WorldWideScience

Sample records for iran sanctions enforcement

  1. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Mars Co. (candy manufacturer); Kraft Foods; Wrigley’s (gum); and McCormick and Co. ( spices ). Some previously licensed U.S. goods have been sold through...that deliveries had begun. India India is implementing international sanctions against Iran but its cultural , economic, and historic ties—as well...September 2012. • Barring Iran from International Sporting Events. A further option is to limit sports or cultural exchanges with Iran, such as

  2. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    sanctions and human rights-related provisions of CISADA and other laws. For a broader analysis of policy on Iran, see CRS Report RL32048, Iran: U.S...the Treasury Department, saw business opportunity by picking up the transactions business from a competitor who had, in accordance with U.S...and South Korea announced that their automakers Toyota , Hyundai, and Kia Motors would cease selling automobiles to Iran. • Attorneys for BNP

  3. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    the Central Bank assets discussed above could be used to pay the terrorism judgements —a decision that resulted in Iranian threats to sue the United...legislation that might affect Iran’s behavior might also be inconsistent with the JCPOA. See also CRS Report R43333, Iran Nuclear Agreement, by Kenneth...against Iran have multiple objectives and address multiple perceived threats from Iran simultaneously. This report analyzes U.S. and international

  4. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Control does not place a valuation on such real estate holdings, but public sources assess these assets at a value of about $500 million. There have...Development in Iran Completed,” Total/ Bow Valley (Canada)/ENI $300 million 40,000 bpd 97 Khajehpour

  5. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Transshipment and Brokering. The ITRs prohibit U.S. transshipment of goods across Iran and ban any activities by U.S. persons to broker commercial ...accordance with the JCPOA, the United States has relaxed restrictions on sales of parts for commercial aircraft and licensing of sales of whole commercial ...tuition payments for Iranian students abroad (paid directly to the educational institutions). The waiver of Section 1245(d)(1) of IFCA allowed those

  6. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-19

    from the international banking system , caused a sharp drop in the value of Iran’s currency, the rial; raised inflation to over 50%; and cut off...Congressional Research Service 8 international banking system . Prior to September 2013, all NGOs that sought to perform relief efforts in Iran... barter arrangements with neighboring countries, virtually all of Iran’s oil exports flow through the Strait of Hormuz, which carries about one-third of

  7. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    general license. The list was expanded in July and November 2013 to include electrocardiograms, electroencephalograms, dialysis machines, MRI ...accept India’s local currency, the rupee, to settle 45% of its oil sales to India, which Iran mostly used to buy Indian wheat, pharmaceuticals , rice...services for hydroelectric, oil, and gas services. However, GE subsidiary sales of medical diagnostic products such as MRI machines, marketed through

  8. 76 FR 24410 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... preceding 90 calendar days related to Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or any of its..., savings and loan associations, national banks, thrift institutions, credit unions, [[Page 24413

  9. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    International pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program is increasing the hesitation of many major foreign firms to invest in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production beyond...

  10. The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-04

    billion4 contract (September 1997) for Total SA of France and its partners, Gazprom of Russia and Petronas of Malaysia to develop phases 2 and 3 of the 25...companies. On July 12, 2008, Total and Petronas , the original South Pars investors, pulled out of a deal to develop a liquified natural gas (LNG...do not exceed the $20 million in one year threshold for ISA sanctionability. Since the Total/ Petronas /Gazprom project in 1998, no projects have

  11. Effectiveness of United StatesLed Economic Sanctions as a Counterproliferation Tool Against Irans Nuclear Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Science and International Security, Secretaries Hillary Clinton and Condoleezza Rice 89 Wisconsin...17 III. ECONOMIC SANCTIONS AND ENFORCEMENT AGAINST IRAN .......19 A. REAGAN THROUGH CLINTON ...C. U.S. COUNTERPROLIFERATION POLICY The formation of U.S. counterproliferation policy can be traced to the Clinton Administration, largely as a

  12. The EU and the International Sanctions against Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In July 2015 an agreement on the so-called Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action regarding Iran’s nuclear program was announced between Iran and the permanent members of the UNSC, Germany and the EU. The Iranian decision to comply with the results of the negotiations attracted much focus, both...... at the policy level and in scholarly debates. However, the foreign and security policy interests and possibilities of Iran in the MENA region have not been discussed very intensively, nor has there been much attention paid to how the international actors and in particular the EU were able to influence...... the Iranian policies and decisions. This article seeks to take up this challenge: firstly by analyzing to what degree the sanctions influenced the Iranian decisions on the nuclear issue; and secondly, by discussing how the sanctions regime affected the relations between Iran and the international actors...

  13. Internal Dynamics in Iran. Iran, between Sanctions, Destruction, and Negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kian-Thiebaut, Azadeh

    2008-01-01

    The Iranian rulers, including reformists and conservatives, are unanimous concerning the priority of obtaining nuclear technology, for the Islamic regime. In this context, the United States wants to contemplate all options, including military action, but they are emphasizing the diplomatic solution, on condition that Iran suspends its uranium enrichment program. Their position does not favor a way out of the Iranian crisis. However, the proposal for an unconditional negotiation between the United States and Iran would enable Iranian rulers not to lose face vis-a-vis Iranian, Arabic, and Muslim public opinion in light of their declaration to stand their ground and not succumb to Western pressure. This would also pave the way for a solution to avoid nuclear proliferation and instability in the Middle East

  14. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions: The Cases of Iran, North Korea, Myanmar, and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    1. 32 decreasing GDP and currency value, and increasing inflation, outweigh the benefits of nuclear capability. The sanctions destabilize the...Really Counterproductive?” Democratization 22, no. 6 (2015): 957980. Tabrizi, A., and R. Santini. “EU Sanctions Against Iran: New Wine in Old Bottle

  15. Enforcement of emissions trading - sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Chen, Huizhen; Weishaar, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the need of an

  16. Enforcement of emissions trading: Sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.G.W.M.; Chen, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the

  17. 17 CFR 12.407 - Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Satisfaction of reparation... Satisfaction of reparation award; enforcement; sanctions. (a) Satisfaction of reparation award—(1) Where... satisfaction of an award (as prescribed in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section) expires, file with the...

  18. 78 FR 23624 - Removal of Sanctions on Person on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: On general issues: Office of Sanctions Policy and Implementation, Department of State..., 2011) --Petro[acute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR 56866, September 14, 2011...

  19. 78 FR 21183 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ...: On general issues: Office of Sanctions Policy and Implementation, Department of State, Telephone... FR 56866, September 14, 2011) --Petro[acute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR...

  20. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term "medicine" to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing "shortage of medicines," "medicines related issues" and "no shortage." We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran.

  1. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. Methods: We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term “medicine” to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing “shortage of medicines,” “medicines related issues” and “no shortage.” We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. Findings: A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Conclusion: Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran. PMID:26645026

  2. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Financial Intelligence in the Department of the Treasury, and the Office of Terrorism Finance and Economic Sanctions Policy, Bureau of Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs in the State Department, allowing... committees (Committee on Armed Services of the Senate, Committee on Finance of the Senate, Committee on...

  3. Reinforcing a Regime: Strengthening Clientelism in Iran with Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    bazaari proved incredibly resilient —surviving even the Islamic Revolution—and it still exists in Iranian society to this day. For Iran, the arrival...front- runners emerged from the six contenders in the 2013 presidential election: Mohammad Galibaf and Hassan Rouhani. Considering Galibaf’s poor

  4. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    their bazaar merchants in June 2012 because of an escalation in the price of baby milk and other staples. • Suggesting Iran’s operating budget is...condition of receiving a U.S. government contract, and providing for penalties for any falsification . The Civilian Agency Acquisition Council issued

  5. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    increase taxation on the merchants by 70%, but it is likely that the broader adverse business climate contributed to the bazaar stoppages. An agreement...was eventually reached under which taxation only went up 15%. The merchant community could be a potential “swing constituency” if it sides with the...so include Alcatel-Lucent of France; Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ; BNP Paribas of France; Bosch of Germany; Canon of Japan; Fiat SPA of Italy

  6. The Impact of Sanctions and Neo-Liberalism on Women’s Organising in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Povey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As in the case of many contemporary movements, Iranian women’s activism is connected into local, international and transnational politics. However, Iranian women’s views of transnational solidarity and perceptions of foreign support for women’s rights in Iran are complicated by the experience of Western foreign policy of the last three decades. This is perceived to have claimed to support women’s rights and liberalism against what is often described as a “conservative theocratic state” but has, in some ways, made it more difficult for women to organise “on the ground” and strengthened the hand of conservative forces both materially and ideologically. Two facets of Western foreign policy towards Iran will be discussed and analysed in relation to their impact on women; firstly, this article will investigate the impact of sanctions and the international isolation of the country since 1979 on women’s organisations. Secondly, it will analyse neo-liberalism and the changing nature of the Iranian state, as well as political elites. Utilising interviews with Iranian women activists conducted in 2009, in addition to April 2015, the article will discuss views of transnational solidarity and the diverse political strategies utilised by women activists and organisations in Iran today.

  7. 77 FR 59034 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: On general issues: Christopher Backemeyer, Office of Sanction Policy... Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR 56866, September 14, 2011) --Royal Oyster Group (see Public...

  8. 77 FR 4389 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Finance and Economic Sanctions Policy, Department of State, Telephone: (202) 647-9183. For U.S. Government... 56866, September 14, 2011) --Petr[oacute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice 7585, 76 FR 56866...

  9. 78 FR 35351 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Pursuant to the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996, as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: On general issues: Office of Sanctions Policy and Implementation, Department... Notice 7585, 76 FR 56866, September 14, 2011) --Petro[acute]leos de Venezuela S.A. (see Public Notice...

  10. The Sanctioning Dilemma: A Quasi-Experiment on Social Norm Enforcement in the Train

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Przepiorka, W.; Berger, J.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous laboratory experiments have established peer-sanctioning as an important driver of norm compliance and cooperation in human groups. However, systematic evidence of peer-sanctioning occurring in the field is still rare. Here we present results from a quasi-experimental field study

  11. Recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments in the Law of Iran and England: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasat Pour Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in the Law of Iran and England: A Comparative Study. There are a lot of similarities and commonalities between the legal system of Iran and England in the field of recognition and enforcement of the foreign judgments including public discipline and conflicting judgments. Public discipline in England Law is more specific than that of Iran. Being a civil case of the judgment, impossibility of recognition, enforcement of tax and criminal judgments are among the similarities of the two systems. On the other hand, reciprocity, precise of the foreign court, and the jurisdiction governing the nature of the claim are among instances which are different in Iran and England legal systems on the recognizing of the enforcement of foreign judgments.

  12. Early phase success and long run failure of economic sanctions. With an application to Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. Dizaji (Sajjad Faraji); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe develop a model of the dynamics of economic sanctions in conjunction with the response of the sanction target. We apply this model to the case of the EU and US boycott of Iranian oil. Our VAR model finds significant impacts of sanctions both on key economic variables and on the

  13. 75 FR 64120 - Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... to make Forms N-CSR and N-SAR consistent with the Iran Divestment Act. Thus, any costs and benefits...] Technical Amendments to Forms N-CSR and N-SAR in Connection With the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions... Forms N-CSR and N-SAR under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the Investment Company Act of 1940...

  14. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The Granting of Iran Office of Foreign Asset Control's Licenses to Big Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmanghelidj, Esfandyar; Heydari, Gholamreza

    2014-02-01

    Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control's (OFAC) awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. By comparing Iran's tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC) and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  15. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The granting of Iran office of foreign asset control′s licenses to big tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandyar Batmanghelidj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. Methods: This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control′s (OFAC awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. Results: By comparing Iran′s tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. Conclusions: It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  16. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Economic Sanctions Enforcement Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperation with OFAC is an important factor in determining the appropriate enforcement response to an... considers it important to document the occurrence of a violation and, based on an analysis of the General... programs: OFAC Risk Matrix Low Moderate High Stable, well-known customer base in a localized environment...

  17. IRAN SANCTIONS: Impact in Furthering U.S. Objectives is Unclear and Should be Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    three foreign companies—Total (France), Gazprom (Russia), and Petronas (Malaysia)–in the development of Iran’s South Pars gas field were sanctionable...report stated that Petronas had only limited connections to the United States and Total had divested many of its U.S. assets prior to entering into

  18. Impact of economic sanctions on access to noncommunicable diseases medicines in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Varahrami, Vida; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2018-04-05

    It has been argued that economic sanctions and the economic crisis have adversely affected access to drugs. To assess the impact of economic sanctions on the Iranian banking system in 2011 and Central Bank in 2012 on access to and use of drugs for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). An interrupted time series study assessed the effects of sanctions on drugs for diabetes (5 drug groups), asthma (5 drug groups), cancer (14 drugs) and multiple sclerosis (2 drugs). We extracted data from national reference databases on the list of drugs on the Iranian pharmaceutical market before 2011 for each selected NCD and their monthly sales. For cancer drugs, we used stratified random sampling by volume and value of sales, and source of supply (domestic or imported). Data were analysed monthly from 2008 to 2013. Market availability of 13 of 26 drugs was significantly reduced. Ten other drugs showed nonsignificant reductions in their market availability. Interferon α2b usage reduced from 0.014 defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) in 2010 to 0.008 in 2013; and cytarabine from 1.40 mg per 1000 population per day in 2010 to 0.96 in 2013. Selective β2-adrenoreceptor agonists usage reduced from 8.4 to 6.8 DID in the same time period. There is strong evidence that sanctions have had a negative effect on access to drugs, particularly those that depended on the import of their raw material or finished products. Copyright © World Health Organization (WHO) 2018. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/igo).

  19. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  20. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  1. 48 CFR 52.225-25 - Prohibition on Engaging in Sanctioned Activities Relating to Iran-Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENGAGING IN SANCTIONED ACTIVITIES RELATING TO IRAN—CERTIFICATION (SEP 2010) (a) Definition. Person— (1) Means— (i) A natural person; (ii) A corporation, business association, partnership, society, trust...; and (iii) Any successor to any entity described in paragraph (1)(ii) of this definition; and (2) Does...

  2. Constructing sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... between how opponents perceive conflicts and the meaning of sanctions therein. This nexus of different constructions of sanctions moreover extends to “targeted” sanctions as well: As restrictive measures against Zimbabwe demonstrate, they are not the kind of minimally-invasive operations with clinical...

  3. 19 CFR 210.25 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 210.25 Section 210.25 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.25 Sanctions. (a)(1) Any party may file a motion for sanctions for...

  4. 78 FR 33945 - Authorizing the Implementation of Certain Sanctions Set Forth in the Iran Freedom and Counter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... facilitating a transaction for the provision of agricultural commodities, food, medicine, or medical devices to... other activities relating to the diversion of goods, including agricultural commodities, food, medicine... Government of Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  5. A NUCLEAR IRAN: DID THE UNITED STATES, UNITED NATIONS AND EUROPEAN UNIONS USE OF SANCTIONS IMPACT THE IRANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    both these gentlemen. I would also like to thank Paul Pladson, Major James Moran and Captain Cory Leckrone, who had to endure hours of me...09iran.html 23 Sanger, “Obama Order Sped Up Wave of Cyberattacks Against Iran”, 2013, 206 24 Steven Cherry , interview by Ralph Langer, How Stuxnet is...Sess., Public Law No: 111-195, (1 July 2010): 124 STAT. 1318 33 Paul Kerr, Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status (Washington DC: Congressional Research

  6. Economic sanctions and US international business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions are seen as a foreign policy instrument less severe than military engagement but more potent than diplomacy. The assessment of the economic impact of sanctions invariably focuses on direct bilateral trade, with little regard to indirect costs. In the case of sanctions on Iran, the real cost to Iran and the U.S. is not so much due to reduced trade but to factors such as missed investment and joint venture opportunities, especially in the energy sector. The significant size of these costs for Iran will make it difficult for Iran to resume business as usual with U.S. companies whensanctions are lifted; and for U.S. energy companies, their long-term competitiveness in Iran and also globally will be reduced.

  7. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-19

    returned to several times since, including at a September 2007 speech at Columbia University, a forum where he also denied that Iran had any homosexuals . A...Secretary of Homeland Security Michael Chertoff said that Iran’s relationship with Venezuela is an emerging threat because it represents a “ marriage ” of...international sanctions. Some of these efforts focus on countries perceived as having lax enforcement of export control laws, such as UAE and Malaysia

  8. U.S. sanctions : a spent force?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of whether unilateral economic sanctions produce desired results. Economic sanctions have been used as a foreign policy tool for a long time by the United States, but a recent study conducted at the Center For Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, DC indicates that nearly all such sanctions fail. Another study at CSIS suggests that if forward-looking estimates of world oil demand by the year 2020 are correct, then currently sanctioned oil exporters Iran, Iraq and Libya will have to be producing at or near capacity if that demand is to be fulfilled. The author argued that unilateral economic sanctions are useless in influencing foreign policy behaviour, particularly since the future is shaped by globalization and by instant communications. However, even though other approaches are considered to be more desirable, the United States will continue to look to sanctions as a foreign policy tool in effecting change because it is influenced by special interest groups

  9. The impact of international economic sanctions on Iranian cancer healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Shohreh; Fazlalizadeh, Hooman; Stedman, Jennifer; Chuang, Linus; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Ram, Regina

    2015-10-01

    In 2012, Iranian's economy collapsed under strain from sanctions instituted to stop Iran from violating the International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sanctions have indirectly led to serious healthcare concerns, specifically cancer treatment. This is the first report to evaluate Iranian cancer healthcare while under international economic sanctions. Data and information were identified by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms: "Iran", "health policy", "sanctions", "ethics", and "cancer". Articles published in the English language between 1966 and present were included, based on relevance to sanctions or the specific case of sanctions in Iran. The Program of Action for Cancer Therapy evaluated Iran's National Cancer Control Program (NCCP), reporting it has substantial deficits, including prevention, diagnosis/treatment, palliative care, monitoring, and technology, with a serious drug shortage for cancer care. Sanctions have exemptions for medicines and food, but lead to disruption of health services through complications in transportation, transferring currencies or lack of money. There is increasing evidence that sanctions harm vulnerable populations, while blocking globalization and not creating political or social change quickly. Improvement of Iran's NCCP is not feasible, and the health of cancer patients will continue to decline while the sanctions are in effect. The solution is complex, but a modern and innovative approach to diplomacy, which includes human rights, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Gang på gang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  11. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  12. Nonproliferation Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    ILSA). On May 18, 1998, the Administration announced that in- vestment by French, Malaysian , and Russian firms in Iran’s oil and gas industry...for the participation in royalties , earnings, or profits in that development, without regard to the form of the participation. The term "investment

  13. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-07-31

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.

  14. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    ... in March 2008, which imposed sanctions on Tehran. Despite this pressure, Iran continues at its Natanz centrifuge facility to enrich uranium, expand the number of operating centrifuges, and conduct research on new types of centrifuges...

  15. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions which imposed sanctions on Tehran...

  16. Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Trend of Suicide in Kermanshah during 11 years (2004 to 2014), Iran ... Suicide is one of the most important health problems which has dedicated a significant part ... interaction with different risk factors (Oliver and ... physical and mental diseases, the researchers used .... Due to the lack of professional ability, illiterates are.

  17. Iran - waiting and watching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    Global oil companies are reported to be divided on the issue of possible energy deals in Iran. Some companies may adopt wait and watch policy before singing a fresh deal with Iran, but there are some oil companies, those are still interested to sign a deal with Iran, despite the risks, even as Tehran decided to expand its uranium enrichment programme rather than complying with a UN Security Council ultimatum to freeze it, which clears the path for further harsher sanctions (author) (ml)

  18. Enforcement and judicial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 Amendments to the enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act generally give the Administrator and the courts broader powers to enforce the substantive provisions of the Act. The changes include wider applicability of civil sanctions, increased criminal penalties, broader emergency powers, broader inspection powers, and increased citizen involvement in enforcement and administrative decisionmaking. Another significant change is the addition of an administrative penalty scheme that would allow EPA to use streamlined procedures to assess administrative penalties of up to $200,000 (or more, in some cases). Furthermore, the Amendments extend the prohibition against entering into government contracts with violators to other facilities owned or operated by the convicted person. This chapter summarizes the statutory enforcement provisions of the Clean Air Act. It covers the new civil and criminal enforcement provisions, the new administrative penalty scheme, and the new provisions allowing broader public involvement in enforcement proceedings

  19. Addressing the impact of economic sanctions on Iranian drug shortages in the joint comprehensive plan of action: promoting access to medicines and health diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Setayesh, Sogol; Mackey, Tim K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran?s nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens. This i...

  20. 77 FR 73516 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Iran Threat Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Cecelia L. Davis, Procurement Analyst, at 202-219... sector of Iran and impose sanctions with respect to transport of crude oil from Iran and evasion of...

  1. Iran's Economic Conditions: U.S. Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2009-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  2. On the Sanctioning of Economic Crime in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    present a theoretical framework that allows for a determination of optimal levels of sanctions and enforcement of crime. In the second part, I compare actual levels of sanctions in Denmark for various kinds of crime involving either economic or bodily harm, and discuss whether differences can be explained......This article - written for a symposium on comparative criminal law - discusses whether sanctions for economic crime have become excessive in the Danish context either in absolute terms or in comparison with sanctions for crimes involving physical harm. The text has three parts. In the first part, I...... by the theory. In the third part, I compare a recent increase in the level of the sanction for breach of competition law and for insider trading with the theoretically optimal levels and I tentatively suggest that the increase may well have been warranted from a deterrence perspective. However, I stress...

  3. Economic Sanctions Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Dent

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sanctions Seminar held on November 19 was organized by LexisNexis Russia in cooperation with ANO Pericles.The Seminar theme was ‘Economic Sanctions Overview: Due Diligence and AML Procedures.’ In the course of the seminar, practicing lawyers, compliance and AML professionals had the opportunity to interact on the scope of US A and EU Sanctions and their impact on global business transaction, as well as get a better understanding of the due diligence procedures necessary in order to comply with a such complex environment.

  4. Oil and sanctions. Pt.2: How not to do business'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cragg, Chris.

    1997-01-01

    This briefing paper compares the effects of US unilateral sanctions and United Nations mandated sanctions on the economies of Iran and Iraq, and looks at the political implications of these policies, internally and internationally. Some western oil companies are seeking to assist Iran and Iraq to develop their oil reserves, but these breaches of the current embargoes are being vetoed at the highest levels. Initiatives in cooperative petroleum exploitation from Kazakhstan, Afghanistan and Turkey may be more successful as they are being carried out under cover, but even these schemes have complex political implications. The human consequences of sanctions in Iraq are extreme and include severe poverty and much lower levels of health among civilians, particularly women and children. This misery could be changed and wealth restored via exploitation of its petroleum and gas reserves, but no solution seems close as neither the UN nor Saddam Hussein seem able to bend. (UK)

  5. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  6. Regulatory Sanctions and Reputational Damage in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, John; Mayer, Colin; Polo, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of the announcement of enforcement of financial and securities regulation by the UK’s Financial Services Authority and London Stock Exchange on the market price of penalized firms. Since these agencies do not announce enforcement until a penalty is levied, their actions provide a uniquely clean dataset on which to examine reputational effects. We find that reputational sanctions are very real: their stock price impact is on average ten times larger than the financial penal...

  7. THE COURT’S COMPETENCE TO DISMISS THE SUPPLEMENTARY SANCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia IOVĂNAȘ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 34 par. 1 from the UGO no. 34/2001, the court settling the complaint against the offence notice, verifying the legality and substantiality of same, decides on the sanction without distinguishing between the main and the supplementary sanctions. From corroborating these legal provisions with the stipulations under art. 5 from the same normative act, according to which the established sanction must be proportional with the degree of social danger of the committed act, without making differences between the types of sanctions, as well as those of art. 5 and art. 6 according to which the supplementary sanctions are to be applied depending on the nature and seriousness of the fact, it results that the law enforcer has also decided on the right of the court to assess inclusively the proportionality of the sanction in case of applying the supplementary measures, not only in applying main sanctions. And this is so because the proportionality of the committed act and its consequences is one of the requirements demanded by the ECHR jurisprudence in the matter of applying any rights restrictive measures.

  8. 19 CFR 210.4 - Written submissions; representations; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written submissions; representations; sanctions. 210.4 Section 210.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Rules of General Applicability § 210.4...

  9. 29 CFR 502.16 - Sanctions and remedies-General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... covered provisions of the work contract as set forth in 29 CFR 501.10(a); the assessment of a civil money... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) Enforcement of Work Contracts § 502.16 Sanctions and...

  10. An exploratory study of boarding home sanctions and compliance in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Schaffner, Mindy L

    2011-01-01

    States vary in enforcement systems that monitor the quality of care in residential boarding homes. The growing number of people seeking long-term care services in boarding homes requires regulatory systems that are effective in quality assurance enforcement. This 6 year retrospective study describes the characteristics of 601 sanctioned and nonsanctioned homes in the state of Washington and evaluates the effectiveness of enforcement actions such as intermediate sanctions on future boarding home compliance. The intermediate sanctions evaluated are stop placement of admissions, civil fines, and conditions placed on licenses. Boarding homes that were sanctioned tended to be homes that were for-profit and had governmental contracts for Medicaid services. Homes that remained sanctioned throughout the 6 year study tended to be homes that were individual ownership corporations, had smaller numbers of licensed beds, and did not provide nursing services. Intermediate sanctions were found to vary in effectiveness. Conditions placed on licenses were the most effective intermediate sanction, and civil fines the least effective. Higher citation numbers and the most severe level of complaint types were found to be predictors of becoming a sanctioned boarding home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. When sanctions convey moral norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Laetitia B.

    2018-01-01

    Sanctions not only have the instrumental function of deterring people from undesired behavior but they also have the ability to convey moral norms. As such, they may create a moral motivation not to engage in the sanctioned behavior. This is desirable as this makes the success of a sanctioning

  12. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department`s enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion.

  13. Enforcement handbook: Enforcement of DOE nuclear safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This Handbook provides detailed guidance and procedures to implement the General Statement of DOE Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy). A copy of this Enforcement Policy is included for ready reference in Appendix D. The guidance provided in this Handbook is qualified, however, by the admonishment to exercise discretion in determining the proper disposition of each potential enforcement action. As discussed in subsequent chapters, the Enforcement and Investigation Staff will apply a number of factors in assessing each potential enforcement situation. Enforcement sanctions are imposed in accordance with the Enforcement Policy for the purpose of promoting public and worker health and safety in the performance of activities at DOE facilities by DOE contractors (and their subcontractors and suppliers) who are indemnified under the Price-Anderson Amendments Act. These indemnified contractors, and their suppliers and subcontractors, will be referred to in this Handbook collectively as DOE contractors. It should be remembered that the purpose of the Department's enforcement policy is to improve nuclear safety for the workers and the public, and this goal should be the prime consideration in exercising enforcement discretion

  14. Considerations on replacing and suspending disciplinary sanctions. The issue of granting compensation for ungrounded or unlawful disciplinary sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu VLAD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Court's ability to replace the disciplinary sanction imposed by the employer with an easier one is the power to individualize employee's disciplinary sanction imposed by the general statutory criteria – the circumstances of committing the crime, the degree of culpability of the employee consequences of a disciplinary offence, the general behaviour of the employee and any disciplinary sanctions previously incurred. Another issue under discussion and which was not brought about a unified point of view is about the possibility of temporary suspension of disciplinary decision enforcement, pending resolution of the challenge which the court was invested with. This is why it's necessary the intervention of the legislator as statuary express the legal nature of the disciplinary decision. In all cases where the court ordered the annulment of illegality punish the employee who suffered an injury will receive compensation under article 52, paragraph 2, article 78 or, where appropriate, article 269 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code.

  15. Iran and regional energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics reviewed in these conference proceedings in the first session include domestic imperatives covering the economy, social imperatives - civil society and the rule of law, and the overall investment climate. Session 2 focuses on Iran and the energy sector with papers on oil and gas pipelines, and the effect of sanctions. Session 3 deals with Iran and the Persian Gulf with papers on new developments in Iran and its Arab neighbours, and Iran and Arab attempts to manage oil output. Session 4 concentrates on business and investment perspectives with papers on the low oil and gas prices and the new competition for investment capital, the investment climate, the building of connection with Iran, and identifying the predominant trends. A keynote address by the former deputy Foreign Minister of Iran examines regional energy development

  16. 31 CFR 31.218 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 31.218 Section 31.218 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TROUBLED ASSET RELIEF PROGRAM... more of the following sanctions: (1) Rejection of work tainted by an organizational conflict of...

  17. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``GTSR'') and the Terrorism Sanctions Regulations (``TSR'') to expand the scope of...

  18. 75 FR 40862 - Bureau of Verification, Compliance, and Implementation; Imposition of Sanctions Against Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...; Imposition of Sanctions Against Foreign Entities, Including a Ban on U.S. Government Procurement AGENCY... and one foreign person have engaged in activities that warrant the imposition of measures pursuant to Section 3 of the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act. The Act provides for penalties on...

  19. Iran irritates and puzzles the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressburg, A. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper author analyses political and economic situation in the Iran. Iran is endangered by economic sanctions and military attacks on nuclear facilities, the president threatens by retributive military attacks. Situation in Iran is compared with Iraq. Perspectives of application of political and economic embargo against Iran are discussed. USA and co-adjuster would probably meet the Russian or Chinese veto. On the international markets or on the bilateral level the good volition to disable to Iran the sale of its oil and natural gas would by scarcely expected. Iran exports from 2.5 to 3 million barrels of oil daily. It is impossible to substitute Iran essentially. The country is the fourth biggest exporter of oil in the world and has the second biggest stocks of oil after Saudi Arabia. Iran is endangered by the fact that big question mark will stay to hang above nuclear program. The part of uranium is imported from African countries like Gabon and Niger through France and the sanctions of UN would stop this import. Iran has its own uranium fields, even which belongs to the largest in the world. However, Iran cannot exploit them effectively without help of western companies. Nuclear program, which is supported by big hope and sources from the country, probably collide with unexpected barriers. Even if UN Safety Council would not confirmed anti-Iran sanctions, the seven states that produce nuclear technologies would stop their sale to Iran. It would freeze its civilian and military nuclear program from a few years or some decades

  20. A Strategy of Attrition through Enforcement: The Unmaking of Irregular Migration in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Choo Chin Low

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews Malaysia's attempt to achieve zero migration irregularity by focusing on workplace enforcement, and examines how Malaysia's migration control has become a struggle between the state and employers. Applying the framework of "enforcement through attrition", this research examines three newly introduced principles governing workplace enforcement: employer sanctions, the Strict Liability Principle, and the Employers' Mandatory Commitment. The shift to employers in Malaysia's ...

  1. 77 FR 6657 - Blocking Property of the Government of Iran and Iranian Financial Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... the Central Bank of Iran and other Iranian banks to conceal transactions of sanctioned parties, the... Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that... Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United States, or that...

  2. American sanctions. Ones` sorrow,..; Sanctions americaines. Le malheur des uns,..

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    Myanmar joined the list of countries concerned by the D`Amato-Kennedy law which imposes economical sanctions from the USA. Total company which is involved in the exploitation of Myanmar gas resources, considered that it is not concerned by this decision while its American partner, Unocal, promised to respect the sanction. Feeling the danger which is going to happen, an `anti-sanctions` coalition was created around 140 big US companies (11 oil-companies, the American Petroleum Institute, IBM, Boeing, Pepsi, etc..) to criticize this policy. The cost of this law for the US economy represents about 19 billions of US Dollars of export dead losses and 200000 employments. Short note. (J.S.)

  3. The use of administrative sanctions to prevent environmental damage in impact assessment follow-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Luiz Carlos; Fonseca, Alberto

    2018-08-01

    Scholars have long been highlighting the value of administrative sanctions in improving environmental policy enforcement. However, few studies have evaluated how such sanctions are implemented, particularly in the context of environmental impact assessments (EIA) and their respective follow-up programs. The main objective of this article was to evaluate how administrative sanctions have been used in EIA follow-ups, using the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais as the empirical context. More specifically it tried to understand what have been the main triggers, frequency, nature and financial values of the sanctions issued to noncompliant mining projects operating under the conditions of environmental licenses. First, through literature reviews, the study characterized the institutional and regulatory framework in which administrative sanctions are applied. Content analyzes of 29 infraction processes further revealed that lump sum fines are the preferred option of administrative sanction in EIA follow-ups. The analysis also revealed that the fines could be perceived as disproportionally small if one considers the size and financial power of non-compliant companies. The great majority of the fines were paid by developers: a fact that contradicts previous empirical findings and anecdotal evidence in Brazil. Overall, the study suggests that the impact of administrative sanctions in corporate behavior, while unclear, is likely small. The study concludes by discussing practical and academic implications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geopolitics. Plea for a new Iran policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, K.

    2008-01-15

    According to the author it is time to go to the roots of the US-Iranian crisis: the historical wrongs committed by the West against Iran and the ongoing policy of confrontation the USA is bent on. We must end all sanctions and strive for reconciliation with Iran. It would make the world a safer place, and give a great boost to global oil and gas supplies.

  5. 19 CFR 210.33 - Failure to make or cooperate in discovery; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to make or cooperate in discovery; sanctions. 210.33 Section 210.33 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process...

  6. 19 CFR 210.34 - Protective orders; reporting requirement; sanctions and other actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; sanctions and other actions. 210.34 Section 210.34 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and... order of the Commission or the administrative law judge; (7) That a trade secret or other confidential...

  7. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians' Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabisaghi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-20

    Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community's uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran's nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it. To assess economic sanction policies and identify violated rights and the obligations of states according to international human rights laws, in this study, Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) tool is used. Applying this tool requires collection of evidences regarding the situation of rights. To provide such evidence, a systematic review of literature which involved 55 papers retrieved from the web-based databases and official webpages of Iran's government and UN' health and human rights committees and organizations was done. All articles about the consequences of economic sanctions related to nuclear activities of Iran on welfare and health of Iranians published from January 2012 till February 2017 in English and Persian languages were included. Search terms were economic sanctions, embargoes, Iran, welfare, health and medicine. Additional studies were identified by cross checking the reference lists of accessed articles. All selected papers were abstracted and entered into a matrix describing study design and findings, and categorized into a framework of themes reflecting the areas covered (health and its determinants). According to HRIA framework, related obligations of Iran and other states about adverse effects of the sanctions on Iranians' right to health were extracted. The sanctions on Iran caused a fall of country's revenues, devaluation of national currency, and

  8. 6 CFR 13.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 13.29 Section 13.29 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.29 Sanctions. (a) The ALJ may sanction a Person, including any party or Representative, for: (1) Failing to comply with...

  9. 49 CFR 98.12 - Administrative sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... an administrative sanction against a former employee who, after a final administrative decision under... imposed under subsection (a) of this section are: (1) Prohibiting the former employee from making, on... ACTIVITIES Administrative Sanctions § 98.12 Administrative sanctions. (a) The Secretary, in decisions under...

  10. Assessment of the Effects of Economic Sanctions on Iranians’ Right to Health by Using Human Rights Impact Assessment Tool: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabisaghi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over the years, economic sanctions have contributed to violation of right to health in target countries. Iran has been under comprehensive unilateral economic sanctions by groups of countries (not United Nations [UN]) in recent years. They have been intensified from 2012 because of international community’s uncertainty about peaceful purpose of Iran’s nuclear program and inadequacy of trust-building actions of this country. This review aimed to identify the humanitarian effects of the sanctions on the right of Iranians to health and the obligations of Iran and international community about it. Methods: To assess economic sanction policies and identify violated rights and the obligations of states according to international human rights laws, in this study, Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) tool is used. Applying this tool requires collection of evidences regarding the situation of rights. To provide such evidence, a systematic review of literature which involved 55 papers retrieved from the web-based databases and official webpages of Iran’s government and UN’ health and human rights committees and organizations was done. All articles about the consequences of economic sanctions related to nuclear activities of Iran on welfare and health of Iranians published from January 2012 till February 2017 in English and Persian languages were included. Search terms were economic sanctions, embargoes, Iran, welfare, health and medicine. Additional studies were identified by cross checking the reference lists of accessed articles. All selected papers were abstracted and entered into a matrix describing study design and findings, and categorized into a framework of themes reflecting the areas covered (health and its determinants). According to HRIA framework, related obligations of Iran and other states about adverse effects of the sanctions on Iranians’ right to health were extracted. Results: The sanctions on Iran caused a fall of country

  11. Iran, the crisis situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2010-01-01

    This book is an updated edition of a previous book by the same author: 'Iran and the nuclear: the Persian torments'. The author addresses the Iranian nuclear crisis within an historic perspective, and states that this crisis has its roots in the recent Iranian history, but has deeper origins before the Islamic Revolution of 1979. In a first part, he draws a portrait of Iran by opposing current myths and realities like Persia and an actual ethnic diversity, an oil-based wealth in a context of under-development, tyranny and an actual political complexity. He also analyses the Iranian geo-strategy and its recent evolutions, the relationships and attitudes towards the three Satans (USA, France and Israel), and describes the main evolutions of the Iranian defence, notably after 9/11. The second part describes the long evolution of the Iranian nuclear programme, from its beginning at the time of the Shah, until now (projects, programmes and realities of the Iranian electronuclear industry), and recalls the different steps of the nuclear crisis between 2002 and 2006. The third part is a prospective one. The author discusses several aspects of the conflict (power balance, rumours and threats, sanctions and military scenarios, Iranian retaliation capacities) and discusses what a nuclear Iran would be (its capacities, its objectives, geo-strategic consequences of a nuclear Iran, and remaining opportunities for negotiations)

  12. Assessment of the NRC Enforcement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.; Coblentz, L.

    1995-04-01

    On May 12, 1994, the Executive Director for Operations (EDO) established a Review Team composed of senior NRC managers to re-examine the NRC enforcement program. A copy of the Review Team's charter is enclosed as Appendix A. This report presents the Team's assessment. The purpose of this review effort are: (1) to perform an assessment of the NRC's enforcement program to determine whether the defined purposes of the enforcement program are appropriate; (2) to determine whether the NRC's enforcement practices and procedures for issuing enforcement actions are consistent with those purposes; and (3) to provide recommendations on any changes the Review Team believes advisable. In accordance with its charter, the Review Team considered the following principal issues in conducting its assessment of the enforcement program: the balance between providing deterrence and incentives (both positive and negative) for the identification and correction of violations; the appropriateness of NRC sanctions; whether the commission should seek statutory authority to increase the amount of civil penalties; whether the NRC should use different enforcement policies and practices for different licensees (e.g., materials licensees in contrast to power reactors or large fuel facilities); and whether the commission should establish open enforcement conferences as the normal practice

  13. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2018-06-01

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (p<0.05). In these youth community rugby players, 59% of illegal tackles were not sanctioned appropriately. This was better than a previous study in elite adult rugby, where only 7% of illegal tackles were penalised. Moreover, the rates of illegal tackles and non-sanctioned illegal tackles both improved over time. However, it is critical that referees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 49836 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or certain other blocked persons. Specifically... procedure, Banks, Banking, Brokers, Foreign Trade, Investments, Loans, Securities, Iran. [[Page 49838

  15. How banking sanctions influence on performance of foreign currency portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A good portfolio optimization on banks’ currency holdings not only helps meet their needs but also it increases banks’ total assets. During the past few months, US sanctions against Iran has influenced profitability banking currency portfolio holding. The proposed model of this paper considers the weekly information of two years before and after sanctions occurred in Iranian banking system. Therefore, the study uses 210 weekly data and proposes a method to analyze the data to measure the performance of banking currency portfolio after sanction happens. The proposed model of this paper provides lost profit and unrealized loss and using the idea of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS we rank the resulted data. Next, we use some parametric and non-parametric methods to see whether there is any change as a result of sanction on the performance of the portfolio. The results indicate that not only the performance of the portfolio was reduced but also the variance of the return after sanction has been increased.

  16. Sanctioning Success? Assessing the Role of Sanctions in the Militarization of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    prima facie the previous administration’s policy of keeping U.S. weapons and weapon technology out of the Islamic Republic. The need for war materiel...lifting of Carter’s embargo. In accordance with U.S. obligations in the Algiers Accords, Iran’s release of the American hostages led

  17. Sanctions and moral judgments: The moderating effect of sanction severity and trust in authorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Laetitia; Verboon, Peter; de Cremer, David

    2011-01-01

    In order to induce people to follow rules, sanctions are often introduced. In this paper we argue for the importance of studying the positive influence of sanctioning systems on people’s moral convictions regarding the rule advocated by the sanction and of studying factors that moderate this

  18. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Maestad, Ottar; Westskog, Hege

    2003-07-01

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  19. Tough justice for small nations. How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallbekken, Steffen; Maestad, Ottar; Westskog, Hege

    2003-01-01

    The paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-compliant country and not another even with the same violation. This implies that a certain composition of the members of the Enforcement Branch could decide to sanction one country and not another for the same relative non-compliance, while another composition might choose differently. We show that the expected effects on world market prices of sanctioning a country is likely to influence the decision of whether to carry out the sanctions or not. We find that it is likely to be easier to sanction countries where sanctions result in minor impacts on world market prices than those where the impacts are larger. Finally we discuss an alternative design of the sanction mechanism in view of our results. (Author)

  20. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  1. 77 FR 45897 - Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Export-Import Bank shall deny approval of the issuance of any guarantee, insurance, extension of credit... a constitutional presence in the United States, I find that because of the ability to transfer funds...

  2. 29 CFR 471.14 - What sanctions and penalties may be imposed for noncompliance, and what procedures will the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS OBLIGATIONS OF FEDERAL CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS; NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS General Enforcement; Compliance Review... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What sanctions and penalties may be imposed for...

  3. THE DEAL WITH IRAN IS THE BEST-CASE SCENARIO THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY COULD ACHIEVE IN THE CURRENT GEOPOLITICAL ENVIRONMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    nonproliferation regime. However, the international community retains all options to achieve the objective of preventing Iran from producing a nuclear weapon...of U.S. Iran policy since 1979 but the imposition of U.N. Security Council and worldwide sanctions escalated after 2006 and increased dramatically...Diplomacy 2011), 333. 15 Celia L/ Reynolds and Wilfred T. Wan, "Empirical trends in sanctions and possitive inducements in nonproliferation ", in

  4. G8 Regional Security Governance through Sanctions and Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kirton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Why do the Group of Eight (G8 members approve its members’ use of material sanctions in some regional conflicts but military force in others?2 As an informal security institution composed of major democratic powers from North America, Europe and Asia, the G8 has often chosen sanctions, notably on Iran in 1980, Afghanistan in 1980, Sudan in 2004, North Korea in 2006, and Syria in 2011. It has increasingly chosen military force, notably in Iraq in 1990, Kosovo in 1999, the USSR over Afghanistan in 2001, Libya in 2011, and Mali in 2013. Yet the G8’s choice, initiation, commitment, compliance, implementation and effectiveness of both sanctions and force has varied. Force was chosen and used effectively only in the post cold war period, primarily where the target was close to southern Europe. A high relative-capability predominance of G8 members over the target country strongly produces the G8’s choice of force, but a high, direct, deadly threat from the target state to G8 countries does not. Geographic proximity and the connectivity coming from the former colonial relationship between G8 members and the target country only weakly cause the G8 to choose force. Support from the most relevant regional organization – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – and support from the United Nations in the form of an authorizing UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution have a strong, positive effect on the G8’s choice of force. Accompanying accountability mechanisms from the G8 itself have a variable impact, as leaders’ iteration of the issue at subsequent summits does not increase compliance with G8 commitments on force-related cases, but their foreign ministers’ follow up does to a substantial degree.

  5. 7 CFR 3052.225 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 3052.225 Section 3052.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Audits § 3052.225 Sanctions. No...

  6. 29 CFR 99.225 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sanctions. 99.225 Section 99.225 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Audits § 99.225 Sanctions. No audit costs may be charged to Federal awards when audits required by this part have not been...

  7. 19 CFR 354.8 - Interim sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reconsider imposition of interim sanctions on the basis of new and material evidence or other good cause... Secretary may petition a presiding official to impose such sanctions. (b) The presiding official may impose... person to return material previously provided by the Department and all other materials containing the...

  8. Economic Sanctions as Determinants of Health [Abstract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Kokabisaghi (Fatemeh)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ In the recent years economic sanctions have been very often applied in order to force states to change their behavior at international level and conform to the international law. Many studies show that sanctions are associated with deterioration of people’s enjoyment

  9. Who pays for the sanctions on Russia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s sanctions on Russia mark the low point in relations between Brussels and Moscow since the end of the Cold War. Though there is a fierce debate over the impact of these sanctions on the Russian economy, much less attention is paid to their cost to EU Europe.

  10. Influence of sanctions on Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysylu Ildarovna Bulatova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the background and nature of the sanctions imposed against Russia and their impact on the economy. Methods the methodological basis of the research consists of general scientific methods of cognition such as analysis and synthesis observation comparison system approach expert evaluation synthesis contributing to the economic justification of the main conclusions and recommendations proposed in the article. Results basing on the analysis of the preconditions for the sanctions imposed against Russia the nature of sanctions is revealed and the definition of this concept is given. The main directions of the impact of sanctions are listed. The damage of the imposed bilateral sanctions to the countryrsquos macroeconomic indicators is assessed. The importance of sanctions is identified and the need for the introduction of countersanctions by Russia is determined. The positive and negative consequences from the sanctions imposition are systematized. The factors are determined that can accelerate the economic recovery of Russia under crisis. Scientific novelty systematization of knowledge about the nature of sanctions determination of the factors and measures that can accelerate the economic recovery of Russia. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and practice when dealing with issues about the nature and trends in economic development and the further development of Russia39s anticrisis program. nbsp

  11. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2006-04-07

    Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.

  12. Iran. Nuclear crisis: towards an overrun?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author first shows that the Iranian crisis is a failure of the struggle against nuclear proliferation as Iran seems to possess the technical and scientific abilities to produce nuclear weapons on a medium term. He also notices that this crisis is characterised by a deadlock of legal mechanisms of control of the Iranian nuclear programme: despite UN resolutions and sanctions, the IAEA will not be able able to visit Iranian facilities until Iran decides to enter negotiations again, and the decision by the UN of military actions seems not very likely, at least because of the opposition of China and Russia. In the second part, the author analyses the strategic and geopolitical stakes of the Iranian crisis: the will of Iran to become a regional leader and to counterbalance the Israeli nuclear deterrence, differences of regional interests between western countries, domestic evolutions in Iran. According to the author, both parties share a common interest in a smooth crisis recovery

  13. Country impacts of multilateral oil sanctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, economic sanctions have become an important tool in the conduct of U.S. foreign policy. Though usually aimed at a single country, they also can affect the economics of other nations. Knowledge of such impacts would inform U.S. policy-makers as to which other countries might be helped or harmed, and help predict which other nations likely would support or oppose the sanctions. This article presents results relating to the imposition of sanctions in the oil market. These results are obtained from exercising a dynamic computable general equilibrium model built by Charles River Associates under sponsorship of the American Petroleum Institute. The model is used to analyze GDP effects on a number of countries from multilateral oil sanctions against Iraq. The results suggest that it is possible to provide useful information regarding the impact of sanctions as a foreign policy tool. However, they also indicate that sanctions can be expensive, with substantial spillover effects. Though sanctions may be appropriate policy choice in given instances, these effects should be incorporated into foreign policy analyses. (author)

  14. Iran. Nuclear crisis: the continuous compromise?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherief, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    The author comments and discusses the content and implications of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action which has been adopted in July 2015 by the Republic of Iran and the members of the E3/EU+3 group. According to this text, a flexible normative and institutional framework is defined, according to which negotiation must prevail on the reinstatement of economic sanctions. While significantly lowering objectives related to non proliferation, this plan aims (through various arrangements which are discussed by the author) at maintaining Iran under the threshold of nuclear power. The author also comments various aspects related to the implementation of this Plan of Action, and outlines that they rely on the search for a continuous compromise: negotiations and involvement of international bodies are foreseen before application of sanctions

  15. Iran: a (re)emerging energy power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchard, D.; Therme, C.

    2007-01-01

    This document first describes the energy situation in Iran: the energy sector is insufficiently developed due to a lack of investments and the prudence of foreign groups, while ambitious gas pipeline projects take place; however, the important domestic consumption reduces the country's exportation capacity. The second part discusses about the domestic and international political context that is not propitious for energy development (internal tensions that paralyse decision making, international sanctions, etc.) while Iran try to by-pass these difficulties through its relations with Russia and Asia. Several scenarios are then proposed, linked to the possible evolutions of the nuclear litigation

  16. DOE enforcement program roles and responsibilities: DOE handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Price-Anderson Act provides indemnification to DOE contractors who manage and conduct nuclear activities in the DOE complex. The government acts as an insurer for these contractors against any findings of liability from the nuclear activities of the contractor within the scope of its contract. 10 CFR Part 820 establishes the legal framework for implementing DOE's Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. Integration with other DOE organizations and programs would assure that the enforcement process properly considers the actual or potential safety significance of a violation when determining an appropriate enforcement sanction. Achieving a proactive contractor compliance assurance rather than a heavy enforcement hand, will require a foundation of cooperation and teamwork across DOE organizations. This handbook identifies the areas of interface for the DOE Enforcement Program and provides guidance on roles and responsibilities for the key DOE organizational areas. It complements DOE-HDBK-1087-95 and 1089-95

  17. Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-05

    evaluating their backgrounds according to constitutional requirements that a candidate demonstrate knowledge of Islam, loyalty to the Islamic...containment and missile defense strategies and with most U.S. and multilateral sanctions against Iran, including by selling more oil to the customers ... restaurants , and other civilian targets inside Israel. In recent years, however, Hamas has directly involved itself in Palestinian politics and its

  18. Restricted rights : Obstacles in enforcing labour rights of EU mobile workers in the German and Dutch construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ines; Berntsen, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that employers are violating the labour rights of EU mobile workers. However there is disagreement as to whether the enforcement problem is caused by poor EU-level or weak national-level possibilities for overseeing and sanctioning companies and enforcing regulation.

  19. 16 CFR 5.67 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.67 Sanctions. In the case of any...), the Commission may order such disciplinary action as it deems warranted, including: (a) Reprimand; (b...

  20. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ... adult criminal treatment among both Lagos and Enugu prisoners that summarized ... Keywords: Imprisonment, Sanctions, Crimes, Rehabilitation, Recidivism.

  1. 24 CFR 92.65 - Funding sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula Insular Areas Program § 92.65 Funding sanctions... assistance where any corrective or remedial actions taken under § 92.551 fail to remedy an insular area's...

  2. 42 CFR 1005.14 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hearing. Such sanctions will reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct... otherwise supporting a particular claim or defense; (3) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part; (4) Staying...

  3. 45 CFR 160.530 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The sanctions must reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. The... otherwise supporting a particular claim or defense; (c) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part; (d) Staying...

  4. 20 CFR 498.214 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. Such sanction may include— (1) In the case... claim or defense; (3) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part; (4) Staying the proceedings; (5...

  5. 42 CFR 3.530 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The sanctions must reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct. The... otherwise supporting a particular claim or defense; (c) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part; (d) Staying...

  6. 45 CFR 150.455 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... severity and nature of the failure or action. (b) A sanction may include any of the following actions: (1... or defense. (3) Striking pleadings, in whole or in part. (4) Staying the case. (5) Dismissing the...

  7. 49 CFR 31.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section. Any such sanction shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the failure or misconduct... upon, testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  8. 76 FR 72878 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Imposition of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Iran as a Jurisdiction of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network... Republic of Iran (``Iran'') is a jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern pursuant to 31 U.S.C... Act amends the anti- money laundering provisions of the Bank Secrecy Act (``BSA''), codified at 12 U.S...

  9. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  10. From imitation to implementation: How two- and three-year-old children learn to enforce social norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardecker, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Young children enforce social norms from early on, but little research has examined how this enforcement behaviour emerges. This study investigated whether observing an adult's norm enforcement influences children's own enforcement of that norm compared with observing an action demonstration without enforcement. Additionally, children experienced enforcement either following their own (second-party) or a third-party's transgression (N = 120). Results revealed that observing enforcement increased two- and three-year-old children's protest against the sanctioned action regardless of second- or third-party context. However, only three-year-olds generalized their enforcement to a novel action not matching the norm, whereas two-year-olds only protested against the previously sanctioned action. Importantly, without any enforcement demonstration, two-year-olds rarely protested at all while three-year-olds did so quite frequently. Thus, providing an opportunity to imitate enforcement seems to give rise to enforcement behaviour in two-year-olds while three-year-olds already understand normative implications following a variety of cues and even apply norm enforcement without any demonstration of how to do it. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Children conform to social norms from early in development. Young children from 2 to 3 years of age also enforce social norms on third parties. What does this study add? Observing enforcement by an adult increases two- and three-year-olds' protest against the sanctioned action. It does not matter whether children experienced enforcement on their own or a third party's action. Three-, but not two-year-olds, generalize their enforcement to novel actions that do not match the norm. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts: A Sociological Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are socially-constructed facts, the book explores the processes involved......Perhaps the most common question raised in the literature on coercive international sanctions is: "Do sanctions work?" Unsurprisingly, the answer to such a sweeping question remains inconclusive. Instead of asking whether sanctions work, this book addresses a more basic question: How do coercive......, and to its potential transformation. Thus it is premature to ‘predict’ the political effectiveness of sanctions simply on the basis of their economic impact. The book presents analyses of the sanctions conflicts between China and Taiwan and over Iran’s nuclear program, illustrating how negative sanctions...

  12. Getting to No (Nuclear Weapons) with Iran: Will Coercive Diplomacy Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    Pure Strategy: Power and Principle in the Space and Information Age (New York: Routledge, 2005), 6. 1...allow Iran to ease the pressure of sanctions. Finally, the United States must consider sanctions at the microeconomic level. The Iranian regime has...facility-qom-facility-enrichment (accessed 2 June 2013). Dolman,Everett C. Pure Strategy: Power and Principle in the Space and Information Age. New

  13. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, G A; Tenorio, R

    1996-02-01

    "We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income." excerpt

  14. Detrimental effects of sanctions on human altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Ernst; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2003-03-13

    The existence of cooperation and social order among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental problem in the behavioural sciences. The prevailing approaches in biology and economics view cooperation exclusively as self-interested behaviour--unrelated individuals cooperate only if they face economic rewards or sanctions rendering cooperation a self-interested choice. Whether economic incentives are perceived as just or legitimate does not matter in these theories. Fairness-based altruism is, however, a powerful source of human cooperation. Here we show experimentally that the prevailing self-interest approach has serious shortcomings because it overlooks negative effects of sanctions on human altruism. Sanctions revealing selfish or greedy intentions destroy altruistic cooperation almost completely, whereas sanctions perceived as fair leave altruism intact. These findings challenge proximate and ultimate theories of human cooperation that neglect the distinction between fair and unfair sanctions, and they are probably relevant in all domains in which voluntary compliance matters--in relations between spouses, in the education of children, in business relations and organizations as well as in markets.

  15. Analysis of Environmental Law Enforcement Mechanism Based on Economic Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjun; Shao, Haohao; Cai, Xuesen

    2017-11-01

    Strengthening and improving the environmental law enforcement mechanism is an important way to protect the ecological environment. This paper is based on economical principles, we did analysis of the marginal management costs by using Pigou means and the marginal transaction costs by using Coase means vary with the quantity growth of pollutant discharge Enterprises. We analyzed all this information, then we got the conclusion as follows. In the process of strengthening the environmental law enforcement mechanism, firstly, we should fully mobilize all aspects of environmental law enforcement, such as legislative bodies and law enforcement agencies, public welfare organizations, television, newspapers, enterprises, people and so on, they need to form a reasonable and organic structure system; then we should use various management means, such as government regulation, legal sanctions, fines, persuasion and denounce, they also need to form an organic structural system.

  16. 34 CFR 12.14 - What are the sanctions for noncompliance with a term or condition of a transfer or lease of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fair market rental value of the surplus Federal real property for each month during which the program... EDUCATIONAL PURPOSES Enforcement § 12.14 What are the sanctions for noncompliance with a term or condition of... used for purposes other than those in the approved program and plan of use, without the prior written...

  17. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    particular, will continue to play a vital role in determining the extent to which Iran is able to pursue WMD options. Without a fundamental change in the regional security environment, however, there is little reason to expect changes in Iranian WMD and missile policies, and the United States, acting alone and short of war, cannot prevent Iran from ultimately developing WMD and delivery systems. Furthermore, U.S. policies that take a tougher line with Russia, China and North Korea are not likely to lead to more restraint among these potential sources of WMD and missile technology. In the absence of engagement with Iran, unilateral U.S. economic sanctions will remain the principal, if flawed, U.S. policy tool for seeking to prevent Iran from acquiring WMD. The rationale is that by discouraging trade and investment, particularly in Iran's energy sector, the government of Iran will have less revenue to pursue proliferation. Without broad international support for economic isolation, however, such an effort may hinder Iran's WMD programs, though it cannot block them. Finally, options are needed to deal with major failures in nonproliferation efforts. These options include measures to deter Iranian use of WMD, to defend against their use if deterrence fails, and to destroy Iranian WMD capabilities should the need arise

  18. The Effects of Economic Sanctions on the Informal Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana M. PETRESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries often use economic sanctions to coerce other countries to change certain policies of which they do not approve. However, if sanctioned countries smuggle goods over the border, use informal financial intermediaries, and develop black markets to trade sanctioned goods, sanctions end up having a smaller impact, sanctioned countries have little incentive to modify their policies, and sanctions are more likely to fail. This paper is the first study to test empirically whether sanctions affect informality. I compile data from different studies about the size of the informal market for 147 countries over 46 years. I use these data to analyze the relationship between the size of the informal market adjusted by the size of the population and economic sanctions. I also estimate at the impact of economic sanctions on other activities associated with informal activities. I find that informal markets increase when a country is being sanctioned and the effects are larger when the economic sanction has strong international support. I also find that the type of sanction, trade or financial, is not an important determinant of the informal market size and that sanctions also lead to increases in robbery rates and corruption.

  19. Peer pressure on the riverbank: Assessing catch-and-release anglers' willingness to sanction others' (bad) behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guckian, Meaghan L; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J; Markowitz, Ezra M

    2018-08-01

    Given the well-documented impacts of angler behavior on the biological fitness of angled and released fish, optimizing the conservation value of catch-and-release angling hinges on the extent to which anglers are willing to adopt recommended best practices and refrain from harmful ones. One potentially powerful mechanism underlying adoption of best practices is the social pressure anglers can apply to one another to enforce community norms and values. Past work in other domains demonstrates that forms of interpersonal communication-including social sanctioning-can foster context-appropriate social norms and increase cooperative behavior; yet to date, little research has examined these dynamics in the context of species conservation. We conducted in-person and online surveys to explore the role of social sanctioning in the context of an internationally renowned wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fishery in British Columbia, Canada. We investigated how diverse social-psychological and demographic factors influence anglers' past and future sanctioning propensity. Results highlight that perceived capacity to influence the angling practices of others and professed concerns about one's own reputation were strongly predictive of both past and future sanctioning. Furthermore, while anglers reported relatively low-levels of past sanctioning behavior, most anglers simultaneously expressed a strong desire to sanction others in the future. Identifying ways to increase the social desirability and visibility of sanctioning actions could assist resource managers in promoting adoption and maintenance of best practices. More broadly, our findings underscore a significant yet underappreciated role for wildlife users and enthusiasts in cultivating a shared conservation ethic to help ensure biological conservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Blacklisting and the ban: contesting targeted sanctions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goede, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the practice of targeted sanctions as they are deployed against individuals and groups suspected of financing and facilitating terrorism in Europe. Substantial academic attention and critique has surrounded targeted sanctions and blacklists, as these practices challenge

  1. Experiments on unemployment benefit sanctions and job search behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Sadrieh, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on unemployment benefit sanctions. The experimental set-up allows us to distinguish between the effect of benefit sanctions once they are imposed (the ex post effect) and the threat of getting a benefit sanction imposed (the ex ante effect).

  2. 77 FR 11723 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Brokers, Foreign trade, Investments, Loans, Securities... Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') or any of its agents or affiliates whose property and...) Facilitates the efforts of the Government of Iran (including efforts of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard...

  3. Optimal unemployment insurance with monitoring and sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Fredriksson, P.; Holmlund, B.; van Ours, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the design of optimal unemployment insurance in a search equilibrium framework where search effort among the unemployed is not perfectly observable. We examine to what extent the optimal policy involves monitoring of search effort and benefit sanctions if observed search is

  4. Changes in Incentives, Rewards and Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Alan

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature over the past decade reflects substantial changes in rewards, incentives, and sanctions used with college faculty. These changes parallel changes in the public sector generally. Increasing emphasis on formal evaluation and on use of money as an incentive and reward for performance is noted. (MSE)

  5. Conflict and normative sanctions among Galapagos fishermen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arren Mendezona Allegretti; Jerry J. Vaske; Ryan. Finchum

    2012-01-01

    At the start of this century, aggressive fishermen retaliated against changes in fishing regulations in the Galapagos. To understand this conflict, we examined fishermen's norms regarding sanctions that the Galapagos National Park Service should use for: (a) fishing regulation violations, and (b) aggressive behavior by fishermen.

  6. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... established water pricing schedules of the Commission) of any such use, withdrawal or diversion, and invoke...

  7. 10 CFR 26.75 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... area of any nuclear power plant, within a facility that is licensed to possess or use formula... substance abuse. Sanctions for misuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs must be sufficient to deter... individual has violated the drug and alcohol provisions of an FFD policy. A licensee or other entity may...

  8. Addressing the impact of economic sanctions on Iranian drug shortages in the joint comprehensive plan of action: promoting access to medicines and health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setayesh, Sogol; Mackey, Tim K

    2016-06-08

    The U.S Congress initiated sanctions against Iran after the 1979 U.S. Embassy hostage crisis in Tehran, and since then the scope of multilateral sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union, and the United Nations Security Council have progressively expanded throughout the intervening years. Though primarily targeted at Iran's nuclear proliferation activities, sanctions have nevertheless resulted in negative public health outcomes for ordinary Iranian citizens. This includes creating vital domestic shortages to life-saving medicines, leaving an estimated 6 million Iranian patients with limited treatment access for a host of diseases. Sanctions have also crippled Iran's domestic pharmaceutical industry, leading to the disruption of generic medicines production and forcing the country to import medicines and raw materials that are of lower or questionable quality. Countries such as the United States have responded to this medical crisis by implementing export control exemptions with the aim of easing the trade of humanitarian goods (including certain pharmaceuticals and medical devices). However, despite these efforts, pharmaceutical firms and international banking institutions remain cautious about doing business with Iran, leaving the country faced with continuing shortages. We conducted a review of key characteristics of the Iranian drug shortage that identified 73 shortage drugs that closely tracked with the disease burden in the country. Additionally, 44 % of these drugs were also classified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization. A vast majority of these drugs were also covered under export control exemptions that theoretically should make them easier to procure, but nevertheless will still in shortage. Based on our review of the sanctions regulatory framework and key characteristics of the Iranian drug shortage, we propose policy intervention leveraging the recently negotiated P5 + 1 agreement that begins the process of

  9. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de informacin confidencial --> DEA NEWS The Drug Enforcement Administration and Discovery Education name grand winner of Operation ... JUN 15 (Washington) The United States Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA Educational Foundation and Discovery Education awarded Porter ...

  10. Have Sanctions Modified Iran’s Trade Policy? An Evidence of Asianization and De-Europeanization through the Gravity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Popova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is an empirical attempt to find out whether under sanctions Iran’s trade direction has shifted away from Europe (trade policy of de-Europeanization towards Asia (trade policy of Asianization. The analysis is conducted using a panel-gravity trade model to analyze bilateral trade pattern between Iran and 50 countries from the EU and Asia during the period 2006–2013. To this end, the authors use an extended gravity model by adding new variables, including the index of Chinn–Ito (KAOPEN as an indicator of financial openness, and the composite trade intensity (CTI as an indicator of trade openness. Our findings reveal that the gravity equation fits the data reasonably well. The empirical evidence indicates a significant negative effect of sanctions on Iran–EU bilateral trade (by an average of 46.9%, while it has a positive impact on trade between Iran and the Asian countries (by an average of 85.2%. Overall, these findings confirm that the imposition of various sanctions related to Iran’s nuclear program has pushed the country’s foreign trade to reorient away from Europe towards Asia.

  11. The state of the environment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekavat, S M

    1997-06-01

    This article describes environmental conditions in Iran including air pollution, pesticide pollution, soil depletion and erosion, water pollution, natural resource loss, lack of appropriate waste management, lead poisoning, and desertification. Environmental policy and implementation is described under the Shah and the Islamic Republic. Iran is beset with interrelated problems of environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, and population growth. Sustainability is being undermined at the cost of future generations. In 1995, Iran had a population of 67 million and a growth rate of 3.6%. Population is expected to exceed 100 million by the year 2000. The country is having difficulty in maintaining its current infrastructure, housing, food, and educational facilities. Competition for admission in higher education discourages women. Women with lower levels of education results in continued supremacy of men over women, more polygamy, and a lower quality of life for women. Iran was food self-sufficient in 1970, and exported its surplus. Today, Iran may be permanently dependent on food imports. Iran has abundant oil reserves, natural gas, copper, lead, and marketable items. Exchanging natural resources for food and technology has time and resource limits. Iran needs monetary assistance from wealthy nations. Population growth leads to increased demand for infrastructure and resources. Iran has signed many international environmental agreements and has enacted detailed environmental policies and regulations, but actual enforcement is lacking.

  12. Geopolitics. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters

  13. Geopolitics. Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, A.

    2009-09-15

    Two articles in the Geopolitics subject: (1) Even before Iran's presidential election, its oil and gas industries were struggling to meet the nation's energy needs and export aspirations. Following what some see as a thinly-veiled military coup, the outlook looks even bleaker - not just for the Iranian people, but for the global energy economy; (2) South Pars, is Iran's portion of the world's largest non-associated gas field. Shared with Qatar, which calls its portion the North Field, this immense geological structure holds over half of Iran's 27,000 bcm (billion cubic metres) of proved gas reserves. That is more than any country in the world, except Russia. With gas riches like these, it is no surprise that Iran has long harboured ambitions to become one of the world's major exporters.

  14. Do Reputation Systems Undermine Trust? Divergent Effects of Enforcement Type on Generalized Trust and Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Ko

    2015-03-01

    Research shows that enforcing cooperation using contracts or tangible sanctions can backfire, undermining people's intrinsic motivation to cooperate: when the enforcement is removed, people are less trusting or trustworthy than when there is no enforcement to begin with. The author examines whether reputation systems have similar consequences for generalized trust and trustworthiness. Using a web-based experiment simulating online market transactions (studies 1 and 2), he shows that reputation systems can reinforce generalized trust and trustworthiness, unlike contractual enforcement or relational enforcement based on repeated interactions. In a survey experiment (study 3), he finds that recalling their eBay feedback scores made participants more trusting and trustworthy. These results are predicated on the diffuse nature of reputational enforcement to reinforce perceptions of trust and trustworthiness. These results have implications for understanding how different forms of governance affect generalized trust and trustworthiness.

  15. Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    1999-01-01

    This study of municipal enforcement of agro-environmental regulations in Denmark provides an empirical understanding of how enforcement affects compliance. A key contribution is sorting out the relative influence of inspectors' different styles of enforcement and choices made by enforcement...... agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...

  16. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    and the police. This model makes predictions both about how drivers will adapt to changes in the amount of enforcement (the more enforcement, the less violations) as well as how the police will adapt to changes in the rate of violations (the less violations, the less enforcement). The paper attempts to test...... in the amount of enforcement. The predictions of the game-theoretic model were supported, although the results were not statistically significant in the model of how the police adapt enforcement to changes in the rate of violations....

  17. Economic Sanctions of the West and Russian Anti-sanctions: Success or a Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the work is the analysis of the consequences for Russian economy from the imposition of sanctions by Western countries. The paper discusses issues related to the effectiveness of the sanctions on South Africa, Iraq, and Haiti; the work presents the consequences of imposition of sanctions for Russian economy as a whole, as well as highlight the impact of the introduction of anti-Russian and Russian sanctions on two sectors: banking and food industry. The first was chosen because it is an indicator of what is happening in the economy since a funding stream from the west has been blocked. As for the food industry - it is expected that the introduction of the embargo of the product will allow Russian companies to realize their potential and lead to the development of this sector. The imposition of sanctions, the fall of the ruble, as well as the decline in oil prices had a negative impact on Russian economy and the continuation of the current situation can greatly slow down its development in the future. According to our analysis we can draw the following conclusions: the banking sector came under several attacks at once (the prohibition of monetary financing from the west, the growth of past due accounts, the policy of the Central Bank. The food sector has potential for growth, but there is a lack of clear boundaries for the period of sanctions (which does not allow companies to invest in the development of food industry considerable sums, and declining purchasing power due to a significant increase in inflation for the past 2 years. The imposition of sanctions, the fall of the ruble, as well as the decline in oil prices had a negative impact on the Russian economy and the preservation of the current situation in the international arena can greatly slow down its development in the future.

  18. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  19. Detrimental effects of sanctions on human altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst Fehr; Bettina Rockenbach

    2003-01-01

    The existence of cooperation and social order among genetically unrelated individuals is a fundamental problem in the behavioural sciences. The prevailing approaches in biology and economics view cooperation exclusively as self-interested behaviour— unrelated individuals cooperate only if they face economic rewards or sanctions rendering cooperation a self-interested choice. Whether economic incentives are perceived as just or legitimate does not matter in these theories. Fairness-based altru...

  20. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Obłój Jan; Abramczuk Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when ...

  1. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  2. Organizational Learning in Schools under Sanction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara S. Finnigan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus on “school turnaround” has become central to policy and practice in the United States as a result of school accountability, yet little remains known about school improvement under sanction. This study uses theories of organizational learning to understand the processes through which educators search for and adopt reform strategies, as well as the extent to which these schools’ organizational culture and climate are conducive to this type of learning. Our mixed methods study involves document analysis, intensive case studies, and a survey of teachers in schools under sanction in a large urban school district in the USA. We found limited evidence of organizational learning, and instead evidence suggested superficial use of restructuring planning, rare diagnoses of root causes of low performance, and limited engagement in learning processes of school staff. In addition, schools relied on exploitation resulting in the recycling of previous practices. In part, the limited organizational learning in evidence was the result of structures and climates within these low-performing schools that inhibited a more learning-oriented approach to reform. Our study has implications for school improvement under accountability policies as it uncovers important challenges that limit organizational learning and, as a result, school improvement under sanction.

  3. Smart Power: The United States, Iran, and a Nuclear Deal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    87Katzman, The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA), 1. 88Robert J. Einhorn, “Solving the Iranian Nuclear Puzzle,” Arms Control Association briefing, Carnegie ...114Catherine Dale , Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issue for Congress (Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service...fire-on-u-s-drone/ (accessed on September 28, 2013). Dale , Catherine. Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issue for

  4. Iran: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million.

  5. Environmental Enforcement Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Current statewide map of the geographic territories of Environmental Enforcement Officers. Part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's...

  6. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  7. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  8. The Impact of Economic Sanctions on Income Inequality of Target States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Mahadevan, Renuka

    that the imposition of sanctions have a deleterious effect on income inequality. Focusing on various sanction instruments, financial and trade sanctions were found to have different impacts on income inequality. Lastly, the adverse effect of the sanctions was more severe when sanctions span longer durations....

  9. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  10. Negative Impact of Article 98 Sanctions in the Western Hemisphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruiz, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    ... (SAOs) have been established; countries not signing an Article 98 agreement are subject to security assistance sanctions, to include the loss of International Military Education and Training (IMET...

  11. Financial Reporting Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Carsten

    the auditors’ auditing efforts, which are made in conjunction with the impact of the enforcement of auditors and limitations on the auditors’ liability. However, research indicates that strict enforcement is a prerequisite for ensuring compliance with accounting regulations (Hail and Leuz 2006, Daske et al...

  12. SANCTIONING DUPLICATION IN ADMINISTRATIVE AND PENAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Cabrera Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first approach from the point of view of jurisprudence, to the recurring problem of concurrency sanctions in cases where further intervention of the courts has become necessary for administrative action. In this regard, the main judgments of both the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court is, that have shaped the decisions that must be applied from the administrative level, in particular by educational inspectors, when it is foreseeable that it can produce a duplication of disciplinary procedures in the two areas, penal and administrative.

  13. 77 FR 66918 - Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... control number. List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 561 Administrative practice and procedure, Banking, Banks, Brokers, Electronic funds transfers, Financial institutions, Foreign banking, Foreign trade, International... chapter. Agents or affiliates of Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (``IRGC'') whose property and...

  14. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights... Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 562 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...--IRANIAN HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Subpart A--Relation of This Part to Other Laws and...

  15. 32 CFR 1656.11 - Job performance standards and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Job performance standards and sanctions. 1656.11... ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.11 Job performance standards and sanctions. (a) Standards of Performance. An ASW is..., appearance or performance violates reasonable employer standards; or (4) He quits or leaves his job without...

  16. Alcohol Use and Drinking Motives among Sanctioned and Nonsanctioned Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences in the relationship of drinking motives to drinking behavior among sanctioned and nonsanctioned 1st-year students (N = 298). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that for both sanctioned and nonsanctioned students, alcohol use was predicted by social and enhancement motives, and alcohol-related…

  17. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  18. Constitutionality of enforcement of claims by private enforcement agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodiroga Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this paper is legal status of private enforcement agents in Serbia. The 2011 Serbian Law on Enforcement and Security has introduced private enforcement agents as legal professionals in charge mainly for carrying out of the enforcement. Special enforcement procedure for collection of utilities and similar claims has become exclusive competence of private enforcement agents. Since enforcement procedure has always been regarded as a set of coercive measures against enforcement debtor, it became questionable whether this coercion could be exercised by private enforcement agents. It has been argued by legal scholars that enforcement of civil judgments and other enforcement deeds belongs only to the state authority. The author tackles this issue from the standpoint of decisions of constitutional courts and jurisprudence of European Court of Human Rights.

  19. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  20. Enforcement Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — EIS is an automated management information system that tracks the FAA’s enforcement actions on a nationwide basis. EIS is the FAA’s primary database for tracking...

  1. A History of the International Agreement on Iran's Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabius, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    In May 2012, in the aftermath of the French presidential election, Iranian nuclear program posed a major challenge concerning both regional security questions and global efforts to prevent nuclear proliferation. The situation was characterized by a diplomatic stalemate, sanctions and the concerning development of Iran's nuclear program. Many fear that Iran's current program development will warrant military intervention in an effort to prevent further success. France therefore decided to implement a policy of 'constructive firmness' in the hope of reaching a robust and verifiable agreement that shows real progress in the international effort to prevent Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons. The following text is an accurate account of the process leading up to this major agreement by one of its main actors

  2. Bilateral engagement amid geopolitics: A case of India and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available India’s engagement with West Asia including Iran has always been a balancing act hovering between economic necessities and strategic pursuits. The paper briefly traces the evolution of Indo-Iran engagements and also analyses their respective macroeconomic parameters. It also outlines and discusses three major geopolitical and geo-economic influences including sanctions on Iran, payment mechanism, and Iran’s business environment. Moreover, the issues pertaining to access to oil, transit route through Afghanistan and other trade facilitation measures have also been discussed. The paper also uses the revealed comparative advantage index to identify some potential areas of cooperation. Also, it argues that India needs to be more cautious and pragmatic in its strategic endeavours.

  3. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    particular, will continue to play a vital role in determining the extent to which Iran is able to pursue WMD options. Without a fundamental change in the regional security environment, however, there is little reason to expect changes in Iranian WMD and missile policies, and the United States, acting alone and short of war, cannot prevent Iran from ultimately developing WMD and delivery systems. Furthermore, U.S. policies that take a tougher line with Russia, China and North Korea are not likely to lead to more restraint among these potential sources of WMD and missile technology. In the absence of engagement with Iran, unilateral U.S. economic sanctions will remain the principal, if flawed, U.S. policy tool for seeking to prevent Iran from acquiring WMD. The rationale is that by discouraging trade and investment, particularly in Iran's energy sector, the government of Iran will have less revenue to pursue proliferation. Without broad international support for economic isolation, however, such an effort may hinder Iran's WMD programs, though it cannot block them. Finally, options are needed to deal with major failures in nonproliferation efforts. These options include measures to deter Iranian use of WMD, to defend against their use if deterrence fails, and to destroy Iranian WMD capabilities should the need arise

  4. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obłój Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

  5. Socially sanctioned coercion mechanisms for addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Edgar P; Birkmayer, Florian; Sullivan, Maria A; Galanter, Marc; Fromson, John A; Frances, Richard J; Levin, Frances R; Lewis, Collins; Suchinsky, Richard T; Tamerin, John S; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Coercion as a strategy for treatment of addiction is an effective but often negatively perceived approach. The authors review current policies for involuntary commitments and explore coercive dimensions of treating alcohol and drug dependence in the workplace, sports, and through professional licensure. Gender-specific issues in coercion are considered, including evidence for improved treatment retention among pregnant and parenting women coerced via the criminal justice system. Social security disability benefits represent an area where an opportunity for constructive coercion was missed in the treatment of primary or comorbid substance use disorders. The availability of third-party funding for the voluntary treatment of individuals with substance use disorders has decreased. This unmet need, coupled with the evidence for positive clinical outcomes, highlights the call for implementing socially sanctioned mechanisms of coercion.

  6. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  7. AN OVERVIEW ON AVERAGE SPEED ENFORCEMENT SYSTEM AND ROAD SAFETY EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    ILGAZ, ARZU; SALTAN, MEHMET

    2017-01-01

    Averagespeed enforcement system is a new intelligent transportation system applicationthat has gained popularity all over the world following Europe and Australiawhich is recently being applied in Turkey as well. The main task of the systemis measuring the average speeds of motorized vehicles for the purpose oftraffic sanctions. A literature survey related with average speed enforcementsystem was carried out in this study at an international scale. In addition toproviding a comprehensive summ...

  8. Student Day in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12......Om Studerendes Dag i Iran der blev markeret med demonstrationer og protester mod statens undertrykkelse af den pro-demokratiske studenterbevægelse i Iran. Udgivelsesdato: 6/12...

  9. Norm enforcement among the Ju/'hoansi Bushmen : A case of strong reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiessner, Polly

    2005-06-01

    The concept of cooperative communities that enforce norm conformity through reward, as well as shaming, ridicule, and ostracism, has been central to anthropology since the work of Durkheim. Prevailing approaches from evolutionary theory explain the willingness to exert sanctions to enforce norms as self-interested behavior, while recent experimental studies suggest that altruistic rewarding and punishing-"strong reciprocity"-play an important role in promoting cooperation. This paper will use data from 308 conversations among the Ju/'hoansi (!Kung) Bushmen (a) to examine the dynamics of norm enforcement, (b) to evaluate the costs of punishment in a forager society and understand how they are reduced, and (c) to determine whether hypotheses that center on individual self-interest provide sufficient explanations for bearing the costs of norm enforcement, or whether there is evidence for strong reciprocity.

  10. Public goods and voting on formal sanction schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Kamei, Kenju

    2011-01-01

    The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support the provision of public goods has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable of either resolving...... or exacerbating the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. We find that cooperative orientation, political attitude, gender and intelligence have a small but sometimes significant influence on voting....

  11. Public Goods and Voting on Formal Sanction Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Kamei, Kenju

    The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support public goods provision has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable both of resolving and of exacerbating...... the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. But despite uniform money payoffs implying common interest in those parameters, voting patterns suggest significant influence of cooperative orientation, political...

  12. Medical Science and Research in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Ebadifar, Asghar; Baradaran Eftekhari, Monir; Falahat, Katayoun

    2017-11-01

    During the last 3 decades, Iran has experienced a rapid population growth and at the same time the health of Iranian people has improved greatly. This achievement was mainly due to training and availability of health manpower, well organized public health network and medical science and research improvement. In this article, we aimed to report the relevant data about the medical science and research situation in Iran and compare them with other countries. In this study, after reviewing science development and research indicators in medical sciences with participation of key stakeholders, we selected 3 main hybrid indexes consisting of "Research and Development (R&D) expenditures," "Personnel in Science and Technology sector" and "knowledge generation" for evaluation of medical science and research situation. Data was extracted from reliable databases. Over the past decade, Iran has achieved significant success in medical sciences and for the first time in 2015 based on Scopus index, Iran ranked first in the number of published scientific papers and number of citations in the region and among all Islamic countries. Also, 2% of the world's publications belong to Iran. Regarding innovation, the number of Iranian patents submitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) was 3 and 43 in 2008 and 2013, respectively. In these years, the number of personnel in science and technology sectors including post graduate students, researchers and academic members in universities of medical sciences (UMSs) have increased. The female students in medical sciences field account for about twothirds of all students. Also, women comprise about one-third of faculty members. Since 5 years ago, Iran has had growth in science and technology parks. These achievements were attained in spite of the fact that research spending in Iran was still very low (0.5% of gross domestic product [GDP]) due to economic hardships and sanctions. Medical science and research development has

  13. 42 CFR 438.730 - Sanction by CMS: Special rules for MCOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sanction by CMS: Special rules for MCOs 438.730... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.730 Sanction by CMS: Special rules for MCOs (a) Basis for sanction. (1) A State agency may recommend that CMS impose the denial of...

  14. Decision-making in the Dark? - Autonomous EU Sanctions and National Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, the European Union (EU) has taken an active role in counter-terrorism. Amongst the EU’s counter-terrorist policies, sanctions (asset freezing) remain the cornerstone. The EU runs two different regimes of counter-terrorist sanctions: autonomous EU sanctions and EU sanctions

  15. Unsolved Problems of Iran's Nuclear Program And Prospects in the light of Role of Parties to an Entente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Jae San

    2009-01-01

    From past to present, Iran have been focused by international society and still have continued their enrichment activity despite of many sanctions. It is barely easy to solve this situation and to negotiate between related countries. Because there are many factors to influence this. New president of U.S. Barack Obama could be a great deal of factor for solving Iran's nuclear issue as well. From this point of view, following Iran's unsolved problems of nuclear program could be helpful to understand the situation and what the key point to solve it, and forecast the future with surrounding political and regional factors

  16. Why Border Enforcement Backfired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Durand, Jorge; Pren, Karen A

    2016-03-01

    In this article we undertake a systematic analysis of why border enforcement backfired as a strategy of immigration control in the United States. We argue theoretically that border enforcement emerged as a policy response to a moral panic about the perceived threat of Latino immigration to the United States propounded by self-interested bureaucrats, politicians, and pundits who sought to mobilize political and material resources for their own benefit. The end result was a self-perpetuating cycle of rising enforcement and increased apprehensions that resulted in the militarization of the border in a way that was disconnected from the actual size of the undocumented flow. Using an instrumental variable approach, we show how border militarization affected the behavior of unauthorized migrants and border outcomes to transform undocumented Mexican migration from a circular flow of male workers going to three states into an eleven-million person population of settled families living in 50 states.

  17. Iran and the nuclear: the Persian torments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, Francois

    2006-05-01

    The author addresses the Iranian nuclear crisis within an historic perspective, and states that this crisis has its roots in the recent Iranian history, but has deeper origins before the Islamic Revolution of 1979. In a first part, he draws a portrait of Iran by opposing current myths and realities like Persia and an actual ethnic diversity, an oil-based wealth in a context of under-development, tyranny and an actual political complexity. He also analyses the Iranian geo-strategy and its recent evolutions, the relationships and attitudes towards the three Satans (USA, France and Israel), and describes the main evolutions of the Iranian defence, notably after 9/11. The second part describes the long evolution of the Iranian nuclear programme, from its beginning at the time of the Shah, until now (projects, programmes and realities of the Iranian electronuclear industry), and recalls the different steps of the nuclear crisis between 2002 and 2006. The third part is a prospective one. The author discusses several aspects of the conflict (power balance, rumours and threats, sanctions and military scenarios, Iranian retaliation capacities) and discusses what a nuclear Iran would be (its capacities, its objectives, geo-strategic consequences of a nuclear Iran, and remaining opportunities for negotiations)

  18. 24 CFR 266.125 - Scope and nature of sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.125 Scope and nature of sanctions. (a) Actions by Designated...

  19. Achieving compliance when legal sanctions are non-deterrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Feld, Lars P.

    2006-01-01

    Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show that exog......Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show...... that exogenously imposing mild law does not achieve compliance, but compliance is much improved if mild law is endogenously chosen, i.e., selfimposed. We show that voting for mild law induces expectations of cooperation, and that people tend to comply with the law if they expect many others to do so...

  20. 45 CFR 681.31 - Are there sanctions for misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conduct of a hearing. (b) Any such sanction shall reasonably relate to the severity and nature of the... upon testimony relating to the information sought; and (4) Strike any part of the pleadings or other...

  1. Impact of US and EU Sanctions on Education and Healthcare

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    The differences in the opinion and perception of the sanctioning party and the ... innocent social groups such as children, women, the elderly and the sick ... However, in October 2016, the Mugabe regime paid off 15 years' worth of loan debt.

  2. Lessons From The EU-Russia Sanctions 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veebel Viljar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes and discusses the objectives of the sanctions implemented by the European Union against Russia and Russian countermeasures against EU member states in 2014-2015, by comparing the official aims with the options expressed in theoretical debates and experiences gained from historical lessons. In principle, the study seeks an answer to the question: what could be realistically achieved as a result of the current form of restricted sanctions and what stays beyond their reach. Methodologically, this article focuses on the evaluation of the ability of theoretical models to explain the logic of anti-Russian sanctions and debates the options of the outcomes of current formation of sanctions in light of theoretical models.

  3. China Sanctions for Missile Proliferation: A Bureaucratic Compromise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amand, Gerard A

    1994-01-01

    On 12 August 26, 1993, the State Department announced that the United States would impose sanctions against China for transferring missile technology to Pakistan in violation of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR...

  4. Economic Sanctions, Transnational Terrorism, and the Incentive to Misrepresent

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, NA; De la Calle, L; Hinkkainen, KH; McLean, EV

    2016-01-01

    Can economic sanctions combat transnational terrorism effectively? Policy makers argue that sanctions can deter state sponsorship but are counterproductive against hosts of transnational terrorists. However, recent cases indicate that governments are often uncertain if foreign states are truly sponsors versus hosts and cannot perfectly determine the type of foreign support terrorists are receiving. We argue that this uncertainty, coupled with the proposed strategy of punishing sponsors while ...

  5. Views of coal miners in South Africa on sanctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhe, H.; Schoeppner, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey conducted during 1987, of the attitudes of a sample of black, male coal miners working in 6 export-orientated mines in Transvaal and 3 in Natal. Both mines and miners were selected at random and nearly 1,000 interviews were conducted. The most significant findings are as follows: South African coal miners are largely satisfied with their conditions of work, above all with social benefits, safety standards and the relations amongst the workers themselves. Regarding improvements in their working conditions miners attach by far the greatest importance to the question of wages. Next on the list are improvements in accomodation and the abolition of apartheid. The issue of 'sanctions' is not debated very widely. More than two-thirds of polled miners had not heard of sanctions previously. Nevertheless, after an explanation of what the term means, a large majority of South African coal miners (70%) rejects sanctions. Only one-fifth (21%) is for sanctions. Three-quarters of miners polled believe that sanctions would hit them hard. Above all they mentioned the risk of losing their jobs (79%), life at home (75%) and a decline in wages (74%). 34% of coal miners would support sanctions if they were ultimately to lead to the fall of the South African Government. 26% if sanctions were to lead to the fall of the South African Government, but also to a loss of their own jobs. Most of the miners polled felt that the trade unions were representing them well. However, South African coal miners are insufficiently informed on supposed positions adopted by the trade unions on separate issues and this applies to trade union policy on sanctions as well. 72% of miners polled seek a government that shares power equally between black and white. Moderate means are proposed to attain such a government. Only a minority, the hard core comprising about 25% of the South African miners, seeks violent confrontation.

  6. The Effect of Sanctions on the Job Finding Rate: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper investigates the effect of sanctions of unemployment insurance benefits on the exit rate from unemployment for a sample of Danish unemployed. According to the findings are that even moderate sanctions have rather large effects. For both males and females the exit rate increases by more...... to sanctions than others. Finally, the analysis suggests that men react ex ante to the risk of being sanctioned in the sense that men who face higher sanction risk leave unemployment faster....

  7. What can Iran gain by having a nuclear weapons program that threatens to destabilize security in the Middle East?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz

    and a lot of neigh- bouring countries fear such a development for security reasons. But why is Iran following a nuclear path that may further destabilise the fragile security situation in the Middle East? It is to do with Iran’s own perception of security risks, its desire for greatness in the region......- bination with its important strategic location by the Strait of Hormuz, and supports various political groupings in and around Syria and Iraq to attract the attention of the United States of American in an attempt to become recognised as the most important player in the Middle East. Should Iran succeed...... in its brinkmanship and the outcome could be the lifting of the UN sanctions, international recognition, improved security, and even a possible end to internal political power struggles due to likely economic reforms post-sanctions. Much is at stake for Iran, but, if it succeeds, it could shift...

  8. Information report brought in the application of the article 145 of the regulation by the foreign affairs commission in conclusion of the works of an information mission constituted the 30 January 2008 (1), on Iran and the geo-political equilibrium in Middle East; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission des affaires etrangeres en conclusion des travaux d'une mission d'information constituee le 30 janvier 2008 (1), sur Iran et equilibre geopolitique au Moyen-Orient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This information report presents the Iran situation concerning the nuclear energy and its military program. It discusses in a first part the certainty concerning the military nuclear program. The second part is devoted to historical aspects of the today situation, the negotiations, the international sanctions and the Iran motivations. The third part presents the objective of the international community for the Iran: play a stabilizing role in the Middle East. (A.L.B.)

  9. Information report brought in the application of the article 145 of the regulation by the foreign affairs commission in conclusion of the works of an information mission constituted the 30 January 2008 (1), on Iran and the geo-political equilibrium in Middle East; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission des affaires etrangeres en conclusion des travaux d'une mission d'information constituee le 30 janvier 2008 (1), sur Iran et equilibre geopolitique au Moyen-Orient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This information report presents the Iran situation concerning the nuclear energy and its military program. It discusses in a first part the certainty concerning the military nuclear program. The second part is devoted to historical aspects of the today situation, the negotiations, the international sanctions and the Iran motivations. The third part presents the objective of the international community for the Iran: play a stabilizing role in the Middle East. (A.L.B.)

  10. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  11. Drug Enforcement Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet contains information relating to drug abuse and abusers; drug traffic legislation; law enforcement; and descriptions of commonly used narcotics, stimulants, depressants, and hallucinogens. Also included is a short but explicit listing of audiovisual aids, an annotated bibliography, and drug identification pictures. The booklet…

  12. Perceived Risks and Normative Beliefs as Explanatory Models for College Student Alcohol Involvement: An Assessment of a Campus with Conventional Alcohol Control Policies and Enforcement Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd F.; Thombs, Dennis L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a multivariate assessment of college student drinking motivations at a campus with conventional alcohol control policies and enforcement practices, including the establishment and dissemination of alcohol policies and the use of warnings to arouse fear of sanctions. Two explanatory models were compared:…

  13. Information report brought in the application of the article 145 of the regulation by the foreign affairs commission in conclusion of the works of an information mission constituted the 30 January 2008 (1), on Iran and the geo-political equilibrium in Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This information report presents the Iran situation concerning the nuclear energy and its military program. It discusses in a first part the certainty concerning the military nuclear program. The second part is devoted to historical aspects of the today situation, the negotiations, the international sanctions and the Iran motivations. The third part presents the objective of the international community for the Iran: play a stabilizing role in the Middle East. (A.L.B.)

  14. 78 FR 37664 - Identification of Entities Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Khomayen Road, Golpayegan, Iran; Web site http://www.gbpc.net [IRAN]. 8. GOLDEN RESOURCES TRADING COMPANY L...; Oshtorjan Industrial Zone, Zob-e Ahan Highway, Isafahan, Iran; Web site http://www.parsmcs.com [IRAN]. 23... INVESTMENT SERVICE), Assaluyeh, Iran; South Pars Special Economy/Energy Zone, Iran [IRAN]. 32. TADBIR...

  15. Certification/enforcement analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    Industry compliance with minimum energy efficiency standards will be assured through a two-part program approach of certification and enforcement activities. The technical support document (TSD) presents the analyses upon which the proposed rule for assuring that consumer product comply with applicable energy efficiency standards is based. Much of the TSD is based upon support provided DOE by Vitro Laboratories. The OAO Corporation provided additional support in the development of the sampling plan incorporated in the proposed rule. Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement, developed after consideration of various program options, benefits, and impacts, establishes the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy efficiency performance of covered consumer products. The results of the OAO analysis are given in Volume II of the TSD.

  16. When god sanctions killing: effect of scriptural violence on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Ridge, Robert D; Das, Enny; Key, Colin W; Busath, Gregory L

    2007-03-01

    Violent people often claim that God sanctions their actions. In two studies, participants read a violent passage said to come from either the Bible or an ancient scroll. For half the participants, the passage said that God sanctioned the violence. Next, participants competed with an ostensible partner on a task in which the winner could blast the loser with loud noise through headphones (the aggression measure). Study 1 involved Brigham Young University students; 99% believed in God and in the Bible. Study 2 involved Vrije Universiteit-Amsterdam students; 50% believed in God, and 27% believed in the Bible. In Study 1, aggression increased when the passage was from the Bible or mentioned God. In Study 2, aggression increased when the passage mentioned God, especially among participants who believed in God and in the Bible. These results suggest that scriptural violence sanctioned by God can increase aggression, especially in believers.

  17. Unsolved Problems of Iran's Nuclear Program And Prospects in the light of Role of Parties to an Entente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Jae San [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    From past to present, Iran have been focused by international society and still have continued their enrichment activity despite of many sanctions. It is barely easy to solve this situation and to negotiate between related countries. Because there are many factors to influence this. New president of U.S. Barack Obama could be a great deal of factor for solving Iran's nuclear issue as well. From this point of view, following Iran's unsolved problems of nuclear program could be helpful to understand the situation and what the key point to solve it, and forecast the future with surrounding political and regional factors.

  18. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...

  19. Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jurenas, Remy

    2005-01-01

    .... economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

  20. State or nature? Endogenous formal versus informal sanctions in the voluntary provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamei, Kenju; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the endogenous formation of sanctioning institutions supposed to improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. Our paper parallels Markussen et al. (Rev Econ Stud 81:301–324, 2014) in that our experimental subjects vote over formal versus informal sanctions......, but it goes beyond that paper by endogenizing the formal sanction scheme. We find that self-determined formal sanctions schemes are popular and efficient when they carry no up-front cost, but as in Markussen et al. informal sanctions are more popular and efficient than formal sanctions when adopting...... the latter entails such a cost. Practice improves the performance of sanction schemes: they become more targeted and deterrent with learning. Voters’ characteristics, including their tendency to engage in perverse informal sanctioning, help to predict individual voting....

  1. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  2. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent...

  3. 76 FR 62607 - Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1189(a)) or support for acts of international terrorism (as defined... terrorism. (3) PENALTIES.--The penalties provided for in subsections (b) and (c) of section 206 of the... the concept of ``transactions or other financial services provided'' by a foreign financial...

  4. 42 CFR 460.40 - Violations for which CMS may impose sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Violations for which CMS may impose sanctions. 460... for which CMS may impose sanctions. In addition to other remedies authorized by law, CMS may impose any of the sanctions specified in §§ 460.42 and 460.46 if CMS determines that a PACE organization...

  5. 42 CFR 423.756 - Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BENEFIT Intermediate Sanctions § 423.756 Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money... civil money penalties. 423.756 Section 423.756 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... sanctions have been imposed, CMS may require a Part D plan sponsor to market or to accept enrollments or...

  6. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  7. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eMann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  8. 42 CFR 422.752 - Basis for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... money penalties. 422.752 Section 422.752 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Sanctions § 422.752 Basis for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties. (a) All... sanctions at 422.750(a)(1) and (a)(3). (c) Civil Money Penalties. (1) CMS. In addition to, or in place of...

  9. Health physics education and training in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohrabi, M.

    1996-01-01

    Health physics education and training (HPET) are close counterparts for an effective enforcement of radiation protection (RP) regulations and development of an advanced RP infrastructure in a country. The related history in Iran dates back to over 30 years ago advancing towards promotion of a 'Sustainable Training Program' (STP) through programs such as academic courses, intensive courses, research, on-the-job training and media training. The STP has been effective in development of an advanced national infrastructure for effective enforcement of regulations in different applications and provision of self-sustained national services. In this paper, the elements of a long-term national STP are discussed with a hope it could act as a model in developing countries. (author)

  10. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  11. Sacred values and conflict over Iran's nuclear program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Dehghani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conflict over Iran's nuclear program, which involves a US-led policy to impose sanctions on Iran, is perceived by each side as a preeminent challenge to its own national security and global peace. Yet, there is little scientific study or understanding of how material incentives and disincentives, such as economic sanctions, psychologically affect the targeted population and potentially influence behaviour. Here we explore the Iranian nuclear program within a paradigm concerned with sacred values. We integrate experiments within a survey of 1997 Iranians. We find that a relatively small but politically significant portion of the Iranian population believes that acquiring nuclear energy has become a sacred value, in the sense that proposed economic incentives and disincentives result in a ``backfire effect'' in which offers of material rewards or punishment lead to increased anger and greater disapproval. This pattern was specific to nuclear energy and did not hold for acquiring nuclear weapons. The present study is the first demonstration of the backfire effect for material disincentives as well as incentives, and on an issue whose apparent sacred nature is recent rather than longstanding.

  12. How effective are unemployment benefit sanctions? Looking beyond unemployment exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near

  13. How Effective are Unemployment Benefit Sanctions? Looking Beyond Unemployment Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of benefit sanctions, i.e. temporary reductions in unemployment benefits as punishment for noncompliance with eligibility requirements. In addition to the effects on unemployment durations, we evaluate the effects on post-unemployment employment

  14. Cohort Default Rates: Predicting the Probability of Federal Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the institutional factors associated with student loan default. When a college has more than 30% of its students default on their loans, then the institution faces federal sanctions that could make them ineligible from participating in the federal student loan program. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System…

  15. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT....C. 1001. (b) A failure to report to the Commission in a timely fashion as required by this part is a...

  16. 24 CFR 92.618 - Performance reviews and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance reviews and sanctions. 92.618 Section 92.618 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92...

  17. 42 CFR 438.700 - Basis for imposition of sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.700 Basis for imposition of... among enrollees on the basis of their health status or need for health care services. This includes termination of enrollment or refusal to reenroll a recipient, except as permitted under the Medicaid program...

  18. Knowledge of Legally Sanctioned Discipline Procedures by School Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Susan J.

    Principals, teachers, and counselors in 15 Indiana high schools were interviewed to determine what procedures they believed were required in various disciplinary actions, and what authority they believed had sanctioned these procedures. The interviewees came from small, medium, and large schools in rural and urban settings. Nearly 71 percent of…

  19. Stable and Enforceable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2011-01-01

    Since the great financial crash, the need for new fiscal rules to prevent unsustainable fiscal policies is universally recognised. In practice such rules, including those in the Stability and Growth Pact, have proved to be impossible to enforce. Thus, to avoid unsustainable fiscal policies...... reappearing, and to prevent monetary policy from being undermined by undisciplined governments, there is a need for a framework capable of imposing fiscal discipline. This paper considers an intertemporal assignment, where fiscal policy focuses on long-term objectives and monetary policy on short...... which the debt targeting regime should operate. Making these factors explicit would both improve the credibility of planned fiscal policies and reduce risk premia on borrowing costs. We finally show how Europe’s competitiveness pact, and debt restructuring operations, can be used to maximise...

  20. Iran’s Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Toyota (Japan), Kia Motors (South Korea), Proton ( Malaysia ), and Chery CRS-22 89 EIU, “Country Profile 2007: Iran,” 2007, p. 45. Prime Vista Research...Background The 1979 Islamic revolution changed Iran’s modern political and economic history . Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and his supporters transformed Iran...heating during one of the coldest winters in recent Iranian history . Turkmenistan has since resumed supplying gasoline to Iran. Foreign Involvement in

  1. Where is Iran going

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  2. Oversight and enforcement at DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, I.E., Christopher, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses recent changes to the independent oversight and enforcement programs within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and applications to criticality safety. DOE's Office of Oversight (Oversight hereafter), in the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH), independently evaluates whether management systems ensure adequate protection of the worker, public, and environment. Oversight has adopted a new approach to performing evaluations based on the guiding principles for safety management identified by the Secretary of Energy. The principles Oversight evaluates are line management responsibility for safety and health, comprehensive requirements, and competence commensurate with responsibilities. Recently, the DOE codified the implementation of integrated safety management, further expounding on these basic guiding principles and Oversight's role. The Office of Enforcement and Investigations in EH (Enforcement hereafter) is responsible for enforcement, and relevant documents describe its role. This paper briefly discusses criticality safety aspects of the twin initiatives of Oversight and Enforcement

  3. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    cant non-compliance and exogenous constraints on nes and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit di erentiation of inspection rates based on compliance history. In particular, we use state-dependent enforcement to induce rms...... to self-report excess extraction. We show that such system increases the e ectiveness of quota management by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an ecient allocation of aggregate extraction. In addition......Quotas or permits are frequently used in the management of renewable resources and emissions. However, in many industries there is concern about the basic e ectiveness of quotas due to non-compliance. We develop an enforcement model of a quota-regulated resource and focus on a situation with signi...

  4. How does Iran negotiate? Diplomatic bazaar or the Iranian art of negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordes, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    As Iran is using a speech building designed to save time while making the evolutions of its nuclear programme less unacceptable, the author proposes an analysis of the Iranian approach and practice of negotiations, its rhetoric and its staging. She first outlines some cultural, religious, political and ideological backgrounds. Then, she highlights the main objectives of Iran: to face sanctions and restrictions on the short term, while keeping technological gains and know-how on the long term. In the last part, the author identifies some methods and subterfuges used by Iran like a toolbox: principle of 'argumentum ad nauseam', disinformation, manipulation and concealment, use of various problematics to digress, and use of multiple channels of discussion

  5. All Eyes on Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2009-01-01

    Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10......Review Article. I artiklen anmeldes fem nye bøger om Irans præsident Ahmadinejad og om den Islamiske Republiks atomprogram. Udgivelsesdato: 1/10...

  6. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  7. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  8. HSIP Law Enforcement Locations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Law Enforcement Locations Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law Enforcement agencies "are publicly...

  9. 75 FR 60485 - NRC Enforcement Policy Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2008-0497] NRC Enforcement Policy Revision AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is publishing a major revision to its Enforcement Policy (Enforcement Policy or Policy) to...

  10. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Study on Chinese Impact on Economic Sanctions against North Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jinhwan; Ryu, Jiyong

    2011-01-01

    As the U.S. and South Korea expressed solidarity in blaming North Korea for its attack on the South Korean warship Cheonan and in imposing further sanctions on North Korea, global attention is now focused on China with regard to whether it will cooperate in inflicting punitive measures on its ally. Despite the worsening cleavages between China and North Korea since October 2006 when the latter tested its nuclear weapons, this study shows that their relations has remained robust in the economi...

  14. Syria: effects of conflict and sanctions on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser

    2013-06-01

    The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.

  15. Sanctions and the struggle for health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, H M

    1999-10-01

    This commentary describes the role of a major antiapartheid health organization, the National Medical and Dental Association (NAMDA), in reinforcing and maintaining international pressure on the racist South African government. NAMDA was a constituent of the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM), which was at the forefront in the struggle for freedom in South Africa. NAMDA endorsed the programs of the banned African National Congress (ANC), which included a range of sanctions. Debates within NAMDA on enlarging sanctions into an academic boycott are summarized. The development of a policy of selective academic support, which approved academic exchanges in accord with the aims of the MDM, is explained. Indirect evidence shows that international pressures created by specific types of economic sanctions and the forms of academic boycott decided on by NAMDA achieved their objectives. I have highlighted the tension between these strategies, which resulted in the isolation of the apartheid regime, as well as the responsibility to protect the most vulnerable from the burdens that resulted from these policies.

  16. Antitrust Enforcement and Marginal Deterrence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.; Wen, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: We study antitrust enforcement in which the fine must obey four legal principles: punishments should fit the crime, proportionality, bankruptcy considerations, and minimum fines. We integrate these legal principles into an infinitely-repeated oligopoly model. Bankruptcy considerations

  17. Conservation Law Enforcement Program Standardization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rogers, Stan

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate goal of standardization is to develop a safe and effective program that is recognized within the USAF, DoD, and by other Federal and state law enforcement agencies, and the general public...

  18. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    2014-01-01

    -compliance and exogenous constraints on fines and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit differentiation of inspection rates depending on compliance history. We use differentiated inspections to induce firms to self-report excess extraction....... This system increases the effectiveness of the quota by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an efficient allocation of extraction. In addition, inspection costs can be reduced without reductions in welfare.......Quotas are frequently used in the management of renewable resources and emissions. However, in many industries there is concern about their basic effectiveness due to non-compliance. We develop an enforcement model of a quota-regulated resource and focus on a situation with significant non...

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Financial Private Regulation and Enforcement

    OpenAIRE

    MILLER, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper has been delivered within the context of the research project "Transnational Private Regulatory Regimes: Constitutional foundations and governance design". This paper considers the topic of private regulation and enforcement for internationally active financial services firms. The paper documents the following types of regulation and enforcement that involve significant private input: house rules, contracts, internal compliance, management-based regulation, private standard-sett...

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Unlearned History: The Ineffectual Application of U.S. Broad Economic Sanctions Against Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    17 Dursun Peksen and A. Cooper Drury , “Coercive or Corrosive: The Negative Impact of Economic Sanctions on Democracy,” International...20 Peksen and Drury , “Coercive or Corrosive,” 244. 21 Hufbauer et all, Economic Sanctions Reconsidered, 67...Summary_Killings.pdf. 28 Dursun Peksen and A. Cooper Drury , "Economic Sanctions and Political Repression: Assessing the Impact of Coercive Diplomacy on

  3. The Size of the Sanction Should Depend on the Weight of the Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that society should vary the sanction applied to acriminal defendant with the weight of the evidence against him or her.This is optimal when it is costly for society to apply sanctions, since it canyield the same degree of deterrence while requiring fewer resources to bespent on ...... sanctions on people, who have committed the sameoffense, and that the legal system will lose legitimacy if it allows sanctionsto vary in the way suggested....

  4. 29 CFR 42.6 - Enforcement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Enforcement strategy. 42.6 Section 42.6 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.6 Enforcement strategy. (a) Each Regional Farm Labor... enforcement strategy for each protective statute pursuant to § 42.20(c)(3). The National Committee shall...

  5. Law Enforcement of Consumer Protection for Safe Food Packaging in The Decisions of Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryani, F.; Herwastoeti; Najih, M.; Haris, A.

    2017-04-01

    The right to a safe food is a human rights protected by the 1945 Constitution and legislation, including the Health Act, the Consumer Protection Act and Food Act. The law governing the rights and obligations of consumers; rights, obligations and responsibilities of businesses, as well as prohibitions and sanctions for businesses that violate. Food consumers aggrieved can file a non-litigation legal action and / or litigation. Non-litigation legal efforts made through negotiation or mediation or through Consumer Dispute Resolution Body (BPSK). The litigation efforts made by filing a lawsuit for damages to the court and / or reporting the case to the criminal law enforcement. This study specifically examines the enforcement of criminal law in the judgment as a safeguard against food consumers. Sanctions provisions setting a strategic role in an effort to make the protection of consumers of food. Patterns general formulation of the maximum penalty in the third Act is not appropriate because it too gives flexibility for the judge to make a decision as low to the Defendant. Facts on society, business agent has a dominant and strong position compared with consumers of food. These favorable conditions business agent position and vice versa less give legal protection to the Consumer Food. Preferably the pattern formulation penalty of criminal acts in the field of food using a specific minimum and maximum public.

  6. Iran's Influence in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Iran is building substantial influence in post-Saddam Iraq, in large part because the dominant parties in Iraq have long-standing ideological, political, and religious sectarian ties to Tehran. A key U.S...

  7. Iran approaches CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Members of Parliament from the Islamic Republic of Iran visit SM18. From left to right : Ali Mojtahed-Shabestari, Deputy Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Geneva, Diether Blechschmidt, from CERN, Abdol-Rahim Baharvand and Hossain Amiri, from the Iranian Parliament, Norbert Siegel, from CERN, Hossain Afarideh, Rasool Seddighi and Ahmad Shirzad from the Iranian Parliament. Five members of the Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran visited CERN for three days at the beginning of May. All of them have PhD's in Physics, as well as holding their job in politics. They are involved in legislation for science, research and education funding in Iran. Apart from their interest in CERN in general, they were especially attracted to the CMS detector, since an Iranian contribution to the LHC is now starting through a collaboration with the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics in Tehran.

  8. Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kerr, Paul K

    2008-01-01

    .... Indeed, the UN Security Council has responded to Iran's refusal to suspend work on its uranium enrichment and heavy-water nuclear reactor programs by adopting several resolutions, most recently...

  9. LAW ENFORCEMENT OF THE BANDUNG REGIONAL REGULATIONS ON THE ORDERLINESS, CLEANLINESS, AND THE BEAUTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesmil Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Number of sidewalk vendors in Bandung has reached 11,000 with no decline in growth according to the survey conducted by Indonesian University of Education/ Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI in collaboration with Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Daerah (Bappeda or regional development planning agency Bandung. Sidewalk vendor is one of the main contributors to the dirtiness and traffic congestion in Bandung. Bandung has passed a Regional Regulation Numbered 3 and 5 about Cleanliness, Orderliness and the Beauty to prevent and to build the  sidewalk vendors. However, lack of legal awareness and law enforcement may constrain the effectiveness of the regulation. Those regulations are particularly Bandung Regional Regulation Numbered 4/ 2011 concerning sidewalk vendors in which imposing high fine sanction not only for the seller but also for the buyer to prevent them from violating those regulations. To analyze the the compliance level of society and the effectiveness of fine sanction for the violation of regulations, this research used juridical normative approach and comparative method by comparing the regulation in Bandung with other Regional regulations related to sidewalk vendors in other cities in Indonesia such as in Surakarta and Surabaya. This research found that the law enforcement to the violation of sidewalk vendors regulation in Bandung city is not optimum due to lack of awareness to obey the law. The criminal sanction such as fine and forced fees are not able to prevent the violation of sidewalk vendors regulations. This research suggest that The Regional government of Bandung City: (1 needs to find a right model to keep sidewalk vendors in order by looking at the characteristics of the society and its social culture; (2 needs to search for a way to increase society’s compliance to any policies made by the government; and (3 needs to revise the current regulation

  10. Iran's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boureston, J.; Marvin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Iran's nuclear program is discussed, activity of enterprises connected with the nuclear industry of the country is evaluated. IAEA initiated inspection of some industrial sites with the aim of data acquisition about nuclear developments of Iran. Uranium ore mining and reducing to small size, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment, fabrication of nuclear fuel, production of plutonium: plant of heavy water production, spent fuel reprocessing are discussed [ru

  11. Why Iran proliferates

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Iran and the United States have faced each other across a deep divide ever since the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the events of the American Embassy Hostage crisis. The absence of diplomatic relations between the two nations has led to a lack of communication which has resulted in difficulties crafting successful policies to build bridges between the two governments. The specter of Iran's quest for nuclear weapons casts a further pall on the troubled relations. Case studies of historical ex...

  12. Voting over law enforcement: Mission impossible

    OpenAIRE

    İnal , Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Median voter theorem has been used in many economic environments including law enforcement. Assumptions of the median voter theorem, however, are generally violated in lawenforcement models. Moreover, it is impossible to have agents with "opposite equilibrium preferences" over enforcement levels in law enforcement models. These limitations on the use of preferences over law enforcement raises questions about the robustness and validity of law enforcement models.

  13. Influence of economic sanctions on the development of Russian tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irek Ilgizarovich Ziganshin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the influence of economic sanctions on the current state of the Russian tourist market. Methods analysis and synthesis historicallogical and economicstatistical methods. Results the presanction condition of the tourist market is compared with its current condition. The problem aspects of the Russian tourist sector are shown. The complex estimation is given to the tense situation in the Russian tourist market. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used for tourism arrangement and predicting the entrance and exit tourist flow. nbsp

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. 76 FR 63191 - Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Sudan or Iran--including vitamins and minerals, food additives and supplements, and bottled drinking... minerals, food additives and supplements, and bottled drinking water, and seeds that germinate into items... than fish and shrimp roe), dried egg albumin, live animals, Rosary/Jequirity peas, non-food-grade...

  10. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russillo, Victor

    2003-01-01

    ..., comprehensive policy toward Iran. Iran has concerned the US due to its support for terrorist organizations, its efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction, its attempts to export the Islamic Revolution...

  11. 78 FR 29813 - Identification of Additional Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... interests in property of the Government of Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United..., or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by... instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran; (b) Any person owned or controlled, directly or...

  12. 78 FR 33470 - Identification of Six Individuals Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Government of Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United States, that hereafter come..., including the Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by, or acting for or on behalf of... Central Bank of Iran; (b) Any person owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by the foregoing; and (c...

  13. 78 FR 12420 - Identification of Additional Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the... Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by, or acting for or on behalf of, the Government... any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran; (b...

  14. 78 FR 57001 - Identification of Persons Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... in property of the Government of Iran, including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United..., or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran, and any person owned or controlled by... instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran; (b) Any person owned or controlled, directly or...

  15. Respon Iran Terhadap Film Argo

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Nidya; Pakpahan, Saiman

    2017-01-01

    This research discusses Iran's response to the political thriller movie Argo and how the movie represents Iranians. Argo movie was launch in October 2012 focusing on an exfiltration mission in Iran by the CIA, which is based on true events in 1979 when the Islamic Revolution broke in Iran. Iranian in 2012 was shocked by Argo's Iranian depiction that was deem by president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad ‘anti Iranian' and American propaganda. Iran further their accusation when Argo receive the prestigious...

  16. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States. The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic products, analyzed Russian car market, the dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The results of import substitution - the balances of trade of consumer goods in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014. Dynamics of demand for electronic goods in the paper discusses the example of the effect of price changes in the popular Russian companies (Apple, Sony, etc. to sales. Rising prices for electronic goods has led Apple to a Giffen’s paradox in late 2014, the higher the price - the more sales. Despite the rapid rise in prices for the company's products (price of products apple Nov. 25 rose by 25% on December 22 for another 35%, sales growth was 80%. This is due to the fact that Russian consumers feared further rise in price of goods and the goods were afraid to lose, which has become for many of them a necessity. Car loans in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014 decreased by 4 times, car sales fell by 2 times, import cars from abroad fell almost 2-fold. Especially hard hit small businesses. If in 2013 in Russia was opened 490.7 thous. legal entities, and closed 419 thousand. Then for 11 months in 2014 opened 417.5 ths. legal entities and closed down 483.6 thousand. This means that if in 2013 opening of 70 thousand legal persons more, in 2014 almost 70 thousand legal persons shut more than open. Statistics show that the number of people wishing to sell his business in 2014 increased significantly. In Moscow, for example, in 2014, it was filed with the 14.5 times the

  17. About Sanctions and the Hybrid Nature of Modern Insurance Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Cousy (Herman)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Traditionally, insurance contract law was characterised by radical punitive sanctions, governed by an 'all-or-nothing' logic. This logic has changed as a result of an incorporation of a consumerist approach: more and more, punitive sanctions, have been replaced by

  18. Sanctions as a tactic used in partner conflicts: theoretical, operational, and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev; Smadar-Dror, Ronit

    2015-07-01

    Partner sanction in this study is a form/tactic of violence, much like verbal and physical violence, which partners use toward each other during their conflicts. The partner sanction embodies a temporary deprivation of a mutually agreed-on right. The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical and operational framework of sanctions partners use. The study sampled 74 heterosexual couples from the general population (148 male and female participants). The findings support the validity and reliability of the sanction measurement. Furthermore, findings indicate that the use of sanctions between partners is highly prevalent among men and women in the general population; that the more one partner uses sanctions, the more the other partner uses it; and that sanctions are strongly associated with other violent tactics partners use in their conflict (i.e., verbal and physical). Theoretical and empirical implications of the theoretical framework and the findings are discussed, including the role of sanctions in partner conflicts that escalate to severe forms of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. An expanding culture of control? The municipal administrative sanctions Act in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Bruinsma, G.; Van, der Beken T.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth study of the Act on Municipal Administrative Sanctions 1999 (MAS), which is the first major piece of legislation regulating antisocial behaviour in Belgium. MAS provides municipalities with an instrument to sanction antisocial behaviour and conduct perceived to

  20. 42 CFR 422.756 - Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... civil money penalties. 422.756 Section 422.756 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Sanctions § 422.756 Procedures for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties. (a) Notice of... money penalties—(1) CMS notice to OIG. If CMS determines that an MA organization has failed to comply...

  1. 42 CFR 422.750 - Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money... § 422.750 Types of intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties. (a) The following intermediate... organization. (b) CMS may impose civil money penalties as specified in 422.760. [72 FR 68725, Dec. 5, 2007, as...

  2. 42 CFR 423.752 - Basis for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... money penalties. 423.752 Section 423.752 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... BENEFIT Intermediate Sanctions § 423.752 Basis for imposing intermediate sanctions and civil money.... (iii) Medical social work. (iv) Administrative services. (b) Suspension of enrollment and marketing. If...

  3. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelley, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    .... These sanctions and U.S. attitudes and perceptions were based on objectives driven by the Cold War and as such are outdated and overtaken by events. The sanctions should be lifted and diplomatic ties once again established both to support United States goals in the region and for quality of life improvements for Cuba.

  4. Deterrence's Element of Sanction Certainty: Friendships, Vicarious Experiences, and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Thomas J; Boman, John H

    2018-01-09

    Underage drinking remains a pressing issue on college campuses across the United States. Though the most common form of addressing underage alcohol use on campuses is through deterrence-based policies, evidence suggests deterrence-based methods are ineffective and may produce negative outcomes. Using dyadic data, the objective of this study is to use a friendship-informed perspective on deterrence theory to examine how an individual's and his/her friend's perceptions of sanction certainty relate to self-reported underage alcohol use. Using multilevel mixed models which fall under the actor-partner interdependence modeling class, results demonstrate that respondents who perceive high levels of sanction certainty drink and heavily use alcohol more frequently than those who perceive low levels of sanction certainty. Additionally, those who have friends who perceive high levels of sanction certainty tend to drink at young ages significantly more frequently and in more dangerous patterns than those who have friends who perceive a low sanction certainty. The dyad members' levels of sanction certainty do not interact in relation to alcohol use. The significant relationships of the friends' sanction certainty support the notion of friendship-based deterrence. However, the consistent positive direction of all sanction certainty measures is the opposite of what deterrence theory hypothesizes. As such, it appears that deterrence is not only ineffective at stopping underage alcohol use on college campuses, but may be harmful due to increased rates of both drinking and high-risk drinking.

  5. Effects of reputational sanctions on the competitive imitation of design innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines whether and under what conditions reputational sanctions are a strong deterrent to imitative firm behaviour. Results indicate that reputational sanctions can be an effective barrier to imitation, in particular when firms perceive a reputation for innovation to be a factor in

  6. School Social Workers Sanctioned by State Departments of Education and State Licensing Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Prom, Kim; Alvarez, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the unprofessional conduct of school social workers who have been sanctioned by state regulatory boards (boards of education and licensing boards). The data represent information from 14 states and the District of Columbia. Results indicate that school social workers are rarely sanctioned at the…

  7. The Impact of War and Economic Sanction on the Incidence of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovich, Derek; Langeggen, Irene

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the distribution of various types of visual impairments among Serbian children who were born prior to the imposed economic sanctions and wars of the 1990s in the former Yugoslavia to that of children who were born during the years of economic sanctions and active war. (Contains 2 tables.)

  8. Optimal enforcement of competition law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motchenkova, E.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recent theoretical developments in the field of antitrust law enforcement, much still needs to be done in order to prevent collusion and price-fixing in the major indiustries. Although penalties were recently increased considerably and new instruments of cartel deterrence such as

  9. Nuclear cardiology in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakavi, R.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is one of the most active branches of nuclear medicine and plays important role in diagnosis in treatment of CAD patients. Few nuclear cardiology surveys were published in the literature, mostly from developed countries. A nuclear cardiology survey in Iran and analysis of the findings in comparison with other countries may lead to better decision making and improve practice in our country. A questionnaire was sent by mail or e-mail to all nuclear medicine centers in Iran asking for details of nuclear cardiology practice. Also ownership of the centers, number of gamma cameras and number of cardiac studies in each week were recorded. Some centers were studied using telephone interview. From 79 nuclear medicine centers in Iran, 55 centers (69.6%) filled the questionnaire including 28 centers in Tehran and 27 centers in other cities. There was 69 Gamma cameras in these centers, 62.3% with SPECT capability. It is estimated that we may have 100 gamma cameras in Iran. This study showed that about 68287 cardiac studies were done in Iran each year with Myocardial perfusion scan accounting for about 99 2% of the studies. Considering population of the country nuclear cardiology activity will be about 1.05 study/1000/year. Regarding radiotracers used, about 13.5% of studies were done with T I-201, with some centers using only Tc- 99 m-M I B I

  10. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  11. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  12. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  13. Generational Accounting in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Salehi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study of the generation accounts for Iranian’s generation. We applied the method of Auerbach, Gokhale and Kotlihoff (1991 on the period 1967-2008 in Iran. Our calculation shows with compare to industrial countries, fiscal burden for Iranian’s population is very chip and that depend on fiscal system in Iran. Except the recent years the rate of tax in Iran has been very low. The generation account for the old people (40 olds is 2117 $ but the future generation (t+1 is 36985 $. The share of male and female, during the years, in this burden is similar. Fiscal burden for Iranian’s generation is low but this population should support other burden that calls inflation. Because when the government do not receive the tax income, a low generation account transfer to price general level.

  14. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although contemporary criminal law accepts the system of subjective criminal liability for a committed crime, numerous European legal documents as well as criminal laws, especially those that have been adopted lately, envisage exceptions from this system. Thus, a new form of criminal liability is being introduced: objective liability based on the causation. One of the forms of objective liability is the criminal liability of legal entities, which has been considered disputable for a long time. Obviously, legal entities cannot be held accountable for all types of criminal offences. They cannot be held liable on the grounds of legal provisions regarding mental competence and culpability (as the elements of subjective criminal liability, nor can they be imposed all types of criminal sanctions recognized in criminal legislation in general. In their new or revised criminal legislation, many countries have recognized and inagurated the objective criminal liability of legal persons for committed criminal offences alongside with the predominant system of subjective liability (based on the perpetrator's mental competence and culpability. It is indisputable that some legal entities (such as state authorities cannot be prosecuted and held liable in criminal proceedings; consequently, there are some exemptions from criminal liability (particularly when it comes to the state and state bodies, but it does not exclude criminal liability of responsible officials (natural persons for causing the consequences of a criminal offence. Due to the specific character of legal and contractual capacity of legal entities, law in general and criminal legislations in particular prescribe special legal grounds for establishing criminal liability of legal entities, which differ from the subjective liability of a natural person (perceived as a conscious and reasonable human being acting on his/her own free will where the consequence of a criminal offence is a result of one

  15. The Redistributive Impact of Restrictive Measures on EU Members: Winners and Losers from Imposing Sanctions on Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    EU sanctions on Russia created concerns among its members. It is well known that sanctions impose a cost on their targets as well as on the senders, as lamented by European governments, but the costs of EU sanctions on its members have not been fully explored. This article intends to fill this gap

  16. [History of acupuncture in Iran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xinghua

    2015-10-01

    Iran is the neighbor of western China, and is a key transport junction on ancient Silk Road. The medical communication between China and Iran dates back to the 10th century, however, according to current evidences, it is indicated that acupuncture has not been introduced to Iran until the early 1970s. Unfortunately over the last 40 years, the acupuncture in Iran has not presented great development. The history of acupuncture development in Iran implies that geographical advantage and personnel exchanges are not essential to the international exchange of acupuncture, while language and cultural background may hinder the spread of acupuncture in foreign countries.

  17. Public education and enforcement research study (PEERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2001, the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) and the Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) established the Public Education and Enforcement Research Study (PEERS) to test the effectiveness of various education and enforcement (E&E) techniques to i...

  18. GAMING LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROBLEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and techniques of gaming as they apply to the study of law enforcement problems in general, and to show how gaming may assist in identifying and overcoming some of the major pitfalls in law enforcement planning. (Author)

  19. LDC nuclear power: Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1982-01-01

    The Islamic Revolutionary Government has eliminated what had been an ambitious program to install 23,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 1984, but the program has already become unpopular before the downfall to the Shah for economic reasons. Iran originally planned a domestic nuclear program to diversify its energy base and satisfy Western demands to recycle petrodollars, but substantial commissions for foreign contracts were also a factor. No comprehensive study of a nuclear program has been done to determine if there is a nuclear future for Iran. 8 references

  20. Iran, a gas exporter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the gas sector has not allowed, up to now, Iran to become one of the main gas actors, whether it is on the regional or international market. This under-development of the gas sector finds expression, each winter, through the Iranian incapability to satisfy its domestic demand as well as its exportation commitments to Turkey or Armenia. In this study, the author tries to examine the origins of Iranian difficulties to increase its gas production and to abide by its commitments to export gas to other countries. The possibility of gas exportation from Iran to the European Union is also discussed

  1. 20 CFR 655.50 - Enforcement process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement process. 655.50 Section 655.50... FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for... Workers) § 655.50 Enforcement process. (a) Authority of the WHD Administrator. The WHD Administrator shall...

  2. 78 FR 69133 - Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances..., California 94085, made application by renewal to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to be registered... Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration. [FR Doc. 2013-27486 Filed 11-15-13; 8:45 am] BILLING...

  3. 76 FR 76192 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0273] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear... licensees, vendors, and contractors), on proposed revisions to the NRC's Enforcement Policy (the Policy) and...

  4. Employee perceptions of protected area law enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Wynveen; Robert D. Bixler; William E. Hammitt

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that criminal activity negatively impacts visitors? recreation experiences in the nation?s parks and forests (Fletcher 1983). To further understand how law enforcement can effectively manage criminal activity in protected areas, this study was designed to describe law enforcement and non-law enforcement rangers? perceptions of a range of law...

  5. 50 CFR 600.740 - Enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enforcement policy. 600.740 Section 600... § 600.740 Enforcement policy. (a) The Magnuson-Stevens Act provides four basic enforcement remedies for... and its catch. (4) Criminal prosecution of the owner or operator for some offenses. It shall be the...

  6. 12 CFR 411.410 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 411.410 Section 411.410 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Penalties and Enforcement § 411.410 Enforcement. The head of each agency shall take such actions as are necessary to ensure that...

  7. 75 FR 69573 - Export Enforcement Coordination Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Export Enforcement Coordination Center By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and... enforcement of United States export control laws and enhanced intelligence exchange in support of such enforcement efforts, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Export controls are critical to...

  8. The effect of enforcing some direct tax law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Regarding to the role of tax in the economy as the most stable and constant source of income and also due to the fact that there was no success in achieving fiscal goals by the government during its economic and developmental programs, paying attention to and making effort in this domain is regarded as a necessity in any country. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of enforcing Article 181 of Direct Tax Law on extent of taxpayers’ satisfaction, increase of trust, increase of tax compliance or decrease of tax evasion in Isfahan, Iran. The present study consists of a main hypothesis and four sub-hypotheses. Data were collected from 100 companies regarding their performance during 200 years. Article 181 of Direct Tax Code was implemented upon these companies over the period 2006-2011. Hypotheses of the study were evaluated. The results of the study, in survey and post-event pivot, showed that enforcing Article 181 of Direct Tax Law in Isfahan was effective. However, its effect was not significant regarding increase of taxpayers’ familiarity and acquaintance with Tax Office and its functions in Isfahan; it increased tax compliance, decreased tax evasion by the taxpayers, increased taxpayers’ satisfaction and helped them trust on Tax Office and its performance.

  9. Assessment of the economic sanctions influence on the Russian banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara F. Zakirova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the impact of economic sanctions on the key indicators of the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks of the Russian Federation by comparing them to the indicators of nonsanctioned credit institutions. Methods logical method method of comparative analysis statistical methods method of graphic images. Results the article examines the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. The sanctions affecting the Russian banking system are presented in chronological order. It is stated that the negative impact of the Western sanctions on the banking system is not denied. The authors analyze scientific works devoted to the effect of sanctions on Russian banks. The analysis revealed the absence of comprehensive studies of the effect of sanctions on the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks. For this assessment the authors analyzed the performance indicators of six sanctioned and six nonsanctioned Russian banks with the largest assets. It is proved that economic sanctions led to deterioration of the financial results of the sanctioned banks increased their dependence on the domestic interbank market and the funds from Bank of Russia. Other changes were mainly due to the overall economic situation internal policies of banks and the policy of the Bank of Russia not the sanctions. nbsp Scientific novelty the article for the first time basing on the comparative analysis of the main performance indicators of the sanctioned and nonsanctioned banks proved the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. However despite the banking sector adaptation to the existing conditions through their reorientation to the domestic market it should be noted that a certain tension ensuring the longterm liquidity is still preserved. The cost of the available longterm resources to be attracted remains relatively high which influences the financial results of the banking sector. Therefore without

  10. Vil USA angribe Iran?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2007-01-01

    Sammen med Mogens Lykketoft, Søren Espersen og Herbert Pundik stilles Rasmus Chr. Elling en række spørgsmål om hvordan Vesten bør handle ift. Irans atomenergiprogram og om faren for et amerikansk angreb på den islamiske republik....

  11. Bam Earthquake in Iran

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Following their request for help from members of international organisations, the permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran has given the following bank account number, where you can donate money to help the victims of the Bam earthquake. Re: Bam earthquake 235 - UBS 311264.35L Bubenberg Platz 3001 BERN

  12. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  13. Iran: what nuclear sanctuary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viaud, P.

    2010-01-01

    The author continues his study of Iran and its implicit nuclear strategy by showing us the three circles of sanctuary that it contains. He shows to what extent this country, with its strong and ancient geopolitical identity, has managed to restore its rank at the centre of the geostrategic and geo-economic chessboard of the region. (author)

  14. Iran's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebneyousef, M.H.; Bogart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that during the past several years Iran's potentials have been forgotten or ignored by the outside world mainly due to misconceptions, fears, and political concerns attributed to the religious overtone. The intention of the authors is to introduction to the new realities of regional, as well as global geopolitics and the main political and economic aspects of Iran's huge and growing petroleum industry. The fact of the matter is that in the rapidly changing world order the need for a true stability in the region and a global cooperation has been recognized by Iran. The country, with a population of 60 million, is now preparing itself for the major political and economic role thrust upon the nation by the socio-economic changes in the integrating Europe; the outcome of the Iran-Iraq and the Persian Gulf wars, including the likely instability of the autocratic governments of Arab states of the region; the breakup of the former Soviet Union; and market changes in the Far East

  15. Economic sanctions as human rights violations: reconciling political and public health imperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, S P

    1999-10-01

    The impact of economic sanctions on civilians has frequently been studied by public health specialists and specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN). This commentary explores some of the difficulties of the claim that sanctions constitute violations of human rights. The deprivation suffered by civilian populations under sanctions regimes often are violations of economic, social, and cultural human rights; however, the attribution of responsibility for those violations to the "senders" of sanctions (the UN Security Council or the US government, for example) is difficult to sustain, particularly in light of the efforts made by these entities to provide for humanitarian exemptions and humanitarian aid. A more productive approach to avoiding civilian harm is to prefer, as a matter of policy, arms embargoes, severing of communications, and international criminal prosecutions over trade embargoes. Promising recommendations have been formulated regarding "smart sanctions," which target regimes rather than people, and "positive sanctions" in the form of incentives. Health and human rights professionals have specific and important tasks in implementing such a restructured approach to sanctions.

  16. 76 FR 72756 - Finding That the Islamic Republic of Iran Is a Jurisdiction of Primary Money Laundering Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (``FinCEN''), Treasury. ACTION... that the Islamic Republic of Iran is a jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern. DATES: The... PATRIOT Act''), Public Law 107-56. Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act amends the anti- money laundering...

  17. THE FUTURE OF IRAN-CHINA RELATIONS: AN ALLIANCE OR PURE COOPERATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Dolatabadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of the Iranian political relations with other countries  especially China in the post-nuclear-agreementera is of serious  importance in the Iranian foreign policy in the Rouhani  administration. Despite turbulences in the relations of the two  countries in recent years, theirs have been stronger than the trade  relations between Iran and western countries. For this reason, the  shift from ordinary to strategic relations between Iran and China is  attracting serious attention in the political circles in Iran. The  supporters argue for the present and future stance of China in the  international society and its constructive role during the western- imposed sanctions against Iran. The opponents refer to the poorer  Chinese technology as opposed to their Western rivals and to  ambivalent and at time anti-Iranian stances Beijing adopted in the  Iranian nuclear problem. The question this paper seeks to answer is  whether there is a possibility of the promotion of the relations of the  two countries in future and the possible obstacles in the way.

  18. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  19. Where is Iran going; Ou va l'Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This second meeting on the problem of the nuclear activities in Iran, aims to evaluate the new situation of crisis presented by the iranian uranium enrichment programs. Three round tables were organized on the subject: the nuclear problem in Iran, the evolution of the political and economical situation and the human rights, the Iran on the international scene with the Hezbollah, the energy challenge, the russian-iranian relations. (A.L.B.)

  20. The nuclear agreement between the P5+1 and Iran: real progress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitt, Bernard

    2013-11-01

    The joint plan of action signed on the 24 November 2013 by the P5+1 and Iran is good news, and all the States parties to this document have expressed their satisfaction. This 'mutually agreed long-term comprehensive solution' - as it is repeatedly referred to in the preamble - constitutes a concrete materialisation of the softening of Iran's position since the election of Hassan Rouhani as the country's president (with the approval of the Supreme Guide Ali Khamenei). This plan of action was adopted after nearly eleven years of a crisis that was interrupted on one occasion only by the Paris Agreement signed on the 15 November 2004 between the EU3 and Iran (whose chief negotiator at the time was Hassan Rouhani), and which took a more radical turn following Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's accession to power. But this text, written in the conditional tense, is not strictly speaking an agreement. It is rather an agreement on the substance of a future agreement, albeit a precise and detailed one. Negotiations will be carried out over an initial six-month period, and a second phase will finalise a full agreement at most one year on from the adoption of the joint action plan. It is also underlined that this agreement will be an indivisible whole: nothing will be agreed unless everything is agreed. The limitations that Iran is prepared to accept on its nuclear programme would appear to be substantial: the retention of half of its stock of 20%-enriched uranium to produce fuel for the Teheran Research Reactor and the dilution of the other half to no more than 5%; no increase in its existing enrichment capabilities, but it will continue its research and development practices in this field; the suspension of the construction of the Arak heavy-water reactor; no reprocessing; and enhanced monitoring of nuclear activities by the IAEA. In exchange, no new sanctions or crude oil embargoes will be imposed; existing sanctions on petrochemical products and services will be suspended; and

  1. Iran's Sea Power Strategy: Goals and Evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, John

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the intent of Iran's sea power strategy using a multipart analysis including a historical review of the transition of Iran's naval power through the Iranian Revolution, Iran-Iraq...

  2. Scientometrics on Public Health Research in Iran: Increase of Area Studies despite Embargoes? A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreau, Brice

    2017-03-01

    Due to embargoes and sanctions from 1979 until 2015, impact on scientific research in Iran may be critical. Public health is the main example of this burning point. In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research in public health in Iran until 2014 with area studies as well as networks of countries involved. We used bibliographic analyses using VOS viewer software for network analysis during the period 1975-2014. Two databases were used: Web of Science and PubMed. We performed analyses of journals, authors, publication years, organizations, funding companies, countries, keywords and Web of sciences Categories. We accessed 862 articles published between 1991 and 2014, the majority of published after 2008. The main countries of research were Iran, the United States of America, England, and Sweden and represented the main network collaboration. The main Web of Sciences categories was public, occupational and environmental health, medicine general internal and parasitology. We accessed 25462 publications on PubMed database from 1950 to 2014. The majority of published after 2004. The main area studies were prognosis, wounds and injuries, soil solutions and biological markers. Public health research in Iran has been developed since 2004. The chief field was emerging cardiovascular diseases and communicable diseases. Other biotechnological fields were emerging such as biological markers research. Iran provides structures to face up with its new challenges using networks of countries such as the USA, England, and Sweden. End of embargoes could provide new perspectives for public health research and more largely scientific research in Iran.

  3. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  4. SANCTIONS WHICH OCCUR AS A CONSEQUENCE OF NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGALITY IN THE PENAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALIN IONUT ONCESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The legality principle represents a frame principle since its interaction with the other principles exceeds the simple connection with those. The legality represents the frame within and with the compliance with which all the other fundamental principles of the penal trial are realized. No other principle can be placed outside thelegality, in same way in which any principle, no matter how important it may be, does not occur in any other way than according to the forms stipulated by law.Taking into consideration that the enforcement of the law is mandatory in criminal law procedures, as well as the obvious significance of the penal trial’s principle oflegality, it was absolutely necessary for the compliance with this principle to be doubled by numerous guarantees which, in the situations in which this fundamental rule has been violated, would become genuine sanctions referring not only to the procedural acts achieved with the law’s violation, but also to the people who have not complied with the law as far as the procedural penal activities’ unfolding is concerned.

  5. 78 FR 11950 - Identification of Entities and Vessels Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...; Telephone (356)(21241232) [IRAN] Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 42. SINA SHIPPING COMPANY...; MMSI 572449210 (vessel) [IRAN] Linked To: NATIONAL IRANIAN TANKER COMPANY. 93. SINA (9HNY9) Crude Oil...

  6. Iran's role in the Caspian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enav, Peter

    1999-08-01

    Contains Chapters on: The Central Asian pipeline puzzle; What's at stake - Central Asian oil supply and world oil demand to 2015; Non-Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports - assessing the alternative; Iranian outlets for Central Asian hydrocarbon exports; Iran's hydrocarbon development strategy - in conflict with Central Asia? US policy and Iran; Iran and the Russian role in Central Asia; The Iranian impact on Central Asian hydrocarbon development. (Author)

  7. Royal-Dutch Shell in Russia and Western Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Kurilev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on research based on three crucial aspects of the current global economic situation. First is the role of transnational corporations (TNCs in establishing and constructing international cooperation at the supranational level. Second is the policy of sanctions against Russia in connection with the situation in Ukraine. And third is the cooperation of Royal Dutch Shell with Russia’s Gazprom despite the political, economic and technological sanctions imposed on Russian companies and economic sectors.Analyzing Shell’s policy on the Russian energy market should reveal some kind of the managing principle that not only Shell but most TNCs follow in taking the political atmosphere into consideration, while striving to avoid any related restrictions. The research methodology uses analytical, ultimate analysis and functional methods. The analytical method helped to lay the theoretical foundation of the research. Modern TNCs are deeply engaged in the process of economic globalization. To expand their influence, such companies create economic conditions for organizing international production with local markets and for international markets for capital, labour, and scientific and consulting services. The ultimate analysis method revealed the following pattern: in struggling for the global market, TNCs raise the level of competition, which creates a permanent need for technical innovations and scientific progress. The functional analysis method demonstrated a casual relationship in modern economic development: by assisting capital turnover and labour and transport mobility, TNCs contribute significantly to economic growth and development. The first part of the article focuses on the history and methodology of the genesis and development of TNCs as actors in global economic relations. It also reviews the current role of TNCs in the global economy. The second part of the article examines the cooperation between Shell and Gazprom

  8. Starvation of children in Syria--sanctions and the politics of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi

    2014-01-01

    As Syria completes two years of western sanctions (2011-13), their dramatic effects on health are being highlighted with first reports of starvation deaths among children in the suburbs of Damascus. Although heavy fighting has taken place in this area, experts had predicted for some time the unworkability of sanctions for regime change, arguing that only civilians would pay the price in a country (Syria in this case) which was once well on the way to meeting the Millennium Development Goals 4 targets on reducing child mortality. In this, as in the case of other "sanctioned" countries, it is not just "civilians" but the most vulnerable among them--children, who are experiencing the tragic consequences of sanctions.

  9. 42 CFR 1001.1001 - Exclusion of entities owned or controlled by a sanctioned person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1001 Exclusion of entities owned or controlled by a sanctioned person... adoptive parent; child or sibling; stepparent, stepchild, stepbrother or stepsister; father-, mother...

  10. 77 FR 47922 - Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General Licenses Related to the Burma Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general licenses. [[Page 47923

  11. 24 CFR 92.552 - Notice and opportunity for hearing; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Performance Reviews and Sanctions § 92... opportunity for hearing that a participating jurisdiction has failed to comply with any provision of this part...

  12. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental... Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published... California submitted the ``South Coast Air Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the...

  13. Ukrainian defense industry under economic sanctions is within the Russia's interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andreyevich Mal’gin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze a correlation between the Russian and the Ukrainian militaryindustrial complexes MIC as well as to determine possibilities for product substitution under economic sanctions. nbsp Methods analysis and synthesis statistical abstract logic methods. Results аn interdependence of Ukrainian and Russian militaryindustrial complexes is revealed the role of economic sanctions as one of the important instruments and twoedged instruments of foreign policy is shown the means of acceleration of development of defenseindustrial complex of Russia are proposed. Scientific novelty the article proves that the Ukrainian defenseindustrial complex under economic sanctions represents serious threat to Russian militaryindustrial complex. The most effective ways of substituting the Ukrainian defense production by the Russian production are determined. Practical value the proposed measures for substituting the Ukrainian military production by the Russian production will under economic sanctions contribute to Russia39s further strengthening of militaryindustrial complex and the enhancement of operational capability of its armed forces. nbsp

  14. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  15. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades' worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  16. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed almost two decades worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  17. Iran's Nuclear Program: Recent Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Squassoni, Sharon

    2006-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections since 2003 have revealed two decades worth of undeclared nuclear activities in Iran, including uranium enrichment and plutonium separation efforts...

  18. Regional Investment Policy Under The Impact Of Budget Limitations And Economic Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Avramenko, Yelena S.; Vlasov, Semyon V.; Lukyanov, Sergey A.; Temkina, Irina M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of research on the impact which budget limitations and economic sanctions have had on regional investment policy External sanctions and sluggish economic growth have affected the social and economic development of the region. Relying on the results of comparative and statistical analysis, the article demonstrates the need for altering the focus of current investment policy from quantitative growth to qualitative enhancement. The article analyses a new trend i...

  19. 78 FR 30397 - Identification of Entity Pursuant to the Iranian Transactions and Sanctions Regulations and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ..., including the Central Bank of Iran, that are in the United States, that hereafter come within the United... Government of Iran, any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank... political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof, including the Central Bank of Iran; (b) Any...

  20. Conceiving IVF in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Tremayne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 19th century the Iranian state has been concerned with the size of its population, and policies directed to its increase or decrease have been closely involved with the purpose of nation building. None of these policies have been particularly successful, except for the effective family planning campaign of the 1980s that led to a remarkable drop in population growth, which currently stands at 1.3 per annum, below the replacement level. However, all the policies have failed to address the issue of infertility, which is widespread in Iran. It was against the background of such oversight that, from 1987, some pioneering physicians introduced IVF practices to the country and engaged with the Islamic jurists, whose endorsement of infertility treatment through IVF was deemed crucial to give the practices legitimacy. This article explores the process by which assisted reproductive technologies were legitimized in Iran in all their forms and which have placed the country in the lead among the Muslim countries in the Middle East in this respect. Within Iran, following the state’s latest pronatalist policies, assisted reproductive technologies have been acknowledged as a means to help the state meet its new ambition of higher population growth.

  1. Sanctioning international protection applicants for choosing the country of asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Mozetič

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Major disparities in the regulation and application of international protection exist among EU member states. Therefore, applicants for international protection want to choose the state where they lodge an application. Instead of harmonizing law on international protection, member states sanction applicants for international protection who lodge an application in the preferred member states and not in the one responsible under the Dublin III Regulation. According to the New International Protection Act, implementing EU procedural directive, it may be assumed that an applicant implicitly withdrew her/his application, if s/he left the asylum home without authorisation, and in that case the procedure is discontinued. If an applicant lodges a subsequent application after more than nine months or more than once, her/his application will possibly not be subject of a substantial examination.In order to prevent ”asylum shopping” EU allows for the possibility that some applicants, who would be entitled to refugee status or subsidiary protection, are never granted such protection. However, this is contrary to the principle of non-refoulement as developed in the case-law of the ECtHR and the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia. Mechanisms that aim to prevent ”asylum shopping” may be contrary to the well-established principles of human rights protection, unfair or unreasonable and affect the most marginalized applicants for international protection.

  2. Enforcement and Compliance History Online | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  3. OSHA Enforcement, Industrial Compliance and Workplace Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ann P. Bartel; Lacy Glenn Thomas

    1982-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a three-equation simultaneous model of OSHA enforcement behavior, industrial compliance and workplace injuries. The enforcement equation is based on the assumption that OSHA acts as a political institution that gains support through the transfer of wealth from firms to employees; the empirical results are largely consistent with this notion. Contrary to previous work, we find that OSHA enforcement efforts have, indeed, had a statistically significant impact on in...

  4. Iran's nuclear lies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Beyond the antiaircraft gun emplacements and the early-warning radar systems, and shortly before you get to the high concrete walls topped with concertina wire that surround Iran's Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, there's a large sign announcing that the facility Welcomes guests. Like so much about die Iranian nuclear program, die signals are incongruous, contradictory and more then a little sinister. If Iran is to be believed, then the world has nothing to fear from its nuclear program. The United States, Europe, Israel, Saudi Arabia and other oil producers nearby can rest easy, because the ayatollahs have no plans to threaten the region with atomic weapons or put nukes in the hands of terrorists. If Iran is to be believed, its only goal, repeated countless times, ratified in treaties and open to inspections, is to develop a completely independent ability to make nuclear ir fuel and use it to generate electricity. But neither die United States nor Eu rope nor the United Nations is ready simply to believe Iran, at least not easily, and not without verification. Its record of concealment and deceit about its nuclear program goes back at least 20 years. Its extensive uranium-enrichment program was uncovered in detail only two years ago; its promise of 'full disclosure' and 'transparency' since then has been something considerably less. The election of a new hard-line Iranian president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, last month raises still more questions about how far Tehran can be trusted about its nuclear programs, if at all. Iran's concealments have been as vast as a secret underground facility at Natanz that was being readied for 50,000 centrifuges to enrich uranium when it was exposed in 2002. They have seemed as small as some undeclared milligrams of plutonium from a research laboratory. In a cat-and-mouse game reminiscent of the lead-up to the Iraq invasion in 2003, the Iranians have claimed to be cooperating while throwing up what often seem to be petty obstacles in front

  5. Laboratory quality stepwise implementation tool: National reference TB laboratory of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Naghi Kebriaee; Donya Malekshahian; Mojtaba Ahmadi; Parissa Farnia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: During recent years, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed new software for improving the tuberculosis (TB) laboratory services. The protocol is known as “quality stepwise implementation tool” and is based on enforcement of quality assurance services through accreditation by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189. As a national reference TB laboratory (NRL) of Iran, the benefit and challenges of implementing this standard were analyzed....

  6. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?; Iran: reforme, revolution ou resignation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  7. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  8. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  10. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  11. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Environmental Protection Agency's Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) website provides customizable and downloadable information about environmental...

  12. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.107 Facilitating enforcement. Water vehicles operating in manatee sanctuary or refuge...

  13. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  14. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  15. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  16. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  17. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  18. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  19. Notification: Audit of EPA's Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training's Law Enforcement Availability Pay Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY18-0075, November 30, 2017. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research on the EPA Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics and Training's (OCEFT's) law enforcement availability pay (LEAP) reporting.

  20. Five Common Cancers in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolandoozan, Shadi; Sadjadi, Alireza; Radmard, Amir Reza; Khademi, Hooman

    Iran as a developing nation is in epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. Although, cancer is the third cause of death in Iran, ifs mortality are on the rise during recent decades. This mini-review was carried out to provide a general viewpoint on common cancers

  1. Natural gas industry in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvar, Hedayat

    2010-09-15

    Iran holds the second largest gas reserves in the word with over 27.5 trillion cubic meters (TCM) of natural gas. Due to lack of geological surveys in certain geographical regions in Iran, it is likely to explore further reserves in the future.

  2. How to Enforce European Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service of the Eu......This article explores the well known saga of the European Court of Justice’s introduction of direct effect of Council directives on basis of new comprehensive archival research. The expansion of the doctrine of direct effect to include directives was part of a drive of the Legal Service...... of the European Commission and the ECJ to strengthen the enforcement of European law. This threatened the deeper balance of competences between the European Community and its member states and consequently led to a sharp response from the national parliaments and courts. The force of these responses and the deep...

  3. Distributed Enforcement of Service Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Autili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern service-oriented systems are often built by reusing, and composing together, existing services distributed over the Internet. Service choreography is a possible form of service composition whose goal is to specify the interactions among participant services from a global perspective. In this paper, we formalize a method for the distributed and automated enforcement of service choreographies, and prove its correctness with respect to the realization of the specified choreography. The formalized method is implemented as part of a model-based tool chain released to support the development of choreography-based systems within the EU CHOReOS project. We illustrate our method at work on a distributed social proximity network scenario.

  4. Ingen panik - Iran kan balanceres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran anses af mange som en voksende magtfaktor i Mellemøsten, der i stigende grad truer den regionale og endda globale sikkerhed. Irans hårde magt (atomprogrammet) og bløde magt (den politiske shi’a islam) betragtes som fundamentet til udviklingen af Irans stormagtsstatus og dets indflydelse....../trussel i regionen. Dette fundament er imidlertid skrøbeligt, og der er ingen grund til panik. Selv et Iran med atomvåben kan inddæmmes og balanceres og Iran’s bløde magt er meget begrænset. At bombe Iran vil derfor være en stor fejltagelse....

  5. Iran, reform, revolution or resignation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document is an information report made by the French commission of economic affairs after a visit of a delegation of members of the French parliament in Iran in April 15-18, 2003. The report describes: 1 - the international political situation of Iran; 2 - the domestic political situation of Iran: political institutions, yearn of change; 3 - the economic trades that would be possible to develop: economic and financial situation of Iran, fossil fuel resources, economic reforms to be implemented; 4 - the French-Iranian economical cooperation to be strengthened: French companies in Iran, towards a new era in bilateral economic relations, the challenge of the adhesion to the world trade organization (WTO). (J.S.)

  6. Has President Obama Chosen the Right Strategic Approach to Iran With the 2013 Dual Track Policy of Diplomacy and Sanctions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    welfare of the mostazafin umma (the oppressed poor) through state intervention. Ansari, 3. 104Ansari, 3. 105Ansari, 2. 27...Fearful of both Iranian and Saudi regional power, the GCC nations have historically outsourced their security to the United States. However, the...quarter to 7.5 million barrels per day. KSA has just increased its defense budget and has an elephantine welfare bill to placate Shia tension in its

  7. 77 FR 62139 - Authorizing the Implementation of Certain Sanctions Set Forth in the Iran Threat Reduction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including the International..., I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, hereby order: Section 1. (a) When the... or at the recommendation of the Secretary of State: (i) to have engaged in censorship or other...

  8. Legitimate Permissions And Specifity Of Their Enforceability In Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  9. LEGITIMATE PERMISSIONS AND SPECIFITY OF THEIR ENFORCEABILITY IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  10. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future.

  11. Legitimacy of anti-Russia sanctions and response measures within the membership in the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Andreyevna Travina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the degree of legitimacy of the imposed antiRussian sanctions and retaliatory measures from the point of view of the World Trade Organization to assess the prospects of a possible recourse to the dispute settlement body. Methods this goal is achieved through both general and special scientific methods. The general scientific methods used by the author include induction deduction systematic method synthesis and generalization. The author uses formal legal method for the interpretation of the law. In addition the historical method is applied to the study of the history of economic sanctions. Results it was concluded that formally the imposed sanctions conform to the right of the World Trade Organization though the provision that stipulates them is very extensive. In addition it is argued that Russia39s response can be justified by the same provision as the antiRussian sanctions but at the same time the Russian position is more advantageous due to a number of other provisions of the World Trade Organization. It is also concluded that the positive prospects of resolving the conflict in the framework of the dispute settlement body are unlikely. Scientific novelty the article studies the law of the World Trade Organization and the national legislation of the parties to the conflict on the research question analyzes a wide range of domestic and foreign scientific works and proposes the author39s definition of economic sanctions which refers to the set of actions of restrictive nature in the framework of economic activities used by one party the subject of sanctions against another the target and aimed at forced correction of their political course. Practical significance the basic provisions of the article can be used in the research activities on the legality of antiRussian economic sanctions and retaliatory measures within the right of the World Trade Organization. In addition the work may be of interest to practitioners and

  12. Iran's Security Policy in the Post-Revolutionary Era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byman, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This report assesses Iran's security policy. It examines broad drivers of Iran's security policy, describes important security institutions, explores decisionmaking, and reviews Iran's relations with key countries...

  13. Celiac disease in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekzadeh R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until a few decades ago, celiac disease was considered to be essentially a disease of European people and to be very rare in Middle Eastern countries. During the last two decades, having met the criteria for the WHO general screening, the advent and application of novel serological assays used to screen for celiac disease and the use of endoscopic small bowel biopsy have led to increasing numbers of diagnoses of celiac disease in western countries. With this new data, our knowledge on both the clinical pattern and epidemiology of celiac disease has increased, and is now known to be a relatively common autoimmune disorder. Studies performed in different parts of the developing world have shown that the prevalence of celiac disease in this area is similar to or even higher than that in western countries. In fact, celiac disease is known to be the most common form of chronic diarrhea in Iran. However, contrary to common belief, celiac disease is more than a pure digestive alteration. It is a protean systemic disease, and, with a 95 percent genetic predisposition, has a myriad of symptoms including gastrointestinal, dermatological, dental, neurological and behavioral that can occur at a variety of ages. Monosymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, atypical (without gastrointestinal symptoms, silent and latent forms of celiac disease have been identified. In this study we review the epidemiology of celiac disease based on the studies performed in Iran and discuss its pathogenesis, the role of antibodies in the diagnosis of celiac disease and the importance of its diagnosis and treatment in Iran.

  14. Choosing Spouse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Zia'

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Each society and culture, according to its condition and requirements, makes special circumscriptions, criterions and norms in choosing a spouse. In every culture one may have several alternatives of his/her own opposite sex as a spouse, but spouse choosing is never accidental. In every culture, besides the circumscriptions which is due to the personal values and desires, there are some circumscriptions which are imposed by the society. Till some decades ago, the family organization was responsible for spouse choosing in Iran, but today each person's role has become more important; although cultural and social conditions have some effect on it. Therefore, nowadays spouse choosing is analyzed as an important social action and many theories have been provided for understanding the patterns of the spouse choosing. In this study and in a theoretical level, two important theories (similar spouses and different spouses are presented as two corrival theories and then according to similarities of these theories, the indicators of the study are made. After that, by using the survey research method throughout the country and the statistical population of five thousand people, we experimentally assess the indicators of the study and these two theories of the spouse choosing.            Results show the domination of the similar spouses' theory in Iran. They also show that approximately 90% of people in the external traits, 89% in the psycho-emotional traits, 93% in the personal traits, 68% in the social level characteristics and 88% in the religious beliefs, follow the patterns of the similar spouses' theory.The analytical results also conclusively show that different groups in Iran choose persons who have more similarity with them in the external, psycho-emotional and personal traits as well as the social level and religious characteristics. Although it should be noted that among men and women, the strangeness and weakness of these patterns are

  15. 17 CFR 39.6 - Enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforceability. 39.6 Section 39.6 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES CLEARING ORGANIZATIONS § 39.6 Enforceability. An agreement, contract or transaction submitted to a derivatives clearing...

  16. 12 CFR 564.7 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 564.7 Section 564.7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.7 Enforcement. Institutions and institution-affiliated parties, including staff appraisers and fee appraisers, who violate...

  17. Effective speed management through automatic enforcement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyses several aspects of the Dutch experience of speed enforcement, and presents the results of some speed management experiments in The Netherlands, using automatic warning of speeders and enforcement of speeding. Traditional approaches to manage speed there have not resulted in

  18. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ...This notice announces the online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Protocols and the Interim Domestic Violence Waiver that will be used by the Office of Justice Services following passage of the Tribal Law and Order Act of 2010. The documents are published on the Indian Affairs Web site.

  19. 76 FR 54986 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Chapter I [NRC-2011-0209] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed enforcement policy revision; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is soliciting comments from interested...

  20. 78 FR 5838 - NRC Enforcement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0014] NRC Enforcement Policy AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy revision; issuance and request for comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... Nuclear Regulatory Commission Enforcement Policy,'' December 30, 2009 (ADAMS Accession No. ML093200520);(2...

  1. 17 CFR 8.05 - Enforcement staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement staff. 8.05... staff. (a) Each exchange shall establish an adequate enforcement staff which shall be authorized by the... staff shall consist of employees of the exchange and/or persons hired on a contract basis. It may not...

  2. Law Enforcement School Programs. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Safe Schools Initiative Division, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The school shooting incidents during the decade of the 1990's prompted an increase of law enforcement presence in schools. The School Violence Resource Center (SVRC) at the Criminal Justice Institute (CJI) University of Arkansas System undertook a project to determine what programs law enforcement agencies currently provide in their local schools…

  3. 5 CFR 1201.85 - Enforcing subpoenas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....85 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND... in the foreign country. (b) Upon application by the Special Counsel, the Board may seek court enforcement of a subpoena issued by the Special Counsel in the same manner in which it seeks enforcement of...

  4. 29 CFR 502.15 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 502.15 Section 502.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION...

  5. 29 CFR 501.15 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 501.15 Section 501.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS FOR TEMPORARY ALIEN AGRICULTURAL WORKERS ADMITTED UNDER SECTION 218 OF THE IMMIGRATION...

  6. 77 FR 12865 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  7. 78 FR 11216 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  8. 76 FR 9357 - Enforcement Actions Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ...] Enforcement Actions Summary AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) is providing notice that it has issued an annual summary of all enforcement actions taken by TSA under the authority granted in the...

  9. Lut Desert, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Iran is a large country with several desert regions. In the Dasht-E-Lut (Lut Desert) (30.5N, 58.5E) an area known as Namak-Zar, about 100 miles east of the city of Kerman, is at the center of this photograph. Some of the world's most prominent Yardangs (very long, parallel ridges and depressions) have been wind eroded in these desert dry lake bed sediments. At the left of the photo is a large field of sand dunes at right angles to the wind.

  10. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces HIPAA requirements to the extent warranted (as determined by CMS) in...

  11. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  12. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's or Commission's) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC's policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees' health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment

  13. Effectiveness of Interventions for Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran and Some Methodological Issues: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Sadeghi-Bazarghani, Homayoun; Heydari, Mahdiyeh; Rezapour, Ramin; Derakhshani, Naser

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To review the effectiveness of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) interventions implemented for prevention of RTIs in Iran and to introduce some methodological issues. Methods: Required data in this systematic review study were collected through searching the following key words: "Road Traffic Injuries", "Road Traffic accidents", "Road Traffic crashes", “prevention”, and Iran in PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, Scopus, MagIran, SID and IranMedex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites searched manually. Reference lists of the selected articles were also checked. Gray literature search and expert contact was also conducted. Results: Out of 569 retrieved articles, finally 8 articles included. Among the included studies the effectiveness of 10 interventions were assessed containing: seat belt, enforcements of laws and legislations, educational program, wearing helmet, Antilock Braking System (ABS), motorcyclists' penalty enforcement, pupil liaisons’ education, provisional driver licensing, Road bumps and traffic improvement's plans. In 7 studies (9 interventions) reduction of RTIs rate were reported. Decreased rate of mortality from RTIs were reported in three studies. Only one study had mentioned financial issue (Anti-lock Brake System intervention). Inadequate data sources, inappropriate selection of statistical index and not mention about the control of Confounding Variables (CV), the most common methodological issues were. Conclusion: The results of most interventional studies conducted in Iran supported the effect of the interventions on reduction of RTIs. However due to some methodological or reporting shortcoming the results of these studies should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:29719838

  14. Effectiveness of Interventions for Prevention of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran and Some Methodological Issues: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Sadeghi-Bazarghani, Homayoun; Heydari, Mahdiyeh; Rezapour, Ramin; Derakhshani, Naser

    2018-04-01

    To review the effectiveness of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) interventions implemented for prevention of RTIs in Iran and to introduce some methodological issues. Required data in this systematic review study were collected through searching the following key words: "Road Traffic Injuries", "Road Traffic accidents", "Road Traffic crashes", "prevention", and Iran in PubMed, Cochrane Library electronic databases, Google Scholar, Scopus, MagIran, SID and IranMedex. Some of the relevant journals and web sites searched manually. Reference lists of the selected articles were also checked. Gray literature search and expert contact was also conducted. Out of 569 retrieved articles, finally 8 articles included. Among the included studies the effectiveness of 10 interventions were assessed containing: seat belt, enforcements of laws and legislations, educational program, wearing helmet, Antilock Braking System (ABS), motorcyclists' penalty enforcement, pupil liaisons' education, provisional driver licensing, Road bumps and traffic improvement's plans. In 7 studies (9 interventions) reduction of RTIs rate were reported. Decreased rate of mortality from RTIs were reported in three studies. Only one study had mentioned financial issue (Anti-lock Brake System intervention). Inadequate data sources, inappropriate selection of statistical index and not mention about the control of Confounding Variables (CV), the most common methodological issues were. The results of most interventional studies conducted in Iran supported the effect of the interventions on reduction of RTIs. However due to some methodological or reporting shortcoming the results of these studies should be interpreted cautiously.

  15. Global oil glut and sanctions: The impact on Putin’s Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzova, Yelena; Qayum, Faryal

    2016-01-01

    The Russian economy is highly responsive to oil price fluctuations. At the start of 2014, the country was already suffering from the weak economic growth, partly due to the ongoing crisis in Ukraine and Western sanctions. The recent plunge in global oil prices put even further strain on the Russian economy. This paper analyzes the dynamic relationship between oil price shocks, economic sanctions, and leading macroeconomic indicators in Russia. We apply a vector autoregression (VAR) to quantify the effects of oil price shocks as well as western economic sanctions on real GDP, real effective exchange rate, inflation, real fiscal expenditures, real consumption expenditures, and external trade using quarterly data from 1999:1 until 2015:1. Our results show a significant impact of oil prices on the Russian economy. We predict that Russia’s economic outlook is not very optimistic. If sanctions remain until the end of 2017, the quarter-to-quarter real GDP will contract on average by 19 percent over the next two years. - Highlights: • The impact of the recent decline in oil prices and western sanctions is analyzed. • A vector autoregression model is used to do the forecast for Russia. • The real GDP is likely to contract by 19 percent over the next two years.

  16. Recent Trends in Antitrust Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Siragusa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to discuss a selection of the most relevant features of the most recent trends in antitrust enforcement. Firstly, anticompetitive signalling will be addressed: its assessment depends on the kind of information provided. Where such information is of public knowledge or is very well known by the market participants, signalling should not be deemed as anticompetitive. Secondly, the Power Cable case has raised for the first time various problematic issues, such as the possibility to impose parental liability on a purely financial investor, even where the presumed direct infringer would have been able to pay the fine. This appears to be irreconcilable with the objectives for which the case law on parental liability has been elaborated. Thirdly, as to the concept of restriction of competition by object, it is argued that the Intel case does not disavow the principles established in Cartes Bancaires. Indeed, the finding of a violation and the different methodology applied in the first case are only due to its specific factual circumstances. Finally, the nouvelle vague of the case law on the anticompetitive abuse of rights has led to two opposite approaches, one at the EU and the other at the Italian level. The first one, based on the finding of objective circumstances, is perfectly consistent with existing EU case law, while the second, exclusively focused on the exclusionary intent, seems to be in sharp contrast with it. The hope is that the Court of Justice will intervene to resolve this contradiction.

  17. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  18. The Islamic Revolution of Iran and migration of physicians to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaghy, Hossain A; Shajari, Anoshiravan

    2013-10-01

    Following the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in Iran, the trend of migration of physicians from the country continued. The total number of Iranian physicians migrated to the United States (US) increased from 1625 before revolution in 1974, to 5045 in 2010, thirty years post-revolution. The percentage of medical graduates migrating to the US, in the same period dropped from 15% to 5%. The reasons for this drop were restrictions imposed, along with creation of good postgraduate residency and fellowship programs in Iran. Following the revolution, the number of medical schools increased from 13 to 48. Despite all the restrictions and impediments for post-revolution medical graduates, over 500 medical graduates from newly established medical schools found their ways into the healthcare system of the US.     In spite of all hardships of eight years of imposed war, and 30 years of the US sanctions, Iran has been able to maintain good progress in its healthcare, education, and research in medicine and other branches of science and technology.

  19. Economics and militarization in North Korea: is the sanctions policy counterproductive?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Theo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the author analyzes the efficiency of the international economic sanctions against North Korea. An historical review shows that sanctions against North Korea have never succeeded in impeding this country to pursue its industrial defense policy, at the expense of its economic development. As a result, North Korea is now able (and wishes) to propose, to any clients in the world, efficient technologies in the nuclear or ballistic domain in order to gain the foreign currencies that are essential for the economic development of its people. According to the author (and other experts), such economic sanctions should be replaced by cooperation and development proposals, with the objective to show that if a nuclear program will never be accepted, reforms will be

  20. A law enforcement perspective of electricity deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Ira

    2006-01-01

    In April 2004, the California Attorney General's (AG) office issued a white paper that provided a 'law enforcement perspective of the California energy crisis.' To complete this special issue's coverage, I summarize three aspects of that paper: notably, the deficiencies in market oversight and enforcement that left the deregulated market prone to potential abuse, the principal modus operandi that some market agents used to exploit those deficiencies without fear of retribution, and the AG's 'recommendations for improving enforcement and protecting consumers in deregulated energy markets.'. (author)

  1. A law enforcement perspective of electricity deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Ira [Warrington College of Business, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7169 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    In April 2004, the California Attorney General's (AG) office issued a white paper that provided a 'law enforcement perspective of the California energy crisis.' To complete this special issue's coverage, I summarize three aspects of that paper: notably, the deficiencies in market oversight and enforcement that left the deregulated market prone to potential abuse, the principal modus operandi that some market agents used to exploit those deficiencies without fear of retribution, and the AG's 'recommendations for improving enforcement and protecting consumers in deregulated energy markets.'. (author)

  2. Effective enforcement of the forest practices code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The British Columbia Forest Practices Code establishes a scheme to guide and direct forest harvesting and other forest uses in concert with other related acts. The Code is made up of the Forest Practices Code of British Columbia Act, regulations, standards, and guidebooks. This document provides information on Code enforcement. It reviews the roles of the three provincial resource ministries and the Attorney General in enforcing the code, the various activities undertaken to ensure compliance (including inspections, investigations, and responses to noncompliance), and the role of the public in helping to enforce the Code. The appendix contains a list of Ministry of Forests office locations and telephone numbers.

  3. Banks and Banking Business in Russia in the Face of International Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Panova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of banks and the banking business in the face of international sanctions. It identifies current trends, problems and the risks of banks and banking in Russia and in the world. Special attention is paid to the analysis of sectoral international sanctions against the Russian banks and the need to minimize negative impact of sanctions on the banking business, both nationally and internationally. Great value in these conditions has the state monetary policy. Anti-crisis policy pursued by the Bank of Russia, in a context of stagnating economy, leads to a reduction in the Russian share in the world economy and increases in the standard of living gap with the developed countries. The article argues that Russia's economic growth opportunities in 2016 are limited by restriction level of bank interest, the high volatility of the exchange rate of the national currency, insufficient development of credit relations, tough, high-budget (at the level of developed Europe tax burden, increasing administrative costs, dramatically increasing the concentration of risks of subjective decisions at the present stage of the electoral cycle. In a situation of uncertainty of predictions regarding the scope and duration of the application of sanctions, the Russian Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had rightly seek to use a combination of anti-sanctions measures of austerity measures on introduction of contra-sanctions to create more comfortable conditions for doing business in Russia and her allies from member countries of Eurasian Economic Union, SCO, BRICS. The article examines the strategic aspects of development banks and banking business in Russia under the new circumstances. Given the practical recommendations on improvement of the development strategy of banks in Russia. The necessity to improve the theoretical, conceptual, methodological, her reasoning

  4. 78 FR 12243 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer the imposition of highway sanctions based on a proposed approval of a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published elsewhere in this Federal Register. The SIP revision concerns two permitting rules submitted by the PCAPCD and FRAQMD, respectively: Rule 502, New Source Review, and Rule 10.1, New Source Review.

  5. Why Targets of Economic Sanctions React Differently: Reference Point Effects on North Korea and Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoun Park

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community has frequently introduced economic sanctions to curb the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, to which each target nation has reacted differently. This paper explores the reasons why each target of economic sanctions reacts differently by specif- ically building a model based on reference point effects, and by analyzing the cases of North Korea and Libya. According to the results, when the reference point level increases, as in the case of North Korea, the target resists more firmly; on the other hand, when the reference point decreases, like in the case of Libya, the target resists more subtly.

  6. Iran: Illusion, Reality, and Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    populist backing to engage in something akin to class warfare. Clerical reformers and the middle class dominated the reform or Green movement. In addition...of the reformers and Green Movement ele- ments agree, making it a very difficult political anchor to give up. 184. Shireen T. Hunter, Iran and the... Kegan Paul, 1984): 105. 234. David E. Sanger and William J. Broad, “Atomic Agency Says Iran Is Making Fuel at Protected Site,” The New York Times

  7. 31 CFR 585.509 - Trading in certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading in certain pre-sanctions... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 585.509 Trading in..., and Macedonia authorized. (a) All transactions by U.S. persons involving secondary market trading in...

  8. Synteserapport & 1. Indenrigspolitiske forhold i Den Islamiske Republik Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik......Rapport til Udenrigsministeriet om de indenrigspolitiske forhold i Iran samt et syntese af hele rapporten: Iran som regional og international medspiller i den globale verdensorden samt Irans indenrigspolitik...

  9. Trust in Security-Policy Enforcement Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneider, Fred B; Morrisett, Greg

    2006-01-01

    .... but provides the strong security guarantees of modern languages such as Java. A second avenue of language-based work explored a general class of policy enforcement mechanism based on in-line reference monitors (IRM...

  10. Flow enforcement algorithms for ATM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, Lars; Jacobsen, Søren B.; Moth, Klaus

    1991-01-01

    Four measurement algorithms for flow enforcement in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks are presented. The algorithms are the leaky bucket, the rectangular sliding window, the triangular sliding window, and the exponentially weighted moving average. A comparison, based partly on teletraffic...

  11. Anticorruption expertise of law-enforcement acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Polyakov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate public necessity to define the subject methodological and organizational capabilities of anticorruption expertise of law enforcement acts. Methods universal dialecticmaterialistic method was used to study the needs in anticorruption expertise of law enforcement acts in the mechanism of legal regulation based on it general scientific and special formal legal and comparative legal methods of research used for the definition of subjectmatter of the proposed expertise. Results the value of anticorruption expertise of law enforcement was shown corruption factors and corruption indicators enabling legislation were identified ways of conducting such examinations were proposed. Scientific novelty the article examines the need and the subject proposes methods of a new type of anticorruption expertise. Practical significance the conditions of corruption are defined which are created in law enforcement activities and methods for their detection are proposed. nbsp

  12. Risk sharing relations and enforcement mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, A.; Dekker, M.; Fafchamps, M.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate whether the set of available enforcement mechanisms affects the formation of risk sharing relations by applying dyadic regression analysis to data from a specifically designed behavioural experiment, two surveys and a genealogical mapping exercise. During the experiment participants

  13. 49 CFR 212.115 - Enforcement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE SAFETY PARTICIPATION REGULATIONS State/Federal Roles § 212.115 Enforcement... assess and compromise penalties, to issue emergency orders and compliance orders, institute or cause to...

  14. Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ECHO provides integrated compliance and enforcement information for about 800,000 regulated facilities nationwide. Its features range from simple to advanced,...

  15. DNR Division of Enforcement Officer Patrol Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the DNR Division of Enforcement Office Patrol Areas as of January 1, 2003. Patrol areas were defined and verified by Patrol Officers during the fall...

  16. System analysis of automated speed enforcement implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Speeding is a major factor in a large proportion of traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities in the United States. Automated Speed Enforcement (ASE) is one of many approaches shown to be effective in reducing speeding violations and crashes. However...

  17. The color of welfare sanctioning: exploring the individual and contextual roles of race on TANF case closures and benefit reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the individual and contextual roles of race on welfare sanctions: benefit cuts for failing to comply with work or other behavioral requirements under the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program. Using six years of federal administrative data, I advance previous welfare research by providing a nationally representative analysis of participant-, county-, and state-level predictors of welfare sanctioning. Using theories of racial classification, racialized social systems, and racial threat as guiding frameworks, I find that black and Latina women are at a greater risk of being sanctioned than white women. Further, although odds of a sanction are slightly reduced for black women living in counties with greater percentages of blacks, the opposite holds for Latinas, who are at an increased risk of being sanctioned in counties with greater percentages of Latinos.

  18. 39 CFR 7.7 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Enforcement. 7.7 Section 7.7 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE PUBLIC OBSERVATION (ARTICLE VII) § 7.7 Enforcement. (a) Under 5 U.S.C. 552b(g), any person may bring a proceeding in the United States...

  19. The Legality and Validity of Administrative Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Iarkovoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the concept and content of the validity of adopted by the executive authorities and other bodies of public administration legal acts and committed by them legal actions as an important characteristic of law enforcement by these bodies. The Author concludes that the validity of the administrative law enforcement is not an independent requirement for it, and acts as an integral part of its legal requirements.

  20. Citizen enforcement and the smoking gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the provisions for private citizens to bring lawsuits in federal court against regulated parties violating federal air pollution-control laws and the steps that operators of facilities subject to air pollution-control laws need to take to help avoid significant enforcement liabilities. The topics of the article include a look at citizen enforcement since 1970, the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, construction and management with these regulations

  1. Law enforcement suicide: a national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Robinson, Cynthia F; Shen, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research suggests that there is an elevated risk of suicide among workers within law enforcement occupations. The present study examined the proportionate mortality for suicide in law enforcement in comparison to the US working population during 1999, 2003-2004, and 2007, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Mortality Surveillance data. We analyzed data for all law enforcement occupations and focused on two specific law enforcement occupational categories-detectives/criminal investigators/ police and corrections officers. Suicides were also explored by race, gender and ethnicity. The results of the study showed proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) for suicide were significantly high for all races and sexes combined (all law enforcement--PMR = 169, 95% CI = 150-191, p law enforcement combined category, and a similarly high PMR was found among Hispanic detectives/criminal investigators/police (PMR = 388, p < 0.01, 95% CI = 168-765). There were small numbers of deaths among female and African American officers. The results included significantly increased risk for suicide among detectives/criminal investigators/police and corrections officers, which suggests that additional study could provide better data to inform us for preventive action.

  2. Strengthened enforcement enhances marine sanctuary performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan P. Kelaher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sanctuaries are areas where the extraction of biota is not permitted. Although most marine sanctuaries have a positive influence on biotic communities, not all sanctuaries are meeting their conservation objectives. Amidst possible explanations (e.g., size, age and isolation, insufficient enforcement is often speculated to be a key driver of marine sanctuary underperformance. Despite this, there are few studies directly linking quantitative enforcement data to changes in biotic communities within marine sanctuaries. Here, we used an asymmetrical-BACI experimental design from 2006–2012 to test whether new enforcement initiatives enhanced abundances of target fishes and threatened species in an existing large sub-tropical marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Implementation of the new enforcement initiatives in 2010 was associated with a 201% increase in annual fine rate and a significant increase in target fish and elasmobranch abundance, as well as sightings of a critically-endangered shark, in the marine sanctuary relative to areas open to fishing. Overall, these results demonstrate that strengthening enforcement can have a rapid positive influence on target fish and perhaps threatened species in a subtropical marine sanctuary. From this, we contend that increased enforcement guided by risk-based compliance planning and operations may be a useful first step for improving underperforming marine sanctuaries.

  3. The Shia Factor in Relations Between the Arab Countries of the Persian Gulf and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichenko Vladimir P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the influence of the “Shia factor” on the relations between Iran and the Gulf Arab countries. In most countries of the Persian Gulf, there are Shia communities that constitute a significant part of the population. After the Islamic revolution of 1979 relations between Iran and most Arab countries have become particularly tense. In the 1980s, the Gulf monarchies also became wary of exporting the Islamic revolution in their countries. This was due to the fact that, being inspired by the success of the co-religionists in Iran, the Arab Shiites became more involved in politics. It should be noted that the way the Arab Gulf countries treat the Shiites in the region is influenced by the fact that Iran and the Arab Gulf countries compete for political and economic predominance in the region. Often the Shia Muslims are discriminated by the authorities of the Arab countries, and are regarded as the so-called “fifth column” of Iran. In the author’s opinion, the policy of oppression of the Shia Muslims in the Persian Gulf monarchies not only worsens the political situation in these countries, but also complicates relations with neighboring Iran. This policy is not constructive. Moreover, the mythical “Iranian threat” does not go to any comparison with the threat posed by the Islamic State. According to the author, although after the execution of the Shia cleric Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr in Saudi Arabia at the beginning of 2016 Iran’s relations with Arab countries became even more strained, the further escalation of the conflict is not in the interests of Iran. Especially now, at the initial stage of removing sanctions against Iran’s nuclear program, the military operations against the Shiites in the Arab countries may slow down the process. As for Saudi Arabia, in the event of the outbreak of hostilities Riyadh may seriously damage relations with the United States. This is because Washington sees no benefits in involving

  4. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ...) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: A... Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended, to lift nonproliferation measures on Chinese entities... the following Chinese entities, their sub-units and successors is important to the national security...

  5. 24 CFR 266.120 - Actions for which sanctions may be imposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Housing Finance Agency Requirements § 266.120 Actions for which sanctions may be imposed. Results of... provisions with respect to individual projects; (12) Maintain a default ratio acceptable to HUD relative to...

  6. 77 FR 67726 - Department of State: State Department Sanctions Information and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... computers Nonconsensual tracking/monitoring technology [cir] Allows persons to cause a mobile or networked... 2012 (TRA) (Pub. L. 112-158), requires that the President impose or waive sanctions on persons, and certain affiliated persons, that are determined to have knowingly engaged in specified activities. The...

  7. 78 FR 38097 - Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Syria Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...

  8. 78 FR 41192 - Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Publication of General License Related to the Zimbabwe Sanctions Program AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Notice, publication of general license. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets...

  9. 37 CFR 11.20 - Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.20 Disciplinary sanctions; Transfer to disability inactive status. (a) Types...; Transfer to disability inactive status. 11.20 Section 11.20 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... discipline exist, may impose on a practitioner the following types of discipline: (1) Exclusion from practice...

  10. unilateral trade sanctions as a means to combat human rights abuses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    Doing Good: Inefficacy of the US Unilateral Sanctions against the Military. Government .... market rather than ensuring human rights were respected. The ITO ... quantitative restriction (both import and export) subject to few exceptions. Article I of ..... case involving Mexico and the United States (Tuna –Dolphin case), Mexico.

  11. 44 CFR 17.635 - Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of criminal drug offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of criminal drug offenses. 17.635 Section 17.635 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE...

  12. California; Bay Area Air Quality Management District; Determination To Defer Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is making an interim final determination to defer imposition of sanctions based on a proposed determination that CARB submitted rules on behalf of BAAQMD that satisfy part D of the Clean Air Act for areas under the jurisdiction of the BAAQMD.

  13. Leading under Sanction: Principals' Perceptions of Threat Rigidity, Efficacy, and Leadership in Underperforming Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Alan J.; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Ong-Dean, Colin; Park, Vicki; Wishard-Guerra, Alison

    2011-01-01

    No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was passed to ensure that 100 percent of students would be proficient by 2014. Progress toward that goal is measured annually and results suggest that while some schools improve, increasing numbers are identified as in need of improvement (INI) and are subject to sanctions. We examined perceived levels of threat…

  14. Hospitalizations for Students with an Alcohol-Related Sanction: Gender and Pregaming as Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…

  15. Overcoming the Ulama: Globalizing Iran's Political Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brechbill, Alan M

    2008-01-01

    ..., or to participate more actively in the outside world. The religious establishment or ulama play the most significant role in the dichotomy between Iran's theocratic conservatism and the position Iran takes in globalization...

  16. Britiske søfolk splitter Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Valling

    2007-01-01

    Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts......Om Iran, indenrigspolitiske forhold som udtrykt gennem landets forhold til Vesten/USA Udgivelsesdato: 30. marts...

  17. Iran's Activities and Influences in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    With a conventional military and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) threat from Saddam Hussein's regime removed, Iran seeks to ensure that Iraq can never again become a threat to Iran, either with or without U.S...

  18. Use of ontology structure and Bayesian models to aid the crowdsourcing of ICD-11 sanctioning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun; Tu, Samson W; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Chalmers, Robert J G; Musen, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the de facto standard international classification for mortality reporting and for many epidemiological, clinical, and financial use cases. The next version of ICD, ICD-11, will be submitted for approval by the World Health Assembly in 2018. Unlike previous versions of ICD, where coders mostly select single codes from pre-enumerated disease and disorder codes, ICD-11 coding will allow extensive use of multiple codes to give more detailed disease descriptions. For example, "severe malignant neoplasms of left breast" may be coded using the combination of a "stem code" (e.g., code for malignant neoplasms of breast) with a variety of "extension codes" (e.g., codes for laterality and severity). The use of multiple codes (a process called post-coordination), while avoiding the pitfall of having to pre-enumerate vast number of possible disease and qualifier combinations, risks the creation of meaningless expressions that combine stem codes with inappropriate qualifiers. To prevent that from happening, "sanctioning rules" that define legal combinations are necessary. In this work, we developed a crowdsourcing method for obtaining sanctioning rules for the post-coordination of concepts in ICD-11. Our method utilized the hierarchical structures in the domain to improve the accuracy of the sanctioning rules and to lower the crowdsourcing cost. We used Bayesian networks to model crowd workers' skills, the accuracy of their responses, and our confidence in the acquired sanctioning rules. We applied reinforcement learning to develop an agent that constantly adjusted the confidence cutoffs during the crowdsourcing process to maximize the overall quality of sanctioning rules under a fixed budget. Finally, we performed formative evaluations using a skin-disease branch of the draft ICD-11 and demonstrated that the crowd-sourced sanctioning rules replicated those defined by an expert dermatologist with high precision and recall

  19. 7 CFR 501.14 - Non-Federal law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Federal law enforcement. 501.14 Section 501.14...-Federal law enforcement. Research Center special policemen may be deputized by State or local law... State or local law enforcement agency, the facilities or services of such State or local law enforcement...

  20. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3 Section 422.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement...

  1. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This... lights. (b) The blue light described in this section may be displayed by law enforcement vessels of the...

  2. Powerful subjects of tax law enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dementyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 342.6The subject. Competence of government bodies and their officials in the sphere of application of the tax law is considered in the article.The purpose of research is to determine the ratio of tax enforcement and application of the tax law, as well as the relationship between the concepts “party of tax enforcement” and “participant of tax legal relations”.Main results and scope of their application. The circle of participants of tax legal relations is broader than the circle of parties of tax law enforcement. The participants of tax legal relations are simultaneously the subjects of tax law, because they realize their tax status when enter into the tax relationships. The tax and customs authorities are the undoubted parties of the tax law enforcement.Although the financial authorities at all levels of government are not mentioned by article 9 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation as participants of tax relations, they are parties of tax enforcement, because they make the agreement for deferment or installment payment of regional and local taxes.Scope of application. Clarification of participants of tax legal relations and determination of their mutual responsibility is essential to effective law enforcement.Conclusion. It was concluded that the scope tax law enforcement is tax proceedings, not administrative proceedings, civil (arbitration proceedings or enforcement proceedings.The application of the tax law is carried out not only in the form of tax relations, but also in relations of other branches of law.

  3. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in paragraph (a)(1) of this section or elsewhere in the EAR (See, e.g., § 742.8—Anti-terrorism: Iran... exceptions may be used for exports or reexports to Iran. (d) EAR Anti-terrorism controls. The Secretary of State has designated Iran as a country that has repeatedly provided support for acts of international...

  4. Health observatories in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, A; Damari, B; Larijani, B; Vosoogh Moghadda, A; Alikhani, S; Shadpour, K; Khosravi, A

    2013-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran, in her 20 year vision by the year 2025, is a developed country with the first economic, scientific and technological status in the region, with revolutionary and Islamic identity, inspiring Islamic world, as well as effective and constructive interaction in international relations. Enjoying health, welfare, food security, social security, equal opportunities, fair income distribution, strong family structure; to be away from poverty, corruption, and discrimination; and benefiting desirable living environment are also considered out of characteristics of Iranian society in that year. Strategic leadership towards perceived vision in each setting requires restrictive, complete and timely information. According to constitution of National Institute for Health Researches, law of the Fifth Development Plan of the country and characteristics of health policy making, necessity of designing a Health Observatory System (HOS) was felt. Some Principles for designing such system were formulated by taking following steps: reviewing experience in other countries, having local history of the HOS in mind, superior documents, analysis of current production and management of health information, taking the possibilities to run a HOS into account. Based on these principles, the protocol of HOS was outlined in 3 different stages of opinion poll of informed experts responsible for production on management of information, by using questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions. The protocol includes executive regulations, the list of health indicators, vocabulary and a calendar for periodic studies of the community health situation.

  5. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. 25 CFR 12.33 - Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Indian country law enforcement officers paid less than other law enforcement officers? 12.33 Section 12.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Qualifications and Training Requirements § 12.33 Are Indian country law enforcement...

  7. Iran: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at the end of its war with Iraq, Iran embarked on an urgent program to restore its productive capacity. This effort has been hindered by lack of hard currency and, hence, technology, parts, equipment, etc. Iran has been trying to improve relations with the U.S, over the past two years. Recently, the embargo on importing Iranian crude into the U.S. was lifted. Over the past year and a half, Iran accumulated enough money to resume imports of U.S. and other foreign drilling equipment. However, drilling has remained at a low level. Also, efforts to boost output have been slowed by war damage both on and offshore---particularly the latter---and serious BHP declines in major onshore fields that can only be corrected by ultra- high cost gas injection projects. Currently, large injection projects are only operating in three major fields: Gachsaran, Ahwaz and Marun

  8. IAEA Statement After Iran Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Senior International Atomic Energy Agency officials met an Iranian delegation in Vienna today to seek agreement on a structured approach document to resolve outstanding issues relating to Iran's nuclear programme. The following is a statement by IAEA Deputy Director General Herman Nackaerts after the meeting: ''As announced by the Director General earlier this week, we met today to discuss the structured approach paper. The Agency team came to the meeting in a constructive spirit with the desire and intention of finalising the paper. We presented a revised draft which addressed Iran's earlier stated concerns. However, there has been no progress and, indeed, Iran raised issues that we have already discussed and added new ones. This is disappointing. A date for a follow-on meeting has yet to be fixed.'' (IAEA)

  9. Seismic hazard assessment of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafory-Ashtiany

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the new seismic hazard map of Iran is based on probabilistic seismic hazard computation using the historical earthquakes data, geology, tectonics, fault activity and seismic source models in Iran. These maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Iran in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines, and seismic hazard zoning, by using current probabilistic procedures. They display the probabilistic estimates of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA for the return periods of 75 and 475 years. The maps have been divided into intervals of 0.25 degrees in both latitudinal and longitudinal directions to calculate the peak ground acceleration values at each grid point and draw the seismic hazard curves. The results presented in this study will provide the basis for the preparation of seismic risk maps, the estimation of earthquake insurance premiums, and the preliminary site evaluation of critical facilities.

  10. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is one of the category of crimes that cross border organized and has been established as an extraordinary crime. This crime is becoming a serious threat to countries in the world. In this regard, the Government's attitude of firmness needed to enforce cyber laws against the freedom development in social media. The development of the immeasurable it in the country of Indonesia required the limitations by doing legal liability over the behavior of law which deviates towards the use of technology tools. Strict law enforcement efforts as a clear attitude to stop actively moving massive terrorism, by enacting the provisions of the law on information and electronic transactions as well as the law of terrorism effectively. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2015. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 157-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.82

  11. A Review on Regulatory Enforcement Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Han; Lee, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Sung

    2017-01-01

    This paper examine the meaning and principle of enforcement through examples from other countries. Regulatory enforcement is the last stage of safety regulation and how it is exercised when one failing to meet regulatory requirements can have significant ripple effect across the industry. Thus, right philosophy and principle should be established. It is not recommended to emphasize neither deterrence approach nor behavior modification approach. This should be also taken into consideration when setting up the principle and system of regulatory enforcement. In the process of Vienna Declaration, Europe and the U.S showed the fundamental differences in their approaches to safety regulation. Considering this, it is required to remain cautious at all times on what to be improved in the aspect of internal consistency within our system and also in the aspect of procedure.

  12. Type B Hepatitis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabarestani

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen CHBsAg was found in 1% of controls, 2.1% of professional blood donors, 2.0% of leprosy patients and 76.1% of acute hepatitis in Tehran and Mashhad, Iran. All HBsAg positive samples also possessed antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen and all were subtype ayw. Type B hepatitis and the HBsAg state aloe frequent in Iran, but most must be accounted for by u nonparenter- al" or "rnapparent'' parenteral exposure.

  13. Iran's nuclear power programme revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-01-01

    Iran's new government has not yet made a final decision about the fate of that country's once ambitious nuclear power programme. If the programme is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway when the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear power programme between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrastructural, and political criticisms of the programme as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. (author)

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza MOHAMMADI; Maryam SALMANIAN; Shahin AKHONDZADEH

    2011-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Mohammadi MR, Salmanian M, Akhondzadeh Sh. Autism Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology2011;5(4):1-9.ObjectiveAutistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-Not Otherwise Specified are subsets of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which are characterized by impairments in social communication and stereotyped behavior. This article reviews the prevalence, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of ASDs in Iran.Materials & MethodsWe searched PubMe...

  15. Temporal Patterns of Road Traffic Injuries in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi, Ali; Ainy, Elaheh; Hashemi Nazari, Seyed Saeed; Soori, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the main causes of death and disability in Iran. However, very few studies about the temporal variations of RTIs have been published to date. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the temporal pattern of RTIs in Iran in 2012. Materials and Methods All road traffic accidents (RTAs) reported to traffic police during a one-year period (March 21, 2012 through March 21, 2013) were investigated after obtaining permission from the law enforcement force of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Distributions of RTAs were obtained for season, month, week, and hour scales, and for long holidays (more than one day) and the day prior to long holidays (DPLH). The final analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression model to calculate incidence rate ratios for RTIs. All analyses were conducted using STATA 13.1 and Excel software; statistical significance was set at P accidents was 219 per 10,000 registered vehicles, or 595 per 100,000 people. About 28% of all RTAs, and more than one third of fatal RTAs, occurred during the summer months. The incidence rate for all traffic accidents on DPLH was 1.20, compared to workdays as a reference category, and it was 1.40 for fatal crashes. The rate of fatal road traffic accidents in outer cities was 3.2 times higher than in inner ones. Conclusions Our findings reveal that there are temporal variations in traffic accidents, and long holidays significantly influence accident rates. Traffic injuries have different patterns on outer/inner city roads, based on weekday and holiday status. Thus, these findings could be used to create effective initiatives aimed at traffic management. PMID:27703958

  16. NRC program of inspection and enforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeDoux, J.C.; Rehfuss, C.

    1978-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates civilian uses of nuclear materials to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE) develops and implements the inspection, investigation, and enforcement programs for the NRC. The IE conducts inspection programs for reactors under construction and in operation, nuclear industry vendors, fuel facilities and users of nuclear materials, and all aspects of the safeguarding of facilities and materials. Recently the IE began implementing a program that will place inspectors on site at nuclear power reactors and will provide for national appraisal of licensee performance and for an evaluation of the effectiveness of the inspection programs

  17. Impasse of the 21st century accountants: Need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Amaechi Egbunike

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical uprising, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body is an issue of concern that need to be uphold due to the succession of corporate scandals that took place in Nigeria and the world over, thereby undermining the image of the accountancy profession. These corporate scandals in no doubt challenged the credibility of financial statements, auditing and corporate governance practices for which accountants are directly linked with. In this paper, we examined the impasse of the 21st century accountants and the need for ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body for erring accountants. Several impasses facing the 21st century accountants were identified such as expectation gap (resulting to loss of public confidence in the profession, falsifying financial statements and engaging in ‘negative accounting’ among others. Questionnaire was administered to three (3 classes of respondents (investors, auditors and accounting regulatory bodies and the data obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The study found that the impasse facing the 21st century accountants can be repealed via ethical revolution, enforcement of accounting guidelines and discipline by statutory accounting body for erring accountants. Owing to the above findings, we proposed that the accounting regulatory bodies and the government should sanction accountants and firms engaged in unscrupulous accounting practices as well as revoking the licenses of professional accountants that precipitate such actions. As a matter of fact, seminars and workshop on issues relating to ethics and accounting guidelines should be organized for professional accountants. Also, code of professional conducts should be strictly enforced on all professional accountants by the regulatory body. It is our candid believe that if these recommendations are fully implemented, it will go a long

  18. Iran: what nuclear sanctuary?; Iran: quel sanctuaire nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viaud, P.

    2010-05-15

    The author continues his study of Iran and its implicit nuclear strategy by showing us the three circles of sanctuary that it contains. He shows to what extent this country, with its strong and ancient geopolitical identity, has managed to restore its rank at the centre of the geostrategic and geo-economic chessboard of the region. (author)

  19. The Criminal Offense of Credit/Debit Card Fraud and the Implementation of Its Sanction on Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Maria Laot Kian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study are to determine the legal arrangements and the application of criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia. The type of study was a normative research by classifying the provisions relevant to the crime of credit/debit card fraud is based on Law No. 11 Year 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions; otherwise it is used also Convention on Cyber crime 2001. Analysis of legal materials made through a law (statue approach to create an ius constituendum regarding the application of criminal sanctions against crime credit/debit card fraud. The results of the research indicated that the legal arrangements and criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia is still relatively minimal. First, not integrated article that directly regulates computer related fraud. Second, not arranged in the form of criminal sanctions for actions that are restitution culprit.

  20. Nuclear Sanctions: Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act and its Application to India and Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Jeanne J

    2001-01-01

    Section 102(b) of the Arms Export Control Act (AECA) requires the President to impose sanctions on any country that he has determined is a "non-nuclear-weapon state" and has received or detonated a "nuclear explosive device...

  1. The relationship between guardian certification requirements and guardian sanctioning: a research issue in elder law and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Winsor C; Akinci, Fevzi; Wagner, Sarah A

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between guardian certification requirements and guardian sanctioning in the state of Washington. A total of 377 files were examined. Findings show that 52.4% of guardians with an undergraduate degree or higher education are likely to be sanctioned compared with 42.2% with an Associate of Arts (AA) or Technical (Tech) degree, and 36.9% with a high school diploma (HS) or equivalency (GED). Guardians with an undergraduate or higher education are 1.88 times more likely to be sanctioned compared with GED or HS graduates (p Guardians with an AA or Tech degree are 0.28 times less likely to have more severe sanctions than guardians with an undergraduate degree or higher education (p guardian registration, licensing, certification and quality; licensing and regulation of other professions; the limitations of the study; and the need for further research. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. 17 CFR 37.9 - Enforceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforceability. 37.9 Section 37.9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION DERIVATIVES TRANSACTION... pursuant to the rules of, a registered derivatives transaction execution facility shall not be void...

  3. 7 CFR 3016.43 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 3016.43 Section 3016.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL...

  4. Commercial Court and Enforcement Assessment Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Ebeid, Omniah; Gramckow, Heike

    2016-01-01

    An effective and efficient justice system is essential for sustained economic growth. In a well-functioning, independent, and efficient justice system, decisions are taken within a reasonable time and are predictably and effectively enforced, and individual rights, including property rights, are adequately protected. Among other objectives, the efficiency of the judicial system is importan...

  5. 18 CFR 1b.21 - Enforcement hotline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enforcement hotline. 1b.21 Section 1b.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... shall be treated as non-public by the Commission and its staff, consistent with the provisions of...

  6. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  7. 30 CFR 903.843 - Federal enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... request, to a designated Arizona State agency with jurisdiction over mining. ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.843 Federal...

  8. 8 CFR 270.2 - Enforcement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PENALTIES FOR DOCUMENT FRAUD § 270.2 Enforcement procedures. (a) Procedures for the filing of complaints. Any person or entity... charges for document fraud committed by refugees at the time of entry. The Service shall not issue a...

  9. 7 CFR 1145.3 - Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Enforcement. 1145.3 Section 1145.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... contracts and based on the results of the investigation will take appropriate action. ...

  10. Intergroup Bias in Parliamentary Rule Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Political actors are often assigned roles requiring them to enforce rules without giving in-groups special treatment. But are such institutional roles likely to be successful? Here, I exploit a special case of exogenously assigned intergroup relations: debates in the Danish Parliament, in which P...... of clear rules, complete observability, and a tradition of parliamentary cooperation....

  11. 30 CFR 933.843 - Federal enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.843 Federal... violations on surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (b) OSM will furnish a copy of each enforcement action and order to show cause issued pursuant to this part to the North Carolina Department of Natural...

  12. 16 CFR 1602.1 - Enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement policy. 1602.1 Section 1602.1 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STATEMENTS OF..., set aside, or repealed by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, by any court of competent...

  13. 12 CFR 370.11 - Enforcement mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.11 Enforcement mechanisms. (a) Termination of Participation. If... participate in the temporary liquidity guarantee program, the FDIC will inform the entity that it will no longer be provided the protections of the temporary liquidity guarantee program. (1) Termination of...

  14. The Clerical Establishment in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Political Action and Legitimate Domi- nation in Shi’ite Iran: Fourteenth to Eighteenth Centuries, A.D.," Archives Europ~ennes de Sociologie , Vol. 20, No...139 Archives Europ6ennes de Sociologie Bours, (moderate centrist) weekly in Persian, Tehran Conflict Studies, quarterly in English, London Enghelab

  15. June 1990 Northern, Iran Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A magnitude 7.7 earthquake occurred in the Gilan Province between the towns of Rudbar and Manjil in northern Iran on Thursday, June 21, 1990 (June 20 at 21:00 GMT)....

  16. Electrical connections: Iran's power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    Attention is drawn to business opportunities in Iran, a middle-eastern country that is still in the process of rebuilding its power generating capacity in the wake of its eight-year-long war with Iraq. In reviewing opportunities to tap into this market , the article lists a number of factors that must be considered before rushing to follow the current. One of these factors is the U.S. trade embargo against Iran. Under this embargo Canada does not allow the re-export of goods of U.S. origin from Canada to Iran. The complex character of doing business in Iran by foreign companies must also be considered. Nevertheless,, those who are well prepared to face the restrictions and are willing to take the time to learn about the 'Iranian way' may receive considerable help from the Export Development Corporation, including financing and insurance on a case-by-case basis. The Canadian government's program for export market development also offers direct financial assistance to Canadian exporters in an effort to reduce the risk of entering a foreign market. The Canadian Embassy in Tehran can also provide useful advice and assistance. There is also http://exportsource.gc.ca., Team Canada Inc.'s on-line resource that may be consulted for export information

  17. Price-Anderson Nuclear Safety Enforcement Program. 1996 Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This first annual report on DOE's Price Anderson Amendments Act enforcement program covers the activities, accomplishments, and planning for calendar year 1996. It also includes the infrastructure development activities of 1995. It encompasses the activities of the headquarters' Office of Enforcement in the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) and Investigation and the coordinators and technical advisors in DOE's Field and Program Offices and other EH Offices. This report includes an overview of the enforcement program; noncompliances, investigations, and enforcement actions; summary of significant enforcement actions; examples where enforcement action was deferred; and changes and improvements to the program

  18. 77 FR 24857 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ...EPA is making an interim final determination to stay the imposition of offset sanctions and to defer the imposition of highway sanctions based on a proposed approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published elsewhere in this Federal Register. The revisions concern SJVUAPCD Rule 4352, Solid Fuel Fired Boilers, Steam Generators and Process Heaters.

  19. Assessing the Net Effects of Sanctions on the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    the means. Shortly after the transition from apartheid Nelson Mandela appealed to the world that the sanctions be quickly lifted, which for the most...building measures. In the case of South Africa, Mandela was a revered and popular leader on the world stage. With apartheid defeated, the world could...would the case been the same? Would Mandela have retained as much global popularity if he had retained South Africa’s WMD? This counterfactual is

  20. 78 FR 894 - Interim Final Determination To Stay Sanctions, Imperial County Air Pollution Control District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...EPA is making an interim final determination to stay imposition of sanctions based on a proposed approval of revisions to the Imperial County Air Pollution Control District (ICAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP) published elsewhere in this Federal Register. The revisions concern local rules that regulate inhalable particulate matter (PM10) emissions from sources of fugitive dust such as unpaved roads and disturbed soils in open and agricultural areas in Imperial County.