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Sample records for iraq iran turkey

  1. Atomic prospects in five countries [Afghanistan, Iran Iraq, Turkey and Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The fourth preliminary assistance mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Afghanistan, Iran Iraq, Turkey and Yugoslavia during October-November last year to study at firsthand the possible lines of atomic energy development in these five countries. It collected and examined all relevant data, held extensive discussions, particularly in the context of current plans and projects, and indicated to the national authorities as well as to the Agency the best means and forms of Agency assistance in this development. The mission's findings are contained in detailed reports which will serve as a broad guide to the Agency's programme of assistance to these countries

  2. Iran's Influence in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Iran is building substantial influence in post-Saddam Iraq, in large part because the dominant parties in Iraq have long-standing ideological, political, and religious sectarian ties to Tehran. A key U.S...

  3. Iran's Activities and Influences in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S...

  4. Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Attention in this discussion of Iraq is directed to the following: geography; people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Iraq. In 1986, Iraq's population was estimated to be 16 million with an annual growth rate of 3.3%. The infant mortality rate is 25/1000; life expectancy is 56.1 years. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia. Almost 75% of the population live in the flat, alluvial plain stretching southeast toward Baghdad and Basra to the Persian Gulf. The 2 largest ethnic groups are Arabas and Kurds; other distinct groups are Assyrians, Turkomans, Iranians, Lurs, and Armenians. Iraq, once known as Mesopotamia, was the site of flourishing ancient civilizations. Muslims conquered Iraq in the 7th century A.D. In the 8th century, the Abassid caliphate established its capital at Baghdad, and by 1638 Baghdad had become a frontier outpost of the Ottoman Empire. At the end of World War I, Iraq became a British-mandated territory. When it was declared independent in 1932, the Hashemite family ruled as a constitutional monarchy. In 1945, Iraq joined the UN and became a founding member of the Arab League. The Ba'ath Party rules Iraq through the 9-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The RCC's president (chief of state and supreme commander of the armed forces) is elected by a 2/3 majority of the RCC. A Council of Ministers, appointed by the RCC, has administrative and some legislative responsibilities. A 250-member National Assembly was elected on June 20, 1980, in the 1st elections since the end of the monarchy, with another National Assembly election held in October 1984. The Ba'ath Party controls the government. The Iraqi regime does not tolerate opposition. The economy of Iraq is characterized by a heavy dependence on oil exports and an emphasis on development through central planning. Economic performance deteriorated in 1986 because of the sharp

  5. Iran and Strategic Power Projection: The Iran-Iraq War as a Foundation of Understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knight, Darric M

    2007-01-01

    .... Using the Iran-Iraq War as a lens through which to examine Iran during a stressful conventional conflict, the research illustrates a number of characteristics and trends still representative of the regime today...

  6. COMPARING MODERNIZATION IN IRAN AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoum Parhizkari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines and comparesthe questions whether there are anydifferences between Iran and Turkey inmodernization and if this is the casewhether this is gender equality, family values, or secularity that causes suchdifferences. Data from the Iranian andthe Turkish part of the World ValuesSurvey (WVS forth wave are used forthe empirical analysis. Conceptual andmethodological effects influence the structural equation model.

  7. Brothers or Rivals? Iran and the Shi'a of Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunter, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    This thesis examines the loyalty of the Shi a of Iraq. While some Sunni Arab leaders have recently accused the Shi a of Iraq of pledging loyalty to Iran, in fact the Iraqi Shi a are loyal to their own nation...

  8. A negotiation support system for disputes between Iraq and Turkey over the Tigris-Euphrates basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagonari, Fabio; Rossi, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes a flexible prototype negotiation support system (NSS), to be used in a participatory context, based on the negotiation setting that was suggested by Turkey: bilateral negotiations between Turkey and Iraq, annual analysis, the assumption that Iraq and Syria have no inherent water rights, differences in water entitlements or needs are neglected, analysis restricted to the Tigris-Euphrates basin, current irrigation technologies in Turkey and Iraq, and negotiations on water quantity and quality that account for national dam construction plans. The analysis is based on all principles of the 1997 UN Convention that are recognised by Turkey: net benefits defined at a basin level, equitable use, non-significant harm, maintenance of water quality. The goal is to achieve a balance of interests among the parties that combines analysis of the quantity and quality of water and the net benefits. The negotiation outcomes arise from simulated dynamic interactions between the parties. We demonstrate an application of the NSS based on plausible and reasonable, but tentative, data to provide insights into water allocation rules, side-payments, water requirements of the two parties, and cooperation. Allocations should meet Iraqi non-significant harm and equitable use constraints and allocate the remaining water to Turkey for agricultural use in the feasible negotiation scenario, whereas allocations should meet Turkish maximum agricultural water demands and allocate the remaining water to Iraq for agricultural use in the unlikely cooperation scenario.

  9. Detection and subtyping avian metapneumovirus from turkeys in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayahi, Mansour; Momtaz, Hassan; Jafari, Ramezan Ali; Zamani, Pejman

    2017-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes diseases like rhinotracheitis in turkeys, swollen head syndrome in chickens and avian rhinotracheitis in other birds. Causing respiratory problems, aMPV adversely affects production and inflicts immense economic losses and mortalities, especially in turkey flocks. In recent years, several serological and molecular studies have been conducted on this virus, especially in poultry in Asia and Iran. The purpose of the present study was detecting and subtyping aMPV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from non-vaccinated, commercial turkey flocks in Iran for the first time. Sixty three meat-type unvaccinated turkey flocks from several provinces of Iran were sampled in major turkey abattoirs. Samples were tested by RT-PCR for detecting and subtyping aMPV. The results showed that 26 samples from three flocks (4.10%) were positive for viral RNA and all of the viruses were found to be subtype B of aMPV. As a result, vaccination especially against subtype B of aMPV should be considered in turkey flocks in Iran to control aMPV infections.

  10. Current Readings on the Iran-Iraq Conflict and Its Effects on U.S. Foreign Relations and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbini, Magda

    1989-01-01

    Provides background on the Iran-Iraq conflict and suggests readings dating from 1980 to 1988 in both English and Arabic which are classified under seven broad categories: the roots of the conflict; Iran-United States relations; the American hostage crisis; the Iran-Contra affair; periodicals and indexes; online databases; and bibliographies. (105…

  11. Economically optimized electricity trade modeling. Iran-Turkey case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakouri G, H.; Eghlimi, M.; Manzoor, D.

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of power trade between countries, which are attainable for various facts, are distinguished now. Daily differences in the peak-load times of neighboring countries commonly occur for differences in the longitudes of their location. Seasonal differences are also caused by differences in the latitudes leading to different climates. Consequently, different load curves help to have such a production schedule that reduces blackouts and investments for power generation by planning for a proper trade between countries in a region. This paper firstly describes the methodology and framework for the power trade and then the results of an optimal power trade model between Iran and Turkey, which shows a potential benefit for both countries by peak shaving, are presented. The results, in the worst case design, represent optimality of about 1500 MW electricity export from Iran to Turkey at the Turkish peak times, as well as 447 MW electricity import from Turkey at the Iranian peak times. In addition, results derived from running a Long-Run model show that there will be greater potential for power export from Iran to Turkey, which is a guideline of an energy conservation strategy for both countries in the future. (author)

  12. Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y

    2003-07-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  13. Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.; Mathieu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Although Iraq has been producing oil for many years, its turbulent history has prevented it from fully tapping the resources in place. Now in the forefront of the energy and geopolitical scene, Iraq appears to many observers to be a key element of the world oil market, now and in the future. (author)

  14. Examination of Turkish Students' Opinions Related to Values in the Example of Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Adem

    2012-01-01

    Reflecting effective and psychomotor skills to teaching environment are as important as cognitive skills in learning process. In this context, values are important to develop skills in affective domain. In this study, the opinions of the students who have been studying in three different countries (Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkey) were aimed to be…

  15. An adaptive-critic look to contemporary poetry in Iran and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rreza Kiani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Radical innovations in imagery and trying to create new images and combination in nowadays poetry, lead the language out of the monotony and revitalize it. Contemporary poets with personalizing sentiments in two axes companion and succession, rejected arbitrarily the principles and highlighted their words. In this way, poets of Iran and Iraq due to the proximity of certain intellectual and cultural issues, and influencing by various factors of life today, seeking to create fresh images, violating the rules of the meaning of language have created hesitations deliberately in the audiences’ understanding. Most of criticisms in this area are relevant and thought-provoking and can be used in the field of contemporary criticism as a topic worth discussing. In other words, poets have used language not as an opportunity to manifest their poetry, but as a tool to destroy the norms of the past, have taken advantage. In general, the use of frequent and dead images, the lack of illustrations, the use of compounds abandoned, oldness, orientation to the stereotypes and outdated themes, scare senses, due to the role of transformational language, regardless of other applications... are among the issues related to pathology in "beauty-removing" in contemporary poetry of Iran and Iraq which in continue the effects of the three aspects_ langue, mental form and imagination_ have been reviewed. In other words, the findings of this research show that "extremism in tabular arrangement of words and disruption of family practice words", "Rely on the use of stereotypical language," "intellectual solidity on archaic situations" and some of the factors considered in the scope of the meaning of language, contemporary aesthetic realm make poetry of Iran and Iraq vulnerable; This means that poets carry out in the realm of semantic, have not always been associated with success and beauty, and whenever it was lower in the creative process, it is  criticized. It should be

  16. Tactical Evolution in the Iraqi Army: The Abadan Island and Fish Lake Campaigns of the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-07

    Khorramshahr lies about ton kilometers up-river from Abadan, nestled in the "V" formed at the confluence of the Shatt-al-Arab and the Karun River. Most...A27. _ "Iran Claims It Advances 1.2 Milos Toward Basra." Washinoton o 28 January 1987, A15 and A16. " _ "Iraq Stops Iran; War of Attrition Seen Likely

  17. Pathological changes in turkeys liver associated with Histomoniasis in Duhok City,Kurdistan Region, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Abdullah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Histomoniasis were detected and described among naturally affected of twenty three young Turkeys poult compared with the adults. Sample for study were collected from different areas of Duhok city in Kurdistan region/Iraq. Giemsa stain where used for identification of parasite from specimens of liver and cecum samples, then specimen, where fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for routine histopathological study. The affected birds showed clinical signs of lethargic, drooping of head and wings with progressive emaciation and a clear distinctive signs in live ones, and appearance of continuous yellowish diarrhea. Pathologically there is an enlargement and discoloration of the liver associated with appearance of white to yellow multifocal nodules in the surface of the liver. While the result of histolpathological changes showed severs inflammatory reaction around necrotic tissues with degenerative and necrotic changes of the liver cells.

  18. Differences in resource management affects drought vulnerability across the borders between Iraq, Syria, and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Eklund

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Much discussion has taken place exploring a potential connection between the 2007-2009 Fertile Crescent drought and Syria's uprising-turned civil war beginning in 2011. This study takes an integrated perspective on the 2007-2009 drought in the border region of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey by looking at the meteorological, agricultural, and socioeconomic aspects of drought vulnerability. Satellite-based precipitation and vegetation data help outline the drought's spatial and temporal properties. In order to understand the context in which this drought happened, we also look at the trends in vegetation productivity between 2001 and 2015, as well as each country's different politico-economic factors affecting land and water resource management leading up to the drought. The findings show that, although the drought was severe in Syria, it was not the only country affected, nor necessarily the worst hit meteorologically. The agricultural drought lasted 2 yr in most affected areas on the Iraqi and Syrian sides, however, only 1 yr in the affected areas on the Turkish side. The vegetation trend analysis shows a striking difference between the Syrian and Turkish sides of the border. Turkey experienced a general improvement in land productivity between 2001 and 2015, whereas Iraq and Syria show a generally negative productivity trend. The fact that the decline in rainfall had different effects on crops in each of the three countries highlights the role government and private sector resource management and infrastructure play in reducing drought vulnerability. The findings of this study highlight the need for an integrated approach to research that investigates the interconnection between climate and conflict.

  19. Differences in virulence markers between Helicobacter pylori strains from Iraq and those from Iran: potential importance of regional differences in H. pylori-associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R; Mohammadi, Marjan; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Doraghi, Masoumeh; Letley, Darren P; Muhammad, Merdan K; Argent, Richard H; Atherton, John C

    2008-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma; the latter is common in Iran but not in Iraq. We hypothesized that more virulent H. pylori strains may be found in Iran than in Iraq and so compared established and newly described virulence factors in strains from these countries. We studied 59 unselected dyspeptic patients from Iran and 49 from Iraq. cagA was found in similar proportions of strains from both countries (76% in Iran versus 71% in Iraq) and was significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Iraq (P dupA was found in similar proportions of Iranian and Iraqi strains (38% and 32%, respectively) and was associated with peptic ulceration in Iraqi patients (P Iraq and Iran possess virulence factors similar to those in Western countries. The presence of cagA with more phosphorylation motifs in Iranian strains may contribute to the higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, the association between strain virulence markers and disease in Iraq but not Iran suggests that other host and environmental factors may be more important in the disease-prone Iranian population.

  20. Differences in Virulence Markers between Helicobacter pylori Strains from Iraq and Those from Iran: Potential Importance of Regional Differences in H. pylori-Associated Disease▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Nawfal R.; Mohammadi, Marjan; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Doraghi, Masoumeh; Letley, Darren P.; Muhammad, Merdan K.; Argent, Richard H.; Atherton, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes peptic ulceration and gastric adenocarcinoma; the latter is common in Iran but not in Iraq. We hypothesized that more virulent H. pylori strains may be found in Iran than in Iraq and so compared established and newly described virulence factors in strains from these countries. We studied 59 unselected dyspeptic patients from Iran and 49 from Iraq. cagA was found in similar proportions of strains from both countries (76% in Iran versus 71% in Iraq) and was significantly associated with peptic ulcer disease in Iraq (P ≤ 0.01) but not in Iran. cagA alleles encoding four or more tyrosine phosphorylation motifs were found in 12% of the Iranian strains but none of the Iraqi strains (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences in the vacA signal-, middle-, or intermediate-region types between Iranian and Iraqi strains. Among the strains from Iran, vacA genotypes showed no specific peptic ulcer associations, but among the strains from Iraq, vacA i1 strains were associated with gastric ulcer (P ≤ 0.02), mimicking their previously demonstrated association with gastric cancer in Iran. dupA was found in similar proportions of Iranian and Iraqi strains (38% and 32%, respectively) and was associated with peptic ulceration in Iraqi patients (P ≤ 0.01) but not Iranian patients. H. pylori strains from Iraq and Iran possess virulence factors similar to those in Western countries. The presence of cagA with more phosphorylation motifs in Iranian strains may contribute to the higher incidence of gastric cancer. However, the association between strain virulence markers and disease in Iraq but not Iran suggests that other host and environmental factors may be more important in the disease-prone Iranian population. PMID:18353934

  1. Turkey’s Iran Card: Energy Cooperation in American and Russian Vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Turkey and Iran During the Cold War,” Journal of Third World Studies, Spring 1999, Vol.16, No.1, p.23. 15 imports and 4 % of total exports to Turkey...16 Michael B.Bishku, “Turkey and Iran During the Cold War,” Journal of Third World Studies, Spring 1999, Vol.16, No.1, pp.23-24. 17 Andrew Mango ...result of Ukraine’s usage of the Russian exports to Germany. Therefore, the EU has to diversify its natural gas supply to ensure European energy

  2. Speaking Laterally: Transnational Poetics and the Rise of Modern Arabic and Persian Poetry in Iraq and Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Thomas Levi

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation critically investigates the transnational movements that shaped the making of modernist poetry in Iraq and Iran. Following a brief introduction to the project’s historical and critical framework, the first chapter provides the dissertation’s theoretical foundation. It thus engages conversations about literary commitment, the transnational dimension of literary development, and world literature to situate these two poetries as integral to the broader modernist movement. Chapt...

  3. Acute and Long-Term Impact of Chemical Weapons: Lessons from the Iran-Iraq War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, D D; Fox, S C

    2014-07-01

    Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns. Special emphasis is placed on the genocidal use of chemical weapons by the regime of Saddam Hussein, both against Iranians and on Kurdish citizens of his own country, during the Iran-Iraq War of 1980-88. The historical development of chemical weapons use is summarized to show how progressively better insight into biochemistry and physiology was adapted to this form of warfare. Major attributes of the most frequently used chemical agents and a description of how they affected military campaigns are explained. Portions of this review describing chemical-casualty care devote particular focus to Iranian management of neurotoxic (nerve) agent casualties due to the unique nature of this experience. Both nerve and blistering "mustard" agents were used extensively against Iranian forces. However, Iran is the only nation in history to have sustained large-scale attacks with neurotoxic weapons. For this reason, an understanding of the successes and failures of countermeasures to nerve-agent use developed by the Iranian military are particularly valuable for future civil defense and military planning. A detailed consideration of these strategies is therefore considered. Finally, the outcomes of clinical research into severe chronic disease triggered by mustard-agent exposure are examined in the context of the potential of these outcomes to determine the etiology of illness among US and Allied veterans

  4. Mortality and injuries among Iranians in Iraq-Iran war: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, Payman; Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Shokraneh, Farhad; Mohazzab Torabi, Saman; Laal, Marjan; Hadjati, Gholamreza; Khaji, Ali; Rahimi Movaghar, Vafa

    2013-09-01

    The Iraq-Iran war was one of the longest conflicts in the twentieth century. The aim of our research was to review the incidence of mortality and injuries of the war. A search strategy was designed and run in Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, and Iranian databases including Scientific Information Database (SID), IranMedex, and Magiran. Also, searching grey literature, checking references, tracking citations, hand-searching of focused journals, and websites were utilized for retrieval of related studies. All of articles which studied epidemiology of mortality or injuries of the war were included. The excluding criteria were case reports, case series, laboratory researches, and nonoriginal studies. Fourteen articles out of 1751 primary results were selected to be included in the study. During the war (1980 - 1988), 188,015 to 217,489 Iranians were killed (about 70 people per day). The mean age of mortality was 23 years. Six thousand four hundred twenty-seven (2.9%) of those who died during the war were females. One thousand five chemical warfare victims died between 1983 and 1994. From 1985 through 1998, 82 veterans had successful suicides too. At the end of war, we had 398, 587 veterans who needed follow- up. Among them, there were 52,000 chemical warfare victims. Between 1988 and 2003, 1400 people died and 2313 injured due to landmines and unexploded ordnances in five border provinces. The war caused a lot of mortalities and morbidities in our country. Now, 24 years after the war, many physically, mentally, and chemically injured victims have remained. We suggest other studies about indirect impacts of the war on societies, families, friends, and affiliates of the victims.

  5. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 18: The Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeraatkar, Kimia; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Havlin, Tracy; Neves, Karen; Şendir, Mesra

    2016-06-01

    This is the 18th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Middle East (Iran, Qatar and Turkey). The next feature column will investigate trends in the Balkan States JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  6. Follow up of infertile patients after failed ART cycles: a preliminary report from Iran and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Kahraman, Semra; Ugur, Mete Gurol; Agha-Rahimi, Azam; Tabibnejad, Nasim

    2012-03-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has become an established and increasingly successful form of treatment for infertility. However, significant numbers of cycles fail after embryo transfer (ET) and it becomes necessary to follow up the infertile couples after failed ART treatments. The main goal was to follow up the infertile patients after failed IVF/ICSI+ET treatments in Iran and Turkey. 198 infertile couples from Iran and 355 infertile couples from Turkey were followed up after IVF/ICSI failures. The patients' demographic data, the couples' decisions about continuation of treatment and the spontaneous pregnancy rates were compared in the two countries. The drop-out rate was higher in Iran (28.3%) than in Turkey (23.4%). The reasons for treatment discontinuation in Iran and Turkey were: financial problem (33.9% vs. 41%), hopeless (10.7% vs. 22.9%), fear of drug side-effects (7.1% vs. 12%), achieving pregnancy (37.5% vs. 19.6%), child adoption (5.4% vs. 2.4%), lack of spouse cooperation (5.4% vs. 2.4%), and divorce (0% vs. 2.4%). Spontaneous pregnancy was significantly higher in Iran (10.1%) than in Turkey (3.9%). There was correlation between duration of infertility and female factor infertility with spontaneous pregnancy. Since the majority of couples that discontinued treatment had financial problems, it is essential for health professionals to support infertile couples during their childlessness crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategic Effects of the Conflict with Iraq. The Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrill, W

    2003-01-01

    .... Radical Middle Eastern states are deeply concerned about a U.S. presence in Iraq but will probably be constrained from opposing it through subversion due to fear they may become a future target in the war on terrorism...

  8. First Aid and Transportation Course Contents Based on Experience gained in the Iran-Iraq War: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhangi, Forogh; Gholami, Hamid Reza; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Najafi Mehri, Soheil

    2015-02-01

    Effective first aid and transportation influences injury-induced mortality. But few qualitative studies have been conducted so far in this area. The aim of this study was to identify the content of the first aid and patient transportation course based on experience gained from the Iran-Iraq war. This was a conventional qualitative content analysis study; a purposeful sample of 14 first aid and transportation experts who had worked during the Iran-Iraq war was recruited. We collected and analyzed the study data by using the semi-structured interview method and the conventional content analysis approach respectively. Each interview transcript was reviewed several times. Words, sentences, and paragraphs were labeled with codes. Codes were compared with each other and categorized according to their similarities. Similar sub-categories and categories were also grouped together and formed themes. Study participants' experiences of wartime first aid and transportation (FAT) education fell into two main themes including 'the congruence of education and educational needs' and 'managers' engagement in FAT education. The four main categories of these two themes were use of appropriate educational facilities, adopting effective teaching strategies, universal FAT education and specialized training skills. The two key requirements of the first aid and transportation courses are practicality and managerial engagement. We developed and provided specific guidance of FAT curriculum by using the study findings. This curriculum is recommended for educating FAT staffs, paramedics, emergency technicians, and military nurses.

  9. The Significance of 2010 Iran-Turkey-Brazil Nuclear Deal for Turkey and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Bosnia and Serbia- Montenegro issues. It opened 12 new embassies in Turkic states and other countries and granted many scholarships to the students from...U.S. Atoms for Peace, according to which the United States committed to establish a nuclear research reactor and power plants in Iran.236 Iran

  10. The Right to Self-Defence in International Law as a Justification for Crossing Borders: The Turkey-PKK Case within the Borders of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebaz Khdir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available International law grants states an inherent right to self-defence. States can exercise this right whenever they face armed attack. However, any country wishing to exercise its right to self-defence must fully consider all the restrictions on this right. The right to self-defence can permit the use of force within the borders of the victim state or on the territory of another state from where the attack is carried out. Accordingly, states may respond to any attack by the armed forces of another state or irregular armed groups that use the territory of other states for their attacks. Turkey is a country with a huge population of Kurdish inhabitants. The Kurds possess distinct origins, history, language, culture and a historical link to their land. Thus, they qualify as a people. For much of their history they have peacefully sought to assert their rights; however, Turkey denied those rights to the extent that the formation of the PKK in 1978 became amove of last resort. When the PKK started demanding Kurdish right to self-determination, Turkey launched military operations against it in self-defence. During the 1980s and 1990s, the PKK established camps in Iraq. On several occasions it withdrew its forces there as part of peace negotiations with the Turkish government. Turkey crossed the Iraqi borders and attacked the camps as part of a state policy to fight the PKK outside its borders. The PKK subsequently handed over the camps to other groups, which never posed any military threat to Turkey, but Turkish forces continued to cross the border into Iraq. This article examines the right of Turkey to use force within the borders of Iraq under the justification of self-defence.

  11. Consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A consolidated progress report for 1975 on nuclear data activities in the NDS service area is presented for the following countries: Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, South Africa, Yugoslavia

  12. Turkey's response to threats of weapons of mass destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Guray.

    2001-01-01

    Unlike most of its NATO allies, Turkey did not emerge from the Cold War with enhanced security. The acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and ballistic missiles by its neighbors in the Middle Eastâ Iran, Iraq and Syriaâ creates a serious security concern for Turkey. This thesis analyzes the numerous threats posed to Turkey by its neighborsα nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programs and their ballistic missiles. It evaluates Turkeyαs defense options to counter these thre...

  13. The Prevalence of Phenylketonuria in Arab Countries, Turkey, and Iran: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf El-Metwally

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. This paper seeks to identify the prevalence of Phenylketonuria (PKU in Arab countries, Turkey, and Iran. The study reviewed the existence of comprehensive national newborn screening programs and reported consanguinity rates. Methods. A computer based literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve studies conducted on PKU. A total of 34 articles were included. Prevalence was categorized based on the type of screening method used for PKU diagnoses. Results. The prevalence of classical PKU diagnosed through a comprehensive national newborn screening program ranged from 0.005% to 0.0167%. The highest prevalence was reported in Turkey at 0.0167%, whereas the lowest prevalence was reported in the UAE, 0.005%. Conclusion. The findings of this review emphasize the need for the establishment of more efficient reporting systems in these countries that would help measure Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY in order to estimate the overall societal burden of PKU.

  14. Turkey’s Relations with Iran and the United States: A Shift in Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    experienced a golden era during the Ataturk and Riza Shah Pahlavi period. Both states’ fates were similar against the imperial powers. The Soviet...February 21, 2009). 107 Arif Keskin, “Bütün Boyutları ile İran ve Türkiye İlişkileri”, http://www.oyrenci.com/SpecialPart/b5775632-5417-4cf3-a4fa...cetinsaya.pdf (accessed February 21, 2009). 109 Arif Keskin, “Iran-Turkey Relations: Balance, Rivalry and Mutual Dependence”, Avrasya Stratejik

  15. Travel-associated infections caused by unusual serogroups of Legionella pneumophila identified using Legionella BIOCHIP slides in Turkey and Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocazeybek, Bekir S; Yuksel, Pelin; Keskin, Dilek; Sheikh, Suhail; Habip, Zafer; Yavuzer, Serap Sahin; Caliskan, Reyhan; Altun, Yagız Meric; Kuskucu, Mert; Cengiz, Mahir; Dinc, Harika Oyku; Karakullukcu, Asiye; Ergin, Sevgi; Saribas, Suat; Yilmaz, Nail; Tokman, Hrisi Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Although Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 is the common disease causing serogroup, rare serogroups can also may cause legionellosis. A 54-year-old male patient (index case) reported that he had been on a religious trip (for visiting, tomb of Ali, which is important for Shias) to Iraq with a large group (50 shia pilgrims from Kars city of Turkey) two weeks prior to admission. Due to civil war, the hotel where the patient stayed in Iraq lacked proper hygiene. A large number of people in the travel group were experiencing the same symptoms. Other five cases were 2 males (ages; 50, 45) and 3 females including the wife of the index case (ages; 50, 28, 27). The detection of L. pneumophila IgG and IgM was performed by anti-L. pneumophila Indirect Immunofluorescent IgM, IgG kit. Legionella 1 biochip/verification BIOCHIP slides were used for serogrouping in Euroimmun AG, Leubeck, Germany. In index case, L. pneumophila IgM was positive with a titer of 1/32 titer. IgG was negative with a 1/100 titer. Another case (28 year old female), had clinical symptoms identical to the index case. L. pneumophila IgM and IgG were positive with titers of 1/64 and 1/100, respectively. These two cases were diagnosed with Legionnaires' disease caused by L. pneumophila serogroup 12 (index case) and female (28-year-old) by serogroup 11. The other 4 cases were diagnosed with possible Pontiac fever caused by L. pneumophila serogroups 14 (wife of the index case), 4, and 6 whereas the serogroup of L. pneumophila detected in 27 years old female case could not be identified. A major limitation of this work is the absence of genotyping and the serogroup difference between index case and his wife who shared the same hotel. We suggest that this serogroup difference may be caused by (for men and women) sitting separately in Islamic rules. On the other hand, the movement of people in the context of mutual visits between countries or neighboring countries for tourism-related (i.e., for religious events

  16. Long-term effects of mustard gas on respiratory system of Iranian veterans after Iraq-Iran war: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Seyed Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】To review long-term respiratory effects of mustard gas on Iranian veterans having undergone Iraq-Iran war. Electronic databases of Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, and Irandoc sites were searched. We accepted articles published in scientific journals as a quality criterion. The main pathogenic factors are free radical mediators. Preva-lence of pulmonary involvement is approximately 42.5%. The most common complaints are cough and dyspnea. Major respiratory complications are chronic obstructive pulmo-nary disease, bronchiectasis, and asthma. Spirometry re-sults can reveal restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Plain chest X-ray does not help in about 50% of lung diseases. High-resolution CT of the lung is the best modality for diagnostic assessment of parenchymal lung and bronchi. There is no definite curative treatment for mus-tard lung. The effective treatment regimens consist of oxy-gen administration, use of vaporized moist air, respiratory physiotherapy, administration of mucolytic agents, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and long-acting beta-2 agonists, antioxidants, surfactant, magnesium ions, thera-peutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, placement of respira-tory stents, early tracheostomy in laryngospasm, and ulti-mately lung transplantation. High-resolution CT of the lung is the most accurate modality for the evaluation of the lung parenchyma and bronchi. The treatment efficacy of patients exposed to mustard gas depends on patient conditions (acute or chronic, upper or lower respiratory tract involvement. There are various treatment protocols, but unfortunately none of them is definitely curable. Key words: Lung injury; Chemical warfare; Mustard gas

  17. Using game theory approach to interpret stable policies for Iran's oil and gas common resources conflicts with Iraq and Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Maryam; Bahrini, Aram; Shayanrad, Sepideh

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas as the non-renewable resources are considered very valuable for the countries with petroleum economics. These resources are not only diffused equally around the world, but also they are common in some places which their neighbors often come into conflicts. Consequently, it is vital for those countries to manage their resource utilization. Lately, game theory was applied in conflict resolution of common resources, such as water, which is a proof of its efficacy and capability. This paper models the conflicts between Iran and its neighbors namely Qatar and Iraq between their oil and gas common resources using game theory approach. In other words, the future of these countries will be introduced and analyzed by some well-known 2 × 2 games to achieve a better perspective of their conflicts. Because of information inadequacy of the players, in addition to Nash Stability, various solution concepts are used based on the foresight, disimprovements, and knowledge of preferences. The results of mathematical models show how the countries could take a reasonable strategy to exploit their common resources.

  18. From margins to centre: an oral history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in the Iran-Iraq War, 1980-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrovi, Hamid; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh; Vosoughi, Mohammad Bagher; Fathyian, Nasrollah; Ghadirian, Fataneh

    2015-01-01

    The extensive nature of the Iraq-Iran war converted to a human tragedy with large casualties; it has affected nursing discipline dramatically. To analyse the history of the wartime experience of Iranian nurses in Iran-Iraq War. The current study was conducted with oral history. The study sample consisted of 13 Iranian nurses who served in the war zones during the wartime. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to recruit the participants. During the face-to-face interviews, participants were asked to describe their experience in the war zones during the war years. Data collection and analysis took place from April to August 2013, when saturation was reached. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed and then analysed with thematic content analysis. Finally, five themes and 18 subthemes emerged from data analysis of significant statements from 17 interviews. The five emerged themes included (1) 'From margin to centre', (2) 'Development of referral care', (3) 'Personal and professional growth and development', (4) 'The emerging pillar of culture in war nursing' and (5) 'Threats to nursing at the war'. Nursing in Iran at wartime has a difficult path to development. There are powerful implications for clinical practice. It is recommended to continue collection, archiving and analysing the wartime experiences of Iranian nurses.

  19. Comparison of energy conservation building codes of Iran, Turkey, Germany, China, ISO 9164 and EN 832

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayaz, Rima; Kari, Behrouz M.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the energy efficiency of buildings via compliance to regulation in Iran, Code No. 19 was devised in 1991. The code lacks high level aims and objectives, addressing the characteristics of Iranian buildings. As a consequence, the code has been revised and is not completely implemented in practice, and still remains inefficient. As with any energy coding system, this code has to identify the right balance between the different energy variables for the Iranian climate and way of life. In order to assist improvements to high level objectives of Code 19, this code is compared with ISO 9164, EN 832, German regulation, TS 825 of Turkey and China's GB 50189 to understand how these have adapted international standards to national features. In order to test the appropriateness of Code 19, five case study buildings in Iran are assessed against Code 19 as well as Turkish standard TS 825 and the results are compared. The results demonstrate that Code 19 is efficient in calculations of building envelope, but it needs improvements in the areas of ventilation, gains from internal and solar sources. The paper concludes by offering suggestions for improving the code.

  20. Thalassemia mutations in Gaziantep, Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... Table 3. Frequency of β-thalassemia mutations in the Eastern Mediterranean. Mutation. This study Turkey Cyprus Greece Syria Palestine Bulgaria Azerbaijan Iran Iraq. IVS 1.110 (G>A). 29.1. 39.3. 79.7. 42.1. 24.1. 17.6. 24.2. 20.2. 4.8 1.9. IVS 2.1 (G>A). 12.3. 4.7. -. 3.3. 4.2. 2.9. -. -. 33.9 18.3. IVS 1.1 (G>A).

  1. Gene migration for re-emerging amebiasis in Iran's northwest-Iraq borders: a microevolutionary scale for reflecting epidemiological drift of Entamoeba histolytica metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Asad; Spotin, Adel; Mahami-Oskouei, Mahmoud; Haghighi, Ali; Zebardast, Nozhat; Kohansal, Kobra

    2017-01-01

    In the microevolutionary scales of Entamoeba isolates, the gene migration shows how Entamoeba spp. has epidemiologically drifted among border countries. Five hundred fecal samples were taken from patients suffering gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain, and diarrhea at Saggez, northwest Iran located within the border Iraq country. Following parasitological techniques, DNA samples were extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of 18S rRNA region to identify Entamoeba infections. To distinguish the Entamoeba spp., a multiplex PCR was conducted. Amplicons were sequenced to reconfirm their heterogeneity traits and phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, Entamoeba histolytica sequences of Iraq were retrieved from GenBank database. The suspected isolates were diagnosed as E. histolytica (2.2 %), Entamoeba moshkovskii (1 %), and Entamoeba dispar (0.4 %). Mixed Entamoeba infections did not detect among isolates. A parsimonious network of the sequence haplotypes displayed star-like features in the overall isolates containing E.h1, E.d2, and E.m3 as the most common haplotypes. According to analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) test, high partial value of haplotype diversity (0.700 to 0.800) of E. histolytica was shown the total genetic variability within populations while nucleotide diversity was low among Iranian and Iraqi metapopulations. Neutrality indices of the 18S rRNA were shown negative values in E. histolytica populations which indicating significant deviations from neutrality. A pairwise fixation index (F-statistics [Fst]) as a degree of gene flow had a low value for all populations (0.001) while the number of migrants was 2.48. The statistically Fst value indicates that E. histolytica isolates are not genetically differentiated among shared isolates of Iran and Iraq. Occurrence of E.h1 between two regional populations indicates that there is dawn of Entamoeba flow due to transfer of alleles from one population to another population through

  2. Determination of Acetylcholinesrase and Butrylcholinestrase Activities in Whole Blood and Plasma from Different Communities of Khosestan Province (Iran-Iraq War Area) Exposed to Organophosphate Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heybatullah, K.; Jahangiri, A.; Mohebbi, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that Organophosphate Compounds are widely used as pesticides. Therefore while handling, applying or using these compounds care and safe use should be considered. The main mechanism of toxicity action of Organophosphate Compounds is the inhibition of Actylcholinestrase and Butrylcholinesrase enzymes. It is well known that the activity measurement of Acetylcholinestrase in whole blood and Butrylcholinestrase in plasma samples are potential biomarker of exposure to Organophosphates compounds.In this study AchE and BchE activities were determined in whole blood and plasma samples of farmers from two different area of Khosestan province of Iran Gotvand and Dashte Azadegan (Iran-Iraq war zone).Determination of enzymes activities were based on the Ellman colorimetric method which was modified byWorek et al. The results obtained in this study showed that Gotvand area showed lower than normal value and Dashte Azadegan (war area) were significantly lower than the mean of activities in reference group (P less than 0.05). Also results of this study showed Acetylcholinestrase and Butrylcholinestrase inhibition can provide a good biomarker of exposure to OP pesticides in field studies in human population with consideration of other different parameters and factors which will be discussed. (author)

  3. Optimizing Winter Wheat Resilience to Climate Change in Rain Fed Crop Systems of Turkey and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Lopes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Erratic weather patterns associated with increased temperatures and decreasing rainfall pose unique challenges for wheat breeders playing a key part in the fight to ensure global food security. Within rain fed winter wheat areas of Turkey and Iran, unusual weather patterns may prevent attaining maximum potential increases in winter wheat genetic gains. This is primarily related to the fact that the yield ranking of tested genotypes may change from one year to the next. Changing weather patterns may interfere with the decisions breeders make about the ideotype(s they should aim for during selection. To inform breeding decisions, this study aimed to optimize major traits by modeling different combinations of environments (locations and years and by defining a probabilistic range of trait variations [phenology and plant height (PH] that maximized grain yields (GYs; one wheat line with optimal heading and height is suggested for use as a testing line to aid selection calibration decisions. Research revealed that optimal phenology was highly related to the temperature and to rainfall at which winter wheat genotypes were exposed around heading time (20 days before and after heading. Specifically, later winter wheat genotypes were exposed to higher temperatures both before and after heading, increased rainfall at the vegetative stage, and reduced rainfall during grain filling compared to early genotypes. These variations in exposure to weather conditions resulted in shorter grain filling duration and lower GYs in long-duration genotypes. This research tested if diversity within species may increase resilience to erratic weather patterns. For the study, calculated production of a selection of five high yielding genotypes (if grown in five plots was tested against monoculture (if only a single genotype grown in the same area and revealed that a set of diverse genotypes with different phenologies and PHs was not beneficial. New strategies of progeny

  4. IAEA Board of Governors recommends landmark budget increase. ElBaradei updates Board on IAEA work in Iraq and Iran; expresses concern about North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA's Board of Governors today agreed on the first IAEA significant budget increase in more than a decade and a half. The increase of $15 million over the $245 million 2003 regular budget is envisioned to grow to $25 million by 2007. The budget is subject to approval by the IAEA's General Conference in September. 'This represents a real vote of confidence in the IAEA and a recognition of the importance of our work,' IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said. 'It is a long overdue but very welcome first step in tackling the chronic under-funding of the IAEA.' Dr. ElBaradei, in a statement to the Board, said 'The budget that has been agreed responds in a balanced manner to the priorities of the Agency in both the regulatory and developmental fields. The bulk of the increase goes to the verification programme, because that programme has been experiencing the greatest demand for additional resources and has for years been the most chronically under-funded.' In his statement, Dr. ElBaradei also addressed some recent developments of particular importance in Iraq, Iran and North Korea. On Iraq, Dr. ElBaradei referred to the report of his recent verification mission to Iraq, which, he noted, was confined to verification of material subject to safeguards at Location C Nuclear Storage Facility near Tuwaitha. The report notes that at least 10 kg of uranium compounds could have been dispersed. 'While fortunately neither the quantity nor the type of material involved would be sensitive from a proliferation point of view,' Dr. ElBaradei said, 'I have called upon the Authority to ensure the physical protection of the entire nuclear inventory in Iraq and to make every effort to recover, where possible, the looted material and place it under Agency safeguards.' Dr. ElBaradei noted that the Authority has informed the IAEA that it would assume responsibility for nuclear safety. The Agency mission therefore did not look into possible safety and health effects of the

  5. Iran's Sea Power Strategy: Goals and Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, John

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the intent of Iran's sea power strategy using a multipart analysis including a historical review of the transition of Iran's naval power through the Iranian Revolution, Iran-Iraq...

  6. Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Politics and 'Other Means'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Iran has a robust program to exert influence in Iraq to limit American power projection capability in the Middle East, ensure the Iraqi government does not pose a threat to Iran, and build a reliable...

  7. The Impactof the Kurdish Question on Turkey's Relations with its Middle Eastern neighbors

    OpenAIRE

    Asil, Muhammet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Tezin basılısı İstanbul Şehir Üniversitesi Kütüphanesi'ndedir. This dissertation analyzes the “Kurdish Question” from an International Relations perspective. Focusing on the impact of the Kurdish question on Turkey’s relations in the last decade with its Middle Eastern neighbors, i.e. Iran, Syria, and Iraq, and with the European Union; this study shows how Turkey-Middle East and Turkey-EU relations are shaped differently. In the search for reasons for this difference, Realist and Liberal I...

  8. Turkey-Kurdish Regional Government Relations After the U.S. Withdrawal From Iraq: Putting the Kurds on the Map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    springboard for Kurdish terrorist attacks into Turkey, and that it might further complicate its relationship with its own Kurdish pop - ulation. Furthermore...will not allow the PKK to prevail in the [KRG] region”26—all music to Ankara’s ears, although it was hardly the first time Turks have heard such...as prime minister. This obliged Ma- liki to sign up to a 15-point list specifically designed to limit his accretion of power, a trend that had already

  9. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Gang på gang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  10. Impacts of oil disturbances: lessons from experience. [1973-1974 Oil Crisis; 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution; 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T R

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the impacts of previous oil distrubances can be used to suggest the impacts of future oil disturbances. This paper reviews how the 1973-1974 Oil Crisis, the 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution, and the 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War impacted the US and world oil markets. Various measures of impacts are considered, such as impacts on physical flows of crude and products, crude and product price changes on the US and world markets, impacts on stocks of crude and products, and impacts on refiners' inputs and outputs. Various macroeconomic indicators, such as gross national product, inflation rates, and unemployment, are also considered. Of particular interest in this study are the impacts that oil disturbances have had (and could have) on the availabilities of particular crude types and the abilities of US refiners to process crudes of various types in the short run. In addition, this paper reviews how the actions of the consuming countries and the major oil companies affected the impacts of past disturbances. The paper briefly discusses the likely causes and impacts of future oil distrubances and summarizes the lessons to be learned from past reactions to oil disturbances.

  11. The Effect of Global Political Events in the Arab Spring on Stock Returns: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim BOZKURT

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available International events or news have an effect on countries’ internal and external policies and since this effect is reflected on the markets, the decisions of domestic and foreign investors are revised continually. This study aims to analyze the effect of international good and bad news related to Iraq, Iran and Syria that are located in the Arab spring region and are border to Turkey, on the returns of ISE-100 index The study utilized event study methodology, international news related to Iraq, Iran and Syria between 2010-2013 and the daily closing price data of MSCI Emerging Markets Index and ISE-100 index between 2010-2013 constituted the dataset. At the end of the study, it was found that only the Iran-related news had effect on ISE-100 index.

  12. National Security And Institutional Pathologies: A Path Dependent Analysis Of U.S. Interventions In Iran, Guatemala, Cuba, And Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    of social forces” within Iran, and that the company was involved in “activities in intelligence, bribery , and political intrigue,” often acting as a...upswing.”213 Perkins’ arguments won President Eisenhower’s endorsement. Christopher Baughn and Attila Yaprak found linkage between nationalistic...indicator being the level of perceived threat felt within the state.215 Baughn and Yaprak felt that these indicators may be useful in tracking the “ebb and

  13. Nuclear proliferation in the Near East. What is the reaction of the regional neighbors on Iran's nuclear program? An analysis based on the proliferation debate; Nukleare Proliferation im Nahen Osten. Wie reagieren die regionalen Nachbarn auf Irans Nuklearprogramm? Eine Analyse anhand der Proliferationsdebatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erny, Matthias [Zuericher Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften (ZHAW), Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The booklet on the reactions of the neighbor states on Iran's nuclear program covers the following topics: Iran's position in the Near East: historical aspects, Iran's nuclear program. The nuclear proliferation and the theory debate: the role of nuclear weapons in the international policy, proliferation optimism, proliferation pessimism. Analysis of the players and theory criticism: nuclear states (Israel, Pakistan), emerging nuclear states (Saudi Arab, Egypt, Turkey, Syria), states without nuclear weapons (Iraq, Jordan, GCC states); analysis, theory criticism.

  14. Critical assessment of progress of medical sciences in Iran and Turkey: the way developing countries with limited resources should make effective contributions to the production of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2011-11-01

    Scientific progress is an important indicator for the social and economic developments of any country. According to various reports, worldwide, Iran has the most growth in the field of science due to a high increase in the numbers of publications during the past decade. The aim of this study is to assess not only the quantity, but also the quality of publications of indexed Iranian journals and compare them to Turkey, as an Islamic neighboring country, in addition to the contributions of these two countries to our knowledge. A number of international journals with high impact factors were selected to assess the contributions of scientists from Iran and Turkey to the medical sciences. English medical journals from Iran and Turkey indexed by the ISI Web of Sciences with known impact factors (IF) announced at the beginning of 2010 were included for evaluation. We calculated the number of all articles published from the beginning of 2007 until the October 2010, the number of total citations, and citations from authors outside both countries for each journal. In addition, we selected all articles cited at least six times by authors outside of both countries and discussed their content with regard to originality and novelty, as well as their contributions to current knowledge. Furthermore, 60 international journals in basic or clinical research with IF greater than 6 were selected for the magnitude of contributions of both countries to our scientific knowledge. In 2010, out of a total of 21 Iranian journals indexed in ISI since 2007, only 12 have a known IF with a mean of 0.39 (range: 0.07-0.97), whereas out of 28 Turkish medical journals indexed in ISI, 15 have a known IF (mean: 0.35, range: 0.05-0.82). The total number of articles published since 2007 from Iran, total citations and total citations by authors from outside Iran were 2080, 1218, and 463, respectively. The same data related to Turkish journals were 4876, 2036, and 1331, respectively. Indeed, the mean

  15. Differences in biomechanical and EMG variables among Iraq,Iran,Turkey and Syria weightlifters during Olympic lifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ?���� Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accuracy considering the individual differences in performance.

  16. Differences in biomechanical and EMG variables among Iraq,Iran,Turkey and Syria weightlifters during Olympic lifts.

    OpenAIRE

    Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel; Ali Shaboot Alsoodani

    2012-01-01

    ?���� Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accura...

  17. Differences in biomechanical and EMG variables among Iraq,Iran,Turkey and Syria weightlifters during Olympic lifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa Abdulwahab Ismaeel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Weightlifting sport is one of the important sport field that get rise interesting from coaches and careers and researchers, because it's one of the Olympics event. In view of the specialist of its requirement like the fast movement and pull of the weight in fastest it's possible that for the motion analysis is needed and the main way to determine , analyses and correction the good and weak points. The aim of this study is to put a modern aspects in Motion analysis field that more accuracy considering the individual differences in performance.

  18. Strategic Resources of Iraq, Turkey and Iran and the Development of Kurdish Nationalism: The Domestic, Regional and International Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    leaving the land fallow. A tenant farming system benefitted the usually absentee landlord rather than the peasant who worked the field. As a result...conditions were deteriorating. Migration to the cities continued and labour shortages were reported .... Even the drive towards collective farming...improved, and shortages of labour and other constraints connected with the war have combined to necessitate fairly large scale imports of foodstuffs .... At

  19. The Economic Importance of Mineral Production in Iran, Pakistan and Turkey in View of Co-operation in Mineral Exports and Interregional Trade*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Doğan

    1968-06-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of co-operation are discussed regarding exports of mineral commodities, namely, chromite and marble which are produced by the three regional countries.  In order to improve the opportunities for the regional trade among Iran, Pakistan and Turkey, the following minerals can offer potentialities: coking coal, sulphur, barite, bentonite, magnesite, lead and zinc ores and boron minerals, which are in short supply in one country and abundant in another.

  20. Iraq's future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, S.

    1998-01-01

    The large oil reserves of Iraq make it an important player in the long-term political energy world. This article briefly reviews the oil industry''s development and current status in Iraq and discusses the planned oil and gas field development. Finally there is a political discussion regarding the future of Iraq in terms of religion, race and neighbouring countries. (UK)

  1. The molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A and O from 1998 to 2004 in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Jörn; Parlak, Ü.; Özyörük, F.

    2006-01-01

    the region encoding the immuno-dominant GH-loop. Also a close relationship to Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (FMDV) serotype A isolates obtained from outbreaks in Iraq and Iran were detected and a clustering of isolates collected during the same period of time were found. The analysis of the deduced amino...... comparison reported elsewhere do not substantiate such a conclusion. There is evidence that IRN99 was introduced to Turkey, in all probability from Iran. Since, a member of the IRN96 lineage was included as a component of the FMDV vaccine produced since 2000, the outbreaks caused by IRN96 strains in 2004...

  2. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries and in Angola, Ivory Coast, Iran and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations about petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection, exploration and production. The american Enron Corporation has proposed the best proposal for a liquefied natural gas plant in Yemen. Negotiations have begun between several western petroleum companies and Kuwait Petroleum Corporation for exploration-production joint ventures in Kuwait. In Iran, the retrofitting of Lavan island petroleum refinery is studied. Several invitations to bid for blocks of search permits have been started in Qatar, Algeria, Morocco and in Eastern chinese sea

  3. Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Trend of Suicide in Kermanshah during 11 years (2004 to 2014), Iran ... Suicide is one of the most important health problems which has dedicated a significant part ... interaction with different risk factors (Oliver and ... physical and mental diseases, the researchers used .... Due to the lack of professional ability, illiterates are.

  4. "Compassion beyond borders" or "Realpolitik"? : a study of Turkey's responses to the large-scale refugee flow in the aftermath of the Gulf war April to May 1991

    OpenAIRE

    Lepperød, Live

    1997-01-01

    COMPASSION BEYOND BORDERS OR REALPOLITIC? A study of Turkey s responses to the large-scale refugee flow in the aftermath of the Gulf war 1991 The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait 2 August 1990 and the subsequent UN sanctioned war against Iraq in the first months of 1991 generated one of the largest mass displacements of people in recent times. The largest mass movement of people the Gulf conflict set in motion was the flight of up to two million Iraqi Kurds towards Turkey and Iran after the ...

  5. Mission Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This video summarizes the activities of the IAEA inspection teams, assisted by the UN Special Commission on Iraq, to uncover, neutralize and prevent the restart of Iraq's military nuclear programme. It documents the destruction or rendering harmless of various sites and equipment used for nuclear weapon development, sometimes under very difficult conditions, and points out the necessity of establishing a comprehensive and sustainable monitoring system for the future

  6. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  7. Incidence and Prevalence of Tuberculosis in Iran and Neighboring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tavakoli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Tuberculosis is one of the major public health concerns in many countries, however the available and effective treatment is known. Tuberculosis typically determined with socio-economic problems such as war, malnutrition and HIV prevalence. In Iran, many progresses are carried to control tuberculosis but, different factors such as immigration from neighboring countries are affective to tuberculosis infection. Objectives In this paper, the incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis is evaluated in different regions of Iran and neighboring countries. Methods The data are collected from different and valid sources such as Scopus, Pubmed and also many reports from world health organization (WHO and center of disease control and prevention (CDC for a period of 25 years (1990 - 2015 evaluated for Iran and neighboring countries. Results This study as a descriptive- analytical research is conducted cross- sectional among Iran and neighboring countries since 1990. The information is obtained from exact and valid informative data from web of sciences. The east and west border countries of Iran which are faced with war and immigration in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq are source of tuberculosis infection that effect on tuberculosis prevalence in Iran. The data were analyzed by SPSS 22 and Excel 2013. Conclusions The incidence of tuberculosis in Iran has been decreased because of many controlling actions such as BCG vaccination, electronic reporting system for tuberculosis and free access to tuberculosis medication. Some of Iran neighboring countries such as Tajikistan and Pakistan have the highest incidence of tuberculosis which known as a challenge for tuberculosis control in Iran while Saudi Arabia and Turkey have the lowest incidence.

  8. Revision of the genus Odocnemis Allard, 1876 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Helopini) from Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran with observations on feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabozhenko, Maxim; Keskin, Bekir

    2016-12-01

    A revision of the genus Odocnemis of Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran is presented. Thirty species and four subspecies are distributed in this territory. The following 20 new species and subspecies are described: O. dichroa sp. n., O. allardi sp. n., O. merkli sp. n., O. seducta sp. n., O. aegaeica sp. n., O. euritopica sp. n., O. subtuberculigera sp. n., O. subtuberculigera thracica subsp. n., O. erseni sp. n., O. molecularica sp. n., O. shokhini sp. n., O. inornata sp. n., O. altimontana sp. n., O. amanosica sp. n., O. cordiformis sp. n., O. kakunini sp. n. O. evestigata sp. n., O. torosica sp. n., O. torosica subangulata subsp. n., Odocnemis hakkariensis sp. n. The name of the genus is feminine, therefore all species names are transformed from masculine to feminine. Almost all new taxa are described from Turkey; O. amanosica sp. n. is additionally recorded from Syria, O. allardi sp. n.-from Armenia, Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan) and Iran, O. kakunini sp. n. from Iran. New synonymies are established: Odocnemis anatolica (Pic, 1899) = Stenomax korbi Reitter 1902: 219, syn.n.; Odocnemis recticollis (Allard, 1877) = Stenomax kurdistanus Reitter, 1902: 221, syn.n.; Odocnemis punctata Allard, 1876 = Cylindronotus (Odocnemis) pseudoclarus Reitter, 1922, syn.n. The following lectotypes are designated: Helops (Odocnemis) anatolicus Pic, 1899, Helops (Stenomax) seriegranatus Seidlitz, 1896, Cylindronotus (Odocnemis) opertus Reitter, 1922, Stenomax recticollis Allard, 1876, Odocnemis punctata Allard, 1876, Helops (Odocnemis) protinus Reitter in Bodemeyer, 1900. Holotypes and paratypes of all other Turkish species of Odocnemis are studied. Two new combinations are established: Odocnemis gloriosa (Faldermann, 1837), comb. n. (from Nalassus Mulsant, 1854) and Odocnemis terminasianae (Nabozhenko, 2011), comb. n. (from Armenohelops Nabozhenko, 2002). Five species O. bosphoranus (Allard, 1876), O. amasiae (Seidlitz, 1896), O. scutellatus (Reitter, 1902), O. fundator (Reitter, 1908

  9. SECULARIST AND ISLAMIST CONSTITUTIONAL AND POLITICAL CONCEPCTIONS IN THE MODERN MUSLIM WORLD: THE CASES OF KEMALIST TURKEY AND KHOMEINI’S IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Gjorshoski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern constitutional and political concepts, in a broad sense, represent an expressed codification of the elements of value that structure the relevant society or the particular group that tries to project or channel them through the existing order. The secularism vs. Islamism dichotomy is a part of such a conceptual framework. The author elaborates and compares both ultimate constitutional and political designs, specifying them through the example of Turkey and Iran, as well as to shows the basic characteristics through the prism of their political legitimacy, the organization of power, the human rights and freedoms, as well as the possibility of political activism. The thesis that the author notes develops in the direction of a warning that the extremes contained in the constitutional provisions in the vividly ideologically divided societies can be a source of a conflict and/or can generate instability or suffocation of the pluralism in the political arena.

  10. Immigrant patients' experiences and reflections pertaining to the consultation: a study on patients from Chile, Iran and Turkey in primary health care in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiking, Eivor; Saleh-Stattin, Nuha; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Our knowledge of the immigrant patient's experiences and reflections regarding consultations in primary health care where interpreters are used is limited. Thus, the primary aim was to explore these experiences and reflections. The second aim was to study whether demographic and migration-related factors are associated with the patient's satisfaction with the consultation and feeling of consolation given by the general practitioner (GP). The third aim was to analyse whether these feelings are related to the time from the booking to the consultation, to self-reported health, symptoms and the patient's experiences. A questionnaire was distributed to 78 consecutive immigrant patients from Chile, Iran and Turkey at 12 primary healthcare centres around Stockholm. The respondents were asked about their background and health status, while open-ended questions focused on their experiences and comments regarding the consultation and cross-cultural communication in general. Ethical approval was obtained. The respondents consisted of 52 patients, 16 from Chile, nine from Iran and 27 from Turkey. Most of the answers concerned communication problems because of language and cultural differences between the GP and the patient and the GP's ability to listen. Therefore, the importance of having a competent interpreter for a satisfactory consultation was stressed. Many of the respondents also felt that the GP's ability to listen to them and understand them is crucial in the consultation. Background facts, including demographic and migration-related factors, health status and factors related to the consultation, did not seem to be associated with the patient's satisfaction and the feeling of consolation. One limitation is that the sample is small and not equally distributed. The use of authorized interpreters during the consultation is essential. The consultation must be based on a patient-centred strategy and adjusted to the patient's educational level. Cultural competence is needed

  11. Two Independent Pillars of Policy -- The Saudi and American Approaches to Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macalintal, Jr, Romeo R

    2008-01-01

    With the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent instability in Iraq, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran find themselves at the center of a struggle for power in the Middle East...

  12. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... In part to direct regional attention to that view but also to engage Iran on an Iraq solution, the Administration attended regional conferences on Iraq on March 10, 2007, and May 3-4, 2007, both attended by Iran (and Syria...

  13. Astronomy in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  14. Analysis of Red Pigments from the Neolithic sites of Çatalhöyük in Turkey and Sheikh-e Abad in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma; Almond, Matthew J; Matthews, Wendy; Cinque, Gianfelice; Frogley, Mark D

    2014-10-15

    Samples containing red pigment have been collected from two different archaeological sites dating to the Neolithic (Çatalhöyük in Turkey and Sheikh-e Abad in Iran) and have been analysed by a range of techniques. Sub-samples were examined by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, whilst thin sections were studied using optical polarising microscopy, synchrotron based IR microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Thin layers of red paint in a wall painting from Çatalhöyük were found to contain ochre (hematite and clay) as well as an unexpected component, grains of red and colourless obsidian, which have not been identified in any previous studies of the wall paintings at Çatalhöyük. These small grains of obsidian may have improved the reflective properties of the paint and made the artwork more vivid in the darkness of the buildings. Analysis of a roughly shaped ball of red sediment found on a possible working surface at Sheikh-e Abad revealed that the cause of the red colouring was the mineral hematite, which was probably from a source of terra rossa sediment in the local area. The results of this work suggest it is unlikely that this had been altered by the Neolithic people through mixing with other minerals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MILITARY MEDICINE, 175,5:367,2010 An Unexpected Case of Lyme Disease in a Soldier Serving in Northern Iraq CPT Jeremy B. Fisher, SP USA *; CPT...Christopher E. Curtis, MC USAt 188143 ABSTRACT Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cases have been...Turkey.3-S We report an unexpected case of Lyme disease from Iraq. CASE REPORT A 28-year-old active duty Army male, on a deployment to northern Iraq

  16. Synoptic characteristics of dust over the southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiraie-Boroujerdy, P.; Ghahri, F.; Ranjbar Saadatabadi, A.

    2012-12-01

    Iran is frequently affected by dust events because it is located in arid and semiarid belt of the world. As Khozestan province is in the vicinity of large deserts and also due to especial atmospheric conditions the frequency of dust in this area is increased in the recent years. Therefore it has the destructive affect on the healthcare, economy, social and etc. The study is based on the, sea level, 850 mb and 500 mb weather charts, surface wind field and observations weather data during the period of 1968-2008. By numerical simulation with WRF modeling it has tried to high light provide an answer to how this event produced and reached to Ahwaz. It has been shown in this 40 years, dust events by high strength and frequency occur in July in Ahwaz. Synoptic patterns revealed that for making sever dust event Persian Gulf thermal trough extends to the north west of Iraq and European ridge extends over the Black sea and large part of the Turkey by passing waves of middle level Mediterranean trough from northwest of Iraq and east of Syria. Numerical simulation shows strong surface flow over source regions in northwest of Iraq and east of Syria, creation westerly low level jet in low-lying areas and the increase in friction velocity in the source regions. In the deserts of Iraq and north east of Syria increase in friction velocity to its highest value (approx 0.6 m/s) causes reduction in visibility and by decrease to lowest value (approx 0.4 m/s) visibility reaches up to 600 meters in Ahwaz.

  17. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Korean War, when Turkey sent troops in support of the United Nations defense of South Korea. As a Muslim country, Turkey’s cooperation with the United...history of Turkish cinema : “Valley of the Wolves Iraq.” The United States military deemed the film and its viewers potentially dangerous enough that

  18. Iran: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  19. The Effect on the Indicators of Unemployment of International Crude Oil Price Volatility: Empirical Findings on the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Erkan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil prices may have an impact on economic activity through various transmission channels. A number of recent studies have emphasized the role of oil prices and macro-economic variables. The aim of this paper is to study the short-term/longterm relationship between oil prices and unemployment in Turkey. The most common cause of increasing oil prices over the last thirty years has been a decrease in supply. Prices increased during the early 1970s as OPEC reduced supply. Again prices increased in the late 1970s and early 1980s as the collapse of the government of the Shah of Iran and subsequent war between Iran and Iraq threatened supply. We applied Granger causal modals to determine if oil prices “Granger Caused” unemployment for data between 2005:01 and 2009:12 in Turkey. However, we performed Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR to determine the relationship between to variables in question, to estimate these relationships and to determine the delay values. As a result, long-term relationship between oil prices and unemployment rate are available in Turkey, and changes in the unemployment rate do not affect oil prices, oil prices changes affect the unemployment rate (this effect is the opposite direction

  20. Oil Regime Change in Iraq. Possible Strategic Implications for OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon Von Ochssee, T.A.

    2006-06-01

    The potential strategic impact of regime change in Iraq and Iran on OPEC in the long-run is explored. In the first part of the paper short overviews are given of the present international oil market; of US oil import issues and energy policy; of the strategic position of the US in the Persian Gulf and of geopolitical developments in the Persian Gulf at large. Also, attention is paid to the OPEC and the role of a 'new' Iraq. In the second part the game of 'boxed pigs' is used to explore the possible strategic impact of regime change in Iraq and possible regime change in Iran on OPEC. This exploration takes place within four possible futures for the Gulf

  1. The Iranian century: the tension between Iran and the Gulf States

    OpenAIRE

    Al Kaabi, Yousef H.; Al Kaabi, Khaled M.

    2011-01-01

    The Arabian Gulf represents a significant part in the world because of its oil wealth. During the last thirty years, three wars have taken place in the region resulting in regional and global instability: the Iran-Iraq war; the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The fall of Iraq made Iran more powerful in the region, and as a domination strategy, Iran launched its nuclear program. Iran represents a major power in the region; it can destabilize the region...

  2. The Politics of Syrian Refugees in Turkey: A Question of Inclusion and Exclusion through Citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Koser Akcapar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey began to receive refugees from Syria in 2011 and has since become the country hosting the highest number of refugees, with more than 3.5 million Syrians and half a million people of other nationalities, mainly from Afghanistan, Iraq and Iran. An important turning point regarding the legal status of Syrian refugees has come with recent amendments to the Turkish citizenship law. Based on ongoing academic debates on integration and citizenship, this article will explore these two concepts in the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey. We will argue that the shift in the Turkish citizenship law is a direct outcome of recent migration flows. We further argue that the citizenship option is used both as a reward for skilled migrants with economic and cultural capital and as a tool to integrate the rest of the Syrians. It also reflects other social, political and demographic concerns of the Turkish government. Using our recent ethnographic study with Syrians and local populations in two main refugee hosting cities in Turkey, Istanbul and Gaziantep, we will locate the successes and weaknesses of this strategy by exemplifying the views of Syrian refugees on gaining Turkish citizenship and the reactions of Turkish nationals.

  3. Iraq's Tourism Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Dabidian; Mohammed Wafaa Al-Ani; Christopher Hassaan Francke; Ahmed Redwan

    2013-01-01

    While it will require further political stability and security, tourism in Iraq stands to be a major growth sector. The Iraqi tourism sector is currently underdeveloped and in a state of neglect, due to decades of war, closed regimes and recurrent instability and insecurity. However, as Iraq continues to develop and stabilizes, it can begin to meet its tremendous potential as a global tour...

  4. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    The document includes three attachments: the letter of 3 May 1984 from the Director General of the IAEA to the Resident Representative of Iraq, the letter of 10 May 1984 to the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of Iraq and the summary record of discussion in the Board of Governors on 5 June 1984 at its 619th meeting concerning item 20 of the provisional agenda ''Military attack on Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant''

  5. Humanitarian situation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne ten Veen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing violence is severely constraining the humanitarian space and making it next to impossible to deliver emergency relief to many vulnerable groups in the worst-affected areas of central Iraq.

  6. Iraq: A Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Jon C., Ed.

    Accused of harboring and supporting terrorists, Saddam Hussein's country of Iraq sits at the top of a short list of targets in United States war on terrorism. Iraq is a country about twice the size of the state of Idaho with a population of over 22 million. The country relies on oil for its economic well-being and controls what some estimate to be…

  7. Ring Recoveries from Steppe Eagles and Eastern Imperial Eagles from the Russian and Kazakhstan Breeding Populations and a Review of Major Threats to Eagles in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Al-Sheikhly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles (Aquila nipalensis and 2 Eastern Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca from Iraq that were ringed in Russia and Kazakhstan, as well as ring recoveries from 2 Steppe Eagles and 3 Eastern Imperial Eagles from the border regions of Iraq (Iran, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia that were ringed in Russia. Threats for eagles in Iraq are discussed in this article.

  8. Income from oil could have made Iraq's economy flourish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenweisner, R.; Hirman, K.

    2003-01-01

    He whole economy of Iraq is based on oil industry. 95 percent of Iraq's foreign currency income is traditionally related to oil export. Another typical feature of its economy is a high level of government interference and dependence on food import. Though Iraq has the second largest proven oil reserves in the world and a reasonably good transport and export infrastructure it is struggling with economical problems. It was the wars that have had a major impact on the country's economy during the last two decades. In late seventies and early eighties Iraq's economic perspectives seemed very positive. Iraq was winning 3.5 million barrels of oil a day and the export incomes exceeded 27 billion USD. Tedious wars with the neighbouring Iran in the eighties cost Iraq according to American CIA's estimates about 100 billion USD. Before the wars started Iraq's foreign currency reserves reached 35 billion USD but the high cost of the war and all damage done to the oil facilities caused that before it ended Iraq was forced to take credits and later even restructure the related repayments. By the end of the conflict Iraq's foreign indebtedness grew to exceed 40 billion USD. After the war ended conditions became more favourable for increasing volumes of oil export, building of new pipelines and reconstruction of damaged facilities. But only two years later Saddam Hussain's regime invaded Kuwait and this lead to a military intervention by a coalition lead by the USA and the United Nations inflicted economical sanctions against Iraq. As a result the economic activity in the country decreased dramatically. The limited recourses the country had were used to finance military forces. Living conditions of Iraq's citizens slightly improved in second half of the nineties after United Nations allowed the country to export a limited amount of oil in exchange for food, medicines and some spare parts needed for reconstruction of the infrastructure. In 1999 the United Nations adopted changes to

  9. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  10. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  11. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs

  12. Geopolitical hotspots : Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. [Centre for Global Energy Studies, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    The government of Iraq fell one month after the United States and its allies launched an invasion on the country in March, 2003. The problems that ensued included looting, sabotage and alienation of the occupying powers from the Iraqi people. The author states that despite these problems, progress has been made in Iraq in terms of an Iraqi governing council which will hand back power to Iraqis by the end of June 2004. The goal is to have an election of a constitutional assembly by the end of January 2005. Progress has also been made in terms of restoring pre-invasion oil production capacity, despite sabotage to pipelines and oilfields. The Iraqi Oil Ministry claimed to have raised oil production to 2.5 million barrels per day (mbpd) by mid-March 2004, and exports to the Turkish port of Ceyhan were restored. The future of Iraq's oil production remains uncertain. Although a transitional government could contract foreign companies to boost production from existing oilfields for the short-term, the author emphasized that a permanent government must be elected by the people of Iraq before any long-term contracts for new oilfield development can be negotiated. The government elected by the people of Iraq should determine the structure of its own oil industry and any future relationships with foreign oil companies. tabs., figs.

  13. Analysis of synoptic situation for dust storms in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Ibrahim, Morwa K. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    Dust storms are considered major natural disasters that cause many damages to society and environment in Iraq and surrounded deserted regions. The aim of this research is to analyze and study the synoptic patterns leading to the formation of dust storms in Iraq. Analysis are based on satellite images, aerosols index and synoptic weather maps. Two severe dust storms occurred over Iraq on February 22, 2010, and on December 10, 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that dust storms form when a low-pressure system forms over Iran causing Shamal winds blow; they carry cool air from that region towards warmer regions like eastern Syria and Iraq. In some cases, this low-pressure system is followed by a high-pressure system brining more cold air to the region and pushing dust toward south. Dust storms are initiated from source regions near Iraq-Syria borders by the existence of negative vertical velocity, which causes dust particles to be lifted upwards, and the strong westerly wind drives dust to travel eastward.

  14. Letters from Officer/Orientalist K.N. Smirnov from the Caucasian Front as a Source for the Study of the Military/Political Situation in Turkey and Iran in 1914–1917 (Continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugzar K. Ter-Oganov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to analyze the letters of officer/orientalist and military oriental scholar, officer in the Intelligence Section of the Staff of the Caucasian Military District, Staff Captain Konstantin Nikolayevich Smirnov, sent by him from the Turkish and Iranian sectors of the Caucasian front to his wife Kseniya Karlovna Smirnova (Kester over the period 1914–1917. Depending on changes in the deployment of Russian troops fighting against the Turkish army, as well as the German-Turkish block, both in the north-eastern part of Turkey and in the north-west of Iran, K.N. Smirnov had sent those letters from Kamarli, Diadin, Iğdır, Beyazıt, Trebizond, Kazvin, Kermanshah, Kerind, Qasr-e Shirin, Ava now to Tiflis and now to Sevastopol, Hamadan, and Kazvin, where his wife was staying at that particular point in time. K.N. Smirnov’s surviving letters, just like their fragments, give us an idea of the military/political situation along the line of contact with the enemy on the Caucasian front, as well as many aspects of the activity of officers from the Expeditionary Corps of General N.N. Baratov in Iran over the period 1915–1917. Of interest is his characterization of the personal qualities of many Russian officers, such as General N.N. Baratov, the immediate superior of Staff Captain Smirnov, who at the time headed the reconnaissance unit of the Expeditionary Corps, Colonel N.F. Ern, Chief of Staff, and other officers of the corps. The letters also bring to light the character of activity by K.N. Smirnov as a ―political officer‖. K.N. Smirnov’s letters contain extremely rare information on the episode of short-term Anglo-Russian military cooperation on the Caucasian front intended to coordinate actions against Turkish troops in Mesopotamia.

  15. Danish soldiers in Iraq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2011-01-01

    the assumption that other factors than combat exposure-psychosocial and cultural-are of importance in increasing psychological distress among soldiers deployed to Iraq. Additionally, we have shown that the reporting of multiple physical symptoms among the deployed soldiers is closely related to increased...

  16. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  17. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  18. Iran: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at the end of its war with Iraq, Iran embarked on an urgent program to restore its productive capacity. This effort has been hindered by lack of hard currency and, hence, technology, parts, equipment, etc. Iran has been trying to improve relations with the U.S, over the past two years. Recently, the embargo on importing Iranian crude into the U.S. was lifted. Over the past year and a half, Iran accumulated enough money to resume imports of U.S. and other foreign drilling equipment. However, drilling has remained at a low level. Also, efforts to boost output have been slowed by war damage both on and offshore---particularly the latter---and serious BHP declines in major onshore fields that can only be corrected by ultra- high cost gas injection projects. Currently, large injection projects are only operating in three major fields: Gachsaran, Ahwaz and Marun

  19. Health problems in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheson, E D

    1992-02-22

    Iraq is faced with large scale public health problems that have been caused by the destruction to their infrastructure during the Gulf war. Humanitarian aid is needed in order to avoid a large scale human disaster. In 1988 73% of Iraq's population lived in urban areas. The loss of electrical generating capacity has affected hospitals, water purification and sewage treatment. Iraq had made great strides int he health of their people with an infant mortality rate of 42/1000 in 1990 and 52./1000 for children under 5. The international study team's survey of over 9000 households revealed surprising evidence of widespread chronic malnutrition. Based on accepted mortality as a baseline, data suggests that mortality among Iraqi infants and children under 5 doubled in 1991. The current food ration provides only half of the energy requirement and with rapidly accelerating inflation, the cost of food while only make the situation worse. The UN Disaster Relief Office has received $1.059 billion from donor countries; but, only half of the requested $14 million has been funded through Unicef. This money is needed to meet basic requirements for water, sanitation, antibiotics, and vaccines. The UN Security Council approved resolutions 706 and 712 which would have allowed Iraq to sell $1.6 billion for foodstuffs, medicines, and materials and supplies necessary to civilian needs subject to monitoring and supervision to ensure equitable distribution. The Iraqi government has not met the requirements of 706 and 712 because of the monitoring conditions, so no money has been issued. More money is needed if humanitarian organizations are to do their work. Only $29 million of the $145 million needed for the 1st half of this year has been pledged.

  20. Iraq's bomb: Blueprints and artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    After more than half a year of investigating Iraq's clandestine nuclear program, UN and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors found the biggest remaining piece of the puzzle: details of Iraq's effort to design and develop a nuclear explosive device. On September 22, an inspection team - the seventh sent by the UN Special Commission to uncover Iraq's weapons of mass destruction - discovered the nuclear weapons program archives at program headquarters in Baghdad. Many of the documents found there recorded Iraq's plans and progress. Less than a week earlier, Rahim Al-Kital, Iraq's ambassador to the IAEA, informed the agency's 1991 conference in Vienna that Iraq had already 'told the United Nations everything,' and that inspectors were 'guessing' about a nuclear weapons program that did not exist. But the find put an end to any doubts that Iraq's secret effort to enrich uranium was for weapons purposes. The documents showed that since 1988 or 1989 Iraq had invested heavily in facilities to develop and make nuclear weapons. By mid 1990, Iraqi scientists had made some progress in understanding how a relatively crude nuclear explosive device with a core of highly enriched uranium would work, and they had done some experiments on parts of the technology. By that time, an experimental program was under way for using shaped conventional charges to activate a nuclear explosion by uniformly compressing a uranium sphere. But on the eve of the Kuwait invasion, Iraqi experts still had many theoretical and experimental questions to answer

  1. Along-strike structural variation and thermokinematic development of the Cenozoic Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt, Turkey and Iraqi Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Douglas E.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Koshnaw, Renas I.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Yilmaz, Ismail O.

    2016-04-01

    The Bitlis-Zagros orogen in northern Iraq is a principal element of the Arabia-Eurasia continent collision and is characterized by the lateral intersection of two structural domains: the NW-SE trending Zagros proper system of Iran and the E-W trending Bitlis fold-thrust belt of Turkey and Syria. While these components in northern Iraq share a similar stratigraphic framework, they exhibit along-strike variations in the width and style of tectonic zones, fold morphology and trends, and structural inheritance. However, the distinctions of the Bitlis and Zagros segments remains poorly understood in terms of timing and deformation kinematics as well as first-order controls on fold-thrust development. Structural and stratigraphic study and seismic data combined with low-T thermochronometry provide the basis for reconstructions of the Bitlis-Zagros fold-thrust belt in southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to elucidate the kinematic and temporal relationship of these two systems. Balanced cross-sections were constructed and incrementally restored to quantify the deformational evolution and use as input for thermokinematic models (FETKIN) to generate thermochronometric ages along the topographic surface of each cross-section line. The forward modeled thermochronometric ages from were then compared to new and previously published apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He and fission-track ages from southeastern Turkey and northern Iraq to test the validity of the timing, rate, and fault-motion geometry associated with each reconstruction. The results of these balanced theromokinematic restorations integrated with constraints from syn-tectonic sedimentation suggest that the Zagros belt between Erbil and Suleimaniyah was affected by an initial phase of Late Cretaceous exhumation related to the Proto-Zagros collision. During the main Zagros phase, deformation advanced rapidly and in-sequence from the Main Zagros Fault to the thin-skinned frontal thrusts (Kirkuk, Shakal, Qamar) from middle

  2. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  3. Iran irritates and puzzles the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressburg, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author analyses political and economic situation in the Iran. Iran is endangered by economic sanctions and military attacks on nuclear facilities, the president threatens by retributive military attacks. Situation in Iran is compared with Iraq. Perspectives of application of political and economic embargo against Iran are discussed. USA and co-adjuster would probably meet the Russian or Chinese veto. On the international markets or on the bilateral level the good volition to disable to Iran the sale of its oil and natural gas would by scarcely expected. Iran exports from 2.5 to 3 million barrels of oil daily. It is impossible to substitute Iran essentially. The country is the fourth biggest exporter of oil in the world and has the second biggest stocks of oil after Saudi Arabia. Iran is endangered by the fact that big question mark will stay to hang above nuclear program. The part of uranium is imported from African countries like Gabon and Niger through France and the sanctions of UN would stop this import. Iran has its own uranium fields, even which belongs to the largest in the world. However, Iran cannot exploit them effectively without help of western companies. Nuclear program, which is supported by big hope and sources from the country, probably collide with unexpected barriers. Even if UN Safety Council would not confirmed anti-Iran sanctions, the seven states that produce nuclear technologies would stop their sale to Iran. It would freeze its civilian and military nuclear program from a few years or some decades

  4. Baku paper reports Armenian role in Iran's nuclear program

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "The war in Iraq has made the subject of nuclear research in countries of the third world a matter of current interest. Talk at this time is mostly about Iran, which has oil, and American experts believe, will in the next 3-4 years be perfectly capable of making a nuclear bomb" (1 page).

  5. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  6. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  7. Iraq: Politics, Elections, and Benchmarks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Iraq's political system, the result of a U.S.-supported election process, is increasingly exhibiting peaceful competition but continues to be riven by sectarianism and ethnic and factional infighting...

  8. Tendency towards the Self-Citation among Journals in Iran and Turkey / İran ve Türkiye Dergilerinde Kendine Atıf Yapma Eğilimleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Biglu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper investigates the trends of Impact Factors and self-citation rates of journals indexed in the JCR by two neighbouring countries Iran and Turkey for a period of five years (2000- 2005. All data extracted from the Journal Citation Reports – Science Edition (2000-2005. The study showed that the portion of Turkish journals entering data to the JCR data bank is two times higher than the portion of Iranian journals. From a total number of 6,088 journals in the JCR in 2005, 3 (0.05% were published in Iran and the same number of journals published in Turkey. The 6,088 journals in the JCR produced 847,114 articles, 159 (0.02% appeared in the Iranian journals and 352 (0.04% in the Turkish journals. Of the 22,353,992 citations in 2005, 214 (0.001% came from Iranian journals and 911 (0.004% came from Turkish journals.The self-citation tendency by Iranian journals has increased dramatically throughout the period of study, it reached from 8% self-citation rate in 2000 to 18% in 2005, an increase of 2.25 times, whereas the self-citation rate by Turkish journals showed a negative trend, its self-citation rate fell from 22% in 2002 to 15% in 2005. The Impact Factors of Turkish journals showed faster growth than the Iranian journals, the mean value of Impact Factor for Turkish journals in 2000 was 0.49 under than the mean value of Impact Factor for Iranian journals, but in 2005 the mean value of Impact Factor for Turkish journals stayed 0.14 higher than the mean value of Impact Factor for Iranian journalsÖzBu makale, iki komşu ülke, İran ve Türkiye tarafından 5 yıl (2000-2005 içinde üretilen yayınlardan JCR’de dizinlenen dergilerdeki kendine atıfları ve etki faktöründeki eğilimleri incelemektedir. Bütün veriler JCR-Science Edition (2000-2005’den alınmıştır. Çalışma, Türk dergilerinin İran dergilerinden iki kat fazla miktarda JCR’ye girdiğini göstermektedir. 2005 yılında JCR’de yer alan toplam 6

  9. Electrical connections: Iran's power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Attention is drawn to business opportunities in Iran, a middle-eastern country that is still in the process of rebuilding its power generating capacity in the wake of its eight-year-long war with Iraq. In reviewing opportunities to tap into this market , the article lists a number of factors that must be considered before rushing to follow the current. One of these factors is the U.S. trade embargo against Iran. Under this embargo Canada does not allow the re-export of goods of U.S. origin from Canada to Iran. The complex character of doing business in Iran by foreign companies must also be considered. Nevertheless,, those who are well prepared to face the restrictions and are willing to take the time to learn about the 'Iranian way' may receive considerable help from the Export Development Corporation, including financing and insurance on a case-by-case basis. The Canadian government's program for export market development also offers direct financial assistance to Canadian exporters in an effort to reduce the risk of entering a foreign market. The Canadian Embassy in Tehran can also provide useful advice and assistance. There is also http://exportsource.gc.ca., Team Canada Inc.'s on-line resource that may be consulted for export information

  10. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The Kurdish-inhabited region of northern Iraq is relatively peaceful and prospering economically, but the Iraqi Kurds political autonomy and political strength in post- Saddam Iraq is causing friction...

  11. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    .... The initial section of the report, "Stability and Security in Iraq," describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, economic progress, and achieving a stable security environment in Iraq...

  12. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    ... of the report, "Stability and Security in Iraq," describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, strengthening economic activity, and achieving a stable security environment in Iraq...

  13. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  14. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    the Central Bank assets discussed above could be used to pay the terrorism judgements —a decision that resulted in Iranian threats to sue the United...legislation that might affect Iran’s behavior might also be inconsistent with the JCPOA. See also CRS Report R43333, Iran Nuclear Agreement, by Kenneth...against Iran have multiple objectives and address multiple perceived threats from Iran simultaneously. This report analyzes U.S. and international

  15. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Mars Co. (candy manufacturer); Kraft Foods; Wrigley’s (gum); and McCormick and Co. ( spices ). Some previously licensed U.S. goods have been sold through...that deliveries had begun. India India is implementing international sanctions against Iran but its cultural , economic, and historic ties—as well...September 2012. • Barring Iran from International Sporting Events. A further option is to limit sports or cultural exchanges with Iran, such as

  16. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    sanctions and human rights-related provisions of CISADA and other laws. For a broader analysis of policy on Iran, see CRS Report RL32048, Iran: U.S...the Treasury Department, saw business opportunity by picking up the transactions business from a competitor who had, in accordance with U.S...and South Korea announced that their automakers Toyota , Hyundai, and Kia Motors would cease selling automobiles to Iran. • Attorneys for BNP

  17. Iran's nuclear lies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Beyond the antiaircraft gun emplacements and the early-warning radar systems, and shortly before you get to the high concrete walls topped with concertina wire that surround Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, there's a large sign announcing that the facility Welcomes guests. Like so much about die Iranian nuclear program, die signals are incongruous, contradictory and more then a little sinister. If Iran is to be believed, then the world has nothing to fear from its nuclear program. The United States, Europe, Israel, Saudi Arabia and other oil producers nearby can rest easy, because the ayatollahs have no plans to threaten the region with atomic weapons or put nukes in the hands of terrorists. If Iran is to be believed, its only goal, repeated countless times, ratified in treaties and open to inspections, is to develop a completely independent ability to make nuclear ir fuel and use it to generate electricity. But neither die United States nor Eu rope nor the United Nations is ready simply to believe Iran, at least not easily, and not without verification. Its record of concealment and deceit about its nuclear program goes back at least 20 years. Its extensive uranium-enrichment program was uncovered in detail only two years ago; its promise of 'full disclosure' and 'transparency' since then has been something considerably less. The election of a new hard-line Iranian president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, last month raises still more questions about how far Tehran can be trusted about its nuclear programs, if at all. Iran's concealments have been as vast as a secret underground facility at Natanz that was being readied for 50,000 centrifuges to enrich uranium when it was exposed in 2002. They have seemed as small as some undeclared milligrams of plutonium from a research laboratory. In a cat-and-mouse game reminiscent of the lead-up to the Iraq invasion in 2003, the Iranians have claimed to be cooperating while throwing up what often seem to be petty obstacles in front

  18. Negotiating a deal in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The legal and diplomatic environment surrounding oil production negotiations in Iraq was discussed with reference to the essential terms generally negotiated for upstream contracts between oil companies and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil. Legal considerations were discussed for the following upstream contracts: production sharing contracts, a risk service contract, a modified buy-back contract, a technical service contract, and a joint venture company. It was noted that negotiations in Iraq require a great amount of diplomacy as projects are very high profile and attract significant international attention. Information sharing is critical in gaining valuable government support. The main problem for interested investors in Iraq is predicting when the UN sanctions will be lifted. Once lifted, the Ministry of Oil's Development Plan is to increase oil production through the co-operative assistance of foreign oil companies. While the sanctions remain in place, Iraq is allowed to sell oil on a renewable basis every 6 months under the oil-for-food programme, which permits Iraq to spend US$600 million every 6 months for spare parts to upgrade its oil industry. 9 figs

  19. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  20. Minimal debridement or simple wound closure as the only surgical treatment in war victims with low-velocity penetrating head injuries. Indications and management protocol based upon more than 8 years follow-up of 99 cases from Iran-Iraq conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirjamshidi, Abbass; Abbassioun, Kazem; Rahmat, Hamid

    2003-08-01

    During military conflicts, surviving victims traditionally underwent large enough craniectomy or craniotomy to achieve extensive debridement of the in-driven bone, shell fragments, and debris. Meanwhile, the completely as well as the partially devitalized adjacent brain tissue would also be debrided. This might have led to additional neurologic deficit or lesser degree of recovery of functions. We studied the efficacy and safety of much more limited or even absence of surgical intervention in a selected group of wartime head-wounded patients. Among 1,150 war victims with penetrating head wounds referred to two major centers affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences during the 8-year period spanning the Iran-Iraq conflict, there were 191 head-wounded patients who underwent either no surgical intervention or a very limited debridement. We have attempted to follow up as closely as possible for more than 8 years. Ninety-nine of them fulfilled the criteria to be included in this series. Close follow-up for development of cerebral infections, functional recovery, or development of new neurologic deficits and epilepsy were performed. At least 3 contrast-enhanced CT scans were taken for each patient. All patients were victims of the battle-field areas with low- to moderate-velocity missile or shell fragment injury. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of the patients were between 8-14 when visited by the first attending neurosurgery staff. The factors considered to be effective in the outcome analysis were the entry point, the number of the in-driven bone fragments, the retained shell fragments, the brain compartments affected, and the paranasal sinus or skull base involvement with or without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula. There were 13 unilobar, 44 bilobar, 4 trilobar, 38 transventricular, and 3 skull base lesions. The number of retained metal fragments varied between 1 to 6. The number of retained bone fragments varied between 1 to 5 in 73 victims and more

  1. Request by the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    The document contains the statement made by the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Board of Governors on 20 February 1987 and the statement which the Resident Representative of the Islamic Republic of Iran intended to make in response to the statement made by the Governor from Iraq in the Board of Governors on 20 February 1987. They refer to military attacks on Iranian nuclear facilities

  2. The Role of Airpower in the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    light. Butl their valor w~as essentiall\\ wasted because of* their org anizational inadequacies. Political Influences T1he impact of raqi domestic...8217 /tI’hl Iato. I thin,’ It ( ’oh,,,al l),y; p/11,10 i; edited by Louise E. Sw\\eet iGarden Cit\\. NiY.: Naturall I I itors Press. I1970). 1 O5-289). 211. D. R

  3. Problems and Issues in Higher Education: Perspectives on Iran-United States Educational Relations and Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review evaluates the writings and opinions of Americans and Iranians on relations and influences between institutions of higher education in Iran and the United States before and after the 1979 revolution. The review explores the arrival of modern western education in Iran, Egypt, and Turkey where a traditional education system had prevailed…

  4. Geopolitics. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters

  5. Geopolitics. Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-09-15

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters.

  6. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  7. An introduction to Iran palms: types, usage and production problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Ehteshami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Palms are considered the symbol of desert and they probably originated from Iraq and Iran. Due to its high tolerance in difficult climatic conditions, planting this tree has increased in warm areas all over the world during the recent years. The main regions for producing this fruit are the Middle East and north of Africa. Iran is one of the main date producing countries in the world. There are more than 200 varieties of date in Iran, the most important of which are Estameran, Shahani, Mazafati, Barhee, and Piaram. The palm tree is a multipurpose plant and various parts of the tree are used as food, medicine, and in industry. Despite high production of date in Iran, a large amount of this product is wasted due to lack of packaging and processing.

  8. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    .... assistance, the strengthening of Iraq's security forces, evident in the recent transfer of security responsibilities in Anbar and Babylon to Iraqi control, the incremental improvement in essential...

  9. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    .... The first section of the report, Stability and Security in Iraq, describes trends and progress towards meeting goals for political stability, strengthening economic activity, and achieving a stable...

  10. Iran: Economy, Senility, and Ineptitude Greasing the Slide to Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-13

    Business 5 Foreign Trade 6 Political Developments 8 Industry 10 Finance 12 Inflation 13 Rationing 14 Countertrade 16 Oil 17 War With Iraq 18 Outlook 20...imposed diplomatic isolation and threatening revolutionary rhetoric discourage foreign budgetary or balance of payments assistance. Countertrade : In...order to obtain these goods and services while reducing foreign exchange expenditures, Iran has expanded the use of barter and countertrade . Barter

  11. Explaining Iran’s Foreign Policy, 1979-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    of reasons. From a strictly realist perspective, Iran’s behavior may seem maddeningly inconsistent. Decisions made by the leadership to prolong...objective of this book is to offer a framework to help U.S. policymakers and analysts better understand existing and evolving leadership dynamics...neoconservatives and liberals sold on Kantian peace. While the realities of the Iraq war may have muted calls for regime change in Iran, recent

  12. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  13. Iran’s Strategic Intentions and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    89 International Defense Review, April 1993, pp. 282-283; International Defense Review, June 1993, p. 431. ජ One of these is a West German Seahorse ...must not overestimate the influence of secular Muslim Turkey or of theocratic Muslim Iran in the newly independent Central Asian republics. Turco...Central Asian republics like Tajikistan, spill-over effects of ethnic conflict," and the possibility of Turkish success in establishing influence in the

  14. The “Soft Power” policy of Turkey towards Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Mgerovna Aleksanyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available South Caucasus throughout history was at the epicenter of clashes of different religions, civilizations, nations and states. At present moment the interests of both regional (Turkey, Iran and global actors (the United States, NATO, the EU, Russia and others. intersect in the region. Global transformations, changing power relations in international relations have their direct influence on the political processes taking place in the region. These processes are also linked with the activities of Turkey, which aspire to regional leadership. It is Georgia, which serves as a corridor between Turkey and states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus. Turkey spreads its influence in Georgia in almost all areas using economic, military and political tools, as well as the Russian-Georgian deteriorated relations. To achieve its goals, Turkey is actively pursuing a strategy of "soft power", which further strengthens its influence in the country. Public diplomacy is a part of soft power, which also ensures the formation of a positive and attractive image of Turkey in Georgia. This article investigates the contemporary policy of "soft power" of Turkey towards Georgia. It analyses the basic tools, institutions and the direction of this policy, actively implemented by the Republic of Turkey. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Gulen Movement in Georgia. The author makes general conclusions regarding the effectiveness of this policy.

  15. IAEA inspections and Iraq's nuclear capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, V.A.

    1992-04-01

    It is reported that IAEA teams have been investigating Iraq's nuclear capabilities since May 1991 and following the Gulf War under terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 directed at eliminating Iraq's weapons of mass destruction and means to produce and use them. A chronology of the events as well as the IAEA plan of further actions are described

  16. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Meshkab Water Treatment Plant ( WTP ) is June 2010. This WTP project, funded by $23.1 million Iraq Relief and Reconstruction Fund (IRRF) and $46.9...Forces - Iraq USG U.S. Government VBIED Vehicle-Borne Improvised Explosive Device WG Working Group WTO World Trade Organization WTP Water

  17. Iraq: United Nations and Humanitarian Aid Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coipuram, Jr, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The war with Iraq, which began on March 19, 2003, has now moved into a new phase as a result of coalition forces controlling all of the major cites in Iraq and the demise of the Iraqi political and military leadership...

  18. Strategic Effects of the Conflict with Iraq: Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manwaring, Max G

    2003-01-01

    .... military action against Iraq; the role of America in the region after the war with Iraq; the nature of security partnerships in the region after the war with Iraq; and the effect that war with Iraq will have on the war on terrorism in the region.

  19. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Control does not place a valuation on such real estate holdings, but public sources assess these assets at a value of about $500 million. There have...Development in Iran Completed,” Total/ Bow Valley (Canada)/ENI $300 million 40,000 bpd 97 Khajehpour

  20. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  1. Basrah Modern Slaughterhouse, Basrah, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    pigs (for pork) goats (for chevon) fowl (chickens, turkeys, and ducks for poultry meat) Slaughtering animals poses significant public health...of a butchered animal. Contractor’s site wastewater plan includes guard house Contractor’s site power distribution plan does not include a guard

  2. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A

    1992-10-01

    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  3. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W.; Ali, Malik H.; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-01-01

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km2 large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area range...

  4. Iran's 'Risk-Taking' in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahram, Chubin

    2008-01-01

    Assessing any state's intentions is a difficult undertaking - especially at a specific moment in time. When a state is considered hostile, its behaviour erratic, and its system opaque, what is difficult under normal circumstances becomes nearly impossible. It may thus often seem prudent to attribute the worst of intentions to such states, but this can create a self-fulfilling prophecy. Iran with its revolutionary pretensions, fiery rhetoric and nuclear ambitions, is a case in point, since it is particularly difficult to 'read'. Located in the centre of a geo-politically sensitive and conflict-driven area, Iran is in a position to influence - positively or otherwise - the Persian Gulf, the Caucasus, the Middle East and South Asia. This influence may furthermore be expanding as a result of the weakening of Iraq and Lebanon, divisions among the Palestinians, and the more general rise of the Shi'i across the broader region. Add to this the ambiguous aims of Iran's nuclear programme and the shadow this has already thrown across the region, and the need to assess Iran's intentions accurately appears crucial. Here, Iran's past behavior may provide some help, especially when it comes to Iran's proclivity for risk taking - provided the acquisition of a nuclear capability does not alter Iran's intentions or behavior so as to make the past irrelevant. Some commentators believe that Iran's ideology and past behaviour suggest that a nuclear-capable Iran will be inclined to take on a high level of risk, without concern for the potential costs of this recklessness, and that Iran may perhaps even welcome the risks involved. By contrast, the recent National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), a composite of US intelligence agency estimates, has concluded that Iran's 'decisions are guided by a cost-benefit approach' and therefore 'may be more vulnerable to influence' than they had previously (i.e.2005) judged. These divergent views broadly reflect the division between those who believe

  5. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  6. Iranian Tentacles into Iraq: The Basis and Extent of Iranian Influence into Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.iucc.ac.il/academia (accessed May 10, 2009), video . 2 Kenneth Katzman, “Iran’s Activities and Influence in Iraq,” (Washington, D.C...population at large. The Iranian ulama play a significant role in Iraq because Iranian religious men dominate the Shia clergy in Iraq. The majority of the...University Press, 2004. Banuazizi, Ali. Iranian Nationality and the Persian Language. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1992. Bell, Gertrude. The

  7. Turkey: A Geostrategic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fanale, Rosalie A

    2001-01-01

    ...] America"s primary national security interest in Turkey is regional stability. U.S. strategy aims for Turkey to be a strong regional player, able to act in support of U.S. interests in a troubled region.

  8. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Transshipment and Brokering. The ITRs prohibit U.S. transshipment of goods across Iran and ban any activities by U.S. persons to broker commercial ...accordance with the JCPOA, the United States has relaxed restrictions on sales of parts for commercial aircraft and licensing of sales of whole commercial ...tuition payments for Iranian students abroad (paid directly to the educational institutions). The waiver of Section 1245(d)(1) of IFCA allowed those

  9. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-19

    from the international banking system , caused a sharp drop in the value of Iran’s currency, the rial; raised inflation to over 50%; and cut off...Congressional Research Service 8 international banking system . Prior to September 2013, all NGOs that sought to perform relief efforts in Iran... barter arrangements with neighboring countries, virtually all of Iran’s oil exports flow through the Strait of Hormuz, which carries about one-third of

  10. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    general license. The list was expanded in July and November 2013 to include electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, dialysis machines, MRI ...accept India’s local currency, the rupee, to settle 45% of its oil sales to India, which Iran mostly used to buy Indian wheat, pharmaceuticals , rice...services for hydroelectric, oil, and gas services. However, GE subsidiary sales of medical diagnostic products such as MRI machines, marketed through

  11. 3D Structure of Iran and Surrounding Areas From The Simultaneous Inversion of Complementary Geophysical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, C. J.; Maceira, M.; Cleveland, M.

    2010-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional seismic-structure model of the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone obtained via simultaneous, joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion measurements, teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, and gravity observations. We use a simple, approximate relationship between density and seismic velocities so that the three data sets may be combined in a single inversion. The sensitivity of the different data sets are well known: surface waves provide information on the smooth variations in elastic properties, receiver functions provide information on abrupt velocity contrasts, and gravity measurements provide information on broad-wavenumber shallow density variations and long-wavenumber components of deeper density structures. The combination of the data provides improved resolution of shallow-structure variations, which in turn help produce the smooth features at depth with less contamination from the strong heterogeneity often observed in the upper crust. We also explore geologically based smoothness constraints to help resolve sharp features in the underlying shallow 3D structure. Our focus is on the region surrounding Iran from east Turkey and Iraq in the west, to Pakistan and Afghanistan in the east. We use Bouguer gravity anomalies derived from the global gravity model extracted from the GRACE satellite mission. Surface-wave dispersion velocities in the period range between 7 and 150 s are taken from previously published tomographic maps for the region. Preliminary results show expected strong variations in the Caspian region as well as the deep sediment regions of the Persian Gulf. Regions constrained with receiver-function information generally show sharper crust-mantle boundary structure than that obtained by inversion of the surface waves alone (with thin layers and smoothing constraints). Final results of the simultaneous inversion will help us to better understand one of the most prominent examples of continental collision. Such models

  12. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  13. Developing hydrological model for water quality in Iraq marshes zone using Landsat-TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged; Hasab, Hashim Ali; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Bin Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    The Mesopotamia marshlands constitute the largest wetland ecosystem in the Middle East and Western Eurasia. These wetlands are located at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in southern Iraq. However, there are series reductions in the wetland zones because of neighbor countries, i.e. Turkey, Syria built dams upstream of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In addition, the first Gulf war of the 1980s had damaged majority of the marches resources. In fact,the marshes had been reduced in size to less than 7% since 1973 and had deteriorated in water quality parameters. The study integrates Hydrological Model of RMA-2 with Geographic Information System, and remote sensing techniques to map the water quality in the marshlands south of Iraq. This study shows that RMA-2 shows the two dimensional water flow pattern and water quality quantities in the marshlands. It can be said that the integration between Hydrological Model of RMA-2, Geographic Information System, and remote sensing techniques can be used to monitor water quality in the marshlands south of Iraq.

  14. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    ..., %%Strategy for Victory," the Bush Administration indicates that U.S. forces will remain in Iraq until the country is able to provide for its own security and does not serve as a host for radical Islamic terrorists...

  15. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom succeeded in overthrowing Saddam Hussein, but Iraq remains violent and unstable because of Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, as well as growing sectarian violence...

  16. The Kurds in Post-Saddam Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth; Prados, Alfred B

    2007-01-01

    .... However, there are concerns that the Kurds are using their political strength to serve their own interests at the expense of a unified Iraq, in the process inflaming long-standing Turkish concerns...

  17. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    .... At the same time, mounting U.S. casualties and financial costs stimulated debate within the United States over whether the initial goals of the intervention -- a stable, democratic Iraq that is a partner in the global war...

  18. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This report to Congress, Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, is submitted pursuant to Section 9010 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2007, Public Law 109-289 as amended by Section...

  19. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181.1 The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  20. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... 1308 of Public Law 110-28. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  1. Request by the Resident Representative of Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The attached clarification by a spokesman of the Iraqi Ministry of Foreign Affairs is being circulated for the information of Member States pursuant to a request made by the Resident Representative of Iraq

  2. Iraq: Post-Saddam Governance and Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom overthrew Saddam Hussein's regime, but during 2004-2007 much of Iraq was wracked by violence caused by Sunni Arab resentment and a related insurgency, resulting Sunni-Shiite...

  3. Iraq: Politics, Governance, and Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    devoting significant resources to that plan. On April 30, 2012, the COR enacted a law to facilitate elimination of trafficking in persons, both sexual ...human rights reports have noted continuing instances of harassment and intimidation of journalists who write about corruption and the lack of government...extradite him to the United States, but Iraq released him in November 2012 and he returned to Lebanon , despite U.S. efforts to persuade Iraq to keep

  4. Thi Qar Bee Farm Thi Qar, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    vegetation and fields where bees once gathered pollen and beekeepers face hardships from droughts and lack of financial assistance. 1...of equipment, and provided training to the bee farmers. General topography of the area was flat with vacant or agricultural land extending for a...OFFICE OF THE SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR IRAQ RECONSTRUCTION THI QAR BEE FARM THI QAR, IRAQ SIGIR PA--09--188

  5. Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team

  6. Iran’s Role in Iraq: Room for U.S.-Iran Cooperation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    international isolation, but could also increase its leverage on nuclear negotiations with the P5+1 (China, France, Germany, Rus- sia, the United Kingdom, and...Iranian- born Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani, are wary of Iran’s velayat-e faghih (rule of the supreme jurisprudence ). Moreover, many Iraqis, including...foreign policy objectives, from decreasing Tehran’s international isolation to possibly gaining more leverage on nuclear negotiation. Therefore, it is

  7. Oil and power: Iraq at the crossroads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enay, P.

    1995-11-01

    Oil and Power: Iraq at the Crossroads is the first analysis which specifically addresses the oil sector in Iraq. It provides a detailed account of the present Iraqi oil infrastructure and assesses the risks and opportunities facing those who seek to invest in its redevelopment. The report examines the implications for the world oil markets of Iraq's ambitious plans to expand production capacity to 6m barrels per day -almost twice its pre-war peak. It explains in clear, authoritative terms the profound problems confronting Iraq's oil sector and the prospects for rebuilding it. It analyses expertly and in detail the current regime's chances of survival and examines the alternative contenders for power -and their likely attitudes towards co-operation with foreign oil interests. The report examines and explains: Iraq's oil infrastructure, from fields under exploration to nominal administrative structure; the effect on oil prices of Iraq's eventual re-entry into the oil market; the facilities in need of repair and where the shortage of spares and human expertise are; the unofficial decision-making structure in the oil sector; the short- and medium-term impact of economic disintegration on oil development policy; the effects of UN sanctions and the motives of those supporting or opposing sanctions; the likely impact of prevailing economic constraints on Iraqi oil and the historical role of commissions in Iraqi oil contracts; the political impact of General Hussein Kamal Hassan's defection and the Kurdish and Shi'ite threats to Iraqi national unity. (author)

  8. Iraq nuclear facility dismantlement and disposal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J R; Danneels, J [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kenagy, W D [U.S. Department of State, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Office of Nuclear Energy, Safety and Security, Washington, DC (United States); Phillips, C J; Chesser, R K [Center for Environmental Radiation Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Al Tuwaitha nuclear complex near Baghdad contains a significant number of nuclear facilities from Saddam Hussein's dictatorship. Because of past military operations, lack of upkeep and looting there is now an enormous radioactive waste problem at Al Tuwaitha. Al Tuwaitha contains uncharacterised radioactive wastes, yellow cake, sealed radioactive sources, and contaminated metals. The current security situation in Iraq hampers all aspects of radioactive waste management. Further, Iraq has never had a radioactive waste disposal facility, which means that ever increasing quantities of radioactive waste and material must be held in guarded storage. The Iraq Nuclear Facility Dismantlement and Disposal Program (the NDs Program) has been initiated by the U.S. Department of State (DOS) to assist the Government of Iraq (GOI) in eliminating the threats from poorly controlled radioactive materials, while building human capacities so that the GOI can manage other environmental cleanups in their country. The DOS has funded the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to provide technical assistance to the GOI via a Technical Cooperation Project. Program coordination will be provided by the DOS, consistent with U.S. and GOI policies, and Sandia National Laboratories will be responsible for coordination of participants and for providing waste management support. Texas Tech University will continue to provide in-country assistance, including radioactive waste characterization and the stand-up of the Iraq Nuclear Services Company. The GOI owns the problems in Iraq and will be responsible for the vast majority of the implementation of the NDs Program. (authors)

  9. Student Day in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12......Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12...

  10. Gender and spatial population mobility in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmasi, M

    1994-01-01

    1976-1986 data from the National Census of Population and Housing were analyzed to examine the spatial patterns of internal migration of women and men in Iran within its Islamic patriarchal cultural system. The researcher also organized 1986 data into two interprovincial migration matrixes for men and women. Women were spatially as mobile as men (urban, 16.7% for men and 17% for women; rural, 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively). Gender spatial mobility patterns during the 10 years included: migration streams from nine provinces consistently led to Tehran province, most migration flows to Tehran and most other provinces originated from Khuzistan, East Azerbaijan province still continued to lose population (about 500,000), and out-flows generally originated from the provinces affected by the Iran-Iraq war and went to the central and eastern provinces. The strongest determinants of women's migration was men's migration ratio and the road distance between the origin and destination. Reasons for these strong associations were few employed women ( 10%), strong family ties, and traditional cultural values (e.g., women tend not to travel alone). So their migration patterns tended to be associational rather than autonomous. Despite the fact that internal migration patterns of men and women were the same, the causes, processes, and consequences of migration were still very gender-specific in Iran. There are no signs of change in the near future.

  11. Recent spread of a new strain (A-Iran-05) of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, N J; Nazem Shirazi, M H; Wadsworth, J; Swabey, K G; Stirling, J M; Statham, R J; Li, Y; Hutchings, G H; Ferris, N P; Parlak, U; Ozyörük, F; Sumption, K J; King, D P; Paton, D J

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the characterization of a new genotype of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A responsible for recent FMD outbreaks in the Middle East. Initially identified in samples collected in 2003 from Iran, during 2005 and 2006 this FMDV lineage (proposed to be named A-Iran-05) spread into Saudi Arabia and Jordan and then further west into Turkey reaching European Thrace in January 2007. Most recently A-Iran-05 has been found in Bahrain. To the east of Iran, it has been recognized in Afghanistan (2004-07) and Pakistan (2006-07). Throughout the region, this lineage is now the predominant genotype of FMDV serotype A sampled, and has appeared to have replaced the A-Iran-96 and A-Iran-99 strains which were previously encountered. In August 2007, a new A-Iran-05 sub-lineage (which we have called A-Iran-05(ARD-07)) was identified in Ardahan, Turkey, close to the border with Georgia. This new sub-lineage appeared to predominate in Turkey in 2008, but has, so far, not been identified in any other country. Vaccine matching tests revealed that the A-Iran-05 viruses are antigenically different to A-Iran-96 and more like A(22). These findings emphasize the importance of undertaking continued surveillance in the Middle East and Central Asia in order to detect and monitor the emergence and spread of new FMDV strains.

  12. Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for 315 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) in Iran and its Neighboring Countries, 1990-2015: Findings from Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Krohn, Kristopher J; Afshin, Ashkan; Farzadfar, Farshad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Karimkhani, Chante; Bazargan-Hejazi, Sharzad; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Ali Reza; Farvid, Maryam S; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Heydarpour, Pouria; Islami, Farhad; Karimi, Seyed M; Katibeh, Marzieh; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Pishgar, Farhad; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Safi, Sare; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Shahraz, Saeid; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mokdad, Ali H; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2017-07-01

    dissimilarities indicating a generally low LE and HALE in Afghanistan and Pakistan and high expectancy in Qatar, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. Iran ranked 11th in terms of LE at birth and 12th in terms of HALE at birth in 1990 which improved to 9th for both metrics in 2015. Turkey and Iran had the highest increase in LE and HALE from 1990 to 2015 while the lowest increase was observed in Armenia, Pakistan, Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Iraq. The levels and trends in causes of DALYs, life expectancy, and HALE generally show similarities between the 16 countries, although differences exist. The differences observed between countries can be attributed to a myriad of determinants, including social, cultural, ethnic, religious, political, economic, and environmental factors as well as the performance of the health system. Investigating the differences between countries can inform more effective health policy and resource allocation. Concerted efforts at national and regional levels are required to tackle the emerging burden of non-communicable diseases and injuries in Iran and its neighbors.

  13. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Michuda Y.P.; Ridha F.

    2012-01-01

    Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA), and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a con...

  14. Between Allies and Rivals: Turkey, Nuclear Weapons, and BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibaroglu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses Turkey's attitudes vis-a-vis nuclear weapons and Ballistic Missile Defense in the light of recent developments in the Iranian nuclear program and NATO's evolving concept of extended deterrence. On the one hand, the long-standing forward deployment of US tactical nuclear weapons in Turkey and the country's role in the US Phased Adaptive Approach BMD architecture are still considered to be key elements of national security. On the other, security guarantees offered to Turkey by NATO and the US appear less and less credible in the face of rising regional threats. As this paper shows, there is a growing gap between official policy and public perceptions inside Turkey vis-a-vis the US, Iran, and nuclear weapons, as well as a growing Turkish aspiration to autonomy in its security and defense policy. While one should not expect Turkey to develop nuclear weapons anytime soon, an unchecked Iranian regional power could bring Ankara to hedge its bets in the long term. Turkey's controversial recent decision to buy a Chinese system for its national air and missile defense rather than European or US equipment should be seen in the light of this search for autonomy. (author)

  15. The Patterns and Dynamics of Revolution: Insights into Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    197. 80 Rabasa, 56. 26 81 Ibid., 53. 82 Roger Cohen. 83 Crane and Terrill, 33. 84 Andrew Krepinevich, "Iraq and Vietnam: Deja vu all over Again?" 8...in Iraq." Christian Science Monitor, 20 September 2004, 1. Krepinevich, Andrew. "Iraq and Vietnam: Deja vu all over Again?" Center for Strategic and

  16. 31 CFR 575.207 - Prohibited transactions relating to travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or Iraq; (b) Relating to travel and activities for the conduct of the official business of the United... travel to Iraq or to activities within Iraq. 575.207 Section 575.207 Money and Finance: Treasury... TREASURY IRAQI SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 575.207 Prohibited transactions relating to travel to...

  17. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  18. US Presence and Grounds for Cooperation between the Islamic Republic of Iran and United States in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrzad Javadikouchaksaraei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, USA has not designed a policy to deal with Afghanistan and Iraq without Iran. One of the fundamental strategies of USA is to cooperate with the European Union, the Pacific, Russia, the Balkan Area, as well as the Caucasus the Middle East, North Africa, and Middle Asia. All of the countries relate to Iran in saving the Pacific. Iran is the most influential country in the area surrounding Afghanistan, the Middle East, and Northern Africa and Middle Asia. USA has to face Iran in the Middle East to meet the benefits of this relation. Therefore, such situation leads to the main question: does the attendance of USA in Afghanistan create the grounds for cooperation with Iran? Despite the existing disputes between the two governments, the attendance of USA in Afghanistan seems to have created new security, political, economic, and cultural fields for the cooperation of both countries.

  19. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Angola, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, imports, demand, taxes. The Southern Oil Company has restored a production capacity of 1.8 Mb per day in the South of Iraq. In Iran, a joint venture between France and Iran (Iranian French Gas Co.) has been created and precedes the establishment of an european consortium for iranian gas import. In Jordan, in the natural gas field of Risha, a new discovery can give 633000 m 3 per day. Informations on petroleum exploration or production in Tunisia (Rhemoura oil field), in Syria (Dez ez Zor Petroleum Company), in Angola are also offered

  20. The environment of marketing of football clubs of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michuda Y.P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features and conditions of use of marketing in professional football of Iraq are presented, characteristic features of macroenvironment and a microenvironment in which marketing activity of professional football clubs of Iraq is carried out are considered. In research the data of questionnaire 76 experts of Association of football of Iraq (IFA, and also 45 heads of football clubs of the Superleague of Iraq is used. The maintenance and role of environment in formation and functioning of a control system by marketing activity of football clubs of Iraq is defined. Positive and negative factors which define management efficiency marketing of football clubs are revealed.

  1. Perbandingan Sistem Pendidikan di Tiga Negara; Mesir, Iran dan Turki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nurul Ihsan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a comparative analysis of education in three countries where the population is predominantly of a Muslim background; Egypt, Iran and Turkey, and explains about the system of education in primary schools, secondary schools and colleges. Additionally, this article clarifies the latest education policy, curriculum, subjects, and assessment systems in schools and universities. The three countries have some similarities; each country is implementing the policy of compulsory education with it split into three levels. The other similarity being that is the students have a high interest for further study in foreign universities with some destination countries being: the United States of America, United Kingdom, Germany, Saudi Arabia, Canada, Ukraine, Malaysia, France, and Austria. Due to unfavorable politics in both countries of Egypt and Turkey, as well as Iran, education has been effected by a foreign policy that is often contradictory.

  2. Taxonomic Evaluation of the Greater Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) in Iran Inferred from the Mitochondrial D-Loop Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Saeed; Akmali, Vahid; Sharifi, Mozafar

    2017-08-01

    To examine the level of genetic differentiation in the sequences of the mitochondrial D-loop gene of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum, and to evaluate the current taxonomic status of this species, 50 tissue samples of greater horseshoe bats were collected in 2011-2015 from 21 different localities in northwest, northeast, west, central, and south regions of Iran. Twenty-two published D-loop sequences from Europe (Switzerland, United Kingdom, Bulgaria, and Tunisia), and Anatolia (south, west, and east Turkey) were downloaded from GenBank. Molecular genetic analyses revealed remarkable variation among populations of R. ferrumequinum. Two major clades with strong support were identified within the greater horseshoe bat. One of these clades consists of individuals of R. ferrumequinum from Iran and eastern Turkey, and is further subdivided into two subclades. A second clade includes samples from western Turkey and Europe. The two subclades from Iran and Turkey and the second clade from western Turkey and Europe represent three diagnosable categories, which most probably warrant three subspecies for the species. Thus, based on genetic differences, it is clear that two subspecific populations are found in Iran: R. f. irani (southern Iran) and R. f. proximus (northern Iran).

  3. Oasis in Iraq: Universities Flourish in Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Zvika

    2007-01-01

    The campus of Salahadin University--peaceful, bustling, and collegial-- is a rare sight in Iraq, where sectarian violence has brought the higher education system to the verge of collapse. Home to the country's historically repressed four million to five million ethnic Kurds, it is an oasis of stability and tranquility while much of the rest of…

  4. The Ayatollahs and Democracy in Contemporary Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Juan R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Iraqi Shiism is undergoing profound changes, leading to new elaborations of the relationship between clerics and democratic principles in an Islamic state. The Najaf tradition of thinking about Shiite Islam and the modern state in Iraq, which first developed during the Iranian constitutional

  5. Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    ... by Section 1308 of Public Law 110-28 and Section 1224 of Public Law 110-181. The report includes specific performance indicators and measures of progress toward political, economic, and security stability in Iraq, as directed in that legislation...

  6. The Iraq war: official and unofficial history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Garcia Bonfin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the motivations and the soldiers who fought in the war in Iraq started in March 2003. The attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed the foreign policy of the United States, the years of relative peace conquered at the end of the cold war is over, Americans now had a new enemy, political Islam. Soon after the attacks, the Bush Administration (2001-2009 tried to relate Islamic fighters belonging to Al-Qaeda with the regime of Saddam Hussein, in a clear attempt to justify an invasion on Iraq internally. Externally, the American Government, along with the Briton, claimed that the Iraqis had weapons of mass destruction, which inflicted the UN resolutions imposed on the Iraqi Government during the years 1990. However, neither the inspections and subsequently the invasion were able to find such weapons. What if you saw after the invasion was the huge profit obtained by private military and oil companies. In the research was analyzed as if formed the Middle East, the Empire of the United States on a global scale, the report of the Chief Inspector of UNMOVIC, the UN agency responsible for weapons inspections in Iraq, and the letters of soldiers who fought in Iraq. In historiography, as in what if notes is that there were three present interests in the war in Iraq, economic order first, with the possibility of profit of the private military companies and the opportunity to extract oil; second related to foreign policy, which had the interest in rearranging geopolitics of the region; and third of domestic politics, to which there was an increase in the popularity of the Bush administration, with the war on Terror.

  7. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Nizip, Turkey after the Syrian civil war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ismail Serkan; Vural, Ahmet; Unver, Ahmet; Saçar, Suzan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), seen endemically in many countries, is a widespread protozoon disease all around the world. The neighboring countries of Turkey namely Iran, Iraq and Syria are highly endemic regions for CL, and more than 98% of the cases in Turkey are reported from South and Southeastern Anatolian regions. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of CL in Nizip, a district of Gaziantep province of southeastern Turkey, for three and half year period and to call attention to the dramatic increase of CL cases observed after the Syrian civil war. A total of 416 samples obtained from clinically suspected CL patients (of them 341 were Syrian refugees) who were admitted to Nizip State Hospital between January 1st 2010 and March 19th 2013 were included in the study. Lesion samples were collected according to the notice issued by Turkish Ministry of Health and Giemsa-stained smears were examined under the microscope (x1000). Samples from 77 patients (18.5%) yielded positive results with the observation of Leishmania amastigote forms. Fourty-seven (61%) of patients were female and 30 (39%) were male. Of the positive patients 52 (67.5%) belonged to 0-19 age group, 13 (16.9%) 20-39 and 12 (15.6%) 40-60 age groups. In the evaluation of the lesion characteristics, 33 (43%) patients had single and 44 (57%) had multiple lesions with a distribution mainly on face, arm and lower extremities, in a decreasing order. The period of time for the development of the lesions varied from 1.5 month to one year with the mean value of 3.4 months. There was no statistically significant relationship between the age and gender of patients, and the characteristics (quantity, distribution and time of occurence) of lesions (p> 0.05). The number of domestic and Syrian CL cases detected in Nizip in the years of 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 (the first three months) were as follows; 1 and 0, 2 and 0, 7 and 0, 5 and 62, respectively. So a total of 62 (80.5%) and 15 (19.5%) of CL

  8. Comparative Study of Physics Curriculum in Iran with Several Other Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarbaghani, Ashrafoalsadat

    2016-01-01

    This article is a qualitative study, which was done in 2013-2014. In this study using a comparative study was conducted to compare physics curriculum elements of Iran with the countries studied. Countries studied: Singapore, Turkey, India, England and Australia have diverse educational system. In this study, the structure of the educational…

  9. Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    The issue of women's rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly...

  10. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr, Stuart W

    2007-01-01

    .... relief and reconstruction program in Iraq. Two notable developments frame this Report. First, total relief and reconstruction investment for Iraq from all sources the United States, Iraq, and other donors passed...

  11. Post-Transition Violence in Iraq (2004-2005): The Military Perspective of an Insider

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karam, Jabbar N

    2006-01-01

    .... Governing Iraq has been complicated by the violence Iraq is have since suffered. The nature of this violence in the regions north and west of Baghdad must be analyzed to provide a solution for a safe and secure Iraq...

  12. Immigration-related mental health disorders in refugees 5-18 years old living in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalın Sapmaz, Şermin; Uzel Tanrıverdi, Bengisu; Öztürk, Masum; Gözaçanlar, Özge; Yörük Ülker, Gülsüm; Özkan, Yekta

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed early-onset psychiatric disorders and factors related to these disorders in a group of refugee children after immigration due to war. This study was conducted between January 2016 and June 2016. Clinical interviews were conducted with 89 children and their families, and were performed by native speakers of Arabic and Persian who had been primarily educated in these languages and were living in Turkey. A strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) that had Arabic and Persian validity and reliability was applied to both children and their families. Independent variables for cases with and without a psychiatric disorder were analyzed using the χ 2 test for categorical variables, Student's t -test for those that were normally distributed, and Mann-Whitney U -test for data that were not normally distributed. Data that showed significant differences between groups who had a psychiatric disorder and on common effects in emerging psychiatric disorders were analyzed through binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 89 children and adolescents were interviewed within the scope of the study. The mean age of cases was 9.96±3.98 years, and 56.2% (n=50) were girls, while 43.8% (n=39) were boys. Among these children, 47 (52.8%) had come from Syria, 27 (30.3%) from Iraq, 14 (15.7%) from Afghanistan, and 1 (1.1%) from Iran. A psychiatric disorder was found in 44 (49.4%) of the children. A total of 26 children were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12 with depressive disorders, 8 with trauma and related disorders, 5 with elimination disorders, 4 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and 3 with intellectual disabilities. It was determined that seeing a dead or injured person during war/emigration and the father's unemployment increased the risk of psychopathology. The OR was 7.077 (95% CI 1.722-29.087) for having seen a dead or injured individual and 4.51 (95% GA 1.668-12.199) for father's employment status. Within the context of war and

  13. Iraq: Usa and Great Britain hold up an agreement on limited sales of Iraq petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The negotiations United Nations/Iraq have been stopped because of objections coming from Usa and Great Britain. Three points were developed: The distribution of medicine and foods in three Kurdish countries, these countries are actually under the United nations control, Iraq wants to participate at the distribution but Usa and Great Britain think that it could be a way of pressure from Iraq on Kurdish countries and in this mind they refuse. The second point is about the sequestered banking account on which must be deposited the receipts of Iraqi petroleum sales which must be put under United Nation control in order to avoid, according to Washington and London, that Iraq uses it to get round the sanctions. The third point is that Usa and Great Britain consider that the resolution number 986 has only for object to relieve the pains of Iraqi people and its application must not be interpreted as a lightening of international sanctions against Iraq. The results of the suspension are a surge of petroleum prices on international market and a fall of Iraqi Dinar. (N.C.)

  14. U.S. Anticorruption Efforts in Iraq: Progress Made in Implementing Revised Management Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gabriel, Robert; Haigler, Dan; Hlinka, Joan

    2008-01-01

    .... anticorruption activities in Iraq. SIGIR instituted reviews of these programs in recognition of the significant detrimental effect corruption has on Iraq's economic, social, and political reconstruction...

  15. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    International pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program is increasing the hesitation of many major foreign firms to invest in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production beyond...

  16. Energy Diplomacy of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Ozdemir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current issues of energy diplomacy of Turkey. The authors describe the main positive and negative results of Turkey's foreign energy policy in terms of the implementation of major energy projects. Geopolitical processes in the world, the conflict of interests of various countries in the political arena are important factors that affect the crude oil and natural gas pipeline projects. Particular attention is paid to the problems and prospects of cooperation between the Turkish Republic and the Russian Federation in the fuel and energy complex. The authors describe the interaction betweeen Russia and Turkey in the energy sector, including geo-economic interests of the countries in the Russian-Turkish gas dialogue. Turkey made efforts to position as an alternative gas supply route, taking advantage of concern about increasing Europe's dependence on Russian exports. Last years Turkey has set itself the important task - to turn from transit country into a regional gas hub. Ukrainian crisis increased the geostrategic importance of the Black Sea region to Russia, as well as strengthened the ambition of the Turkish side. The authors also highlight the prospects of the natural gas pipeline project from Russia via the Black Sea to Turkey and to the Turkish-Greek border, which named "Turkish stream". This project was frozen in terms of military and political processes at the end of 2015 in Syria.

  17. The Evolution of the North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Implications for Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung Min, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The world today is confronted by North Korea that has apparently acquired successfully nuclear weapons, and by Iran that seems bent on acquiring, at a minimum, a virtual nuclear weapons capability. This trend suggests that prospects for freezing, if not rolling back, both Iran's and North Korea's programs are becoming increasingly difficult prospects. While President George W. Bush came under attack for going to war with Iraq based on faulty intelligence assessments and also for labeling Iran, Iraq and North Korea as part of the 'axis of evil', it cannot be denied that the world's 'most dangerous states with the most dangerous weapons' remain one of the defining security challenges of the post-9/11 era. Nevertheless, the Bush Administration's efforts to prevent, and failing that, to minimize the fallout from a nuclearized North Korea and a potentially nuclear capable Iran, have been decidedly mixed. Although North Korea maintained nuclear ambiguity for two decades, it finally gave up the pretense of having a 'virtual nuclear weapons program' in October 2006 whereas Iran continues on the path of nuclear brinkmanship. Whether Iran is going to cross the nuclear Rubicon remains uncertain but the fact that it has the requisite technologies and the political will to cross the nuclear threshold if it chose to do so remains unchanged. Regardless of Tehran's ultimate choice and attendant strategic consequences, Iran cannot but have gained key glimpses and insights from North Korea's decades-long pursuit of nuclear weapons. While Iran and North Korea have vastly different political histories and national ideologies, their paths have criss-crossed on the road towards nuclearization. Tehran and Pyongyang are not 'natural' allies although Iran has benefited from North Korea's ballistic missile sales (such as the Shahab-3 long-range missile). For its part, Pyongyang has gained not only from missile exports to Iran, but perhaps more significantly, by Iran's own nuclear challenge

  18. The Evolution of the North Korean Nuclear Crisis: Implications for Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung Min, Lee

    2009-07-01

    The world today is confronted by North Korea that has apparently acquired successfully nuclear weapons, and by Iran that seems bent on acquiring, at a minimum, a virtual nuclear weapons capability. This trend suggests that prospects for freezing, if not rolling back, both Iran's and North Korea's programs are becoming increasingly difficult prospects. While President George W. Bush came under attack for going to war with Iraq based on faulty intelligence assessments and also for labeling Iran, Iraq and North Korea as part of the 'axis of evil', it cannot be denied that the world's 'most dangerous states with the most dangerous weapons' remain one of the defining security challenges of the post-9/11 era. Nevertheless, the Bush Administration's efforts to prevent, and failing that, to minimize the fallout from a nuclearized North Korea and a potentially nuclear capable Iran, have been decidedly mixed. Although North Korea maintained nuclear ambiguity for two decades, it finally gave up the pretense of having a 'virtual nuclear weapons program' in October 2006 whereas Iran continues on the path of nuclear brinkmanship. Whether Iran is going to cross the nuclear Rubicon remains uncertain but the fact that it has the requisite technologies and the political will to cross the nuclear threshold if it chose to do so remains unchanged. Regardless of Tehran's ultimate choice and attendant strategic consequences, Iran cannot but have gained key glimpses and insights from North Korea's decades-long pursuit of nuclear weapons. While Iran and North Korea have vastly different political histories and national ideologies, their paths have criss-crossed on the road towards nuclearization. Tehran and Pyongyang are not 'natural' allies although Iran has benefited from North Korea's ballistic missile sales (such as the Shahab-3 long-range missile). For its part, Pyongyang has gained not only from missile

  19. IAEA receives Iraq's nuclear-related declaration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Mohamed ElBaradei, announced that the IAEA received this evening, Sunday, 8 December 2002, at its Headquarters in Vienna, an approximately 2400 page declaration on Iraq's nuclear programme. The declaration consists of about 2100 pages in English and 300 pages in Arabic. The declaration was submitted by the Government of Iraq in response to paragraph 3 of Security Council resolution 1441 (8 November 2002), which requires Iraq to provide to UNMOVIC, the IAEA and to the Security Council, not later than 30 days of the date of that resolution, with 'currently accurate, full, and complete declaration of all aspects of its programmes to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles, and other delivery systems... as well as all other chemical, biological, and nuclear programmes, including any which it claims are for purposes not related to weapon production or material'. 'The IAEA will immediately begin to assess this important new document,' said Mr. ElBaradei, 'including the painstaking and systematic cross-checking of the information provided by Iraq against information which the IAEA already has, information that it expects to receive from other Member States, as contemplated in resolution 1441, and results of past and present Agency verification activities.' Complete assessment of the declaration will be time consuming, particularly in light of the need to translate the 300 pages of Arabic text into English. However, the IAEA expects to be able to provide a preliminary analysis of the document to the Security Council within the next ten days, with a fuller assessment to be provided when it reports to the Council at the end of January. (IAEA)

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-20

    and half of whom would be elected by direct, lected medicine and milk for children and told the world secret balloting, about the killing of civilians...the continua- nomic siege on Iraq and banning milk from reaching the tion of campaigns of pressure and the blockade. Conser- children and elderly...organizations, which are characterized by ment. falsehood, falsification of facts, the shirking of responsi- bility, insistence on pushing for the

  1. Consequences of Iraq war on petroleum market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2004-01-01

    The consequences of the last Iraq conflict on the petroleum market can be analyzed under two different aspects: one is the will of the USA to re-establish a political stability in a country which represents an important oil reserve for their future supplies, the other is a US-Russia cooperation/rivalry in a region of prime importance for both countries which are in competition for the exploitation of the Caspian sea hydrocarbon resources. (J.S.)

  2. Iran - waiting and watching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    Global oil companies are reported to be divided on the issue of possible energy deals in Iran. Some companies may adopt wait and watch policy before singing a fresh deal with Iran, but there are some oil companies, those are still interested to sign a deal with Iran, despite the risks, even as Tehran decided to expand its uranium enrichment programme rather than complying with a UN Security Council ultimatum to freeze it, which clears the path for further harsher sanctions (author) (ml)

  3. Iran’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Toyota (Japan), Kia Motors (South Korea), Proton ( Malaysia ), and Chery CRS-22 89 EIU, “Country Profile 2007: Iran,” 2007, p. 45. Prime Vista Research...Background The 1979 Islamic revolution changed Iran’s modern political and economic history . Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his supporters transformed Iran...heating during one of the coldest winters in recent Iranian history . Turkmenistan has since resumed supplying gasoline to Iran. Foreign Involvement in

  4. Where is Iran going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  5. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onur, Tuna [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gok, Rengin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abdulnaby, Wathiq [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shakir, Ammar M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mahdi, Hanan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Numan, Nazar M.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Shukri, Haydar [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chlaib, Hussein K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ameen, Taher H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Abd, Najah A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

  6. Public perception of mental health in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hasoon Saad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who suffer from mental illness, the professionals who treat them, and indeed the actual concept of mental illness are all stigmatised in public perception and often receive very negative publicity. This paper looks at Iraq, which has a population of 30 million who are mainly Moslem. Mental health services and professionals have historically been sparse in Iraq with 1 psychiatrist per 300,000 before 2003 falling to 1 per million until recently and 1 primary care centre (40 Healthcare Workers including 4 General Practitioners to 35,000 population, compared with 1 GP per 1700 population in the UK. Methods We aimed to assess public attitudes and perceptions to mental illness. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire (additional file 1, which was designed specifically for Iraqi contexts and was made available in 2 languages. The survey was carried out in 500 participants' homes across 2 districts of Baghdad. Additional file 1 Public Perception of Mental Illness Questionnaire. Click here for file Results The response rate of the survey was 86.4%. The paper shows respondents views on the aetiology of mental illness, perceptions of people with mental illness and attitudes towards care and treatment of people with mental illness. Conclusions This survey of public attitudes towards mental illness in Iraq has shown that community opinion about the aetiology of mental illness is broadly compatible with scientific evidence, but understanding of the nature of mental illness, its implications for social participation and management remains negative in general.

  7. Energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. 73 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 percent of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions and Europe. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; with quite abundant coal reserves. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Oil has the biggest share (39 percent) in total primary energy consumption, while natural gas has a share of 21 percent and increasing due to the recent diversification efforts of energy resources. Turkey has about 1percent of the total world hydroelectric potential and a considerable potential for electricity generation from wind. As of early 2004, Turkey had electric power generating capacity of around 32,000 megawatts (MW), and was building 13,000 MW more. Since adoption of Electricity Market Law in February 2001, there were significant changes towards liberalisation of power generation market and distribution in the country. Privatization of generation assets is envisaged to start in 2006. The Electricity Market Law set the stage for new supporting laws and regulations as well as new organization of the market: the Energy Market Regulation Agency (EMRA), that oversees the power, natural gas markets, oil markets and liquefied petroleum gases market, including setting tariffs, issuing licenses, and assuring competition; the Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA; the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation; 4-phase approach towards electric energy market

  8. Internal contamination with leech in a turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Leech enters to mouth and nose through water. Nose and nasopharynx mucosa are the most preferred places for leech attachment with epistaxis and respiratory distress symptoms. But the leeches may rarely stick deeper to trachea or esophagus which could cause hematemesis, hemoptysis and severe respiratory distress. Leech infestation can cause gastrointestinal, respiratory and genital bleeding in rare cases. Various animals such as ruminants, single-toed and carnivores, are easily infected with leeches. In May 2014, a 2-year-old turkey infected with leeches through the contaminated drinking water was referred to a veterinarian with respiratory distress symptoms, anxiety, bleeding from the mouth in Maze-Abdali Village located at 17 km from Dehloran City of Ilam Province in the west of Iran. After physical observations, a moving dark green particle was seen. Limnatis nilotica were detected after separation from the oral cavity of turkey. Respiratory distress and oral cavity bleeding should be regarded in the areas where spring and flooded water were infested with leeches. Untreated and contaminated waters consumption should be prohibited.

  9. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three ... Outputs. Journal articles. Problems of the national and the ethnic/sectarian in Iraq [Arabic language]. Download PDF. Reports. State of social sciences in Iraq ...

  10. Using a Virtual History Conference to Teach the Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    In teaching the causes of the Iraq War, the use of "virtual history" can be employed in a conference setting in which different individuals are assigned to different plausible counterfactuals they use to construct virtual histories. The Iraq War lends itself to the virtual history approach because of the availability of many plausible…

  11. Iraq's shop-till-you-drop nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.; Hibbs, M.

    1992-01-01

    In a series of articles that began in March 1991, the authors have tried to separate fact from fiction about Iraq's ability to build nuclear weapons and to produce material to fuel them. After exposing Iraq's efforts to enrich uranium and design an atomic bomb, UN and IAEA experts zeroed in on how Iraq put its program together. The basic answer is that along with determination and persistence, Iraq had a great deal of foreign help. Iraq's 'Petrochemical Three,' the secret nuclear program conducted under the authority of its Atomic Energy Commission with links to the Defense Ministry and the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization, received massive infusions of money and resources. Like the Manhattan Project that built the first atomic bombs in the United States, Iraq's program simultaneously pursued a number of different technical avenues to the bomb. Not knowing which efforts would succeed, Iraq poured billions of dollars into its multifaceted quest. Providing for these programs required the establishment of elaborate procurement networks in Europe, North America, and Asia. Like the technical quest, the procurement effort was carried out on many fronts at once. Diplomacy and secrecy were required, because few companies would knowingly supply a nuclear weapons program, or even a secret nuclear program that was ostensibly for civil purposes. Iraq showed great ingenuity in hiding its purchases behind such innocuous pursuits as automobile manufacturing, dairy production, and oil refining

  12. Design issues concerning Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was ∼80% complete and unit 2 was ∼50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction

  13. All Eyes on Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10......Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10...

  14. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  15. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  16. Hepatic lipidosis in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazdzinski, P; Squires, E J; Julian, R J

    1994-01-01

    Two flocks of 14,000 twenty-week-old turkey hens each experienced increased mortality due to hepatic lipidosis. Some hens showed signs of dyspnea and cyanosis before death. Necropsy revealed dark muscles and enlarged livers with pale areas and numerous hemorrhages. Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages were also found on the abdominal fat and epicardium. Lung congestion and edema were prominent. In the heart and blood vessels, the blood was uncoagulated. Mortality was elevated for 12 days and resulted in the death of 0.7% of the turkey hens in one flock and 1.7% in the other. Vitamin E administered in water at a dose of 25 IU per hen appeared to reduce mortality. The nutritional and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of hepatic lipidosis in turkeys are discussed.

  17. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  18. Economic Research Forum for the Arab Countries, Iran and Turkey ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It is dedicated to providing high quality economic research to contribute to ... to IDRC programming priorities in trade, employment and competitiveness. ... Congratulations to the first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows!

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7023 - Preference for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7023 Section 252.225-7023 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(a), use the following provision: Requirement for Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a) Definitions. Product from Iraq or Afghanistan...

  20. Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining

  1. The Security Aspect of Turkey-United States Relations: In Search For a New Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Svistunova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security cooperation has always been an important aspect of the relations between Turkey and the USA. In Cold War era Turkish-American interaction within NATO played a crucial role in this cooperation. After that period the two countries began to search for a new model of their relations. Both Turkey and the USA started to use cooperation within NATO for the purpose of strengthening their global positions. At the same time the USA aspiration to use military bases in Turkey beyond NATO obligations frequently becomes a source of disagreement and crises in the relations of the two countries as it happened during the American intervention to Iraq in 2003. At present new challenges for regional security, especially in the Middle East, demands new forms of interaction between Turkey and the USA. The beginning of "the Arab spring" was met in Ankara and Washington with overlapping interest in changing conservative regimes and promoting "Turkish model". At the same time such questions as participation of Turkey in the fight against ISIL and the USA military cooperation with the Syrian Kurds, whom Ankara considers to be connected with the PKK terrorist organization, has brought serious contradictions between the two countries. The cause of these contradiction is the difference in the perception of threats in Turkey and in the Western countries. While the search for new forms of security cooperation meets with difficulties, NATO remains important for the relations between Turkey and the USA, despite traditionally high level of anti-NATO moods in the Turkish society.

  2. Have IAEA safety precautions failed in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1981-01-01

    Israel's air raid on the Tamuz-1 research reactor (Osirak) in Iraq has given new impetus to the discussion of the potential and limits of international control as carried out by the IAEA in the framework of the non-proliferation treaty. A lack of faith in the effectiveness of IAEA control must be assuemd to be one of the main reasons for this attack. Prof. Grimm, vice chairman of the nuclear safeguards department of the International Atomic Energy Agency, comments on the possibility of producing nuclear weapons with the aid of this reactor and on the efficiency of present and projected nuclear safeguards measures. (orig.) [de

  3. Republic of Iraq: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-16

    Saddam Hussein’s rise to power and his continued control of Iraq we see these Machiavell ian principles in operation. In February 1963, after calling the... managed to al ienate everyone of her neighbors, and cannot be counted on to promote anything but Saddam’s personal irterests. The economic sanctions...House; Nev. Dehli , 19 ’I1 45. Roe-,ert O,.=..r,, "The Kur dish Question in the Aftermatih of t i,- Gulf W.r"., Third World Quarterly, 1992, 47E5 -45? 24

  4. Immigration-related mental health disorders in refugees 5–18 years old living in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalin Sapmaz Ş

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Şermin Yalın Sapmaz,1 Bengisu Uzel Tanrıverdi,2 Masum Öztürk,1 Özge Gözaçanlar,1 Gülsüm Yörük Ülker,2 Yekta Özkan1 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey Purpose: This study assessed early-onset psychiatric disorders and factors related to these disorders in a group of refugee children after immigration due to war.Materials and methods: This study was conducted between January 2016 and June 2016. Clinical interviews were conducted with 89 children and their families, and were performed by native speakers of Arabic and Persian who had been primarily educated in these languages and were living in Turkey. A strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ that had Arabic and Persian validity and reliability was applied to both children and their families. Independent variables for cases with and without a psychiatric disorder were analyzed using the χ2 test for categorical variables, Student’s t-test for those that were normally distributed, and Mann–Whitney U-test for data that were not normally distributed. Data that showed significant differences between groups who had a psychiatric disorder and on common effects in emerging psychiatric disorders were analyzed through binary logistic regression analysis.Results: A total of 89 children and adolescents were interviewed within the scope of the study. The mean age of cases was 9.96±3.98 years, and 56.2% (n=50 were girls, while 43.8% (n=39 were boys. Among these children, 47 (52.8% had come from Syria, 27 (30.3% from Iraq, 14 (15.7% from Afghanistan, and 1 (1.1% from Iran. A psychiatric disorder was found in 44 (49.4% of the children. A total of 26 children were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12 with depressive disorders, 8 with trauma and related disorders, 5 with elimination disorders, 4 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and 3 with intellectual disabilities. It was

  5. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-05

    Byzantium following Fatih Mehmet’s conquest of Istanbul in 1453, brought a new era of religious, political, social, econmic and cultural prosperity to the...radical decisions in order to force the liberal- econmic system towards a free market. Generally speaking, Turkey was a traditionally agricultural country

  6. Financial Sector Assessment : Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment of Turkey's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) through missions in April, August-September 2006 and March, 2007. This report provides a summary of the main findings of the assessment and the policy priorities identified. The main objective of the FSAP is to assist the...

  7. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  8. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  9. 2002 Turkey Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This Report includes developments and variations in energy sector of Turkey in 2002. In addition This report also includes activities and statistics in all the energy sector of our country in 2002. Energy Report hadn't been published in last two years due to some technique reasons

  10. Seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion in Iran between 2011 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Asadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion in different areas of Iran. One thousand and one hundred ovine and 180 caprine samples from 43 sheep and goat flocks in four counties located in the Northeast (Mashhad, Central (Isfahan, Western (Arak, and Southwest (Shiraz Iran were collected randomly between March 2011 and April 2012. The CHEKIT Q fever ELISA kit was used to identify specific antibodies against C. burnetii in sheep and goats. The results showed that the overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats was 19.5% and 27.2%, respectively. There was a significant difference in seropositivity between sheep and goats (P<0.05. Central Iran significantly had the highest prevalence among the studied areas, especially in goat coxiellosis (23.8% and 40.8% in sheep and goats, respectively. The lowest prevalence in sheep was 12.8% in Northeast Iran while in Western Iran C. burnetii antibodies were absent in goats. The higher prevalence of Q fever in Central Iran may be partly due to persistent favourable conditions to spread C. burnetii in this area including drought and dust storms that originated from neighbouring Iraq and Kuwait. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the relatively high prevalence of Q fever in sheep and goat flocks with a history of abortion. Therefore, Q fever could be responsible for considerable numbers of ovine and caprine abortions in Iran.

  11. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  12. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol

    2005-01-01

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m 2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R 2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  13. The Right US Strategy for Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    King , King of Kings , King of countries containing all kinds of men, King in this great earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian , a...Highlights of the Iraq Strategy Review, January 2007, http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/iraq/2007/iraq-strategy011007. pdf . 13 Greg Jaffe and Neil King Jr...do if Iraq Implodes?” August 2006, Brookings Report, (Washington DC) http://www.brook.edu/views/articles/pollack/20060820. pdf . 21 Neil King Jr. and

  14. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    ... in March 2008, which imposed sanctions on Tehran. Despite this pressure, Iran continues at its Natanz centrifuge facility to enrich uranium, expand the number of operating centrifuges, and conduct research on new types of centrifuges...

  15. Iran approaches CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Members of Parliament from the Islamic Republic of Iran visit SM18. From left to right : Ali Mojtahed-Shabestari, Deputy Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Geneva, Diether Blechschmidt, from CERN, Abdol-Rahim Baharvand and Hossain Amiri, from the Iranian Parliament, Norbert Siegel, from CERN, Hossain Afarideh, Rasool Seddighi and Ahmad Shirzad from the Iranian Parliament. Five members of the Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran visited CERN for three days at the beginning of May. All of them have PhD's in Physics, as well as holding their job in politics. They are involved in legislation for science, research and education funding in Iran. Apart from their interest in CERN in general, they were especially attracted to the CMS detector, since an Iranian contribution to the LHC is now starting through a collaboration with the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics in Tehran.

  16. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions, most recently...

  17. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions which imposed sanctions on Tehran...

  18. Iran's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boureston, J.; Marvin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program is discussed, activity of enterprises connected with the nuclear industry of the country is evaluated. IAEA initiated inspection of some industrial sites with the aim of data acquisition about nuclear developments of Iran. Uranium ore mining and reducing to small size, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, production of plutonium: plant of heavy water production, spent fuel reprocessing are discussed [ru

  19. Why Iran proliferates

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Iran and the United States have faced each other across a deep divide ever since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the events of the American Embassy Hostage crisis. The absence of diplomatic relations between the two nations has led to a lack of communication which has resulted in difficulties crafting successful policies to build bridges between the two governments. The specter of Iran's quest for nuclear weapons casts a further pall on the troubled relations. Case studies of historical ex...

  20. Environmental evaluation of Turkey's transboundary rivers' hydropower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkun, M.

    2010-01-01

    The hydroelectric power and potential environmental impacts of hydroelectric projects in 2 transboundary rivers in Turkey were assessed. The southeastern Anatolia project (GAP) is expected to encompass 27 dams and 19 hydroelectric power plants. The large-scale project will increase domestic electricity production and help to provide irrigation for large agricultural schemes. The Coruh project will consist of 27 dams and hydroelectric power plants, which are expected to have serious environmental impacts in both upstream Turkey and downstream Georgia. A slowing down of each river's velocity will cause changes in sediment transport, while the storage of water in large reservoirs will alter water quality and cause changes in local micro-climates. Irrigation methods may cause soil erosion and salinization. The construction of 2 GAP dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has caused protest from Syria and Iraq. Economic development in the regions caused by the proposed hydroelectric projects is expected to have significant environmental impacts on woodland and grassland areas. The projects are expected to adversely affect threatened plant, mammal, and fish species. More detailed cumulative impact and environmental impact assessments are needed to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social problems that are likely to arise as a result of the projects. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  1. Learning From Iraq: A Final Report From the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    example, USAID planned on basic health services to be available to 25% of the entire population and 50% of mothers and children within 60 days of the...in the vaccination of millions of children against measles, mumps, and rubella. In addition, by 2011, the national infant-mortality rate had...the program, the United States Congress appeared to have a “laissez faire” attitude toward the expenditure of U.S. tax dollars in Iraq. The

  2. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  3. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  4. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  5. Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons From Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tressler, David M

    2007-01-01

    U.S. soldiers in Iraq from junior to senior leaders conduct thousands of negotiations with Iraqi leaders while pursuing tactical and operational objectives that affect the strategic import of the U.S...

  6. Mutual incomprehension: U.S.- German value gaps beyond Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Larres, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Differences over Iraq policy have revealed deep U.S.- German value gaps over multilateralism, nationalism, and the role of force in international relations. Cooperation in four areas of mutual importance can help compensate for them.

  7. Securing, Stabilizing, and Rebuilding Iraq: Key Issues for Congressional Oversight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barton, Nanette; Borseth, Ann; Bruno, David; Byers, Donna; Cain, Dan; Christoff, Joseph A; Coffey, Carole; Cothern, Lynn; Cross, Tracey; D'Agostino, Davi

    2007-01-01

    ... I: More Comprehensive U.S. Strategy Needed to Achieve Goals and Address Challenges in Iraq; Enclosure II: U.S. Commitments Involve Significant Resources, but DoD Cost Reports and Budgets Limit Transparency...

  8. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  9. Contractors' Support of U.S. Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frisk, Daniel; Trunkey, R. D; Talaber, Adam; Adedeji, Adebayo; Liu, Victoria; Dennis, Robert; Gullo, Theresa; Sammartino, Frank; Murphy, Robert; Elsea, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper, which covers the period from 2003 through 2007, provides an overview of the federal costs of employing contractors in Iraq and in nearby countries, the type of products and services...

  10. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2005-01-01

    .... and coalition forces since the invasion of Iraq. The bombs have been hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with IEDs are becoming more numerous and deadly...

  11. Estimating the Costs of Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilmore, J. M

    2007-01-01

    This testimony, given by J. Michael Gilmore, Assistant Director for National Security, before the Committee on the Budget, United States Senate, discusses the costs of operations in the Iraq theater and issues associated...

  12. The Survival of the Company Man in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Kyle S

    2008-01-01

    This thesis examines the decision-making processes used by company grade officers operating in combat roles in Iraq and seeks to determine if innovation largely originates among lower ranking officers...

  13. review article two perspectives on the recent war in iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plt

    Making a killing: The explosive story of a hired gun in Iraq is James ... information about armed conflict by reading the personal accounts of participants ... career as a law practitioner, but soon regretted his decision and started daydreaming.

  14. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  15. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  16. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  17. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    military in the democratic process. 14. Heper, State Tradition, 45. 15. Andrew Mango , "The State of Turkey," Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1977), 265...introducing free-market economics, privatization, export -promotion, a fully convertible currency, and a development philosophy of "build, operate, transfer Ŗ...to Ozal for the major export market it represented, s and he shared with the Turkish elite the symbolic importance of joining the premier politico

  18. Marriage Premium in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mercan, Murat A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature in three ways. Our first contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey. Our results suggest that married men earn 27 percent more than single men and married women earn 4 percent less than single women. Our second contribution is calculating the marriage premium for Turkey’s regions. For men, the wage difference is the smallest, 0.43, in Istanbul. The difference is highest in Akdeniz region. For women, the wage difference is smallest, -0....

  19. What can Iran gain by having a nuclear weapons program that threatens to destabilize security in the Middle East?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    and a lot of neigh- bouring countries fear such a development for security reasons. But why is Iran following a nuclear path that may further destabilise the fragile security situation in the Middle East? It is to do with Iran’s own perception of security risks, its desire for greatness in the region......- bination with its important strategic location by the Strait of Hormuz, and supports various political groupings in and around Syria and Iraq to attract the attention of the United States of American in an attempt to become recognised as the most important player in the Middle East. Should Iran succeed...... in its brinkmanship and the outcome could be the lifting of the UN sanctions, international recognition, improved security, and even a possible end to internal political power struggles due to likely economic reforms post-sanctions. Much is at stake for Iran, but, if it succeeds, it could shift...

  20. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The Granting of Iran Office of Foreign Asset Control's Licenses to Big Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmanghelidj, Esfandyar; Heydari, Gholamreza

    2014-02-01

    Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control's (OFAC) awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. By comparing Iran's tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC) and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  1. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardim, G.

    1992-01-01

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  3. Renforcement de la recherche en sciences sociales en Iraq | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cette subvention permettra à l'Iraq Institute for Strategic Studies d'établir les capacités de recherche en sciences sociales du pays en entreprenant une recherche sur le terrain et une enquête dans trois régions, soit Bagdad, le sud de l'Iraq et le Kurdistan. Il s'agira pour l'institut de cerner les forces et les faiblesses en la ...

  4. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Huri Yaseen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study all courses in Arabic, while speaking and using their own culture at home tend to be done in their first language. The minorities’ language usage in Iraq was ignored both inside the schools as well as in the curriculum construction. So this study focuses on the following issues: the first issue is, What is the strategy of language planning policy in Iraq? the study discusses the strategy and the planning educational system that Iraq applies now, the second issue is, What is the status of minority languages in Iraq? Iraq is a multicultural county and has many minorities communities with different languages, the third issue is, What are the challenges of language in Iraq? as long as there is different languages within one country the study also focuses on the challenges that been faced in the planning policy system, and the last issue is, Is there a homogenous relationship during the current policy? How? the study shows the homogenous relationship inside the current policy and the researches give many suggestions and recommendations regarding to the current policy and what is needed for improving the educational planning policy system.

  5. The Planning Policy of Bilingualism in Education in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Huri Yaseen; Hani Shakir; YM Hajah Tenku Mazuwana Bt. T. Mansor

    2016-01-01

    Iraq as a multicultural and multilingual country has different languages as Arabic, which is the dominant language, and it also has some other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Turkish, Syriac....etc. Over the last 80 years, Iraq which was involved in some political struggles, had faced many internal problems regarding the Arabic domination that occurred, and this was owing to the absence of clear language policy used. Children learning in the Iraqi system, for instance, speak and study al...

  6. Monitoring-based analysis of agriculture in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Tokareva, Olga Sergeevna; Pasko, Olga Anatolievna; Alshaibi, A.; Mochalov, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with change in area and structure of Iraq agricultural lands. It revealed the main reasons for the change: crisis (war, sanctions, etc.); economic (swamp and lake drainage, melioration, etc.); weather condition. Land-use intensification as a reason for reduction of agricultural land areas was not proved. The area of cultivated lands proved to correlate significantly with the level of precipitation, wheat productivity -with the average temperature in Iraq.

  7. Chromite Enrichment in the Recent Fluviatile Sediments, North Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي اسماعيل الجبوري; Ismail, Sabah A.; Ghazal, Mohsin M.

    1999-01-01

    The Recent sediments from North Iraq are characterized by a higher content of chromite. This paper deals with the mineralogy and geochemistry of chromite in the heavy mineral assemblages from Recent fluvial sediments in an attempt to elucidate its distribution and source rock. The heavy fraction is composed of iron oxides and chromite forming about 50% of the total heavies. Chromite forms up to 80% of the opaque minerals at some areas in North Iraq. The non-opaque heavy minerals are composed ...

  8. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russillo, Victor

    2003-01-01

    ..., comprehensive policy toward Iran. Iran has concerned the US due to its support for terrorist organizations, its efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction, its attempts to export the Islamic Revolution...

  9. Strategic Effects of the Conflict with Iraq. The Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrill, W

    2003-01-01

    .... Following a war, Saudi Arabia will probably seek to reduce substantially or eliminate the U.S. military presence in the kingdom due to a more limited regional threat and the domestic difficulties...

  10. Respon Iran Terhadap Film Argo

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Nidya; Pakpahan, Saiman

    2017-01-01

    This research discusses Iran's response to the political thriller movie Argo and how the movie represents Iranians. Argo movie was launch in October 2012 focusing on an exfiltration mission in Iran by the CIA, which is based on true events in 1979 when the Islamic Revolution broke in Iran. Iranian in 2012 was shocked by Argo's Iranian depiction that was deem by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ‘anti Iranian' and American propaganda. Iran further their accusation when Argo receive the prestigious...

  11. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN IRAN: EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT AND GENDER IN A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Vahdatian, Parisa

    2018-01-01

    This paper addresses existing gender parities and gapsin Iran, Turkey and Azerbaijan in terms of human development. Human developmentby enlarging people’s freedoms and potentials draws the attention to “ends” andinsists on intrinsic significance of development. The main components of humandevelopment are: capabilities, free agency and achievements. Health, educationand economic resources are essential indicators of Human Development Index(HDI) which share the same ratio in HDI value estimatio...

  12. Nuclear cardiology in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakavi, R.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the most active branches of nuclear medicine and plays important role in diagnosis in treatment of CAD patients. Few nuclear cardiology surveys were published in the literature, mostly from developed countries. A nuclear cardiology survey in Iran and analysis of the findings in comparison with other countries may lead to better decision making and improve practice in our country. A questionnaire was sent by mail or e-mail to all nuclear medicine centers in Iran asking for details of nuclear cardiology practice. Also ownership of the centers, number of gamma cameras and number of cardiac studies in each week were recorded. Some centers were studied using telephone interview. From 79 nuclear medicine centers in Iran, 55 centers (69.6%) filled the questionnaire including 28 centers in Tehran and 27 centers in other cities. There was 69 Gamma cameras in these centers, 62.3% with SPECT capability. It is estimated that we may have 100 gamma cameras in Iran. This study showed that about 68287 cardiac studies were done in Iran each year with Myocardial perfusion scan accounting for about 99 2% of the studies. Considering population of the country nuclear cardiology activity will be about 1.05 study/1000/year. Regarding radiotracers used, about 13.5% of studies were done with T I-201, with some centers using only Tc- 99 m-M I B I

  13. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  14. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  15. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2014-01-01

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO 2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  16. [History of acupuncture in Iran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinghua

    2015-10-01

    Iran is the neighbor of western China, and is a key transport junction on ancient Silk Road. The medical communication between China and Iran dates back to the 10th century, however, according to current evidences, it is indicated that acupuncture has not been introduced to Iran until the early 1970s. Unfortunately over the last 40 years, the acupuncture in Iran has not presented great development. The history of acupuncture development in Iran implies that geographical advantage and personnel exchanges are not essential to the international exchange of acupuncture, while language and cultural background may hinder the spread of acupuncture in foreign countries.

  17. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  18. Iraq: U.S. Regime Change Efforts and Post-Saddam Governance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    .... Administrations had ruled out major U.S. military action to change Iraq's regime, believing such action would be risky and not necessarily justified by the level of Iraq's lack of compliance on WMD disarmament...

  19. On Conflict Transformation in Iraq: Democracy and its Effect on Stability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Aaron S

    2007-01-01

    .... The level of violence in Iraq gradually increased as Iraq progressed from the first national elections in January 2005 to a constitutional referendum and then subsequent elections in December 2005...

  20. Congressional Authority to Limit U.S. Military Operations in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Garcia, Michael J; Nicola, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    .... The situation in Iraq has focused attention on whether Congress has the constitutional authority to legislate limits on the President's authority to conduct military operations in Iraq, even though...

  1. Special Report: Iraq and the Gulf States. The Balance of Fear

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alterman, Jon B

    2007-01-01

    .... As part of the Institute's Iraq and Its Neighbors project, a group of leading specialists on the geopolitics of the region is assessing the interests and influence of the countries surrounding Iraq and the impact on U.S...

  2. Snapshot of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanad Mohsin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Iraq is specific in having its own most predominant lineage (SIT1144/T1 which is not found among neighboring countries. The 15-locus MIRU-VNTR can be useful in discriminating M. tuberculosis isolates in Iraq.

  3. LDC nuclear power: Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Islamic Revolutionary Government has eliminated what had been an ambitious program to install 23,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 1984, but the program has already become unpopular before the downfall to the Shah for economic reasons. Iran originally planned a domestic nuclear program to diversify its energy base and satisfy Western demands to recycle petrodollars, but substantial commissions for foreign contracts were also a factor. No comprehensive study of a nuclear program has been done to determine if there is a nuclear future for Iran. 8 references

  4. Electricity restructuring in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkyvrak, Oezlem

    2005-01-01

    Turkey implemented the electricity sector reform by which the Electricity Market Law no. 4628 passed in February 2001. Recently, all segments of the Turkish electricity sector are dominated by a vertically integrated, public-owned monopoly - Tuerkiye Elektrik Kurumu - the Turkish electricity institution. The Turkish electricity reform involves vertical deintegration of generation, transmission and distribution, introduction of competition into generation and retail sale, establishment of an independent regulatory authority and privatization of public generation and distribution entities. This article provides an overview of the Turkish electricity sector reform and defines some problems that may affect the reform success

  5. Nuclear Medicine in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that uses radionuclides for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and it is one of the most important peaceful applications of nuclear sciences. Nuclear Medicine has a short history both in Turkey and in the world. The first use of I-131 for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis in Turkey was in 1958 at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. In 1962, Radiobiological Institute in Ankara University Medical School was established equipped with well-type counters, radiometers, scalers, external counters and a rectilinear scanner. In 1965, multi-probe external detection systems, color dot scanners and in 1967, anger scintillation camera had arrived. In 1962, wet lab procedures and organ scanning, in 1965 color dot scanning, dynamic studies (blood flow - renograms) and in 1967 analogue scintillation camera and dynamic camera studies have started. In 1974, nuclear medicine was established as independent medical specialty. Nuclear medicine departments have started to get established in 1978. In 1974, The Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine (TSNM) was established with 10 members. The first president of TSNM was Prof. Dr. Yavuz Renda. Now, in the year 2000, TSNM has 349 members. Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine is a member of European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) and WFNMB Asia-Oceania. Since 1974, TSNM has organized 13 national Nuclear Medicine congresses, 4 international Nuclear Oncology congresses and 13 nuclear medicine symposiums. In 1-5 October 2000, 'The VII th Asia and Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology' was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Since 1992, Turkish Journal of Nuclear Medicine is published quarterly and it is the official publication of TSNM. There are a total of 112 Nuclear Medicine centers in Turkey. There are 146 gamma cameras. (52 Siemens, 35 GE, 16 Elscint, 14 Toshiba, 10 Sopha, 12 MIE, 8 Philips, 9 Others) Two cyclotrons are

  6. Investigation of dust storms entering Western Iran using remotely sensed data and synoptic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloorani, Ali D; Nabavi, Seyed O; Bahrami, Hosain A; Mirzapour, Fardin; Kavosi, Musa; Abasi, Esmail; Azizi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    One of the natural phenomena which have had considerable impacts on various regions of the world, including Iran, is "dust storm". In recent years, this phenomenon has taken on new dimensions in Iran and has changed from a local problem to a national issue. This study is an attempt to investigate the formation of the dust storms crossing the Western Iran. To find the sources of the dust storms entering Iran, first we examine three determined dust paths in the region and their temporal activities, using MODIS satellite images. Then, four regions were identified as dust sources through soil, land cover and wind data. Finally, atmospheric analyses are implemented to find synoptic patterns inducing dust storms. Source 1 has covered the region between the eastern banks of Euphrates and western banks of Tigris. Source 2 is in desert area of western and south-western Iraq. Finally source 3 is bounded in eastern and south-eastern deserts of Saudi Arabia called Rub-Al-Khali desert, or Empty Quarter. Moreover, south-eastern part of Iraq (source 4) was also determined as a secondary source which thickens the dust masses originating from the above mentioned sources. The study of synoptic circulations suggests that the dust storms originating from source 1 are formed due to the intense pressure gradient between the low-pressure system of Zagros and a high-pressure cell formed on Mediterranean Sea. The dust events in sources 2 and 3 are outcomes of the atmospheric circulations dominant in the cold period of the year in mid-latitudes.

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7026 - Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7026 Section 252.225-7026 Federal Acquisition... to Products or Services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(c), use the following clause: Acquisition Restricted to Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (APR 2010) (a...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7024 - Requirement for products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. 252.225-7024 Section 252.225-7024 Federal Acquisition... products or services from Iraq or Afghanistan. As prescribed in 225.7703-5(b), use the following clause: Requirement for Products or Services From Iraq or Afghanistan (SEP 2008) (a) Definitions. As used in this...

  9. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  10. Estimated use of explosives in the mining industries of Algeria, Iran, Iraq, and Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Russell, J.A.; Bleiwas, D.I. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This work was performed under Memorandum of Agreement B291534 Between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the United States Bureau of Mines. The Bureau of Mines authors are members of the Minerals Availability Field Office (MAFO) in Denver, CO, which uses an extensive network of information sources to develop and maintain the Minerals Availability database concerning mining and minerals properties worldwide. This study was initiated and directed by F. Heuze at LLNL. A previous study on the same subject had been commissioned by LLNL from the Mining Journal Research Services (MJRS) in London ,UK. Its results were integrated into this report. MJRS is shown as one of the numerous sources which were used for this work. All sources are listed in the report. This document is arranged in four sections, one for each country, in alphabetical order. Thie outline is the same for each country.

  11. Saddam’s War: An Iraqi Military Perspective of the Iran-Iraq War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    saddam hussein’s personality according to the theories of [ Sigmund ] Freud or [Alfred] Adler, or even [Ivan] Pavlov. We need the theories of these...psychologists because they bring in different elements: freud was the founder of the theory of the analytical method in psychology; adler is the one who

  12. Strategic Personality and the Effectiveness of Nuclear Deterrence: Deterring Iraq and Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziemke, Caroline

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the international system since the end of the Cold War have necessitated reevaluation of the theoretical assumptions that provided the foundations of deterrence theory for the past six decades...

  13. Vil USA angribe Iran?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2007-01-01

    Sammen med Mogens Lykketoft, Søren Espersen og Herbert Pundik stilles Rasmus Chr. Elling en række spørgsmål om hvordan Vesten bør handle ift. Irans atomenergiprogram og om faren for et amerikansk angreb på den islamiske republik....

  14. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  15. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  16. Iran: what nuclear sanctuary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, P.

    2010-01-01

    The author continues his study of Iran and its implicit nuclear strategy by showing us the three circles of sanctuary that it contains. He shows to what extent this country, with its strong and ancient geopolitical identity, has managed to restore its rank at the centre of the geostrategic and geo-economic chessboard of the region. (author)

  17. Iran, the crisis situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2010-01-01

    This book is an updated edition of a previous book by the same author: 'Iran and the nuclear: the Persian torments'. The author addresses the Iranian nuclear crisis within an historic perspective, and states that this crisis has its roots in the recent Iranian history, but has deeper origins before the Islamic Revolution of 1979. In a first part, he draws a portrait of Iran by opposing current myths and realities like Persia and an actual ethnic diversity, an oil-based wealth in a context of under-development, tyranny and an actual political complexity. He also analyses the Iranian geo-strategy and its recent evolutions, the relationships and attitudes towards the three Satans (USA, France and Israel), and describes the main evolutions of the Iranian defence, notably after 9/11. The second part describes the long evolution of the Iranian nuclear programme, from its beginning at the time of the Shah, until now (projects, programmes and realities of the Iranian electronuclear industry), and recalls the different steps of the nuclear crisis between 2002 and 2006. The third part is a prospective one. The author discusses several aspects of the conflict (power balance, rumours and threats, sanctions and military scenarios, Iranian retaliation capacities) and discusses what a nuclear Iran would be (its capacities, its objectives, geo-strategic consequences of a nuclear Iran, and remaining opportunities for negotiations)

  18. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The granting of Iran office of foreign asset control′s licenses to big tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandyar Batmanghelidj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. Methods: This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control′s (OFAC awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. Results: By comparing Iran′s tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. Conclusions: It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  19. 75 FR 26938 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... business growth in Iraq and to strengthen trade and investment ties between the United States and Iraq... areas: --Factors that affect the growth of private sector business in Iraq, including disincentives to... regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion of business opportunities in both...

  20. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Dirk J; Maghdid, Delshad M; Mohammed, Maqsood S; Sherwani, Govand H S

    2014-03-01

    Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework for stimulating urological education and research in other countries where urologists face the same obstacles. Data were obtained from the perspective of two academics who co-operate with urologists from Iraq, and from the perspective of two officials from the Ministry of Higher education of the Kurdistan Regional Government who are responsible for stimulating continuous education. Based on a co-operative and supportive attitude of both Government and Academics, urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq have brought the standards of education and cooperative research to an internationally competitive level. The authors hope that the examples given here can stimulate urologists from Arab countries to fully engage in new urological developments, despite the obstacles that they perceive.

  1. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  2. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  3. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  4. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  5. IAEA calls for urgent action on nuclear situation in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei, called on the United States and other Coalition authorities to allow IAEA experts to return to Iraq to address a possible radiological emergency there. 'I am deeply concerned by the almost daily reports of looting and destruction at nuclear sites and about the potential radiological safety and security implications of nuclear and radiological materials that may no longer be under control.' Such reports have described among other things yellow cake emptied on the ground from containers then taken for domestic use, and radioactive sources being stolen and removed from their shielding. 'We have a moral responsibility to establish the facts without delay and take urgent remedial action,' said Dr. ElBaradei. As hostilities in Iraq were coming to an end, Dr. ElBaradei wrote on 10 April to the US government bringing its attention to the need to secure the nuclear material stored at Tuwaitha - Iraq's nuclear research centre - and under IAEA seal since 1991. The IAEA also provided the United States with information about the nuclear material, radioactive sources, and nuclear waste in Iraq. The IAEA received oral assurances that physical protection of the site was in place; but following reports of looting there and at other sites, Dr. ElBaradei wrote again on 29 April, emphasizing the responsibility of the Coalition forces to maintain appropriate protection over the materials in question. This includes natural and low-enriched uranium, radioactive sources such as Cobalt 60 and Caesium 137, and nuclear waste. Dr. ElBaradei regrets that the IAEA has to date not received a response. He again urged that the Agency be allowed to send a safety and security team to Iraq so that a potentially serious humanitarian situation can be addressed without further delay. The IAEA has experienced international teams of radiation safety, nuclear security and emergency response specialists

  6. Iran's 'Risk-Taking' in Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahram, Chubin

    2008-07-01

    Assessing any state's intentions is a difficult undertaking - especially at a specific moment in time. When a state is considered hostile, its behaviour erratic, and its system opaque, what is difficult under normal circumstances becomes nearly impossible. It may thus often seem prudent to attribute the worst of intentions to such states, but this can create a self-fulfilling prophecy. Iran with its revolutionary pretensions, fiery rhetoric and nuclear ambitions, is a case in point, since it is particularly difficult to 'read'. Located in the centre of a geo-politically sensitive and conflict-driven area, Iran is in a position to influence - positively or otherwise - the Persian Gulf, the Caucasus, the Middle East and South Asia. This influence may furthermore be expanding as a result of the weakening of Iraq and Lebanon, divisions among the Palestinians, and the more general rise of the Shi'i across the broader region. Add to this the ambiguous aims of Iran's nuclear programme and the shadow this has already thrown across the region, and the need to assess Iran's intentions accurately appears crucial. Here, Iran's past behavior may provide some help, especially when it comes to Iran's proclivity for risk taking - provided the acquisition of a nuclear capability does not alter Iran's intentions or behavior so as to make the past irrelevant. Some commentators believe that Iran's ideology and past behaviour suggest that a nuclear-capable Iran will be inclined to take on a high level of risk, without concern for the potential costs of this recklessness, and that Iran may perhaps even welcome the risks involved. By contrast, the recent National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), a composite of US intelligence agency estimates, has concluded that Iran's 'decisions are guided by a cost-benefit approach' and therefore 'may be more vulnerable to influence' than they had previously (i.e.2005) judged. These

  7. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  8. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  9. FINANCIAL CRISES AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERT URAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the last three decades, in developed and developing counties the liberalization and openness efforts have been witnessed. However, financial liberalization attempts (both internal and external without having macroeconomic stability lead to financial crises in many developing countries. Macroeconomic instabilities create fragile financial markets paving the way for future economic crises. The Turkish Economy, completed the liberalization process with foreign trade liberalization in 1980 and by removing controls on capital accounts in 1989. However, since 1990’s economy got into ‘growth-instability-crisis’ vicious circle, because of the fluctuations in the financial structure. By employing a factor analysis (principal components analysis, this work, aims to obtain the factors that effect crises in Turkey.

  10. Ballistic trauma: lessons learned from iraq and afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H; Sabino, Jennifer M; Nanos, George P; Valerio, Ian L

    2015-02-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan.

  11. IAEA inspectors complete verification of nuclear material in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Full text: At the request of the Government of Iraq and pursuant to the NPT Safeguards Agreement with Iraq, a team of IAEA safeguards inspectors has completed the annual Physical Inventory Verification of declared nuclear material in Iraq, and is returning to Vienna. The material - natural or low-enriched uranium - is not sensitive from a proliferation perspective and is consolidated at a storage facility near the Tuwaitha complex, south of Baghdad. This inspection was conducted with the logistical and security assistance of the Multinational Force and the Office of the UN Security Coordinator. Inspections such as this are required by safeguards agreements with every non-nuclear-weapon state party to the NPT that has declared holdings of nuclear material, to verify the correctness of the declaration, and that material has not been diverted to any undeclared activity. Such inspections have been performed in Iraq on a continuing basis. The most recent took place in June 2003, following reports of looting of nuclear material at the Tuwaitha complex; IAEA inspectors recovered, repackaged and resealed all but a minute amount of material. NPT safeguards inspections are limited in scope and coverage as compared to the verification activities carried out in 1991-98 and 2002-03 by the IAEA under Security Council resolution 687 and related resolutions. 'This week's mission was a good first step,' IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei said. 'Now we hope to be in a position to complete the mandate entrusted to us by the Security Council, to enable the Council over time to remove all sanctions and restrictions imposed on Iraq - so that Iraq's rights as a full-fledged member of the international community can be restored.' The removal of remaining sanctions is dependent on completion of the verification process by the IAEA and the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC). It should be noted that IAEA technical assistance to Iraq has been resumed over

  12. Iran and regional energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics reviewed in these conference proceedings in the first session include domestic imperatives covering the economy, social imperatives - civil society and the rule of law, and the overall investment climate. Session 2 focuses on Iran and the energy sector with papers on oil and gas pipelines, and the effect of sanctions. Session 3 deals with Iran and the Persian Gulf with papers on new developments in Iran and its Arab neighbours, and Iran and Arab attempts to manage oil output. Session 4 concentrates on business and investment perspectives with papers on the low oil and gas prices and the new competition for investment capital, the investment climate, the building of connection with Iran, and identifying the predominant trends. A keynote address by the former deputy Foreign Minister of Iran examines regional energy development

  13. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  14. Epidemiology of organomercury poisoning in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mufti, A. W.; Copplestone, J. F.; Kazantzis, G.; Mahmoud, R. M.; Majid, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was carried out in a defined area in rural Iraq where there had been many cases of organomercury poisoning following the consumption of bread contaminated by mercury, in order to determine the true incidence of the disorder. The results were compared with those obtained from a similar rural area from which few cases had been reported. A questionnaire was used to determine the amount of contaminated bread eaten and the frequency of symptoms; a simple clinical examination was performed and blood and hair samples were collected for estimation of total mercury concentration. Of 700 people over the age of 5 years in the high-exposure area, 66% admitted to having eaten contaminated bread, while none of the 864 persons in the low exposure area had done so. The mean period during which contaminated bread was eaten was 32 days, but some people had eaten it for as long as 3 months. A mean of 121 loaves was eaten, the maximum being 480 loaves. For the mean number of loaves the intake of methylmercury was likely to have been between 80 mg and 250 mg, but the people who had consumed the largest amount of contaminated bread may have ingested up to 1 000 mg of methylmercury over a 3-month period. Of those with signs of alkylmercury poisoning at the time of the survey, 80% had eaten more than 100 loaves, and 53 (71%) out of 75 persons who had eaten more than 200 loaves showed some evidence of poisoning. The incidence rate for poisoning was estimated at 271 per 1 000; this figure includes a mortality rate of 59 per 1 000, 32 per 1 000 cases with severe disability, 41 per 1 000 cases with mild or moderate disability and 138 per 1 000 cases with only subjective evidence of poisoning at the time of the study. PMID:1086164

  15. Iran's role in the Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enav, Peter

    1999-08-01

    Contains Chapters on: The Central Asian pipeline puzzle; What's at stake - Central Asian oil supply and world oil demand to 2015; Non-Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports - assessing the alternative; Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports; Iran's hydrocarbon development strategy - in conflict with Central Asia? US policy and Iran; Iran and the Russian role in Central Asia; The Iranian impact on Central Asian hydrocarbon development. (Author)

  16. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  17. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  18. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  19. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  20. Migration from Iraq between the Gulf and the Iraq wars (1990-2003): historical and sociospacial dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelard, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Working Paper 09-68, COMPAS - Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (Oxford University). http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/wp-09-68/#c221; This paper describes and analyses trends and patterns of migration from Iraq with a focus on the movement of those Iraqis who migrated from their country between the Gulf War in 1990-1991 and the Anglo-American invasion of Iraq in April 2003. The conceptual frame of migration orders is used however combined with approaches proposed b...

  1. Conceiving IVF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Tremayne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 19th century the Iranian state has been concerned with the size of its population, and policies directed to its increase or decrease have been closely involved with the purpose of nation building. None of these policies have been particularly successful, except for the effective family planning campaign of the 1980s that led to a remarkable drop in population growth, which currently stands at 1.3 per annum, below the replacement level. However, all the policies have failed to address the issue of infertility, which is widespread in Iran. It was against the background of such oversight that, from 1987, some pioneering physicians introduced IVF practices to the country and engaged with the Islamic jurists, whose endorsement of infertility treatment through IVF was deemed crucial to give the practices legitimacy. This article explores the process by which assisted reproductive technologies were legitimized in Iran in all their forms and which have placed the country in the lead among the Muslim countries in the Middle East in this respect. Within Iran, following the state’s latest pronatalist policies, assisted reproductive technologies have been acknowledged as a means to help the state meet its new ambition of higher population growth.

  2. Strengthening Social Science Research in Iraq | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Iraqi Institute of Strategic Studies to map the country's social science research capacity by means of field research and a survey in three regions: Baghdad, southern Iraq and Kurdistan. In doing so, the Institute will identify strengths and weaknesses, gaps in the literature, themes of current interest to ...

  3. Academic development for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Kok (Dirk); D.M. Maghdid (Delshad); M.S. Mohammed (Maqsood); G.H.S. Sherwani (Govand)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjectives Continuous education is mandatory for all urologists, and undertaking cooperative research is a very effective means for this. We describe the experience and possibilities for continuing education for urologists in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. We hope to provide a framework

  4. The Gulf War on Computer: A Review of "Iraq Stack."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Dick

    1993-01-01

    Reviews a HyperCard stack designed for use in schools and at home. Describes the program as primarily a database of information on Iraq, Kuwait, and the Gulf War. Contends that the program is pedagogically weak and of marginal use in the classroom. (CFR)

  5. UNSCOM faces entirely new verification challenges in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevan, T.

    1993-01-01

    Starting with the very first declarations and inspections, it became evident that Iraq was not acting in good faith, would use every possible pretext to reinterpret UNSCOM's inspection rights, and occasionally would use harassment tactics to make inspections as difficult as possible. Topics considered in detail include; initial assumptions, outstanding issues, and UNSCOM's future attitude

  6. The Arab spring and online protests in Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Al-Rawi (Ahmed)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article traces the influence of the Arab Spring on Iraq as activists staged fervent protests against the corruption, sectarianism, and favoritism of Nouri Maliki's government. A group of young Iraqi intellectuals, journalists, students, government employees, and unemployed youth

  7. Choosing War: The Decision to Invade Iraq and Its Aftermath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Ballard, a recent Iraq veteran, all contributed greatly. From the Institute for National Strategic Studies, Dr. Christopher J. Lamb , Dr. James A. Schear...reforms of 1986 were stewing for many years and were only enacted after a series of disappointing opera- tions in which the obvious national failure was

  8. Identifying water mass depletion in northern Iraq observed by GRACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.; Olsthoorn, T.N.; Al-manmi, D.A.M.A.; Schrama, E.J.O.; Smidt, E.H.

    2015-01-01

    Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission indicate a mass loss of 146 ± 6 mm equivalent water height (EWH) in northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. These data are used as an independent validation of lake mass variations and a rainfall-runoff model, which is

  9. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration…

  10. Big questions cloud Iraq's future role in world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tippee, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Iraq raises questions for the world oil market beyond those frequently asked about when and under what circumstances it will resume exports. Two wars since 1981 have obscured encouraging results from a 20 year exploration program that were only beginning to come to light when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990. Those results indicate the country might someday be able to produce much more than the 3.2 million b/d it was flowing before a United Nations embargo blocked exports. If exploratory potential is anywhere near what officials asserted in the late 1980s, and if Iraq eventually turns hospitable to international capital, the country could become a world class opportunity for oil companies as well as an exporter with productive capacity approaching that of Saudi Arabia. But political conditions can change quickly. Under a new, secular regime, Iraq might welcome non-Iraqi oil companies and capital as essential to economic recovery. It's a prospect that warrants a new industry look at what the country has revealed about its geology and exploration history

  11. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM INVESTMENT GAS INDUSTRY IN THE REPUBLIC OF IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Hayder Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern world. Economy of the biggest part of states based on the foreigninvestments, which are quite necessaryfor developing their economy and infrastructure. On the present stage of thedevelopment the Republic of Iraq the gassector problems could be solved onlythrough investments.

  12. Iraq cracks a few heads in the Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J.

    1990-08-20

    Last month Saddam Hussein charged that oil overproduction by his neighbors was costing Iraq dearly. When an OPEC meeting collapsed last week, he sent 100,000 troops to seize Kuwait, which he had accused of stealing oil. The US is scrambling to organize a Western boycott, but some analysts question just how effective such a more would be.

  13. The Role of Nationalist leaders in the Emergence of National Architectural Movements in Iran, 1924 to 1942

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaleddin Soheili

    2015-01-01

    Political evolutions and struggles of 19th century prepared the ground for realization of nationalities and emergence of nationalist movements. The realization of national identity in countries such as Iran, turkey and Egypt was partly due to the emphasis of governments on glorious history or ancient modernity of these nations. Emergence of nationalism in any country is affected by political, social and religious factors during the history of that country. In Iranian contemporary history a...

  14. Measurement of intra-industry trade (ITT) of Iran with ten selective major trading partners using Grubel-Lloyd Index

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Emadi

    2016-01-01

    This paper was conducted to measure intra-industry trade of Iran with ten selective major trading partners including the United Arab Emirates, Germany, China, Republic of Korea, Italy, India, Japan, Turkey, Spain, and Singapore using Grubel-Lloyd index. Due to the development of cross-border economic relationships, these countries try to find and present an appropriate model for production, import, and export of goods and identification of business opportunities and comparative advantages. Th...

  15. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  16. The IAEA in Iraq: Past activities and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    This summary paper was first published in August 2002 along with papers of similar scope describing other aspects of Iraq's WMD programmes. Despite its inclusion in a compendium introducing the concept of 'coercive inspections', the author made it clear to the publisher the Carnegie Foundation for International Peace (CEIP) - that he did not support that concept which he considered to have the potential to result in a serious hazard to inspectors in the field. Since that time the UN Security Council has adopted resolution 1441 - not dissimilar in scope and objective to that contained in the author's paper to the CEIP workshop on Iraq in July 1991 - and inspectors have already resumed their activities in Iraq. Resolution 1441 contains little new but is extremely helpful in bringing to prominence and elaborating the extensive rights of the inspection authorities already embodied in their respective plans for on goings monitoring and verification. What is new is the inspectorates' right to transport Iraqi nationals and their family members outside Iraq in order to conduct unencumbered interviews. This new right seems to have been viewed with circumspection within the inspectorates and rightly so. Its implementation is fraught with difficulty. For example, if the Iraqi regime is true to the media model then it must be assumed that valued family members of critical interviewees have already been at least identified by the regime if, that is, they are not already 'enjoying the hospitality of the State'. Again, would the apparent refusal of family members, young and old, to accompany the interviewee be deemed to be non-co-operation? Does 1441 really give the inspectorates the right of extradition or does it mean that those interviewees willing to leave, along with their families, and released without serious objections by the Iraqi regime, are likely to have little to contribute to current knowledge? Despite the above reservation, resolution 1441 provides a firm basis for

  17. The mountains influence on Turkey Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Serhat

    2004-01-01

    , Sivas and Konya provinces precipitation is generally less than 500 mm. Since southeastern Anatolia is under the effect of weather coming from the deserts in Syria, Iraq and Arab Peninsula, the summer season in this area is dry and hot. Owing to the irregularity of its topography, various types of climate ranging from, subtropical to cold or very cold climates as you move horizontally or vertically characterize climate in Turkey. The driest regions are the Karaman, Igdlr and Sanliurfa, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimeters. The wettest regions are the Black Sea coastal regions where annual rainfall can reach 2,200 millimeters annually.(Author)

  18. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  19. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  20. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  1. Nursing doctoral education in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Meryem

    2004-10-01

    Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.

  2. Turkey's net energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezkaymak, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop the equations for forecasting net energy consumption (NEC) using an artificial neural-network (ANN) technique in order to determine the future level of energy consumption in Turkey. In this study, two different models were used in order to train the neural network. In one of them, population, gross generation, installed capacity and years are used in the input layer of the network (Model 1). Other energy sources are used in input layer of network (Model 2). The net energy consumption is in the output layer for two models. Data from 1975 to 2003 are used for the training. Three years (1981, 1994 and 2003) are used only as test data to confirm this method. The statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -value) for training data are equal to 0.99944 and 0.99913 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Similarly, R 2 values for testing data are equal to 0.997386 and 0.999558 for Models 1 and 2, respectively. According to the results, the net energy consumption using the ANN technique has been predicted with acceptable accuracy. Apart from reducing the whole time required, with the ANN approach, it is possible to find solutions that make energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable energy policies

  3. Ingen panik - Iran kan balanceres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran anses af mange som en voksende magtfaktor i Mellemøsten, der i stigende grad truer den regionale og endda globale sikkerhed. Irans hårde magt (atomprogrammet) og bløde magt (den politiske shi’a islam) betragtes som fundamentet til udviklingen af Irans stormagtsstatus og dets indflydelse....../trussel i regionen. Dette fundament er imidlertid skrøbeligt, og der er ingen grund til panik. Selv et Iran med atomvåben kan inddæmmes og balanceres og Iran’s bløde magt er meget begrænset. At bombe Iran vil derfor være en stor fejltagelse....

  4. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  5. Iran's Security Policy in the Post-Revolutionary Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byman, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This report assesses Iran's security policy. It examines broad drivers of Iran's security policy, describes important security institutions, explores decisionmaking, and reviews Iran's relations with key countries...

  6. Celiac disease in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekzadeh R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until a few decades ago, celiac disease was considered to be essentially a disease of European people and to be very rare in Middle Eastern countries. During the last two decades, having met the criteria for the WHO general screening, the advent and application of novel serological assays used to screen for celiac disease and the use of endoscopic small bowel biopsy have led to increasing numbers of diagnoses of celiac disease in western countries. With this new data, our knowledge on both the clinical pattern and epidemiology of celiac disease has increased, and is now known to be a relatively common autoimmune disorder. Studies performed in different parts of the developing world have shown that the prevalence of celiac disease in this area is similar to or even higher than that in western countries. In fact, celiac disease is known to be the most common form of chronic diarrhea in Iran. However, contrary to common belief, celiac disease is more than a pure digestive alteration. It is a protean systemic disease, and, with a 95 percent genetic predisposition, has a myriad of symptoms including gastrointestinal, dermatological, dental, neurological and behavioral that can occur at a variety of ages. Monosymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, atypical (without gastrointestinal symptoms, silent and latent forms of celiac disease have been identified. In this study we review the epidemiology of celiac disease based on the studies performed in Iran and discuss its pathogenesis, the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease and the importance of its diagnosis and treatment in Iran.

  7. Choosing Spouse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zia'

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Each society and culture, according to its condition and requirements, makes special circumscriptions, criterions and norms in choosing a spouse. In every culture one may have several alternatives of his/her own opposite sex as a spouse, but spouse choosing is never accidental. In every culture, besides the circumscriptions which is due to the personal values and desires, there are some circumscriptions which are imposed by the society. Till some decades ago, the family organization was responsible for spouse choosing in Iran, but today each person's role has become more important; although cultural and social conditions have some effect on it. Therefore, nowadays spouse choosing is analyzed as an important social action and many theories have been provided for understanding the patterns of the spouse choosing. In this study and in a theoretical level, two important theories (similar spouses and different spouses are presented as two corrival theories and then according to similarities of these theories, the indicators of the study are made. After that, by using the survey research method throughout the country and the statistical population of five thousand people, we experimentally assess the indicators of the study and these two theories of the spouse choosing.            Results show the domination of the similar spouses' theory in Iran. They also show that approximately 90% of people in the external traits, 89% in the psycho-emotional traits, 93% in the personal traits, 68% in the social level characteristics and 88% in the religious beliefs, follow the patterns of the similar spouses' theory.The analytical results also conclusively show that different groups in Iran choose persons who have more similarity with them in the external, psycho-emotional and personal traits as well as the social level and religious characteristics. Although it should be noted that among men and women, the strangeness and weakness of these patterns are

  8. PARASITIC MITES IN BACKYARD TURKEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Camacho-Escobar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To describe the parasitic mites in backyard turkeys, was did this work. The mites were obtain by hand for 30 backyard turkeys in Oaxaca’s Coast region, Mexico; the mites were mount in adhesive paper and wash with the 200X lent in a computer optical microscopy, the parasites size were determinate in the pictures obtained by the microscopy software, the images were sized using a specialist software for it, which relate the number of pixels in the picture with the size of the observation field. Were indentified the species Dermanyssus gallinae, Megninia ginglymura and Ornithonyssus sylviarum, the last two described for first time in backyard turkeys in Mexico. Â

  9. Lut Desert, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Iran is a large country with several desert regions. In the Dasht-E-Lut (Lut Desert) (30.5N, 58.5E) an area known as Namak-Zar, about 100 miles east of the city of Kerman, is at the center of this photograph. Some of the world's most prominent Yardangs (very long, parallel ridges and depressions) have been wind eroded in these desert dry lake bed sediments. At the left of the photo is a large field of sand dunes at right angles to the wind.

  10. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  11. Labour migration from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uner, S

    1988-01-01

    This study is concerned with Turkish labor migration to Western Europe. Earlier and recent patterns of labor migration, characteristics of migrants by occupation, area of destination, and by geographical origins are discussed. Economic and demographic consequences of labor migration are also analyzed. It is estimated that Turkey's population will reach 73 million at the year 2000 with the present growth rate of 2.48% annually. Considering the efforts made to slow down the present high fertility rates and assuming that the decrease in labor force participation during 1970-1980 continues, the author concludes that the labor supply will increase with a growth rate of 2% annually for the next 13-15 years. Thus, the labor supply will reach 26.6 million people in the year 2000 from the 1980 level of 17.8 million. Assuming also that the income/employment elasticity of .25 which was observed throughout the period of 1960-1980 will not change until 2000, the annual growth rate of employment may be estimated as 1.5%. Thus, the number of people employed will reach 20 million in the year 1990 and 23.2 million in the year 2000. 8.8 million people will join the labor market as new entrants between 1980 and 2000. Only 6 million people out of 8.8 million will be employed. Thus, in the year 2000, it is estimated that 2.8 million new unemployed people will be added to the already open unemployment figure 1980 census data give the number of unemployed as .6 million people. Adding the 2.8 million new unemployed to this figure totals 3.4 million unemployed in 2000. The State Planning Organization's estimate of labor surplus for 1980 was 2.5 million people. When 2.8 million unemployed people are added to this figure, the labor surplus for the year 2000 reaches 5.3 million people.

  12. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumin, S.; Ozyoruk, B.

    2007-01-01

    We are at the beginning of a new millennium. At this stage, we are observing economic and social liberalization efforts and regional alliance projects throughout the world. In this very same process, we are also experiencing a more holistic concept called globalization, which covers rapid and simultaneous dissemination and integration of capital, labor, information and technology, world-wide. This globalization opened a new era where national market economies and local companies went into competition in the international arena. In this era, it became a necessity for the non-liberal economies to catch up with the developments in the international markets and be open to economic and political changes. These developments have brought along many radical economic and social changes throughout the world. Policies adopted in Turkey, with respect to the energy reform process, display a general tendency towards putting in place a legal framework that will support the implementation of good governance principles, and providing conformity with the relevant legislative infrastructure of both OECD and EU countries. Turkey has only limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but substantial reserves of coal, particularly lignite. Energy demand has grown at 4-5 % per annum over the past three decades and will continue to grow rapidly, which will require enormous investments in 2000 and 2020, with the most significant increase being that of natural gas. Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. 73 % of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 % of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions

  13. Challenges facing post-war tourism development: the case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an empirical investigation to study the post-war tourism in sought west region of Iran. This region is the host of many Iranian who wish remember the events of War between Iran and Iraq. Many high school or university students travel to the region through cultural as well as religious communities. This paper tries to analyze the challenges facing these people when they travel to province of Khozestan, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some randomly selected people who visited the region. The implementation of Pearson correlation test has determined that “Weakness of tourism infrastructure facilities and services” is to be blamed the most followed by “Underdevelopment of decision making centers”. Moreover, path analysis has been implemented to detect direct and indirect effects of different factors on development of tourism in the region. In our survey, marketing, culture and weakness in infrastructures have been determined the most important factors influencing on development of the region.

  14. Phylogenetic study of Theileria lestoquardi based on 18SrRNA gene Isolated from sheep in the middle region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.A. Alkhaled

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Theileriosis is parasitic infection causes by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Theileria. T. lestoquardi is the most virulent species in sheep and goats which causes a severe disease with a high morbidity and mortality rate. In this study the phylogenetic relationships between two local isolate of T. lestoquardi and nine T. lestoquardi global isolates as well as Babesia ovis out-group isolate were analyzed using the 18S rRNA gene sequence. The multiple sequence alignment analysis and neighbor joining phylogenetic tree analysis were performed by using ClustalW multiple sequence alignment online based analysis of 1098bp 18S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Phylogenetic analysis results of these gene sequences revealed that T. lestoquardi local isolates were closely related to T. lestoquardi Iran isolate (JQ917458.1 and two Iraq Kurdistan isolates (KC778786.1 and KC778785.1 more than other countries. This study represents the first report on the use of molecular phylogeny to classify T. lestoquardi obtained in Middle Region of Iraq.

  15. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  16. Head and neck trauma in Iraq and Afghanistan: different war, different surgery, lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    The objectives are to compare and contrast the head and neck trauma experience in Iraq and Afghanistan and to identify trauma lessons learned that are applicable to civilian practice. A retrospective review of one head and neck surgeon's operative experience in Iraq and Afghanistan was performed using operative logs and medical records. The surgeon's daily operative log book with patient demographic data and operative reports was reviewed. Also, patient medical records were examined to identify the preoperative and postoperative course of care. The head and neck trauma experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan were very different, with a higher percentage of emergent cases performed in Iraq. In Iraq, only 10% of patients were pretreated at a facility with surgical capabilities. In Afghanistan, 93% of patients were pretreated at such facilities. Emergent neck exploration for penetrating neck trauma and emergent airway surgery were more common in Iraq, which most likely accounted for the increased perioperative mortality also seen in Iraq (5.3% in Iraq vs. 1.3% in Afghanistan). Valuable lessons regarding soft tissue trauma repair, midface fracture repair, and mandible fracture repair were learned. The head and neck trauma experiences in Iraq and Afghanistan were very different, and the future training for mass casualty trauma events should reflect these differences. Furthermore, valuable head and neck trauma lessons learned in both war zones are applicable to the civilian practice of trauma. Level 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Differences in Services and Fees for Management and Administration of Iraq Reconstruction Contracts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David; Childress, David; Salvatierra, George; Thompson, Chuck; Williams, Roger M

    2008-01-01

    ...), a field operating agency of the Air Force Civil Engineer, are two primary organizations providing project management and contract administration services for major Iraq reconstruction projects...

  18. World Energy Outlook Special Report 2012: Iraq Energy Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Iraq is already the world’s third largest oil exporter. It has the resources and intention to increase its oil production vastly. Contracts are already in place. Will Iraq’s ambitions be realised? And what would the implications be for Iraq’s economy and for world oil markets? The obstacles are formidable: political, logistical, legal, regulatory, financial, lack of security and sufficient skilled labour. One example: in 2011 grid electricity could meet only 55% of demand. The International Energy Agency has studied these issues with the support and close cooperation of the government of Iraq and many other leading officials, commentators, industry representatives and international experts. This special report, in the World Energy Outlook series, presents the findings.

  19. Decommissioning plan for Tammuz-2 research reactor in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A. A.; Jasim, H. I.

    2012-12-01

    For nuclear facilities, decommissioning is the final phase in the life cycle after sitting, design, construction, commissioning and operation. It is a process involving operations such as decontamination, dismantling of plant equipment of result in materials. All these activities take into account health and safety requirements for operating personnel and the general public, and any implications for the environment. (1) In several projects to decommission various type of nuclear facilities, it has been shown that technical methods and equipment are available today to dismantle safely nuclear facilities, of whatever type or size. Much experience in the use of these techniques has the decommissioning of prototype, demonstration, and small power reactors or other nuclear facilities. In Iraq these activities will be done by the cooperation with (IAEA) International Atomic Energy Agency and the other national regulatory bodies such as (IRSRA) Iraqi Radioactive Sources Regulatory Authority, and (RPC/MoEn) Radiation Protection Center/ Ministry of Environment in Iraq. (Author)

  20. Casualties: narrative and images of the war on Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Seiji; Fawzi, Mary C Smith; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Farmer, Paul E

    2006-01-01

    The Iraqi people have endured an excess burden of morbidity and mortality during the past 15 years due to war and sanctions, with the March 2003 Anglo-American assault on and subsequent occupation of Iraq representing the most recent chapter. Children have been disproportionately affected; many have died from infectious disease, malnutrition, and lack of access to health care. There have been significant differences in the availability of narrative accounts and images of this suffering, reflective of the need of those who wage wars and impose sanctions to keep the public uninformed. This article suggests that public health and medical practitioners have a responsibility to seek out such accounts and images. The authors explore possible responses to narrative and images of this suffering, and outline the sorts of responses engendered by three perspectives-charity, development, and social justice. The suffering of the people of Iraq should spur a response from the health community to alleviate the situation and prevent unnecessary suffering.

  1. Violence of the oil income. Algeria, Iraq, Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, L.

    2010-01-01

    During the 1970's, thanks to oil exploitation income, Algeria, Iraq and Libya seemed to be engaged in an accelerated modernization process. Petroleum was the blessing that would allow these states to catch up on their economic gap. Algeria was introduced as a 'Mediterranean dragon', Libya as an 'emirate' and Iraq as the leading military power of the Arab world. On the political side, the progressive socialism made one think that deep social transformations were in progress. Several decades later, the disappointment is painful. The prosperity feeling has led these countries into political, economic and military impasses with disastrous consequences for their populations. This book analyses the reasons that have led to this political/economical/social situation. The questions are: how can these countries get rid of deep reforms without any risk of social explosion, and how can the European Union export its standards and values and protect its gas imports at the same time?

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    Iraq consists of a lowland trough lying between asymmetrical and very different upland massifs to the east, north and west and continuing southeastwards to the Persian Gulf. The region is one of crustal weakness and subsidence with relatively young plastic sedimentary rocks engulfed in downwarped, ancient, rigid and highly resistant blocks. Exploration in the 1954-55 period found some minor radioactive anomalies and very low uranium contents in limestones and phosphates. The results of an aerial radiometric survey in 1973-74 are not known to IAEA. Iraq has no reported uranium resources but there are several favourable formations which warrant a detailed survey. In view of the size of the country and the small amount of systematic exploration carried out up to the present time, the Speculative Potential is considered to lie in the 1,000 to 10,000 tonnes uranium category. (author)

  3. Prevalence of AIV subtype H9 among poultry with respiratory signs in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. A. Kraidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The H9N2 avian influenza A viruses (AIV have been recorded in Eurasia for several years. In this study, the prevalence of the circulated H9 subtype in the poultry population in middle and south of Iraq provinces was studied during a period from September 2014 to June 2015. Samples were col-lected from one hundred broiler flocks with respiratory signs from seven provinces. The detection and identification of virus were carried out by using highly sensitive method, Taqman Real-time Poly-merase Chain Reaction, which has been increasingly used for detecting avian pathogens in recent years. The prevalence of H9 subtype in 16% of the infected flocks was reported, and the results re-vealed that there was a significant difference (P<0.05 in the prevalence rate of H9 subtype among broiler flocks in Al-Basra, Al-Qadisyia and An-Najaf provinces (14.28%, 20% and 23.80%, respec-tively as compared to other provinces, while An-Najaf province had the highest prevalence rate (23.80% among all other provinces. The H9 subtype has been recorded for the first time in broiler flocks of Al-Basra and Wasit with lower prevalence rate in Wasit (10%. The prevalence of the H9 virus infection in the winter (75% was higher than that in summer (25%. Since the provinces are in the vicinity of the Iran, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait with H9 infection records, results of this study indicate circulation of AIV between these countries and in the larger scale, Middle East. This can be very impor-tant due to the presence of migratory birds coming from Russia and China and stay in winter months in the marshes of Al-Basra and consequently, AIV transportation to the other parts of the world.

  4. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  5. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  6. The Future of Secular Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    into the global trade market of “ franchises and brand-name import- export.”6 Through his power, Ozal sought to redefine Turkey along capitalist...entertainment along with access to theaters, bars and cafes . These fears were never realized. The Refah mayors have left well enough alone. They have

  7. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  8. Biotechnology in Turkey: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdamar, Tunçer H

    2009-07-01

    The term biotechnology first appeared in the programs of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) in 1982. The State Planning Organization (SPO) in 1988 defined biotechnology and the scientific fields. Moreover, it put forward an institutional framework and suggested priority areas for research and development. Turkey has been researching and investing in biotechnology for almost four decades. This review covers the development of science and technology policy with its history, consensus and consequences, bio-industries in Turkey, and research activities in biotechnology at Turkish Universities. Details are provided by the research groups in response to a common request for information on their activities and major publications in the field. The information provided has been grouped under thematic topics within the broad theme of biotechnology, and summarized within these topics. Although many aspects of biotechnological research are being pursued in Turkey, it appears that the most common research activities of the field are in fermentation processes, environmental biotechnology, and biomedical engineering.

  9. September 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  10. Human Metapneumovirus in Turkey Poults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, Binu T.; Nagaraja, Kakambi V.; Thachil, Anil J.; Shaw, Daniel P.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to reexamine the hypothesis that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) will not infect turkeys. Six groups of 2-week-old turkeys (20 per group) were inoculated oculonasally with 1 of the following: noninfected cell suspension; hMPV genotype A1, A2, B1, or B2; or avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype C. Poults inoculated with hMPV showed nasal discharge days 4–9 postexposure. Specific viral RNA and antigen were detected by reverse-transcription PCR and immunohistochemical evaluation, respectively, in nasal turbinates of birds exposed to hMPV. Nasal turbinates of hMPV-infected turkeys showed inflammatory changes and mucus accumulation. Each of the 4 hMPV genotypes caused a transient infection in turkeys as evidenced by clinical signs, detection of hMPV in turbinates, and histopathologic examination. Detailed investigation of cross-species pathogenicity of hMPV and aMPV and its importance for human and animal health is needed. PMID:17235379

  11. Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Politics and 'Other Means'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... Second, Iran uses the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and Qods Force (QF) to provide aid in the form of paramilitary training, weapons, and equipment to various Iraqi militant groups, including Moqtada al-Sadr's Jaysh al-Mahdi (JAM...

  12. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  13. Negotiation in the New Strategic Environment: Lessons From Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Andrew Terrell , Reconstructing Iraq: Insights, Challenges, and Missions for Military Forces in a Post- Conflict Scenario, Carlisle Barracks, PA...Negotiation, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2000, pp. 271-273 (hereafter Zartman and Rubin, Symmetry and Assymmetry). 80. As discussed...122. See Mnookin, Beyond Winning, pp. 28-31. 123. See Anne L. Lytle, Jeanne M. Brett, and Debra L. Shapiro, “The Strategic Use of Interests, Rights

  14. First Collection and Identification of Wild Mushrooms in Western Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Nadhim Owaid; Mowafaq Mizban Muslat; Wee Cheat Tan

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are found everywhere and affect our lives every day from mushroom to industrially important product, plant helpers, plant pathogens and to human diseases. Therefore, we concentrated our attention on fungi that can be grown in our environment, while maintaining an interest in their performance in nature. About fifteen different species were collected and identified from different villages of Heet district, Anbar province, Iraq. Out of the fifteen, two species, naming Armillaria mellea an...

  15. After Saddam: Prewar Planning and the Occupation of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Bernard Kerik; Lieutenant Colonel Chris Kinnan, USAF; Lewis Lucke; William Luti; Roman Martinez; Dayton Maxwell; Michael McNerney; Frank Miller...Post, April 12, 2003; Rupert Cornwell , “U.S.-Backed Iraqis Launch Bid for 28 After Saddam: Prewar Planning and the Occupation of Iraq from a lack...Lori Latif Shak Bernard Hanish Khalid Hassan Foreign procurement DoD DoD – TBD Garabeet Ishaqian Military Industriali- zation Military production

  16. Odds ratio of dystocia in Holstein cows in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samarai Firas Rashad

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effect of some factors on dystocia in Holstein cows. The analysis consist of 19090 records of parturitions belonged to 3181 cows from 1990 to 2004 in the Nasr Dairy Cattle Station in Iraq. A logistic regression model was used to predict dystocia. The model included effects of year of birth, season (winter or other seasons), parity (first or later), birth weight (kg), and sex of calf. Results revealed that odds of dystocia decreas...

  17. Criminals, Militias, and Insurgents: Organized Crime in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    continuity with the Hussein regime. Although many of the players changed, the game remained much the same. As one smuggler commented, “We use the... Salon News, March 20, 2008, available at www.salon.com/news/ feature/2008/03/20/iraq_roundtable/, hereafter cited as “Robbing the Cradle.” 58...has not been accompanied by widespread acceptance of collective identity or shared rules of the political game . The structure of politics and

  18. Biomarkers for PTSD in female Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Fredrikson, M. Trauma exposure and post - traumatic stress disorder in the general population. Acta Psychiatr Scand 111, 291-299 (2005). 4 Kessler, R...1999). 10 Hoge, C., Clark, J. & Castro, C. Commentary: women in combat and the risk of post - traumatic stress disorder and depression. International...in Iraq and Afghanistan have Posttraumatic Stress Disorder ( PTSD ). Women serving in the military have been shown to be twice as likely to develop PTSD

  19. Iraq Provincial Reconstruction Team Handbook: Observations, Insights, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    with Inma have included joint efforts in training, farmer association strengthening, and increased productivity involving two large fish farms, 10...beef and lamb feedlots, five forage sites, two packing sheds, six feed mills, an olive factory, 10 strawberry farms, 20 farmer associations, over 500...vegetables, and fodder. There are also a large number of orchards , and the province has 2.5 million palm 69 IRAQ PROVINCIAL RECONSTRUCTION TEAM trees

  20. Turkey's status in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aykol, F.; Oezkan, R.; Atila, B.; Hanguel, G.; Aksu, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Turkey is a country with dynamic economic development and rapid population growth and nuclear energy is an integral part of these dynamics. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) is in charge of regulation and control of all activities related to nuclear field, including safety inspections and licensing. The TAEA is also responsible for the sensitive task of improving public awareness of nuclear technology which includes the use of nuclear power. Turkey's experience with nuclear power dates back to the 1960's, as the first nuclear research reactor started to operate in Istanbul in 1962. There were various plans for the introduction of nuclear power to the country. However the plans for the construction of the first nuclear power in the country were postponed for an indefinite period in 2000. In the wake of this decision TAEA initiated the activities to establish a nuclear policy in the country which includes creating the technical know-how and establishing new generation nuclear power plants in Turkey. The Authority is also responsible for the safe use of nuclear energy in medicine, agriculture, animal health, industry, food irradiation and in all kinds of research activities. The authority has carried or is currently continuing 12 National Technical Cooperation, 30 Research Contract, 21 Regional Europe ongoing IAEA projects and 31 State Planning Organization projects. There were 7571 radiological, 208 radiotherapy, 3792 industrial and 214 instruments licensed and registered by the Radiation Health and Safety Department of the Authority. We are in the opinion that developing a nuclear technology substructure in both Turkey and Turkish Countries will be of great benefit for the Euro-Asia region. We must emphasize that Turkey is the partner of all nonproliferation treaties and has no intention of using nuclear power for non peaceful purposes whatsoever

  1. Determinants of energy sector performance in Iraq, 2003 to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2007-01-01

    Iraq's energy sector was rehabilitated from 2003 to 2005. The focus of rehabilitation was on restoring Iraq's electricity and oil infrastructure to pre-war production levels; delivering electricity and refined fuels for domestic consumption; and delivering electricity and oil security. This paper provided an analysis of the impact of Coalition efforts and insurgent activities on energy sector performance using time-series models. The paper presented a simple three-equation model consisting of an insurgent attack equation, an investment equation, and production function. The paper also discussed the phases of the insurgency in Iraq, with particular reference to the beginning of the insurgency; initial bombing campaign; escalation of the insurgency; and intra-Iraqi conflict. Key energy sector indicators and regression results were also presented for oil production; diesel production; gasoline production; oil exports; and production and consumption of electricity. It was concluded that expenditures by the United States on oil infrastructure appear to have been relatively efficiently spent. 16 refs., 9 tabs

  2. Iran: Illusion, Reality, and Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    populist backing to engage in something akin to class warfare. Clerical reformers and the middle class dominated the reform or Green movement. In addition...of the reformers and Green Movement ele- ments agree, making it a very difficult political anchor to give up. 184. Shireen T. Hunter, Iran and the... Kegan Paul, 1984): 105. 234. David E. Sanger and William J. Broad, “Atomic Agency Says Iran Is Making Fuel at Protected Site,” The New York Times

  3. Synteserapport & 1. Indenrigspolitiske forhold i Den Islamiske Republik Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik......Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL AFTERMATH FROM THE DRYING PROCESSES OF AL-HUWAIZA MARSHLAND, IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaja Ahmed Mays SADKHAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Huwaiza marsh shows environmental and economic significance, but it has been exposed to the drying processes and then to the drowning processes. It has witnessed great decrease in the water resources specified for the country and the decrease in the water portion feeding it. A fact which shows negative effects on its area, for the change of the environmental variables, has affected the process of nurturing the marsh - only 33.4% of the area of the marsh has been drowned during the 1990s. As a result, its environmental features have been deteriorated, which have negatively affected the kind of water contained in it and which require a series of procedures and solutions to be done in this regard. Among these there are the following: encouraging the dialogue and negotiations with the countries in which the high basins of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates are located (Turkey, Syria and Iran, controlling the random spread of the marshes and concentrating on the constant and deep marshes, developing and rehabilitating the deep marshes by means of establishing natural protected areas, enlivening the constant marshes by means of connecting them to one another, supporting and encouraging studies and research, controlling the pollution of the marshes, developing the general services of the marsh areas and the neighboring ones, and stronger involving of the ministries which should pay their serious and actual attention to the environment and the population of the marshes.

  5. Study of Four Common Mutations of Familial Mediterranean Fever in North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Karimi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Familial Mediterranean Fever, an autosomal recessive disorder, is the most common and well known periodical fevers syndrome. Disease is mainly prevalent among non-Ashkenazi Jews, Arabs, Turks and Armenia. According to the geographical location of North-West of Iran, neighboring with two high risk FMF population (Turkey and Armenia, the prevalence of FMF in this region of Iran is not unlikely. The aim of this study was to estimate the carriers rate of FMF common mutations in healthy control people. Results can be potentially useful to estimate prevalence of disease.   Methods : Randomly 200 samples from healthy people [non-FMF] from North-West of Iran selected. After taking consent, DNA was extracted from blood samples of these groups. Then mutations were evaluated using ARMS-PCR and RFLP-PCR techniques.   Results : from 400 studied alleles, 44 and 7 mutant alleles were found for E148Q and V726A respectively. For 2 other mutations, no mutant alleles were found. The total allelic frequency for these four common mutations was 0.132. The carriers rate was 23.4%.   Conclusion : This study showed that E148Q has high mutation frequency relative to other mutations in North-West of Iran.

  6. [Recent demographic trends in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, C

    1993-01-01

    Coverage of Turkey's vital registration system remains incomplete, and it cannot yet be used to measure annual population changes. Data and demographic indices based on the 1990 census and the 1989 National Demographic Survey are the most recent available. Turkey's population in 1990 was 56 million. The proportion urban increased to 59% from 49.2% in 1980. Nearly 35% of the population was under 15 years old, and the median age was 21.6 for males and 22.3 for females. The average age at first marriage in 1989 was 24.8 for men and 21.8 for women. Mortality has been in continuous decline. The crude death rate dropped from 16.4/1000 in 1960-65 to slightly under 8 in 1989. Life expectancy at birth was 63.3 for men and 66 for women. The infant mortality rate declined from 166 in 1965-70 to 85 in 1989. Rural or urban residence and maternal educational level were the most significant determinants of infant mortality differentials. Turkey's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1960 to 4.3 in 1978 and 3.4 in 1988-89. The crude birth rate declined from around 40/1000 in 1968 to under 28/1000 in 1989. Fertility began to decline in the last third of the nineteenth century in Istanbul and other large cities of the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul's total fertility rate was a relatively low 3.9 even before World War I. Turkey adopted a policy to slow demographic growth in the mid 1960s, and family planning activities were supported by nongovernmental organizations. The direct impact of these policies on demographic behavior appears to have been somewhat limited, and the use of traditional methods of birth limitation remains widespread. Abortion was legalized in 1983 and is available at public hospitals. The proportion of married women aged 15-49 who use contraception increased from 38% in 1973 to 63% in 1988. Regional differentials in demographic indices are significant in Turkey, with the Anatolian East and Southeast lagging behind other regions in fertility and mortality decline

  7. 78 FR 58589 - Final Listing of Audit and Other Reports Issued by SIGIR on Reconstruction Spending in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... 12-017 Final Forensic Audit Report of Iraq Reconstruction Funds 7/13/ 2012 12-016 Interim Review of.../2011 11-006 Forensic Audit Methodologies Used To Collect and Analyze Electronic Disbursement of Iraq Reconstruction Funds 10/28/2010 11-005 Iraq Reconstruction Funds: Forensic Audits Identifying Fraud, Waste, and...

  8. 78 FR 77426 - Notice of Vacancies on the U.S. Section of the U.S.-Iraq Business Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... a bilateral forum to facilitate private sector business growth in Iraq and to strengthen trade and... the following areas: --Factors that affect the growth of private sector business in Iraq, including... and regulations, to promote private sector business growth in Iraq; --Promotion of business...

  9. The Effects of Climate Change on Invasion Potential of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum K.Koch in Iran and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Karim Mousavi

    2017-09-01

    barley weed establishment. under climate change scenarios, Zanjan, Hamedan, Ardebil, West Azarbaijan, East Azarbaijan, Kurdistan, Chharmhal and bakhtyary, and Markazi climate conditions will be more favorable in comparison with the current situation for establishment of wild barley weed, and the climate conditions in other provinces will be less favorable. Under climate change scenarios condition, the climate conditions of Lorestan will be 8.5% unfavorable to establish wild barley. Islamabad gharb, Borujerd, Ivan, Tuyserkan, Kangavar, peers, Kermanshah, Kamyaran, Ardal, Silakhor, Sararood, Sanandaj, Shamiran Tehran, Rawansar, Rvmshkan, Skinheads, Ilam, Farsan, Tazehabad, Nourabad Delfan, Mahabad, Azna, Songhor, Harsin, Sisakht, Khorramabad, Sepidan, Zarghan, Moalem Kalayeh, Sarableh, Bukan, Qazvin, Shahin Dez, Bane, Bilasuvar, Shazand, Takhte jamshid, Arak, Khomeini, Hashtgerd, Saghez, Oshnavieh, Saman, Khondab, Shiraz, Shahr kord, and Malayer with a composite match index of greater than 0.9 were considered the most vulnerable regions against the wild barley invasion. In the current climate situation, Spain, United States of America, Algeria, Greece, Syria, Turkey, Italy, Australia, Uzbekistan, Tunisia, Pakistan, Iraq, Morocco, Chile, Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Portugal, Argentina, Turkmenistan, Libya, Romania, Jordan, South Africa, France, Armenia, Ukraine, Palestine and China have at least one region with composite match index greater than 0.8 for wild barley weed infested region in Lorestan province. Climate conditions of North Korea, Switzerland, South Korea, Hungary, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Mongolia, Luxembourg, Czech Republic, Germany, Canada, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, South Georgia, Belgium, Russia, Bulgaria, Netherlands, Ukraine, Sweden, Kazakhstan, Finland, Belarus, England, Norway, France, Denmark and Ireland become 10-30% more vulnerable to wild barley invasion, according to the UK scenario for the year 2080, climate change in compared with

  10. "The Kurds and the Role of Kurdistan Region in Developing Iraq" Where are Iraq and the Iraqi Kurds heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonymous, Student Author

    Iraq remains one of the hot topics in world politics today and probably more so in the coming decades, with its Kurds as an ever-evolving puzzle of the country's domestic stability and regional conflict. In modern history, the Kurds' resistance to "occupiers" of their region became more evident with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, following which they were promised their independence. Due to reasons explained in Chapter One--with energy and oil being some of these reasons--this independence, however, led to nothing but fading ink on dusty paper. Since the Kurds were only partially assimilated into their host states, they were treated as though they had a status apart from the host state, yet the host state denied Kurdish efforts to achieve self-determination. In some cases, the host state denied the very existence of the Kurdish culture. This created an ambiguous situation in which Kurds variously saw themselves as nationals of their host states or as Kurds or as both. For the purpose of this thesis, attention will be given mainly to Iraqi Kurds and their struggle for the right to self-determination which they were finally able to achieve following the Gulf War in early 1990s, leading to the establishment of a regional Kurdish government in Northern Iraq (explained in Chapter Two). Chapter Three will focus on what some of the ways to mediate such disputes may be, including the introduction of renewable energy such as wind and solar energy. It will demonstrate how Iraq can take advantage of wind and solar energy as alternative means to oil, by which the country's economy can diversify, and the security situation and ecological conditions can improve. This thesis will further focus on some of the potential challenges in Iraq that may surface in the future, and whether the Kurds can play a role in stabilising the country by remaining part of it, and if so, what may be some of the responsibilities of the Arabs of Iraq in order to provide the required incentives to

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Turkey 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil has been one of the main energy sources in Turkey, accounting for some 28% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Turkey’s oil demand slightly increased from 637 kb/d in 2003 to 670 kb/d in 2012, although it dropped down from 678 kb/d in 2009 to 650 kb/d in 2010. The transport sector accounted for half of total oil consumption in 2010. Domestic oil production is in decline in Turkey, amounting to 45 kb/d or about 6.7% of total consumption in 2012. In 2012, Turkey imported 712 kb/d, consisting of about 392 kb/d of crude oil and some 320 kb/d refined products. Around 39% of total crude oil imports came from Iran. Crude oil and petroleum products are mainly undertaken by tankers and two major international pipelines running through the country with a total annual handling capacity of 2.8 mb/d. In the country, there are four operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 610 kb/d. Turkey meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. Under the relevant acts, refineries and fuel distribution companies are obliged to hold at least 20 days of product stocks based on the average daily sales of previous year, while eligible consumers that use more than 20,000 tonnes annually are required to hold 15 days’ consumption of each type of liquid fuel. Turkey held some 61 million barrels of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 99 days of 2011 net-imports. Around 55% of total oil stocks are held in the form of crude oil. The use of emergency oil stocks is central to Turkey’s emergency response policy, which can be complemented by demand restraint measures. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES significantly increased at 32% in 2011. Turkey’s gas demand significantly increased from 0.7 billion cubic meters (2 mcm/d) in 1987 to 45.3 bcm (124 mcm/d) in 2012, while indigenous natural gas production totalled some 0.63 bcm in the same year

  12. 31 CFR 575.406 - Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. 575.406 Section 575.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Interpretations § 575.406 Extensions of credits or loans to Iraq. (a) The prohibition in § 575.210 applies to the...

  13. Quality Assurance Strategies of Higher Education in Iraq and Kurdistan: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghed, Nabeel; Dezaye, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two different strategies that have been implemented in Iraq to improve quality assurance in the higher education sector in Iraq. One strategy has been developed by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Baghdad. It involved conducting a pilot study at the University of Babylon. This pilot included…

  14. Post-Saddam Iraq and the Challenges of Peace | Agbebaku | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Iraq / United States (US) differences have lasted for quite some time. Iraq, having been branded as one of the three axis-of-evils, is considered a threat to international stability and global security. Within this context, its activities must be regulated to ensure stability and international peace. The irony is that efforts at ...

  15. 31 CFR 575.205 - Prohibited exportation and reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iraq. 575.205 Section 575.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... goods, technology, or services to Iraq. Except as otherwise authorized, no goods, technology (including technical data or other information), or services may be exported from the United States, or, if subject to...

  16. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  17. University Interaction with National Development Plans: A Case Study from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naimi, Taha T.; Al-Nassri, Sabah A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the University of Technology in Baghdad, Iraq, is discussed, illustrating how it has adjusted its work to national needs as expressed in national development plans. As industry in Iraq has broadened its scope, the curriculum in the university has widened. (Author/MLW)

  18. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  19. [Plant poisoning cases in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin-Mat, A

    1994-01-01

    In Turkey, the majority of the population live in rural areas where they use wild plants as food and medicine. The confusion of an edible plant with a poisonous one give rise to serious poisoning which may even result in death. The incidence of plant poisoning in Turkey is about 6% and especially high among children between ages of 2 and 11 living in rural areas. The number of species that cause poisoning is around twenty and Hyoscyamus niger (Solanaceae), Colchicum species (Liliaceae), Conium maculatum (Umbelliferae) and Prunus species (Rosaceae) are the most important. Mushroom poisoning is more frequent in spring and fall. The main reasons are their widespread usage as food and the inexperience of the gatherers in distinguishing the edibles from the poisonous. Amanita phalloides, A. verna, A. muscaria, A. pantherina are responsible for severe cases of poisoning.

  20. Overcoming the Ulama: Globalizing Iran's Political Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brechbill, Alan M

    2008-01-01

    ..., or to participate more actively in the outside world. The religious establishment or ulama play the most significant role in the dichotomy between Iran's theocratic conservatism and the position Iran takes in globalization...

  1. Britiske søfolk splitter Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    2007-01-01

    Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts......Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts...

  2. Endangered Lilium Species of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Demir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey, which is among the major gene centers of the world and has a special place in plant genetic diversity. However, many plant genetic resources, including geophytes, are under genetic erosion because of the environmental and other problems and therefore face with the danger of extinction. Lilium ciliatum is endemic to North East Anatolia. IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources Red List Category of this species is Endangered (EN. Lilium ciliatum naturally grown in Zigana pass, Bayburt, Trabzon, Bulancak, Giresun and Gümüşhane is endangered and major threats of L. ciliatum are road construction and human disturbance related to ecotourism and recreation. It was reported that Lilium carniolicum naturally grown in Turkey is endangered although it isn’t in the IUCN Red List. Distribution areas of L. carniolicum are Trabzon, Rize, Artvin and it is also endemic to North East Anatolia. These species have high potential for use as ornamental plants with their colorful big flowers. In addition, the bulbs of these species are also used in the cosmetic industry and medicine. These are the main properties that increase the importance of L. ciliatum and L. carniolicum species. Therefore it is very important to protect the habitats of these species, ensure the continuity of their generations. The disappearance of these endemic species from our country means to disappear from the world. This review has been given in order to give some information about the endangered Lilium species of Turkey and conservation actions on these species in Turkey flora and take attention to the issue.

  3. Geothermal energy development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simsek, S.; Okandan, E.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal fields in Turkey are related to rather complex zones of collision between the Eurasian and African continents, and penetration of the Arabian plate into the Anatolian continental mass. These processes gave rise to fracturing of the lithosphere and eruption of magmas. Geothermal regional assessment studies have proven several low enthalpy sources and some high enthalpy fields suitable for electricity generation. This paper summarizes developments in exploration-drilling and give examples of direct utilization implemented in recent years

  4. Role and Place of the Oil Industry in the Economic and Political Development in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Pashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors consider economic and political aspects of restoration and development of the oil industry in Iraq and make a brief historical analysis of it. It’s emphasized the role of political factors in the history of the development of the oil sector in the country. The article deals with the current situation in the oil industry of Iraq, and also the prospects and forecasts of development of it. It’s emphasized the idea that the oil export is one of the most important directions of Iraq's oil policy, which has a high degree of flexibility. It is noted that currently, the speedy recovery of Iraq and its oil industry depends on international companies. However, it is emphasized that there are established a lot of state-owned oil companies in recent decades in Iraq, which are working successfully in the global market. Authors consider the activity of one of them, a marketing company SOMO.

  5. Rebuilding Iraq: DoD and State Department Have Improved Oversight and Coordination of Private Security Contractors in Iraq, but Further Actions are Needed to Sustain Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    MNC-I Multi-National Corps-Iraq MNF-I Multi-National Force-Iraq PSC private security contractor RSO Regional Security Office TOC tactical...maritime and territorial jurisdiction’ to include a housing complex leased by the U.S. military on a military base in Germany where a sexual assault...and monitored by RSO personnel in the RSO TOC . Motorcade vehicles are equipped with video cameras that record and document motorcade movements and

  6. Ending the U.S. War in Iraq: The Final Transition, Operational Maneuver, and Disestablishment of United States Forces-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    astonishing, beautiful scene— impossible, incomprehensible, only months ago.”202 In April 2008, MNF-I and the government of Iraq signed a memorandum... bloggers , August 3, 2011. 43 See the memorandum from JLOC in Appendix F. For more information, see National Association of State Agencies for Surplus...Reposturing and the Status of Government-Owned Equipment in Iraq,” roundtable with defense bloggers , August 3, 2011. As of August 6, 2012: http

  7. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in paragraph (a)(1) of this section or elsewhere in the EAR (See, e.g., § 742.8—Anti-terrorism: Iran... exceptions may be used for exports or reexports to Iran. (d) EAR Anti-terrorism controls. The Secretary of State has designated Iran as a country that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international...

  8. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  9. Regional Implications of Shi’a Revival in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    From the marshes of southern Iraq to the ghettoes of Karachi, the Shi‘a have been the underdogs —oppressed and marginalized by Sunni ruling regimes and...former with “true” Is- lam—and their governments as its defenders—and branding the latter as obscurantist extremism. They dismissed Khomeini as Shi‘a... branding his vitriol against the House of Saud in the 1980s as fitna (illegitimate rebellion and sowing of disunity) against the Muslim community.7

  10. Syria and Iran: what next? Three potential scenarios; Syrie, Iran: et maintenant? Trois scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, Bruno [Fondation pour la recherche strategique, 4 bis rue des Patures 75016 Paris (France)

    2013-10-15

    Now that the United Nations resolution has been voted, the most complicated task begins: ensuring that Syria entirely and definitively gets rid of its chemical arsenal, which unfortunately has every chance of enduring. In this respect three scenarios are possible, each of which would have different repercussions for the region, notably regarding the Iranian nuclear issue, which is now being considered in a new light following Hassan Rohani's charm offensive. Yet, these consequences could also have a profound and lasting effect on the relationship between the United States and its allies. In the first scenario the agreement with Syria will be applied in a satisfactory manner, and could serve as a positive example to Iran, which might be more inclined to signing a nuclear deal. To date, Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Guide, has been wary of the ongoing negotiations, considering that it is impossible to trust the Western States whose sole objective is the downfall of the Iranian regime. Russia, buoyed by its new role in the region, would contribute in a more constructive manner to the resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue... Care must be taken, however, as Iran could just as well conclude as a result of the events of the summer of 2013, particularly from U.S. procrastination, that Western States are not willing to use force in the Middle East, and thus on the contrary draw out the negotiations without fearing the possibility of a U.S. strike. According to the second scenario, Syria will not implement the agreement, the crisis will be renewed, and will end with a Western strike, most probably without a U.N. mandate. This scenario would boost the confidence of U.S. allies in the region, who have a tendency to doubt the United States' determination to defend them. This could be seen as a warning to Iran, but the lessons that Iran would take from this scenario would undoubtedly depend on the balance of power in Tehran at the time: the moderates would push for a deal to avoid

  11. IAEA Statement After Iran Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Senior International Atomic Energy Agency officials met an Iranian delegation in Vienna today to seek agreement on a structured approach document to resolve outstanding issues relating to Iran's nuclear programme. The following is a statement by IAEA Deputy Director General Herman Nackaerts after the meeting: ''As announced by the Director General earlier this week, we met today to discuss the structured approach paper. The Agency team came to the meeting in a constructive spirit with the desire and intention of finalising the paper. We presented a revised draft which addressed Iran's earlier stated concerns. However, there has been no progress and, indeed, Iran raised issues that we have already discussed and added new ones. This is disappointing. A date for a follow-on meeting has yet to be fixed.'' (IAEA)

  12. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  13. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  14. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  15. Higher Education Policies and Overeducation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Nader

    2017-01-01

    In the past two decades Turkey has experienced a rapid increase in higher education student enrollment. This sharp increase in access to higher education has satisfied a strong social demand for university education but it has led to a growing surplus of university graduates who cannot find adequate jobs. As a result Turkey has entered an…

  16. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  17. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  18. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  19. Iran's nuclear power programme revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-01-01

    Iran's new government has not yet made a final decision about the fate of that country's once ambitious nuclear power programme. If the programme is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway when the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear power programme between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrastructural, and political criticisms of the programme as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. (author)

  20. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Maryam SALMANIAN; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  1. The present status of safeguards in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmazer, A.; Yuecel, A.

    2001-01-01

    Republic of Turkey signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in Vienna, Austria on January 28, 1969 and the Treaty was ratified by Turkish Parliament on March 29, 1979. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Republic of Turkey signed the Safeguards Agreement on June 30, 1981. Turkey accepted the international safeguards administered by IAEA and at the same time its subsidiary arrangements and Facility attachments were enforced for all nuclear facilities as an Non-Nuclear-Weapon State party to NPT. Regulation on Nuclear Materials Accounting and Control, which was prepared in accordance with Agreement Between the Government of Turkey and IAEA for the application of Safeguard in Connection with the Treaty on NPT, has been put into force since it was published in Official Gazette on September 10, 1997. This study presents the essential futures of national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials in Turkey

  2. Energy production for environmental issues in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Due to the diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas that was newly introduced into Turkish economy, has been growing rapidly. Turkey has large reserves of coal, particularly of lignite. The proven lignite reserves are 8.0 billion tons. The estimated total possible reserves are 30 billion tons. Turkey, with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing power markets of the world for the last two decades. It is expected that the demand for electric energy in Turkey will be 580 billion kWh by the year 2020. Turkey's electric energy demand is growing about 6-8% yearly due to fast economic growing. This paper deals with energy demand and consumption for environmental issues in Turkey.

  3. British American Tobacco's failure in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S

    2009-02-01

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) considered Turkey an important, potential investment market because of its high consumption rates and domestic commitment to tobacco. This paper outlines how British American Tobacco (BAT) attempted to establish a joint venture with the government monopoly TEKEL, while waiting for privatisation and a private tender. Analysis of tobacco industry documents from the Guildford Depository and online tobacco document sources. BAT failed to establish a market share in Turkey until 2000 despite repeated attempts to form a joint venture with Turkey's tobacco monopoly, TEKEL, once the market liberalised in the mid 1980s. BAT's failure in the Turkish market was due to a misguided investment strategy focused solely on acquiring TEKEL and is contrasted with Philip Morris success in Turkey despite both TTCs working within Turkey's unstable and corrupt investing climate.

  4. Iran: what nuclear sanctuary?; Iran: quel sanctuaire nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.

    2010-05-15

    The author continues his study of Iran and its implicit nuclear strategy by showing us the three circles of sanctuary that it contains. He shows to what extent this country, with its strong and ancient geopolitical identity, has managed to restore its rank at the centre of the geostrategic and geo-economic chessboard of the region. (author)

  5. Molecular genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus in the North of Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Salam Jumaah; Cavallero, Serena; Milardi, Giovanni Luigi; Gabrielli, Simona; D Amelio, Stefano; Al-Nasiri, Fatima Shihab

    2018-01-15

    Cystic echinococcosis/hydatidosis is an important cosmopolitan zoonotic disease that causes large economic losses and human suffering. The larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus are the etiological agents of cystic echinococcosis that showed different genotypes in different regions in the world. The present study was aimed at the detection of E. granulosus strains circulating in two cities from north of Iraq (Kirkuk and Sulaimania). A total of 47 specimens of hydatid cysts were collected from patients and from different domestic intermediate hosts including cattle, sheep, goat and buffalo from slaughterhouses. Molecular characterization was performed by direct sequencing of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes coding for the cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (rrnS). The results showed a high prevalence for the sheep strain (G1), an isolated finding of the buffalo strain (G3) and the presence of seven and three different microvariants for cox1 and rrnS, respectively. This is the first contribution on molecular genotyping of E. granulosus in Iraq with the observation of genotypes other than G1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  7. Global energy perspective of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, H. Mete

    2006-01-01

    Global energy demand is growing rapidly at an average rate of 4% per year in parallel with the economy while EU-25 has only 0,8% during the last decade. Total primary energy supply is 87 818 000 toe of which 72% was imported; in comparison the average dependency rate is 49,5% in the EU. Such excessive dependency creates harmful effects on the national economy. Oil and natural gas imports bill was 19,5 billion US $ in 2005. Primary energy demand growth rate is twice as much of the production rate in the period 1980 2004. Fossil fuels accounts for 86% of Turkeys global energy supply in 2004. Population growth rate is one of the major parameters affecting the energy balance. Energy and electricity consumptions per capita are still one third of the EUs average.. Turkeys coal reserves needs to be utilized at higher rate and hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy potentials should be developed in order to decrease the imported energy dependence, soon. Due to the buy or pay bilateral agreements with suppliers, storage capabilities should be realized for excessive natural gas supply. Turkeys average growth rate of electricity production is 8,1% while installed capacity has 8,5% for the last 25 years. The present total installed capacity is 39 020 MW in which renewables has a share of 34%. Total electricity production was 162 TWh in 2005 of which 75,4% was supplied by thermal power plants. Share of natural gas is 44% of the annual electricity production. Considering the present power plants and the ones under construction, electricity supply and demand will be in balance till the year of 2010 (with high demand scenario) or 2015 (with low demand scenario). Nuclear power is being considered for electricity supply security after 2015. But, the general approach for supply security is first to develop the domestic coal reserves, renewable energy resources.

  8. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  9. Cyber Security Analysis of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Senturk, Hakan; Çil, Zaim; Sağıroğlu, Şeref

    2016-01-01

    Considering the criticality of the cyber security threat in the 21st century, it is presumed that the nations are busy with series of activities in order to protect their security in the cyber space domain. In this paper, in light of the recent developments in the cyber security field, Turkey’s cyber security analysis is performed using a macro analysis model. We researched for the measures taken in Turkey with respect to those in the other countries, reviewed the posture, the activities and ...

  10. Ethnopharmacobotanical study on the medicinal plants used by herbalists in Sulaymaniyah Province, Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hiwa M

    2016-01-28

    Medicinal plants still play an important role in the Kurdish community. Sulaymaniyah Province in South Kurdistan (Iraq) has a great diversity of plants, including medicinal plants, yet very few scattered ethnobotanical studies conducted in Kurdistan are available in the scientific literature. Thus the study of Kurdish ethnobotany may be crucial for understanding local medicinal plant uses and their relationships to surrounding areas. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to document traditional medicinal plant uses among healers of southern Kurdistan. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document traditional knowledge on medicinal plants uses among traditional healers in the Province of Sulaymaniyah during 2014 and 2015. The data were collected by interviewing 45 traditional healers (36 males and 9 females between the ages of 25 and 80 years) who retain traditional knowledge on medicinal plants. Furthermore, the use value (UV) of taxa was determined and informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare the field data with the Kurdish ethnobotanical literature. The present study found a total of sixty-six plant species, belonging to sixty-three genera within thirty-four plant families, used to treat ninghty-nine different types of ailments and diseases. The most important family was Lamiaceae (7 species), followed by Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae (6 species each). The most frequently used parts were leaves (46 %), followed by flowers (15 %), and seeds (10 %). The most common preparation method was decoction (68 %), whereas few taxa were consumed as a vegetable (13 %) or ingested in powder form (10 %). The respiratory issues category had the highest ICF value (0.68), followed by inflammations and women's diseases (0.58 and 0.54, respectively). The highest UVs were recorded for the species Zingiber officinale (0.48), Matricaria chamomilla (0

  11. Meeting report:Iraq oil ministry needs assessment workshop.3-5 Septemner 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Littlefield, Adriane C.; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2006-11-01

    Representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, the National Nuclear Security Administration, and Sandia National Laboratories met with mid-level representatives from Iraq's oil and gas companies and with former employees and senior managers of Iraq's Ministry of Oil September 3-5 in Amman, Jordan. The goals of the workshop were to assess the needs of the Iraqi Oil Ministry and industry, to provide information about capabilities at DOE and the national laboratories relevant to Iraq, and to develop ideas for potential projects.

  12. On the eve of war: authoritarianism, social dominance, and American students' attitudes toward attacking Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Sam G

    2005-03-01

    In the week before the 2003 American attack on Iraq, the effects of authoritarianism and the social dominance orientation on support for the attack were examined. Based on prior research on the nature of these constructs, a structural model was developed and tested. As predicted, authoritarianism strengthened support for the attack by intensifying the perception that Iraq threatened America. Social dominance increased support by reducing concern for the likely human costs of the war. Both also increased blind patriotism, which in turn reduced concern for the war's human costs and was reciprocally related to the belief that Iraq threatened America.

  13. The Danger of Deja Vu: Why the Iraq Surge is Not a Lesson for Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    JAN 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-12-2009 to 00-01-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The danger of deja vu . Why the Iraq surge is not a lesson...of five brigade combat teams — eerily mim- icked the surge number for Iraq. And there was more déjà vu when our senior civilian and military leaders...Department. PERSPECTIVES The danger of déjà vu Why the Iraq surge is not a lesson for Afghanistan BY COL. CHARLES D. ALLEN (RET.) The thing we take hold of

  14. The Clerical Establishment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Political Action and Legitimate Domi- nation in Shi’ite Iran: Fourteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, A.D.," Archives Europ~ennes de Sociologie , Vol. 20, No...139 Archives Europ6ennes de Sociologie Bours, (moderate centrist) weekly in Persian, Tehran Conflict Studies, quarterly in English, London Enghelab

  15. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  16. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  17. CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES AMONG IRANIAN MANDAEANS LIVING IN SOUTH-WEST IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mostafa; Zarghami, Mahdis

    2018-07-01

    SummarySeveral studies have indicated that consanguineous marriages (unions between biologically related persons) are associated with increased risk of autosomal recessive diseases and several multifactorial traits. Mandaeans are a closed ethno-religious community living in areas of southern Iraq and Iran (Khuzestan Province). There are currently no data on the prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Mandaeans. The present study was carried out in 2016 to determine the prevalence of consanguinity among Iranian Mandaeans living in Khuzestan Province, south-west Iran. A total of 137 couples (urban areas: 79 couples; rural areas: 58 couples) were included in the study. Information on the consanguineous marriages of the subjects was collected through direct interviews. Marriages were classified by the degree of relationship between couples as double first cousins, first cousins, first cousin once removed, second cousins and unrelated marriages. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) was calculated for each couple and the mean coefficient of inbreeding (α) estimated for the population, stratified by rural and urban areas. The overall frequency of consanguinity was found to be 50.7% in urban and 86.2% in rural areas. There was a significant difference between rural and urban areas in types of marriages (χ 2=24.8, df=4, p<0.001) and first cousin marriages (51.8%) were the most common type. The overall α-value was estimated to be 0.0363 for the Iranian Mandaean population.

  18. Sociopolitical development of the nursing profession in Iran: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Fooladi, Marjaneh; Parvizy, Soroor

    2016-01-01

    Significant sociopolitical changes in recent decades have not only influenced the nursing profession, but also the entire Iranian healthcare system. This study describes the historical evolution of the nursing profession within a sociopolitical context. This historical review of unpublished and published literature endorsed personal accounts of historic events by 14 of the oldest nurses in Iran chosen through purposive sampling method, as they shared their nursing experiences. Individual recollections were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and later analyzed through oral history analysis method. From the results, the 3 categories of the White Revolution, the Islamic Revolution, and Iran-Iraq war and 8 subcategories emerged, where participants identified factors that fundamentally changed the Iranian nursing profession. The nursing profession continues to develop and help revise policies to improve the healthcare system and quality of care. The findings of this study facilitate the better understanding of the influence of sociopolitical events on the nursing profession and guide the revision or development of new healthcare policies.

  19. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  20. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  1. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnaz, A.; Kucukomeroglu, B.; Damla, N.; Cevik, U.

    2011-01-01

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and 137 Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h -1 and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 μSv y -1 . In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 μSv y -1 from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: → →The study highlights activity concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs in soil. → The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. → The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. → Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. → The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  2. Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    Various agricultural residues such as grain dust, crop residues and fruit tree residues are available in Turkey as the sources of biomass energy. Among the biomass energy sources, fuelwood seems to be one of the most interesting because its share of the total energy production of Turkey is high at 21% and the techniques for converting it to useful energy are not necessarily sophisticated. Selection of a particular biomass for energy requirements is influenced by its availability, source and transportation cost, competing uses and prevalent fossil fuel prices. Utilization of biomass is a very attractive energy resource, particularly for developing countries since biomass uses local feedstocks and labor. Like many developing countries, Turkey relies on biomass to provide much of its energy requirement. More efficient use of biomass in producing energy, both electrical and thermal, may allow Turkey to reduce petroleum imports, thus affecting its balance of payments dramatically. Turkey has always been one of the major agricultural countries in the world. The importance of agriculture is increasing due to biomass energy being one of the major resources in Turkey. Biomass waste materials can be used in Turkey to provide centralized, medium- and large-scale production of process heat for electricity production. Turkey's first biomass power project is under development in Adana province, at an installed capacity of 45 MW. Two others, at a total capacity of 30 MW, are at the feasibility study stage in Mersin and Tarsus provinces. Electricity production from biomass has been found to be a promising method in the nearest future in Turkey

  3. Practical application of food irradiation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Erhan, I.C.

    2002-01-01

    Turkey is the world's leading producer and exporter of dried fruits (dried figs, raisins,and dried apricots etc.) and nuts (hazelnuts, wall nuts, pistachios, peanuts etc.) all of which have to be fumigated by methyl bromide a few times prior to export. Last fumigation is obligatory before shipment according to current quarantine treatment. Methyl Bromide (MeBr) fumigation is the most commonly used insect quarantine treatment for dried fruits and nuts in Turkey to protect from potential infestations. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, Turkey as an Article 5(1) country will take actions to regulate and take measures to phase-out MeBr use. So, Turkey has to total phase-out in 2015 but according to Turkey MeBr Phase-out Action Plan prepared and published by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural affairs in 2001, using MeBr should be reduced for stored commodities by 50 % by 2002 and phased-out totally by 2004. Irradiation technology is ready as an alternative to MeBr fumigation under the Action Plan of Turkey. Intensive research studies on food irradiation in Turkey have started in early 1970's and have still been continued. After careful and intensive works of all related authorities and specialists for a long period and with the help of ICGFI, the food irradiation regulation of Turkey was published in Official Newspaper on November 6, 1999. Having the Food Irradiation Regulation has supported to initiate commercialization study in Turkey in Co-operation with IAEA (TUR 5022). Feasibility study of a commercial food irradiation facility for the potential application of food irradiation in Turkey was prepared by IAEA experts Dr.M.Ahmed and Ir. J.P.Lacroix and together with TUR 5022 Research Team in April 2001 in Izmir, Turkey. Gamma-Pak Irradiation Facility in Cerkeskoy-Tekirdag got the commercial food irradiation licence and registration certificate in Feb. 2002. Practical application of food irradiation is getting more attraction in Turkey in parallel with other

  4. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  5. Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rossi; Daniel Leigh

    2002-01-01

    In light of the strong correlation between exchange rate movements and domestic prices in Turkey, it is important to assess the impact of the exchange rate on domestic prices, in particular as Turkey moves to an inflation targeting regime. This paper uses a recursive vector autoregression model to investigate the impact of exchange rate movements on prices in Turkey. We find that (i) the impact of the exchange rate on prices is over after about a year, but is mostly felt in the first four mon...

  6. SO2 pollution of heavy oil-fired steam power plants in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari, S.; Shahhoseini, O.; Sohrabi-Kashani, A.; Davari, S.; Sahabi, H.; Rezaeian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steam power plants using heavy oil provided about 17.4%, equivalent to 35.49 TWh, of electricity in Iran in 2007. However, having 1.55–3.5 weight percentage of sulfur, heavy oil produces SO 2 pollutant. Utilization of Flue Gas Desulfurization systems (FGD) in Iran's steam power plants is not common and thereby, this pollutant is dispersed in the atmosphere easily. In 2007, the average emission factor of SO 2 pollutant for steam power plants was 15.27 g/kWh, which means regarding the amount of electricity generated by steam power plants using heavy oil, 541,000 Mg of this pollutant was produced. In this study, mass distribution of SO 2 in terms of Mg/yr is considered and dispersion of this pollutant in each of the 16 steam power plants under study is modeled using Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System (ADMS). Details of this study are demonstrated using Geographical Information System (GIS) software, ArcGIS. Finally, the average emission factor of SO 2 and the emission of it in Iran's steam power plants as well as SO 2 emission reduction programs of this country are compared with their alternatives in Turkey and China.

  7. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Iran, 4Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Mashahd, Iran. * Corresponding .... places such as forest areas, rangelans and roadsides. .... geographical distribution are helpful to conservation ... Iran tourism, a complete source.

  8. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Even before Iran's tacit cooperation with post-9/11 U.S. efforts to defeat Afghanistan's Taliban regime, signs of moderation in Iran had stimulated the United States to try to engage Iran in official talks...

  9. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Even before Iran's tacit cooperation with post-September 11 U.S. efforts to defeat Afghanistan's Taliban regime, signs of moderation in Iran had stimulated the United States to try to engage Iran in official talks...

  10. Nuclear verification in Iraq: Are we closing the file? 1 June 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of an essay on IAEA's nuclear verification in Iraq written by the Director General of the IAEA, and published in the Editorial Pages of the Washington Post on 1 June 1998

  11. An Iraq C-130 Aviation Advisor Mission and Lessons for the Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bauer, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    .... A review of lessons learned from the initial Iraq C-130 advisor mission provided insights into challenges stemming from differences in United States advisors and Iraqi airmen in language, culture...

  12. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... qualify for VA health care . Diseases related to Gulf War, Iraq and Afghanistan service VA presumes that the ... Southwest Asia theater of military operations during the Gulf War August 2, 1990 to present and in Afghanistan ...

  13. 75 FR 26879 - Temporary Organization To Facilitate a Strategic Partnership With the Republic of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Teams; (c) support and create a sustainable Rule of Law mission in Iraq, including the Police... States Code, unless sooner terminated by the Secretary. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, May 7, 2010...

  14. Strategic Implications for U.S. Policy in IRAQ: What Now?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bender, William

    2002-01-01

    .... Despite these means, which include enforcing no-fly zones over Northern and Southern Iraq, diplomatic pressure backed up by occasional missile strikes, and an economic embargo, Saddam Hussein remains...

  15. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR): April 2006 Quarterly Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr, Stuart W

    2006-01-01

    .... Section 2 of this Report updates SIGIR s previous reviews of Iraq s essential service sectors oil and gas, electricity, and water and provides initial reports on the following sectors: security...

  16. FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations for Iraq and Afghanistan, Tsunami Relief, and Other Activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belasco, Amy; Nowels, Larry

    2005-01-01

    ... (subsequently amended to total $82.04 billion) to provide funds for ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the global war on terror, reconstruction in Afghanistan, Tsunami relief and rehabilitation, and other activities...

  17. Examining the Effectiveness of U.S. Elements of National Power in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McHugh, Stephen J

    2005-01-01

    .... The United States' strategic objectives in Iraq have been clearly defined as providing for a stable, secure, prosperous, peaceful, and democratic nation that is a fully functioning member of the community of nations...

  18. Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K; Schwartz, Moshe; Nakamura, Kennon H

    2008-01-01

    .... In Iraq, private firms known as Private Security Contractors (PSCs) serve to protect individuals, transport convoys, forward operating bases, buildings, and other economic infrastructure, and are training Iraqi police and military personnel...

  19. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Clay

    2006-01-01

    .... IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan...

  20. U.S. Military Operations in Iraq: Planning, Combat, and Occupation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Kate; Lauth, Shane; Schenck, Erin

    2006-01-01

    On November 2, 2005, a colloquium entitled "U.S. Military Operations in Iraq: Planning, Combat and Occupation" was held in Washington, DC, at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS...

  1. Solving the Principal - Agent Problem in Iraq: Economic Incentives Create a New Model for Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cole, Verlan R; Cramer, Jayson L; Hollingsworth, L. S

    2007-01-01

    .... Using the Alaska Permanent Fund dividend as a potential model for Iraq, two key criteria were formulated for comparison and contrast with other alternatives currently available to the Iraqi government...

  2. Estimated Costs of Continuing Operations in Iraq and Other Operations of the Global War on Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holtz-Eakin, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    At the request of Senator Conrad, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) has estimated the costs of military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan and other operations associated with the global war on terrorism (GWOT...

  3. A Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy Application for Iraq War Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pair, Jarrell; Allen, Brian; Dautricourt, Matthieu; Treskunov, Anton; Liewer, Matt; Graap, Ken; Reger, Greg; Rizzo, Albert

    2006-01-01

    .... The aim of the current paper is to present the rationale, technical specifications, application features, and user-centered design process for the development of a Virtual Iraq PTSD VR therapy application...

  4. Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction (SIGIR): Moving Beyond the IRRF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowen, Jr, Stuart W

    2007-01-01

    ...). During this quarter, I traveled to Iraq for the 15th time since my appointment three years ago to supervise the work of the 50 SIGIR auditors, inspectors, and investigators who provide the necessary...

  5. CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING: DOD, State, and USAID Contracts and Contractor Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutton, John; Ayers, Johana R; Berkholtz, Jessica M; Brandon, E; Culley, Brendan S; James, Jr., Art; McMillen, Lisa A; McSween, Jean; Thornton, Karen

    2008-01-01

    DOD, State, and USAID reported that they obligated at least $33.9 billion during fiscal year 2007 and the first half of fiscal year 2008 on 56,925 contracts with performance in either Iraq or Afghanistan...

  6. Iraq 2003-4 and Mesopotamia 1914-18: A Comparative Analysis in Ends and Means

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scudieri, James

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a comparative analysis of the linkage between strategic ends with operational ways and means of the current operation in Iraq in 2003-4 and the British campaign in Mesopotamia in 1914-18...

  7. Neogene shortening and exhumation of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin in the Kurdistan region of northern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, Renas I.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Barber, Douglas E.; Tamar-Agha, Mazin Y.; Kendall, Jerome J.

    2017-01-01

    The Zagros fold-thrust belt in the Kurdistan region of Iraq encroached southward toward a rapidly subsiding Neogene foreland basin and was later partitioned by out-of-sequence shortening focused along the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), as defined by new low-temperature thermochronologic, stratigraphic, and provenance results. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages document rapid deformation advance from the Main Zagros Fault to southern frontal structures (Kirkuk, Shakal, and Qamar thrusts) at 10-8 Ma, followed by potential basement-involved out-of-sequence development of the MFF (Qaradagh anticline) by 5 Ma. Distinct shifts in detrital zircon U-Pb provenance signatures for Neogene foreland basin fill provide evidence for drainage reorganization during fold-thrust belt advance. U-Pb age spectra and petrologic data from the Injana (Upper Fars) Formation indicate derivation from a variety of Eurasian, Pan-African, ophiolitic and Mesozoic-Cenozoic volcanic terranes, whereas the Mukdadiya (Lower Bakhtiari) and Bai-Hasan (Upper Bakhtiari) Formations show nearly exclusive derivation from the Paleogene Walash-Naopurdan volcanic complex near the Iraq-Iran border. Such a sharp cutoff in Eurasian, Pan-African, and ophiolitic sources is likely associated with drainage reorganization and tectonic development of the geomorphic barrier formed by the MFF. As a result of Zagros crustal shortening, thickening and loading, the Neogene foreland basin developed and accommodated an abrupt influx of fluvial clastic sediment that contains growth stratal evidence of synkinematic accumulation. The apparent out-of-sequence pattern of upper crustal shortening in the hinterland to foreland zone of Iraqi Kurdistan suggests that structural inheritance and the effects of synorogenic erosion and accumulation are important factors influencing the irregular and episodic nature of orogenic growth in the Zagros.

  8. Anatomical Studies on Several Species of Heliotropium L. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam ABBASI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium spp. is distributed worldwide mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with dry and warm temperate to semi-arid regions so that Southwest and center of Asia have considered as the main centre of origin and diversity of Heliotropium genus. Iran, with 32 species and 14 (sub endemic species, has the highest diversity in the world followed by Pakistan and Turkey with 15 species and only one endemic species and the Arabian Peninsula with 15 species and three endemic species are in the next ranks. In order to anatomical studies on Heliotropium, twelve species of this genus were selected from different regions of Iran. The selected species included: H. bacciferum Forssk., H. ramossisimum BGE., H. brevilimb Boiss., H. transoxanum BGE., H. dasycarpum Ledeb, H. dyginum Forssk., H. aucheri Dc., H. carmanicum BGE. As perennial group and H. ellipticum Ledeb., H. lasiocarpum Fisch., H. suaveolens M.B. as annual group. In order to add more data to leaf anatomy characters, evaluating of systematic relevance and/or adaptive value of the morphological and anatomical diversity we have studied 24 anatomical characters in theses 12 species. For example shape and vascular bundles of main midrib, type of parenchyma cells located under lower epidermis of midrib, distance between vascular bundles and lower or upper epidermis, angle of between two parts of blade, number of cellular layers in lower or upper mesophylla, length of upper and lower mesophylla, type of cell wall in lower and upper mesophylla and thickness of lamina were investigated in this study. In order to this present obtained H. aucheri can be separated from H. carmanicum in H. aucheri subsp. carmanicum. It can be conclude that two species H. aucheri and H. carmanicum are independent species and can accept H. transoxanum as a sub group of H. dasycarpum.

  9. Internal Dynamics in Iran. Iran, between Sanctions, Destruction, and Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kian-Thiebaut, Azadeh

    2008-01-01

    The Iranian rulers, including reformists and conservatives, are unanimous concerning the priority of obtaining nuclear technology, for the Islamic regime. In this context, the United States wants to contemplate all options, including military action, but they are emphasizing the diplomatic solution, on condition that Iran suspends its uranium enrichment program. Their position does not favor a way out of the Iranian crisis. However, the proposal for an unconditional negotiation between the United States and Iran would enable Iranian rulers not to lose face vis-a-vis Iranian, Arabic, and Muslim public opinion in light of their declaration to stand their ground and not succumb to Western pressure. This would also pave the way for a solution to avoid nuclear proliferation and instability in the Middle East

  10. Financial Futures of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    RAND Corporation, 2010. 8 Financial Futures of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ground memo sent to all workshop participants in advance ...been several credible reports, especially in the Financial Times and New York Times.23 The rest of this section draws from those accounts . The group... Financial Futures of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant Findings from a RAND Corporation Workshop Colin P. Clarke, Kimberly Jackson, Patrick

  11. Re-Inventing Counterinsurgency Doctrine: Why The United States Failed in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Rochelle W. Hill Commander, United States Navy A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Joint Advanced Warfighting School in partial satisfaction of the...tribal leaders had become increasingly alienated by the lead Sunni insurgent group in Iraq, Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI). AQI flouted local tribal customs ...reforms that earn the people’s loyalty .”10 Historical case studies suggest that this blended type of conflict (a combination of conventional and

  12. The insurgency business: the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, 2010-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Pillot, Beau L.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Islamic State (IS)--also known as Islamic State of Iraq and the Syria (ISIS)--managed to seize large swaths of territory within the sovereign countries of Iraq and Syria from 2011 to 2016. Even though its caliphate has been reduced in size and scope in 2017, the IS's entrepreneurial capability to effectively manage money, manpower, and materiel has enabled it to develop its brand as the deadliest and most widely known terrorist org...

  13. Analysis of Internet Usage Intensity in Iraq: An Ordered Logit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Almas Heshmati; Firas H. Al-Hammadany; Ashraf Bany-Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Intensity of Internet use is significantly influenced by government policies, people’s levels of income, education, employment and general development and economic conditions. Iraq has very low Internet usage levels compared to the region and the world. This study uses an ordered logit model to analyse the intensity of Internet use in Iraq. The results showed that economic reasons (internet cost and income level) were key cause for low level usage intensity rates. About 68% of the population ...

  14. Efforts of the British Empire to Build a State in Iraq After the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study searches for the policies carried out by the British Empire in Mesopotamia where the British invaded during the First World War. However, it will be convenient to know the political, social and economic background of Iraq or Mesopotamia as a general outline to understand the period clearly. Therefore, we have primarily tried to explain the overview of pre-invasion in Iraq. The traditional social structure of the Iraqi population and their relationship with the administration and each other have been questioned in the context of national identity. Then the developments in Iraq after the invasion have been discussed.The strategies which the Britain used to rule Iraq and the public’s reaction to this strategy have been investigated. In this context, the facts and the events such as the Mandate, 1920 Arab Revolt, the Cairo Conference of 1921 and the Kingdom of Iraq have been focused. It has been endeavored to per-form an analysis to understand the present problems in Iraq by discussing the cause and effect relations of the facts and the events. The research has been prepared by benefiting from a rich bibliography based on the scientific works of the experts for Iraq and the Middle East. As a result, this research has revealed the difficulties in ruling Iraq both internally and externally due to its sui generis political, social and economic conditions and found out that the mistakes made in the nation building process have caused the instability occured at the present time in the country.

  15. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, David

    2014-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program

  16. Genetic Epidemiology, Hematological and Clinical Features of Hemoglobinopathies in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the ?-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, ? -chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iran...

  17. Detainee optometry at Camp Cropper, Iraq, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas M; Elledge, James B

    2012-06-01

    This article details the first in-depth analysis of an Optometry Service working with a large Middle Eastern detainee population composed entirely of Iraqi males. The mission of the Camp Cropper Optometry Service was to provide eye care services to the detainee population consistent with the standards of optometric care that would be provided to any U.S. military member in the same geographic area. This included providing detainees with eyeglasses, therapeutic treatment of eye disease, and referral for treatment of medical conditions and surgical care, if it was needed and available at the U.S. military facilities in the Iraq Theater. Diagnoses, services provided, and medications given to the detainees are listed in detail and demonstrate the complexity of pathology encountered in this population.

  18. Development of water resources management in Iraq and its obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq witnessed recently a considerable development in the field of water resources management to go along with developed countries. Latest technology has been introduced in hydrology monitoring. Many stations for water measuring and monitoring have been constructed beside many irrigation and drainage canals in order to reach an optimum irrigation system. A special emphasis has been put on the role of nuclear techniques in enhancing the water resources management development. These techniques will provide the perfect opportunity for investing water and drained quantities and determining pollution resources to insure the sustainability of the agricultural sector without threatening the development processes. This development encounters the lack of knowledge of technology applied in the field of the use of peaceful atomic energy and nuclear technologies, which are essential in sustaining the momentum in the management of water resources, despite the entry of the latest developed devices and technologies in measurements and monitoring. (author)

  19. Geotechnical Mapping of An-Najaf City, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadher Hassan Al-Baghdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper submits a set geotechnical maps for the area of An-Najaf city, by using contour lines to represent the different geotechnical properties of the soil. The present research work is very important step toward preparing a geotechnical database for this region, to complete the geotechnical database over all the country, (Iraq. Using such a database is very important in geotechincal investigation, reconnaissance phase, of construction projects. Within this phase of site investigation, numbers, depths and locations of the boreholes needed, will be determined. A well known commercial software (SURFER 11, was used to produce the all the contour maps of geotechnical properties presented herein. A forty nine (49 contour maps were produced to cover the variations, within the geotechnical properties of the soil, to produce realistic description to these soil properties. Both Google maps and Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system (UTM have been used in the contour maps for easy use.

  20. Echocardiographic evaluation of thalassemia intermedia patients in Duhok, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Ameen Mosa

    2014-12-11

    Cardiac complications are among the most serious problems of thalassemia intermedia patients. The current study was initiated to address the latter issue through the study of the echocardiographic findings and correlate it with clinical characteristics of thalassemia intermedia patients in Duhok, Kurdistan region, Iraq. An echocardiographic assessment of 61 beta-thalassemia intermedia cases was performed. It included 30 males and 31 females, with a mean age 19.6 ± 7.5 years. The standard echostudy of two-dimension and M-mode measurements of cardiac chambers were done. The continuous doppler regurgitant jet of tricuspid and pulmonary valves were recorded. Left ventricle diastolic function was assessed by pulsed doppler of mitral valve inflow. To correlate the clinical with echocardiographic findings, patients were divided, according to tricuspid regurgitant velocity, into three groups (intermedia patients. Therapeutic trails targeting these complications are indicated, and echocardiographic assessment is necessary to be offered early for thalassemia intermedia.

  1. Relationships between holocene vegetation and the spreading out of civilizations and languages in Southwestern-Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, F.

    1991-01-01

    A pluridisciplinary approach is proposed, which deals with the reconstitution of holocene environments and estimation of the human impact. This effects varies in time and space, as in the case of South Eastern Mediterranean countries (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran), where advanced civilization appeared very early. Special attention is paid to palynology, archaeology and linguistic

  2. USSR Report, Political and Sociological Affairs, Press Surveys from Soviet Southern Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-17

    for an increase in the institutes productivity. It is mentioned that "a major scientific organization for the study of petrol - eum and gas resources...the conference include Algeria, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, Jordan, Tunisia , Morocco, Egypt and other Arab countries, Afghan- istan, Iran, Turkey, India

  3. Kurds and the PKK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, J.P.; Akkaya, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Comprising some thirty to forty million people, the Kurds constitute the fourth largest ethnicity in Western Asia. Divided between Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, Kurdistan is located in the northern part of the Middle East. A sense of national belonging among the Kurds emerged during the course of

  4. All projects related to | Page 91 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... have reignited debate around the need for more inclusive political systems where the rights of different ethnic and religious groups are a priority in the transition period. Topic: MIDDLE EAST, ETHNIC GROUPS, POLICY MAKING, POLITICS. Region: Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Lebanon.

  5. The nature and uses of violence in the Kurdish conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1999-01-01

    Turkey, Iran and Iraq, the three modern states among which the vast region known as Kurdistan is divided, have each had their protracted and violent Kurdish conflict. In all three cases the conflict has frequently been described as an ethnic conflict — and rightly so, in the sense that the

  6. Left Dislocation in North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic dialects | Khan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The North-Eastern Neo-Aramaic (NENA) dialects, which are the focus of this paper, were spoken across a wide area encompassing northern Iraq, north-west Iran, south-eastern Turkey, Armenia and Georgia. In these spoken dialects a distinction should be made between two major types of Left Dislocation (LD) structures.

  7. : tous les projets | Page 77 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Région: Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey ... Sujet: EDUCATION. Région: South of Sahara, Kenya. Programme: Think Tank Initiative. Financement total : CA$ 1,709,655.00. Soutien organisationnel de la phase 2 de l'ITT : Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis. Projet.

  8. Carthamus tinctorius L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... family Compositae or Asteraceae, important oilseed crop of semi-arid regions and cultivated mainly for its seed. The crop is cultivated in India, Mexico Argentina,. Australia, Canada, China, Spain, Italy, Turkey, Iraq, Iran,. Egypt, and Ethiopia and is an alternative oil crop for the dry lands of these countries.

  9. Prioritisation process for decommissioning of the Iraq former nuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarjies, Adnan; Abbas, Mohammed; Fernandes, Horst M.; Coates, Roger

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of sites in Iraq which have been used for nuclear activities and which contain potentially significant amounts of radioactive waste. The principal nuclear site is Al-Tuwaitha, the former nuclear research centre. Many of these sites suffered substantial physical damage during the Gulf Wars and have been subjected to subsequent looting. All require decommissioning in order to ensure both radiological and non-radiological safety. However, it is not possible to undertake the decommissioning of all sites and facilities at the same time. Therefore, a prioritization methodology has been developed in order to aid the decision-making process. The methodology comprises three principal stages of assessment: 1) a quantitative surrogate risk assessment, 2) a range of sensitivity analyses and 3) the inclusion of qualitative modifying factors. A group of five Tuwaitha facilities presented the highest evaluated risk, followed by a middle ranking grouping of Tuwaitha facilities and some other sites, with a relatively large number of lower risk facilities and sites comprising a third group. This initial risk-based order of priority is changed when modifying factors are taken into account. It is necessary to take account of Iraq's isolation from the international nuclear community over the last two decades and the lack of experienced personnel. Therefore it is appropriate to initiate decommissioning operations on selected low risk facilities at Tuwaitha in order to build capacity/experience and prepare for work to be carried out in more complex and potentially high hazard facilities. In addition it is appropriate to initiate some prudent precautionary actions relating to some of the higher risk facilities. (author)

  10. Why People Apply to Medical School in Iraq?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hemiary, Nesif; Al-Nuaimi, Ahmed Sameer; Al-Saffar, Hilal; Randall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The motivations behind why people choose to study medicine in Iraqi medical schools are unknown. Such information could help school pupils to make more informed career decisions and assist medical schools in enhancing the student selection process. To investigate why people choose to study medicine in Iraq. The first-year students admitted on the academic year 2015-2016 to Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire, which was administered through the college electronic education portal. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21 software. A total of 152 (50% response rate) students responded. Women constituted 69.1% of respondents. Most students (61.8%) had made their choice by themselves without family pressure. The most frequent reasons that affected this choice were "humanitarian reasons and a wish to provide help to others" as well as "childhood dream," "positive community appraisal of doctors," and "ready availability of work for physicians." About three-quarters (73.6%) of the students made some inquiry about medical school before making their choice, and the people asked were most frequently a medical student or a doctor. Information provided by the consulted parties was regarded as satisfactory by 64.2% of the surveyed students, had a positive value in 47.2%, and affected their decision in 34.9%. The highest proportion (42.2%) of the study sample was thinking about studying medicine since primary school. In addition, students with personal preference made their choice at a significantly younger age. Reasons to apply for medical schools in Iraq are similar to those in many countries. Most of the students who inquired about studying medicine had not contacted the medical school itself.

  11. Why People Apply to Medical School in Iraq?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesif Al-Hemiary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The motivations behind why people choose to study medicine in Iraqi medical schools are unknown. Such information could help school pupils to make more informed career decisions and assist medical schools in enhancing the student selection process. Aims: To investigate why people choose to study medicine in Iraq. Subjects and methods: The first-year students admitted on the academic year 2015-2016 to Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire, which was administered through the college electronic education portal. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21 software. Results: A total of 152 (50% response rate students responded. Women constituted 69.1% of respondents. Most students (61.8% had made their choice by themselves without family pressure. The most frequent reasons that affected this choice were “humanitarian reasons and a wish to provide help to others” as well as “childhood dream,” “positive community appraisal of doctors,” and “ready availability of work for physicians.” About three-quarters (73.6% of the students made some inquiry about medical school before making their choice, and the people asked were most frequently a medical student or a doctor. Information provided by the consulted parties was regarded as satisfactory by 64.2% of the surveyed students, had a positive value in 47.2%, and affected their decision in 34.9%. The highest proportion (42.2% of the study sample was thinking about studying medicine since primary school. In addition, students with personal preference made their choice at a significantly younger age. Conclusions: Reasons to apply for medical schools in Iraq are similar to those in many countries. Most of the students who inquired about studying medicine had not contacted the medical school itself.

  12. A preliminary magnetic study of Sawa lake sediments, Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameen, Nawrass

    2016-04-01

    A preliminary magnetic study combined with chemical analyses was carried out in Sawa Lake in Al-Muthanna province, southern Iraq, about 22 km south west of Samawa city (31°18'48.80"N, 45°0'25.25"E). The lake is about 4.74 km length, 1.75 km width and 5.5 m height, it is surrounded by a salt rim which is higher than the lake water by about 2.8 m and sea water by about 18.5 m (Naqash et al., 1977 in Hassan, 2007). The lake is an elongated closed basin with no surface water available to it, it may be fed by groundwater of the Euphrates and Dammam aquifers through system of joints and cracks. This study aims to investigate the concentrations of selected heavy metals as pollutants and magnetic susceptibility (MS) and other magnetic properties of sediment samples from fifty sites collected from the bottom of the lake, the study area lies in an industrial area. The results show spatial variations of MS with mean value of about 4.58 x 10-8 m3 kg-1. Scanning electron microscopy and magnetic mineralogy parameters indicate the dominance of soft magnetic phase like magnetite and presence of hard magnetic phase like hematite. Spatial variations of MS combined with the concentrations of heavy metals suggests the efficiency of magnetic methods as effective, inexpensive and non-time consuming method to outlining the heavy metal pollution. References: Hassan W.F., 2007. The Physio-chemical characteristic of Sawa lake water in Samawa city-Iraq. Marine Mesopotamica, 22(2), 167-179.

  13. HIV and AIDS-related knowledge among women in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who are aware of the risk of infection and perceive themselves to be at risk of infection are more likely to take action to prevent HIV infection. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2000 Multiple Cluster Indicator Survey (MICS for Iraq was carried out to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among Iraqi women. Results The majority of the 22,997 respondents were age 15–24 years (44.3%, currently married (51.4%, and resided in urban areas (71.7%. About 1 in 4 (26.0% of the study participants had no formal education. Only 49.9% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Overall, 60.5% did not know that HIV can be transmitted through blood transfusion. Meanwhile, 98.5% of the respondents did not know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child through breast milk. Only 0.7% of the respondents reported that HIV cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites. The proportion of the respondents who had adequate knowledge on HIV/AIDS was 9.8%. Adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS was negatively associated with being married, poor, having low education, and residing in rural areas. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Iraqi is very limited and associated with marital status, education, wealth, and place of residence. This information may be of use in the design, targeting, monitoring and evaluation of programs aimed at improving HIV and AIDS related knowledge in Iraq.

  14. Approaches to realization of year cycle of Iraq football players’ sport training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Drevel Khalaf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate ways of increase of Iraq football players’ training process effectiveness, depending on calendar of events. Material: analysis of technical-tactic actions was conducted by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of football players in every match. The analysis was presented by mean indicators of matches of the first (n=15 and second (n=15 rounds of championships of Iraq premier league 2011-2014. Results: we realized conception of periodization of Iraq elite football players’ sport training. Specific conditions of periodization of Iraq sportsmen’s training have been worked out and substantiated. Scientific-methodic basis of perfection of Iraq football players’ training process management has been formed. On the base of heuristic simulation we formulated algorithm of realization of Iraq premier league football players’ year cycle training. It is recommended to use higher and more significant loads with correlation 50% and 30% from total scope of training sessions. Conclusions: On principles of rational combination we built hierarchy of macro-cycles’ structural components, combined in single, formed year cycle during long term competition season.

  15. Respiratory symptoms necessitating spirometry among soldiers with Iraq/Afghanistan war lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szema, Anthony M; Salihi, Walid; Savary, Khalil; Chen, John J

    2011-09-01

    New-onset asthma rates are higher among US soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan than stateside, but overall respiratory symptom and spirometry rates among soldiers returning from Iraq/Afghanistan have not yet been addressed. We determined these rates in soldiers deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan versus troops stationed elsewhere. Retrospective review of active-duty soldiers (2004 to 2010) registered at Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, New York, with Long Island/New York City zip codes. Subjects were examined by physicians or physicians' assistants. We counted number of spirometries, which required respiratory symptoms, and the provider was required to submit a diagnosis as part of the request process. Twenty-five percent of 7151 troops went to Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 1816) and 75% went elsewhere (n = 5335), with more smokers in the Iraq/Afghanistan group (16.1% vs 3.3%). Rates of symptoms and spirometry were 14.5% and 1.8%, for Iraq/Afghanistan, versus troops deployed elsewhere, respectively (P Afghanistan war lung injury is common and rates of symptoms leading to a diagnosis requiring spirometry are high. (C)2011The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

  16. [Analysis of posttraumatic stress disorders in Polish soldiers who returned from stabilization mission in Iraq].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotnicka, Justyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the survey was to establish whether PTSD is present among Polish soldiers returning from a one-year deployment to Iraq and an analysis of its individual symptoms. Sixty soldiers were examined, including 30 who returned from the Iraqi mission and 30 who remained in Poland. Five analysing devices were used: (IPSA), (STAI), (BDI), a PTSD questionnaire and a socio-demographical form. A significant number of soldiers experienced a traumatic event during the mission in Iraq. Although the Iraq deployment did not change the level of depression and anxiety among the two groups of soldiers, disproportions were found in the range of anger level intensity, which was significantly higher among soldiers who returned from Iraq. Stabilisation mission and the experience of a traumatic event influenced the biological and psychological functioning patterns among soldiers who returned from Iraq. The manifestations of this were emotional and physiological reactions that the soldiers experienced (nightmares, excessive sweating, increased heartbeat rate, stressful reactions in situations similar to the traumatic occurrence and intensified responses to them). However, contrary to the assumptions, it was not concluded that soldiers who returned from Iraq are suffering from PTSD.

  17. Israel and Iran: A Dangerous Rivalry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    and Knesset view the Islamic Republic as “a bitter ideological enemy that is deter- mined to bring about the physical annihilation of Israel”; only...entirely different set of values. . . . Iran sends children into mine fields. Iran denies the Holocaust. Iran openly calls for Israel’s destruction...compromise on sovereignty by having U.S. troops deployed here.” Quoted in Barbara Opall -Rome, “U.S. to Deploy Radar, Troops In Israel,” Defense News

  18. Will Iran Give up its Nuclear Project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbert, Simond de

    2016-01-01

    In July 2015 an agreement on Iran's nuclear program was reached. However, the restrictions imposed upon Tehran are less strict than the objectives set by the Security Council. Many analysts have doubts about Iran's sincerity and think that time is on Iran's side. Shifting strategic balances in the Middle East, possible leadership changes within the Iranian regime, and the resolve of the international community will all impact on the program's future

  19. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  20. Il viaggio religioso come strumento geopolitico. Il pellegrinaggio sciita e l’emergere dell’alleanza regionale tra Iran e Siria - Religious travelling as geopolitical instrument. The Shia pilgrimage and the rise of the regional alliance between Iran and Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Scaini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Religious pilgrimage is almost as old as the history of men. This phenomenon has often been instrumentalized for political ends, creating the premises for new colonization processes, exerting local hegemonies or reinforcing strategic alliances. This article examines the recent re-discovery, in Shia perspective, of the holy sites in Syria. This “re-discovery” which initially was intended as anti-Iraq and pro-Iran has developed social implications and regional significance which cannot be thoroughly assessed for the moment. Among these there is an interesting gender issue. Women offer themselves as cultural mediators and therefore manage to increase their autonomy and obtain an economic independence which they propagate at home. Pilgrimage thus reveals itself as a kind of travel with strong political connotations.