Agency, comments on the possibility of producing nuclear weapons with the aid of this reactor and on the efficiency of present and projected nuclear safeguards measures. (orig.) [de

  16. Republic of Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-16

    Saddam Hussein’s rise to power and his continued control of Iraq we see these Machiavell ian principles in operation. In February 1963, after calling the... managed to al ienate everyone of her neighbors, and cannot be counted on to promote anything but Saddam’s personal irterests. The economic sanctions...House; Nev. Dehli , 19 ’I1 45. Roe-,ert O,.=..r,, "The Kur dish Question in the Aftermatih of t i,- Gulf W.r"., Third World Quarterly, 1992, 47E5 -45? 24

  17. Jokowi’s Populism in the 2012 Jakarta Gubernatorial Election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joko Widodo’s victory in the 2012 Jakarta Gubernatorial Election could be seen as a populist phenomenon. An outsider to Jakarta politics, Joko Widodo (Jokowi beat the incumbent, Fauzi Bowo (Foke, who had received strong support from political parties. Using populism as an analytical tool, this paper argues that the following four factors enabled Jokowi to emerge as an alternative leader in Indonesia’s capital: (1 social breakdown and declining capability of the government; (2 corrupt, draining political traditions and a negative image of political parties; (3 societal changes; and (4 the emergence of forms of political representation outside of traditional political institutions. Those situations led Jakarta voters to more easily accept Jokowi’s offer – “New Jakarta” (Jakarta Baru – as a new identity against the established regime. Populism can help explain Jokowi’s victory in the election, but also the leadership of his administration after he was elected.

  18. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  20. Political Science and Speech Communication--A Team Approach to Teaching Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Stephen J.; Fogel, Norman

    This paper proposes making speech communication more interdisciplinary and, in particular, combining political science and speech in a team-taught course in election campaigning. The goals, materials, activities, and plan of such a course are discussed. The goals include: (1) gaining new insights into the process of contemporary campaigns and…