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Sample records for iranian native chicken

  1. Analysis of Consumers' Preferences and Price Sensitivity to Native Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-A; Jung, Yoojin; Jo, Cheorun; Park, Ji-Young; Nam, Ki-Chang

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed consumers' preferences and price sensitivity to native chickens. A survey was conducted from Jan 6 to 17, 2014, and data were collected from consumers (n=500) living in Korea. Statistical analyses evaluated the consumption patterns of native chickens, preference marketing for native chicken breeds which will be newly developed, and price sensitivity measurement (PSM). Of the subjects who preferred broilers, 24.3% do not purchase native chickens because of the dryness and tough texture, while those who preferred native chickens liked their chewy texture (38.2%). Of the total subjects, 38.2% preferred fried native chickens (38.2%) for processed food, 38.4% preferred direct sales for native chicken distribution, 51.0% preferred native chickens to be slaughtered in specialty stores, and 32.4% wanted easy access to native chickens. Additionally, the price stress range (PSR) was 50 won and the point of marginal cheapness (PMC) and point of marginal expensiveness (PME) were 6,980 won and 12,300 won, respectively. Evaluation of the segmentation market revealed that consumers who prefer broiler to native chicken breeds were more sensitive to the chicken price. To accelerate the consumption of newly developed native chicken meat, it is necessary to develop a texture that each consumer needs, to increase the accessibility of native chickens, and to have diverse menus and recipes as well as reasonable pricing for native chickens.

  2. SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF NATIVE CHICKEN QUEEN PINEAPPLE-CURED HAM

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas; Nikko A. Roxas

    2015-01-01

    The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP) crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injectio...

  3. Native Pig and Chicken Breed Database: NPCDB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Soo Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous (native breeds of livestock have higher disease resistance and adaptation to the environment due to high genetic diversity. Even though their extinction rate is accelerated due to the increase of commercial breeds, natural disaster, and civil war, there is a lack of well-established databases for the native breeds. Thus, we constructed the native pig and chicken breed database (NPCDB which integrates available information on the breeds from around the world. It is a nonprofit public database aimed to provide information on the genetic resources of indigenous pig and chicken breeds for their conservation. The NPCDB (http://npcdb.snu.ac.kr/ provides the phenotypic information and population size of each breed as well as its specific habitat. In addition, it provides information on the distribution of genetic resources across the country. The database will contribute to understanding of the breed’s characteristics such as disease resistance and adaptation to environmental changes as well as the conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  4. Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism in Two Iranian Native Fowls (Short Communication

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    Jafari A

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical polymorphism study is a method of determination of genetic variation. This variability could be a basis for selection and subsequent genetic improvement in farm animals. The polymorphism in the intron 1 of chicken growth hormone (cGH gene was investigated in the Iranian native fowls by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. The genomic DNA was extracted from 217 samples (129 samples from the native fowls of Isfahan province and 88 samples from the native fowls of Mazandaran province by using modified salting out technique. The DNA fragment of the growth hormone gene with 776 bp was amplified by PCR using specific primers. Then the PCR products were digested with MspI restriction enzyme and analyzed on 2.5% agarose gel. The allelic frequency of intron 1 locus for A1, A2 and A3 alleles in  Isfahan native fowls were 0.60, 0.21 and 0.19 and those in Mazandaran native  fowls were 0.28, 0.05 and 0.67, respectively. The results of current study indicated that the intron 1 of cGH is polymorphic in Iranian native fowls and could be exploited as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection for growth-related traits.

  5. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of Sudanese native chicken breeds involved in a conservation program. Five Sudanese native chicken breeds were compared with populations studied previously, which included six purebred lines, six African populations and one ...

  6. Effectiveness duckweed (Lemna minor) as an alternative native chicken feed native chicken (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, A.; Ritonga, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to know the effectiveness duckweed as feed as native chicken (Gallus domesticus) on growth period (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion). This research was conducted in Desa Telaga Jernih Kabupaten Langkat. The study was conducted in February 2017 until May 2017. This study use completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 Replication, where each treatment consisting of 5 Native chickens unsexing. The treatment was used P0 = control (feed manufacturing), P1 = ration conventional with 10% duckweed, P2 = ration conventional with 20% duckweed, P3 = ration conventional with 30% duckweed. The parameters observed were weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The results showed not significantly effect in body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. Where the average of best weight gain on treatment P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed), P3 (30% duckweed) and P1 (10% duckweed), average of best feed consumption in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed ) Of P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), average of best feed conversion rate in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed) P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed).

  7. Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H Hassen, FWC Neser, A de Kock, E van Marle-Köster ... in the present study are in accordance with the origin and marketing systems of ... initial step to plan the characterization and conservation of native chickens in Amhara region, Ethiopia.

  8. Complimenting Functions by Native English Speakers and Iranian EFL Learners: A Divergence or Convergence

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    Ali Akbar Ansarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of compliment speech act has been under investigation on many occasions in recent years. In this study, an attempt is made to explore appraisals performed by native English speakers and Iranian EFL learners to find out how these two groups diverge or converge from each other with regard to complimenting patterns and norms. The participants of the study were 60 advanced Iranian EFL learners who were speaking Persian as their first language and 60 native English speakers. Through a written Discourse Completion Task comprised of eight different scenarios, compliments were analyzed with regard to topics (performance, personality, possession, and skill, functions (explicit, implicit, and opt-out, gender differences and the common positive adjectives used by two groups of native and nonnative participants. The findings suggested that native English speakers praised individuals more implicitly in comparison with Iranian EFL learners and native speakers provided opt-outs more frequently than Iranian EFL learners did. The analysis of data by Chi-square showed that gender and macro functions are independent of each other among Iranian EFL learners’ compliments while for native speakers, gender played a significant role in the distribution of appraisals. Iranian EFL learners’ complimenting patterns converge more towards those of native English speakers. Moreover, both groups favored explicit compliments. However, Iranian EFL learners were more inclined to provide explicit compliments. It can be concluded that there were more similarities rather than differences between Iranian EFL learners and native English speakers regarding compliment speech act. The results of this study can benefit researchers, teachers, material developers, and EFL learners.

  9. Carcass characteristics of South African native chicken lines | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venda and Ovambo chicken lines were evaluated. The highest dressed-carcass mass was recorded for Ovambo chickens and the highest percentage breast muscle was recorded for Naked-Neck chickens. Percentage fat and fatty acid ...

  10. Genetic diversity of mtDNA D-loop sequences in four native Chinese chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H W; Li, C; Wang, X N; Li, Z J; Sun, G R; Li, G X; Liu, X J; Kang, X T; Han, R L

    2017-10-01

    1. To explore the genetic diversity of Chinese indigenous chicken breeds, a 585 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) region was sequenced in 102 birds from the Xichuan black-bone chicken, Yunyang black-bone chicken and Lushi chicken. In addition, 30 mtDNA D-loop sequences of Silkie fowls were downloaded from NCBI. The mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism and maternal origin of 4 chicken breeds were analysed in this study. 2. The results showed that a total of 33 mutation sites and 28 haplotypes were detected in the 4 chicken breeds. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of these 4 native breeds were 0.916 ± 0.014 and 0.012 ± 0.002, respectively. Three clusters were formed in 4 Chinese native chickens and 12 reference breeds. Both the Xichuan black-bone chicken and Yunyang black-bone chicken were grouped into one cluster. Four haplogroups (A, B, C and E) emerged in the median-joining network in these breeds. 3. It was concluded that these 4 Chinese chicken breeds had high genetic diversity. The phylogenetic tree and median network profiles showed that Chinese native chickens and its neighbouring countries had at least two maternal origins, one from Yunnan, China and another from Southeast Asia or its surrounding area.

  11. Code Glosses in Academic Writing: The Comparison of Iranian and Native Authors

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    Mahdi Dehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges of academic writing is the creation of a structurally and communicatively well-organized and coherent text. Metadiscourse enables authors of journal articles to achieve this goal by raising the writers‘ awareness about discourse features which can contribute to a better academic content production. Also, L1 background has always been a hot topic in applied linguistics and native versus non-native comparisons have been of particular interest in this field. The purpose of this study was to see whether native English speakers and Iranians use code glosses as a sub-category of metadiscourse similarly in their academic writings. To this end, the introduction section of 30 journal articles written by native and Iranian non-native English authors were investigated and the number of code-glosses in each group was counted and analyzed. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to answer the research question of this study. The result of data analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the frequency count of code glosses used by Iranian and native English authors. This study can have pedagogical implications for EAP course designers as well as academic writing instructors and students.

  12. Ampalaya (Momordica Charantia Leaf Extract Against Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Native Chicken

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    Glynda F. Pariñas

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of ampalaya leaf extract against gastrointestinal parasites of native chicken. Specifically, it aimed to:(1to evaluate the anthelmintic property of ampalaya leaf extract in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken;(2 find out the most effective variety of ampalaya leaves as purgatives for native chicken; and(3 to compare the efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract with commercial purgative in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites. A total of fifteen (15 experimental native chickens were used in each study which was distributed into five (5 treatments. For study 1 and 2, Commercial purgative (Piperazine dihydrocloride and commercial purgative (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole were used respectively as positive control. Based on the result of the study, ampalaya leaf extract shows comparable effect to positive control (Piperazine dihydrochloride in treating and controlling gastro-intestinal parasites of native chicken. However, commercial purgative with triple ingredient (mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole shows more effective than the ampalaya extract. The researcher concludes that efficacy of ampalaya leaf extract as purgative is comparable to the effect of commercial purgative with single active ingreadient (Piperazine dihydrochloride, commercial purgative with triple active ingredients ( mebendasole, niclosamide and levamisole excelled over the ampalaya extract because of its multi-ingredients.

  13. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sudanese native chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-11-06

    Nov 6, 2013 ... of eggs and meat, respectively, of which 80% are from indigenous stocks (FAO, 2006). In Sudan, the traditional sector comprises 70% of the total chicken's annual production of 20.1 million birds and 900 million eggs. (Sulieman, 1996). The Sudanese fowls with various types, which collectively are called ...

  14. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Native Chicken Populations from Myanmar, Thailand and Laos by Using 102 Indels Markers

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    A. A. Maw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of native chicken populations from Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos was examined by using 102 insertion and/or deletion (indels markers. Most of the indels loci were polymorphic (71% to 96%, and the genetic variability was similar in all populations. The average observed heterozygosities (HO and expected heterozygosities (HE ranged from 0.205 to 0.263 and 0.239 to 0.381, respectively. The coefficients of genetic differentiation (Gst for all cumulated populations was 0.125, and the Thai native chickens showed higher Gst (0.088 than Myanmar (0.041 and Laotian (0.024 populations. The pairwise Fst distances ranged from 0.144 to 0.308 among populations. A neighbor-joining (NJ tree, using Nei’s genetic distance, revealed that Thai and Laotian native chicken populations were genetically close, while Myanmar native chickens were distant from the others. The native chickens from these three countries were thought to be descended from three different origins (K = 3 from STRUCTURE analysis. Genetic admixture was observed in Thai and Laotian native chickens, while admixture was absent in Myanmar native chickens.

  15. Study on the genetic diversity of native chickens in northwest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Poultry production in Ethiopia is an important livestock sector contributing ... chickens, which are becoming important to design effective selection .... 10 X Buffer, 2 µl of. 100 mM dNTPs, 0.5 µl of each (10 pmol/µl) forward and reverse primers, 0.2 µl of 5U/µl Taq DNA polymerase, 0.6 µl of 25 mM. MgCl2 and ...

  16. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of chicken anaemia virus from commercial and native chickens in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, S-C; Lin, H-L; Liu, P-C; Huang, H-J; Lee, M-S; Lien, Y-Y; Tsai, Y-L

    2018-04-25

    Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is a disease with a highly economic impact in the poultry industry. The infected chickens are characterized by aplastic anaemia and extreme immunosuppression, followed by the increased susceptibility to secondary infectious pathogens and suboptimal immune responses for vaccination. Commercially available CIA vaccines are routinely used in the breeders in Taiwan to protect their progeny with maternal-derived antibodies. However, CIA cases still occur in the field and little is known about the genetic characteristics of Taiwanese chicken anaemia viruses (CAVs). In this study, CAV DNA was detected in 72 of 137 flocks collected during 2010-2015. Among the PCR-positive samples, the coding regions of 51 CAVs were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene revealed that, although most of Taiwanese CAVs belonged to genotypes II and III, some isolates were clustered into a novel genotype (genotype IV). Moreover, a Taiwanese isolate in this novel genotype IV appeared to be derived from a recombination event between genotypes II and III viruses. Five Taiwanese CAV isolates were highly similar to the vaccine strains, 26P4 or Del-Ros. Taken together, these results indicate that the sequences of CAVs in Taiwan are variable, and inter-genotypic recombination had occurred between viruses of different genotypes. Moreover, vaccine-like strains might induce clinical signs of CIA in chickens. Our findings could be useful for understanding the evolution of CAVs and development of a better control strategy for CIA. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Study of polymorphism in Mazandaran and Esfahan native chicken population using microsatellite markers

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    Saeid Esmaeilkhanian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to studying of genetic variation in Mazandaran and Esfahan native chickens, twenty microsatellite markers were evaluated. These microsatellite markers were MCW0014, MCW0081, MCW0183, MCW0067, MCW0104, MCW0123, MCW0330, MCW0165, MCW0069, MCW0020, MCW0222, LEI0094, MCW0295, MCW0034, MCW0216, ADL0268, ADL0112, ADL0278 and lEI0166. Blood samples of 90 and 150 native chickens of Mazandaran and Esfahan were randomly taken respectively. Genomic DNAs were isolated through optimized and modified salting-out procedure. The number of alleles varied from 1 to 6. In Mazandaran population one locus (MCW0216 and in Esfahan population three loci (MCW0216, MCW67 and MCW222 were monomorphic. The other loci were showed appropriate polymorphism. All the loci except MCW222 and MCW165 in Mazandaran population showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p

  18. Genetic Diversity of Myanmar and Indonesia Native Chickens Together with Two Jungle Fowl Species by Using 102 Indels Polymorphisms

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    Aye Aye Maw

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insertion and/or deletion (indels polymorphisms as genetic markers was evaluated by genotyping 102 indels loci in native chicken populations from Myanmar and Indonesia as well as Red jungle fowls and Green jungle fowls from Java Island. Out of the 102 indel markers, 97 were polymorphic. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.206 to 0.268 and 0.229 to 0.284 in native chicken populations and 0.003 to 0.101 and 0.012 to 0.078 in jungle fowl populations. The coefficients of genetic differentiation (Gst of the native chicken populations from Myanmar and Indonesia were 0.041 and 0.098 respectively. The genetic variability is higher among native chicken populations than jungle fowl populations. The high Gst value was found between native chicken populations and jungle fowl populations. Neighbor-joining tree using genetic distance revealed that the native chickens from two countries were genetically close to each other and remote from Red and Green jungle fowls of Java Island.

  19. Enhancement of microbial quality and inactivation of pathogenic bacteria by gamma irradiation of ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Aziz A.; Siavash Saei-Dehkordi, S.; Rahnama, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    Ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken consists of cubed chicken breast, lemon juice, salt, red pepper, onion, saffron and vegetable oil with an overall pH value of about 5.5. This product is sometimes consumed under-cooked, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy) on the microbial quality of ready-to-cook (RTC) barbecued chicken samples stored at 4 °C for 15 days was investigated. Moreover, the effectiveness of irradiation for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated into the samples was also studied. Irradiation of the samples resulted in dose dependent reduction in counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Among the microbial flora, yeasts and molds and Enterobacteriaceae were more sensitive to irradiation and got completely eliminated at dose of 3 kGy. D10 values of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium inoculated into the samples were 0.680, 0.397 and 0.601 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 3 kGy reduced the counts of E. coli O157:H7 to an undetectable level in RTC barbecued chicken but was ineffective on elimination of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. However, none of the food-borne pathogens were detected in the samples irradiated at 4.5 kGy. This study showed that irradiation had no undesirable effects on the initial sensory attributes of barbecued chicken. At the end of the storage period, irradiated samples were more acceptable compared to non-irradiated ones.

  20. Enhancement of microbial quality and inactivation of pathogenic bacteria by gamma irradiation of ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallah, Aziz A.; Siavash Saei-Dehkordi, S.; Rahnama, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken consists of cubed chicken breast, lemon juice, salt, red pepper, onion, saffron and vegetable oil with an overall pH value of about 5.5. This product is sometimes consumed under-cooked, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy) on the microbial quality of ready-to-cook (RTC) barbecued chicken samples stored at 4 o C for 15 days was investigated. Moreover, the effectiveness of irradiation for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated into the samples was also studied. Irradiation of the samples resulted in dose dependent reduction in counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Among the microbial flora, yeasts and molds and Enterobacteriaceae were more sensitive to irradiation and got completely eliminated at dose of 3 kGy. D 10 values of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium inoculated into the samples were 0.680, 0.397 and 0.601 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 3 kGy reduced the counts of E. coli O157:H7 to an undetectable level in RTC barbecued chicken but was ineffective on elimination of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. However, none of the food-borne pathogens were detected in the samples irradiated at 4.5 kGy. This study showed that irradiation had no undesirable effects on the initial sensory attributes of barbecued chicken. At the end of the storage period, irradiated samples were more acceptable compared to non-irradiated ones.

  1. Enhancement of microbial quality and inactivation of pathogenic bacteria by gamma irradiation of ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallah, Aziz A., E-mail: a_a_falah@yahoo.co [Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahre-Kord University, Shahre-Kord 34141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute of Zoonotic Diseases, Shahre-Kord University, Shahre-Kord 34141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Siavash Saei-Dehkordi, S. [Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahre-Kord University, Shahre-Kord 34141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute of Zoonotic Diseases, Shahre-Kord University, Shahre-Kord 34141 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahnama, Mohammad [Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zabol, Zabol 98615 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken consists of cubed chicken breast, lemon juice, salt, red pepper, onion, saffron and vegetable oil with an overall pH value of about 5.5. This product is sometimes consumed under-cooked, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation (0, 1.5, 3 and 4.5 kGy) on the microbial quality of ready-to-cook (RTC) barbecued chicken samples stored at 4 {sup o}C for 15 days was investigated. Moreover, the effectiveness of irradiation for inactivating Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated into the samples was also studied. Irradiation of the samples resulted in dose dependent reduction in counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria. Among the microbial flora, yeasts and molds and Enterobacteriaceae were more sensitive to irradiation and got completely eliminated at dose of 3 kGy. D{sub 10} values of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. typhimurium inoculated into the samples were 0.680, 0.397 and 0.601 kGy, respectively. An irradiation dose of 3 kGy reduced the counts of E. coli O157:H7 to an undetectable level in RTC barbecued chicken but was ineffective on elimination of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. However, none of the food-borne pathogens were detected in the samples irradiated at 4.5 kGy. This study showed that irradiation had no undesirable effects on the initial sensory attributes of barbecued chicken. At the end of the storage period, irradiated samples were more acceptable compared to non-irradiated ones.

  2. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwisa Chumngoen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR and Taiwan native chicken (TNC breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1, TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2, TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3, TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  3. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-01-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat’s unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods. PMID:26104409

  4. Relationships between Descriptive Sensory Attributes and Physicochemical Analysis of Broiler and Taiwan Native Chicken Breast Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2015-07-01

    Unique organoleptic characteristics such as rich flavors and chewy texture contribute to the higher popularity of native chicken in many Asian areas, while the commercial broilers are well-accepted due to their fast-growing and higher yields of meat. Sensory attributes of foods are often used to evaluate food eating quality and serve as references during the selection of foods. In this study, a three-phase descriptive sensory study was conducted to evaluate the sensory attributes of commercial broiler (BR) and Taiwan native chicken (TNC) breast meat, and investigate correlations between these sensory attributes and instrumental measurements. The results showed that for the first bite (phase 1), TNC meat had significantly higher moisture release, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness than BR meat. After chewing for 10 to 12 bites (phase 2), TNC meat presented significantly higher chewdown hardness and meat particle size, whereas BR meat had significantly higher cohesiveness of mass. After swallowing (phase 3), TNC meat had higher chewiness and oily mouthcoat and lower residual loose particles than BR meat. TNC meat also provided more intense chicken flavors. This study clearly demonstrates that descriptive sensory analysis provides more detailed and more objectively information about the sensory attributes of meats from various chicken breeds. Additionally, sensory textural attributes vary between BR and TNC meat, and are highly correlated to the shear force value and collagen content which influence meat eating qualities greatly. The poultry industry and scientists should be able to recognize the sensory characteristics of different chicken meats more clearly. Accordingly, based on the meat's unique sensory and physicochemical characteristics, future work might address how meat from various breeds could best satisfy consumer needs using various cooking methods.

  5. Variance Component Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Body Weight Traits in Purebred Korean Native Chicken

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    Muhammad Cahyadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait locus (QTL is a particular region of the genome containing one or more genes associated with economically important quantitative traits. This study was conducted to identify QTL regions for body weight and growth traits in purebred Korean native chicken (KNC. F1 samples (n = 595 were genotyped using 127 microsatellite markers and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms that covered 2,616.1 centi Morgan (cM of map length for 26 autosomal linkage groups. Body weight traits were measured every 2 weeks from hatch to 20 weeks of age. Weight of half carcass was also collected together with growth rate. A multipoint variance component linkage approach was used to identify QTLs for the body weight traits. Two significant QTLs for growth were identified on chicken chromosome 3 (GGA3 for growth 16 to18 weeks (logarithm of the odds [LOD] = 3.24, Nominal p value = 0.0001 and GGA4 for growth 6 to 8 weeks (LOD = 2.88, Nominal p value = 0.0003. Additionally, one significant QTL and three suggestive QTLs were detected for body weight traits in KNC; significant QTL for body weight at 4 weeks (LOD = 2.52, nominal p value = 0.0007 and suggestive QTL for 8 weeks (LOD = 1.96, Nominal p value = 0.0027 were detected on GGA4; QTLs were also detected for two different body weight traits: body weight at 16 weeks on GGA3 and body weight at 18 weeks on GGA19. Additionally, two suggestive QTLs for carcass weight were detected at 0 and 70 cM on GGA19. In conclusion, the current study identified several significant and suggestive QTLs that affect growth related traits in a unique resource pedigree in purebred KNC. This information will contribute to improving the body weight traits in native chicken breeds, especially for the Asian native chicken breeds.

  6. A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Apology Strategies Employed by Iranian EFL Learners and English Native Speakers

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    Elham Abedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of speech-act theory has provided the hearers with a better understanding of what speakers intend to perform in the act of communication. One type of speech act is apologizing. When an action or utterance has resulted in an offense, the offender needs to apologize. In the present study, an attempt was made to compare the apology strategies employed by Iranian EFL learners and those of English native speakers in order to find out the possible differences and similarities. To this end, a discourse completion test (DCT was given to 100 male and female Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The respondents were supposed to complete the DCTs based on nine situations, which varied in terms of power between the interlocutors and level of imposition. This study employed Cohen and Olshtain's (1981 model to classify various types of apology strategies. The obtained results revealed some similarities along with some (statistically insignificant differences between EFL learners and American English speakers in terms of their use of apology strategies. Furthermore, it was found that the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs, such as request for forgiveness and an offer of apology were the strategies mostly employed by the Iranian EFL learners while taking on responsibility such as explicit self-blame, and expression of self-deficiency were found to be the strategies mostly used by English native speakers. In terms of gender, the male and female respondents more or less used the same apology strategies in response to the situations. The findings of the present research can be used by language teachers as well as sociolinguists. Keywords: Speech act theory, Speech act of apology, Apology strategies, Iranian EFL learners, English Native speakers, Gender

  7. A study on fungal flora of the normal eye surface in Iranian native cattle

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    tohid nouri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The microflora of the normal ocular surface is one of the sources supplying fungal agents for keratomycosis. This study was conducted to identify fungal isolates of the conjunctiva in clinically healthy Iranian native cattle in Urmia district. Swabs were taken from both eyes of cattle (n=45 and cultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and malt extract agar. Plates were incubated at 25°C and examined for 7 days. Data were analyzed for the effect of age and sex by fisher’s exact test. Thirteen cattle (28.89% were found to be positive for fungal growth. The isolated fungal genera were Aspergillus spp-7 cases (53.84%, Penicillium spp-6 cases (46.15%, Rhodotorula sp-1 case (7.69% and Candida sp-1 case (7.69%. Yeast genera represented 13.3% of all the isolates. Sex and age of cattle had no significant effect on prevalence of isolates. Incidence of fungal colonization of the eyes compared with similar studies was low which may reflect differences in season and technique of sampling. Unexpected high frequency of Aspergillus may be due to geographic differences.

  8. Effect of dietary Satureja khuzistanica powder on semen characteristics and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances concentration in testicular tissue of Iranian native breeder rooster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Because of a paucity of information on the effect of Satureja khuzistanica in male chickens, this study was undertaken to determine the influence of dietary S. khuzistanica powder (SKP) on seminal characteristics and testes thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in Iranian native breeder rooster. Thirty-six 40-week-old roosters were randomly allotted to 3 equal groups and received either a basal diet without SKP (T1 or control), or a diet containing 20 g/kg (T2) and 40 g/kg (T3) of SKP for 8-week-long experimental period. Semen samples were obtained weekly by abdominal massage to evaluate the seminal characteristics. At the end of the eighth week 18 birds (6 birds per each group) were randomly slaughtered, and sample was taken from right testes for TBARS evaluation. Administration of SKP improved all semen traits, except for sperm concentration. Likewise, TBARS content in SKP treatments did not significantly differ from the control (P>0.05). Seminal volume, live sperm percentage and plasma membrane integrity percentage in SKP-treated groups were higher than the control. Conversely, abnormal sperm percentages reduced in SKP-treated groups (Prooster diet improves sperm quality and also reduces their sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, which may lead to higher fertilization rate.

  9. Changes in endogenous bioactive compounds of Korean native chicken meat at different ages and during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Bae, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Soo Kee; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of bird age on the contents of endogenous bioactive compounds, including carnosine, anserine, creatine, betaine, and carnitine, in meat from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken strain (KNC; Woorimatdag). Additionally, the effects of the meat type (breast or leg meat) and the state of the meat (raw or cooked) were examined. Cocks of KNC were raised under similar standard commercial conditions at a commercial chicken farm. At various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk), breast and leg meats from a total of 10 birds from each age group were obtained. Raw and cooked meat samples were then prepared separately and analyzed for bioactive compounds. The age of the KNC had a significant effect only on the betaine content. The breast meat of KNC had higher amounts of carnosine and anserine but had lower amounts of betaine and carnitine than the leg meat (P cooking (P cooking, whereas breast meat showed almost complete retention of betaine and carnitine. The results of this study provide useful and rare information regarding the presence, amounts, and determinants of endogenous bioactive compounds in KNC meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and also for popularizing indigenous chicken meat. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Korean native chicken breeds using microsatellite markers

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    Joo Hee Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the basic information on genetic structure and characteristics of Korean Native chickens (NC and foreign breeds through the analysis of the pure chicken populations and commercial chicken lines of the Hanhyup Company which are popular in the NC market, using the 20 microsatellite markers. Methods In this study, the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of 445 NC from five different breeds (NC, Leghorn [LH], Cornish [CS], Rhode Island Red [RIR], and Hanhyup [HH] commercial line were investigated by performing genotyping using 20 microsatellite markers. Results The highest genetic distance was observed between RIR and LH (18.9%, whereas the lowest genetic distance was observed between HH and NC (2.7%. In the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA illustrated by the first component, LH was clearly separated from the other groups. The correspondence analysis showed close relationship among individuals belonging to the NC, CS, and HH lines. From the STRUCTURE program, the presence of 5 clusters was detected and it was found that the proportion of membership in the different clusters was almost comparable among the breeds with the exception of one breed (HH, although it was highest in LH (0.987 and lowest in CS (0.578. For the cluster 1 it was high in HH (0.582 and in CS (0.368, while for the cluster 4 it was relatively higher in HH (0.392 than other breeds. Conclusion Our study showed useful genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship data that can be utilized for NC breeding and development by the commercial chicken industry to meet consumer demands.

  11. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

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    Muhlisin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat.

  12. Going native: Iranian Émigré poets and Indo-Persian

    OpenAIRE

    Dudney, Arthur Dale

    2017-01-01

    Iranian men of letters who came to the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal period contributed greatly to the development of Persianate culture in South Asia. Modern scholars who have addressed this migration have tended to assume that Iranians brought authentic knowledge of a Persian mother culture to Indians who struggled with some kind of inferior local product that was replaced by higher quality imported Persian as it was made available. This article addresses the neglected question of w...

  13. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Korean native chickens using next generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Won; Oh, Jae-Don; Jin, Shil; Song, Ki-Duk; Park, Hee-Bok; Heo, Kang-Nyeong; Shin, Younhee; Jung, Myunghee; Park, Junhyung; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2015-02-01

    There are five native chicken lines in Korea, which are mainly classified by plumage colors (black, white, red, yellow, gray). These five lines are very important genetic resources in the Korean poultry industry. Based on a next generation sequencing technology, whole genome sequence and reference assemblies were performed using Gallus_gallus_4.0 (NCBI) with whole genome sequences from these lines to identify common and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We obtained 36,660,731,136 ± 1,257,159,120 bp of raw sequence and average 26.6-fold of 25-29 billion reference assembly sequences representing 97.288 % coverage. Also, 4,006,068 ± 97,534 SNPs were observed from 29 autosomes and the Z chromosome and, of these, 752,309 SNPs are the common SNPs across lines. Among the identified SNPs, the number of novel- and known-location assigned SNPs was 1,047,951 ± 14,956 and 2,948,648 ± 81,414, respectively. The number of unassigned known SNPs was 1,181 ± 150 and unassigned novel SNPs was 8,238 ± 1,019. Synonymous SNPs, non-synonymous SNPs, and SNPs having character changes were 26,266 ± 1,456, 11,467 ± 604, 8,180 ± 458, respectively. Overall, 443,048 ± 26,389 SNPs in each bird were identified by comparing with dbSNP in NCBI. The presently obtained genome sequence and SNP information in Korean native chickens have wide applications for further genome studies such as genetic diversity studies to detect causative mutations for economic and disease related traits.

  14. Comparison of Quality Traits of Meat from Korean Native Chickens and Broilers Used in Two Different Traditional Korean Cuisines

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    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating the differences in the quality traits between Korean native chicken (Hanhyup, KNC and broilers commonly used in two different traditional Korean cuisines, the chemical composition and sensory properties of breast and thigh meat from the two chicken strains were assessed. KNC for baeksuk (chicken meat braised in soup with various Oriental medicinal plants; KNL, KNC for samgyetang (similar to baeksuk but young chickens and ginseng are used; KNS, broiler for baeksuk (BL, and broiler for samgyetang (BS were used as treatments in this study. KNL and KNS contained higher protein but lower fat content than BL and BS. The L* values of breast and thigh meat, but not the a* values, were significantly different between KNS and BS, whereas significant differences in both values were observed between KNL and BL. Compared to the other three types of chickens, KNS contained the highest total and insoluble collagen content, and KNL and BL showed higher inosine-5’-monophosphate content in their meat. Overall, KNL and KNS contributed darker, less tender meat with higher protein and less fat content together with more n-3 fatty acids, as opposed to their counterparts used for the same cuisines. Based on the results of the sensory analysis, even though there are some differences in physiochemical traits, different chicken sources do not differ in overall sensory quality. This information can help consumers to understand better the meat available for their preferred traditional cuisines.

  15. Effects of moist- and dry-heat cooking on the meat quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumngoen, Wanwisa; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tan, Fa-Jui

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of moist- (water-cooking; WC) and dry-heat (oven-cooking; OC) on the quality, microstructure and sensory characteristics of native chicken breast meat. The results revealed that OC meat had a significantly higher cooking time, cooking loss, and shear force values and lower L* values. Protein solubility decreased after cooking in both cooking methods; however, no statistical difference was observed between WC and OC meats, whereas collagen solubility and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) increased after cooking and WC meat exhibited higher collagen solubility and MFI (P cooking, and fibril shrinkage was noticeable in OC meat (P cooking methods to optimize native chicken meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Differential Proteome Analysis of Breast and Thigh Muscles between Korean Native Chickens and Commercial Broilers

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    Xian De Liu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Korean native chickens (Woorimotdak™, KNC and commercial broilers (Ross, CB show obvious differences in meat flavor after cooking. To understand the contribution of protein and peptide for meat flavor, 2-dimensional (2-D gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was performed. A total of 16 protein spots were differentially expressed in the breast and thigh meat between the two breeds. A total of seven protein spots were represented by different levels between KNC and CB for breast meat. Among them three protein spots (TU39149, TU40162 and TU39598 showed increases in their expressions in KNC while other four protein spots (BU40125, BU40119, BU40029 and BU39904 showed increases in CB. All nine protein spots that were represented by different levels between KNC and CB for thigh meat showed increases in their expression in KNC. Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM 1, myosin heavy chain (MyHC, heat shock protein B1 (HSP27, cytochrome c reductase (Enzyme Q, Glyoxylase 1, DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNA MTase 3 were identified as the main protein spots by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. These results can provide valuable basic information for understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for breed specific differences in meat quality, especially the meat flavour.

  17. Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan

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    Cheng-Yung Lin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (p<0.05 lower in capons after 12 wks of age (caponized treatment after 4 wks than that of the intact males. The relative tibia weight, bone breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, bone calcium, bone phosphorus and bone magnesium contents were significantly (p<0.05 higher in intact males, while capons had higher (p<0.05 plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. The plasma testosterone concentration, relative tibia weight, tibia length, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, and phosphorus contents of intact males chickens increased significantly (p<0.05 with the advance of age. In addition, the relative tibia weight of capons peaked at 18 wks of age, and declined at 35 wks of age. The bone ash, calcium and phosphorus content increased most after 14 wks of age in male native chickens in Taiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium

  18. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P cooking process (P cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. A Major Locus for Quantitatively Measured Shank Skin Color Traits in Korean Native Chicken

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    S. Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shank skin color of Korean native chicken (KNC shows large color variations. It varies from white, yellow, green, bluish or grey to black, whilst in the majority of European breeds the shanks are typically yellow-colored. Three shank skin color-related traits (i.e., lightness [L*], redness [a*], and yellowness [b*] were measured by a spectrophotometer in 585 progeny from 68 nuclear families in the KNC resource population. We performed genome scan linkage analysis to identify loci that affect quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC. All these birds were genotyped with 167 DNA markers located throughout the 26 autosomes. The SOLAR program was used to conduct multipoint variance-component quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses. We detected a major QTL that affects b* value (logarithm of odds [LOD] = 47.5, p = 1.60×10−49 on GGA24 (GGA for Gallus gallus. At the same location, we also detected a QTL that influences a* value (LOD = 14.2, p = 6.14×10−16. Additionally, beta-carotene dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2, the obvious positional candidate gene under the linkage peaks on GGA24, was investigated by the two association tests: i.e., measured genotype association (MGA and quantitative transmission disequilibrium test (QTDT. Significant associations were detected between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and a* (PMGA = 1.69×10−28; PQTDT = 2.40×10−25. The strongest associations were between BCDO2 g.9367 A>C and b* (PMGA = 3.56×10−66; PQTDT = 1.68×10−65. However, linkage analyses conditional on the single nucleotide polymorphism indicated that other functional variants should exist. Taken together, we demonstrate for the first time the linkage and association between the BCDO2 locus on GGA24 and quantitatively measured shank skin color traits in KNC.

  20. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Eimeria arloingi in Iranian native kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakaram-Tafti, A; Hashemnia, M; Razavi, S M; Sharifiyazdi, H; Nazifi, S

    2013-09-01

    Among the 16 species of Eimeria from goats, Eimeria arloingi and Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae are regarded as the most pathogenic species in the world and cause clinical caprine coccidiosis. E. arloingi is known to be an important cause of coccidiosis in Iranian kids. Molecular analyses of two portions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1) and 18S rDNA) were used for the genetic characterization of the E. arloingi. Comparison of the sequencing data of E. arloingi obtained in the present study (ITS1: KC507793 and 18S rDNA: KC507792) with other Eimeria species in the GenBank database revealed a particularly close relationship between E. arloingi and Eimeria spp. from the cattle and sheep. The phylogram based on the ITS1 sequences shows that the E. arloingi, Eimeria bovis, and Eimeria zuernii formed a distinct group separate from the other remaining Eimeria spp. in cattle and poultry. In pairwise alignment, 18S rDNA sequence derived from E. arloingi showed 99% similarity to Eimeria ahsata with differences observed at only three nucleotides. This study showed that the ITS1 and 18S rDNA gene are useful genetic markers for the specific identification and differentiation of Eimeria spp. in ruminants.

  1. Comparative evaluation of carcass traits and meat quality in native Aseel chickens and commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, U; Muthukumar, M; Haunshi, S; Niranjan, M; Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Chatterjee, R N

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to analyse the meat quality attributes, composition and carcass traits in Aseel chickens and commercial broilers at market age on the basis of physiological age. A total of 20 Aseel (26 and 56 weeks) and 20 broiler (6 weeks) chickens were divided into two groups on a live weight basis, i.e. large (≥2.5 kg) and small (dressing percentage was significantly higher in larger chickens. Commercial broilers recorded significantly higher meat proportion and lower proportion of bone. The meat:bone ratio was 1.07:1.0 in Aseel and 1.31-1.0 in broiler chicken. Breast muscle content was significantly lower in smaller Aseel chickens. Aseel chicken had stronger and heavier backs and shanks. Abdominal fat percentage was significantly lower in Aseel (0.73-0.78%). The study concluded that the firm texture of Aseel meat was due to the high collagen content and interlocking connective tissue between the muscle fibres. The texture and acceptability of Aseel meat was higher. Aseel cocks had strong legs, lean meat and less abdominal fat, making them a high-value meat bird in addition to their aggressive fighting ability.

  2. The Effect of Natuzyme in the Diets Containing Non-Starch Polysaccharides on Meat Quality of Native Chicken

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    S Suhermiyati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the use of Natuzyme in feed containing non-starch polysaccharides on the quality of chicken meat. Materials used were 71 native hens of 18 week-old. The experiment was conducted using Completely Randomized Design (CRD, 3 x 3 factorial pattern. Each treatment was repeated three times and was tested further with Duncan t test. The first treatment was the use of non-starch polysaccharides (R with the levels of 0, 5 and 10%. The second treatment was the use of Natuzyme (S with the levels of 0, 0.1 and 0.2%. The variables measured were: energy consumption, fat consumption, carcass weight, meat glycogen, meat fat, and cholesterol of meat. The results showed that the treatments did not significantly affect energy consumption, fat consumption, carcass weight and fat content of meat. The use of non-starch polysaccharides did not significantly affect the levels of meat glycogen, while the use of Natuzyme significantly affected the levels of meat cholesterol. The conclusion is that the Natuzyme only works on feedstuffs, not in the chicken digestive tract. The sources of non-starch polysaccharide in feedstuffs can be used as an energy source for chickens until a level of 10%. Key Words: Natuzyme, non-starch polysaccharides, meat quality

  3. Effect of Age and Caponization on Blood Parameters and Bone Development of Male Native Chickens in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Yung; Hsu, Jenn-Chung; Wan, Tien-Chun

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to determine the effect of age and caponization on the development blood and bone characteristics development in male country chickens in Taiwan. A total of two hundred 8-wk-old LRI native chicken cockerels, Taishi meat No.13 from LRI-COA, were used as experimental animals. Cockerels were surgically caponized at 8 wks of age. Twelve birds in each group were bled and dressed from 8 wks to 35 wks of age at 1 to 5 wk intervals. The results indicated that the plasma testosterone concentration was significantly (pTaiwan. Also, tibia length and cortical thickness peaked at 22 wks of age. However, the peak of bone strength was found at 26 wks of age. These findings support the assertion that androgens can directly influence bone composition fluxes in male chickens. Caponization caused a significant increase in bone loss at 4 wks post treatment, which reflected bone cell damage, and demonstrated reductions in the relative tibia weight, breaking strength, cortical thickness, bone ash, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium contents, and increases in plasma ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase concentration. PMID:25049655

  4. Comparison of the amounts of taste-related compounds in raw and cooked meats from broilers and Korean native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Jun Heon; Park, Hee Bok; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the taste-related compound content in the breast and leg meat from 100-d-old Korean native chickens (KNC-100) and 32-d-old commercial broilers (CB-32) and determining the changes in these compounds during cooking. Cocks from certified meat-type commercial broiler (Ross) and Korean native chicken (Woorimatdag) strains were raised under similar standard commercial conditions, and a total of 10 birds from each breed were slaughtered at 32 and 100 d of age, which represents their market ages, respectively. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared separately from the breast and leg and analyzed. The KNC-100 showed significantly higher concentrations of inosine 5'-monophosphate, reducing sugars, glutamic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid than CB-32 did. Additionally, significantly higher inosine 5'-monophosphate, cysteine, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were observed in the breast meat, whereas the leg meat had higher concentration of glutamic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid (P cooking process, except oleic and linoleic acids. We suggest that the higher levels of taste-related compounds present in KNC-100 meat compared with CB-32 meat may result in the unique taste of the former meat, as has been previously reported. In addition, the results of this study may provide useful information for selection and breeding programs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Tatong, D; Chumkaeo, A; Binot, A; Fournié, G; Pilot, E; Phimpraphi, W; Kasemsuwan, S; Paul, M C; Duboz, R; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Evaluating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cultural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group interviews were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and describe the structure of their value chain. Qualitative individual interviews with a large diversity of actors enabled to identify perceived costs and benefits associated with the reporting of HPAI suspicions to sanitary authorities. Besides, flows of information on HPAI suspected cases were assessed using network analysis, based on data collected through individual questionnaires. Results show that the presence of cockfighting activities in the area negatively affected the willingness of all chicken farmers and other actors to report suspected HPAI cases. The high financial and affective value of fighting cocks contradicted the HPAI control policy based on mass culling. However, the importance of product quality in the native chicken meat value chain and the free veterinary services and products delivered by veterinary officers had a positive impact on suspected case reporting. Besides, cockfighting practitioners had a significantly higher centrality than other actors in the information network and they facilitated the spatial diffusion of information. Social ties built in cockfighting activities and the shared purpose of protecting valuable cocks were at the basis of the diffusion of information and the informal collective management of diseases. Building bridges with this informal network would greatly improve the effectiveness of passive surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Iranian Native Plants on Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniosis: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddas, Elham; Khamesipour, Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Fata, Abdolmajid

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosin, and allopurinol. In this study, we explained about the native plant that grows in different regions of Iran and used as anti-leishmanial in Iran and even many other countries. This narrative review covers all information about local herbal medicine in Iran that used in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in all the worlds, published in local and international journals from 1996 to 2015 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Science Direct. Overall, 150 articles in databases were identified. Many local plants grown in some places of Iran were used to treat this endemic disease. The cutaneous leishmaniasis is also a major health problem in Iran, especially in Mashhad (Northeast of Iran). Therefore, many patients seek for herbal therapy that is cheaper and readily available. This review provides information regarding plant that exists in Iran and exhibiting effects on anti- Leishmania activity. Among the anti-leishmanial mentioned in this review, most have never been tested for cytotoxicity and very few have been tested for in vivo activity.

  7. Iranian Native Plants on Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniosis: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham MOGHADDAS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosin, and allopurinol. In this study, we explained about the native plant that grows in different regions of Iran and used as anti-leishmanial in Iran and even many other countries. Methods: This narrative review covers all information about local herbal medicine in Iran that used in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in all the worlds, published in local and international journals from 1996 to 2015 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Science Direct. Results: Overall, 150 articles in databases were identified. Many local plants grown in some places of Iran were used to treat this endemic disease.Conclusion: The cutaneous leishmaniasis is also a major health problem in Iran, especially in Mashhad (Northeast of Iran. Therefore, many patients seek for herbal therapy that is cheaper and readily available. This review provides information regarding plant that exists in Iran and exhibiting effects on anti- Leishmania activity. Among the anti-leishmanial mentioned in this review, most have never been tested for cytotoxicity and very few have been tested for in vivo activity.

  8. COMBINATION OF USING COW FECES POWDER AND PROBIOTIC IN FEED FOR LAYER NATIVE CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprio Guntoro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of free-range chicken farm is constrained by expensive food prices. On the other hand,feses of cattle had potential use as a source of feed. This study was conducted to determine the response ofcow feses and probiotics administration in the diet of laying range chicken. The study was conducted over 6months using 240 free-range chickens aged 8 months. Research was arranged in a completely randomized designwith 8 treatments and 5 replications. The treatment given were ration in accordance with the farmers formulacomprising: concentrate: 25%, corn 40% and rice bran 35% (P0 and ration as P0, with the substitution of ricebran with fermented cow feses each treatment with level 10 % (P1, 15% (P2 and 20% (P3 and ration as atP0, P1, P2 and P3 that received additional probiotic (Bio L 1 cc / L of drinking water (P4, P5, P6 and P7. Theparameters were observed are: egg production (hen day, egg weight, feed intake, FCR (Feed Conversion Ratiomortality and physical composition of eggs. The results showed that the diet which containing fermented cowfeses 20% did not decreased egg production and feed efficiency. The combination of fermented cow feses at thelevel of 20% with a probiotic (Bio L 1 cc / L of drinking water showed that egg production  increased althoughit is not significant and reduce the number of FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio. In conclusion the use of fermentedcow feses up to the level of 20% in the diet both with and without the administration of probiotics, has no effecton physical composition of eggs.

  9. COMBINATION OF USING COW FECES POWDER AND PROBIOTIC IN FEED FOR LAYER NATIVE CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprio Guntoro

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of free-range chicken farm is constrained by expensive food prices. On the other hand,feses of cattle had potential use as a source of feed. This study was conducted to determine the response ofcow feses and probiotics administration in the diet of laying range chicken. The study was conducted over 6months using 240 free-range chickens aged 8 months. Research was arranged in a completely randomized designwith 8 treatments and 5 replications. The treatment given were ration in accordance with the farmers formulacomprising: concentrate: 25%, corn 40% and rice bran 35% (P0 and ration as P0, with the substitution of ricebran with fermented cow feses each treatment with level 10 % (P1, 15% (P2 and 20% (P3 and ration as atP0, P1, P2 and P3 that received additional probiotic (Bio L 1 cc / L of drinking water (P4, P5, P6 and P7. Theparameters were observed are: egg production (hen day, egg weight, feed intake, FCR (Feed Conversion Ratiomortality and physical composition of eggs. The results showed that the diet which containing fermented cowfeses 20% did not decreased egg production and feed efficiency. The combination of fermented cow feses at thelevel of 20% with a probiotic (Bio L 1 cc / L of drinking water showed that egg production  increased althoughit is not significant and reduce the number of FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio. In conclusion the use of fermentedcow feses up to the level of 20% in the diet both with and without the administration of probiotics, has no effecton physical composition of eggs.

  10. Polymorphism of Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I gene and their effect on growth traits in Indonesia native chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Mu'in

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed is to detect Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I gene polymorphism and their effect on growth traits in Indonesia natives chicken. Seventy two Indonesian native chicken are going to be used in this research. The polymorphism of IGF-I gene was detected by PCR-RFLP/Pst-I. Four growth traits (body weight at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months were recorded for analyzing the association between IGF-I gene polymorphism and growth performance.The results showed that allele A (621 bp and allele B (364 and 257 bp were found in this research. It was found that Indonesian native chicken carried high frequencies of allele A (0.82, and frequencies of IGF-I genotypes (AA, AB, BB were 68.0, 27.8, and 4,2%, respectively. When compared to the IGF-I genotypes, the BB genotype had the highest body weight at 1, 2, 3, and 4 month (P<0.05. The results showed that the B allele was positive of associated to a higher growth rate. Therefore, these results suggest that there is a possibility of IGF-I genotypes acting as a molecular marker for growth rate of Indonesia native.

  11. Estimation of heritability and genetic correlation of body weight gain and growth curve parameters in Korean native chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Manjula

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study estimated the genetic parameters for body weight gain and growth curve parameter traits in Korean native chicken (KNC. Methods A total of 585 F1 chickens were used along with 88 of their F0 birds. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatching to 20 weeks of age to measure weight gain at 2-week intervals. For each individual, a logistic growth curve model was fitted to the longitudinal growth dataset to obtain three growth curve parameters (α, asymptotic final body weight; β, inflection point; and γ, constant scale that was proportional to the overall growth rate. Genetic parameters were estimated based on the linear-mixed model using a restricted maximum likelihood method. Results Heritability estimates of body weight gain traits were low to high (0.057 to 0.458. Heritability estimates for α, β, and γ were 0.211±0.08, 0.249±0.09, and 0.095±0.06, respectively. Both genetic and phenotypic correlations between weight gain traits ranged from −0.527 to 0.993. Genetic and phenotypic correlation between the growth curve parameters and weight gain traits ranged from −0.968 to 0.987. Conclusion Based on the results of this study population, we suggest that the KNC could be used for selective breeding between 6 and 8 weeks of age to enhance the overall genetic improvement of growth traits. After validation of these results in independent studies, these findings will be useful for further optimization of breeding programs for KNC.

  12. Performance and lipid profiles of native chickens fed diet containing skipjack fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, J. R.; Mandey, J. S.; Laihad, J. T.; Tinangon, R. M.; Tangkau, L.; Junus, C.

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the use of fish oil as by-product of fish canning factory in diet on the performance and lipid profiles of native chickens. The experiment used 100 native chicken with an average initial body weight of 48,9 gram (sd + 9.9), was used in this study for 8 weeks experiment. These were arranged by a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 5 replications and 4 hens in replication each. The diets were: R0 = 100% Based Diet (BD) + 0% Fish Oil (FO); R1 = 98.5% BD + 1.5% FO; R2 = 98% BD + 2% FO; R3 = 97.5% BD + 2.5% FO; R4 = 97 % BD + 3% FO. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Variables were performance parameters and lipid profiles. Results showed that fish oil inclusion in diets were significantly increased feed intake, body weight gain, carcass percentage, liver, breast and thigh weight, and decreased blood cholesterol, carbohydrate and meat cholesterol, and also tended to decrease abdominal fat. However, there were no affected on feed conversion, water, protein, fat and ash of breast meat. It can be concluded that the use of fish oil in diet up to 3% could improved performance parameters of native chickens.

  13. Comparison of control methods for coccidiosis in native Spanish Castellana Negra chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, J. A.; Asenjo, B.; Ciria, J.; Cacho, E. del; Calvo, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease responsible for serious economic losses in the poultry industry. This paper compares the effect of coccidiosis infection in a population of experimentally infected Castellana Negra chickens previously administered the ionophores antibiotic monensin (Treatment 1), Alquernat Zyox, a herb-based product (Treatment 2), or a live vaccine based on oocysts selected for precocity (Treatment 3). Fifty birds per treatment were housed in captivity and weighed individually once every two weeks. At nine weeks they were infected with pathogenic oocysts of Eimeria tenella, E. acervulina and E. maxima. No significant differences (P<0.05) were seen in body weight between the birds in the three treatment groups after week 10. The average daily weight gain of the Alquernat Zycox-treated and vaccinated birds was similar over the entire experimental period, and more regular than that of the monensin-treated birds. The number of oocysts eliminated in the faeces and the degree of intestinal injury caused were analysed at 10, 11 and 12 weeks. The vaccine-treated birds shed a smaller number of oocysts in their faeces at 11 and 12 weeks than did those treated with monensin or Alquernat Zycox (P<0.001). At 11 and 12 weeks the vaccine- and Alquernat Zycox-treated birds showed significantly (P<0.05) less intestinal injury than the monensin-treated birds. (Author) 22 refs.

  14. Native and Non-native Teachers’ Pragmatic Criteria for Rating Request Speech Act: The Case of American and Iranian EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Over the last few decades, several aspects of pragmatic knowledge and its effects on teaching  and  learning  a  second  language  (L2  have  been  explored  in  many  studies.  However, among  various  studies,  the  area  of  interlanguage  pragmatic  (ILP  assessment  is  quite  novel issue and many features of it have remained unnoticed. As ILP assessment has received more attention recently, the necessity of investigation on the EFL teachers‟ rating criteria for rating various  speech  acts  has  become  important.  In  this  respect,  the  present  study  aimed  to investigate  the  native  and  non-native EFL teachers‟ rating scores and criteria  regarding  the speech  act  of  request.  To  this  end,  50  American  ESL  teachers  and  50  Iranian  EFL  teachers participated to rate the EFL learners‟ responses to video-prompted Discourse Completion Tests (DCTs  regarding  the  speech  act  of  request.  Raters  were  supposed to rate the EFL learners‟ responses and mention their criteria for assessment. The results of the content analysis of raters‟ comments revealed nine criteria that they considered in their assessment. Moreover, the result of  the  t-test  and  chi-square analyses of raters‟ rating scores and criteria proved that there are significant differences between native and non-native EFL teachers‟ rating pattern. The results of this study also shed light on importance of sociopragmatic and pragmalinguistic features in native  and  non-native teachers‟ pragmatic rating, which can have several implications for L2 teachers, learners, and material developers. معیارهای معلمان زبان بومی و غیربومی در نمره دهی کنش کلامی درخواست : مورد معلمان انگلیسی زبان آمریکایی و ایرانی چکیده: طی چند دهه اخیر،  جنبه های 

  15. Astudy on accuracy of predicted breeding value for body weight at eighth week of age in Khorasan native chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faeze ghorbani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Genetic resources in any country are valuable materials which needed to be conserved for a sustainable agriculture. An animal phenotype is generally affected by genetic and environmental factors. To increase mean performance in a population under consideration not only environmental conditions, but also genetic potential of the animals should be improved. Although, environmental improvement could increase the level of animals’ production in a more rapid way, it is not a permanent and non-cumulative progress. In any breeding schemes prediction breeding value of the candidate animals is needed to be obtained with a high precision and accuracy for making a remarkable genetic gain for the traits over the time. The main objective of the present research was to study accuracy of predicted breeding value for body weight at eighth week of age in indigenous chickens of Khorasan Razavi province. Materials and methods: A set of 47,000 body weight (at the age of eight weeks records belonging to 47,000 head of male and female chicks (progeny of 753 sires and 5,154 dams collected during seven generations (2006-2012 was used. The data were obtained in Khorasan Razavi native chicken breeding center. An animal model was applied for analyzing the records. In the model, contemporary group of generation*hatch*sex (GHS as a fixed effect, weight at birth as a covariable, as well as direct and maternal additive genetic random effects were taken into account. In an initial analysis using SAS software, all fixed and covariate factors included in the model were detected to be significant for the trait. All additive genetic relationships among the animals in the pedigree file (47,880 animals were accounted for. Variance and covariance components of direct and maternal additive genetic effects were estimated through restricted maximum likelihood (REML method. Breeding value of the animals was obtained by best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP. Selection

  16. Growth responses of native chicken Sentul G-3 on diet containing high rice-bran supplemented with phytase enzyme and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of phytase enzymes and ZnO supplementation on the performance of native chicken Sentul-G3 fed high rice-bran diet. Two hundred and seventy day old chicks (DOC native chicken Sentul-G3 from three different hatcheries were used in this study. Factorial randomized block design (3 x 3 was applied in this study. The first factor was the enzyme phytase supplementation levels (0; 1000; 2000 U/kg, the second factor was the level of supplementation of ZnO (0; 1.5; 3.2 g/kg, so that there are nine treatment given, namely R1 = 50% commercial diet : 50% rice bran; R2 = R1 + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R3 = R1 + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R4 = R1 + phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg; R5 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R6 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 1000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg; R7 = R1 + phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg; R8 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 1.5 g ZnO/kg; R9 = R1 + (phytase enzyme 2000 U/kg + 3.2 g ZnO/kg. Each experimental unit consisted of 6 head unsexed native chicken Sentul-G3. The experimental diet was fed for 10 weeks. The variables measured were body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality, mineral deposition of Ca, P, Zn in the tibia bone, alkaline phosfatase enzyme activity in serum. Results showed that there was significant interaction (P 0.05 between phytase enzyme and ZnO supplementation on feed intake, mortality, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in serum, and deposition of calcium and phosphorus in the tibia bone. It was concluded that supplementation of phytase enzyme and ZnO were not able to increase the growth of native chicken Sentul-G3 on fed diet containing high rice bran.

  17. Gp85 genetic diversity of avian leukosis virus subgroup J among different individual chickens from a native flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Meng, Fanfeng; Cui, Zhizhong; Fan, Jianhua; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    To compare the genetic diversity and quasispecies evolution of avian leukosis virus (ALV) among different individuals, 5 chickens, raised in Shandong Provice of China, were randomly selected from a local chicken flock associated with serious tumor cases. Blood samples were collected and inoculated into chicken embryo fibroblast and DF-1 cell lines for virus isolation and identification, respectively, of Marek's disease virus (MDV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and ALV. Five strains of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) were identified, and the gp85 gene from each strain was amplified and cloned. For each strain, about 20 positive clones of gp85 gene were selected for sequence analyses and the variability of the quasispecies of the 5 strains was compared. The results showed that the nuclear acid length of gp85 gene of 5 ALV-J isolates is 921 bp, 921 bp, 924 bp, 918 bp, and 912 bp respectively, and amino acid homologies of different gp85 clones from the 5 ALV-J strains were 99.3 to 100%, 99.3 to 100%, 99.4 to 100%, 98.4 to 100%, 99.0 to 100%, respectively. The proportions of dominant quasispecies were 65.0%, 85.0%, 85.0%, 50.0%, 84.2%, respectively, and homology of the gp85 among these dominant quasispecies was 89.2 to 92.5%. These data demonstrated the composition of the ALV-J quasispecies varied among infected individuals even within the same flock, and the dominant quasispecies continued to evolve both for their proportion and gene mutation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Oral administration of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) diminished deterioration of articular cartilage in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagi, C M; Berryman, E R; Teo, S; Lane, N E

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of undenatured native chicken type II collagen (UC-II) to prevent excessive articular cartilage deterioration in a rat model of osteoarthritis (OA). Twenty male rats were subjected to partial medial meniscectomy tear (PMMT) surgery to induce OA. Immediately after the surgery 10 rats received vehicle and another 10 rats oral daily dose of UC-II at 0.66 mg/kg for a period of 8 weeks. In addition 10 naïve rats were used as an intact control and another 10 rats received sham surgery. Study endpoints included a weight-bearing capacity of front and hind legs, serum biomarkers of bone and cartilage metabolism, analyses of subchondral and cancellous bone at the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis, and cartilage pathology at the medial tibial plateau using histological methods. PMMT surgery produced moderate OA at the medial tibial plateau. Specifically, the deterioration of articular cartilage negatively impacted the weight bearing capacity of the operated limb. Immediate treatment with the UC-II preserved the weight-bearing capacity of the injured leg, preserved integrity of the cancellous bone at tibial metaphysis and limited the excessive osteophyte formation and deterioration of articular cartilage. Study results demonstrate that a clinically relevant daily dose of UC-II when applied immediately after injury can improve the mechanical function of the injured knee and prevent excessive deterioration of articular cartilage. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Dietary Protein Levels in Growing Period on Performance at Onset of Lay of Crossbred Hens between Cockerel Native Chickens and Commercial Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harimurti Februari Trisiwi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the effects of various dietary protein levels during growing period crossbreed hens between cockerel native chickens and laying hens on performance at onset of lay. The effects of the dietary protein levels on weight and other components of eggs were also examined. Eighteen hens aged thirteen weeks were randomly divided into three different treatment groups. Each group consists of six replications. The replication contains a hen. All the treatment hens were grown in a battery-cage until reaching sexual maturity then were fed with three different dietary protein levels which are 13,54%, 12,00%, and 9,80% formulated with 2600 kcal/kg ME. The collected data were analyzed by a one-way classification of variance analysis (CRD followed by testing the significant means using The Duncan,s MultipleRange Test (DMRT. The experiment result suggested that the treatment during hen’s growing period did not cause significance on performance at onset lay, egg weight, and egg components weight.

  20. In silico analysis of Ta9 gene polymorphism in an Iranian Theileria annulata schizont-infected cell line S15 vaccine strain and native isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi, G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine theileriosis is a tick-borne disease caused by obligate intracellular parasites related to the genus Theileria. Cellular immune responses protect cattle against pathogens through the activation of immune cells. Nowadays, live, attenuated vaccine of Theileria annulata (T. annulata is being produced in Iran and is recommended for active cattle immunization. Detection of the immunogenic antigens and epitopes recognized by CD8+ T Lymphocytes is vital for the development of recombinant and subunit vaccines. Herein, sequences of the genes encoding Ta9, which is an important antigen recognized by bovine CD8+ T cells specific for T. annulata, in Iranian S15 vaccine strains, several Iranian isolates, as well as reference Ta9 DNA sequences registered in GeneBank were compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The obtained data from DNA sequences were analyzed by using "Nucleotide", "Blast n", "BioEdit" and "IEDB" softwares. The results showed high level of variation in nucleotides and amino acids level. The observed polymorphism in Ta9 gene sequences of Iranian vaccine strains and some isolates from Iran demonstrated that this antigen contains polymorphic sequences and is active along with the specific major histocompatibility complex (MHC of the host. Polymorphic sequences and specific epitopes of Ta9 gene for CD8+ T cell provides an explanation for incomplete protection observed after inoculation of heterologous parasites in vaccinated cattle. These results have important implications for the application of Ta9 antigen for developing novel subunit vaccines.

  1. Effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod on egg production and egg quality of a native chicken under free-range condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, A L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, J; Wang, H H; Chu, Q; Liu, H G

    2018-04-14

    The paper aimed to study the effects of lighting pattern and photoperiod alone and in combination on egg production, egg quality in Beijing You Chicken (BYC). A total of 630 19-wk-old BYC laying hens were randomly allocated to 6 groups with 105 birds each, 3 replicates per group, reared in individually lit floor pens with separate outdoor areas. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment (2 lighting patterns: continuous and intermittent lighting; 3 photoperiods: 16, 14, 12 h) was arranged, including 16L:8D (6:00 to 22:00) for group 1; 12L:2D:4L:6D (6:00 to 18:00, 20:00 to 24:00) for group 2; 14L:10D (6:00 to 20:00) for group 3; 10L:2D:4L:8D (6:00 to 16:00, 18:00 to 22:00) for group 4; 12L:12D (6:00 to 18:00) for group 5, and 8L:4D:4L:8D (6:00 to 14:00, 18:00 to 22:00) for group 6, respectively. Egg production parameters were calculated for 22 to 43, 44 to 57, and 22 to 57 wk, and egg quality parameters were measured at the end of 37 and 57 wk. The results showed that the egg production of BYC was not significantly affected by lighting pattern, photoperiod alone, or in combination during 22 to 43 and 22 to 57 wk (P > 0.05), but average feed intake in 12 h groups was significantly higher than those in 14 and 16 h groups during 22 to 43 and 22 to 57 wk (P Egg mass and feed egg ratio were significantly affected by lighting pattern, photoperiod alone, and in combination during 44 to 57 wk (P Egg mass was significantly higher (P = 0.05) and feed egg ratio was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in continuous groups than in intermittent groups. There were significant effects for eggshell thickness, albumen height, haugh unit, and egg grade by lighting pattern alone (P egg production was not significantly affected by lighting pattern alone during 22 to 57 wk (P > 0.05), but the photoperiod significantly affected average feed intake (P egg production during 44 to 57 wk, and intermittent lighting is better for egg quality of the native bird at 37 wk; 3) 12 h lighting is enough for meeting

  2. Chicken Picadillo

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenpicadillo.html Chicken Picadillo To use the sharing features on this ... together on a busy weeknight Ingredients 1 pound chicken breast, boneless, skinless, cut into thin strips 2 ...

  3. Chicken Stew

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/chickenstew.html Chicken Stew To use the sharing features on this ... leftovers for lunch the next day! Ingredients 8 chicken pieces (breasts or legs) 1 cup water 2 ...

  4. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  5. Chicken Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…

  6. In Vivo Transfer and Microevolution of Avian Native IncA/C2blaNDM-1-Carrying Plasmid pRH-1238 during a Broiler Chicken Infection Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Sead; Fischer, Jennie; Malorny, Burkhard; Borowiak, Maria; Guerra, Beatriz; Kaesbohrer, Annemarie; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno; Szabo, Istvan

    2018-04-01

    The emergence and spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in wildlife and livestock animals pose an important safety concern for public health. With our in vivo broiler chicken infection study, we investigated the transfer and experimental microevolution of the bla NDM-1 -carrying IncA/C 2 plasmid (pRH-1238) introduced by avian native Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Corvallis without inducing antibiotic selection pressure. We evaluated the dependency of the time point of inoculation on donor ( S Corvallis [12-SA01738]) and plasmid-free Salmonella recipient [d-tartrate-fermenting (d-Ta + ) S Paratyphi B (13-SA01617), referred to here as S Paratyphi B (d-Ta + )] excretion by quantifying their excretion dynamics. Using plasmid profiling by S1 nuclease-restricted pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we gained insight into the variability of the native plasmid content among S Corvallis reisolates as well as plasmid acquisition in S Paratyphi B (d-Ta + ) and the enterobacterial gut microflora. Whole-genome sequencing enabled us to gain an in-depth insight into the microevolution of plasmid pRH-1238 in S Corvallis and enterobacterial recipient isolates. Our study revealed that the fecal excretion of avian native carbapenemase-producing S Corvallis is significantly higher than that of S Paratyphi (d-Ta + ) and is not hampered by S Paratyphi (d-Ta + ). Acquisition of pRH-1238 in other Enterobacteriaceae and several events of plasmid pRH-1238 transfer to different Escherichia coli sequence types and Klebsiella pneumoniae demonstrated an interspecies broad host range. Regardless of the microevolutionary structural deletions in pRH-1238, the single carbapenem resistance marker bla NDM-1 was maintained on pRH-1238 throughout the trial. Furthermore, we showed the importance of the gut E. coli population as a vector of pRH-1238. In a potential scenario of the introduction of NDM-1-producing S Corvallis into a broiler flock, the pRH-1238 plasmid could

  7. Prairie Chicken

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — An outline of the general range occupied by greayter and lesser prairie chickens. The range was delineated by expert opinion, then varified by local wildlife...

  8. Effects of hypoxia on serum hepatic chemistries of Tibet chicken and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoxia is a major factor that affects the subsistence and development of multicellular organisms. Tibet chicken, as a unique native chicken breed in altiplano, shows genetic adaptation to hypoxia comparing with the breeds at the low altitude. In the present study, to explore effects of hypoxia on chicken fetal livers, eggs of ...

  9. The Effect of Direct and Indirect Corrective Feedback on Iranian EFL Learners' Spelling Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Maryam; Maghsoudi, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of indirect corrective feedback on promoting Iranian high school students' spelling accuracy in English (as a foreign language). It compared the effect of direct feedback with indirect feedback on students' written work dictated by their teacher from Chicken Soup for the Mother and…

  10. Chicken and Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Chicken and Food Poisoning Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Americans eat more chicken every year than any other meat. Chicken can ...

  11. Growing Isolation Frustrates Iranian Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    Before the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iranian graduate students and academics frequently studied or worked in the United States. That year, for example, the 51,300 Iranian students in the United States were the single largest group of foreign students in the country. Many, if not most, Iranian professors received their doctorates from American…

  12. Phosphorylation of chicken growth hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramburo, C.; Montiel, J.L.; Donoghue, D.; Scanes, C.G.; Berghman, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that chicken growth hormone (cGH) can be phosphorylated has been examined. Both native and biosynthetic cGH were phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (and γ- 32 P-ATP). The extent of phosphorylation was however less than that observed with ovine prolactin. Under the conditions employed, glycosylated cGH was not phosphorylated. Chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture were incubated in the presence of 32 P-phosphate. Radioactive phosphate was incorporated in vitro into the fraction immunoprecipitable with antisera against cGH. Incorporation was increased with cell number and time of incubation. The presence of GH releasing factor (GRF) increased the release of 32 P-phosphate labeled immunoprecipitable GH into the incubation media but not content of immunoprecipitable GH in the cells. The molecular weight of the phosphorylated immunoreactive cGH in the cells corresponded to cGH dimer

  13. Iranian Library Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, John F.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the state of Iranian libraries since the revolution: the printing industry flourishes because of obsolete copyright laws, and the government is attempting to dewesternize media and education. Also considered are budget cuts, the revolution's cost to libraries, and its effect on individual librarians. (SW)

  14. Iranian Information Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes the development of Iranian library and information science education from the 1930s to the present, including the period of continuing education and university department development prior to the Islamic Revolution and the post revolutionary period of reorganization. The discussion includes an assessment of accomplishments and problems…

  15. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium and analysis of genetic diversity in Korean chicken lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Doo Ho; Choi, Nuri; Sudrajad, Pita; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    The development of genetic markers for animal breeding is an effective strategy to reduce the time and cost required to improve economically important traits. To implement genomic selection in the multibreed chicken population of Korea, an understanding of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) status of the target population is essential. In this study, we performed population genetic analyses to investigate LD decay, the effective population size, and breed diversity using 600K high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes of 189 native chickens in 14 lines (including Korean native chicken, imported and adapted purebred and commercial chickens). The results indicated that commercial native chickens have less calculated LD (average, r2 = 0.13–0.26) and purebred native chickens have more calculated LD (average, r2 = 0.24–0.37) across the entire genome. The effective population sizes of the examined lines showed patterns opposite to those of population LD. The phylogeny and admixture analyses showed that commercial and purebred chickens were well distinguished, except for Rhode Island Red (RIR) purebred lines of NC (NIAS_RIR_C) and ND (NIAS_RIR_D). These lines are difficult to distinguish clearly because they originated from the same respective breeds. The results of this study may provide important information for the development of genetic markers that can be used in breeding to improve the economic traits of native chickens. PMID:29425208

  16. Estimation of linkage disequilibrium and analysis of genetic diversity in Korean chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongwon; Lee, Doo Ho; Choi, Nuri; Sudrajad, Pita; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Jun-Heon

    2018-01-01

    The development of genetic markers for animal breeding is an effective strategy to reduce the time and cost required to improve economically important traits. To implement genomic selection in the multibreed chicken population of Korea, an understanding of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) status of the target population is essential. In this study, we performed population genetic analyses to investigate LD decay, the effective population size, and breed diversity using 600K high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes of 189 native chickens in 14 lines (including Korean native chicken, imported and adapted purebred and commercial chickens). The results indicated that commercial native chickens have less calculated LD (average, r2 = 0.13-0.26) and purebred native chickens have more calculated LD (average, r2 = 0.24-0.37) across the entire genome. The effective population sizes of the examined lines showed patterns opposite to those of population LD. The phylogeny and admixture analyses showed that commercial and purebred chickens were well distinguished, except for Rhode Island Red (RIR) purebred lines of NC (NIAS_RIR_C) and ND (NIAS_RIR_D). These lines are difficult to distinguish clearly because they originated from the same respective breeds. The results of this study may provide important information for the development of genetic markers that can be used in breeding to improve the economic traits of native chickens.

  17. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hadipour,MM

    2010-01-01

    Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known ab...

  18. Iranian EFL Teachers’ Perceptions of Learning Accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Galbat

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the appearance of “Audio-lingual Method”, the issue of foreign accent has been the focus of many researchers and many teachers attempted to sound as native like as possible to better teach native English accent. The present study attempted to uncover the Iranian EFL teachers’ perceptions on accent, the way they viewed their own accent, and how English accent can be improved. Totally 50 male and female teachers with different age range, qualifications, teaching and learning experiences participated in the study. The data of the study were collected using Teachers’ Perceptions of Accent Questionnaire developed by the researcher and semi-structured interviews. Based on the analysis performed on the data collected through questionnaires and interviews, it was found that teachers care about learning accent and they considered it valuable and important. They admitted that they have foreign accent to some degree and they did not seem to be happy with foreign accent and were more in favour of native like accent. Regarding the strategies to improve English accent, they mentioned techniques like listening to authentic language, understanding pronunciation rules, and comparing people’s accent with their own accent, watching English movies, noticing stress, and pronunciation patterns, imitating, speaking with native people, using books, and recording and monitoring their own speeches.

  19. Identification of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, A.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Frozen chicken and chicken parts were irradiated at a dose of 5 kGy with Co-60. The irradiated chicken and chicken parts were identified by determination of three radiation-induced hydrocarbons from the lipid fraction. Isolation was carried out by high-vacuum distillation with a cold-finger apparatus. The detection of the hydrocarbons was possible in all irradiated samples by gaschromatography/mass spectrometry. (orig.) [de

  20. The Iranian nuclear crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, Georges

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes an overview of the Iranian nuclear issue. The author first recalls that Iran has launched a nuclear program during the 1970's with the objective of building several nuclear power stations for electricity production. He evokes contracts signed by the Shah and the consequences of the Islamic revolution after which Iranian governments thought it was absurd to leave these constructions unfinished. The author outlines the several mistakes made by Western countries in their relationship with Iran, and those made by Iran (development of hidden nuclear program for example), which altogether leaded to the present crisis. The author discusses some legal aspects, notably the fact that Iran signed very early the NPT (non proliferation Treaty) as other countries who posses nuclear weapons, did not. He outlines the political challenges at different scales, regional as well as international, and finally discusses the uncertain perspectives

  1. Polyphony in Iranian Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Massoudieh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although Iranian regional music, like Iranian traditional[*] music, is basically monophonic and follows the rules of heterophony, we occasionally run across polyphonic pieces, although most have been unwittingly formed as such. This study shows that these polyphonic pieces could be found in the following forms: 1. The meeting of two vocal parts, where the second singer starts singing before the melody is completed by the first. 2. Imitations, as a result of singing the same melody by a few singers who consecutively start singing with some delay between their parts. 3. Simultaneous playing of variants of the same melody by two players (variant heterophony. 4. Changing between the soloist and the chorus (in the responsorial form or between one chorus and another (in an antiphoner[**] where a chorus begins the next part of the lyrics before the soloist or the other chorus is finished with their own part. 5. Polyphony resulting from the playing of a melody by a few singers where each singer sings the melody based on their own voice register depending on their physiological features. 6. Accompanying the first singer using alternate changes to the drone note or following the up-going or down-going movement of the melody in playing the tamira (in Lorestan, the dotār (in Khorasan and tamderā (in Turkman leads to the conscious parallelism of two voices. The radif of traditional music and the Iranian regional music, like those of other Middle East countries, is monophonic and follows the forms of heterophony; that is, the same melody is played and changed by two or more players. The change of a specific melody by two players, or a player and a singer, sometimes leads to the simultaneous playing of two different notes. Such an interference or combination of two sounds is a matter of heterophony, and by no means of harmony or accord. Interference of notes or combinations of notes in heterophony are not predictable. Since the melody is played extempore

  2. The Iranian Revolution: The Multiple Contexts of the Iranian Revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amineh, M.P.; Eisenstadt, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    The Iranian Islamic Revolution, the only continual regime constituted by a modern fundamentalist movement, shares many of the characteristics of the Great revolutions. The causes of the Iranian Revolution are indeed very similar to those of the classical ones—namely the breakdown of a modernizing

  3. The Iranian nuclear diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    While assuming that civil nuclear means progress, and that military nuclear means danger, the author explains why Iran had decided to perform nuclear research and to implement electro-nuclear science, why Iran emphasises its willingness to develop uranium enrichment, what is the Iranian policy in terms of civil nuclear industry, why Iran does not want any shift of its nuclear programme towards military purposes

  4. Understanding Iranian Foreign Policy - The Case of Iranian Nuclear Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hadzikadunic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the Iranian foreign policy through the case of Iranian nuclear program. The paper aims to assess foreign policy orientations and compares actions of the last three Iranian presidents, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and current Hassan Rouhani in dealing with the international community (IC in pursuing its nuclear program. This assessment would not be complete without reference to the Iranian supreme leader Ali Khamenei who is actual head of the state and the most powerful political authority. This paper also relates Iranian foreign policy expectation to competing theories of international relations to identify the most dominant or the most consistent policy orientation. Its aim is to strengthen realist and power-based explanations that have dominated the discourse on Middle Eastern in general and Iranian foreign policy in particular. In this context, a number of questions will be addressed here. To what extend was Iranian negotiation with the IC over its nuclear program consistent throughout these three presidencies? What has changed, if anything, from Iranian foreign policy perspective and why? Can Iranian foreign policy behavior on this specific topic and in this specific time be explained through any international relations theory? As there are many other questions, so there are many theories to examine and explain true Iranian intentions, those below the surface of declared goals (Hadzikadunic, 2014. The methods employed in answering these questions are largely structured around a chronological account and comparative approach. It is also based on the analysis of foreign policy discourse and the assessment of key decision makers.

  5. Native excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, T.

    1992-01-01

    Syncrude Canada Ltd., operator of the oil sands mine and processing plant near Fort McMurray, Alberta, produces 11% of Canada's crude oil and is the country's largest private-sector employer of native Canadians. Syncrude has the goal of employing about 10% native Canadians, which is about the percentage of natives in the regional population. Examples are presented of successful native employment and entrepreneurship at Syncrude. Doreen Janvier, once employed at Syncrude's mine wash bays, was challenged to form her own company to contract out labor services. Her company, DJM Enterprises, now has a 2-year contract to operate three highly sophisticated wash bays used to clean mining equipment, and is looking to bid on other labor contracts. Mabel Laviolette serves as liaison between the oil containment and recovery team, who recover oil skimmed off Syncrude's tailings basin, and the area manager. The team approach and the seasonal nature of the employment fit in well with native cultural patterns. The excellence of native teamwork is also illustrated in the mine rescue team, one unit of which is entirely native Canadian. Part of Syncrude's aboriginal policy is to encourage development of aboriginal enterprises, such as native-owned Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., which has held welding and fabricating contracts with most major companies in the region and is a major supplier of skilled tradesmen to Syncrude. Syncrude also provides employment and training, encourages natives to continue their education, and promotes local community development. 4 figs

  6. Native listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Becoming a native listener is the necessary precursor to becoming a native speaker. Babies in the first year of life undertake a remarkable amount of work; by the time they begin to speak, they have perceptually mastered the phonological repertoire and phoneme co-occurrence probabilities of the

  7. Apology Strategies of Iranian ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Parsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study, which is of the most important and most frequent speech acts used in multicultural settings, is the speech act of apology. It probes native Persian-speaking ESL university students’ apology and non-apology strategies based on Cohen and Olshtain’s (1981 frame work to evince variations ascribed to gender, mother tongue, and culture. The results of this survey reveal that Iranian male and female respondents use different percentages of apology and non-apology strategies. Considering significance levels, in general, except for a few strategies, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups considering the number and type of strategies used.

  8. Trichotillomania in Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Tarighati

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports trichotillomania in eight Iranian children (7 girls and 1 boy .It is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Although some subjects are psychiatrically normal, but some suffer from depressive disorder, neurosis, or personality problems. Separation from key figure, denial of femininity/and inadequate mother-child relationship play important roles either in the etiology of trichotillomania or psychiatric disorders. Finally therapeutic interventi.ons according to the cultural factors were mentioned. Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Tehran Univer sity. Formerly, chief, Child Psychiatric Dept. Roozbeh Hospital Teheran University, Medical School.

  9. Genetic diversity of Guangxi chicken breeds assessed with microsatellites and the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuying; Mo, Guodong; Sun, Junli; Wei, Fengying; Liao, Dezhong Joshua

    2016-05-01

    The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is an excellent model for genetic studies of phenotypic diversity. The Guangxi Region of China possesses several native chicken breeds displaying a broad range of phenotypes well adapted to the extreme hot-and-wet environments in the region. We thus evaluated the genetic diversity and relationships among six native chicken populations of the Guangxi region and also evaluated two commercial breeds (Arbor Acres and Roman chickens). We analyzed the sequences of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 18 microsatellite loci of 280 blood samples from six Guangxi native chicken breeds and from Arbor Acres and Roman chickens, and used the neighbor-joining method to construct the phylogenetic tree of these eight breeds. Our results showed that the genetic diversity of Guangxi native breeds was relatively rich. The phylogenetic tree using the unweighed pair-group method with arithmetic means (UPGAM) on microsatellite marks revealed two main clusters. Arbor Acres chicken and Roman chicken were in one cluster, while the Guangxi breeds were in the other cluster. Moreover, the UPGAM tree of Guangxi native breeds based on microsatellite loci was more consistent with the genesis, breeding history, differentiation and location than the mtDNA D-loop region. STRUCTURE analysis further confirmed the genetic structure of Guangxi native breeds in the Neighbor-Net dendrogram. The nomenclature of mtDNA sequence polymorphisms suggests that the Guangxi native chickens are distributed across four clades, but most of them are clustered in two main clades (B and E), with the other haplotypes within the clades A and C. The Guangxi native breeds revealed abundant genetic diversity not only on microsatellite loci but also on mtDNA D-loop region, and contained multiple maternal lineages, including one from China and another from Europe or the Middle East.

  10. Sinai and Norfa chicken diversity revealed by microsatellite markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to outline the population differentiation of Sinai and Norfa chicken, native to Egypt, with microsatellite markers. Twenty microsatellite loci recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were used. Fifty eight birds were sampled (29 for each strain: 12 males + 17 females). Data were ...

  11. Genetic structure among the local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the genetic structure of local chicken ecotypes of Tanzania using 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers. A standard PCR was followed by manual genotyping (6% native polyacrylamide gel visualized by silver staining). Phylogenetic analysis of 13 individuals from each of the nine ...

  12. Efficacy of myrrh in controlling coccidioses in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmed; El Khateeb, Rabab M; Kutkat, Mohamed A

    2010-12-01

    Myrrh was used for controlling the infection with Eimeria species in chickens. A total of 120 one-day-old native breed chickens bought from commercial hatchery were used in the experiment. Birds were feed on starter balanced ration free from anticoccidial drugs. At age of 2 weeks the chickens were divided into 4 groups (1-4), 30 chicks each. Chickens of first group were inoculated by 50,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed local field isolated Eimneria species and served as infected non treated control group. Birds of the second group were infected similarly and received simultaneously 10 mg Myrrh / bird by oral route. Birds of group 3 was supplied with Myrrh 10 mg / bird one day before infection by coccidia (50000 oocyst/bird). Last chicken group was left as non infected non treated control group. Measurements to evaluate the efficacy of Myrrh as anticoccidial drug included; mortality percentage; lesion score at 5 day post infection and the total oocyst output/gm of fecal dropping. The results showed that the mortality rate reached 10% and 3.33% in groups 2&3 respectively, while it reached 26.66% in infected non treated control group. High lesion score was recorded in infected non treated group followed by infected treated chicken groups regardless the time of treatment. The feed conversion rates reached 3.14 in infected non treated chicken group against 2.47 & 2.21 in treated chickens groups, 2&3 respectively. Mean oocyst count per gram faecal dropping (OPG) was reduced significantly in group 3 when compared with other infected treated or infected non treated chicken groups.

  13. Kappa-casein gene polymorphism in Holstein and Iranian native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caseins amount to nearly 80% of the protein output in cow milk. Caseins are biologically important proteins and they are also a raw material for the cheese ... BB genotype could be a good factor for increase of fat and protein content of milk.

  14. The Chicken Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  15. Eggcited about Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)

  16. Dietary habits contributing to breast cancer risk among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarakeh, Zahra Sheikhi; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Hatmi, Nadia; Ebrahimi, Mandana; Dabiran, Sohaila; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate demographic features, dietary habits, and some possible risk factors for being susceptible to breast cancer in Iranian women. A study of dietary habits and breast cancer was conducted among 53 Iranian women with histological confirmed disease and 40 matched controls. A dietary habits questionnaire was used to evaluate the pattern of selected food intakes. The risk of cancer was analyzed after adjustment for confounding factors. Age, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, educational status, parity, lactation, marital status, menopause, history of estrogen therapy, and family history of breast disease or cancer were assessed among participants. Special attention was given to the relationship between consumption of high fat meat, milk, yogurt and cheese as well use of frying oils for frying foods, use of olive/liquid oils for cooking, removing fat from meat and poultry, removing chicken skin and not use of mayonnaise as salad dressing and the risk of breast cancer. Moreover, salad, vegetable and fruit consumption, and eating outdoors owere investigated. Our results revealed significant lower education and higher BMI and waist circumference levels in patients with breast cancer. There was significantly increased breast cancer risk in overweight women in comparison with normal weight (OR=2.91, 95%CI 1.24 to 6.82). High intake of fat dairy products including milk and cheese was found to be a statistically significant factor for increasing breast cancer risk in models adjusting for age, BMI and education. Use of olive/liquid oils for cooking and avoidance of mayonnaise as salad dressing are related to lower risk of breast cancer. The frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was significantly lower in patients with breast cancer compared to healthy women. Dietary habits might be risk factors for breast cancer among Iranian women. Adoption of a prudent diet could be an appropriate strategy for preventing breast

  17. Some hematological changes in chickens infected with ectoparasites in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Al-Saffar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify different ectoparasites infesting 280 chicken (native breed out door house reared layers, 6 months – 2 years old, from various regions of Mosul city (poultry market, Hadba' Flock, and six flocks at Kogialli village, for one year. Total percentage of ectoparasites in chickens were 19.3 % of which (54 positive case out of 280 chicken 81% were single infections and 19 % mixed infections. Lice infestation (12.5 % and four types of chewing lice were classified (Menacanthus stramineus, Cuclotogaster hetrographus, Goniocoteus gallinae, and Columbicola columbae. One species of flies (1.4% (Pseudolynchia canariensis. One species of mites (4.3% (Dermanyssus gallinae were seen. One species of soft ticks (6.8% (Argas persicus were seen. Parasitological findings of skin and feathers examination for all types of ectoparasites on chicken showed three degrees of infestation depending on the number of these ectoparasites on each bird (low degree 1–50/ bird, moderate degree 51–100/ bird, and heavy degree more than 100/ bird. Clinical signs of the infected chicken with ectoparasites especially severe infection were itching, annoyance, loss of sleep, general weakness, loss of appetite, restless, allergy, drop of egg production in layers and anemia. It clear from results of blood examinations the presence of anemia in infected birds blood sucking ectoparasites with significant decrease in PCV % , TRBC and Hb concentration in chicken especially in severe (heavily infestation with soft ticks and mites. Results also showed increase in total white blood cells (Leucocytosis with increase in heterophils, and eosinophils in infected chicken with ticks, mites and lice, with bad nutrition and unhygienic management as compared with non-infected chicken control group.

  18. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  19. An Analysis of Literary Representations of Iranian Men in Diasporic Iranian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Fotouhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Middle Eastern Muslim men have been historically subjected to stereotypical representations in the West. Although these men are categorically hypervisible for Western audiences as a similar type, among them Iranian men in particular, have been subject to a specific kind of marginalization. Following the 1979 Islamic revolution and the American hostage crisis in Iran, Iranian men and masculinity have become hypervisible as violent and religiously fanatic. While Western discourses of representation contributed greatly to the construction and representation of this specific kind of masculinity which marginalized and stigmatized Iranian men, Iranians themselves, have played a significant role in reaffirming this view. Ironically, contributing most to the reinforcement of this discourse has been Iranian women’s narratives in English in the West, in the form of memoirs and fictional accounts. These popular accounts have played a significant part in marginalizing and emphasizing a hypervisible and stereotypical representation of Iranian men. This paper considers the representation of Iranian men and masculinity as presented through Iranian women’s narratives in the West in English. By drawing on specific narratives and accounts, it examines how socio-political and historical contexts both in the West and in Iran, have led to Iranian women’s representation of Iranian men hypervisibly. Then, through an examination of some narratives by Iranian men, this paper examines how such representations have led to emphasizing the discourse of exclusion and otherness of Iranian men in the West, hampering the actual smooth integration of diasporic Iranian men into their adopted homes.

  20. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  1. Gender-oriented Commonalities among Canadian and Iranian Englishes: An Analysis of Yes/No Question Variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Heidari Darani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigatesvariability in English yes/no questions as well as the commonalities among yes/no question variants produced by members of two different varieties of English: Canadian English native speakers and Iranian EFL learners.Further, it probes the role of gender in theEnglish yes/no question variants produced by Canadian English native speakers and those produced by Iranian EFL learners. A modified version of the Edinburgh Map Task was used in data collection. 60 Canadians and Iranians performed the task and made English yes/no question variants considering the informal context. Based on the results, the same types of yes/no question variants were produced by both groups. However, with respect to quantity, Canadians made more variants while the context of use was similar. Another difference noticed was the most frequent variant: Iranians’ frequent variant coincided with the informal context, yet the Canadians’ frequent variant did not. Regarding gender, Iranians did not produce any gender-based variant; while Canadians showed that their production of yes/no question variants was gender-oriented. These findings revealed that both Canadians and Iranians from two different varieties of English syntactically behaved similarly, but their sociolinguistic behavior was not the same.

  2. Gamma radiation and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropilova, D.; Takac, L.; Toropila, M.; Tomko, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    In our work, we focused the effect of low doses of gamma radiation on metabolic parameters in chickens. In the first group of chickens we monitor changes of the concentration in glucose and cholesterol after whole body irradiation dose of chicken (3 Gy). In the second group of chickens we studied the combined effect of radiation and intraperitoneal application solution of zinc chloride to changes of the concentration in glucose and total cholesterol. In the tissues of organisms are found only in a very small amount of microelements however are of particular importance in a number of enzymatic catalytic and regulatory processes. Zinc is found in all cells of the body. However, it is the highest percentage of zinc contained in muscle and bone cells. Resorption takes place in the small intestine, especially in the duodenum. For both groups of chickens, we performed analyzes on the 3 rd , 7 th , 14 th , 21 st and 30 day. Results and an overview of the work can be helpful in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in preventing diseases from exposure to radiation, but also in the case of the consequences after nuclear accidents. (authors)

  3. Chicken from Farm to Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on fresh chicken. However, if chicken is processed, additives such as MSG, salt, or sodium erythorbate may be added but must be listed on the label. [ Top of Page ] Foodborne Organisms Associated with Chicken As on any perishable meat, fish, or poultry, bacteria can be found on raw ...

  4. Crossing the threshold of Iranian TEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zabihi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English in an Iranian and Islamic culture poses complex questions for both teachers and learners. In this paper, the authors intend to shed light on what it means to teach English as a foreign language (TEFL in an Islamic-Iranian context. Having reviewed the colonial and postmodern views of English language teaching, the authors took a look beyond the current state of TEFL in Iran, which is marked by its continuing global tendency, and into the future with an emphasis on the importance of including the local specificities of the Iranian culture and religion. The status of the TEFL in Iran and the direction it should take in the future are accompanied by offering some solutions to inherent problems. Iranian TEFL is introduced as the successful assertion of Iranian local culture against the cultural and ideological domination of the West, which can be an antidote to the harshness of all marginalizations Iranians have suffered for centuries.

  5. A quantitative trait locus for a primary antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin on chicken chromosome 14-Confirmation and candidate gene approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwek, M.; Slawinska, A.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Witkowski, A.; Zieba, G.; Minozzi, G.; Knol, E.F.; Bednarczyk, M.

    2010-01-01

    A QTL involved in the primary antibody response toward keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was detected on chicken chromosome 14 in the experimental population, which was created by crossing commercial White Leghorn and a Polish native chicken breed (green-legged partridgelike). The current QTL location

  6. Mahdi and the Iranian Nuclear Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crytzer, Kurt S

    2007-01-01

    .... The Iranians refuse to fold to international pressures concerning their nuclear program, covertly and overtly back radical Shiite Groups, and respond with ever increasing confidence to any international...

  7. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  8. The Iranian Nuclear in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Yann

    2008-01-01

    The civil nuclear constitutes an alibi for Iran which the real aim is the access to the military nuclear power. It was probably the initial goal, before and after the 1979 revolution. The provocative speech of Iranian rulers on Israel constitute a reason to enrich uranium at military ends. But it appears that's not the only reason for Iran to pursue its nuclear program. Will not be efficient to begin sincere negotiations with Iran and to engage a policy of denuclearization of the region? Moreover the international interferences on the Iranian matters could be detrimental. Indeed, democratic freedoms won't spread in Iran, if the great decisions that concern the country don't take into account the national willing

  9. Chicken Astrovirus Infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    35 nm in diameter with a ... named chicken astrovirus (CAstV) isolated from broiler chicks (Baxendale and Mebatsion, 2004). CAstV has .... successfully used the RT-PCR method to detect CAstV in field samples from across the USA while Day et ...

  10. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...

  11. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of the most famous ancient textbooks of Iranian traditional medicine from different centuries. This books includeThe Canon of Medicine by Avicenna (the first version of Beirut), Zakhire Kharazmshahi by Jurjani (the scanned version of Bonyade Farhang-e Iran), Malfaregh by Razes (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences), and Aqili’s cure by Aqili (the first version of Iran University of Medical Sciences). Results: This study found that in Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts, insomnia was called sahar and even though many factors induce insomnia, most of them act through causing brain dystemperament. Conclusions: The brain dystemperament is considered one of the main causes of insomnia and insomnia can be well managed with an organized line of treatment, by correcting the brain dystemperament through elimination of causes. This study helps to find new solutions to treat insomnia. PMID:24829786

  12. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  13. Iranian Women: Between Education and Repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousalis, Rina

    2012-01-01

    Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…

  14. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. NATIONAL HISTORICAL EVENTS IN IRANIAN COLLECTIVE MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ebadollahi Chanzanagh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate presence of nationalhistorical events in Iraniancollective memory. According to social theorists remembering is a socialphenomenon which occurs in social cadres. In Iranian social context, ethnicity,generation, religion and education are important social cadres of memory. 384national samples from three different ethnicities,Azeri, Gilaki and Kurd, werechosen by quota sampling. Results of survey indicated three social cadres ofgeneration, religion and education explained remembering national historicalevents and Iranian collective memory is basically rooted in national historicalevents rather than ethnic one. ‘The 1979 Islamic revolution’, ‘Iran’s oilnationalization and the following 1953 Iranian coupd’état’ from the last centuryevents and ‘Iranian constitutional revolution’, ‘Russo-Persian wars’ from prior tothe last century events are the most important national events remembered byIranian.

  16. Preliminary Survey of Ectoparasites Infesting Chickens (Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ectoparasites of chickens in four areas of Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria, on 160 chickens raised under free-range ... 90% mortality of local free range chickens. Arthropod ... some cases premature death. ... from the birds by displaying the feathers.

  17. The Effect of Explicit vs. Implicit Instruction on Mastering the Speech Act of Thanking among Iranian Male and Female EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmat, Mahdi; Alavi Nia, Parviz; Biria, Reza

    2016-01-01

    This pragmatic study investigated the speech act of thanking as used by non-native speakers of English. The study was an attempt to find whether the pragmatic awareness of Iranian EFL learners could be improved through explicit instruction of the structure of the speech act of "Thanking". In fact, this study aimed to find out if there…

  18. A Comparison between the Use of Nominalization in Medical Papers by English and Iranian Writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mahbudi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A prominent feature of formal writing, particularly in the field of science and technology, is the use of nominalization. Scientific writings, including medical writings, are expected to observe formality, precision, lack of ambiguity and concentration of highly technical terms. In such genres, the use of nominalization, affecting the lexical density of the text, plays a key role. In this connection, the purpose of this study was to compare the use of nominalization and the level of lexical density in medical academic articles written by native English writers and their Iranian counterparts based on the theory of grammatical metaphor proposed by Halliday (1985.  To this end, the abstract section of 20 authentic English medical articles written by native English writers and 20 abstracts written by Iranian authors, drawn from highly influential medical journals, were selected. These abstracts were analyzed and compared based on the frequency of nominalization used and the level of lexical density in them. The findings revealed that Iranian writers used less nominalization in their writings.

  19. Metabolic syndrome in Iranian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare Iranian elderly with the youth and middle aged population in terms of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Iranian elderly METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the information from the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Male and female residents of Isfahan who aged over 19 years were selected by multistage cluster random sampling. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, health status, medical history, medications used, as well as waist circumference, weight, height and systolic and diastolic blood pressures was completed for all participants. Fasting blood samples were obtained from all subjects and examined for fasting blood sugar and lipid profile. RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals aged over 60 years was significantly higher than those under 60 (49.5% vs. 17.5%, respectively; P < 0.001. It was also more prevalent among elderly females than in males (59.2% vs. 39.8%, respectively; P < 0.005. Some anthropometric measures such as height, body mass index, abdominal circumference, waist-hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were significantly different in men and women below 60 years in comparison with those over 60 years (P < 0.05. Moreover, there were significant differences in most studied parameters between the elderly and non-elderly women (P < 0.001. Based on the findings of this study, the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases were significantly more prevalent in men and women over 60 years. T-test and Mann-Whitney were used for quantitative data and the square-chi test is performed for qualitative data.    CONCLUSION: This study showed that metabolic syndrome has a relatively high prevalence in Iranian elderly people (especially in women. Therefore, early diagnosis and management of the complication are recommended among this high-risk group. Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome, Elderly, Iran

  20. Massage Therapy in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Jaladat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian massage is to regulate the core body temperature and aid to eliminate the waste products from the body. This type of massage is divided into five categories including solid, soft, moderate, great and aggressive, based on the intensity, speed, duration and techniques of massage.Iranian physicians proposed general body massage or massage of a particular area based on subjective complaints. They recommended specific massages in particular groups including children, pregnant women, the elderly and athletes. In some cases, the effects of these recommendations have been studied in clinical trials.Conclusion: It seems that the major difference between Iranian massage and other styles of massage is special attention of Iranian massage to the individual circumstances, and the cause of the problem rather than technique of the massage.

  1. Iranian Tentacles into Iraq: The Basis and Extent of Iranian Influence into Southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    www.iucc.ac.il/academia (accessed May 10, 2009), video . 2 Kenneth Katzman, “Iran’s Activities and Influence in Iraq,” (Washington, D.C...population at large. The Iranian ulama play a significant role in Iraq because Iranian religious men dominate the Shia clergy in Iraq. The majority of the...University Press, 2004. Banuazizi, Ali. Iranian Nationality and the Persian Language. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers, 1992. Bell, Gertrude. The

  2. Comparison of the isolation rates and characteristics of Salmonella isolated from antibiotic-free and conventional chicken meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J-H; Kim, H-S; Yim, J-H; Kim, Y-J; Kim, D-H; Chon, J-W; Kim, H; Om, A-S; Seo, K-H

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella contamination in chicken samples can cause major health problems in humans. However, not only the effects of antibiotic treatment during growth but also the impacts of the poultry slaughter line on the prevalence of Salmonellae in final chicken meat sold to consumers are unknown. In this study, we compared the isolation rates and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonellae among antibiotic-free, conventional, conventional Korean native retail chicken meat samples, and clonal divergence of Salmonella isolates by multilocus sequence typing. In addition, the distribution of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in ESBL-producing Salmonella isolates was analyzed. A total of 72 retail chicken meat samples (n = 24 antibiotic-free broiler [AFB] chickens, n = 24 conventional broiler [CB] chickens, and n = 24 conventional Korean native [CK] chickens) was collected from local retail markets in Seoul, South Korea. The isolation rates of Salmonellae were 66.6% in AFB chickens, 45.8% in CB chickens, and 25% in CK chickens. By analyzing the minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics with the disc-diffusion test, we found that 81.2% of Salmonella isolates from AFB chickens, 63.6% of isolates from CB chickens, and 50% of isolates from CK chickens were ESBL producers; all ESBL-positive isolates had the CTX-M-15 genotype. Interestingly, all ESBL-producing Salmonellae were revealed as ST16 by multilocus sequence typing and had the genetic platform of blaCTX-M gene (IS26-ISEcp1-blaCTX-M-15-IS903), which was first reported in Salmonellae around the world. The Salmonella ST33 strain (S. Hadar) isolated in this study has never been reported in South Korea. In conclusion, our findings showed that antibiotic-free retail chicken meat products were also largely contaminated with ESBL-producing Salmonellae and that their ESBL genes and genetic platforms were the same as those isolated from conventional retail chicken meat products. © 2017 Poultry Science

  3. Variation of meat quality traits among five genotypes of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Gong, Y Z; Wu, C X; Jiang, J; Wang, Y; Li, K

    2009-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the diversity of meat quality traits among 5 chicken genotypes. The genotypes included 2 Chinese native breeds (Wenchang,WCH, and Xianju), 1 commercial broiler line (Avian, AV), 1 commercial layer line (Hy-Line Brown, HLB), and 1 Chinese commercial broiler line (Lingnanhuang, LNH) synthesized by exotic and native breeds, which were slaughtered at their market ages: 16, 7, 16, and 8 wk, respectively. The effects of genotype, muscle type, and sex on meat quality traits were examined. Birds from slow-growing genotypes (WCH, Xianju, and HLB) exhibited higher shear value, inosine-5'-monophosphate concentration, lower cook loss, and more fat than those from fast-growing genotypes (AV and LNH). Chickens from WCH possessed the lowest expressible moisture, cook loss, and the highest lipid (%) among the 3 slow-growing genotypes. The HLB birds were intermediate in expressible moisture and cook loss and lowest in lipid among all genotypes. The LNH cross birds were similar to AV broilers in most meat quality parameters, although they had a lower shear force value and higher fat content than AV broilers. Breast muscle had higher expressible moisture, shear force, protein (%), inosine-5'-monophosphate content, lower cook loss, and lipid (%) than leg muscle. Muscles from male chickens had higher expressible moisture than those from the females. Variability of meat quality characteristics is mainly related to genotype and muscle type differences.

  4. Non-Native & Native English Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrfan Tosuncuoglu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the primary (mother tongue language is not English but there is a great demand for English language teachers all over the world. The demand in this field is try to be filled largely by non-native English speaking teachers who have learned English in the country or abroad, or from another non native English peaking teachers. In some countries, particularly those where English speaking is a a sign of status, the students prefer to learn English from a native English speaker. The perception is that a non-native English speaking teacher is a less authentic teacher than a native English speaker and their instruction is not satifactory in some ways. This paper will try to examine the literature to explore whether there is a difference in instructional effectiveness between NNESTs and native English teachers.

  5. Narcissism in Iranian auditing profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Javanmard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of Narcissism among 185 Iranian auditors groups and narcissism has been used to describe people behavior in people groups. The present study uses a questionnaire to measure Narcissism and to examine the hypotheses of the paper analysis of variance and T-test are used. The results of testing hypotheses show that the level of narcissism was significantly different in auditors groups in private sector. However, in public sector, the difference between narcissistic personality in auditors’ groups is not significant. Results of the study also indicated that, in private sector, narcissistic personality in young generation of auditors was higher than audit old generation. These results confirm previous studies on narcissism indicating that narcissistic behavior was high among young generation. We suggest the Iranian association of certified public accountants (IACPA to review the ethical training needs for auditors. In addition, audit firms can provide a system to increase interaction among old generations of auditors with young generation of auditors.

  6. Market trials of irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, John A.; Olson, Dennis G.

    1998-01-01

    The potential market for irradiated chicken breasts was investigated using a mail survey and a retail trial. Results from the mail survey suggested a significantly higher level of acceptability of irradiated chicken than did the retail trial. A subsequent market experiment involving actual purchases showed levels of acceptability similar to that of the mail survey when similar information about food irradiation was provided

  7. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  8. 7 CFR 65.120 - Chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chicken. 65.120 Section 65.120 Agriculture Regulations..., PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.120 Chicken. Chicken has the meaning given the term in...

  9. Psychiatric problems among Iranian immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, A

    1992-02-01

    The number of Iranian immigrants in Canada has been increasing since 1979. This study is the result of a review of 111 charts of Iranian patients who were referred for psychiatric treatment between 1985 and 1988. Ninety-eight percent of them arrived in Canada after the Iranian revolution, which started in 1979, and the Iran-Iraq war of 1980. Ten percent were experiencing trauma as a result of their involvement with the revolutionary government or the war. The symptoms were in accordance with the DSM-III-R criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Sixty percent met the criteria for adjustment disorder with depressed or anxious mood. Six percent had been subjected to physical and psychological torture and confinement. This is the first study that looks at the prevalence of psychiatric illness among Iranians and illustrates the effect of migration and displacement in the integrity of the psychic life of this population.

  10. LA Scrutiny in Iranians in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohammad

    2003-01-01

    Presents three major types of language awareness elicited during a pilot study, using data collection instruments, such as interviews and tape recordings of the conversations of two groups of Iranian children living in the United Kingdom. (Author/VWL)

  11. 78 FR 16403 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... designated Iranian financial institution, NIOC, or NICO in a direct customer relationship generally would be... relationship. (e) Impact. The impact of the transaction(s) or financial services on the objectives of the...

  12. Lipoxygenase in chicken muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, S.; Bergman, M.; Sklan, D.

    1988-01-01

    The presence of lipoxygenase-type enzymes was demonstrated in chick muscles. Examination of the oxidation products of [ 14 C]arachidonic acid revealed the presence of 15-lipoxygenase. The enzyme was partially purified by affinity chromatography on linoleoyl-aminoethyl-Sepharose. The enzyme was stable on frozen storage, and activity was almost completely preserved after 12-month storage at -20 degree C. During this period the content of cis,cis-1,4-pentadiene fatty acids decreased slightly. It is suggested that lipoxygenase may be responsible for some of the oxidative changes occurring in fatty acids on frozen storage of chicken meat

  13. Urban Image in Iranian Fiction Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ravadrad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tehran as a symbol of Iranian modernity has been considered in many Iranian fiction films. Representation of Tehran in cinema can be the representation of Iranian modernity revolution. This study focuses on the representation of urban image in Iranian fiction films through critical theories such as Simmel or Benjamin opinions. In this article we discus about the mediator role of cinema for representing the Urban life Image and confliction of modernity in Iran.Meanwhile some megalopolis such as Paris, Berlin, Moscow, New York and sanpitersboorg est.…have had great opportunity for understanding confliction of modernity in their situation, Tehran has never have that chance. Regarding to this vacuum we want to explain the role of Iranian fiction films for understanding the entrance of modernity consequences in different eras. We believed that fiction films can represent confliction of city and village, represent of modern dualities, non cohesive rationality and many other gaps in Iranian modernity that we have to know.

  14. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  15. Stigma in Iranian Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stigma is a negative value. Many behaviors are to ward Stigmatized people. Down syndrome is one of conditions with Stigma. The aim of this study is to determine the sources of labeling in iranian Down syndrome. Methods: The View of 105 Down syndrome families concerning stigma were conducted. All of Down syndrome was under 50 years. Results: A fair proportion of Down syndrome families perceived that stigma had a negative effect from social. Causes of stigma are different. Stigma due social interaction, Media and health professionals are significant than others. Discussion: The diagnostic label of Down syndrome may render the person and his family vulnerable to stigmatization. The most causes of stigma were determined therefore, in the destigmatization programs, they must be attended. Stigma must be detected, too.

  16. Biogas Production from Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Dalkılıç

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal manures are burned for heating in Turkey. It is also used as soil conditioner which has adverse environmental effects. Although, the use of renewable energy sources in Turkey is very limited, the application studies on biogas production from animal manure are increasing. 25-30% of total animal manures produced in Turkey are composed of chicken manure. The works on biogas production from chicken manure are very limited in Turkey. In this paper, biogas production studies from chicken manure in Turkey and in the World are reviewed.

  17. The attitude of Iranian nurses about do not resuscitate orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mogadasian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.

  18. Impacts of mesquite distribution on seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggie, Matthew A.; Strong, Cody R.; Lusk, Daniel; Carleton, Scott A.; Gould, William R.; Howard, Randy L.; Nichols, Clay T.; Falkowski, Michael J.; Hagen, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands by anthropogenic disturbances has reduced availability and connectivity of habitat for many grassland species. A primary threat to contiguous grasslands is the encroachment of woody vegetation, which is spurred by disturbances that take on many forms from energy development, fire suppression, and grazing. These disturbances are exacerbated by natural- and human-driven cycles of changes in climate punctuated by drought and desertification conditions. Encroachment of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) into the prairies of southeastern New Mexico has potentially limited habitat for numerous grassland species, including lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus). To determine the magnitude of impacts of distribution of mesquite and how lesser prairie-chickens respond to mesquite presence on the landscape in southeastern New Mexico, we evaluated seasonal space use of lesser prairie-chickens in the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. We derived several remotely sensed spatial metrics to characterize the distribution of mesquite. We then used these data to create population-level resource utilization functions and predict intensity of use of lesser prairie-chickens across our study area. Home ranges were smaller in the breeding season compared with the nonbreeding season; however, habitat use was similar across seasons. During both seasons, lesser prairie-chickens used areas closer to leks and largely avoided areas with mesquite. Relative to the breeding season, during the nonbreeding season habitat use suggested a marginal increase in mesquite within areas of low intensity of use, yet aversion to mesquite was strong in areas of medium to high intensity of use. To our knowledge, our study is the first to demonstrate a negative behavioral response by lesser prairie-chickens to woody encroachment in native grasslands. To mitigate one of the possible limiting factors for lesser prairie-chickens, we suggest future conservation

  19. Analytical Consideration and the Origin of Native Ceremonial Play Of Vardavar (Pouring Water in Armenian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aref

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, Armenian are the only tribe or nation who may pour water to each other once per year on 2nd Sunday of August from rising of sun up to its falling and through holding a great ceremony in different squares, streets and beside the rivers. Armenian name this old ceremony as Vardavar and any violation of it may cause horrible results. This article intends to provide an analytical & basic consideration of Vardavar native ceremony in Armenian culture. According to the findings of this research it is obvious that Iranian kindness was the origin of Armenian Vardavar. According to the historical, political and social records of Armenian with Iranian at Middle Asia and Eastern part of the world, it is completely clear that cultural relations of Armenian with Iranian people were more that other countries through the history. In addition, Iranian Mitra has always caused close relations between different cultures of tribes and nations in Iranian plateau, Middle Asia, Near East and a part of Europe. The study method of this research is library, documentary, interview and common observation at 11 great provinces of Armenia through a period of 5 years.

  20. Molecular characterization of chicken syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ligong; Couchman, John R; Smith, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    A partial syndecan-2 sequence (147 bp) was obtained from chicken embryonic fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. This partial sequence was used to produce a 5'-end-labelled probe. A chicken liver cDNA library was screened with this probe, and overlapping clones were obtained......Da. Western blotting of chicken embryonic fibroblast cell lysates with species-specific monoclonal antibody mAb 8.1 showed that chicken syndecan-2 is substituted with heparan sulphate, and that the major form of chicken syndecan-2 isolated from chicken fibroblasts is consistent with the formation of SDS......-resistant dimers, which is common for syndecans. A 5'-end-labelled probe hybridized to two mRNA species in chicken embryonic fibroblasts, while Northern analysis with poly(A)+ RNAs from different tissues of chicken embryos showed wide and distinct distributions of chicken syndecan-2 during embryonic development...

  1. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights... Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 562 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...--IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Subpart A--Relation of This Part to Other Laws and...

  2. Outside In: The Practices and Perceptions of Iranian Diaspora Journalists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.; Brouillette, A.; Smith, B.

    2013-01-01

    The Iran Media Program conducted a survey of Iranian journalists living and working outside Iran. Our aim was to examine more closely the role and relationship between Iranian reporters abroad and their international and domestic audiences, as well as to broaden our knowledge of the Iranian diaspora

  3. NATIVE VS NON-NATIVE ENGLISH TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrizal Masrizal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the majority of English language teachers worldwide are non-native English speakers (NNS, no research was conducted on these teachers until recently. A pioneer research by Peter Medgyes in 1994 took quite a long time until the other researchers found their interests in this issue. There is a widespread stereotype that a native speaker (NS is by nature the best person to teach his/her foreign language. In regard to this assumption, we then see a very limited room and opportunities for a non native teacher to teach language that is not his/hers. The aim of this article is to analyze the differences among these teachers in order to prove that non-native teachers have equal advantages that should be taken into account. The writer expects that the result of this short article could be a valuable input to the area of teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia.

  4. Native American nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Methionine on Performance of Khorasan Station Native Hens at Different Production Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hesabi Nameghi

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the effects of different levels of the amino acid methionine(Met on performance of birds native Khorasan province, an experiment using 300 pieces of chicken native Station Native chickens Khorasan in the form of designs completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 5 replicates and 10 chickens in each replicate from age 26 till 52 weeks implemented. 6 treatments follows that the first treatment of Met to 0.22% received the basal diet( control and other treatments to Met level of 0.1% in each treatment and were increased so that the six birds different Met (0.22,0.32,0.42,0.52,0.62 and 0.72 percent received. The results showed that the Met levels increase the total weight of eggs produced in the experimental period (P

  6. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Iranian and Non-Iranian Rice Supplied by Shopping Centers of Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani D.1 PhD,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims Heavy metals in the environment are toxic to plants, animals and human. This study aimed to investigate concentration of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Iranian and non- Iranian rice which have been sold in Kashan City, Iran shops. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, 126 samples from 42 trademarks (15 Iranian and 27 non-Iranian rice were collected from Kashan shopping centers. At first each sample was ashed, and then they have been dissolved with nitric acid. Heavy metal concentration was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using One-sample and Independent T-tests. Findings Arsenic was not found in any of rice samples. There was a significant difference between Pb concentration in both Iranian and non-Iranian rice samples. There was not a significance difference between Cd concentration in Iranian (p=0.823 and non-Iranian (p=0.346 rice samples according to Iran national standards but there was a significant difference between Cd concentration in both Iranian (p=0.001 and non-Iranian (p=0.001 rice samples according to WHO and FAO standards. Conclusion Consumed rice pollution with Pb is considerable but with Cd is low. Arsenic concentration in Iranian and non-Iranian rice is less than Iran national and WHO/FAO standards.

  7. Nutritional Care in Iranian Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Intensive care units (ICUs) provides intensive treatment medicine to avoid complications such as malnutrition, infection and even death. As very little is currently known about the nutritional practices in Iranian ICUs, this study attempted to assess the various aspects of current nutrition support practices in Iranian ICUs. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 150 critically ill patients at 18 ICUs in 12 hospitals located in 2 provinces of Iran from February 2015 to March 2016. Data were collected through interview with supervisors of ICUs, medical record reviews and direct observation of patients during feeding. Our study showed that hospital-prepared enteral tube feeding formulas are the main formulas used in Iranian hospitals. None of the dietitians worked exclusively an ICU and only 30% of patients received diet counselling. Regular monitoring of nutritional status, daily energy and protein intake were not recorded in any of the participating ICUs. Patients were not monitored for anthropometric measurements such as mid-arm circumference (MAC) and electrolyte status. The nasogastric tube was not switched to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy (PEG/PEGJ) in approximately 85% of patients receiving long-term enteral nutrition (EN) support. Our findings demonstrated that the quality of nutritional care was inappropriate in Iranian ICUs and improvement of nutritional care services within Iranian ICUs is necessary. PMID:29713622

  8. Effects of sexual dimorphism and landscape composition on the trophic behavior of Greater Prairie-Chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Blanco-Fontao

    Full Text Available Partitioning of ecological niche is expected in lekking species that show marked sexual size dimorphism as a consequence of sex-specific ecological constraints. However, niche partitioning is uncertain in species with moderate sexual dimorphism. In addition, the ecological niche of a species may also be affected by landscape composition; particularly, agricultural fragmentation may greatly influence the trophic behavior of herbivores. We studied trophic niche variation in Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, a grouse species that shows moderate sex-dimorphism. Greater Prairie-Chickens are native to tallgrass prairies of North America, although populations persist in less natural mosaics of cropland and native habitats. We used stable isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in blood, claws and feathers to assess seasonal differences in trophic niche breadth and individual specialization between male and female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and between birds living in continuous and fragmented landscapes. We found that females showed broader niches and higher individual specialization than males, especially in winter and autumn. However, differences between females and males were smaller in spring when birds converge at leks, suggesting that females and males may exhibit similar feeding behaviors during the lekking period. In addition, we found that birds living in native prairies showed greater annual trophic variability than conspecifics in agricultural mosaic landscapes. Native habitats may provide greater dietary diversity, resulting in greater diversity of feeding strategies.

  9. Sustainable architecture in the traditional Iranian homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Niloufari, Morteza; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: mortezagharibeh@yahoo.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. In Iran, traditional homes have been built in a sustainable manner to withstand the high climate diversity of the country. The aim of this paper is to present the different methods used in Iranian traditional architecture. Among the architectural principles is appropriate orientation of the building to allow the capture of solar energy and at the same time protect against the cold wind. In addition, indigenous materials were used in the constructions to provide the highest degree of comfort possible with minimal damage to the environment. Finally, Iranian traditional architecture took advantage of the soil's constant temperature by building a Shvadan which is an underground space beneath the house. This article highlighted the different Iranian traditional methods which can create a sustainable architecture.

  10. Visual representations of Iranian transgenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerifar, Elhum

    2011-01-01

    Transsexuality in Iran has gained much attention and media coverage in the past few years, particularly in its questionable depiction as a permitted loophole for homosexuality, which is prohibited under Iran's Islamic-inspired legal system. Of course, attention in the West is also encouraged by the “shock” that sex change is available in Iran, a country that Western media and society delights in portraying as monolithically repressive. As a result, Iranian filmmakers inevitably have their own agendas, which are unsurprisingly brought into the film making process—from a desire to sell a product that will appeal to the Western market, to films that endorse specific socio-political agendas. This paper is an attempt to situate sex change and representations of sex change in Iran within a wider theoretical framework than the frequently reiterated conflation with homosexuality, and to open and engage with a wider debate concerning transsexuality in Iran, as well as to specifically analyze the representation of transexuality, in view of its current prominent presence in media.

  11. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  12. Iranian-Oil-Free Zone and international oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Raeisian Parvari, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynamic response of international oil prices to Iranian oil export sanction. Controlling for the supply of non-Iranian oil, the world GDP per capita, and post-Islamic revolution exogenous dummy variables, we show that international oil prices respond negatively and statistically significant to increasing shock in absolute negative changes of the Iranian oil exports – our proxy of Iran oil sanctions – following the first 2 years after shock. The main reason is the positive response of the non-Iranian oil supply to negative shocks in Iranian oil exports, filling the missing supply of Iranian oil in international markets. - Highlights: • We analyze the interconnections between Iranian oil supply and global oil prices. • We use VAR modeling and annual data from 1965 to 2012 for the case of Iran. • There are no inflationary effects of Iranian oil sanction on world oil prices. • Non-Iranian oil supply offsets the missing Iranian oil in the market

  13. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  14. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  15. Changes of lipids in irradiated chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moersel, J.T.; Wende, I.; Schwarz, K.

    1991-01-01

    Chickens were irradiated in a 6 deg Co gamma irradiation source. The irradiation has been done to reduce or eliminate Salmonella. The experiments were done to test this decontamination method of chickens if changes of lipids take place. It was to be seen, that peroxidation of lipids was more rapidly as in control. The time of storage of irradiated chickens has to be shorter because of changes in lipids. After irradiation the chickens had trade quality. (orig.) [de

  16. Nunukan Chicken: Genetic Characteristics, Phenotype and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tike Sartika

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nunukan chicken is a local chicken from East Kalimantan which spreads out in Tarakan and Nunukan Islands . The chicken has a specific buff color and Columbian type feather and also has very late feathering (VLF trait . The Nunukan cocks and hens have no wing and tail primary feather; the tail feathers are short and fragile . The VLF trait is known to have association with a K gene on the Z chromosome. The chicken is efficient in protein metabolism . Sulfur amino acids (cystine and methionine that needed for feather growth, could be utilized for meat and egg production . The egg production of Nunukan chicken was better than the Kampung chicken . The average of hen day, hen house and peak production of Nunukan chicken was 45 . 39.1 and 62%, respectively, while the Kampung chicken was 35 .9, 30 .9 and 48%, respectively . Based on genetic analysis, the external genotype characteristic of the Nunukan chicken is ii ce ss Idld pp. It means that the phenotype appearance of the Nunukan chicken was columbian and gold feathering type, yellow and white shank color and single comb type. This phenotype is similar to Merawang Chicken . The genetic introgression of the Nunukan chicken is affected by the Rhode Island Red with the genetic introgression value of 0.964 .

  17. Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne campylobacteriosis has been linked to undercooked chicken liver. It is unknown how commonly chicken livers are contaminated with Campylobacter. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter on chicken livers available at retail. For each of five weeks, t...

  18. Listen to the Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  19. Native SAD is maturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  20. Teachability of Communication Strategies: An Iranian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Ataollah

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of teaching communication strategies and the feasibility of incorporating them into school syllabi have been a controversial issue. In the current study, 60 Iranian students were divided into two thirty-member classes; then two different textbooks, one with specific CS and the other without them, were chosen to be taught in the…

  1. The White Revolution in Iranian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, William G.; Carr, Elizabeth

    During a 16-day examination of recent innovations in Iranian education, two institutions were most closely examined: 1) The Army of Knowledge was created in 1962 as a crash program concentrating mainly on the elementary and secondary education of rural and village children where the population is dispersed, living standards low, and four out of…

  2. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-09-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients.

  3. Iranian Sanctions: An Actor-Centric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    cultivated to counterbalance other actors in the system who opposed Khamenei’s ascension, based on his weak religious credentials.42 These security...trumped up religious infraction.256 The bonyads are the Iranian economy’s dominating revenue generating entity outside the oil sector,257 mushrooming in

  4. Dysphoria and somatization in Iranian culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, K L

    1992-01-01

    Iranians express dysphoria through an undifferentiated term called narahati, meaning depressed, ill at ease, nervous, inconvenienced, or anxious. People try masking this emotion or express it in specific ways nonverbally, such as sulking or not eating. Two other dysphoric affects, sadness and anger, are not masked. Because of the social conception of persons being emotionally sensitive, the expression of narahati is guarded: expressing it not only could show that one is socially vulnerable, it could also make another sensitive empathic person narahat. The body is also sensitive, but to the physical world. Physical health is maintained by balancing a diet of "hot" and "cold" foods and avoiding exposure to cold and moisture. With the social and cultural problems brought on by revolution, war, immigration, and accommodation to a new society, Iranian refugees experience changes in family, role, status, finances, language, and other sociocultural ways of being that cause them to feel narahat and to express it verbally, nonverbally, or through somatization. Understanding Iranian conceptions of emotional and physical sensitivity will help clinicians in treating Iranian patients. PMID:1413773

  5. Iranian Validation of the Identity Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…

  6. Apology Strategies of Iranian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Mohammad Dadkhah; Rezaei, Omid; Dezhara, Salman; Kafrani, Reza Soltani

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the different primary and secondary strategies the Iranian EFL students use in different situations and the effect of gender on this. A questionnaire was developed based on Sugimoto's (1995) to compare the apology strategies used by male and female students, only gender was examined as a variable. The results showed that…

  7. Organizational citizenship behavior among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, H; Alirezaie, S; Shaham, G

    2012-01-01

    Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is defined as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of organization". OCB, enhance job satisfaction among nursing employees. According to several findings, nurses' OCB have a positive and significant influence on job satisfaction. This research is aimed to study OCB among Iranian nurses. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 510 nurses working in 15 teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran to be selected by stratified random sampling. The respondents were asked to complete Netemeyer's organizational citizenship behavior questionnaire that encompassed four dimensions of OCB including Sportsmanship, Civil Virtue, Conscientiousness, Altruism and selected each item of OCB dimensions and identified their attitudes about OCB items were observed in hospitals of Tehran. The data was analyzed by T-test, ANOVA and Pearson statistical methods. The results of this research showed that most of the nurses who studied in this study, had OCB behaviors. Also, we found that there was significant correlation between Iranian nurses' marriage status, qualifications and gender with sportsmanship, altruism and civic virtue. This research demonstrates the existence of OCB among Iranian nurses that are essential in developing patient - oriented behavior. The results can be used to develop further nursing management strategies for enhancement of OCB. Finally, the present study indicates new possibilities for future researches such as analysis and comparison of OCB between different hospitals and how nursing policy-makers can enhance these behaviors in Iranian hospitals.

  8. Life Purposes of Iranian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Nasibeh; Kuusisto, Elina; Gholami, Khalil; Tirri, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    This article examines Iranian secondary students' (N = 336) life purposes. Economic and hedonistic life goals were the most valued. Relationships in terms of having a family and children were also appreciated. In the students' views, religiousness was associated with social goals such as helping others in need and volunteering in the community.…

  9. Molecular diagnosis of Wolbachia endosymbiont from Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Wolbachia 16S rDNA gene. PCR product was directly sequenced and the alignment of the sequence with similar sequences in GenBank showed high similarity with 16S rDNA gene of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Drosophila melanogaster. Key words: Wolbachia, Iranian scorpion, 16S rDNA gene, Hemiscorpius lepturus.

  10. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We f...

  11. Comparison of fertility indices in Iranian and non-Iranian populations under coverage of Ray's health houses, 1376

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Pour Roudsari HR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied fertility indices of Iranian and non-Iranian populations which were covered by 23 Rays health houses. This cross-sectional study aimed to prove the effect of increasing number of non-Iranian immigrants on health indices of the area covered by Tehran university of medical sciences and health services, consequently giving attention to specific health programs. The data collection method was census of permanent residents of the villages by means of vital horoscopes. 8494 of 27611 persons were non-Iranian. Dependency ratio and natural growth rate was 75%, 1.14% in Iranians and 98%, 1.74% in non-Iranians, respectively. Mortality in non-Iranians was 1.24 times more than Iranians. General fertility rate in Iranians was 60 and in non-Iranians was 110 live births in 1000 women of child bearing age. Total fertility rate in Iranians was 1.73 and in non-Iranians 3.27 neonates for each woman. Age-specific fertility rates were absolutely higher in non-Iranians. Gross eproductive rate was 0.87 in Iranians and 1.59 in non-Iranians. Mean number of girls born by a non-Iranian mother will be double times of an Iranian mother (P<0.01. Modern contraceptive methods coverage was 70% in Iranian couples and less than 40% in non-Iranian couples. 96.94% of Iranian deliveries and 70.9% of non-Iranian deliveries were safe (P<0.01.

  12. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  13. Seroprevalence survey of H9N2 avian influenza virus in backyard chickens around the Caspian Sea in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Hadipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, an epidemic of avian influenza occurred in the Iranian poultry industry. The identified agent presented low pathogenicity, and was subtyped as an H9N2 avian influenza virus. Backyard chickens can play an important role in the epidemiology of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection. Close contact of backyard chickens with migratory birds, especially with aquatic birds, as well as neighboring poultry farms, may pose the risk of transmitting avian influenza virus, but little is known about the disease status of backyard poultry. A H9N2 avian influenza virus seroprevalence survey was carried out in 700 backyard chickens from villages around the Caspian Sea, Northern Iran, using the hemagglutination-inhibition (HI test. The studied backyard chickens had not been previously vaccinated and showed no clinical signs of disease. The mean antibody titers found were 6.8, 7.5, 5.9, 7.2, 5.7, 6.4, 6.2 and the seroprevalence was 76.2%, 79.5%, 68.18%, 78.27%, 65%, 72.31% and 71.4% as found in seven villages. Overall HI titer and seroprevalence against H9N2 were 6.52 and 72.98%, respectively.

  14. Bioinformatics and Phylogenetic Analysis of Mitochondrial COX3 Gene in Iranian Camelus Dromedaries and Camelus Bactrianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Abbassi-Daloii

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Camels belong to the family of Camelidae, suborder of Tylopoda, order of artiodactyla and class of mammalians. The family Camelidae has two old world species, double-humped camel (CAMELUS BACTRIANUS and single-humped camel (CAMELUS DROMEDARIES and four new world (tribe Lamini species, guanaco (LAMA GUANICOE, llama (LAMA GLAMA, alpaca (LAMA PACOS and vicuna (LAMA VICUGNA or VICUGNA VICUGNA at present time. The single-humped camel inhabits Afro-Arabia, Ethiopia and west Central Asia while the double-humped inhabits eastern Central Asia and China. Camel has been historically and economically an important species worldwide especially in the Africa and Asia. Camel has unique characteristics enable it to adapt its desert environment. The total worldwide camel population at present estimated to be about 23 million in the world. Somalia and Sudan together hold approximately 50% of the whole camel population. In the last 40 years, the number of camels has increased by almost 45%. Iranian native species are considered as part of the national capital so their preservation is so important. Due to severe decrease in their population in some areas, more attention to conservation genetics perspective of these species is very important. The aim of this study was to bioinformatics and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (COX3 in Iranian Camelus dromedaries and Camelus bactrianus. Materials and Methods For this purpose 10 blood samples were collected from each species (totally 20 samples. After DNA extraction, the fragment with 979 bp length from mitochondrial DNA was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing was performed by automated Sanger methods then the obtained sequences were compared with sequences from other studies. The nucleotide sequences obtained were edited using the PHRED software (http://www.phrap.org /phredphrapconsed.html. After editing, basic local alignment search tool

  15. Chicken Soup for the Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Edward J.

    The popular "Chicken Soup for the Soul" series of books demonstrates the tremendous desire of people in all walks of life to tell their stories. A professor of reading/language arts methods for students in a program leading to teacher certification reads to his classes every day from a wide variety of materials, including stories from…

  16. The Chicken and Egg Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  17. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  18. Preliminary investigation of genetic characterization of native and endemic fowl types of Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.P.; Rajapaksha, W.R.A.K.J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus) is generally considered to be main ancestor of the domestic fowl (Callus domesticus). However, it is also believed that other wild Callus species might have contributed to the modern genetic make-up of the domestic fowl, one wild species being the Ceylon Jungle Fowl (Gallus lafayetti), endemic to Sri Lanka, which could have contributed to the domestic stock of Sri Lankan native poultry. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the origin of native fowl in Sri Lanka and to establish genetic relationships among them and the Ceylon Jungle Fowl. Morphological characters of endemic, indigenous and exotic fowl types were recorded. These included Ceylon Jungle fowl; eleven types of native chicken from Sri Lanka; and two exotic chicken breeds (Cornish and Rhode Island Red). Blood samples were collected for DNA extraction. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was carried out using sixteen non-specific primers. The results of morphological characterization revealed many variations in plumage and colour pattern. Single and pea comb types were found in both native and exotic types of chicken. A prominent yellow colour marking on a red comb was a unique feature in Ceylon Jungle fowl. The presence of white spots in red earlobes was a distinguishing feature of all native chicken types. Sixteen non-specific primers were used in the study, and produced 22 polymorphic bands ranging from 500 to 1960 bp. Genetic similarity indices ranged from 0.5 to 1.1 in average genetic distance scale, indicating a broad genetic base in the samples studied. Cluster analysis revealed a clear separation of Ceylon Jungle Fowl from all other types studied, indicating that contribution in data analysis, and the Director and staff, National Zoological Gardens, Sri Lanka, for their help in sampling Ceylon Jungle Fowl. (author)

  19. Purification and Partial Characterization of Catalase from Chicken Erythrocytes and the Effect of Various Inhibitors on Enzyme Activity

    OpenAIRE

    AYDEMİR, Tülin; KURU, Kevser

    2003-01-01

    Catalase plays a major role in the protection of tissues from the toxic effects of H2O2 and partially reduced oxygen species. A nearly 136-fold enzyme purification was obtained from chicken erythrocyte by acetone precipitation, ethanol-chloroform treatment, CM-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 42,556 U/mg. The molecular weight of the native chicken erythrocyte catalase was estimated at 240 kDa by gel filtration. SDS-gel electr...

  20. Radioimmunoassay for Lys8, Asn9, neurotensin 8-13: tissue and subcellular distribution of immunoreactivity in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraway, R.E.; Ruane, S.E.; Ritsema, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for Lys8, Asn9, neurotensin 8-13 (LANT-6) has been developed which utilizes 125I-labeled LANT-6 and rabbit antisera raised towards conjugates of synthetic LANT-6 and bovine thyroglobulin. The antiserum described (TG-22) allows the detection of ca 100 fmol of LANT-6 and crossreacts less than 0.01% with chicken or bovine NT. Dose-response relationships for the native (chicken) and synthetic peptides were indistinguishable. Using this assay the distribution of immunoreactive LANT-6 (iLANT-6) through various tissues of the chicken was studied and compared with that of chicken NT (iNT) determined by RIA. Both iNT and ILANT-6 were found primarily in the brain and gastrointestinal tract, however, their regional distributions were found to differ. Subcellular distribution studies in homogenates of chicken brain indicated that both iNT and iLANT-6 were associated with synaptosome-like and vesicle-like particles. In homogenates of small intestine, pancreas and colon iNT and iLANT-6 appeared to be within osmotically sensitive, sedimentable particles. Analyses using high pressure liquid chromatography established that chicken iLANT-6 co-eluted with the synthetic peptide and that similar substances were present in extracts of rat brain and intestine. These results are consistent with ''messenger' roles for these peptides

  1. PRIVACY AS A CULTURAL VALUE WITHIN TRADITIONAL IRANIAN HOUSING: Lessons for Modern Iranian High Density Vertical Development Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyamak Nayyeri Fallah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of value of privacy in shaping Iranian culture is vital. In contrary to modern middle-class Iranian high density vertical development housing, this cultural principle plays a great role in shaping spatial organization of Iranian traditional housing. The aim of this study is to establish a framework to improve spatial organization of modern Iranian high density vertical development (HDVD housing through lessons learnt from traditional Iranian housing. In this regard, to reach the aim through qualitative approach and case study strategy, this value of the Iranian traditional housing was investigated. The data collection methods to collect data from middle-class traditional and modern high-density vertical development (HDVD housing, were multiple tactics as direct observation, open-ended expert interview, semi-structured and focus group interviewing, taking photo, and plan layout. As conclude, it was reached that privacy as a principle governing all aspects of life has had deep impacts on spatial organization of traditional Iranian housing. Thus through using the spatial concept of privacy learnt from traditional Iranian housing can formulate recommendations to betterment spatial organization of middle-class modern Iranian HDVD housing.

  2. A Critical Study of Iranian EFL Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Molavi Vardanjani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the theoretical and pedagogical issues in EFL learning and instruction to explore the research problem ‘the EFL teaching deficiencies in Iranian classrooms’. The primary aim of this study is to provide a solid overview of the second language teaching methods and approaches in the context of English as a foreign language in Iran. The theoretical issues discussed include research on the nature of the two commonly used Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Communicative Language Teaching approaches (CLT, the methodology and strategies employed in Iranian EFL classrooms and evaluating the students’ achievement from the point of view of language teachers and learners. To fulfill the aims of the study, a modified version of a BALLI questionnaire was employed. Results show that in spite of its deficiencies, both teachers and students still prefer to use the traditional GTM.

  3. Supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.

  4. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Laleh; Saadat, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Consanguineous marriage--marriage between relatives--has received a great deal of attention as a potential risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. The present cross-sectional study was done in order to illustrate the prevalence and types of consanguineous marriages among Iranian Georgians living in Frydoonshahr (Isfahan province, central Iran). Data on consanguineous marriages were collected using a simple questionnaire. The total number of couples in this study was 646. Consanguineous marriage was classified by the degree of relationship between couples. First cousin marriages (14.2%) were the most common type of consanguineous marriages, followed by second cousin (7.0%), beyond second cousin (1.5%) and first cousin once removed (0.6%). The mean inbreeding coefficient (α) was calculated as 0.0104 for the population. The present study shows that the study population, as other Iranian populations, has a high level of consanguinity.

  5. Iranian Political Strategy: Ideology or Pragmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, Julien

    2008-01-01

    Iranian political strategy wants to be presented as a political break, with a Pan-Islamic vocation. Brought about by Ayatollah Khomeyni, this political philosophy has produced the intended effects, as seen with the return of more moderate policies. Khomeyni's death confronted the Islamic Republic with a choice: Hachemi Rasfandjani put Iran back into the international scene by conciliating pragmatism with ideological values. In 2005, M. Ahmadinejad came to power. His declarations concerning the Hebrew State and his position on nuclear weapons pose the question as to whether or not Iran is reverting to an export policy of revolution. It is important to place these elements in the historical context of the Islamic Republic so as to see if Iranian foreign policy is again taking an ideological turn or if it is continuing down the lane of pragmatism

  6. Genomic characterization of recent chicken anemia virus isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...

  7. Predicting Greater Prairie-Chicken Lek Site Suitability to Inform Conservation Actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre J Hovick

    Full Text Available The demands of a growing human population dictates that expansion of energy infrastructure, roads, and other development frequently takes place in native rangelands. Particularly, transmission lines and roads commonly divide rural landscapes and increase fragmentation. This has direct and indirect consequences on native wildlife that can be mitigated through thoughtful planning and proactive approaches to identifying areas of high conservation priority. We used nine years (2003-2011 of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido lek locations totaling 870 unique leks sites in Kansas and seven geographic information system (GIS layers describing land cover, topography, and anthropogenic structures to model habitat suitability across the state. The models obtained had low omission rates (0.81, indicating high model performance and reliability of predicted habitat suitability for Greater Prairie-Chickens. We found that elevation was the most influential in predicting lek locations, contributing three times more predictive power than any other variable. However, models were improved by the addition of land cover and anthropogenic features (transmission lines, roads, and oil and gas structures. Overall, our analysis provides a hierarchal understanding of Greater Prairie-Chicken habitat suitability that is broadly based on geomorphological features followed by land cover suitability. We found that when land features and vegetation cover are suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens, fragmentation by anthropogenic sources such as roadways and transmission lines are a concern. Therefore, it is our recommendation that future human development in Kansas avoid areas that our models identified as highly suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens and focus development on land cover types that are of lower conservation concern.

  8. Obstacles Facing the Iranian Basketball Academy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamta Hadian; Mohamad Reza Boroumand; Saeed Amirnejad; Masoud Najafi

    2016-01-01

    This study, which is a strategic study with a mixed research approach aimed to identify obstacles facing the academies of Iranian Basketball Federation. The population comprises board of directors and committees responsible for Education and Talent Spotting Association, academy administrators, physical education instructors, qualified experts, professors, coaches, referees and heads of delegations who were asked via interviews and questionnaire (exploratory manner) to state internal and exter...

  9. Iranian nuclear power and international law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivo, G.

    2006-01-01

    Does the Iranian programme violate the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)? Iran is a signatory to the NPT and whilst certainly within its rights in developing civil nuclear energy, this is not so for the development of nuclear weapons in order to become a regional power which Iran is already not far from becoming. In the face of diverging opinions among the major interested parties (including the UN, United States, EU, Russia and China), how might this crisis be resolved? (author)

  10. Posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    A Rahmani; R Mohammadian; C Ferguson; L Golizadeh; M Zirak; H Chavoshi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the level and determinants of posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-correlational design study was conducted within a university-affiliated oncology hospital in Iran. A convenience sample of 450 patients with a definitive diagnosis of cancer of any type completed a demographic questionnaire and a posttraumatic growth inventory. Some disease-related information was obtained from patients′ medical records. Results: Th...

  11. Native Knowledge in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    1985-01-01

    Native American science is defined as activities of native peoples of the New World in observing physical phenomena and attempting to explain and control them. Problems in studying native science, ethnoscience and native science, archaeostronomy and ethnoastronomy, ethnobotany, agriculture, technology, and future directions are discussed. (JN)

  12. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2011-09-01

    Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  13. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women′s viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. Aim: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. 0 Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. 0 Results: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9% was positive. 36 (15.1% women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4% did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2% said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1% believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Conclusion: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  14. Determination of methanol in Iranian herbal distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Kobra; Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Azar-Khiavi, Kamal Razavi; Moghaddam, Zohreh Samie; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2016-06-01

    Herbal distillates have been used as beverages, for flavoring, or as phytomedicines in many countries for a long time. Recently, the occurrence of blindness after drinking herbal distillates has created concerns in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of methanol in herbal distillates produced in Iran. Eighty-four most commonly used herbal distillates purchased from herbal distillate factories were analyzed for methanol contents by gas chromatography and flame ionization detection, with ethanol as internal standard. In 15 herbal distillates, the methanol concentration was below the limit of quantitation. The methanol concentrations in all samples ranged from 43 to 277 mg/L. Forty-five samples contained methanol in excess of the Iranian standard. The maximum concentration was found in an herbal distillate of Mentha piperita (factory E) (277±12), and the minimum in a distillate of Carum carvi (factory B) (42.6 ± 0.5). Since the 45 Iranian herbal distillates containing methanol levels were beyond the legal limits according to the Iranian standard, it seems necessary to monitor the amount of methanol and give a warning to watch out for the latent risk problem of methanol uptake, and establish a definitive relationship between the degree of intoxication observed and the accumulation of methanol in the blood.

  15. The leadership concept in Iranian nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, R; Ahmadi, F; Vaismoradi, M

    2008-03-01

    Although greater emphasis has been placed on leadership skills in nursing management in the last decade, the concepts are often confused or used erroneously by Iranian nurses. At the same time we have observed that wide variations in nurses' clinical practice appeared to be related to the presence or absence of leadership skills among senior nurses. To begin to identify the concepts used for expressing leadership in nursing within the Iranian cultural context. A qualitative approach was adopted using content analysis of semi-structured interviews carried out with 10 nurse managers from hospitals in Teheran. The data were analysed using the constant comparative method. Fifty-five primary codes were identified from the respondents' experiences and from these three main themes were abstracted for describing the leadership concept. These were 'personality traits', 'being a model', and 'being a spiritual guide for the nursing profession'. Implementing the culture of patient safety and dignity needs leadership. From Iranian nurse managers' perspectives a leader as a spiritual guide should empower nurses spiritually; it means he/she has a vision for nursing; has clear and explicit objectives; and has a commitment to nursing. Nurses who are confident about the underlying concepts of leadership in their culture can help to adapt nursing to an ever-changing healthcare environment.

  16. Enteric disease in broiler chickens following experimental infection with chicken parvovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-old broiler chickens were inoculated orally with the chicken parvovirus strain, chicken parvovirus-P1. In four independent experiments, characteristic clinical signs of enteric disease including watery, mustard color diarrhea and growth retardation were observed following infection. The virus wa...

  17. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tianmu; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yuxiang; Wang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT) alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR). Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types. PMID:28486516

  18. Immortalization of chicken preadipocytes by retroviral transduction of chicken TERT and TR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available The chicken is an important agricultural animal and model for developmental biology, immunology and virology. Excess fat accumulation continues to be a serious problem for the chicken industry. However, chicken adipogenesis and obesity have not been well investigated, because no chicken preadipocyte cell lines have been generated thus far. Here, we successfully generated two immortalized chicken preadipocyte cell lines through transduction of either chicken telomerase reverse transcriptase (chTERT alone or in combination with chicken telomerase RNA (chTR. Both of these cell lines have survived >100 population doublings in vitro, display high telomerase activity and have no sign of replicative senescence. Similar to primary chicken preadipocytes, these two cell lines display a fibroblast-like morphology, retain the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and do not display any signs of malignant transformation. Isoenzyme analysis and PCR-based analysis confirmed that these two cell lines are of chicken origin and are free from inter-species contamination. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of immortal chicken cells by introduction of chTERT and chTR. Our established chicken preadipocyte cell lines show great promise as an in vitro model for the investigation of chicken adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and obesity and its related diseases, and our results also provide clues for immortalizing other avian cell types.

  19. Synthetic food colours in saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken from restaurants in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila; Amirpour, Mansooreh; AkbariAzam, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Saffron solutions, saffron rice and saffron chicken samples were considered for synthetic colours as additives, which are forbidden according to Iranian national standards. Samples were taken from restaurants of three locations and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Of the total 573 samples, 52% were positive for at least one colour. The most prevalent colours were Tartrazine, Quinoline Yellow and Sunset Yellow, with 44%, 9.1% and 8.4% of the samples testing positive for these colours, respectively. Carmoisine and Ponceau were both detected only in 0.5% of the positive samples and found only in saffron solution. In conclusion, synthetic food colours, especially Tartrazine should be regarded as a potential risk in saffron and its related food. Therefore, new attempts for food safety and quality should be undertaken to eliminate the use of these colours in restaurants.

  20. Native fruit traits may mediate dispersal competition between native and non-native plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Aslan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed disperser preferences may mediate the impact of invasive, non-native plant species on their new ecological communities. Significant seed disperser preference for invasives over native species could facilitate the spread of the invasives while impeding native plant dispersal. Such competition for dispersers could negatively impact the fitness of some native plants. Here, we review published literature to identify circumstances under which preference for non-native fruits occurs. The importance of fruit attraction is underscored by several studies demonstrating that invasive, fleshy-fruited plant species are particularly attractive to regional frugivores. A small set of studies directly compare frugivore preference for native vs. invasive species, and we find that different designs and goals within such studies frequently yield contrasting results. When similar native and non-native plant species have been compared, frugivores have tended to show preference for the non-natives. This preference appears to stem from enhanced feeding efficiency or accessibility associated with the non-native fruits. On the other hand, studies examining preference within existing suites of co-occurring species, with no attempt to maximize fruit similarity, show mixed results, with frugivores in most cases acting opportunistically or preferring native species. A simple, exploratory meta-analysis finds significant preference for native species when these studies are examined as a group. We illustrate the contrasting findings typical of these two approaches with results from two small-scale aviary experiments we conducted to determine preference by frugivorous bird species in northern California. In these case studies, native birds preferred the native fruit species as long as it was dissimilar from non-native fruits, while non-native European starlings preferred non-native fruit. However, native birds showed slight, non-significant preference for non-native fruit

  1. A radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulomaa, M.S.; Elo, H.A.; Tuohimaa, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A double-antibody solid-phase radioimmunoassay for chicken avidin is reported. Avidin was labelled with 125 I by the chloramine-T method. The bound and free avidin were separated with a second antibody bound to a solid matrix. In the logit-log scale the standard curve was linear from 1-2 to 100-200ng of avidin/ml. Cross-reaction of ovalbumin was less than 0.015%. Saturation of biotin-binding sites of avidin with an excess of biotin decreased radioimmunoassay values by about 15%. Recovery studies indicated that avidin can be assayed from all chicken tissues studied with radioimmunoassay, whereas the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave poor recoveries for avidin in the liver and kidney. Radioimmunoassay and the [ 14 C]biotin/bentonite method gave similar concentrations for oviduct avidin. (author)

  2. Are happy chickens safer chickens? Poultry welfare and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Tom

    2006-08-01

    1. Contaminated chicken meat remains an internationally important vehicle for human infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. In addition, the last 20 years has seen an international pandemic of human salmonellosis caused by the contamination of eggs with Salmonella Enteritidis. 2. It has been a long held scientific view that Campylobacter spp. and most, if not all of the common zoonotic salmonella, are essentially commensal in chickens. They usually form part of the gut flora and contaminate chicken carcases, for example, by faecal spillage at slaughter. Even when certain salmonella serovars like S. Enteritidis are invasive in laying hens overt evidence of clinical disease is rare and the birds appear to behave normally. 3. Are these bacteria just 'passing through' the avian host and only transient members of the bacterial flora or is there a more dynamic perspective to this infection/colonisation process? Chickens mount antibody responses to both pathogens, which indicate something other than commensalism. Such immune responses, however, do not always result in the clearance of the pathogen. 4. Not all animals in a group will carry salmonella or campylobacter, even under experimental conditions, and will vary, especially those that are outbred, in their responses to pathogen challenge. Identifying the reasons behind this could have important implications for disease control. 5. Both salmonella and campylobacter are more likely to be found in animals, which are compromised and this may explain at least part of the variations seen. Animals are more susceptible to infection when they are in a poor environment, fed a poor diet and/or under physical or psychological stress. 6. Work in this area has naturally focused on pathogens of medical significance and has shown that neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline can markedly alter pathogen behaviour. Other host responses like Interferon gamma can also affect host tissues in a way, which facilitates invasion by

  3. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  4. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2004-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  5. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2005-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  6. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  7. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriquez, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  8. Reflection of Learning Theories in Iranian ELT Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghad, Hossein Hashem

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT…

  9. An Investigation into Ambiguity Tolerance in Iranian Senior EFL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Amin; Barati, Hossein; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore how tolerant of ambiguity Iranian EFL learners at university level are and if gender plays a role in this regard. To this end, upon filling in the revised SLTAS scale of ambiguity tolerance 194 male and female Iranian teacher trainees were assigned to three ambiguity tolerance groups; namely, high, moderate and…

  10. Effects of essential oils of oregano and nutmeg on growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes in barbecued chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzi, R; Shekarforoush, S S; Nazer, A H K; Borumand, Z; Jooyandeh, A R

    2007-11-01

    The in vitro effects of plant essential oils (EOs) against pathogenic bacteria are well known, yet few studies have addressed the effects of these compounds against pathogens associated with ready-to-cook foods. Experiments were conducted to determine the effectiveness of oregano and nutmeg EOs on the growth and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes in broth culture and in Iranian barbecued chicken. Ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken was prepared according to the common practice with 1, 2, and 3 microl/g of oregano and nutmeg EOs. The test and control (without EOs) samples were inoculated with Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes to a final concentration of 6 to 7 log CFU/g and stored at 3, 8, and 20 degrees C. Microorganisms were counted just before and at 24, 48, and 72 h after storage based on growth on Yersinia selective agar supplemented with cefsulodine, igrasan, and novobiocin and on Listeria selective agar supplemented with nalidixic acid and acriflavin. In the broth culture system, the nutmeg EO had a greater effect on L. monocytogenes (MIC = 0.20 nicrol/ml) than did the oregano EO (MIC = 0.26 microl/ml). However, the oregano EO had a greater effect on Y. enterocolitica (MIC = 0.16 microl/ml) than did the nutmeg EO (MIC = 0.25 microl/ml). In ready-to-cook Iranian barbecued chicken, the log CFU per gram of both bacteria after up to 72 h of incubation was not decreased significantly by various combinations of oregano and nutmeg EOs (1, 2, and 3 microl/g) and storage temperatures (3, 8, and 20 degrees C) when compared with control samples (without EOs). Although examination of spices in culture media can yield accurate microbiological data, without complementary tests in foods these data are of limited value for assessing food safety.

  11. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  12. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non......-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgrading and downgrading, wage and employment of natives in the short and long run. We find...... that the increased supply of non-EU low skilled immigrants pushed native workers to pursue more complex occupations. This reallocation happened mainly through movement across firms. Immigration increased mobility of natives across firms and across municipalities but it did not increase their probability...

  13. Crowing Sound Analysis of Gaga' Chicken; Local Chicken from South Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilita Bugiwati, Sri Rachma; Ashari, Fachri

    2008-01-01

    Gaga??? chicken was known as a local chicken at South Sulawesi Indonesia which has unique, specific, and different crowing sound, especially at the ending of crowing sound which is like the voice character of human laughing, comparing with the other types of singing chicken in the world. 287 birds of Gaga??? chicken at 3 districts at the centre habitat of Gaga??? chicken were separated into 2 groups (163 birds of Dangdut type and 124 birds of Slow type) which is based on the speed...

  14. Biological treatment of chicken feather waste for improved biogas production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gergely Forgács; Saeid Alinezhad; Amir Mirabdollah; Elisabeth Feuk-Lagerstedt; Ilona Sárvári Horwáth

    2011-01-01

    A two-stage system was developed which combines the biological degradation of keratin-rich waste with the production of biogas.Chicken feather waste was treated biologically with a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain showing keratinase activity prior to biogas production.Chopped,autoclaved chicken feathers (4%,W/V) were completely degraded,resulting in a yellowish fermentation broth with a level of 0.51 mg/mL soluble proteins after 8 days of cultivation of the recombinant strain.During the subsequent anaerobic batch digestion experiments,methane production of 0.35 Nm3/kg dry feathers (i.e.,0.4 Nm3/kg volatile solids of feathers),corresponding to 80% of the theoretical value on proteins,was achieved from the feather hydrolyzates,independently of the prehydrolysis time period of 1,2 or 8 days.Cultivation with a native keratinase producing strain,Bacillus licheniformis resulted in only 0.25 mg/mL soluble proteins in the feather hydrolyzate,which then was digested achieving a maximum accumulated methane production of 0.31 Nm3/kg dry feathers.Feather hydrolyzates treated with the wild type B.megaterium produced 0.21 Nm3 CH4/kg dry feathers as maximum yield.

  15. Polymorphism in exon2 of BMP15 gene in Iranian sangsari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zana pirkhezranian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fertility rate is an economically important trait in sheep, which is influenced by genetic and environment. So far, three genes have been identified that affects this trait, one of them would be the BMP family, the most famous one is BMP15. Different mutations in the BMP15 gene, increases reproductive performance and growth rate in sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic and phylogenetic of BMP15 gene sequence in Iranian Sangsari sheep. For this purpose, the blood samples from 20 animal of Damghan station were collected. After DNA extracting, a segment of 222 bp of exon 2 of BMP15 gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Then, all of the PCR products were sequenced. The results showed existence of four haplotypes and three significant mutations of the gene that which one of them was seen for first. In order to determine the genetic distance of Sansari sheep with other animals especially sheep breeds about 103 sequences were taken from Genebank, Then, phylogenetic trees were drawn. Genetic distances and nucleotide differences were calculated. The results showed that goat, cattle and buffalo have minimum genetic distance and monkey, human and mouse have maximum distance with Sangsari sheep and native Hindi and Kashmiri sheep have not any differences with Iranian Sangsari sheep.

  16. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  17. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-05-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  18. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  19. Iranian Democratization Part I: A Historical Case Study of the Iranian Green Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Sundquist

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 Iranian Presidential Elections represented one of the most contentious displays of the evolving Iranian democracy since the 1979 Islamic Revolution that led to the removal of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi – the nation’s last shah. This tumultuous political event not only exposed a growing rift between the political and religious ruling elite in that country; it also led to the emergence of an opposition movement that would later be known as the Green Revolution. Viewed through a Western political lens, this revolution represented yet another opportunity for the demise of the ruling Iranian Islamic Regime. Recently, some scholars have questioned whether this movement was ever intended to topple the government in the first place, and have argued instead that it represented the beginning of a long-term civil rights push. To better understand why the Green Movement emerged one must first understand what the original intent of the movement was, as well as the political factors that led to its rapid growth. In order to answer these questions, this article will compare and contrast identified similarities and differences between the 1979 Islamic Revolution and 2009 Green Movement in order to isolate the true intent behind this perceived Iranian political revolt.

  20. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  1. Verb-Noun Collocations in Written Discourse of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ebrahimi-Bazzaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available When native speakers of English write, they employ both grammatical rules and collocations. Collocations are words that are present in the memory of native speakers as ready-made prefabricated chunks. Non-native speakers who wish to acquire native-like fluency should give appropriate attention to collocations in writing in order not to produce sentences that native speakers may consider odd. The present study tries to explore the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse of English as foreign language (EFL among Iranian EFL learners from one academic year to the next in Iran. To measure the use of verb-noun collocations in written discourse, there was a 60-minute task of writing story  based on a series of six pictures whereby for each picture, three verb-noun collocations were measured, and nouns were provided to limit the choice of collocations. The results of the statistical analysis of ANOVA for the research question indicated that there was a significant difference in the use of lexical verb-noun collocations in written discourse both between and within the four academic years. The results of a post hoc multiple comparison tests confirmed that the means are significantly different between the first year and the third and fourth years, between the second and the fourth, and between the third and the fourth academic year which indicate substantial development in verb-noun collocation proficiency.  The vital implication is that the learners could use verb-noun collocations in productive skill of writing.

  2. Omega-3 and omega-6 content of medicinal foods for depressed patients: implications from the Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Tavakkoli-Kakhki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in modern societies and the positive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, this study aims to investigate the omega-3 and omega-6 content of various foodstuffs, prescribed or prohibited by Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Materials and Methods: Firstly, reliable sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were reviewed in order to identify the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. Afterwards, according to the online database of United States Department of Agriculture (URL: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list, the ratio of linoleic acid to alpha linolenic acid (as representatives of omega-6 and omega-3, respectively was identified in each foodstuff. Finally, the ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 were compared between seven food groups of vegetables, fruits, dry goods, high protein products, dairies, breads, and spices. Results: Based on the resources of Iranian Traditional Medicine, the following foods are prescribed for depressed patients: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, beet, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, trout, milk, bread without bran,saffron, oregano, and coriander seeds. On the other hand, cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, beef, whole wheat bread, and mustard are prohibited. It should be noted that omega-3 content in some prescribed foods is more than that of the prohibited ones. Conclusion: The present study showed that mint, basil, spinach, lettuce, squash, lamb, saffron, oregano, cucumber, pistachio, milk, and also wild trout can be considered as medicinal foods for depressed patients.

  3. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  4. Campylobacter jejuni diarrhea model in infant chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanyal, S. C.; Islam, K. M.; Neogy, P. K.; Islam, M.; Speelman, P.; Huq, M. I.

    1984-01-01

    To study the pathogenic mechanisms of Campylobacter jejuni infection, 36- to 72-h-old chickens were fed 10(3) to 10(6) live cells, using strains isolated from 40 patients with watery diarrhea and 6 with bloody mucoid diarrhea from whom no other known enteropathogen was detected. Chickens of Starbro

  5. Ectoparasites and Haemoparasites of Indigenous Chicken ( Gallus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research undertook the study of ectoparasites and haemoparasites found on and in the body of indigenous chicken (Gallus domesticus). Six hundred and nineteen ectoparasites were collected from 375 chicken from 28 households in and around Ibadan city between February and November, 1999. Of these, 455 ...

  6. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  7. What's so special about chicken immunology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s so special about chickens? Firstly, chickens are not only an invaluable model for studying immunology, they also provide the world’s main source of meat and will be a key protein source needed to feed the growing human population into the future. Poultry meat production is highly efficient ...

  8. Characterization of the chicken muscle insulin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamo, M.; Simon, J.; Rosebrough, R.W.; McMurtry, J.P.; Steele, N.C.; LeRoith, D.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin receptors are present in chicken skeletal muscle. Crude membrane preparations demonstrated specific 125 I-insulin binding. The nonspecific binding was high (36-55% of total binding) and slightly lower affinity receptors were found than are typically observed for crude membrane insulin binding in other chicken tissues. Affinity crosslinking of 125 I-insulin to crude membranes revealed insulin receptor alpha-subunits of Mr 128K, intermediate between those of liver (134K) and brain (124K). When solubilized and partially purified on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) affinity columns, chicken muscle insulin receptors exhibited typical high affinity binding, with approximately 10(-10) M unlabeled insulin producing 50% inhibition of the specific 125 I-insulin binding. WGA purified chicken muscle insulin receptors also exhibited insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of the beta-subunit, which appeared as phosphorylated bands of 92- and 81K. Both bands were immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antiserum (B10). WGA purified membranes also demonstrated dose-dependent insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the exogenous substrate poly(Glu,Tyr)4:1. However, unlike chicken liver, chicken muscle insulin receptor number and tyrosine kinase activity were unaltered by 48 hr of fasting or 48 hr of fasting and 24 hr of refeeding. Thus, despite the presence of insulin receptors in chicken muscle showing normal coupling to receptor tyrosine kinase activity, nutritional alterations modulate these parameters in a tissue-specific manner in chickens

  9. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodzik, Marta; Sawosz, Filip; Sawosz, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    factors of chicken embryo pectoral muscles. ND, Gln, and Gln/ND solutions (50 mg/L) were injected into fertilized broiler chicken eggs at the beginning of embryogenesis. Muscle tissue was dissected at day 20 of incubation and analysed for gene expression of FGF2, VEGF-A, and MyoD1. ND and especially Gln...

  10. Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngeno, K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Ngeno, K. (2015). Breeding program for indigenous chicken in Kenya. Analysis of diversity in indigenous chicken populations. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands

    The objective of this research was to generate knowledge required for the

  11. Iranian Health Literacy Questionnaire (IHLQ): An Instrument for Measuring Health Literacy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Aarabi, Mohsen; Montazeri, Ali; Tavousi, Mahmoud; Solimanian, Atoosa; Sarbandi, Fatemeh; Namdar, Hosein; Iranpour, Abedin

    2015-06-01

    Promoting Health Literacy (HL) is considered as an important goal in strategic plans of many countries. In spite of the necessity for access to valid, reliable and native HL instruments, the number of such instruments in the Persian language is scarce. Moreover, there is no good estimation of HL status in Iran. The aim of this study was to provide a valid, reliable and native instrument to measure and monitor community HL in Iran and also, to provide an estimation of HL status in two Iranian provinces. By applying the multistage cluster sampling, 1080 respondents (540 from each gender) were recruited from Kerman and Mazandaran provinces of Iran, from February to June 2014 to participate in this cross-sectional study. The development of the Iranian Health Literacy Questionnaire (IHLQ) was initiated with a comprehensive review of the literature. Then, face, content and construct validity as well as reliability were determined. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability (ICC) of the factors was in the range of 0.71 to 0.96 and 0.73 to 0.86, respectively. In order to construct validity, Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) = 0.95 and Bartlett's test result of 3.017 with P < 0.001) with varimax rotation was used. Optimal reduced solution, including 36 items and seven factors, was found in EFA. Five of the factors identified were reading/comprehension skills, individual empowerment, communication/decision-making skills, social empowerment and health knowledge. It was concluded that IHLQ might be a practical and useful tool for investigating HL for Persian language speakers around the world. Since HL is dynamic and its instruments should be regularly revised, further studies are recommended to assess HL with application of IHLQ to detect its potential imperfections.

  12. Iranians' contribution to world literature on neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Farzad; Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hafez; Shokraneh, Farhad; Valinejadi, Ali; Johari, Karim; Saemi, Nazanin; Zali, Alireza; Mohaghegh, Niloofar; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse Iranian scientific publications in the neuroscience subfields by librarians and neuroscientists, using Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) via Web of Science data over the period, 2002-2008. Data were retrieved from the SCIE. Data were collected from the 'subject area' of the database and classified by neuroscience experts into 14 subfields. To identify the citation patterns, we applied the 'impact factor' and the 'number of publication'. Data were also analysed using HISTCITE, Excel 2007 and SPSS. Seven hundred and thirty-four papers have been published by Iranian between 2002 and 2008. Findings showed a growing trend of neuroscience papers in the last 3 years with most papers (264) classified in the neuropharmacology subfield. There were fewer papers in neurohistory, psychopharmacology and artificial intelligence. International contributions of authors were mostly in the neurology subfield, and 'Collaboration Coefficient' for the neuroscience subfields in Iran was 0.686 which is acceptable. Most international collaboration between Iranians and developed countries was from USA. Eighty-seven percent of the published papers were in journals with the impact factor between 0 and 4; 25% of papers were published by the researchers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Progress of neuroscience in Iran is mostly seen in the neuropharmacology and the neurology subfields. Other subfields should also be considered as a research priority by health policymakers. As this study was carried out by the collaboration of librarians and neuroscientists, it has been proved valuable for both librarians and policymakers. This study may be encouraging for librarians from other developing countries. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  13. Iranian gas will be an issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with director of the Nabucco project, Reinhard Mitchek is published. There is extract from this interview: Iranian gas is a politically sensitive topic Europe cannot avoid I believe that it will become a topic in Europe in the medium to long term. Shouldn't Europe declare that it needs Iranian gas? Otherwise Russia or China may take over. I do not want to advise the European Commission via the media. Iranian gas would bring the Nabucco project closer to reality. A common European Union (EU) foreign policy and common foreign energy policy in particular will be of major importance. We of course need competition in the EU gas sector. But that is a business topic. The political issue is the competitiveness of Europe as an entity competing for energy sources with other regions. The European Union keeps repeating that the Nabucco project has high priority. But what steps has it undertaken to support it? The Commissioner for Energy, Andris Piebalgs, and the Commissioner for External Relations and European Neighbourhood Policy, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, visited Central Asia and supported the export of gas to Europe. That is exactly what Russia does and with more success. We will see. Naturally - these countries have a history of relationships with Russia. Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have been exporting gas to Russia. But in the meantime these countries also want to extend their export portfolio. We think that through the Trans-Caspian pipeline and the existing gas pipeline connecting Azerbaijan with Turkey, gas from Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan will also get to Nabucco. (authors)

  14. Nuclear waste treatment using Iranian natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemian, H.; Ghannadi Maraghe, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The zeolite researches in Iran is a relatively new subject which has started about 10 years ago. The motivation for this scientific and interesting field was provided after discovery of significant deposits of natural zeolites in different regions of Iran as well as further developments of research institutions and the national concern to environmental protection especially the wastewater clean-up in point of view of recycling of such waste water to compensate some needs to water in other utilizations. This paper intends to review and describes scientific researches which have done on using zeolites in the field of nuclear waste treatment in Iran to introduce the potential resources to the world in more details. Zeolite tuffs are widely distributed in huge deposits in different regions of Iran. So far, the clinoptilolite tuffs are the most abundant natural zeolite which exist with zeolite content of 65%- 95%. Nowadays several different types of Iranian natural zeolites are characterized in point of view of chemical composition, type of structure, chemical, thermal, and radiation resistance using different instrumental and classical methods such as; X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluoresce (XRF), thermal methods of analysis (TA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), analytical chemistry and radioanalytical methods as well as different ion-exchange techniques (e.g.3-7). The ability of Iranian natural clinoptilolite for removal of some fission products from nuclear wastewaters have been investigated. The selectivity of all investigated zeolites toward radiocesium and radiostrontium have been promising (e.g. 8-10). The successful synthesize of P zeolite from Iranian clinoptilolite-reach tuffs under different conditions were performed. The compatibility of zeolites with glass and cement matrices, for final disposal of radwaste, as well as their selectivity toward most dangerous heat generating radionuclides (e.g. 137 Cs and 90 Sr) is very important in using

  15. Iranians Culture and Personality in Foreign Itinerary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mirzaei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Itineraries have been an important source of knowing cultural and social characteristics of societies, but this has been involved with some limitations in understanding, knowledge and interpretation. In fact, travel diaries are a kind of narrative. This narrative is restricted by time, place, situation and events.This article studies itineraries written by foreigners about Iranians and their cultural – social characters. This narrative has a pathological aspect, being dominant aspect in foreign travel diaries. Certainly, they present a biased and presupposed picture of our history, but they could be very instructive.

  16. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken embryonic stem (ES) cells are useful for producing transgenic chickens and preserving genetic material in avian species. In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated in vitro. Chicken ES cells were differentiated into osteoblasts cultured for 15 to 21 days in the induction media ...

  17. Iranians and Their Pride: Modalities of Political Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Mansoor

    In 2000, we asked a nationally representative sample of 2,532 Iranian adults "which of the following best describes you: I am an Iranian, above all; I am a Muslim, above all; I am an Arab, a Kurd, a Turk, a Baluch, etc., above all?" We also asked them how proud they are to be Iranian; (1) very proud, (2) proud, (3) not proud, and (4) not proud at all. In the 2005 survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,667 Iranian adults, we asked these questions again. The first question was intended to measure national identity and the second national pride. The results showed that between the two surveys the percent of Iranians who defined themselves as "Iranians, above all" went up significantly-from 35% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Those who said that they were very proud to be Iranian, on the other hand, went down considerably-from 89% in 2000 to 64% in 2005. What is more, national identity and national pride displayed opposing relationships with the norms and values that were rigorously promoted by Iran's religious regime and these relationships grew stronger between 2000 and 2005. The feeling of national pride was positively linked to attitudes toward gender inequality, religiosity, and religious intolerance, but negatively to attitudes toward the West, while national identity had just the opposite relationships with these variables.

  18. Facial Anthropometric Norms of the Young Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Mohammad; Shariati, Mahsa; Rajaeirad, Fatemeh; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Davoudmanesh, Zeinab

    2018-06-01

    Facial anthropometric measurement is considered an essential concern of surgeons, orthodontists, artists and forensic scientists. The aim of this study is to investigate facial anthropometric norms of the young Iranian population. The study participants consisted of 200 healthy Iranian students (100 males, 100 females) aged 18-25 years old. Twenty-three liner and four angular measurements were investigated twice by a dentist. Independent-samples t test was used to compare indices between males and females and also between countries. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. It was found that the mean measurements of c'-sn' of both sides, nasolabial angle, trichion-gnathion, tragion-tragion and gnathion-gnathion were statistically greater in Iranian males than in females ( p  < 0.05). Comparing Iranian anthropometric norms with North American Whites, Malays, Turkish and African American women demonstrated that there were statistically significant differences in most anthropometric measurements between Iranians and other populations ( p  < 0.05). In Iranians, mean measurements of c'-sn' of the right and left sides, nasolabial angle, trichion-gnathion, tragion-tragion and gnathion-gnathion were greater in men than in women. Comparing Iranian males and females with different ethnicities indicated several interracial differences, which should be taken into consideration when dealing with patients or also practitioners originated in this region.

  19. The influence of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminpour, Farzaneh

    2012-02-01

    Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5%) Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7%) journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6%) journals were in English, 102 (62.6%) in Persian, and three (1.8%) were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.

  20. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  1. Analysis of the function of IL-10 in chickens using specific neutralising antibodies and a sensitive capture ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Hu, Tuanjun; Rothwell, Lisa; Vervelde, Lonneke; Kaiser, Pete; Boulton, Kay; Nolan, Matthew J; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Hume, David A

    2016-10-01

    In mammals, the inducible cytokine interleukin 10 is a feedback negative regulator of inflammation. To determine the extent to which this function is conserved in birds, recombinant chicken IL-10 was expressed as a secreted human Ig Fc fusion protein (chIL-10-Fc) and used to immunise mice. Five monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which specifically recognise chicken IL-10 were generated and characterised. Two capture ELISA assays were developed which detected native chIL-10 secreted from chicken bone marrow-derived macrophages (chBMMs) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Three of the mAbs detected intracellular IL-10. This was detected in only a subset of the same LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The ELISA assay also detected massive increases in circulating IL-10 in chickens challenged with the coccidial parasite, Eimeria tenella. The same mAbs neutralised the bioactivity of recombinant chIL-10. The role of IL-10 in feedback control was tested in vitro. The neutralising antibodies prevented IL-10-induced inhibition of IFN-γ synthesis by mitogen-activated lymphocytes and increased nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated chBMMs. The results confirm that IL-10 is an inducible feedback regulator of immune response in chickens, and could be the target for improved vaccine efficacy or breeding strategies. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukos, David A.; Spencer, David; Hagen, Christian A.; Daniels, Melinda D.; Goodin, Doug

    2017-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1) document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population) from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2) assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP) to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s). Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful in

  3. Conservation Reserve Program mitigates grassland loss in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spencer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century, the overall occupied range of the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus has declined by 84% commensurate with population trends. Much of this decline has been attributed to the loss and fragmentation of native grasslands throughout the lesser prairie-chicken range. However, quantification of changes in land cover in the distribution of the lesser prairie-chicken is lacking. Our objectives were to (1 document changes in the areal extent and connectivity of grasslands in the identified lesser prairie-chicken range in Kansas, USA, (>60% of extant lesser prairie-chicken population from the 1950s to 2013 using remotely sensed data and (2 assess the potential of the Conservation Reserve Program (U.S. Department of Agriculture Program converting cropland to permanent cover; CRP to mitigate grassland loss. Digital land cover maps were generated on a decadal time step through spectral classification of LANDSAT images and visual analysis of aerial photographs (1950s and 1960s. Landscape composition and configuration were assessed using FRAGSTATS to compute a variety of landscape metrics measuring changes in the amount of grassland present as well as changes in the size and configuration of grassland patches. With the exception of a single regional portion of the range, nearly all of the grassland converted to cropland in the lesser prairie-chicken range of Kansas occurred prior to the 1950s. Prior to the implementation of CRP, the amount of grassland decreased 3.6% between the 1950s and 1985 from 18,455 km2 to 17,788 km2. Since 1985, the overall amount of grassland in the lesser prairie-chicken range has increased 11.9% to 19,898 km2 due to implementation of CRP, although the area of grassland decreased between 1994 and 2013 as CRP contracts were not renewed by landowners. Since 1986 grassland in Kansas became more connected and less fragmented in response to the CRP. While the CRP has been successful

  4. The Anglo-Iranian oil dispute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrier, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the Anglo-Iranian oil dispute. It is short-sighted to consider the Anglo-Iranian oil dispute just as a contest between Musaddiq and the AIOC: it is of wider and greater significance. The dispute illustrates a transitional phase in the difficult process of the adjustment of relations between industrialized and less developed societies for the exploitation of raw materials. Oil was already becoming a political and economic factor at the end of the Qajar period and became important during the reign of Riza Shah with his emphasis on a national program of modernization. After more attention had been focused on it during the second world war it was inevitable that it would increase in influence. The issues of the oil dispute referred back to the concessional controversies of the late nineteenth century in tobacco, mining, communications, utilities, banking even gambling, with their political and social implications; and they referred forward to the issues of the sovereignty of national resources, the transfer of technology and economic growth in relation to the standard of living. These are aspects of the North-South debate, which have yet to be satisfactorily resolved

  5. The Iranian space endeavor ambitions and reality

    CERN Document Server

    Tarikhi, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    For those who see the trend of progress and movement of the Iranian space endeavor from the outside, it can be difficult to understand what goes on behind the scenes. However, for one who observes these events firsthand, they take on a very different meaning. In this book, the author brings new and different profiles of Iran’s space endeavor to light. Iran claims to be the ninth leading country in the world capable of manufacturing satellites and launching them, plans to land an astronaut on the Moon within a decade, and says its own president plans to be the first Iranian astronaut to travel into space. The author explains in this book that not all of these claims are quite as they seem.  In addition to technical explanations, the book also includes historical, legal, social and cultural aspects of Iran’s space program as well. It is the author’s goal to create a tangible feeling of Iran’s space endeavor for the readers.

  6. Phenotypic and genotypic variation in Iranian Pistachios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Iran is one of the richest pistachio germplasms a few studies have been conducted on different sexes of pistachio trees, in areas where this crop emerged. To this end, 40 male and female Iranian pistachio genotypes from Feizabad region, Khorasan, Iran; were evaluated using morphological characters and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. For morphological assessments, 54 variables were considered to investigate similarities between and among the studied genotypes. Morphological data indicated relative superiority in some female genotypes (such as Sefid 1, Sefid Sabuni 2, Garmesiah, and Ghermezdorosht Z regarding characters such as halfcrackedness, the percentages of protein and fat content. 115 polymorphic bands were recorded with 92.83% average polymorphism among all primers. The total resolving power (Rp of the primers was 74.54. The range of genetic similarity varied from about 0.31 to about 0.70. Genotypes were segregated into eight groups at the similarity limit of 0.41. Results of present investigation could be helpful for strategic decisions for maintaining Iranian pistachio genotypes.

  7. Iranian and Kazakh representatives visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 1st and 4th March respectively, CERN received visits from Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, and Reza Mansouri, Deputy Minister for Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Asset Issekeshev and his delegation came to CERN with the aim of learning "the European way of building strong and effective ties between science and the industrial sector". Welcomed by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, he visited the ATLAS assembly hall and the CLIC installations before signing the visitors' book. After a short visit to Point 5 (CMS), Reza Mansouri met CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, before talking to Iranian PhD students working on their theses at CERN. Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, signs the visitors' book, watched by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General.From left to right: Mojtaba Mohammadi and Majid Hashemi (Iranian PhD students at CERN); Dr Daniel Denegri (CMS), Professor Re...

  8. Posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, A; Mohammadian, R; Ferguson, C; Golizadeh, L; Zirak, M; Chavoshi, H

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the level and determinants of posttraumatic growth in Iranian cancer patients. This descriptive-correlational design study was conducted within a university-affiliated oncology hospital in Iran. A convenience sample of 450 patients with a definitive diagnosis of cancer of any type completed a demographic questionnaire and a posttraumatic growth inventory. Some disease-related information was obtained from patients' medical records. The mean of posttraumatic growth reported by participants was 76.1. There was a statistically significant association between experience of posttraumatic growth and age (r = - 0.21, P=0.001), education at university level (F = 8.9, P=0.001) and history of treatment by radiotherapy (t = 2.1, P=0.03). The findings of this study suggest that Iranian cancer patients experience a moderate to high level of posttraumatic growth and confirm the hypothesis that the level of posttraumatic growth in non-Western cancer patients is more than that of Western cancer patients. Although, assessing the reasons for this difference needs more investigations.

  9. Iranian nurses' constraint for research utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Neda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.

  10. Oral DNA Vaccine in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Jazayeri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated Salmonella has been used as a carrier for DNA vaccine. However, in vitro and in vivo studies on the bacteria following transfection of plasmid DNA were poorly studied. In this paper, eukaryotic expression plasmids encoding avian influenza virus (AIV subtype H5N1 genes, pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP, were transfected into an attenuated Salmonella enteric typhimurium SV4089. In vitro stability of the transfected plasmids into Salmonella were over 90% after 100 generations. The attenuated Salmonella were able to invade MCF-7 (1.2% and MCF-10A (0.5% human breast cancer cells. Newly hatched specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicks were inoculated once by oral gavage with 109 colony-forming unit (CFU of the attenuated Salmonella. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths were recorded after inoculation. Viable bacteria were detected 3 days after inoculation by plating from spleen, liver, and cecum. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were carried out for confirmation. Salmonella was not detected in blood cultures although serum antibody immune responses to Salmonella O antiserum group D1 factor 1, 9, and 12 antigens were observed in all the inoculated chickens after 7 days up to 35 days. Our results showed that live attenuated S. typhimurium SV4089 harboring pcDNA3.1/HA, NA, and NP may provide a unique alternative as a carrier for DNA oral vaccine in chickens.

  11. The diversity of leptin gene in Iranian native, Holstein and Brown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Fruhbeck et al., 1998). Plasma leptin levels in cattle and sheep increase linearly with increased body fat mass and with increased energy balance (Blache et al., 2000; Ehrhardt et al., 2000). Leptin gene expressed in a variety of tissues ...

  12. Characterization and increment of amylase production in mutant strains of Iranian native Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mobini-Dehkordi

    2017-03-01

    Results: In this study, two interesting mutant strains were isolated and named B.L.2.M.1 and B.L.2.M.2. Mutations caused many changes in bacteria such as cell growth speed and enzyme production content. Differences in cell growth, production of amylase and other characters were significant at 0.05 level (Pvalue

  13. Iranian entrepreneurs at home and in diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs use their competencies to discover and exploit opportunities for doing business. Both entrepreneurial competencies and performance expectedly depend on social circumstances, and specifically differ between natives and emigrants. Here the question is, how do entrepreneurs in Iran and...

  14. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  15. Toxigenic penicillia spoiling frozen chicken nuggets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigmann, Evelin Francine; Saccomori, Fernanda; Bernardi, Angelica Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Frozen chicken nuggets are classified as pre-prepared frozen meals. These products are convenient to consumers as they are easy to prepare and allow for long storage by freezing. Over the years, spoilage of frozen food products caused by fungi has been a continual problem for the food industry...... of filamentous fungi involved in the spoilage of frozen chicken nuggets and determine their ability to produce mycotoxins under laboratorial conditions. A total of 7 samples of frozen chicken nuggets were analyzed by dilution plating in potato dextrose agar (PDA). These products had been returned by customers...

  16. Iranian Joint Registry(Iranian National Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Aslani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran’s Ministry of Health and Education.

  17. Biological potantial of some Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... ... Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the control of soil borne plant pathogenic ... Although in many cases, these pesticides appear to be the most ... pathogens and nematodes by microorganisms has been considered a more ...

  18. Determining Psychometric Properties of Iranian Active Aging Measurement Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion The 40-item AAMI consisting of six factors in the present study not only was shown to be reliable, valid and appropriate for Iranian older adults but was also confirmed to have both subjective and objective dimensions.

  19. Iranian Strategy in Iraq: Politics and 'Other Means'

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Felter, Joseph H; Fishman, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... Second, Iran uses the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and Qods Force (QF) to provide aid in the form of paramilitary training, weapons, and equipment to various Iraqi militant groups, including Moqtada al-Sadr's Jaysh al-Mahdi (JAM...

  20. Identification of Child Maltreatment in Iranian Children with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Child abuse and neglect consists of any acts of commission ... of different types of child maltreatment in Iranian kids according to the reports of their caregivers. .... used to measure verbal and symbolic acts by the parents intended ...

  1. Designing the customer (insurers) satisfaction model of the Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The qualitative modeling process of this research, which was carried out in the grounded theory ... for insurers in the insurance industry of Iran (according to Iranian- Islamic characteristics).

  2. Campylobacter jejuni infection in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A Singh; Shivaprasad, H L; Schaberg, D; Wier, F; Weber, S; Bandli, D

    2006-03-01

    Day-old, straight-run broiler chickens were procured from a hatchery located in the Pacific Northwest. The chickens were subdivided individually into nine groups of 20 chickens. The chickens were tagged, housed in isolation chambers on wire, fed commercial broiler feed, and given water ad libitum. Three isolates of Campylobacter jejuni of poultry origin and one of human origin were tested in this study. Various C. jejuni cultures were inoculated into 9-day-old chickens by crop gavage. Four groups of 20 chickens were inoculated at a dose level of 0.5 ml of 1 x 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. The other four groups were inoculated with 0.5 ml of 1 X 10(4) CFU/ml. One group of 20 chickens was kept as an uninoculated control group. Four randomly selected chickens from each of the inoculated and uninoculated groups were necropsied at 5, 12, and 19 days postinoculation (DPI). The C. jejuni was cultured and enumerated from a composite of the upper and midintestine and the cecum. Body weights of all chicken groups at 7 days of age and at 5, 12, and 19 DPI were measured and statistically analyzed. No significant differences were present in the mean body weights (MBWs) of 7-day-old, 5 DPI, and 12 DPI male and female broiler chickens inoculated with C. jejuni at both dose levels compared with uninoculated controls. Differences in MBWs of the male and female broilers at 19 DPI were observed in some of the groups. Results of the C. jejuni culture enumeration mean (CEM) of composite intestine samples at 5 DPI from all inoculated chicken groups, irrespective of the dose level, ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(2) to (2.8 +/- 4.8) x 10(5) CFU/g (mean +/- SD). Results of cecum C. jejuni CEM at 5 DPI inoculated at both dose levels ranged from (2.5 +/- 5.0) x 10(6) to (1 +/- 0.0) x 10(7) CFU/g in all treatment groups irrespective of the dose level. CEM results from the composite intestine samples at 12 and 19 DPI increased by 1 log unit, or sometimes more. Results of cecum C. jejuni

  3. Quality Evaluation of Chicken Nugget Formulated with Various Contents of Chicken Skin and Wheat Fiber Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Kon-Joong; Lee, Jong-Wan; Kim, Gye-Woong; Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of various mixtures of the chicken skin and wheat fiber on the properties of chicken nuggets. Two skin and fiber mixtures (SFM) were prepared using the following formulations; SFM-1: chicken skin (50%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (30%); and SFM-2: chicken skin (30%), wheat fiber (20%), and ice (50%). Chicken nugget samples were prepared by adding the following amounts of either SFM-1 or SFM-2: 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%. The water content for samples formulated with SFM-1 or SFM-2 was higher than in the control (pchicken nuggets was higher than that of cooked chicken nuggets for all the samples tested. Chicken nuggets formulated with SFM-1 and SFM-2 displayed higher cooking yields than the control sample. The hardness of the control sample was also lower than the samples containing SFM-1 and SFM-2. The sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between the control and the samples containing SFM. Therefore, the incorporation of a chicken skin and wheat fiber mixture improved the quality of chicken nuggets. PMID:26761796

  4. Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Vaseghi; Hamed Barjesteh; Sedigheh Shakib

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual) Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Pref...

  5. Physician′s acquittal of responsibility in Iranian statutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Iranian legislator didn′t specify a kind of physician′s acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient′s consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant.

  6. Iranian academia: evolution after revolution and plagiarism as a disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.

  7. Blood flow velocity measurements in chicken embryo vascular network via PIV approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurochkin, Maxim A.; Stiukhina, Elena S.; Fedosov, Ivan V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2018-04-01

    A method for measuring of blood velocity in the native vasculature of a chick embryo by the method of micro anemometry from particle images (μPIV) is improved. A method for interrogation regions sorting by the mask of the vasculature is proposed. A method for sorting of the velocity field of capillary blood flow is implemented. The in vitro method was evaluated for accuracy in a glass phantom of a blood vessel with a diameter of 50 μm and in vivo on the bloodstream of a chicken embryo, by comparing the transverse profile of the blood velocity obtained by the PIV method with the theoretical Poiseuille laminar flow profile.

  8. Anesthesia and pain management in traditional Iranian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Alireza; Alembizar, Faranak; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-12-01

    Studying the history of science could help develop an understanding of the contributions made by ancient nations towards scientific advances. Although Iranians had an important impact on the improvement of science, the history of Iranian medicine seems not to have been given enough attention by historians. The present study focused on the history of anesthesia and pain management in Iranian medical history. In this regard, related books such as Avesta and Shahnameh were studied in order to obtain the history of anesthesiology in Iranian pre Islamic era. This subject was also studied in the famous books of Rhazes, Haly Abbas, Avicenna, Jorjani, MomenTunekaboni and Aghili from different times of the Islamic era. Scientific data bases such as PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched using key words "Iranian", "Persian", "pain management" and "anesthesia". It was discovered that pain management and anesthesiology were well known to the Iranians. Rhazes and Avicenna had innovations in this regard. Fourteen Mokhader (anesthetic) herbs, which were included in the collection of the previous knowledge of the 18th century entitled Makhzan al-Advieyh and used as the Persian Materia Medica, were identified and listed. This study introduces the history of anesthesiology and pain management at different periods in the history of Iran.

  9. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  10. Chicken manure enhanced yield and quality of field-grown kale and collard greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Hill, Regina R; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter and nutrients in municipal sewage sludge (SS) and chicken manure (CM) could be recycled and used for land farming to enhance fertility and physical properties of soils. Three soil management practices were used at Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, to study the impact of soil amendments on kale (Brassica oleracea cv. Winterbar) and collard (Brassica oleracea cv. Top Bunch) yields and quality. The three soil management practices were: (i) SS mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), (ii) CM mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), and (iii) no-mulch (NM) native soil for comparison purposes. At harvest, collard and kale green plants were graded according to USDA standards. Plants grown in CM and SS amended soil produced the greatest number of U.S. No. 1 grade of collard and kale greens compared to NM native soil. Across all treatments, concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenols were generally greater in kale than in collards. Overall, CM and SS enhanced total phenols and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard compared to NM native soil. We investigated the chemical and physical properties of each of the three soil treatments that might explain variability among treatments and the impact of soil amendments on yield, phenols, and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard green grown under this practice.

  11. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  12. Characterization of village chicken production performance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a total population size of about 65 million, chicken make up the largest share in terms of number ... each PA, 40 households were randomly selected, making a total sample size ..... Production potential and qualitative traits of indigenous ...

  13. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  14. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to native and non-native predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddaway N. R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-native species can profoundly affect native ecosystems through trophic interactions with native species. Native prey may respond differently to non-native versus native predators since they lack prior experience. Here we investigate antipredator responses of two common freshwater macroinvertebrates, Gammarus pulex and Potamopyrgus jenkinsi, to olfactory cues from three predators; sympatric native fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus, sympatric native crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes, and novel invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus. G. pulex responded differently to fish and crayfish; showing enhanced locomotion in response to fish, but a preference for the dark over the light in response to the crayfish. P.jenkinsi showed increased vertical migration in response to all three predator cues relative to controls. These different responses to fish and crayfish are hypothesised to reflect the predators’ differing predation types; benthic for crayfish and pelagic for fish. However, we found no difference in response to native versus invasive crayfish, indicating that prey naiveté is unlikely to drive the impacts of invasive crayfish. The Predator Recognition Continuum Hypothesis proposes that benefits of generalisable predator recognition outweigh costs when predators are diverse. Generalised responses of prey as observed here will be adaptive in the presence of an invader, and may reduce novel predators’ potential impacts.

  15. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  16. Iranian EFL Learner’s Communication Strategies:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Sobhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Email has become a widespread medium of communication between students and their instructors, however; there is a limited amount of research on instructional role and uses of email in academic context. The present study investigated the communication strategies in email messages sent by Iranian EFL students to their male instructors in relation to their socioeconomic status (such as family income and education level. Moreover, the relationships between communication strategies and gender were examined. Email message sent by male and female students to their male instructors during the academic year 2012-2013 were analyzed for communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting, social. The results of quantitative and qualitative statistics revealed that there were significant relationships between communication strategies and participants’ socioeconomic status. In addition, there were significant relationships between communication strategies and gender.

  17. Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  19. Kinetic study on Iranian furfural extract hydrocracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh, J.; Akbarnejad, M. M. [NIOC Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasheh, F. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badakhshan, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Upgrading heavy crude oil to light crude oil is one of the most important refining processes. Familiarity with the kinetics and related kinetic models is one of the important aspects of developing expertise in this field. This joint study between the NIOC Institute of Research of the Petroleum Industry and Sharif University was undertaken to determine the most appropriate upgrading process for Iranian heavy feed stock and to predict the conversion and product distribution in commercial hydrocracking units. The study involved the evaluation of stoichiometry of the hydrocracking process, focusing on the catalytic hydrocracking of furfural extract (a by-product of the lubricating oil plant) of the Tehran refinery. A pilot plant reactor was used. Good correspondence between model predictions and theoretical values was obtained.

  20. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Consanguinity Among Parents of Iranian Deaf Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajallouyan, Mohammad; Radfar, Shokofeh; Nouhi, Sima; Tavallaie, Seid Abbas; Amirsalari, Susan; Yousefi, Jaleh; Hasanali Fard, Mahdieh

    2016-11-01

    It seems that there is a relationship between consanguinity and profound hearing loss but there is little data about the association of consanguinity and hearing loss in Iran. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the causes of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss among Iranian samples who are candidates for cochlear implantation. This study was retrospective, analytical, and designed to collect information about profound hearing impaired cases referred to the Baqiyatallah Cochlear implantation center using enumeration. A total of 310 children with profound hearing impairments participated in this study. They were aged from 6 months to 4 years old. The study was done between January 2007 and April 2009. Chi-square tests were used to show whether there was any statistical difference between the incidence of marital consanguinity of their parents and the normal population. Sixty-five percent of those 310 children had parents who had married with their relatives. Of the 203 (65%) parents that had consanguineous marriages, 132 were first cousins, which includes the children of two brothers (37 [11.8%] patrilateral parallel cousins), the children of two sisters (38 [12.2%] multi-lateral parallel cousins), or the children of a brother and a sister (57 [18.3%] cross cousins). Fifty-four (17.4%) of the parents were second cousins and 17 (5.2%) were beyond second cousins. Also, hearing loss etiology was obvious in 237 (76.3%) of the patients with profound hearing loss but was unknown in 73 (23.7%). Hereditary was identified as the most common cause in 33% of the cases. Our data demonstrated a 65% occurrence of consanguineous marriage among the parents of deaf children, which is statistically different from the percentage of consanguineous marriage among Iranian population (38%). This indicates an obvious relationship between severe hearing loss and consanguineous marriage.

  2. Central Asia in the Iranian geopolitical imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wastnidge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.

  3. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Oluwayelu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6 % and 4 % nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2 % amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/Cl-8 and NGR/Cl-9 were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  4. Insights into the chicken IgY with emphasis on the generation and applications of chicken recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Warren; Syed Atif, Ali; Tan, Soo Choon; Leow, Chiuan Herng

    2017-08-01

    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  6. The assessment of osteoporosis risk factors in Iranian women compared with Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Devlina

    2008-02-01

    .5, fruits (0.4 and milk tea 4 cups per day and more (0.4 appeared to be significant protective factors in India. Regular consumption of cheese (0.5, milk (0.5, chicken (0.4, egg (0.6, fruit (0.4, tea 7 cups per day and more (0.3 were found to be significant protective factors in Iran. Exercises were shown as protective factor in Iran (0.4 and India (0.4. There were no significant differences in association of risk factors and osteoporosis between Iranian and Indian subjects. Conclusion Osteoporosis in Iranian and Indian subjects also appears to be associated with several known risk factors that well described in the literature. There were no significant differences in association of risk factors and osteoporosis between Iranian and Indian subjects. It was shown a protective role of certain nutritional dietary components and also exercises in both populations and can be exploited in preventive educational strategies on osteoporosis in these populations.

  7. 78 FR 11950 - Identification of Entities and Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...; Telephone (356)(21241232) [IRAN] Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 42. SINA SHIPPING COMPANY...; MMSI 572449210 (vessel) [IRAN] Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 93. SINA (9HNY9) Crude Oil...

  8. Genetic analysis of two STR loci (VWA and TPOX in the Iranian province of Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Foroughmand

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The examined STR loci in this study have proven a relatively high genetic variation in the Iranian population. The data could be used for construction of a forensic genetic database for the Iranian population.

  9. De etiske journalister: Native Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Asger Bach; Jeppesen, Annika; Turunen, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the opinions about Native Advertising, among RUC-students who study journalism. In qualitative interviews a number of students point out advantages and disadvantages of Native Advertising as they see them, as well as they reflect upon if they eventually can see themselves work with Native Advertising.A selection of their responds are analysed with the use of a pragmatic argument analysis. The outcome of the analysis is the base of a discussion, which also include the...

  10. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  11. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondombo, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:Village chickens, sheep, production system, feeding, fattening, integration,Burkina Faso.Animal production in general and chickens

  12. Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin are invasive in chickens after oral challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Katrine Nørrelund; Bang, Dang Duong; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    to be associated with the Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS) in humans. The minimum dose for establishing colonization in the clay-old chickens was approximately 2 cfu, whereas two- to threefold higher doses were required for establishing colonization in the 14-day-old chickens. Two of the C jejuni strains were shown...

  13. Microbiological Safety of Chicken Litter or Chicken Litter-Based Organic Fertilizers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers are usually recycled into the soil to improve the structure and fertility of agricultural land. As an important source of nutrients for crop production, chicken litter may also contain a variety of human pathogens that can threaten humans who consume the contaminated food or water. Composting can inactivate pathogens while creating a soil amendment beneficial for application to arable agricultural land. Some foodborne pathogens may have the potential to survive for long periods of time in raw chicken litter or its composted products after land application, and a small population of pathogenic cells may even regrow to high levels when the conditions are favorable for growth. Thermal processing is a good choice for inactivating pathogens in chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers prior to land application. However, some populations may become acclimatized to a hostile environment during build-up or composting and develop heat resistance through cross-protection during subsequent high temperature treatment. Therefore, this paper reviews currently available information on the microbiological safety of chicken litter or chicken litter-based organic fertilizers, and discusses about further research on developing novel and effective disinfection techniques, including physical, chemical, and biological treatments, as an alternative to current methods.

  14. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  15. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  16. Sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, T M A; Grongnet, J F

    2010-10-01

    This study identified the sensory characteristics and consumer preference for chicken meat in Guinea. Five chicken samples [live village chicken, live broiler, live spent laying hen, ready-to-cook broiler, and ready-to-cook broiler (imported)] bought from different locations were assessed by 10 trained panelists using 19 sensory attributes. The ANOVA results showed that 3 chicken appearance attributes (brown, yellow, and white), 5 chicken odor attributes (oily, intense, medicine smell, roasted, and mouth persistent), 3 chicken flavor attributes (sweet, bitter, and astringent), and 8 chicken texture attributes (firm, tender, juicy, chew, smooth, springy, hard, and fibrous) were significantly discriminating between the chicken samples (Pchicken, the live spent laying hen, and the ready-to-cook broiler (imported) were very well represented and clearly distinguished from the live broiler and the ready-to-cook broiler. One hundred twenty consumers expressed their preferences for the chicken samples using a 5-point Likert scale. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the preference data identified 4 homogenous consumer clusters. The hierarchical cluster analysis results showed that the live village chicken was the most preferred chicken sample, whereas the ready-to-cook broiler was the least preferred one. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) type 1 showed that 72% of the sensory data for the first 2 principal components explained 83% of the chicken preference. The PLSR1 identified that the sensory characteristics juicy, oily, sweet, hard, mouth persistent, and yellow were the most relevant sensory drivers of the Guinean chicken preference. The PLSR2 (with multiple responses) identified the relationship between the chicken samples, their sensory attributes, and the consumer clusters. Our results showed that there was not a chicken category that was exclusively preferred from the other chicken samples and therefore highlight the existence of place for development of

  17. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P chickens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metagenomic Analysis of Chicken Gut Microbiota for Improving Metabolism and Health of Chickens — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is a major food source for humans, hence it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in nutrient absorption in chicken. In the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, the microbiota plays a central role in enhancing nutrient absorption and strengthening the immune system, thereby affecting both growth and health of chicken. There is little information on the diversity and functions of chicken GIT microbiota, its impact on the host, and the interactions between the microbiota and host. Here, we review the recent metagenomic strategies to analyze the chicken GIT microbiota composition and its functions related to improving metabolism and health. We summarize methodology of metagenomics in order to obtain bacterial taxonomy and functional inferences of the GIT microbiota and suggest a set of indicator genes for monitoring and manipulating the microbiota to promote host health in future.

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Language-Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…

  20. Construct Validity and Reliability of the Tolerance Scale among Iranian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersanli, Ercümend; Mameghani, Shiva Saeighi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the Tolerance Scale developed by Ersanli (2014) was adapted to the Iranian culture, and its validity and reliability were investigated in the case of Iranian college students. The participants consisted of 552 Iranian college students (62% male, M = 20.84, S.D.: 1.53) selected using the convenience sampling method. The sample…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Pakpour, PhD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The results provide evidence for good reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PEDT. The questionnaire therefore represents a suitable tool for screening PE in Iranian men. Pakpour AH, Yekaninejad MS, Nikoobakht MR, Burri A, and Fridlund B. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Sex Med 2014;2:31–40.

  2. Attitudes toward English & English Learning at an Iranian Military University: A Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi Zafarghandi, Amir; Jodai, Hojat

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to represent attitudes toward English and English learning at an Iranian military university. Iranian military staff is required to study English in a social environment where there is little immediate need or opportunity to use the language for real communicative purposes.The subjects included 34 Iranian military personnel who…

  3. Comparative studies of human and chicken retinol-binding proteins and prealbumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, M; Mokady, S; Cogan, U

    1976-08-09

    Microheterogeneity of retinol-binding proteins of human plasma and urine, and of chicken plasma was studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All three protein systems were found microheterogenous. Incorporation of retinol into the protein preparations on the one hand, and depletion of these proteins from retinol on the other hand, enabled us to clarify the extent to which the presence or absence of the ligand affects the apparent heterogeneity. Upon electrophoresis, each of the native proteins displayed two pairs of protein zones. It appeared that within each pair the fast moving band corresponded to aporetinol-binding protein which upon binding of retinol was converted to a holoprotein with a slightly lower mobility. However, it did not seem that proteins of one pair were converted to proteins of the second pair upon binding of retinol, substantiating ghe microheterogenous character of this protein system. A rapid, two step procedure for isolation of prealbumins from plasma is described. The method which consists of DEAE-cellulose chromatography follwed by preparative electrophoresis was utilized to separate human and chicken prealbumins. Routine dodecyl sulphate electrophoresis resulted in partial dissociation of human prealbumin but in no dissociation of the chicken protein. More drastic treatments prior to electrophoresis were needed to effect complete disruption of both proteins into subunits.

  4. Assessing range-wide habitat suitability for the Lesser Prairie-Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Holcombe, Tracy R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Boal, Clint W.; Butler, Matthew; Pitman, James C.; Kyle, Sean; Klute, David; Beauprez, Grant M.; Janus, Allan; Van Pelt, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Population declines of many wildlife species have been linked to habitat loss incurred through land-use change. Incorporation of conservation planning into development planning may mitigate these impacts. The threatened Lesser Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) is experiencing loss of native habitat and high levels of energy development across its multijurisdictional range. Our goal was to explore relationships of the species occurrence with landscape characteristics and anthropogenic effects influencing its distribution through evaluation of habitat suitability associated with one particular habitat usage, lekking. Lekking has been relatively well-surveyed, though not consistently, in all jurisdictions. All five states in which Lesser Prairie-Chickens occur cooperated in development of a Maxent habitat suitability model. We created two models, one with state as a factor and one without state. When state was included it was the most important predictor, followed by percent of land cover consisting of known or suspected used vegetation classes within a 5000 m area around a lek. Without state, land cover was the most important predictor of relative habitat suitability for leks. Among the anthropogenic predictors, landscape condition, a measure of human impact integrated across several factors, was most important, ranking third in importance without state. These results quantify the relative suitability of the landscape within the current occupied range of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. These models, combined with other landscape information, form the basis of a habitat assessment tool that can be used to guide siting of development projects and targeting of areas for conservation.

  5. MCU-Based Solar Powered Chicken Feeder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenor M. Reyes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poultry is a great potential industry particularly in Batangas Province. The method of feeding chicken needs to be considered as chicken must be fed regularly to be more productive. The conventional method of feeding chicken is the need to continuously provide the food, be alert and conscious on the food remaining in cages and to feed the chickens in a correct period of time to avoid the decline of the production. Growers also find it difficult to manage their businesses effectively because they need to be around the cages every now and then to monitor the poultry. Timing and exactness are the key to provide a uniform time in feeding the chickens. This will benefit the owner of the business in terms of time and effort. Another advantage of this project is in terms of savings to the owner of the poultry business. This technology was designed to automatically feed chickens at a given period of time and to give alarm when the feeds are running out of supply. The power to be supplied to this prototype will be drawn from the sun by means of solar panels and will be stored in typical car battery. The feeds will be stored in a container and evenly distributed by using a conveyor to the feeding basin of the poultry. It will be more efficient than manual conventional way of feeding because less effort will be needed in feeding the chickens and less feeds will be wasted. In addition to that, the stored power can also be used for lighting purposes for the growers to save energy and energy bills.

  6. Antiviral Activity of Lambda Interferon in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Antje; Soubies, Sebastien; Härtle, Sonja; Schusser, Benjamin; Kaspers, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. In mammals, functional receptors for type III IFN (lambda interferon [IFN-λ]) are found mainly on epithelial cells, and IFN-λ was demonstrated to play a crucial role in limiting viral infections of mucosal surfaces. To determine whether IFN-λ plays a similar role in birds, we produced recombinant chicken IFN-λ (chIFN-λ) and we used the replication-competent retroviral RCAS vector system to generate mosaic-transgenic chicken embryos that constitutively express chIFN-λ. We could demonstrate that chIFN-λ markedly inhibited replication of various virus strains, including highly pathogenic influenza A viruses, in ovo and in vivo, as well as in epithelium-rich tissue and cell culture systems. In contrast, chicken fibroblasts responded poorly to chIFN-λ. When applied in vivo to 3-week-old chickens, recombinant chIFN-λ strongly induced the IFN-responsive Mx gene in epithelium-rich organs, such as lungs, tracheas, and intestinal tracts. Correspondingly, these organs were found to express high transcript levels of the putative chIFN-λ receptor alpha chain (chIL28RA) gene. Transfection of chicken fibroblasts with a chIL28RA expression construct rendered these cells responsive to chIFN-λ treatment, indicating that receptor expression determines cell type specificity of IFN-λ action in chickens. Surprisingly, mosaic-transgenic chickens perished soon after hatching, demonstrating a detrimental effect of constitutive chIFN-λ expression. Our data highlight fundamental similarities between the IFN-λ systems of mammals and birds and suggest that type III IFN might play a role in defending mucosal surfaces against viral intruders in most if not all vertebrates. PMID:24371053

  7. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  8. Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Chickens under Semi-scavenging Conditions: A Case Study of ... per household was lost per year due to diseases, predators, accidents, and theft. ... as well as chicken house construction so as to avoid the risks of predators.

  9. Directional differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... In this study, the differentiation potential of chicken ES cells was investigated ... Key words: Chicken embryonic stem cells, in vitro, directional differentiation, .... synthesized by using the Revert Aid first strand cDNA synthesis kit.

  10. Haematological and serum biochemical profiles of broiler chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MOLM) on the haematological and serum biochemical profile of broiler chickens. Fresh Moringa leaves (FML) were shade-dried for four days and milled into meal. A total of two hundred broilers unsexed chickens (Anak strain) were randomly ...

  11. Native Music in College Curricula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  12. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  13. Native American youth and justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  14. Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality of Ready-to-eat Chicken Products by Total Viable Count Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiz Raja; Asif Iqbal; Yasir Hafiz; Mehboob Willayet; Shakoor Bhat; Mudasir Rather

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation describes the total viable count of ready-to-eat chicken products (chicken patties and chicken rolls) in Srinagar city during two seasons viz. autumn and winter. A total of 120 ready-to-eat chicken products comprising of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls were tested. The mean bacterial count of 60 chicken patties and 60 chicken rolls was 5.1281 and 4.9395 log10 cfu/g. Bacillus cereus strains were isolated from 25 of chicken patties and 22 of the chicken rolls r...

  15. Coping work strategies and job satisfaction among Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis

    2014-06-01

    Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline.

  16. Corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallah Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe corneal endothelial cell density and morphology in normal Iranian eyes and compare endothelial cell characteristics in the Iranian population with data available in the literature for American and Indian populations. Methods Specular microscopy was performed in 525 eyes of normal Iranian people aged 20 to 85 years old. The studied parameters including mean endothelial cell density (MCD, mean cell area (MCA and coefficient of variation (CV in cell area were analyzed in all of the 525 eyes. Results MCD was 1961 ± 457 cell/mm2 and MCA was 537.0 ± 137.4 μm2. There was no statistically significant difference in MCD, MCA and CV between genders (Student t-test, P = 0.85, P = 0.97 and P = 0.15 respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in MCD with age (P r = -0.64. The rate of cell loss was 0.6% per year. There was also a statistically significant increase in MCA (P r = 0.56 and CV (P r = 0.30 from 20 to 85 years of age. Conclusion The first normative data for the endothelium of Iranian eyes seems to confirm that there are no differences in MCD, MCA and CV between genders. Nevertheless, the values obtained in Iranian eyes seem to be different to those reported by the literature in Indian and American populations.

  17. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial chickens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbakhsh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been reported from commercial chicken farms in different provinces of Iran. In some reports the phylogenetic analysis of MS isolates based on 16S rRNA and variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin (vlhA genes have been carried out. The PCR product containing partial 16S rRNA genes of Iranain isolates was sequenced, and compared with 16S rRNA gene of MS sequences which were available in GenBank. Variations, polymorphisms, and differences between nucleotides of all isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that all MS isolates from Iran were most closely related to sequences of MS from Brazil. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal end of the hemagglutinin encoding gene vlhA were also used as an alternative for the detection and initial typing of field strains of MS in commercial poultry. The results showed that there was a complete concordance between all Iranian isolates nucleotide sequence and the 5́-vlhA region sequence remained unchanged in all MS isolates and demonstrated differentiation between Iranian isolates and live commercial MS-H vaccine strain. More recently, the single-copy domain of the conserved region of vlhA gene in MS was sequenced, analyzed and verified to type MS field isolates in Iran and live vaccine MS-H strain. In addition, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method was established based on single nucleotide polymorphism that existed in all field isolates of Iran to differentiate between these field isolates and MS-H. This PCR-RFLP method allowed differentiating all MS field isolates from the vaccine strain.

  18. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  19. Comparison carcass traits of Azeri buffalo, native and crossbred (native * Holstein male calves in west Azerbaijan-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahmoodi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Iran has 500thousand heads buffalo that 80percent of them distributed in North and North West of Iran and they reared as multi purpose animals providing milk and meat. Farmer believe that buffalo milk had the best quality but because of huge and large head and skin buffaloes carcass isn’t suitable that governmental programmer pay a low facilities to buffalo fattener in comparison the cattle fattener thus the objective of this investigation was to the Comparison carcass traits of buffalo, native and Native cows* Holstein (NH male calves that mostly fattened in this region. Eighty head claves (six heads of each treat with average 160 kg body weight (BW were fattened till the 300 kg. Ration and other environmental factors were the same. Three heads of each group’s according Iranian Standards slaughtered at abattoir. The slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and the individual weights of the different slaughter by-products and organs were measured. The carcasses were chilled at 5o C for 24 h. One side of each carcass was cutting into wholesales cuts. Traits included Hot and cold carcass weight, bone, internal fat, meat, cut ability fat, dressing percent, wholesales cuts weight and percent. Wholesales cuts include neck, shoulder, loin, rib and flank and leg weight and percent. The results showed that there were not significant differences between hot and cold carcass weigh, meat, bone and cut ability fat percent. There were significant differences on internal fat, dressing percent and leg (P<0.05. The lowest and highest values for internal fat were observed buffalo and native carcass, respectively. In conclusion because of low internal fat deposition and high valuable wholesales cuts percent may buffalo carcass composition had a better quality in comparison cattle and fattening of buffalo is economically.

  20. Tinnitus: an epidemiologic study in Iranian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalessi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth

  1. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  2. RAW CHICKEN LEG AND BREAST SENSORY EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian Baston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we presented a method of sensorial evaluation for chicken meat (red and white. This is a descriptive method of analysis. It was perform with trained assessors for chicken refrigerated raw meat organoleptical evaluation. The sensorial attributes considered were: external aspect of anatomical part of chicken analyzed by slime, the surface odor, the skin and muscle color and muscular elasticity. Color was determined for the skin and white and red muscles. Our scale of analysis is formed by three values that characterize each quality attribute. The trained assessor appreciated the sensorial quality of raw anatomical part of chicken as excellent, acceptable and unacceptable. The objectives were: to establish the sensorial attributes to be analyzed for each type of muscular fiber, to describe the quality of each considered attribute and to realize a sensorial scale of quantification for the considered sensorial attributes. Our purpose was to determine the quality of the red and white refrigerated raw chicken anatomical parts (respectively for legs and breasts after one week of storage.

  3. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  4. Comparative developmental trajectory of four strains of chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated egg traits, embryonic growth, and early growth rate in four strains of chicken. A total of 1200 hatching eggs, 300 each from four strains of chicken were used for this study. The strains included Nigerian indigenous chicken (NIC), Arbor acre, Hubbard, and Marshall broiler strains. Embryonic weights, yolk ...

  5. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  6. Authenticating ‘Cover to Cover’ Reader Series vis-à-vis Cultural Norms for the Iranian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vosougi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research study was an attempt to explore hidden cultural components in an ELT textbook from Oxford University Press (OUP titled 'Cover to Cover'. Two research methodologies were relied on to unveil the western ideologies in this series: Firstly, a qualitative review over its reading textbooks was undertaken for authenticating the hidden western values for Iranian contexts. At this stage, analyses over randomly chosen units of the three-volume CTC book were managed via qualitative content analysis using inductive category formation techniques. In a second stage, a focus group including English language teachers indulged in teaching this series were interviewed to enrich the data with lived experiences. Overall, the findings revealed that the hidden values in the sampled texts might transmit some counter-local perspectives against Iranian leaners' local culture. Pedagogical suggestions as to improving critical cultural awareness practices for non-native students in the light of material development practices for EFL settings were discussed at the end.

  7. Identifying Genetic Differences Between Dongxiang Blue-Shelled and White Leghorn Chickens Using Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-bo Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken is one of the most valuable Chinese indigenous poultry breeds. However, compared to the Italian native White Leghorn, although this Chinese breed possesses numerous favorable characteristics, it also exhibits lower growth performance and fertility. Here, we utilized genotyping sequencing data obtained via genome reduction on a sequencing platform to detect 100,114 single nucleotide polymorphisms and perform further biological analysis and functional annotation. We employed cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity, eigenvector decomposition combined with genome-wide association studies (EigenGWAS, and efficient mixed-model association expedited methods to detect areas of the genome that are potential selected regions (PSR in both chicken breeds, and performed gene ontology (GO enrichment and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses annotating using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The results of this study revealed a total of 2424 outlier loci (p-value <0.01, of which 2144 occur in the White Leghorn breed and 280 occur in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken. These correspond to 327 and 94 PSRs containing 297 and 54 genes, respectively. The most significantly selected genes in Blue-shelled chicken are TMEM141 and CLIC3, while the SLCO1B3 gene, related to eggshell color, was identified via EigenGWAS. We show that the White Leghorn genes JARID2, RBMS3, GPC3, TRIB2, ROBO1, SAMSN1, OSBP2, and IGFALS are involved in immunity, reproduction, and growth, and thus might represent footprints of the selection process. In contrast, we identified six significantly enriched pathways in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken that are related to amino acid and lipid metabolism as well as signal transduction. Our results also reveal the presence of a GO term associated with cell metabolism that occurs mainly in the White Leghorn breed, while the most significant QTL regions mapped to the Chicken QTL Database (GG_4

  8. Iranian Activities in Afghanistan: Constructive or Destructive Attitude?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kraus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Afghanistan is still not a stable state with strong central government controlling the whole state territory even after eleven years since American intervention and following the pursuit of reconstruction by allied forces. One of the main causes of this situation consists in interferences of foreign powers, which have their own particular and often mutually incompatible interests in Afghanistan. One of the most important external powers in the country is Iran. Therefore, Iranian involvement in Afghanistan is the main topic of this text. The main goal of this article is to identify and interpret major methods of Iranian enforcement of its plans in Afghanistan and also the characterization of those plans. The important issue of this text is also an understanding of effects of Iranian activities in Afghanistan and whether those actions have positive or rather negative contribution.

  9. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  10. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-07-31

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.

  11. Sunken garden: remarkable example of Iranian sustainable architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Toufani, Sargol; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: sargol2fun@gmail.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    The energy crisis and climate change give new importance to sustainable architecture which reduces the negative impacts that buildings can have on the environment. In ancient times, architects did not have access to modern equipment and had to use natural energies to provide pleasant indoor conditions. Iran has various climatic zones and Iranian traditional architecture relied on a variety of solutions to provide for human comfort. The aim of this study is to present those solutions used in traditional Iranian architecture. This paper presents the use of the energy of the earth depth and other methods such as Syzan, a cellar, Shvadan, pool house, Zmhryr in addition to the sunken garden, which taps geothermal energy by constructing a courtyard lower than street level. This document showed that traditional Iranian architectural strategies are efficient in providing sustainable buildings and could be applied in the design of new construction.

  12. Criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2015-07-01

    The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application  of  evidence  and  documents.  In  this  study,  criteria  for  evidence-based  practice  in  Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis and its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoubi M.J.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Iranian propolis on some microorganisms using disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the propolis was also investigated using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. Ethanol extract of propolis showed activity only against Gram-positives and fungi, whereas no activity was observed against Gram-negatives. Thin layer chromatography screening revealed the presence of pinocembrine, caffeic acid, kaempferol, phenethyl caffeate, chrysin, and galangin in Iranian propolis. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 7.3% and 36%, respectively, which suggests that the strong antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis may be due to high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  14. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  15. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  17. Patience and Mental Health in Iranian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababaei, Naser; Tabik, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-09-01

    While the role of some personality traits has been comprehensively explored, scientific study of others, such as patience has been neglected. Psychologists have paid scant attention to patience as a personality trait, character strength or virtue. The current study examined the relationship between patience and life satisfaction, mental health, and personality. A sample of 252 Iranian college students (129 females and 123 males) completed the 3-factor patience scale, satisfaction with life scale, general health questionnaire, anxiety and depression scales and mini international personality item pool-big five. The three types of patience (interpersonal, life hardship, and daily hassles) were associated with higher levels of life satisfaction and lower levels of depression, anxiety and psychological dysfunction. Patience also showed moderate relationship with the Big-Five factors of personality. After controlling the personality factors, patience managed to explain additional unique variance in life satisfaction and mental health indicators. Patience is a unique predictor of mental well-being. It is suggested that long-term patience is more important for depression and general health, whereas short-term patience is more beneficial for hedonic well-being.

  18. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531

  19. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  20. Iranian Corporations and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Chapardar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies have demonstrated that the themes for corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives are different among nations and geographic regions based on their cultural, political, legal, social, and economic contexts. In this research, which was conducted on 56 corporations from IMI100 (100 Iranian companies with highest annual sales, ranked by Industrial Management Institute or IMI, CSR themes in priority have been identified. Data collected from a semistructured questionnaire and some complementary interviews were analyzed against the results of a reference study over 100 companies from developed countries. The resulted themes, some of which may have several subthemes, were developed in three economic, environmental, and social categories. Beside these qualitative findings, two indices are constructed for indicating the “importance” of and “contribution” to each theme. The results and discussions are supposed to help business leaders, international companies inside Iran, governmental authorities, and researchers to improve CSR discussions and practices in the country where CSR undergoes a less structured platform.

  1. Cultural Minorities and Life Styles: Iranian Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fakouhi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Globalization accelerated the paradoxical processes of modernization by introducing the cultural homogenizations and heterogenizations: construction and deconstruction of local-communitarian identities. This is why we are facing on the one hand, the increasing of local identities and visions and on the other hand, the interference, sometimes in a conflicted way, of the latter forms with the national and global identities. In this context, the Iranian problematic is discussed by an urban anthropological theoretical approach. The main concern in this article is the everyday life styles as the most important means of the cultural identity formation and their self expressions. Social constructed space as Lefebvre put it, and Cultural Studies tradition of everyday life, have been the starting points of this paper aiming to analyze the cultural resistance phenomenon expressed in physical and bodily spaces as well as in social and intercultural relations in domains such as age, ethnics and gender. These identity schemes have been taken as minority situations when they express in a way or other, some sort of cultural or social resistance facing a dominant pattern and by this way the paper try to present some practical and applied solutions to decrease the social tensions.

  2. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  3. First Iranian imported case of dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mardani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. Currently, incidences have been increasing among adults. There have been no published reports of dengue fever from Iran. Widespread connection between different countries may predispose them for acquisition of infection. The patient was a 58-year-old Iranian woman with acute unexplained high-grade fever for 4 days, associated with skin rash, after returning from Southeast Asia. CBC showed WBC = 1600/mm 3 and platelet count 99,000/mm 3 . The patient also had hematuria. ELISA immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to dengue and serum RT-PCR for dengue virus was positive. The patient managed with conservative treatment and due to good general condition and improvement specific antiviral treatment was not started. She became afebrile at the 3 rd day of hospitalization and discharged with good general condition on fourth day. She was afebrile after two weeks follow-up. Dengue fever has been increasing among adults. It should be suspected, when a patient presents with acute febrile illness and skin rashes returning from endemic region. Conservative treatment may be conducted in uncomplicated cases .

  4. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

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    Ensiyeh Mohebbi Kian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. Statistical Analysis: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed. Conclusion: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.

  5. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.

  6. Exercise prescription for Iranian midlife women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadigeh Mirzaii Najmabadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Khadigeh Mirzaii NajmabadiShahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IranObjectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a multimodal intervention (including the Women’s Wellness Program on increasing levels of physical activity in Iranian midlife women.Study design: This 12-week study was conducted in women aged 50–65 years living in the general population. Women who were allocated to the intervention group (n = 40 received an intervention, which combined a multimodal program of physical activity and health education. Women in the control group continued their normal physical activities (n = 45.Mean outcome measure: The women completed a questionnaire that included measures for items of interest for this analysis, such as menopausal status, sociodemographic, and exercise and activity levels.Results: Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention was effective in improving women’s physical activity. The test showed that there was a significant difference between intervention and control in current vigorous activity.Conclusion: Physical activity should be encouraged for prevention and reduction of risks for chronic disease and for improvement of health in midlife women. The multimodal intervention program may offer implications for designing and implementing exercise interventions in further studies.Keywords: midlife women, intervention, physical activity, menopause

  7. Dropout Reasons in Iranian Youth Roller Skaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein H E Y D A R I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main drop - out reasons from the sport of roller skating amongst Iranian youth skaters has been examined. A questionnaire with 53 items (adopted from Enoksen, 2011 representing seven subscales namel y: training factors and facilities, executive factors and team, education and work obligations, motivational aspects, social - cultural environment, choice of other sport activities and interests and economic factors was especially developed for this researc h. Responses were measured on a Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” in relation to each statement. In all 11 2 skaters predominantly male (mean age 17.1, SD = 1.63 with a mean = 5.43 years of experience (SD = 2.92 that had di scontinued in the past two years completed the questionnaire. Results of one sample t - tests showed that all factors expect “social - cultural environment” are significant indicators for drop out from skating with “economical factors” scoring the highest rank ing. Correlational analysis showed that younger participants agree more strongly th at “executive factors and team” and “education and work obligations” were the best predictors of drop out. Those with fewer years of experience considered “training factors and facilities”, “motivational aspects and social and cultural environment” as more likely reasons for quitting. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  8. Medical emergency management among Iranian dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khami, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani, Reza; Afzalimoghaddam, Mohammad; Razeghi, Samaneh; Moscowchi, Anahita

    2014-11-01

    More than 18,000 patients need medical emergencies management in dental offices in Iran annually. The present study investigates medical emergencies management among Iranian dentists. From the list of the cell phone numbers of the dentists practicing in the city of Tehran, 210 dentists were selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire was used as the data collection instrument. The questionnaire requested information on personal and professional characteristics of the dentists, as well as their knowledge and self-reported practice in the field of medical emergency management, and availability of required drugs and equipments to manage medical emergencies in their offices. Totally, 177 dentists (84%) completed the questionnaire. Less than 60% of the participants were knowledgeable about characteristics of hypoglycemic patient, chest pain with cardiac origin, and true cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practice. Regarding practice, less than one quarter of the respondents acquired acceptable scores. In regression models, higher practice scores were significantly associated with higher knowledge scores (p < 0.001). The results call for a need to further education on the subject for dentists. Continuing education and changing dental curriculum in the various forms seems to be useful in enhancement of the self-reported knowledge and practice of dentists. To successful control of medical emergencies in the dental office, dentists must be prepared to recognize and manage a variety of such conditions. In addition to dentist's knowledge and skill, availability of necessary equipments and trained staff is also of critical importance.

  9. Cancer disclosure: experiences of Iranian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Leila; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Rahmani, Azad; Howard, Fuchsia; Nikanfar, Ali-Reza; Ferguson, Caleb

    2012-06-01

    This study explored Iranian patients' experiences of cancer disclosure, paying particular attention to the ways of disclosure. Twenty cancer patients were invited to participate in this qualitative inquiry by research staff in the clinical setting. In-depth, semistructured interview data were analyzed through content analysis. The rigor of the study was established by principles of credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Four themes emerged: the atmosphere of non-disclosure, eventual disclosure, distress in knowing, and the desire for information. Non-disclosure was the norm for participants, and all individuals involved made efforts to maintain an atmosphere of non-disclosure. While a select few were informed of their diagnosis by a physician or another patient, the majority eventually became aware of their diagnosis indirectly by different ways. All participants experienced distress after disclosure. The participants wanted basic information about their prognosis and treatments from their treating physicians, but did not receive this information, and encountered difficulty accessing information elsewhere. These challenges highlight the need for changes in current medical practice in Iran, as well as patient and healthcare provider education. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Body dissatisfaction among Iranian youth and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Despite the importance of body satisfaction on one’s self image and well-being, little has been written about body image or how it affects people in Iran. The aim of this study is to assess body dissatisfaction and its risk factors in the general Iranian population. The sample size for this cross-sectional study included approximately 1,200 participants (both male and female and was conducted in 2011. Body dissatisfaction (based on the Figure Rating Scale, demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI and use of the media were recorded. Nearly two thirds of the participants were included in the middle age group and roughly half of them had a university education. Approximately two thirds of the participants were satisfied with their body. The mean score of body dissatisfaction in women was greater than men (p < 0.0001. Age, gender, marital status and BMI had a significant relationship with body dissatisfaction. The finding of this study demonstrates that in Iran, body dissatisfaction and it consequences must be addressed. While the prevalence and pattern of body dissatisfaction in Iran is as high as other Asian countries, considering cultural variation within Asian countries is also important.

  11. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  12. EVALUATION OF CONSISTENCY AND SETTING TIME OF IRANIAN DENTAL STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F GOL BIDI

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dental stones are widely used in dentistry and the success or failure of many dental treatments depend on the accuracy of these gypsums. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Iranian dental stones and comparison between Iranian and foreign ones. In this investigation, consistency and setting time were compared between Pars Dendn, Almas and Hinrizit stones. The latter is accepted by ADA (American Dental Association. Consistency and setting time are 2 of 5 properties that are necessitated by both ADA specification No. 25 and Iranian Standard Organization specification No. 2569 for evaluation of dental stones. Methods. In this study, the number and preparation of specimens and test conditions were done according to the ADA specification No. 25 and all the measurements were done with vicat apparatus. Results. The results of this study showed that the standard consistency of Almas stone was obtained by 42ml water and 100gr powder and the setting time of this stone was 11±0.03 min. Which was with in the limits of ADA specification (12±4 min. The standard consistency of Pars Dandan stone was obrianed by 31ml water and 100 gr powder, but the setting time of this stone was 5± 0.16 min which was nt within the limits of ADA specification. Discussion: Comparison of Iranian and Hinrizit stones properties showed that two probable problems of Iranian stones are:1- Unhemogrnousity of Iranian stoned powder was caused by uncontrolled temperature, pressure and humidity in the production process of stone. 2- Impurities such as sodium chloride was responsible fo shortening of Pars Dendens setting time.

  13. Facilitating functional annotation of chicken microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gresham Cathy R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling results from chicken microarray studies is challenging for researchers due to little functional annotation associated with these arrays. The Affymetrix GenChip chicken genome array, one of the biggest arrays that serve as a key research tool for the study of chicken functional genomics, is among the few arrays that link gene products to Gene Ontology (GO. However the GO annotation data presented by Affymetrix is incomplete, for example, they do not show references linked to manually annotated functions. In addition, there is no tool that facilitates microarray researchers to directly retrieve functional annotations for their datasets from the annotated arrays. This costs researchers amount of time in searching multiple GO databases for functional information. Results We have improved the breadth of functional annotations of the gene products associated with probesets on the Affymetrix chicken genome array by 45% and the quality of annotation by 14%. We have also identified the most significant diseases and disorders, different types of genes, and known drug targets represented on Affymetrix chicken genome array. To facilitate functional annotation of other arrays and microarray experimental datasets we developed an Array GO Mapper (AGOM tool to help researchers to quickly retrieve corresponding functional information for their dataset. Conclusion Results from this study will directly facilitate annotation of other chicken arrays and microarray experimental datasets. Researchers will be able to quickly model their microarray dataset into more reliable biological functional information by using AGOM tool. The disease, disorders, gene types and drug targets revealed in the study will allow researchers to learn more about how genes function in complex biological systems and may lead to new drug discovery and development of therapies. The GO annotation data generated will be available for public use via AgBase website and

  14. The Rise of native advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius MANIC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.

  15. NON-FUNCTIONAL SHOPPING MOTIVES AMONG IRANIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar AZIZI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the non functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers. In addition, the effects of marital status, gender, age and residential region as an indicator for social class on the non-functional shopping motives are investigated. This paper uses a self-reported and 15 items questionnaire. The analysis is done based on 363 returned and usable questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of variance is applied for this study. MANOVA results show that marital status, gender, age and region have different significant effects on the non-functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers.

  16. Nano-nutrition of chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawosz, Filip; Pineda, Lane Manalili; Hotowy, Anna

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the quantity and quality of nutrients stored in the egg might not be optimal for the fast rate of chicken embryo development in modern broilers, and embryos could be supplemented with nutrients by in ovo injection. Recent experiments showed that in ovo feeding reduces...... broiler eggs was randomly divided into a Control group without injection and injected groups with hydrocolloids of Nano-Ag, ATP or a complex of Nano-Ag and ATP (Nano-Ag/ATP). The embryos were evaluated on day 20 of incubation. The results indicate that the application of ATP to chicken embryos increases...

  17. Specificity of chicken and mammalian transferrins in myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, R.L.; Popiela, Heinz; Festoff, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Chicken transferrins isolated from eggs, embryo extract, serum or ischiatic-peroneal nerves are able to stimulate incorporation of ( 3 H)thymidine, and promote myogenesis by primary chicken muscles cells in vitro. Mammalian transferrins (bovine, rat, mouse, horse, rabbit, and human) do not promote ( 3 H)thymidine incorporation or myotube development. Comparison of the peptide fragments obtained after chemical or limited proteolytic cleavage demonstrates that the four chicken transferrins are all indistinguishable, but they differ considerably from the mammalian transferrins. The structural differences between chicken and mammalian transferrins probably account for the inability of mammalian transferrins to act as mitogens for, and to support myogenesis of, primary chicken muscle cells. (author)

  18. Effect of extraction temperature on characteristics of chicken legskin gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sompie, M.; Triasih, A.

    2018-01-01

    Gelatin is a denaturalized protein that is derived from collagen by acidic or alkaline hydrolysis and is an important functional biopolymer that has a very broad application in many industrial fields. Its functional properties depend on processing conditions as well as the raw material. The objective of the research was to study effect of extraction temperature on characteristics of native chicken legskin gelatin. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments (T1 = 500C, T2 = 550C, T3 = 600C, T4 = 650C) and five replications. Statistical analysis were carried out by one Anova and the mean difference was tested using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of research indicated that, extraction temperature had significant effect (Pchicken legskin gelatin, but it had no significant effect (P>0.05) on water content. It was concluded that the use of extraction temperature 600C was (yields 13.75, gel strength 78.75 g bloom, viscosity 6.52 cP, protein content 84.23% and water content 6.20%).

  19. Alteration of Diastereoisomeric and Enantiomeric Profiles of Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in Adult Chicken Tissues, Eggs, and Hatchling Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Qiao, Lin; Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Zheng, Jing; Xie, Qilai; Sun, Yuxin; Mai, Bixian

    2017-05-16

    The concentrations and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of α-, β-, and γ-hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were measured in chicken diet sources (soil and chicken feed), home-raised adult chicken (Gallus domesticus) tissues, eggs during incubation, and hatchling chicken tissues. HBCD concentrations were not detected-0.69 ng/g dry weight (dw) and 25.6-48.4 ng/g dw in chicken feed and soil, respectively. HBCDs were detected in all adult chicken tissues, except the brain, at median levels of 13.1-44.0 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The proportions of α-HBCD in total HBCDs increased from 51% in soil to more than 87% in adult chicken tissues. The accumulation ratios (ARs) of α-HBCD from diet to adult chicken tissues were 4.27 for liver, 11.2 for fat, and 7.64-12.9 for other tissues, respectively. The AR and carry-over rate (COR) of α-HBCD from diet to eggs were 22.4 and 0.226, respectively. The concentrations of α-HBCD in hatchling chicken liver (median: 35.4 ng/g lw) were significantly lower than those in hatchling chicken pectoral muscle (median: 130 ng/g lw). The EFs of α-HBCD decreased from soil to adult chicken tissues and from eggs to hatchling chicken liver. Meanwhile, the EFs of γ-HBCD increased from soil to adult chicken tissues. These results indicate the preferential enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD in chickens. The alteration of diastereoisomeric and enantiomeric patterns of HBCDs might be influenced by the different absorption and elimination rates of the six HBCD enantiomers as well as variations in HBCD metabolism in chickens.

  20. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  1. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  2. Native Terrestrial Animal Species Richness

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted current distributions of all native mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. The data are...

  3. Investigation some characteristics of chicken feather’s rachis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşayev, N.; Kocatepe, S.; Maraş, N.; Soylak, M.; Erol, M.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, obtaining the natural protein fibers from chicken feathers, which are obtained as a by-product in the production of chicken meat and which cause environmental pollution and important part is waste, has been drawn to the perspective of scientists. So, the investigations about the chicken feather fibers reveal important properties of these fibers. Chicken feather fibers are obtained by mechanical cutting of the barbs which have fibrous structure, the structure branched from rachis and constitute the body of the feather. The rachis part of chicken feather constitutes approximately half of the weight of the feathers. So, it is necessary to examine the properties of the chicken feathers in order to gain their industrialization. This study is concerned with the mechanical and physical properties of the material that is taken as a by-product in the production of fibers from chicken feathers and constitutes the rachis part of the feathers.

  4. PIXE analysis of chinese chicken-blood stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.K.; Wang, C.W.; Yu, Y.C.; Liu, T.Y.; Cheng, H.S.; Zhu, H.X.; Yang, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports the chemical compositions of chicken-blood stone Ji Xue Shi measured by Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). The experimental result show that for the red portion of chicken-blood stone, the concentration of Hg is as high as 20 wt%, and the concentration of S can be above 10 wt%. For the non-red portion the main chemical compositions are Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . The obtained chemical compositions are close to those of kaolinite for Balin chicken-blood stone, and of pyrophyllite for Changhua chicken-blood stone, respectively. So far many Changhua chicken-blood stones and Balin chicken-blood stones were found in China, the PIXE method can be used to explore the provenance of available chicken-blood stones. (author)

  5. Genotypes and oxacillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus from chicken and chicken meat in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupa, P; Bystroń, J; Bania, J; Podkowik, M; Empel, J; Mroczkowska, A

    2014-12-01

    The genotypes and oxacillin resistance of 263 Staphylococcus aureus isolates cultured from chicken cloacae (n = 138) and chicken meat (n = 125) was analyzed. Fifteen spa types were determined in the studied S. aureus population. Among 5 staphylococcal protein A gene (spa) types detected in S. aureus from chicken, t002, t3478, and t13620 were the most frequent. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from meat were assigned to 14 spa types. Among them, the genotypes t002, t056, t091, t3478, and t13620 were dominant. Except for 4 chicken S. aureus isolates belonging to CC398, the remaining 134 isolates were clustered into multilocus sequence clonal complex (CC) 5. Most of meat-derived isolates were assigned to CC5, CC7, and CC15, and to the newly described spa-CC12954 complex belonging to CC1. Except for t011 (CC398), all other spa types found among chicken isolates were also present in isolates from meat. Four S. aureus isolated from chicken and one from meat were identified as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) with oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations from 16 to 64 μg/mL. All MRSA were assigned to spa types belonging to ST398, and included 4 animal spa t011 SCCmecV isolates and 1 meat-derived spa t899, SCCmecIV isolate. Borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA) isolates, shown to grow on plates containing 2 to 3 μg/mL of oxacillin, were found within S. aureus isolates from chicken (3 isolates) and from meat (19 isolates). The spa t091 and t084 dominated among BORSA from chicken meat, whereas t548 and t002 were found within animal BORSA. We report for the first time the presence of MRSA in chicken in Poland. We demonstrate that MRSA CC398 could be found in chicken meat indicating potential of introduction of animal-associated genotypes into the food chain. We also report for the first time the possibility of transmission of BORSA isolates from chicken to meat. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Native Geoscience: Pathways to Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.; Seielstad, G.

    2006-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent accumulated knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have embraced the critical need of understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the continued growth of Native earth and environmental scientists The presentation will highlight: 1) past and present philosophies on building and maintaining Native/Tribal students in earth and environmental sciences; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native leadership development in earth and environmental sciences; and 4) forward thinking for creating proaction collaborations addressing sustainable environmental, educational and social infrastructures for all people. Humboldt State University (HSU) and the University of North Dakota's Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment and the Upper Midwest Aerospace Consortium (UMAC) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. Unique collaborations are emerging "bridging" Native people across geographic areas in developing educational/research experiences which integrate the distinctive earth/environmental knowledge of tribal people. The presentation will highlight currently funded projects and initiatives as well as success stories of emerging Native earth system students and scientists.

  7. The Rise of native advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Marius MANIC

    2015-01-01

    Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear ob...

  8. Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.

    OpenAIRE

    Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic a...

  9. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchint Simaraks

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/μl, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/μl, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous

  11. Economic inequality in nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian households: The NUTRI-KAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmat, Ramin; Salehi, Forouzan; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rostami, Mahsa; Shafiee, Gita; Ahadi, Zeinab; Khosravi, Shayesteh; Rezvani, Vahab; Sadeghi Ghotbabadi, Farzaneh; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improper nutritional knowledge is one of the most important causes of nutritional problems, which can affect practice and cause more complications. The aim of this study was to assess the association between nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Iranian households with socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: The study population was 14,136 households (57 clusters of 8 individuals in each province) who lived in urban and rural regions of 31 provinces of Iran. The sample size of the study was selected using multistage cluster sampling technique. A structured questionnaire and interview with the qualified person in each family was used to collect data. The questionnaire included demographic, SES and nutritional KAP questions. Using principle component analysis, some variables including household assets, occupation and education level of the heads of the families and respondents and the number of family members were used to construct family SES. The SES was categorized as good, moderate and weak. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to analyze categorical variables. Results: The percentage of knowledge about growing up, acquiring energy and being healthy as reasons for eating food was 24.1%, 44.8% and 54.7%, respectively. Only 69.7%, 60.5% and 52.5% of the participants had knowledge of identification of meat and legumes, grain and dairy group, respectively. More than 97% of the participants had a favorable attitude toward importance of nutrition in health. The nutritional knowledge linearly increased with increasing SES. Families with good SES significantly consumed more fruit, vegetable, dairy group, red meat, chicken and poultry, fish and egg while sugar consumption was significantly higher in families with weak SES (pnutritional KAP. Some policies should be considered to increase nutritional KAP especially in lower SES group in the society.

  12. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken offal at the retail level in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, C H; Goh, S G; Loo, Y Y; Chang, W S; Lye, Y L; Puspanadan, S; Tang, J Y H; Nakaguchi, Y; Nishibuchi, M; Mahyudin, N A; Radu, S

    2013-06-01

    A total of 216 chicken offal samples (chicken liver = 72; chicken heart = 72; chicken gizzard = 72) from wet markets and hypermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia, were examined for the presence and density of Listeria monocytogenes by using a combination of the most probable number and PCR method. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in 216 chicken offal samples examined was 26.39%, and among the positive samples, the chicken gizzard showed the highest percentage at 33.33% compared with chicken liver (25.00%) and chicken heart (20.83%). The microbial load of L. monocytogenes in chicken offal samples ranged from Malaysia.

  13. Effects of irradiation on bacterial load and Listeria monocytogenes in raw chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varabioff, Y.; Mitchell, G.E.; Nottingham, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    After irradiation of chickens to a dose of 2.5 kGy, the decrease in the standard plate count (SPC) was similar in air and in vacuum-packaged chickens. During storage at 4 degrees C for 15 d, the SPC increased progressively in both types of packaged chickens. At the end of the storage period, the SPC was higher in air-packaged chicken than in vacuum-packaged chickens. In irradiated chickens, Listeria monocytogenes was only recovered from the vacuum-packaged chickens after 7 d cold storage. In unirradiated chickens, L. monocytogenes proliferated similarly in both air- and vacuum-packaged chickens

  14. Cross-reactivity to fish and chicken meat - a new clinical syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Codreanu-Morel, F; Lehners-Weber, C

    2016-01-01

    fish and chicken meat in patients with allergy to chicken meat without sensitization to hen's eggs. METHODS: Patients with food allergy to fish and chicken meat (n = 29) or chicken meat only (n = 7) were recruited. IgE-reactive chicken proteins were identified (Edman, MS analysis) and quantified (ELISA...... for the fish homologues as well. Fish and chicken meat allergens were highly cross-reactive while high inhibition rates with fish or chicken allergens correlated with the patients' primary sensitization to fish or chicken. In cooked or roasted foods, enolase and aldolase were detectable in chicken breast while...

  15. Isolation of chicken embryonic stem cell and preparation of chicken chimeric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yani; Yang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhentao; Shi, Qingqing; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Mengmeng; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou

    2013-03-01

    Chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were separated from blastoderms at stage-X and cultured in vitro. Alkaline phosphatase activity and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 staining was conducted to detect ESCs. Then, chicken ESCs were transfected with linearized plasmid pEGFP-N1 in order to produce chimeric chicken. Firstly, the optimal electrotransfection condition was compared; the results showed the highest transfection efficiency was obtained when the field strength and pulse duration was 280 V and 75 μs, respectively. Secondly, the hatchability of shedding methods, drilling a window at the blunt end of egg and drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg was compared, the results showed that the hatchability was the highest for drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg. Thirdly, the hatchability of microinjection (ESCs was microinjected into chick embryo cavity) was compared too, the results showed there were significant difference between the injection group transfected with ESCs and that of other two groups. In addition, five chimeric chickens were obtained in this study and EGFP gene was expressed in some organs, but only two chimeric chicken expressed EGFP gene in the gonad, indicating that the chimeric chicken could be obtained through chick embryo cavity injection by drilling a window at the lateral shell of egg.

  16. Phenotypic and Genotypic Detection of Campylobacter jejuni at Local Chicken and Chicken Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rosyidi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The Objective of this study was to identify the existence of Campylobacter jejuni based on phenotypic and genotypic characteristic in local chicken and chicken meats. Samples of local chicken intestine and meat were tested for the bacterial existence. Phenotypic examination was carried out by means of cultivation followed by gram staining and biochemical tests. Genotypic examination was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific16S rRNA gene at 816 bp and membrane-associated protein A (mapA gene at 589 bp as Campylobacter jejuni species-specific gene. The result of phenotypic detection revealed the existence of Campylobacter spp as gram negative, curved rod shape, oxidase positive, urease negative and motile. Genotypic examination also indicated the existence of bacteria using both primers. However, no Campylobacter jejuni detected from meat of the chickens. The results suggest that the method of PCR using a primer detecting species-specific gene of Campylobacter jejuni gives a rapid and accurate detection of the bacteria as compared to that using phenotypic and biochemical test. Identification of Campylobacter spp from chicken meats should be improved with enrichment method and sample collection. (Animal Production 12(2: 128-134 (2010Key Words: Campylobacter jejuni, mapA gene, local chicken

  17. Comparison of non-volatile umami components in chicken soup and chicken enzymatic hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Yang, Xiao; Ding, Qi; Zhang, Yu-Yu; Sun, Bao-Guo; Chen, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Umami taste is an important part to the taste of chicken. To isolate and identify non-volatile umami compounds, fractions from chicken soup and hydrolysate were prepared and analyzed. Amino acids were analyzed by amino acid analyzer. Organic acids and nucleotides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. Separation procedures utilizing ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-15 and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography were used to isolate umami taste peptides. Combined with sensory evaluation and LC-Q-TOF-MS, the amino acid sequences of 12 oligopeptides were determined. The amount of taste compounds was higher in chicken enzymatic hydrolysate than that of chicken soup. Eight oligopeptides from chicken enzymatic hydrolysate were identified, including Ala-Asp, Ala-Met, His-Ser, Val-Glu, Ala-Glu, Asp-Ala-Gly, Glu-Asp and Ala-Glu-Ala. Four oligopeptides from chicken soup were identified, including Val-Thr, Ala-His, Ala-Phe and Thr-Glu. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental induction of chicken amyloid A amyloidosis in white layer chickens by inoculation with inactivated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Wazir Ahmad; Hirai, Takuya; Niazmand, Mohammad Hakim; Okumura, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Ryoji

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the amyloidogenic potential of inactivated vaccines and the localized production of serum amyloid A (SAA) at the injection site in white layer chickens. Hens in the treated group were injected intramuscularly three times with high doses of inactivated oil-emulsion Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine and multivalent viral and bacterial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines at two-week intervals. Chickens in the control group did not receive any inoculum. In the treated group, emaciation and granulomas were present, while several chickens died between 4 and 6 weeks after the first injection. Hepatomegaly was seen at necropsy, and the liver parenchyma showed inconsistent discolouration with patchy green to yellowish-brown areas, or sometimes red-brown areas with haemorrhage. Amyloid deposition in the liver, spleen, duodenum, and at injection sites was demonstrated using haematoxylin and eosin staining, Congo red, and immunohistochemistry. The incidence of chicken amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis was 47% (28 of 60) in the treated group. In addition, RT-PCR was used to identify chicken SAA mRNA expression in the liver and at the injection sites. Furthermore, SAA mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in fibroblasts at the injection sites, and also in hepatocytes. We believe that this is the first report of the experimental induction of systemic AA amyloidosis in white layer chickens following repeated inoculation with inactivated vaccines without the administration of amyloid fibrils or other amyloid-enhancing factors.

  19. Five scenarios for the Iranian crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkovich, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since August 2005, Iran's campaign to enrich uranium and acquire other technologies and practical experience that would enable it to produce nuclear weapons has gained momentum. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and militant elements in Iran's ruling circle pointedly continue to defy international demands to cease uranium enrichment while the International Atomic Energy Agency's doubts about the peacefulness of Iran's past nuclear activities remain unresolved - according to the IAEA, Iran has not provided adequate cooperation to help resolve these doubts. This obstinate stance, paired with an aggressive posture toward Israel, has heightened Ahmadinejad's popularity in the wider Arab world, including among Sunnis. The popularity of Iran's defiant position has, in turn, hardened Iran's resistance to international policy objectives to constrain the nuclear program. This essay explores five broad pathways by which Iran and the international community can try to resolve the nuclear standoff. It emphasizes that the Bush Administration after years of indecision has invested seriously in a diplomatic strategy to induce Iran to forego uranium enrichment and is prepared to pursue behavior change rather than regime change in Iran. However, Iranian resistance continues to raise the prospect that the international community will favor the competing approach of capitulation, which in turn would re-raise the prospects of military attack. 1. Capitulate to Iran and Welcome Limited Uranium Enrichment; 2. Offer Sanctions and Positive Incentives To Persuade Iran Not to Produce Nuclear Fuel (for an agreed substantial period of time); 3. Attack Iran's Nuclear Facilities and/or Military Assets; 4. Foster Regime Change in Iran; 5. Try Options 1 or 2, While Strengthening Deterrence and Containment. (author)

  20. Five scenarios for the Iranian crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkovich, G.

    2006-07-01

    Since August 2005, Iran's campaign to enrich uranium and acquire other technologies and practical experience that would enable it to produce nuclear weapons has gained momentum. President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and militant elements in Iran's ruling circle pointedly continue to defy international demands to cease uranium enrichment while the International Atomic Energy Agency's doubts about the peacefulness of Iran's past nuclear activities remain unresolved - according to the IAEA, Iran has not provided adequate cooperation to help resolve these doubts. This obstinate stance, paired with an aggressive posture toward Israel, has heightened Ahmadinejad's popularity in the wider Arab world, including among Sunnis. The popularity of Iran's defiant position has, in turn, hardened Iran's resistance to international policy objectives to constrain the nuclear program. This essay explores five broad pathways by which Iran and the international community can try to resolve the nuclear standoff. It emphasizes that the Bush Administration after years of indecision has invested seriously in a diplomatic strategy to induce Iran to forego uranium enrichment and is prepared to pursue behavior change rather than regime change in Iran. However, Iranian resistance continues to raise the prospect that the international community will favor the competing approach of capitulation, which in turn would re-raise the prospects of military attack. 1. Capitulate to Iran and Welcome Limited Uranium Enrichment; 2. Offer Sanctions and Positive Incentives To Persuade Iran Not to Produce Nuclear Fuel (for an agreed substantial period of time); 3. Attack Iran's Nuclear Facilities and/or Military Assets; 4. Foster Regime Change in Iran; 5. Try Options 1 or 2, While Strengthening Deterrence and Containment. (author)

  1. Production Performance of Indigenous Chicken under Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study to evaluate four indigenous chicken – namely: Horasi, Kuchi, Naked neck and Frizzled in order to obtain grand-parent and parent stocks was carried out at Tanzania Livestock Research Institute, Mpwapwa district of Dodoma, Tanzania. The perfomance of the ecotypes were compared so as to come out with the best ...

  2. Generation of chickens expressing Cre recombinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, Philip A; Pedersen, Darlene; Ching, Kathryn; Collarini, Ellen J; Izquierdo, Shelley; Jacob, Roy; van de Lavoir, Marie-Cecile

    2016-10-01

    Cre recombinase has been extensively used for genome engineering in transgenic mice yet its use in other species has been more limited. Here we describe the generation of transgenic chickens expressing Cre recombinase. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive chicken primordial germ cells were stably transfected with β-actin-Cre-recombinase using phiC31 integrase and transgenic chickens were generated. Cre recombinase activity was verified by mating Cre birds to birds carrying a floxed transgene. Floxed sequences were only excised in offspring from roosters that inherited the Cre recombinase but were excised in all offspring from hens carrying the Cre recombinase irrespective of the presence of the Cre transgene. The Cre recombinase transgenic birds were healthy and reproductively normal. The Cre and GFP genes in two of the lines were closely linked whereas the genes segregated independently in a third line. These founders allowed development of GFP-expressing and non-GFP-expressing Cre recombinase lines. These lines of birds create a myriad of opportunities to study developmentally-regulated and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in chickens.

  3. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the

  4. Alternative anticoccidial treatment of broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmusharaf, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and electromagnetic fields (EMF) in broiler chickens infected with Eimeria parasites. The question addressed was whether ingestion of MOS or exposure to EMF would counteract the coccidiosis-induced depression of growth performance and

  5. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...

  6. Review of environmental enrichment for broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, A.B.; De Weerd, Van H.A.; Jong, De I.C.; Steenfeldt, S.

    2018-01-01

    Welfare problems are commonly found in both conventional and organic production of broiler chickens. In order to reduce the extent of welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating, enriched environments. The aim of the present paper is to provide a review of the effect on behavior

  7. Responsive Reading: Caring for Chicken Little

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderazo, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Media images and news about current events have the potential to strike like acorns. In these moments, children, like Chicken Little, need caring adults who can help them understand what is happening. As early childhood educators, one must recognize and provide opportunities to guide children's social and emotional well-being in addition to…

  8. The major histocompatibility complex in the chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillemot, F; Kaufman, J F; Skjoedt, K

    1989-01-01

    The chicken B complex is the first non-mammalian MHC characterized at the molecular level. It differs from the human HLA and murine H-2 complexes in the small size of the class I (B-F) and class II (B-L) genes and their close proximity. This proximity accounts for the absence of recombination...

  9. Lymphoid cells in chicken intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    1975-01-01

    The intraepithelial lymphoid cells of chicken small intestine were studied by light microscopy using 1 mu Epon sections, and by electron microscopy. Three cell types were found: small lymphocytes, large lymphoid cells, and granular cells. These cells correspond to the theliolymphocytes and globule...

  10. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  11. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  12. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  13. Iranian dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. This case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35-75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;"Healthy pattern"and "Iranian pattern". Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05-2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.

  14. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Azizi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases. Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI=1.05–2.19 while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47.Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.

  15. Is Peer Review Training Effective in Iranian EFL Students' Revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeeli, Hadiseh; Abasi, Maasumeh; Soori, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of peer review training on the Iranian EFL students' subsequent revision in an advanced writing class in Larestan Islamic Azad University. After 12 weeks class demonstration, teacher-reviewer conferences with 20 male and female students, the students' first drafts, revisions, and reviewers' comments were…

  16. Reasons to revolt: Iranian oil workers in the 1970s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafari, P.

    2013-01-01

    Oil workers played a pivotal role during the Iranian Revolution of 1978-1979. Involving tens of thousands of workers, oil strikes paralyzed the state and paved the way for the Shah's downfall. Various accounts of these strikes, however, ignore the subjectivity and agency of the oil workers by

  17. Reasons to Revolt: Iranian Oil Workers in the 1970s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafari, P.

    2013-01-01

    Oil workers played a pivotal role during the Iranian Revolution of 1978–1979. Involving tens of thousands of workers, oil strikes paralyzed the state and paved the way for the Shah’s downfall. Various accounts of these strikes, however, ignore the subjectivity and agency of the oil workers by

  18. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  19. The link between BMI and waist circumference in northern Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: Waist circumference and not body mass index explains a greater variance in obesity-related health risk. The present study assesses the link between BMI and WC in Iranian adults. Methods: In a population based cross- sectional study on 3600 adults, northern Iran, we investigated the link ...

  20. An Empirical Investigation of Entrepreneurship Intensity in Iranian State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazdeh, Mohammad Mahdavi; Razavi, Seyed-Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Zahedi, Mohammad-Reza; Elahi, Behin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a framework to evaluate the entrepreneurship intensity (EI) of Iranian state universities. In order to determine EI, a hybrid multi-method framework consisting of Delphi, Analytic Network Process (ANP), and VIKOR is proposed. The Delphi method is used to localize and reduce the number of criteria extracted…

  1. Studying the Impacts of Globalization on Iranian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahardahcheriki, Mitra Abdolahi; Shahi, Sakine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the degree of globalization of important indicators of education system in Iran including teaching approaches, educational tools and facilities, curriculums and contents, and education management. Findings suggest that the situation of Iranian education system has some distance with the globalized level and…

  2. Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.

  3. a Review of Reception Studies in Iranian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas V. Kazemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we studied student dissertations in cultural studies departments and articles of two important journals (Iranian Journal of Cultural Research and Quarterly Journal of Iranian Association for Cultural Studies & Communication. Our main questions are how the condition of reception possibility is assumed in Iranian cultural studies? How we can classify our audiences? In particular, how and who is the audience in Iran? This analysis shows that most of the Iranian cultural studies oriented to urban middle class of Tehran, instead of lower middle class or labor class. The result demonstrates that, most of scholars consider audience as an active subject that resists against text massages. Hence, they overlook the role of ideology and power in construction of subject and audience. As if, a type of optimistic cultural studies was adapted in an authoritarian political context. This approach on resistance is called resistance ideology by the authors; a situation in which we believe resistance is a sort of relieving and appeasing drug for critical cultural scholars.

  4. Screening for genomic rearrangements at BRCA1 locus in Iranian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Issue 1. Screening for genomic rearrangements at BRCA1 locus in Iranian women with breast cancer using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Vahid R. Yassaee Babak Emamalizadeh Mir Davood Omrani. Research Note Volume 92 Issue 1 ...

  5. Gene susceptibility in Iranian asthmatic patients: a narrative review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As environmental factors are important in the development of asthma, genetic factors could have a critical role in the expression of the disease. Hence, we carried out a systematic review to assess the susceptible genes for asthma in Iranian population. We conducted a literature search by using the electronic database ...

  6. Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS). Volume 2, Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS) is devoted to all areas of language and linguistics. Its aim is to present work of current interest in all areas of language study. No particular linguistic theories or scientific trends are favored: scientific quality and scholarly standing are the only criteria applied in the selection of papers…

  7. The Iranian Puzzle Piece: Understanding Iran in the Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    15. Barbara opall -rome, “Israeli Defenses to Use artificial Intelligence,” Defense News, 21 January 2008 (http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?i...iv Iranian Power Structure ................................................................10 iv v iv v...former requires a deep understanding of Iran’s power structures and the grievances that thwart rapprochement to determine with whom and about what

  8. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Iranian Textbooks: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taase, Yoones

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…

  9. Beneficiation of Iranian magnesite ores by reverse flotation process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    such as steel making vessels and rotary cement kilns (Jankanovic and Vumberkovic ... Grain size and boundaries, impurities and/or additives, porosity ... Na2CO3, is necessary for this process due to its pH increasing ... Figure 1. Index map showing the locations of major Iranian .... white oil as collector and foaming agent.

  10. Legal Issues of A Surrogacy Contract Based on Iranian Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pirouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.

  11. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for Iranian river buffalo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... defining the functional composition of their genome. Microsatellites have been .... species such as fishes (Hsu et al., 2004; Sanches and. JR, 2006; Chung-Jian ... Phylogenetic study of the Iranian buffalo by microsatellite ... Molecular Ecology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences,. University of Hull ...

  12. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  13. Iranian Students' Performance on the IELTS: A Question of Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemi, Farid; Daftarifard, Parisa; Shirkhani, Servat

    2011-01-01

    Reading comprehension has won much effort on the part of teachers, testers, and researchers in Iran due to the fact that the immediate need of Iranian students at different university levels is the ability to read in order to get new information on the topic they are studying. The question raised is how much reading practice can move learners…

  14. The Emotional Impact of Forced Migration on Iranian-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestaneh, Hamideh

    2015-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, thematic analysis was used to gain a better understanding of the lived experience of six Iranian-Americans who migrate Iran for safety and a better life. The researcher assessed the participants' journey phase by phase, to get a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. Overall, emigrating from Iran had both negative…

  15. A Historical Overview of Iranian Music Pedagogy (1905-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastaninezhad, Arya

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the recent developments and changes concerning Iranian music education from the constitutional revolution of 1905 to 2014. This concentrates on the five major chronological events referred to as Nationalism, Modernism, Conservatism, Neo-Traditionalism (Shirin-navazi) and Revivalism of the Traditions. This provides a source of…

  16. The Role and Impact of Iranian Migrants in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honari, A.; van Bezouw, M.J.; Namazie, Pari

    In light of increasing migration in Europe, the aim of the current study is to gather a better understanding of the societal position, societal and political participation, and embeddedness of migrants in Western European countries. The Iranian migrant community is used as a case study. The research

  17. Theory- Building for Iranian Underground Music Using Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kowsari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Different genres of underground music are important issues in Iranian youth culture. The purpose of this research was to study masculinity in Iranian- Persian rap music. Therefore, Persian rap music as a part of Iranian popular culture, between 2001 and 2011 was analyzed. We used qualitative research approach. The main method used in this study, was "Constructive Grounded Theory ". So instead of using existing theories as a theoretical framework, the researcher sought to generate local theory from research field. Thus, using theoretical sampling, data compiled from various sources. The multiple data collection techniques such as interviews, observation, online observation, collecting documents and texts were used. Then all the data was coded with using open, axial and selective coding methods. Finally, 62 concepts and 16 categories derived from data and "plural form of masculinity in Iranian-Persian rap music" was defined as the core category. Then according to paradigmatic model, "Substantive Theory" emerged from the data, was presented as "story" and "visual model". Finally seven questions of Strauss and Corbin about the experience in research has been assessed to evaluating research.

  18. Breeding ecology of the Iranian ground jay ( Podoces pleskei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Podoces pleskei is the only endemic bird of Iran, little information exists on its ecological features, population dynamics and threats that concern it. This species occurs in desert and semi desert areas, mostly on the Iranian plateau, though its range spreads southeast ward to the Iran- Pakistan border.

  19. Volatile constituents of ginger oil prepared according to Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medicines formulated as oils were believed to possess more powerful effects than their original plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). One of the popular oils suggested for treatment of various indications was ginger oil. In the present study, to suggest a more convenient method of oil preparation ...

  20. The Status of Pragmatics among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Bagheri, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempted to investigate the status of pragmatics among Iranian EFL learners. Status of pragmatics was analyzed in terms of the amount of pragmatic knowledge EFL learners believed to have and the amount of pragmatic knowledge they believed to receive from teachers, classmates, course books, and exams. Additionally, attempts were…

  1. Genetic analysis of imported dengue virus strains by Iranian travelers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariman Shahhosseini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus sequences used in this study were obtained from two Iranian patients who were both with a history of traveling to Malaysia. The maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree demonstrated that two sequences were grouped into dengue virus 1. Specifically, strains IranDF1 and Iran-DF2 clustered in genotype I and III, respectively.

  2. Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.

    2010-01-01

    Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…

  3. Integrating CALL into an Iranian EAP Course: Constraints and Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2015-01-01

    Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Iranian restaurant food samples: Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, SCCmec phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance. ... TetK (80.72 %), linA (67.46 %), aadA1 (62.65 %), and msrA (55.42 %) were the most frequently identified resistance genes. SCCmec V (57.83%) ...

  5. Sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian-american women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J

    2013-08-01

    Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.

  6. MHC variability in heritage breeds of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Lund, A R; McCarron, A M; Pinegar, K N; Korver, D R; Classen, H L; Aggrey, S; Utterbach, C; Anthony, N B; Berres, M E

    2016-02-01

    The chicken Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is very strongly associated with disease resistance and thus is a very important region of the chicken genome. Historically, MHC (B locus) has been identified by the use of serology with haplotype specific alloantisera. These antisera can be difficult to produce and frequently cross-react with multiple haplotypes and hence their application is generally limited to inbred and MHC-defined lines. As a consequence, very little information about MHC variability in heritage chicken breeds is available. DNA-based methods are now available for examining MHC variability in these previously uncharacterized populations. A high density SNP panel consisting of 101 SNP that span a 230,000 bp region of the chicken MHC was used to examine MHC variability in 17 heritage populations of chickens from five universities from Canada and the United States. The breeds included 6 heritage broiler lines, 3 Barred Plymouth Rock, 2 New Hampshire and one each of Rhode Island Red, Light Sussex, White Leghorn, Dark Brown Leghorn, and 2 synthetic lines. These heritage breeds contained from one to 11 haplotypes per line. A total of 52 unique MHC haplotypes were found with only 10 of them identical to serologically defined haplotypes. Furthermore, nine MHC recombinants with their respective parental haplotypes were identified. This survey confirms the value of these non-commercially utilized lines in maintaining genetic diversity. The identification of multiple MHC haplotypes and novel MHC recombinants indicates that diversity is being generated and maintained within these heritage populations. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Nativization Processes in L1 Esperanto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Benjamin K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the Native Esperanto of eight speakers, ranging from age 6 to 14 years. Found bilingualism and nativization effects, differentiating native from non-native Esperanto speech. Among these effects are loss or modification of the accusative case, phonological reduction, attrition of tense/aspect system, and pronominal…

  8. The Impact of Age and Sex on the Refusal Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Shahpouri Arani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One major problem for non-native speakers is using refusals and because of this, second language teachers and others who communicate in that language should have the cultural differences in mind. When the interlocutors say “no” to a request or invitation, either directly or indirectly, they use speech act of refusal.  Refusal is considered a face threatening act, as there exists a kind of contradiction in it and is always realized indirectly. Thus, a high level of pragmatic competence is needed to realize it. The aim of this study is to find out whether the age and sex of Iranian learners have any effect on their used refusal strategies and if the existence of such an effect was demonstrated which group is more native like in terms of content and form of used strategies. To achieve this end, graduated students (male/female of different age, sex and different fields of study were selected. Three groups of participants participated in this study. The first group includes 30 American English Speakers (A.E.S. The second group consists of participants whose ages were between 22-29 and the third group was a group of 30 participants of both sexes who speak English as a second language (sex is the only variable under study in this group. Using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT, a number of refusal situations were collected, responded by participants and analyzed. The results revealed that the age and sex of EFL learners does not have any significant effect on using refusal strategies.

  9. Perception of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifadini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehrabani, Mitra; Kamalinegad, Mohamad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In regards to the world's aging population, control and treatment of AD will be one of the major concerns of global public health in the next century. Alzheimer disease was not mentioned with the same phrase or its equivalent in traditional medical texts. The main of present paper was to investigate symptoms and causes of alzheimer disease from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine. In this qualitative study, we searched reliable sources of Iranian traditional medicine such as Canon of Medicide by Avicenna (Al-Quanon fi- tibb), Aghili cure by Aghili's (Molajat-E-aghili), Tib-E-Akbari, Exire -E-Aazam and Sharh-E-Asbab and some reliable resources of neurology were probed base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlap in terms of symptoms with alzheimer disease. By taking from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed. Findings showed that alzheimer disease has the most overlap with Nesyan (fisad-e-zekr, fisad-e-fekr and fisad-e-takhayol) symptoms in Iranian traditional medicine. Although this is not a perfect overlap and there are causes, including coldness and dryness of the brain or coldness and wetness that could also lead to alzheimer disease according to Iranian traditional medicine. According to Iranian traditional medicine, The brain dystemperement is considered the main causes of alzheimer disease. By correcting the brain dystemperement, alzheimer can be well managed. This study helps to suggest a better strategy for preventing and treating alzheimer in the future.

  10. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  11. Improvement of bacteriological quality of frozen chicken by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, K.; Prachasitthisak, Y.; Charoen, S.; Kanarat, S.; Kanignunta, K.; Tangwongsupang, S.

    1986-12-01

    The possible use of gamma irradiation at doses of 1.6 to 4.0 kGy to improve bacteriological quality of frozen chicken was investigated. The effects of gamma irradiation on salmonella viability in frozen chicken and on sensory quality of frozen chicken were also evaluated. D 10 -values for different isolated strains of salmonella in frozen chicken varied from 0.41 to 0.57 kGy. A dose of 4 kGy is required for a seven log cycle reduction of salmonella contamination in frozen chicken. Approximately 21 per cent of frozen chicken examined were contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella typhimurium, salmonella virchow, and salmonella java were predominant. Irradiation of frozen chicken at a minimum dose of 3.2 kGy eliminated salmonella, coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus and, in addition, reduced baterial load by 2 log cycles. Faecal streptococci was still present in a 3.2 kGy samples but in a very small percentage and the count was not over 100 colonies per g. Discoloring of chicken meat was noted after a 2 kGy treatment. The sensory quality of frozen chicken irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy tended to decrease during frozen storage but was within the acceptable range on a nine point hedonic scale even after eight months of frozen storage. Dosage at 3.2 kGy appeared to be sufficient for improving bacteriological quality of frozen chicken

  12. The evolution of chicken stem cell culture methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, M; Attari, F; Mozdziak, P E; Khoshnam, S E

    2017-12-01

    1. The avian embryo is an excellent model for studying embryology and the production of pharmaceutical proteins in transgenic chickens. Furthermore, chicken stem cells have the potential for proliferation and differentiation and emerged as an attractive tool for various cell-based technologies. 2. The objective of these studies is the derivation and culture of these stem cells is the production of transgenic birds for recombinant biomaterials and vaccine manufacture, drug and cytotoxicity testing, as well as to gain insight into basic science, including cell tracking. 3. Despite similarities among the established chicken stem cell lines, fundamental differences have been reported between their culture conditions and applications. Recent conventional protocols used for expansion and culture of chicken stem cells mostly depend on feeder cells, serum-containing media and static culture. 4. Utilising chicken stem cells for generation of cell-based transgenic birds and a variety of vaccines requires large-scale cell production. However, scaling up the conventional adherent chicken stem cells is challenging and labour intensive. Development of a suspension cell culture process for chicken embryonic stem cells (cESCs), chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) and chicken induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) will be an important advance for increasing the growth kinetics of these cells. 6. This review describes various approaches and suggestions to achieve optimal cell growth for defined chicken stem cells cultures and use in future manufacturing applications.

  13. Cloning and sequencing of growth hormone gene of Iranian Lori Bakhtiari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dayani-Nia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and animals. It is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesized, stored, and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. The goal of this research was to clone and sequence sheep growth hormone of Lori Bakhtiary breed in Iran. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from the pituitary gland of freshly slaughtered sheep and cDNA of growth hormone produced. The T/A cloning technique was used to clone the cDNA of growth hormone and then the synthesized construct was transferred into E. coli as the host. Once the correct recombinants were further confirmed by colony PCR or restriction enzyme digestion, sequencing was done. The sequencing results showed that, the length of sheep growth hormone cDNA was 690 bp fragments. Comparison of sequence of growth hormone inside the synthesized construct with those recorded in Genebank (NCBI, Blast indicated high degrees of similarity between Iranian native sheep and other sheep breeds of the world.

  14. Politeness strategies in written communications: the issue of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimkhanlooei Giti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The approximation of the pragmatic knowledge of English language learners to native speakers has been a realm of concern for the scholars and researchers in applied linguistics. Thus, this research was an endeavor to figure out the association between the proficiency level and politeness strategies and external/internal modifications in written communication skills in the speech act of requests in Iranian English language learners. To this end, a written Discourse Completion Test (DCT, adapted from Rose (1994, including 8 situations was administered to elicit data from Iran Language Institute120 female and male EFL learners, 60 upper-intermediate and 60 intermediate. The data were sorted out using Brown and Levinson’s politeness strategies taxonomy (Brown and Levinson 1987 and external/internal modifications developed by Faerch and Kasper (1989. The written request utterances provided by each participant were analyzed in terms of frequency and types of politeness strategies, namely, positive, negative, bald on record, and off-record as well as external/internal modifications utilized in requests. The Pearson Chi-Square test results revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between upper-intermediate and intermediate learners’ type of politeness strategies and external/internal modifications.

  15. Formulation and quality control of amla oil (Phyllantus emblica based on Iranian traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nikmanesh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Amla is native to India and is exported to Iran. Although amla has been mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM manuscripts, no pharmaceuticals have been prepared from this medicinal plant in Iran; thus, in the present study amla oil has been designed and formulated according to ITM. Methods: Phyllantus emblica and Myrtus communis were purchased from herbal market of Tehran and their scientific names were confirmed. Quality control tests were performed on the herbs. For preparing amla oil, the aqueous extract of Myrtus communis leaves was prepared by using maceration method for 24 h. Then, the mixture was filtered and amla was added to the extract and shaked for 48 h. After filtering the mixture, sesame oil was added to the filtrate (in equal volume and heated until all water was evaporated and the oil remained. Quality control examinations including determination of viscosity, density, acid value, saponification value and microbial tests were performed on the oil. Results: Amla oil was dark yellowin color with sesame odor. The density was found to be 0.966 mg/mL and the viscosity was 108.2 centipoise. Acid value was 3.03 mg KH/g oil and saponification value was zero. No fungal or bacterial growth was observed. Conclusion: The formulated amla oil demonstrated acceptable physicochemical charactristics and could be introduced for further mass production after completing the final required evaluations.

  16. Enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Sarah; Wang, Ya-Jane; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of enzyme modification on starch as an effective oil delivery system for bake-only chicken nuggets. Various native starches were hydrolyzed by amyloglucosidase to a hydrolysis degree of 20% to 25% and plated with 50% (w/w, starch dry basis) with canola oil to create a starch-oil matrix. This matrix was then blended into a dry ingredient blend for batter and breader components. Nuggets were prepared by coated with predust, hydrated batter, and breader, and the coated nuggets were steam-baked until fully cooked and then frozen until texture and sensory analyses. The enzyme-modified starches showed a significant decrease in pasting viscosities for all starch types. For textural properties of nuggets, no clear relationship was found between peak force and starch source or amylose content. Sensory attributes related to fried foods (for example, crispness and mouth-coating) did not significantly differ between bake-only nuggets formulated using the enzyme-modified starches and the partially fried and baked ones. The present findings suggest that enzyme-modified starches can deliver sufficient quantity of oil to create sensory attributes similar to those of partially fried chicken nuggets. Further study is needed to optimize the coating formulation of bake-only chicken nugget to become close to the fried one in sensory aspects. The food industry has become increasingly focused on healthier items. Frying imparts several critical and desirable product functionalities, such as developing texture and color, and providing mouth-feel and flavor. The food industry has yet to duplicate all of the unique characteristics of fried chicken nuggets with a baking process. This study investigated the application of enzyme-modified starch as an oil delivery system in bake-only chicken nugget formulation in attempts to provide characteristics of fried items. This information is useful to improve the nutritional value of fried food by eliminating the

  17. Long-term lesser prairie-chicken nest ecology in response to grassland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Boal, Clint W.; Patten, Michael; Wolfe, Don H.; Dixon, Charles; Cox, Robert D.; Heck, Willard R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term population and range declines from habitat loss and fragmentation caused the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) to be a species of concern throughout its range. Current lesser prairie-chicken range in New Mexico and Texas is partially restricted to sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii; hereafter shinnery oak) prairies, on which cattle grazing is the main socioeconomic driver for private landowners. Cattle producers within shinnery oak prairies often focus land management on shrub eradication using the herbicide tebuthiuron to promote grass production for forage; however, herbicide application alone, and in combination with grazing, may affect nest site selection and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens through the reduction of shinnery oak and native grasses. We used a controlled, paired, completely randomized design study to assess the influence of grazing and tebuthiuron application and their combined use on nest site selection and nest survival from 2001 to 2010 in Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA at 2 spatial scales (i.e., treatment and microhabitat) in 4 treatments: tebuthiuron with grazing, tebuthiuron without grazing, no tebuthiuron with grazing, and a control of no tebuthiuron and no grazing. Grazing treatment was a short-duration system in which plots were grazed once during the dormant season and once during the growing season. Stocking rate was calculated each season based on measured forage production and applied to remove ≤25% of available herbaceous material per season. At the treatment scale, we compared nest site selection among treatments using 1-way χ2 tests and nest survival among treatments using a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK. At the microhabitat scale, we identified important habitat predictors of nest site selection and nest survival using logistic regression and a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK, respectively. Females typically used treatments as expected and

  18. Cultural Intelligence and Social Adaptability: A Comparison between Iranian and Non-Iranian Dormitory Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Batoul; Keyvanara, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    At the modern age, to acquire knowledge and experience, the individuals with their own specific culture have to enter contexts with cultural diversity, adapt to different cultures and have social interactions to be able to have effective inter-cultural relationships.To have such intercultural associations and satisfy individual needs in the society, cultural intelligence and social adaptability are deemed as inevitable requirements, in particular for those who enter a quite different culture. Hence, the present study tries to compare the cultural intelligence and its aspects and social adaptability in Iranian and non-Iranian dormitory students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2012. The study was of descriptiveanalytical nature. The research population consisted of Iranian and non-Iranian students resided in the dormitories of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences which are 2500, totally. For Iranian students, two-stage sampling method was adopted. At the first stage, classified sampling and at the second stage, systematic random sampling was conducted. In this way, 441 students were selected. To form non-Iranian students' sample, consensus sampling method was applied and a sample of 37 students were obtained. The research data was collected by using Earley & Ang's Cultural Intelligence Questionnaire with the Cronbach's coefficient α of 76% and California Social Adaptability Standard Questionnaire with the Cronbach's coefficient α of over 70%. Then, the data were put into SPSS software to be analyzed. Finally, the results were presented by descriptive and inferential statistics methods. The study findings revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between cultural intelligence and cognitive aspect of cultural intelligence in Iranian and non-Iranian students (P≥0/05). However, Iranian and non-Iranian students statistically differed in terms of the following aspects of cultural intelligence: meta-cognitive aspect (61.8% for

  19. Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nWe determined the frequency of clinical thyroid ophthalmopathy in Iranian patients. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Endocrinology Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All patients with documented thyroid disorders from September 2003 to July 2005 were recruited. Eye examinations included evaluation of soft tissue changes, measurement of proptosis, lid width, lagophthalmos, evaluation of eye muscle function, and determination of visual acuity. The activity of ophthalmopathy was scored according to the NOSPECS scale. Among 851 visited patients, 303 cases had thyroid eye disease (TED. The nature of the ophthalmopathy breaks down as follows: 53.4% were hypothyroid (9.3% Hashimoto disease, 5.5% euthyroid and 41.1% had Graves' disease. The prevalence of TED in males was 60% which was nearly 2 times the prevalence of TED in females. There was a significant relationship between presentation of TED and active smoking of the patients (P<0.0001 while no significant relationship with passive smoking was obtained (P=0.181. The most common clinical sign of TED in descending order respectively were proptosis with 63.4%, soft tissue involvement (40.9%, extraocular muscle involvement (22.1%, corneal involvement (12.9% and optic nerve dysfunction (6.3%. Myasthenia gravis occurred in only 2 patients. In the logistic regression, occurrence of TED was influenced by cardiovascular disease (OR=5.346, Graves' disease (OR=47.507, radioiodine therapy (OR=2.590, and anti-thyroid medications (OR=0.650. Thyroid ophtalmopathy (orbitopathy is a matter of important health concern among patients with thyroid disorder. Since TED occurred with a high prevalence in all thyroid states, a close collaboration between endocrinologists and ophthalmologists along with timely referrals of patients with any eye complaint is deemed necessary. Also smoking was the most important risk factor for developing TED. Therefore, it is advisable to raise

  20. Keep the Beat Recipes - Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good for your heart and taste great, too. Chicken and Mushroom Fricassee Serves 4 Ingredients: 1 Tbsp ... onions, raw or frozen 3 Cup low-sodium chicken broth 1 lb skinless chicken legs or thighs ( ...

  1. Qualitative and Quantitative Status and International Visibility of Iranian Journals Indexed in Journal Citation Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadamin Erfanmanesh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the international status and visibility of Iranian journals which have been indexed in Journal Citation Reports (JCR. Accordingly, the number of international papers, citations and editorial board members of each journal was studied. Moreover, various measures were utilized to compare the quality of Iranian journals with their international counterparts. Method: Current paper applied scientometric research method. A total of 16471 papers which published in 38 Iranian journals and indexed by the JCR 2013 were selected as the population of the study. Web of Science (WoS, JCR and journals’ website were used for data gathering. Results: Results of the study revealed that foreign researchers have published 34.8% of papers published in Iranian ISI journals. Moreover, only 30.6% of citations to Iranian ISI journals have been received from foreign papers or Iranian internationally collaborative papers. The results showed that Iranian researchers accounted for 66.4% of editorial board member of all studied journals, while foreign researchers only occupied 33.6% of the editorial board positions. Based on the findings, only two Iranian journals have impact factors above the median of the journals in the disciplinary category areas in which they are classified in JCR. Furthermore, only 8 Iranian journals have ever been placed in the 1st and 2nd quartile of journals of the same field in the JCR. Findings also showed that 36 out of the 38 Iranian journals have mostly cited by journals with higher median impact factors than cited journals. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the share of international papers, citations and editorial board memberships is low in Iranian ISI journals. Moreover, Iranian journals’ impact factor was below of those of the leading journals.

  2. An Exploratory Study of the Language-learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani; Meysam Dehgahi; Hanie Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred ki...

  3. Investigating the Relationship between the Washback Effect of IELTS Test and Iranian IELTS Candidates’ Life Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamarian, Daniel; Motallebzadeh, Khalil; Fatemi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between the washback effect of IELTS test and Iranian IELTS candidates’ life skills pattern as well as investigating the relationship between constructs underlying IELTS test and Iranian IELTS candidates’ communicative skill viewpoints on language proficiency. The correlational research method was employed as the design of the study. The study included 322 Iranian IELTS candidates who completed IELTS preparation courses. To collect data, the res...

  4. Preparation and evaluation of chicken embryo-adapted fowl adenovirus serotype 4 vaccine in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam

    2011-02-01

    The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.

  5. Thinking chickens: a review of cognition, emotion, and behavior in the domestic chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori

    2017-03-01

    Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. At least some birds are now known to be on par with many mammals in terms of their level of intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet, views of chickens have largely remained unrevised by this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the peer-reviewed scientific data on the leading edge of cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities in these areas with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals. My overall conclusion is that chickens are just as cognitively, emotionally and socially complex as most other birds and mammals in many areas, and that there is a need for further noninvasive comparative behavioral research with chickens as well as a re-framing of current views about their intelligence.

  6. Gas exchange and energy expenditure in chicken embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ali, Abdalla

    ) in this phase may be a crucial parameter predicting metabolic rate and consquently, growth performance of post-hatched chickens. The aim of this investigation was to determine EE in embryos of slow and fast growing lines of chickens. Taking advantage of the indirect calorimetry technique it was also possible....... It is remarkable that the differences between chickens from fast and slow growing lines were already manifested furing their embryonic development....

  7. Native grass hydroseed development : establishment protocols for three native Hawaiian plants on roadside areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The biggest mistake with using native plants on Hawaiis roadways is to assume that native plants do not require : nutrient enhancement or supplemental water to establish on these sites. The establishment of native plants will : require a detailed ...

  8. Investigating Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119

  9. Relationship between price and money stock in Iranian economy (1961-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Babaei Semirumi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between money and inflation in the Iranian economy with cagan(1956 money demand function . In doing so,I have first reviewed theoretical and empirical literature of causality throughout the world and then it be used Granger’s method for detecting causality between money and inflation in the Iranian economy. according to this working paper elasticity of demand for real balances in money market toward inflation for Iranian economy are approximately 0.9 and Money is exogenous reward to WPI,CPI and PPI in Iranian economy.

  10. Gender differences in depression scores of Iranian and german medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Ahmadi, Nahid; Soltani, Fereshteh; Bayat, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate gender differences in depression scores of Iranian and German medical students. Two hundred Iranian medical students (100 men and 100 women) and 200 German medical students (100 men and 100 women) were selected randomly and completed the English form of the self-rating Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Analysis gave a mean rating of 10.7 ± 6.6 for Iranian men and 10.9 ± 7.81 for Iranian women (NS). Also, 5 ± 4.9 for German men and 5.6 ± 5.0 for German women (NS). On Item 2, which asked whether the person was pessimistic 33% of Iranian men and 30% of Iranian women indicated that they were pessimistic (NS). Also, 21% of German men and 20% of German women indicated that they were pessimistic (NS). On Item 9, which asked about suicidal tendencies, 9% of Iranian men and 13% of Iranian women reported as having suicidal tendencies (NS). Also, 13% of German men and 21% of German women reported as having self-harming thoughts (NS). The present study showed no gender differences in Iranian and German medical students' scores on the BDI.

  11. The Interplay among Emotional Intelligence, Classroom Management, and Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hamidi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate the interplay among Iranian EFL teachers’ emotional intelligence, classroom management, and their general English language proficiency. The result of the data analysis showed that: 1 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the classroom management of Iranian EFL teachers, 2 there was a statistically significant relationship between the emotional intelligence and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers, and 3 there was a statistically significant relationship between the classroom management and the language proficiency of Iranian EFL teachers. Teacher trainers, researchers in teacher education, and language teachers may benefit from the findings of the present research.

  12. Molecular genetic diversity and maternal origin of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W Q; Li, H F; Wang, J Y; Shu, J T; Zhu, C H; Song, W T; Song, C; Ji, G G; Liu, H X

    2014-04-29

    Chinese black-bone chickens are valued for the medicinal properties of their meat in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the genetic diversity and systematic evolution of Chinese black-bone chicken breeds. We sequenced the DNA of 520 bp of the mitochondrial cyt b gene of nine Chinese black-bone chicken breeds, including Silky chicken, Jinhu black-bone chicken, Jiangshan black-bone chicken, Yugan black-bone chicken, Wumeng black-bone chicken, Muchuan black-bone chicken, Xingwen black-bone chicken, Dehua black-bone chicken, and Yanjin black-bone chicken. We found 13 haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity of the nine black-bone chicken breeds ranged from 0 to 0.78571 and 0.00081 to 0.00399, respectively. Genetic diversity was the richest in Jinhu black-bone chickens and the lowest in Yanjin black-bone chickens. Analysis of phylogenetic trees for all birds constructed based on hyplotypes indicated that the maternal origin of black-bone chickens is predominantly from three subspecies of red jungle fowl. These results provide basic data useful for protection of black-bone chickens and help determine the origin of domestic chickens.

  13. [Composition of chicken and quail eggs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, S J; Marchesich, C; Cabrera, M; Morales, J C

    1999-06-01

    Qualified food composition data on lipids composition are needed to evaluate intakes as a risk factor in the development of heart disease. Proximal composition, cholesterol and fatty acid content of chicken and quail eggs, usually consumed or traded, were analysed. Proximal composition were determined using AOAC (1984) specific techniques; lipids were extracted by a Folch's modified technique and cholesterol and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. Results corroborate the stability of eggs composition. Cholesterol content of quail eggs is similar to chicken eggs, but it is almost the half content of data registered in Handbook 8. Differences may be attributed to the analytical methodology used to obtain them. This study provides data obtained with up-date analytical techniques and accessory information useful for food composition tables.

  14. Isolation of Pasteurella multocida from broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Poernomo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida, the etiological agent of fowl cholera, was isolated from five, 32 days oldbroilerchickens in the late of 1992. The chickens were from a farm located in Bogor area, raised in cages and each flock consisted of 1,550 broilers . Therewere 230 birds, aging from 28-31 days old, died with clinical signs of lameness and difficulty in breathing. Serological test of the isolate revealed serotype Aof Carter classification . To prove its virulences, the isolate was then inoculated into 3 mice subcutaneously. The mice died less then 24 hours postinoculation and P. multocida can be reisolated . The sensitivity test to antibiotics and sulfa preparations showed that the isolate was sensitive to ampicillin, doxycyclin, erythromycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazol-trimethoprim and baytril, but resistance to tetracyclin, kanamycin and oxytetracyclin. This is the first report of P. multocida isolation in broiler chickens in Indonesia, and it is intended to add information on bacterial diseases in poultry in Indonesia.

  15. A comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Y.H.; Ogata, Kenji; Sugimura, Makoto

    1979-01-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R. (author)

  16. Comparative study on radiosensitivity of neonatal ducks and chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Y H; Ogata, K; Sugimura, M [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1979-05-01

    Neonatal ducks and chickens are exposed to a wholebody X-irradiation ranging from 100 R to 3,000 R at a dose-rate of 185 R per min. Lethal doses to 50% in 30 days are estimated to be 500 R for the ducks, while 800 R for the chickens. The ducks appear to be much more radiosensitive than the chickens. Histopathological observations of various organs of the exposed specimens after death reveal remarkable alterations: Particularly lymphoid organs are affected much more in the ducks than in the chickens at lesser doses than 1,000 R.

  17. Updating parameters of the chicken processing line model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurowicka, Dorota; Nauta, Maarten; Jozwiak, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model of chicken processing that quantitatively describes the transmission of Campylobacter on chicken carcasses from slaughter to chicken meat product has been developed in Nauta et al. (2005). This model was quantified with expert judgment. Recent availability of data allows...... updating parameters of the model to better describe processes observed in slaughterhouses. We propose Bayesian updating as a suitable technique to update expert judgment with microbiological data. Berrang and Dickens’s data are used to demonstrate performance of this method in updating parameters...... of the chicken processing line model....

  18. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kusdiyantini; T. Yudiarti; V. D.Yunianto; R. Murwani

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung). The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two ...

  19. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  20. Carcass and Meat Quality Pelung Sentul Kampung Broiler Crossbreed Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwati, S.; Afnan, R.; Prabowo, S.; Nurcahya, H.

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreed chicken of pelung sentul kampung broiler (PSKR) has good growth and ready to slaughter at the age of 10 weeks. So, it has potential as a local chicken for meat producers. Potential of PSKR crossbreed chicken need to know about the percentage of carcass and the physical quality of meat for holistic information. This study aimed to evaluate the carcass and the quality of the physical meat of pelung sentul kampung broiler chicken (PSKR). Material of 12 chickens PSKR 12 weeks unsexing were used and observed for the percentage of carcass in the chest, upper and lower thighs and physical quality of breast meat included pH, water-binding power, cooking impurities, and tenderness. Chickens fed 100% commercial feed for broiler chicken phase starter until age 3 weeks, then gradually added rice bran and age > 5 weeks fed 60% commercial feed plus 40% rice bran. Chicken is slaughter at 12 weeks of age. The data obtained are presented descriptively. Percentage of PSKR carcass was 68%, chest was 27.17%, upper thigh was 17.12%, lower thigh was 16.64% respectively. Physical quality of breast meat has a pH performance of 5.30,% mgH2O of 28.08%, cooking loss of 29.13%, and tenderness of 2.63 respectively. PSKR chicken had potential for meat producers based on carcass percentage with chest meat was very tender because the genetic of broiler in PSKR as much as 25%.

  1. Study on determination method of identifying irradiated chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liping; Yu Xuejun; Yu Menghong; Fu Junjie; Zhang Shimin; Bao Jinsong

    2003-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the activities of aleipsis, peroxidase, perhydrol catalase and the peroxide values in chicken oil and effects of different storage time on self-oxidation of fat and lipa in irradiated chicken were studied. The results showed that the activities of aleipsis and perhydrol catalase in irradiated chicken decreased with increasing doses, and the peroxide activity and peroxide value of lipa increased with increase of doses. No significant effect of storage time on peroxide value was observed in the irradiated chicken

  2. Formulation of Spices mixture for preparation of Chicken Curry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deogade

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the scope of utilization of processed chicken in convenient form, a study was undertaken to optimize the levels of spice mixture salt and commercial chicken masala in a spice formulation to be used for preparation of chicken curry. The sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry added with hot spice mixture containing salt and chicken masala, revealed that the flavour, juiciness, texture and overall palatability scores of chicken curry improved significantly with addition of 3.0 % salt level as compared to that of 2.5, 3.5 and 4.0 %. Spice mixture containing 1.0 % commercial chicken masala exhibited significantly higher scores for all the sensory attributes over 0.5 and 1.5%.It is thus concluded added that spice mixture added 3.0 % salt and 1.0 % commercial chicken masala was more suitable to enhance the sensory quality of ready to eat chicken curry. [Vet World 2008; 1(1.000: 18-20

  3. Isolation and characterization of avian metapneumovirus from chickens in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji-Sun; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Jeong, Seung-Hwan; Park, Jeong-Yong; Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Youn, Ho-Sik; Lee, Dong-Woo; Do, Sun-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Song, Chang-Seon

    2010-03-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes upper respiratory tract infections in chickens and turkeys. Although the swollen head syndrome (SHS) associated with aMPV in chickens has been reported in Korea since 1992, this is the study isolating aMPV from chickens in this country. We examined 780 oropharyngeal swab or nasal turbinate samples collected from 130 chicken flocks to investigate the prevalence of aMPV and to isolate aMPV from chickens from 2004-2008. Twelve aMPV subtype A and 13 subtype B strains were detected from clinical samples by the aMPV subtype A and B multiplex real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR). Partial sequence analysis of the G glycoprotein gene confirmed that the detected aMPVs belonged to subtypes A and B. Two aMPVs subtype A out of the 25 detected aMPVs were isolated by Vero cell passage. In animal experiments with an aMPV isolate, viral RNA was detected in nasal discharge, although no clinical signs of SHS were observed in chickens. In contrast to chickens, turkeys showed severe nasal discharge and a relatively higher titer of viral excretion than chickens. Here, we reveal the co-circulation of aMPV subtypes A and B, and isolate aMPVs from chicken flocks in Korea.

  4. First week nutrition for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Lamot, David

    2017-01-01

    During the first week of life, broiler chickens undergo various developmental changes that are already initiated during incubation. Ongoing development of organs such as the gastro- intestinal tract and the immune system may affect the nutritional requirements during this age period. Despite the residual yolk that is available at hatch and that may provide nutritional support during the first days after hatch, the growth performance may be affected by the time in between hatch and first feed ...

  5. An Unusual Neck Mass: Ingested Chicken Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Demirhan, Erhan; İber, Metin; Yağız, Özlem; Kandoğan, Tolga; Çukurova, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foreign bodies in the upper aerodigestive tract are frequently seen in otolaryngological practice, but migration of an ingested foreign body to the neck is a very rare condition. Case Report: We present a 66-year-old woman admitted to our outpatient department with a painful neck mass. She had a history of emergency department admission 4 months prior with odynophagia after eating chicken meal. A physical examination revealed a painful and hyperemic mass on the left neck. Ant...

  6. Native herbaceous perennials as ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bjarne; Ørgaard, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Gardening with native perennials is a way to bring nature closer to urban citizens and bring up reflections on nature in a busy world. During three seasons of trialing Salvia pratensis, Dianthus deltoides, Campanula trachelium, Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Saxifraga granulata, Plantago media and P...

  7. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  8. 75 FR 43797 - Delegation of Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Certain Functions Under Section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship Act (Public Law 111-84, Subtitle... State, the functions conferred upon the President by section 1264 of the Victims of Iranian Censorship...

  9. Toxicoinfectious botulism in commercial caponized chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trampel, D.W.; Smith, Susan; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, two flocks of commercial broiler chickens experienced unusually high death losses following caponizing at 3 wk of age and again between 8 and 14 wk of age. In September, fifteen 11-wk-old live capons were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for assistance. In both flocks, the second episode of elevated mortality was associated with incoordination, flaccid paralysis of leg, wing, and neck muscles, a recumbent body posture characterized by neck extension, and diarrhea. No macroscopic or microscopic lesions were detected in affected chickens. Hearts containing clotted blood and ceca were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center in Madison, WI. Type C botulinum toxin was identified in heart blood and ceca by mouse bioassay tests. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests on heart blood samples were also positive for type C botulinum toxin. Clostridium botulinum was isolated from the ceca and genes encoding type C botulinum toxin were detected in cecal contents by a polymerase chain reaction test. Chickens are less susceptible to botulism as they age, and this disease has not previously been documented in broilers as old as 14 wk of age. Wound contamination by spores of C. botulinum may have contributed to the unusually high death losses following caponizing.

  10. Molecular assembly of recombinant chicken type II collagen in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Caixia; Liu, Nan; Liang, Fei; Zhao, Xiao; Long, Juan; Yuan, Fang; Yun, Song; Sun, Yuying; Xi, Yongzhi

    2018-01-09

    Effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis can be mediated by native chicken type II collagen (nCCII), recombinant peptide containing nCCII tolerogenic epitopes (CTEs), or a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding the full-length CCOL2A1 cDNA. As recombinant CCII (rCCII) might avoid potential pathogenic virus contamination during nCCII preparation or chromosomal integration and oncogene activation associated with DNA vaccines, here we evaluated the importance of propeptide and telopeptide domains on rCCII triple helix molecular assembly. We constructed pC- and pN-procollagen (without N- or Cpropeptides, respectively) as well as CTEs located in the triple helical domain lacking both propeptides and telopeptides, and expressed these in yeast Pichia pastoris host strain GS115 (his4, Mut + ) simultaneously with recombinant chicken prolyl-4-hydroxylase α and β subunits. Both pC- and pN-procollagen monomers accumulated inside P. pastoris cells, whereas CTE was assembled into homotrimers with stable conformation and secreted into the supernatants, suggesting that the large molecular weight pC-or pN-procollagens were retained within the endoplasmic reticulum whereas the smaller CTEs proceeded through the secretory pathway. Furthermore, resulting recombinant chicken type II collagen pCα1(II) can induced collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model, which seems to be as effective as the current standard nCCII. Notably, protease digestion assays showed that rCCII could assemble in the absence of C- and N-propeptides or telopeptides. These findings provide new insights into the minimal structural requirements for rCCII expression and folding.

  11. Long-term culture of chicken primordial germ cells isolated from embryonic blood and production of germline chimaeric chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mitsuru; Harumi, Takashi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    Production of germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of cultured primordial germ cells (PGC) is a useful system for germline manipulation. A novel culture system was developed for chicken PGC isolated from embryonic blood. The isolated PGC were cultured on feeder cells derived from chicken embryonic fibroblast. The cultured PGC formed colonies and they proliferated about 300-times during the first 30 days. The cultured PGC retained the ability to migrate to recipient gonads and were also chicken VASA homologue (CVH)-positive. Female PGC were present in the mixed-sex PGC populations cultured for more than 90 days and gave rise to viable offspring efficiently via germline chimaeric chickens. Male cultured PGC were transferred to recipient embryos and produced putative chimaeric chickens. The DNA derived from the cultured PGC was detected in the sperm samples of male putative chimaeric chickens, but no donor derived offspring were obtained. Donor-derived offspring were also obtained from germline chimaeric chickens by the transfer of frozen-thawed cultured PGC. The culture method for PGC developed in the present study is useful for manipulation of the germline in chickens, such as preservation of genetic resources and gene transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. An analysis of home advantage in Iranian football super league

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Hemayat TALAB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate home advantage in Iranian Football Super League. Methods: The information regarding wins, losses, goals for, goals against, yellow cards, red cards and gained points in matches at home and away of Super League teams of Iran was obtained using the internet website www.Soccerway.com and was analyzed. Results: The results showed that the mean of wins, goals for and points gained from matches in the home have been more than matches away, but in matches away, the mean of losses, yellow cards, red cards and goals against have been higher. Also, the percentage of home advantage in Iranian Football Super League was close to international norms.  Conclusion: According to the results, sport psychologist, coaches and people who are involved in football are recommended to pay more attention to this advantage and make short and long term plans to do psychological readiness and competitive performance.

  13. Typology of Iranian Uses and Gratification in Goodreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Mahboob

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey tries finding and classifying the ways Iranians satisfy by Goodreads. For this purpose the Uses and Gratification theory used as theoretical framework. We send questionnaires for 290 people who were active in network. By using Factor Analysis we find that all 25 variable can be categorized in 6 factor:1- information seeking, 2- being with community, 3- escape from everyday life, 4- being with books, 5- Strengthening occupation and 6- knowing about Celebrities. Second purpose of the research was answering this question that “which factors can anticipate main activity of users?” we defined 3 activity as main activity: friend finding, rating and writing reviews.by using regression test we find that 2 factors (information seeking and being with books can predict main activities of Iranian. As well as, being with community is another factor that Influence two main activity: friend finding and writing reviews.

  14. Association between oral and general hygiene behaviours among Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbariha, Maryam; Sheiham, Aubrey; Rakhshani, Fatemeh; Dorri, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    To assess the association between oral and general hygiene behaviours in 12-year-old Iranians and the impact of sociodemographic and educational factors on the association. A representative random sample of 550 12-year-old Iranian adolescents from two deprived tribes answered a 41-item questionnaire on sociodemographic background, education and oral and general hygiene behaviours. The association between tooth cleaning frequency and other study outcome variables were tested using binary logistic regression. The sex differences in the study outcome variables were investigated using chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The frequency of tooth cleaning was significantly associated with a general hygiene behaviour: frequency of taking a bath (OR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.7). This association remained significant when sociodemographic factors and educational factors were added to the model both separately (P Oral and a general hygiene behaviour were strongly associated. Oral, general and environmental hygiene programmes should use integrated approaches.

  15. Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vaseghi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preferences Questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the six learning style preferences considered in the questionnaire were positively preferred. Overall, kinesthetic and tactile learning were major learning styles. Auditory, group, visual, and individual were minor.

  16. Assertiveness process of Iranian nurse leaders: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.

  17. Extracranial cerebral arterial atherosclerosis in Iranian patients suffering ischemic strokes

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    Sayed Ali Mousavi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine the distribution and severity of extracranial carotid arterial atherosclerosis in Iranian patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: 328 patients with ischemic stroke were included in this study. Doppler ultrasound was used for evaluation of atherosclerosis in extracranial carotid arteries. The NASCET criteria were used to measure carotid stenosis. RESULTS: Ninety of 328 patients (27.4% were found to have atherosclerotic plaques; 40 of these patients were women and 50 were men. Sixty-eight patients (20.7% had artery stenosis <50%, 13 patients (3.95% had 50-70 % artery stenosis and 6 (1.8% had >70% artery stenosis. CONCLUSIONS: Extracranial atherosclerosis is not rare in Iranian patients with ischemic stroke, but most carotid artery lesions were plaques with <50% stenosis. KEY WORDS: Atherosclerosis, ischemic stroke, carotid stenosis.

  18. Flowering and the Pollen Fertility in Iranian Garlic Clones

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    A. R. Abbasifar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. cannot produce seed because it is a sterile plant. For studying bolting and determination of pollen fertility, 68 Iranian garlic clones were gathered from different parts of Iran and evaluated in Research Field of Horticultural Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. For determining the pollen fertility, some tests including specific RAPD marker, pollen germination, pollen viability detection using acetocarmine and in vitro culture of ovules and fruits were used. Results showed that 37 of Iranian garlic clones could produce scape and inflorescence. The percentage range of pollen stained with acetocarmine was from 0.5 up to 20 percent showing infertility of pollens. Lack of two markers (OPJ121300 and OPJ121700 and pollen tube growth proved the infertility of garlic clones pollen. Fruits and embryo sac were alive for more than two months, showing their potential for producing seeds following pollination with fertile pollens.

  19. Handling stolen goods in Iranian and English criminal law

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    Sayyed Mohammad Hoseini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Handling stolen goods has been recognized as an independent offence in both Iranian and English law. Committing this offence, tacitly support those actions that are called theft. However, penal policy of Iran’s legislator does not provide effective fighting against the handlers of stolen goods. In others words, comparing the two Iranian and English legal system, make this issue clear that criminalization of stolen goods has some restrictions about physical element as well as the amount of relevant punishment that we can have more effective fighting against supporting factors of larceny with eliminating them and hereto, in the course of exercising appropriate reaction to the handlers, reducing the offence of theft. The article seeks to recommend some solutions for a better penal policy, such as increasing punishment of the offence and extending the scope of its physical behaviour, through comparative analysis of the offence of stolen goods; meanwhile different elements of the offence have been studied.

  20. Effects of Social Networking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Acquisition

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    Fatemeh Khansarian-Dehkordi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to scrutinize social networking effects on Iranian EFL learners’ vocabulary acquisition. Eighty Iranian EFL learners at the intermediate level participated in a pretest-posttest study after taking the placement test. They were then divided into an experimental group whose participants were supposed to equip their mobile phones or tablet PCs with a social networking application, that is, Line and form an online group to take part in eighteen virtual instructional sessions. Participants of the control group, however, underwent classroom learning during which target words were presented through routine classroom activities. Results of the independent-samples t-test in the posttest indicated that participants of the experimental group outperformed those of the control group. Results have important implications for both pedagogy and theory, especially socio-cultural theories of second language development.

  1. Effect of Chicken Bone Meal as Phosphorus Supplement on Blood Metabolites in Fattening Lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiastuti, A.; Muktiani, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chicken bone meal (CBM) as phosphorus supplementon blood metabolites in fattening lambs. The experiment used 16 of 12 months old local male lambs with initial body weight 27.01 ± 1.51 kg. The experiment used a complete randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were T0 (basal ration = native grass + soybean curd waste), T1 (basal ration + 0.49% P Dicalcium phosphate), T2 (basal ration + 0.70% P CBM), T3 (basal ration + 1.39 % P CBM). The results indicated that CBM as phosphorus supplement was significantly different (P<0,05) on P intake, phosphorus and glucose serum and did not different significantly on dry matter intake and alkaline phosphatase activity. In conclusion, CBM is one of requirement organic phosphorus supplement which can be applied on ruminants.

  2. Organic and inorganic selenium in Aseel chicken diets: Effect on hatching traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M T; Mahmud, A; Zahoor, I; Javed, K

    2017-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary selenium (Se) sources (organic and inorganic Se at 0.30 ppm and basal diet at 0 ppm level of supplemented Se) on hatching traits in four varieties of Aseel chicken, Lakha, Mushki, Peshawari, and Mianwali. In total, 84 adult molted hens (50 wk old), 21 from each variety, were randomly assigned to 12 treatment groups in a 3 (Se diets) × 4 (Aseel varieties) factorial arrangement under a randomized complete block design. Each treatment was replicated 7 times with individual hens in each. Settable egg, fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, A-grade chick, and embryonic mortality parameters were evaluated. The results indicated that the birds fed an organic Se supplemented diet had greater (P < 0.05) settable eggs, fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, and A-grade chicks and reduced embryonic mortality than those fed inorganic or no Se. Among varieties, Mushki had lower (P < 0.05) fertility, hatch of fertile eggs, hatchability, and A-grade chicks than rest of three varieties. Interaction of Se sources and varieties indicated that dietary organic Se supplementation improved (P < 0.05) hatch of fertile eggs in Peshawari and Mianwali, whereas hatchability only in Peshawari variety and reduced embryonic mortality in Mianwali. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of organic Se could be used to improve hatching traits as well as reduce embryonic mortality in native Aseel chicken. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Mullahs, Guards, and Bonyads: An Exploration of Iranian Leadership Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    available from www.rand.org as a public service of the RAND Corporation. 6Jump down to document THE ARTS CHILD POLICY CIVIL JUSTICE EDUCATION ENERGY...malization and a “dialogue of civilizations ” to open Iranian society, and Ahmadinejad and his factional allies have pursued confrontation as an...views of what Iran should become. This battle engen - ders a debate about the essence of the state and the legitimacy and staying power of the

  4. Burnout and Associated Factors among Iranian Emergency Medicine Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    JALILI, Mohammad; SADEGHIPOUR ROODSARI, Gholamreza; BASSIR NIA, Anahita

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, deperso...

  5. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  6. Coping Work Strategies and Job Satisfaction Among Iranian Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategie...

  7. Nutritional Advice for Patients with Melasma in Iranian Traditional Medicine

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    Mahdis Mojtabaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Melasma (called Kalaf in Iranian traditional medicine is a common acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of skin. Several factors including exposure to sunlight, pregnancy, and endocrine diseases increase the risk for Melasma. In traditional medicine, antecedent philosophers and physicians have tried to understand the nature and mechanisms of different systems of the human body for the diagnosis and management of Melasma; they have offered different solutions for it. This study is important since Melasma is a disease causing mental side effects in patients, due to darkness and opacity of the skin; therefore, the treatment of Melasma in terms of its psychological complications is of particular importance. In addition, texts of Iranian traditional medicine contain a wealth of nutritional advice for patients with Melasma. These texts have, until now, not yet been reviewed. The present study has considered the most important references of Iranian traditional medicine texts. Objectives The objective of this study was to extract and categorize the nutritional advice of Iranian traditional medicine texts for the treatment of Melasma. Results Dietary recommendations, not only for treatment but also for prevention of diseases and staying healthy, are very efficient. Conclusions Based on the traditional medicine texts, it is helpful to avoid Soda-producing food as well as to identify appropriate food in order to eliminate the accumulation of Soda or black bile from the blood. This study offers a set of analytical and clinical research on food, which in traditional medicine is called Soda-producing as well as Soda reducing.

  8. Emotion Regulation Characteristics Development in Iranian Primary School Pupils

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    Asghar Dadkhah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Emotion regulations refer to the ability of experiencing emotions as a basic human capacity and the experience of the basic emotions happiness, anger, sadness and fear are considered as reular characteristics among nations. In school-age children, problems in socioemotional development typically shows themselves as challenging, socially disruptive paterns of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to understand Emotion Regulation characteristics in Iranian primary school pupils and whether Iranian children enable to identify common emotions. Methods: Participants included 900 children, 9 to 10 years, from elementary schools from 21 provinces in Iran. In pilot work we presented 200 children with four hypothetical vignettes of the kind typically used in display rule research. In the main study children’s knowledge regarding hiding their emotions was assessed through a structured interview. The participants were presented with the interview questions after the vignettes. The answers were coded by two people and the interrater reliability was high. The children were assessed on the basis of four common emotions:Happiness, Anger,Fear,and, Sadness. Results: The analysis of the data indicated that: 1 all children were enabled to identify and differentiate all four emotions from each other, most of students hide their happiness, anger, fear and sadness, they hide their emotions in specific situation such as school and home, hide happiness and anger against peers and hide fear and sadness in front of adults. Discussion: The study indicates that Iranian children not only differ from other culture peers in the amount of display rule use in daily life, but also in the situations they report using it and their motives for doing so they suppress their overall emotions more frequently, especially in presence of family and for pro-social and self-protective reasons. These findings provides the basic knowledge about Iranian children

  9. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was...

  10. The root of Iranian foreign policy/Todd P. Macler.

    OpenAIRE

    Macler, Todd P.

    1999-01-01

    Iranian foreign policy, like any state's foreign policy, is the product of various pressures originating in domestic, international, cultural, historical, institutional, and even individual factors. However, the greatest amount of understanding and potential for prediction can be obtained using the historical institutional method, focusing on Iran's history of foreign domination, the role of Twelve Shia Islam, and the particular institutions of the Islamic Republic. These three factors both d...

  11. The Lived Experience of Iranian Women Confronting Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Esmat Mehrabi; Sepideh Hajian; Masoomeh Simbar; Mohammad Hoshyari; Farid Zayeri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The populations who survive from breast cancer are growing; nevertheless, they mostly encounter with many cancer related problems in their life, especially after early diagnosis and have to deal with these problems. Except for the disease entity, several socio-cultural factors may affect confronting this challenge among patients and the way they deal with. Present study was carried out to prepare clear understanding of Iranian women's...

  12. The Iranian hostage crisis : captivity and restoration of a nation

    OpenAIRE

    Stølen, Kamilla

    2006-01-01

    On November 4, 1979, Iranian revolutionaries seized the American embassy in Tehran and took hostage 66 American diplomats and citizens. In the midst of the massive national celebration sparked by the eventual release of the hostages, commentators started to ask sobering questions: Why did the crisis become such an obsession with the American people? How did this public obsession affect policymakers? And was there really a cause for celebration? The subject of my thesis is the American pub...

  13. An investigation on Iranian consumer behavior towards famous luxury brands

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hamidreza Moteshakereh; Masoumeh sadat Abtahi; Ahmad Rahchamani

    2013-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been a growing trend on luxury good consumption among Iranian consumers. Many rich people change their mobile devices, purchase new expensive cars, etc. This paper investigates the effects of three factors including consumer perceived value, sensitivity to social norms and need for uniqueness on consumer’s intention to purchase luxury products based on the theory of planned behavior. The proposed study uses clustering technique and randomly chooses a sampl...

  14. Dynamic Assessment in Iranian EFL Classrooms: A Post- method Enquiry

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    Seyed Javad Es-hagi Sardrood

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Derived from the emerging paradigm shift in English language teaching and assessment, there has been a renewal of interest in dynamic assessment (DA to be used as an alternative to the traditional static testing in language classrooms. However, to date, DA practice has been mostly limited to clinical treatments of children with learning disabilities, and it has not been widely incorporated into the EFL contexts. In order to find out the reasons behind the slow trend of DA practice, this research adopted a framework, based on the post method pedagogical principles and recommendations, to delve into the prospect of methodological realization of DA approaches in Iranian EFL classrooms. To this end, two instruments, a questionnaire and an interview were developed to explore the practicality of DA through seeking 51 Iranian EFL teachers' perception of DA practice in their classrooms. The results indicated that most of the teachers were negative about the practice of DA in their classrooms and believed that a full-fledged implementation of DA in Iranian EFL classrooms is too demanding. The feasibility of DA in Iranian EFL classrooms, where teachers are deprived of DA training, guideline, and technological resources, is questioned seriously due to the factors such as time-constrained nature of DA procedures, large number of students in EFL classrooms, the common practice of static tests as the mainstream, and overreliance on the teachers' teaching and assessment abilities. The paper suggests the framework of inquiry in this study, which was derived from the post method pedagogy, to be utilized as a blueprint for a critical appraisal of any alternative method or theory which is introduced into ELT contexts.

  15. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participate...

  16. Osteocyte lacunae features in different chicken bones

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    Domenis L., Squadrone S., Marchis D., Abete MC.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Directive 2003/126/EC defines the method for the determination of constituents of animal origin for official control of feedingstuffs. One of the hardest problems for microscopist is the differentiation between mammalian and poultry bones on the basis of some characteristics as colour and borders of the fragments, shape and density of osteocyte lacunae. The shape of osteocyte lacuna in poultry and mammals is often described in different way, elliptic or roundish according with the Author(s. The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of lacunae in chicken bones of different type. For this purpose, smashed fragments and histological sections of the same bone were compared in order to evaluate the microscopic aspect of lacunae in different breaking and trimming planes. According to the observations carried out, it was possible to infer that chicken osteocyte has a biconvex lens shape; however the different arrangement and some size variation of the osteocytes in the several bone segments influence the microscopic features of corresponding lacunae. Chicken bone is made of a parallel-fibered tissue, without osteons. This structure probably determines the plane fracture of the bone and consequently the different aspect of lacunae (from spindle-shaped to elliptic-roundish we can see in chicken derived PAP (processed animal protein. For example, in the fragments obtained from smashed diaphysis, the prevalence of spindle-shaped lacunae is depending on the preferential breaking of the bone along longitudinal plane. Likewise, for the epiphysis, being made mostly by bone trabeculae with strange directions, the breaking happens along different planes, creating lacunae of various shape. Performing the official check of animal feedingstuffs, the presence of bone fragments with roundish or elliptic osteocyte lacunae induces the analyst to thinking that the meat and bone meal comes respectively from mammals and poultry or vice versa depending to

  17. Inhibitor of DNA synthesis is present in normal chicken serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R.A.; Davila, D.R.; Westly, H.J.; Kelley, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found that heat-inactivated serum (57 0 C for 1 hour) from normal chickens reduces the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated chicken and murine splenocytes as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines. Greater than a 50% reduction in 3 H-thymidine incorporation was observed when concanavalin A (Con A)-activated chicken splenocytes that were cultured in the presence of 10% autologous or heterologous serum were compared to mitogen-stimulated cells cultured in the absence of serum. Normal chicken serum (10%) also caused greater than 95% suppression of 3 H-thymidine incorporation by bovine (EBL-1 and BL-3) and gibbon ape (MLA 144) transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. The only cell line tested that was not inhibited by chicken serum was an IL-2-dependent, murine cell line. Chicken serum also inhibited both 3 H-thymidine incorporation and IL-2 synthesis by Con A-activated murine splenocytes. Suppression was caused by actions other than cytotoxicity because viability of chicken splenocytes was unaffected by increasing levels of chicken serum. Furthermore, dialyzed serum retained its activity, which suggested that thymidine in the serum was not inhibiting uptake of radiolabeled thymidine. Suppressive activity was not due to adrenal glucocorticoids circulating in plasma because neither physiologic nor pharmacologic doses of corticosterone had inhibitory effects on mitogen-stimulated chicken splenocytes. These data demonstrate that an endogenous factor that is found in normal chicken serum inhibits proliferation of T-cells from chickens and mice as well as some transformed mammalian lymphoblastoid cell lines

  18. Pharmacokinetic study of mycophenolic acid in Iranian kidney transplant patients

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    Saeed Rezaee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters of mycophenolic acid (MPA in Iranian kidney transplant patients. Methods: Plasma MPA concentration of mycophenolate mofetile (MMF 1 gram two times a day was measured in 21 Iranian kidney transplant recipients receiving treatment. Patients who entered the study had been transplanted for more than 3 months and their drug level was supposed to be at steady state. MMF concentration was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results: The plasma MPA concentration-time curve was characterized by an early sharp peak at about 1 hour postdose. The mean Area Under Curve (AUC, Cmax and Tmax were 47.0±18.3 µg.h/ml, 18.6±8.5 µg/ml and 1.0±0.5 hours respectively. Conclusion: The plasma MPA concentration-time curve pattern of Iranian patients was similar and consistent with previously reported profiles in other populations taking the same dose. Keywords: Mycophenolate mofetil, Mycophenolic acid, Pharmacokinetics, Area Under Curve, Kidney transplantation

  19. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

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    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  20. Observing Iranian Mother-Child Interaction in a Playing Situation

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    حمیده زارع

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies in the fields of culture and parenting in recent years have shown that parent’s goals and values of parenting lead to differences in their parental behaviors. This study was designed to observe Iranian mothers’ interaction with their children in a playing situation. This study was a qualitative study in which 30 pairs of mothers and children (15 girls and 15 boys were selected purposely. To observe the parent-child interaction, a playing situation was designed and recorded by video camera. Observational data were analyzed based on qualitative analysis methods. Through coding and categorizing the observed data of the parent-child interaction, verbal (positive, negative and facilitator and nonverbal (positive, negative and communicative behavioral patterns were extracted and named by the investigator. Based on scoring the determined codes, facilitator verbal behaviors and negative nonverbal behaviors were the most frequent. The mothers’ behavior that facilitated child’s playing process and diminished child’s practical and mental activities were named facilitator behaviors, and were the most frequent among Iranian mothers. Based on the same previous research, Iranian mothers’ parenting behaviors are similar to those of Japanese, Chinese and Latin mothers rather than American, British and Australian mothers.