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Sample records for ir radiative losses

  1. Improved Correction of IR Loss in Diffuse Shortwave Measurements: An ARM Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younkin, K; Long, CN

    2003-11-01

    Simple single black detector pyranometers, such as the Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometer (PSP) used by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, are known to lose energy via infrared (IR) emission to the sky. This is especially a problem when making clear-sky diffuse shortwave (SW) measurements, which are inherently of low magnitude and suffer the greatest IR loss. Dutton et al. (2001) proposed a technique using information from collocated pyrgeometers to help compensate for this IR loss. The technique uses an empirically derived relationship between the pyrgeometer detector data (and alternatively the detector data plus the difference between the pyrgeometer case and dome temperatures) and the nighttime pyranometer IR loss data. This relationship is then used to apply a correction to the diffuse SW data during daylight hours. We developed an ARM value-added product (VAP) called the SW DIFF CORR 1DUTT VAP to apply the Dutton et al. correction technique to ARM PSP diffuse SW measurements.

  2. Design and Development of transducer for IR radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattarachindanuwong, Surat; Poopat, Bovornchoke; Meethong, Wachira

    2003-06-01

    Recently, IR radiation has many important roles such as for plastics industry, food industry and medical instrumentation. The consequence of exposed irradiation objects from IR can be greatly affected by the quantity of IR radiation. Therefore the objectively this research is to design and develop a transducer for IR radiation measurement. By using a quartz halogen lamp as a IR heat source of IR radiation and a thermopile sensor as a transducer. The thermal conductivity of transducer and air flow, were also considered for design and development of transducer. The study shows that the designed transducer can be used and applied in high temperature process, for example, the quality control of welding, the non-contact temperature measurement of drying oven and the testing of IR source in medical therapy device

  3. Radiation Therapy and Hearing Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandare, Niranjan; Jackson, Andrew; Eisbruch, Avraham; Pan, Charlie C.; Flickinger, John C.; Antonelli, Patrick; Mendenhall, William M.

    2010-01-01

    A review of literature on the development of sensorineural hearing loss after high-dose radiation therapy for head-and-neck tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for the treatment of vestibular schwannoma is presented. Because of the small volume of the cochlea a dose-volume analysis is not feasible. Instead, the current literature on the effect of the mean dose received by the cochlea and other treatment- and patient-related factors on outcome are evaluated. Based on the data, a specific threshold dose to cochlea for sensorineural hearing loss cannot be determined; therefore, dose-prescription limits are suggested. A standard for evaluating radiation therapy-associated ototoxicity as well as a detailed approach for scoring toxicity is presented.

  4. Efficacy of a radiation safety education initiative in reducing radiation exposure in the pediatric IR suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheyn, David D.; Racadio, John M.; Patel, Manish N.; Racadio, Judy M.; Johnson, Neil D.; Ying, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in the interventional radiology (IR) suite. As the complexity of procedures increases, radiation exposure risk increases. We believed that reinforcing staff education and awareness would help optimize radiation safety. To evaluate the effect of a radiation safety education initiative on IR staff radiation safety practices and patient radiation exposure. After each fluoroscopic procedure performed in the IR suite during a 4-month period, dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, and use of shielding equipment (leaded eyeglasses and hanging lead shield) by IR physicians were recorded. A lecture and article were then given to IR physicians and technologists that reviewed ALARA principles for optimizing radiation dose. During the following 4 months, those same parameters were recorded after each procedure. Before education 432 procedures were performed and after education 616 procedures were performed. Physician use of leaded eyeglasses and hanging shield increased significantly after education. DAP and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly for uncomplicated peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) procedures and non-PICC procedures after education, but did not change for complicated PICC procedures. Staff radiation safety education can improve IR radiation safety practices and thus decrease exposure to radiation of both staff and patients. (orig.)

  5. A Study of IR Loss Correction Methodologies for Commercially Available Pyranometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Chuck; Andreas, Afshin; Augustine, John; Dooraghi, Mike; Habte, Aron; Hall, Emiel; Kutchenreiter, Mark; McComiskey, Allison; Reda, Ibrahim; Sengupta, Manajit

    2017-03-24

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of a study of IR Loss Connection Methodologies for Commercially Available Pyranometers. The IR Loss Corrections Study is investigating how various correction methodologies work for several makes and models of commercially available pyranometers in common use, both when operated in ventilators with DC fans and without ventilators, as when they are typically calibrated.

  6. Ultimate realistic losses of ZrF/sub 4/ based IR fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    France, P.W.; Carter, S.F.; Moore, M.W.; Williams, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    An estimation has been made of the minimum loss that might be expected in ZrF/sub 4/ based IR fibre taking into account extrinsic absorption losses as well as the intrinsic loss mechanisms associated with the IR edge and Rayleigh scattering. The results suggest that an overall loss of approximately 0.03 dB/km might be expected at 2.56 μm, a factor of three higher than the intrinsic loss and a factor of seven lower than overall loss in a typical silica fibre

  7. Estimation of radiation losses from sheathed thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, I.L.; Coney, J.E.R.; Gibbs, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermocouples are often used for temperature measurements in heat exchangers. However if the radiation losses from a thermocouple in a high temperature gas flow to colder surroundings are ignored significant errors can occur. Even at moderate temperature differences, these can be significant. Prediction of radiation losses from theory can be problematic, especially in situations where there are large variations in the measured temperatures as the emissivity and radiative heat transfer coefficient of the thermocouple are not constant. The following approach combines experimental results with established empirical relationships to estimate losses due to radiation in an annular heat exchanger at temperatures up to 950 o C. - Highlights: → Sheathed thermocouples are often used to measure temperatures in heat exchangers. → Errors are introduced if radiation losses are ignored. → Radiation losses are environment specific and may be significant. → Experimental and theoretical methods are used to estimate losses. → Hot side maximum temperature 950 o C.

  8. Radiation (UV-IR) measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-07-01

    Scaling law is presented that the ratio P sub(R)/P sub(I) (P sub(R): radiation loss, P sub(I): input power) is proportional to the parameter a sup(3/2)/R (a: minor radius, R: major radius). The discussion is presented about the design of the apparatus for measuring the radiation (ultraviolet to infrared) from the TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma.

  9. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  10. Low loss mid-IR transmission bands using silica hollow-core anisotropic anti-resonant fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Bang, Ole; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a node-free anisotropic hollow-core anti-resonant fiber has been proposed to give low transmission loss in the near-IR to mid-IR spectral regime. The proposed silica-based fiber design shows transmission loss below 10 dB/km at 2.94 μm with multiple low loss transmission bands. Tran...

  11. HOM [higher order mode] losses at the IR [interaction region] of the B-factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.

    1990-08-01

    Masking at the interaction region (IR) will presumably reduce the synchrotron radiation background in the detector. One possible layout of the IR for B-factory shows a rather complicated system of masks. A bunch passing each mask will generate RF waves. These waves (called usually higher order modes, HOM-s) will be absorbed in the beam pipe wall producing additional heating and, interacting with the beam, kicking particles in the radial and azimuthal directions. This may change the bunch motion and its emittance. These effects are estimated in the present note

  12. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A.; Williams, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization

  13. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-01-01

    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  14. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yanmin; Hu Liqun; Mao Songtao; Xu Ping; Chen Kaiyun; Lin Shiyao; Zhong Guoqiang; Zhang Jizong; Zhang Ling; Wang Liang

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (<0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  15. Radiation-resistance assessment of IR fibres for ITER thermography diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brichard, B.; Ierschot, S. van; Ooms, H.; Berghmans, F.; Reichle, R.; Pocheau, C.; Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The actively cooled target plates in the divertor of ITER will be subjected to high thermal fluxes (∼ 10 MW/m 2 ). These target plates are compound structures of an armour material at the surface - either carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFC) or tungsten - and a water cooled CuCrZr structure inside or below. The thermal limit of the interface between the two materials must not exceed 550 o C. Therefore, the temperature must be carefully monitored to prevent structural damages of the divertor plates. Non contact measurements of the temperature offer the advantage to avoid weakening of the cooling plate structure which is already quite complex to manufacture. Infrared thermography of the target surface is therefore considered as a possible solution. Recently a diagnostic concept for spectrally resolved ITER divertor thermography using optical fibres has been proposed by CEA-Cadarache. However, the divertor region will have to face high-radiation flux and the radiation-resistance of InfraRed (IR)-fibres must be evaluated. In collaboration with CEA-Cadarache, an irradiation program has been started at SCK-CEN (Mol, Belgium) with the aim to measure the radiation-induced absorption of different IR fibre candidates operating in the 1-5 μm range. We selected various commercially available IR technologies: ZrF 4 , Hollow-Waveguide, Sapphire and Chalcogenide. For wavelengths below 2 μm we also tested low-OH silica fibres. We carried out a gamma irradiation at a maximum dose-rate of 0.42 Gy/s up to a total dose of about 5000 Gy. We showed that the optical transmission of ZrF 4 fibres strongly decreased under gamma radiation, primarily for wavelengths below 2 μm. In this type of fibre typical optical losses can reach 50 % at 5000 Gy around 3 μm. Nevertheless, the optical transmission can be significantly recovered by performing a thermal annealing treatment at a temperature of 100 o C. We also irradiated a Silver-coated hollow waveguide fibre at the same dose-rate but up

  16. Losses in magnetic flux compression generators: Part 2, Radiation losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.

    1988-06-01

    This is the second monograph devoted to the analysis of flux losses in explosive driven magnetic flux compression generators. In the first monograph, flux losses from magnetic field penetration into conductor walls was studied by conventional diffusion theory. In the present report flux loss by radiation from the outer conductor walls is treated. Flux leakage rates through walls of finite thickness are first obtained by diffusion theory. It is shown, for normal wall thicknesses, that flux leakage is determined essentially by the wall conductance, defined as the product of wall thickness and wall conductivity. This remains true when the wall thickness is reduced to zero at unchanged conductance. In this case the wall is said to be coalesced. Solutions for a cavity bounded by a perfect conductor on one side and a coalesced wall on the other are then obtained using the complete Maxwell wave equations in both the cavity and free space beyond the coalesced wall. Several anomalies, noted earlier, that arise from diffusion analysis are resolved by the wave treatment. Conditions for the validity of the diffusion treatment are noted, and an expression is obtained within the framework of diffusion theory for energy radiated into space from the cavity walls. The free space wave equations are solved by using the method of characteristics in both the cavity and free space regions. An extension of the characteristic method to situations where the constitutive relations are non-linear is outlined in an appendix. For a special class of these relations, Riemann-like invariants are determined explicitly and used to solve a particular example

  17. Influence of two different IR radiators on the antioxidative potential of the human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvin, M E; Patzelt, A; Meinke, M; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2009-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used for the fast in vivo detection of the concentration of carotenoid antioxidant substances such as beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin and for the measurement of their degradation dynamics, subsequent to infrared (IR) irradiation emitted by two different IR radiators applied at the same power density. One of the radiators was equipped with a water filter in front of the radiation source (WIRA) and the other was a usual broadband system without a water filter (standard IR radiator – SIR). It was found that the SIR exerted a higher influence on the degradation of carotenoids in the skin than the WIRA. Furthermore, all twelve volunteers who participated in the study felt that the irradiation with the SIR was disagreeably warmer on the skin surface compared to the WIRA, in spite of the same power density values for both radiators on the skin surface. The average degradation magnitude of the carotenoids in the skin of all volunteers after an IR irradiation was determined at 23% for WIRA and 33% for the SIR. A correlation (R 2 ∼ 0.6) was found between the individual level of carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers and the magnitude of degradation of the carotenoids for both IR radiators. Taking the previous investigations into consideration, which clearly showed production of free radicals in the skin subsequent to IR irradiation, it can be concluded that during the application of WIRA irradiation on the skin, fewer radicals are produced in comparison to the SIR

  18. Measurement of radiative losses and convective transfer in a greenhouse covered with different plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palec, G. Le [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Monastir (Tunisia); Champagne, J. Y.; Bernaud, P.; Bournot, P.; Muynck, B. de; Vandevelde, R.

    1984-07-01

    Some experimental results are presented for the determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient between the cover of the greenhouse and the ground. These results are only valid in the case of small shelters. From these experiments, we get data of radiative losses of the greenhouse and some values of the I.R. transmission factor for several plastics. These two parameters can easily be inserted in modelisation of thermal losses, as electrical analogy type. (author)

  19. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  20. Formulation comprising silicon microparticles, as a pigment that can absorb visible UV radiation and reflect ir radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Marie-Isabelle; Fenollosa Esteve, Roberto; Meseguer, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a formulation characterised in that it comprises silicon microparticles having a size between 0.010 um and 50 um in diameter, and to the use thereof as a pigment that can absorb visible UV radiation and reflect IR radiation.

  1. Radiation loss driven instabilities in laser heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    Any plasma in which a significant part of the power balance is due to optically thin radiative losses may be subject to a radiation cooling instability. A simple analytical model gives the dispersion relation for the instability and inclusion of a realistic radiation loss term in a two dimensional hydrodynamic simulation shows that ''jet'' like features form in moderate to high Z plasmas

  2. The ionising radiation (medical exposure) regulations - IR (ME) R, Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, R.; Brejza, P.; Cremona, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The regulations in Malta at present are in draft stage. These regulations partially implement European Council Directive 97/43/Euratom. This Directive lays down the basic measurements for the health and protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure. The regulations impose duties on persons administering radiations, to protect people from unnecessary exposure whether as part of their own medical diagnosis, treatment or as part of occupational health worker for health screening, medico-legal procedures, voluntary participation in research etc. These regulations also apply to individuals who help other individuals undergoing medical exposure. Main provisions 1. Regulation 2 contains the definitions of 28 terms used in these regulations. 2. Regulation 3.1 and 3.2 sets out the medical exposures to which the regulations apply. 3. Regulation 4 requires approval of medical exposures due to medical research, from radiation protection board of Malta. 4. Regulation 5 prohibits new procedures involving medical exposure unless it has been justified in advance. 5. Regulation 6 provides conditions justifying medical exposures. It prohibits any medical exposure from being carried out which has not been justified and authorized and sets out matters to be taken into account for justification. 6. Regulation 7 requires that practitioner justifies the exposure, shall pay special attention towards (a) exposure from medical research procedures where there is no direct health benefit to the individual undergoing exposure, (b) exposures for medico-legal purposes; (c) exposures to pregnant or possible pregnant women and (d) exposures to breast-feeding women. 7. Regulation 8.1 to 8.3 prohibit any medical exposure from being carried out which has not been justified and sets out matters to be taken for justification 8. Regulation 8.4 prohibits an exposure if it cannot be justified. 9. Regulation 9 requires the employer to provide a

  3. Spectroscopic and bolometric measurements of radiation loss in DIVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiho, Makoto; Odajima, Kazuo; Sugie, Tatsuo; Maeda, Hikosuke; Kasai, Satoshi

    1977-11-01

    Radiation loss due to low- and high-z impurities in DIVA (JFT-2a) was measured by means of a calibrated 3m grazing incidence vacuum monochromater and a calibrated pyroelectric detector. The following results were obtained: 1) Radiation loss power due to low-z impurities becomes insignificant by using clean surfaces for the vacuum wall. 2) Radiation loss power due to pseudo continuum from high-z impurities has influence on the energy balance of the confined plasma. 3) The divertor reduces the radiation loss by a factor of about 3. (auth.)

  4. The TX-model - a quantitative heat loss analysis of district heating pipes by means of IR surface temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinki, Heimo [ZW Energiteknik, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of analysing the temperature profile at the ground surface above buried district heating pipes in such a way that would enable the quantitative determination of heat loss from the pair of pipes. In practical applications, it is supposed that this temperature profile is generated by means of advanced IR-thermography. For this purpose, the principle of the TX - model has been developed, based on the fact that the heat losses from pipes buried in the ground have a temperature signature on the ground surface. Qualitative analysis of this temperature signature is very well known and in practical use for detecting leaks from pipes. These techniques primarily make use of relative changes of the temperature pattern along the pipe. In the quantitative heat loss analysis, however, it is presumed that the temperature profile across the pipes is related to the pipe heat loss per unit length. The basic idea is that the integral of the temperature profile perpendicular to the pipe, called TX, is a function of the heat loss, but is also affected by other parameters such as burial depth, heat diffusivity, wind, precipitation and so on. In order to analyse the parameters influencing the TX- factor, a simulation model for the energy balance at the ground surface has been developed. This model includes the heat flow from the pipe to the surface and the heat exchange at the surface with the environment due to convection, latent heat change, solar and long wave radiation. The simulation gives the surprising result that the TX factor is by and large unaffected during the course of a day even when the sun is shining, as long as other climate conditions are relatively stable (low wind, no rain, no shadows). The results from the simulations were verified at different sites in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and USA through a co-operative research program organised and partially financed by the IEA District Heating Programme, Task III, and

  5. Radiation conditions at the training IRT-2000 and IR-100 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorin, Eh.V.; Bronshtejn, I.Eh; Martynov, Yu.N.; Chistyakov, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    The experience is reviewed of radiation hygiene surveys and radiation safety provision during instructional processes on two training and research nuclear reactors of the IRT-2000 type (No. 1 and No. 2) and on an IR-200 reactor. From an analysis of individual dosimetry data the conclusion is made that the trainees and personnel are exposed mainly to external gamma-radiation and also, to a minor degree, to thermal neutrons and beta-radiation. It has been found that a high level of radiation safety is ensured on the training and research so that research and instruction activities are conducted at annual levels of exposure substantially lower than 0.5 rem in the case of trainees and 5 rem in the case of personnel

  6. Radiation losses and global power balance of JT-60 plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, T.; Itami, K.; Nagashima, K.; Tsuji, S.; Hosogane, N.; Yoshida, H.; Ando, T.; Kubo, H.; Takeuchi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation losses and the global power balance for Ohmic and neutral beam heated plasmas have been investigated in different JT-60 configurations. Discharges with a TiC coated molybdenum wall and with a graphite wall, with limiter, outer and lower X-point configurations have been studied by bolometric measurements, thermocouples and an infrared TV camera. In neutral beam heated outer X-point discharges with a TiC coated molybdenum first wall, the radiation loss of the main plasma was very low (10% of the absorbed power). The radiation loss due to oxygen was dominant in this case. On the contrary, in discharges with TiC coated molybdenum limiters the radiation loss was very high (>60% of the absorbed power). In the discharges with a graphite wall the radiated power from the main plasma was 20-25% for both limiter and lower X-point configurations. In lower X-point discharges the main contributor to the radiation loss was oxygen, whereas in limiter discharges the loss due to carbon was equal to the loss due to oxygen. The radiation loss from the lower X-point divertor increased with increasing electron density of the main plasma. (author). 33 refs, 14 figs, 1 tab

  7. Comparative researches concerning cleaning chosen construction materials surface layer using UV and IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napadlek, W.; Marczak, J.; Kubicki, J.; Szudrowicz, M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents comparative research studies of cleaning out of deposits and pollution disposals on different constructional materials like; steel, cast iron, aluminium, copper by using UV and IR laser radiation of wavelength λ =1.064 μm; λ = 0.532 μm; λ = 0.355 μm and λ = 0.266 μm and also impulse laser TEA CO 2 at radiation λ = 10.6 μm were used for the experiments. Achieved experimental results gave us basic information on parameters and conditions and application of each used radiation wavelength. Each kind of pollution and base material should be individually treated, selecting the length of wave and radiation energy density. Laser microtreatment allows for broad cleaning application of the surface of constructional materials as well as may be used in future during manufacturing processes as: preparation of surface for PVD technology, galvanotechnics, cleaning of the surface of machine parts etc. (author)

  8. Radiation levels in Cath Lab and occupational exposures during manual 192Ir intracoronary brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.D.; Shanta, A.; Tripathi, U.B.; Bhatt, B.C.

    2001-01-01

    Intracoronary brachytherapy is a new modality of radiation therapy and is being used to reduce the rate of restenosis after angioplasty. Clinical trials for evaluation of safety and efficacy of manually implanted 192 Ir seed ribbons are underway at various cardiology centres in India. 192 Ir emits high energy gamma rays (0.136 -1.06 MeV), which causes concern regarding safety of the personnel when these sources are manually used in the cardiac catheterization laboratory (Cath Lab) for intracoronary irradiation. Radiation levels in Cath Lab and exposures to personnel have been measured at 6 different cardiology centres in the country during 8 different clinical trials using radiation survey meter, personnel monitoring badges and pocket dosimeters. Activities of 192 Ir seed ribbons used in these clinical trials were in the range of 5.55 - 14.8 GBq. Measured radiation levels behind the mobile lead shields, at the top of lead shields, near the patient head, near the patient toes and at the main door of the Cath Lab were in the range of 2.6-20, 50-256, 385-450, 22-225 and 2-16 μSv/hr/3.7GBq, respectively. Measured effective doses to occupational workers were in range of 14-100 μSv/procedure/3.7GBq. Based on these measurements, user institutions have been advised to use lead glass mounted L-shaped mobile lead shields with proper orientation during clinical trials, avoid unwanted occupancy in the Cath Lab and around the patient during irradiation and use conveniently long forceps or tongs for implantation and removal of sources. (author)

  9. Quenching star formation with quasar outflows launched by trapped IR radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tiago; Rosdahl, Joakim; Sijacki, Debora; Haehnelt, Martin G.

    2018-06-01

    We present cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, performed with the code RAMSES-RT, of radiatively-driven outflows in a massive quasar host halo at z = 6. Our simulations include both single- and multi-scattered radiation pressure on dust from a quasar and are compared against simulations performed with thermal feedback. For radiation pressure-driving, we show that there is a critical quasar luminosity above which a galactic outflow is launched, set by the equilibrium of gravitational and radiation forces. While this critical luminosity is unrealistically high in the single-scattering limit for plausible black hole masses, it is in line with a ≈ 3 × 10^9 M_⊙ black hole accreting at its Eddington limit, if infrared (IR) multi-scattering radiation pressure is included. The outflows are fast (v ≳ 1000 km s^{-1}) and strongly mass-loaded with peak mass outflow rates ≈ 10^3 - 10^4 M_⊙ yr^{-1}, but short-lived (star formation in the bulge. We hence argue that radiation pressure-driven feedback may be an important ingredient in regulating star formation in compact starbursts, especially during the quasar's `obscured' phase.

  10. Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.

    2017-02-01

    The parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber termed FAC-IR-300 was designed at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI. This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor (ke) and photon scattering correction factor (ksc) are needed. ke factor corrects the charge loss from the collecting volume and ksc factor corrects the scattering of photons into collecting volume. In this work ke and ksc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. As a result of the simulation data, the ke and ksc values for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber are 1.0704 and 0.9982, respectively.

  11. Investigation of electron-loss and photon scattering correction factors for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H.Z.

    2017-01-01

    The parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber termed FAC-IR-300 was designed at the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI. This chamber is used for low and medium X-ray dosimetry on the primary standard level. In order to evaluate the air-kerma, some correction factors such as electron-loss correction factor (k e ) and photon scattering correction factor (k sc ) are needed. k e factor corrects the charge loss from the collecting volume and k sc factor corrects the scattering of photons into collecting volume. In this work k e and k sc were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. These correction factors are calculated for mono-energy photon. As a result of the simulation data, the k e and k sc values for FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber are 1.0704 and 0.9982, respectively.

  12. Comparison of radiation shielding requirements for HDR brachytherapy using 169Yb and 192Ir sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lymperopoulou, G.; Papagiannis, P.; Sakelliou, L.; Georgiou, E.; Hourdakis, C. J.; Baltas, D.

    2006-01-01

    169 Yb has received a renewed focus lately as an alternative to 192 Ir sources for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Following the results of a recent work by our group which proved 169 Yb to be a good candidate for HDR prostate brachytherapy, this work seeks to quantify the radiation shielding requirements for 169 Yb HDR brachytherapy applications in comparison to the corresponding requirements for the current 192 Ir HDR brachytherapy standard. Monte Carlo simulation (MC) is used to obtain 169 Yb and 192 Ir broad beam transmission data through lead and concrete. Results are fitted to an analytical equation which can be used to readily calculate the barrier thickness required to achieve a given dose rate reduction. Shielding requirements for a HDR brachytherapy treatment room facility are presented as a function of distance, occupancy, dose limit, and facility workload, using analytical calculations for both 169 Yb and 192 Ir HDR sources. The barrier thickness required for 169 Yb is lower than that for 192 Ir by a factor of 4-5 for lead and 1.5-2 for concrete. Regarding 169 Yb HDR brachytherapy applications, the lead shielding requirements do not exceed 15 mm, even in highly conservative case scenarios. This allows for the construction of a lead door in most cases, thus avoiding the construction of a space consuming, specially designed maze. The effects of source structure, attenuation by the patient, and scatter conditions within an actual treatment room on the above-noted findings are also discussed using corresponding MC simulation results

  13. Limiting energy loss distributions for multiphoton channeling radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenco, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Recent results in the theory of multiphoton spectra for coherent radiation sources are overviewed, with the emphasis on channeling radiation. For the latter case, the importance of the order of resummation and averaging is emphasized. Limiting shapes of multiphoton spectra at high intensity are discussed for different channeling regimes. In some spectral regions, there emerges a correspondence between the radiative energy loss and the electron integrals of motion

  14. Development of sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir radiation sources for intravascular irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kogure, H; Iwamoto, S; Iwata, K; Kawauchi, Y; Nagata, Y; Sorita, T; Suzuki, K

    2003-01-01

    Intravascular brachytherapy is a novel therapy for preventing the restenosis of coronary artery by use of low-dose irradiation. JAERI and Kyoto University have been developing sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir radiation sources by the cooperative research project entitled as 'The research on safety and effectiveness of the intravascular brachytherapy for preventing restenosis of the coronary artery disease' since 1998. The radiation source was introduced into the stenosis through a catheter (a guide-tube to insert directly into vascular) to irradiate the diseased part. Ten sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir seed sources (phi 0.4 mm x 2.5 mm) were positioned between nylon spacers (phi 0.3 mm x 1.0 mm) in a flexible covering tube and the tube was plugged with a core-wire; the tube was shrunk to fix the inside materials and the size is 0.46 mm in diameter and 3 m in length. The physically optimal design was determined to insert the radiation source easily into vascular and to get the dose uniformity in the diseased part. The production me...

  15. Protective Effect of Curcumin against Ionizing Radiation (IR)-induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dong Min; Nasir Uddin, S. M.; Ryu, Tae Ho; Kang, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) has many practical applications such as medicine, foods, agricultures, industries, and research laboratories. However, the increasing use of radiation is associated with radiation accidents threatening human health. It is well known that exposure to IR gives rise to genomic alterations, mutagenesis, and cell death. IR is absorbed directly by DNA, leading to various DNA damages (single or double-strand breaks, base damage, and DNA-DNA or DNA-protein cross-linkages) in many living organisms. Therefore, the development of effective and nontoxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest. Curcumin (C 12 H 20 O 6 , structure is the major yellow component of Curcuma longa with biological activities (antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties). It has been widely used as food and medicine for a long time. The aim of our present study is to investigate the protective effects of curcumin against IR-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in cultured HepG2 cells

  16. Generation of thermo-acoustic waves from pulsed solar/IR radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Aowabin

    Acoustic waves could potentially be used in a wide range of engineering applications; however, the high energy consumption in generating acoustic waves from electrical energy and the cost associated with the process limit the use of acoustic waves in industrial processes. Acoustic waves converted from solar radiation provide a feasible way of obtaining acoustic energy, without relying on conventional nonrenewable energy sources. One of the goals of this thesis project was to experimentally study the conversion of thermal to acoustic energy using pulsed radiation. The experiments were categorized into "indoor" and "outdoor" experiments, each with a separate experimental setup. The indoor experiments used an IR heater to power the thermo-acoustic lasers and were primarily aimed at studying the effect of various experimental parameters on the amplitude of sound waves in the low frequency range (below 130 Hz). The IR radiation was modulated externally using a chopper wheel and then impinged on a porous solid, which was housed inside a thermo-acoustic (TA) converter. A microphone located at a certain distance from the porous solid inside the TA converter detected the acoustic signals. The "outdoor" experiments, which were targeted at TA conversion at comparatively higher frequencies (in 200 Hz-3 kHz range) used solar energy to power the thermo-acoustic laser. The amplitudes (in RMS) of thermo-acoustic signals obtained in experiments using IR heater as radiation source were in the 80-100 dB range. The frequency of acoustic waves corresponded to the frequency of interceptions of the radiation beam by the chopper. The amplitudes of acoustic waves were influenced by several factors, including the chopping frequency, magnitude of radiation flux, type of porous material, length of porous material, external heating of the TA converter housing, location of microphone within the air column, and design of the TA converter. The time-dependent profile of the thermo-acoustic signals

  17. Pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR increase labile iron in pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C. Moser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Labile iron, i.e. iron that is weakly bound and is relatively unrestricted in its redox activity, has been implicated in both the pathogenesis as well as treatment of cancer. Two cancer treatments where labile iron may contribute to their mechanism of action are pharmacological ascorbate and ionizing radiation (IR. Pharmacological ascorbate has been shown to have tumor-specific toxic effects due to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. By catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate, labile iron can enhance the rate of formation of hydrogen peroxide; labile iron can also react with hydrogen peroxide. Here we have investigated the magnitude of the labile iron pool in tumor and normal tissue. We also examined the ability of pharmacological ascorbate and IR to change the size of the labile iron pool. Although a significant amount of labile iron was seen in tumors (MIA PaCa-2 cells in athymic nude mice, higher levels were seen in murine tissues that were not susceptible to pharmacological ascorbate. Pharmacological ascorbate and irradiation were shown to increase the labile iron in tumor homogenates from this murine model of pancreatic cancer. As both IR and pharmacological ascorbate may rely on labile iron for their effects on tumor tissues, our data suggest that pharmacological ascorbate could be used as a radio-sensitizing agent for some radio-resistant tumors.

  18. Beam Loss Detection at Radiation Source ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, P; Schurig, R; Langenhagen, H

    2003-01-01

    The Rossendorf superconducting Electron Linac of high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) delivers an 40 MeV, 1 mA cw-beam for different applications such as bremsstrahlung production, electron channelling, free-electron lasers or secondary particle beam generation. In this energy region in case of collisions of the electron beam with the pipe nearly all beam power will be deposited into the pipe material. Therefore a reliable beam loss monitoring is essential for machine protection at ELBE. Different systems basing on photo multipliers, compton diodes and long ionization chambers were studied. The pros and cons of the different systems will be discussed. Ionization chambers based on air-isolated RF cables installed some cm away parallel to the beam line turned out to be the optimal solution. The beam shut-off threshold was adjusted to 1 μC integral charge loss during a 100 ms time interval. Due to the favourable geometry the monitor sensitivity varies less than ±50% along the beam line (di...

  19. Modelisation of synchrotron radiation losses in realistic tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albajar, F.; Johner, J.; Granata, G.

    2000-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation losses become significant in the power balance of high-temperature plasmas envisaged for next step tokamaks. Due to the complexity of the exact calculation, these losses are usually roughly estimated with expressions derived from a plasma description using simplifying assumptions on the geometry, radiation absorption, and density and temperature profiles. In the present article, the complete formulation of the transport of synchrotron radiation is performed for realistic conditions of toroidal plasma geometry with elongated cross-section, using an exact method for the calculation of the absorption coefficient, and for arbitrary shapes of density and temperature profiles. The effects of toroidicity and temperature profile on synchrotron radiation losses are analyzed in detail. In particular, when the electron temperature profile is almost flat in the plasma center, as for example in ITB confinement regimes, synchrotron losses are found to be much stronger than in the case where the profile is represented by its best generalized parabolic approximation, though both cases give approximately the same thermal energy contents. Such an effect is not included in present approximate expressions. Finally, we propose a seven-variable fit for the fast calculation of synchrotron radiation losses. This fit is derived from a large database, which has been generated using a code implementing the complete formulation and optimized for massively parallel computing. (author)

  20. Radiation-induced loss of unsaturation in 1,2-polybutadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, M.A.; Cormia, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation induced loss of unsaturation and methyl production in 1,2-polybutadiene (VB) was studied using IR spectroscopy. It was found that G(-1,2), which depends on the initial vinyl content, decreased from approximately 550 for VB with 98.5% 1,2 initially, to approximately 270 for VB with 85% 1,2 initially. G(-trans-1,4) ranged from approximately 21 for VB with 14% trans-1,4 to nearly zero for VB with less than 1% trans-1,4 initially. Methyl production was found to equal one methyl group formed for every 4-5 vinyl units consumed in the radiation-cyclized VB, in contrast to one methyl formed for every two vinyls reacted during cationic cyclization to give monocyclic structures. The IR spectra of gamma-irradiated VB were very similar to the spectra of UV-irradiated or thermally-treated VB at the same residual vinyl contents. It is suggested that the radiation-induced cyclization of VB occurs by a nonionic, nonradical 'energy chain' mechanism, which apparently holds for the cyclization of VB, whether induced by gamma-rays, UV radiation, or heat

  1. Radiation induced ligand loss from cobalt complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funston, A. M.; McFadyen, W.D.; Tregloan, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Due to the rapid nature of ligand dissociation from cobalt(II) complexes the study of the rate of ligand dissociation necessitates the use of a technique such as pulse radiolysis. This allows the rapid reduction of the corresponding cobalt(III) complex by a reducing radical, such as the aquated electron, to form the cobalt(II) complex. However, to date, no systematic study of either the mechanism of reduction or the influence of the electronic structure on the rate of ligand dissociation has been carried out. In order to understand these processes more fully the mechanism of reduction of a range of related cobalt(III) complexes by the aquated electron and the subsequent rate of ligand dissociation from the resulting cobalt(II) complexes is being investigated. It has been found that a number of processes are observed following the initial rapid reaction of the cobalt(III) complex with the aquated electron. Ultimately ligand loss is observed. Depending upon the complex, the initial processes observed may include the formation of coordinated radicals and electron transfer within the complex. For complexes containing aromatic ligands such as 2,2'-bipyridine, 1,10-phenanthroline and dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine the formation of a coordinated radical is observed as the initial reduction step. The kinetics of ligand dissociation of these complexes has been determined. The loss of monodentate ligands is fast and has been indistinguishable from the reduction processes when aromatic ligands are also present in the complex. However, for diamine chelates and diimine chelates spectra of the transient species can be resolved

  2. Evaluation of the influence of UV/IR radiation on iron release from ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzkov, M.; Kochev, V.; Vladimirova, L

    2010-01-01

    In the present work the influence of UV/IR radiation on the iron-releasing process from ferritin is investigated. The ferritins are a family of iron-storing proteins playing a key role in the biochemical reactions between iron and oxygen-processes of exclusive importance for the existence of all living organisms. The iron is stored within the ferritin core in the form of insoluble crystals containing Fe(III). Therefore for its release, the mineral matrix has to be decomposed, usually through a reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Our study considers the action of UV/IR radiation on the structure of the protein molecule. Eventual changes in the ferritin conformation under the irradiation could result in the change of channel forming regions responsible for the iron efflux. This can be assess by the quantity of Fe (II) obtained in a subsequent mobilization procedure evoked by exogenous reducing agents. In our case the content of the reduced iron is determined electrochemically by the method of potentiometric titration. As already was shown, this method promises to become highly useful for quantitative evaluation of released Fe 2+ . (Author)

  3. Effect of lateral radiative losses on radiative shock propagation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Busquet, M.; Audit, E.; González, M.; Stehlé, C.; Thais, F.; Acef, O.; Bauduin, D.; Barroso, P.; Rus, Bedřich; Kozlová, Michaela; Polan, Jiří; Mocek, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2007), s. 8-11 ISSN 1574-1818 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 506350 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : radiative shocks * laboratory astrophysics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  4. Radiation-induced cell death by chromatin loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, I.R.; Warenius, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    A model is proposed which relates reproductive death of cells caused by radiation to loss of chromatin at cell division. This loss of chromatin can occur through chromosomal deletions or through the formation of asymmetrical chromosomal exchanges. It is proposed that smaller doses of radiation produce fewer chromatin breaks, which are more likely to be accurately repaired, compared with larger doses. Consequently, smaller doses of radiation are less efficient in causing cell death, leading to a shoulder on the cell survival curve. Experimental evidence supports this model, and the fit between the derived formula and experimental cell survival curves is good. The derived formula approximates to the linear-quadratic equation at low doses of radiation. (author)

  5. Long radiation detector system for beam loss monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsamo, J.; Fewell, N.M.; Klein, J.D.; Witkover, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Long Radiation Monitor (LRM) system installed at the 200 MeV linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. This system allows observation of both the spatial and temporal character of the losses in the linac and its transport lines. An array of large diameter gas filled coaxial cables are used as extended ion chambers to detect the losses. The output signals are available as a histogram, video waveforms, and numerical data via the computer. A fast beam interrupt is also provided. The detector characteristics and details of the processing electronics are presented. Results of studies of longitudinal, steering and focusing losses are described

  6. Long radiation detector system for beam loss monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsamo, J.; Fewell, N.M.; Klein, J.D.; Witkover, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Long Radiation Monitor (LRM) system installed at the 200 MeV linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. This system allows observation of both the spatial and temporal character of the losses in the linac and its transport lines. An array of large diameter gas filled coaxial cables are used as extended ion chambers to detect the losses. The output signals are available as a histogram, video waveforms, and numerical data via the computer. A fast beam interrupt is also provided. The detector characteristics and details of the processing electronics are presented. Results of studies of longitudinal, steering and focusing losses are described.

  7. Highly doped InP as a low loss plasmonic material for mid-IR region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panah, M E Aryaee; Takayama, O; Morozov, S V; Kudryavtsev, K E; Semenova, E S; Lavrinenko, A V

    2016-12-12

    We study plasmonic properties of highly doped InP in the mid-infrared (IR) range. InP was grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with the growth conditions optimized to achieve high free electron concentrations by doping with silicon. The permittivity of the grown material was found by fitting the calculated infrared reflectance spectra to the measured ones. The retrieved permittivity was then used to simulate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation on flat and structured surfaces, and the simulation results were verified in direct experiments. SPPs at the top and bottom interfaces of the grown epilayer were excited by the prism coupling. A high-index Ge hemispherical prism provides efficient coupling conditions of SPPs on flat surfaces and facilitates acquiring their dispersion diagrams. We observed diffraction into symmetry-prohibited diffraction orders stimulated by the excitation of surface plasmon-polaritons in a periodically structured epilayer. Characterization shows good agreement between the theory and experimental results and confirms that highly doped InP is an effective plasmonic material aiming it for applications in the mid-IR wavelength range.

  8. Improved amylose content of rice (IR72) induced through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrida, Adelaida C.; Rivera, Faye G.; Manrique, Mary Jayne C.; Dimaano, Arvin O.; Costimiano, Eduardo C.

    2015-01-01

    In general grain quality and quality preferences vary across rice growing countries and regions. Filipinos preferres translucent, well milled, long grain rice with aroma and minimal broken grains which is soft after cooling. The amylose content of rice starch is a major eating quality factor. The aim of this study is to develop rice mutants with good eating quality and low to intermediate amylose content through induced mutation using gamma radiation. Low to intermediate amylose content in rice were identified and selected among the advance generation lines irradiated with 200 and 300Gy dose of gamma radiation. Screening was done using qualitative method (Iodine staining method). Selected lines were analyzed quantitatively, to determine the percent amylose content. Percent amylose were group to several categories where; 0-6% is waxy, 6-12% is very low, 12-18% is low, 18-24% is intermediate and >25% is high. Results were further confirmed using molecular marker technique by looking at the waxy gene which code for granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and controls amylose content in rice. Among the 30 lines selcted and anaylzes, 2 lines were confirmed to have a gene base mutation with a low to intermediate amylose content. Thus, induced mutation using gamma radiation has successfully improved amylose content in rice (IR72). (author)

  9. Experimental study of radiation losses on the JT-60 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Takeo

    1990-06-01

    Bolometric measurement system and associated diagnostics, soft x-ray pulse-height-analyzer, soft x-ray intensity and Balmer α line measurement systems, were developed to investigate the radiation losses of the JT-60 plasmas. The bolometric measurement is the most important diagnostics in the radiation loss study. The soft x-ray pulse-height-analyzer is useful to estimate the metallic impurity concentration, and the soft x-ray intensity and Balmer α line measurements are monitors of radiation in x-ray region and particle recycling in the plasma edge, respectively. In JT-60, the marfe has been observed frequently in high-Ip and high density limited discharges with NB heating after the replacement of the first wall from TiC coated molybdenum tiles to graphite ones. The threshold electron density of the marfe onset increased with the NB power. The empirical scaling of the marfe onset taking account of the NB power was obtained. This scaling was useful to predict the marfe onset condition in NB heated discharges on JT-60. The marfe was modelled based on the radiative thermal instability. The simple model can explain the marfe onset condition. The radiated power from the plasma with marfe was about 90 % of the absorbed power. Both stored energy and central electron temperatures did not change by the marfe onset in spite of the such intense radiation loss. Finally, this study revealed that the most clean plasma was obtained in the metallic first wall with the divertor on JT-60. This fact is suggesting the capability of the metallic material for the first wall of next devices. Enhance radiation localized in the peripheral plasma such as marfe and IDC does not degrade the core plasma confinement or somewhat improves it, so that marfe and IDC are suitable operational regime in the high density region for future devices because they have strong remote-radiative-cooling-effect. (J.P.N.)

  10. Influence of Variable Fluid Properties and Radiative Heat loss on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, comparative analysis is also performed on the wall shear stress and local heat transfer of the present study with the available results.The results show that the inclusion variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, and radiative heat loss mechanism cause significant effects on the fluid flow velocity, temperature ...

  11. Particle Acceleration and Radiative Losses at Relativistic Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, P.; Duffy, P.

    A semi-analytic approach to the relativistic transport equation with isotropic diffusion and consistent radiative losses is presented. It is based on the eigenvalue method first introduced in Kirk & Schneider [5]and Heavens & Drury [3]. We demonstrate the pitch-angle dependence of the cut-off in relativistic shocks.

  12. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  13. Dielectric losses in tissues under ionizing radiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, N.; Narizov, N.N.; Norbaev, N.

    1977-01-01

    Dielectric losses of tissues caused by ionizing radiation were studied. The experiments were carried out on seven-day-old seedlings of two wild cotton species (G. barbadense ssp. darvini, G. hirsutum ssp. mexicanum) and of cultivated cotton sorts Tashkent-1, C-6030, AN-401. The study showed that the irradiation of the seedlings with CO 60 gamma-rays (radiation doses 0.3, 3, 20, 35 kr, the dose rate 90 rs/s) changed the tangent of the angle of losses. It was found out that the maximum tangent of the angle of dielectric losses tg sigma of cultivated forms lies within the range of 5-10 kHz frequencies, this value changing under the effect of radiation to a greater extent in wild-growing ssp. mexicanum cotton plants than in commercial varieties (Tashkent 1). In commercial cotton varieties, in distinction to wild forms, the radiation is shifting tg sigma to low frequencies. The electric capacity is much lower in wild forms (ssp. mexicanum) than in cultivated cotton seedlings. Thus the capacity of cells and the maximum of the tg sigma absorption in cultivated and wild cotton seedlings are significantly different which is probably connected with their different radiosensitivity to the ionizing radiation

  14. Safety Analysis Report for Primary Capsule of Ir-192 Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. C.; Bang, K. S.; Choi, W. S.; Seo, K. S.; Son, K. J.; Park, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    All of the source capsules to transport a special form radioactive material should be designed and fabricated in accordance with the design criteria prescribed in IAEA standards and domestic regulations. The objective of this project is to prove the safety of a primary capsule for Ir-192 radiation source which produced in the HANARO. The safety tests of primary capsules were carried out for the impact, percussion and heat conditions. And leakage tests were carried out before and after the each tests. The capsule showed slight scratches and their deformations were not found after each tests. It also met the allowable limits of leakage rate after each test. Therefore, it has been verified that the capsule was designed and fabricated to meet all requirements for the special form radioactive materials

  15. Choice of Eye-Safe Radiation Wavelength in UV and Near IR Spectral Bands for Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Belov; V. A. Gorodnichev; D. A. Kravtsov; A. A. Cherpakova

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of laser remote sensing systems carries a particular risk to the human’s sense of vision. A structure of the eye, and especially the retina, is the main critical organ as related to the laser radiation.The work uses the optical models of the atmosphere, correctly working in both the UV and the near-IR band, to select the eye-safe radiation wavelengths in the UV (0.355 m) and near-IR (~ 1.54 and ~ 2 m) spectral bands from the point of view of recorded lidar signal value to ful...

  16. Highly doped InP as a low loss plasmonic material for mid-IR region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panah, Mohammad Esmail Aryaee; Takayama, Osamu; Morozov, S. V.

    2016-01-01

    by fitting the calculated infrared reflectance spectra to the measured ones. The retrieved permittivity was then used to simulate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagation on flat and structured surfaces, and the simulation results were verified in direct experiments. SPPs at the top and bottom......We study plasmonic properties of highly doped InP in the mid-infrared (IR) range. InP was grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) with the growth conditions optimized to achieve high free electron concentrations by doping with silicon. The permittivity of the grown material was found...... interfaces of the grown epilayer were excited by the prism coupling. A high-index Ge hemispherical prism provides efficient coupling conditions of SPPs on flat surfaces and facilitates acquiring their dispersion diagrams. We observed diffraction into symmetry-prohibited diffraction orders stimulated...

  17. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  18. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist

  19. IR radiation characteristics of rocket exhaust plumes under varying motor operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin NIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared (IR irradiance signature from rocket motor exhaust plumes is closely related to motor type, propellant composition, burn time, rocket geometry, chamber parameters and flight conditions. In this paper, an infrared signature analysis tool (IRSAT was developed to understand the spectral characteristics of exhaust plumes in detail. Through a finite volume technique, flow field properties were obtained through the solution of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with the Reynolds-averaged approach. A refined 13-species, 30-reaction chemistry scheme was used for combustion effects and a k-ε-Rt turbulence model for entrainment effects. Using flowfield properties as input data, the spectrum was integrated with a line of sight (LOS method based on a single line group (SLG model with Curtis-Godson approximation. The model correctly predicted spectral distribution in the wavelengths of 1.50–5.50 μm and had good agreement for its location with imaging spectrometer data. The IRSAT was then applied to discuss the effects of three operating conditions on IR signatures: (a afterburning; (b chamber pressure from ignition to cutoff; and (c minor changes in the ratio of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB binder to ammonium perchlorate (AP oxidizer in propellant. Results show that afterburning effects can increase the size and shape of radiance images with enhancement of radiation intensity up to 40%. Also, the total IR irradiance in different bands can be characterized by a non-dimensional chamber pressure trace in which the maximum discrepancy is less than 13% during ignition and engine cutoff. An increase of chamber pressure can lead to more distinct diamonds, whose distance intervals are extended, and the position of the first diamond moving backwards. In addition, an increase in HTPB/AP causes a significant jump in spectral intensity. The incremental rates of radiance intensity integrated in each band are linear with the increase of HTPB

  20. Loss and recovery of radiation sources in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Pradhan, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of radioisotope sources occurs as a result of the violation of safe work practices and non-compliance with rules and guidelines. The main causes are human error, negligence in source handling and storage as well as mismanagement and lack of supervision. The failure to adequately supervise and manage leads to a breakdown in communication and differences among workers, supervisors and managers. Recovery of lost sources is generally a tedious task. In India, apart from the efforts of the user institution, a team of scientists from the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) undertakes searches and supervises recovery operations. Sources have been lost in brachytherapy and nuclear medicine departments of hospitals and in industrial institutions. For brachytherapy source losses, hospital garbage, dustbins, passages and lifts were the main targets for searches. While gamma ray and neutron sources could be traced for the most part, pure beta ray sources, such as Sr-90 used in ophthalmic applicators or as check sources, could not be recovered. In industrial radiography, the search for sources was more problematic, especially when the sources were stolen or lost in transport. Lost materials could not be traced in only two out of eleven instances of loss of Ir-192 sources since 1986. In a separate incident, sources which had been stolen were found in a deep river: this necessitated an elaborate fishing operation at a cost of some US$100,000. Each occurrence provided lessons calling for the introduction of new control measures. (author)

  1. Ion confinement and radiation losses in the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Colchin, R.J.; Wade, M.R.; Lyon, J.F.; Fowler, R.H.; Rome, J.A.; Hiroe, S.; Baylor, L.R.; England, A.; Ma, C.H.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ochando, M.; Paul, S.

    1991-01-01

    Collapses of stored energy are typically observed in low-density (anti n e ∼ 10 13 cm -3 ) extensively gettered ATF plasmas when the electron density rises to the ECH cutoff point, and the central heating is supplied only by neutral- beam-injection (NBI). However, the decline of stored energy can be avoided if the density is raised rapidly to about 5 x 10 13 cm -3 . Three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the collapses: (1) impurity radiation, (2) excitation of an electron instability driven by the neutral beams, or (3) poor coupling of the beam ions to the thermal plasmas. Detailed spectroscopic studies of plasma cleanliness as a function of the gettering procedure have shown that radiation is an unlikely candidate for initiating collapses, although it may become an important loss mechanism once the electron temperature has fallen to a low level. No specific electron instability has yet been identified with injection, but recent experimental and computational work indicates that losses by shinethrough and charge exchange strongly influence the evolution of low-density plasmas. This report discusses the beam particle losses, thermal ions, and the evolution of radiation profiles

  2. Synchrotron radiation losses in Engineering Test Reactors (ETRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    In next-generation Engineering Test Reactors (ETRs), one major objective is envisioned to be a long-pulse or steady-state burn using noninductive current drive. At the high temperatures needed for efficient current drive, synchrotron radiation could represent a large power loss, especially if wall reflectivity (R) is very low. Many INTOR-class ETR designs [Fusion Engineering Reactor (FER), Next European Torus (NET), OTR, Tokamak Ignition/Burn Engineering Reactor (TIBER), etc.] call for carbon-covered surfaces for which wall reflectivity is uncertain. Global radiation losses are estimated for these devices using empirical expressions given by Trubnikov (and others). Various operating scenarios are evaluated under the assumption that the plasma performance is limited by either the density limit (typical of the ignition phase) or the beta limit (typical of the current drive phase). For a case with ≥90% wall reflectivity, synchrotron radiation is not a significant contribution to the overall energy balance (the ratio of synchrotron to alpha power is less than 10 to 20%, even at ∼ 30 keV) and thus should not adversely alter performance in these devices. In extreme cases with 0% wall reflectivity, the ratio of synchrotron radiation to alpha power may approach 30 to 60% (depending on the device and limiting operating scenario), adversely affecting the performance characteristics. 12 refs., 7 tabs

  3. Radiative energy loss of neighboring subjets arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    We compute the in-medium energy loss probability distribution of two neighboring subjets at leading order, in the large-$N_c$ approximation. Our result exhibits a gradual onset of color decoherence of the system and accounts for two expected limiting cases. When the angular separation is smaller than the characteristic angle for medium-induced radiation, the two-pronged substructure lose energy coherently as a single color charge, namely that of the parent parton. At large angular separation the two subjets lose energy independently. Our result is a first step towards quantifying effects of energy loss as a result of the fluctuation of the multi-parton jet substructure and therefore goes beyond the standard approach to jet quenching based on single parton energy loss. We briefly discuss applications to jet observables in heavy-ion collisions.

  4. Evaluation of radiation dose on people adjacent to implant patients during brachytherapy for prostate cancer using {sup 192}Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Ko, Seong Jin; Kang, Se Sik; Kim, Chang Soo [Catholic University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The incidence of prostate cancer is rapidly increasing due to aging of the population and westernization of dietary habits, etc. As a result, the frequency of prostate cancer has become the fifth highest among all male cancers and the first among urological cancers. Brachytherapy is commonly used for locally progressing prostate cancers. Since the mid 1980s, therapies using radio-isotopes, such as low-invasive {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd and {sup 192}Ir, have been widely performed in the U.S. and Europe. However, brachytherapy involves implanting radio-isotopes into the human body which is of concern because it may expose the health care professionals administering the therapy to unnecessary radiation. Accordingly, this study intends to predict the radiation dose that people adjacent to patients implanted with a radio-isotope are exposed to during prostate cancer radiation therapy by using a mathematical anthropomorphic phantom and {sup 192}Ir.

  5. Protective Effect of Curcumin against Ionizing Radiation (IR)-induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in HepG2 Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong Min; Nasir Uddin, S. M.; Ryu, Tae Ho; Kang, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Ionizing radiation (IR) has many practical applications such as medicine, foods, agricultures, industries, and research laboratories. However, the increasing use of radiation is associated with radiation accidents threatening human health. It is well known that exposure to IR gives rise to genomic alterations, mutagenesis, and cell death. IR is absorbed directly by DNA, leading to various DNA damages (single or double-strand breaks, base damage, and DNA-DNA or DNA-protein cross-linkages) in many living organisms. Therefore, the development of effective and nontoxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest. Curcumin (C{sub 12}H{sub 20}O{sub 6}, structure is the major yellow component of Curcuma longa with biological activities (antioxidant, anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory properties). It has been widely used as food and medicine for a long time. The aim of our present study is to investigate the protective effects of curcumin against IR-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in cultured HepG2 cells.

  6. FT-IR study of gamma-radiation induced degradation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVA/humic acids blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilcin, M.; Hola, O.; Bakajova, B.; Kucerik, J.

    2010-01-01

    Samples of pure polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and PVA doped with humic acids were exposed to gamma radiation. Gamma rays induced the degradation of the pure polymer. Degradation changes were observed using ATR FT-IR equipment. Dehydration, double bond creation, and their subsequent oxidation (surrounding atmosphere was air) were found out. Also, other degradation reactions (e.g. chain scission, cyclization) occur simultaneously. Formation of C=C and C=O bonds is apparent from FT-IR spectra. In contrast the presence of humic acids in the PVA sample showed stabilizing effect on PVA structure within the concentration range 0.5-10%. (author)

  7. The study of the radiation chemical transformation of the hexane on the surface of aluminium by IR-spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimikhanova, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In this work the experimental results of the radiation-chemical transformation of hexane on the aluminum surface obtained by IR spectroscopy method at room temperature have been presented. The metallic aluminum plates which was obtained by stage pressing granules by mark of AD-00 with the reflection coefficient R=0,85 in the middle infrared range of waves length λ=15 ± 2,2 mkm were used. As an adsorbate unsaturated vapors of hexane were used, the absorption of which was being carried out at the room temperature by the method. The radiation of system was carried out with γ-quanta of Co 60 with doze rate of 1,03 Gy/s - 1, and the absorbed doze in the system was (0,5-2)10 4 Gy. IR reflection spectra when beams fall on the sample under angle near the slipping were measured in diapason of 3600-650 cm - 1 by the spectrophotometer S pecord 71IR . The radiation chemical decomposition of hexane in heterosystem was being traced in stretching (3000-2700 cm - 1) and deformation (1500-1300 cm - 1) vibration diapasons of C-H bonds. The analysis of IR reflection spectra of Al-ads.hexane heterosystem showed that the main products of radiation chemical transformation are hydrocarbons C1-C5, olefins: propylene, butene-1, hexene-1, transhexene-3 and hydrocarbons more heavy than hexane. In frequency range of 1700-2000 cm - 1 the absorption bands of Al-H vibration which concern to aluminum hydrides are founded. By increasing of radiation dose the tendency of increasing of hydrogen accumulation as aluminum hydrides has been established

  8. Mobilizing Transit-Amplifying Cell-Derived Ectopic Progenitors Prevents Hair Loss from Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lai, Shih-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Michael; Plikus, Maksim V; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, You-Tzung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chi, Peter; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2017-11-15

    Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region, and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HFs mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Specifically, after low-dose IR, keratin 5 + basal hair bulb progenitors, rather than bulge SCs, were quickly activated to replenish matrix cells and regenerated all concentric layers of HFs, demonstrating their plasticity. After high-dose IR, when both matrix and hair bulb cells were depleted, the surviving outer root sheath cells rapidly acquired an SC-like state and fueled HF regeneration. Their progeny then homed back to SC niche and supported new cycles of HF growth. We also revealed that IR induced HF dystrophy and hair loss and suppressed WNT signaling in a p53- and dose-dependent manner. Augmenting WNT signaling attenuated the suppressive effect of p53 and enhanced ectopic progenitor proliferation after genotoxic injury, thereby preventing both IR- and cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Hence, targeted activation of TAC-derived progenitor cells, rather than quiescent bulge SCs, for anagen HF repair can be a potential approach to prevent hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6083-96. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Chaos of radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinugawa, Hikaru; Ueda, Kazuhiro; Gotoda, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We are intensively studying the chaos via the period-doubling bifurcation cascade in radiative heat-loss-induced flame front instability by analytical methods based on dynamical systems theory and complex networks. Significant changes in flame front dynamics in the chaotic region, which cannot be seen in the bifurcation diagrams, were successfully extracted from recurrence quantification analysis and nonlinear forecasting and from the network entropy. The temporal dynamics of the fuel concentration in the well-developed chaotic region is much more complicated than that of the flame front temperature. It exhibits self-affinity as a result of the scale-free structure in the constructed visibility graph.

  10. Simplified models for radiational losses calculating a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutiunov, A.B.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Prokhorov, D.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the magnitudes and profiles of radiational losses in a Tokamak plasma, particularly for high plasma densities, when formation of MARFE or detached-plasma takes place, it is necessary to know impurity distribution over the ionization states. Equations describing time evolution of this distribution are rather cumbersome, besides that, transport coefficients as well as rate constants of the processes involving complex ions are known nowadays with high degree of uncertainty, thus it is believed necessary to develop simplified, half-analytical models describing time evolution of the impurities analysis of physical processes taking place in a Tokamak plasma on the base of the experimental data. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  11. Choice of Eye-Safe Radiation Wavelength in UV and Near IR Spectral Bands for Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Belov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of laser remote sensing systems carries a particular risk to the human’s sense of vision. A structure of the eye, and especially the retina, is the main critical organ as related to the laser radiation.The work uses the optical models of the atmosphere, correctly working in both the UV and the near-IR band, to select the eye-safe radiation wavelengths in the UV (0.355 m and near-IR (~ 1.54 and ~ 2 m spectral bands from the point of view of recorded lidar signal value to fulfill the tasks of laser sensing the natural formations and laser aerosol sensing in the atmosphere.It is shown that the remote sensing lasers with appropriate characteristics can be selected both in the UV band (at a wavelength of 0.355 μm and in the near-IR band (at wavelengths of 1.54 ~ or ~ 2 μm.Molecular scattering has its maximum (for the selected wavelength at a wavelength of 0.355 μm in the UV band, and the minimum at the wavelengths of 1.54 and 2.09 μm in the near -IR band. The main contribution to the molecular absorption at a wavelength of 0.355 μm is made by ozone. In the near-IR spectral band the radiation is absorbed due to water vapor and carbon dioxide.Calculations show that the total effect of the molecular absorption and scattering has no influence on radiation transmission for both the wavelength of 0.355 μm in the UV band, and the wavelengths of 1.54 and 2.09 μm in the near-IR band for sensing trails ~ 1 km.One of the main factors of laser radiation attenuation in the Earth's atmosphere is radiation scattering by aerosol particles.The results of calculations at wavelengths of 0.355 μm, 1.54 μm and 2.09 μm for the several models of the atmosphere show that a choice of the most effective (in terms of the recorded signal of lidar and eye-safe radiation wavelength depends strongly on the task of sensing.To fulfill the task of laser sensing the natural formations, among the eye-safe wavelengths there is one significantly advantageous

  12. Conversion of broadband IR radiation and structural disorder in lithium niobate single crystals with low photorefractive effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Man Nen; Syuy, Alexander V.; Krishtop, Victor V.; Pogodina, Veronika A.; Ponomarchuk, Yulia V.; Sidorov, Nikolay V.; Gabain, Aleksei A.; Palatnikov, Mikhail N.; Litvinov, Vladimir A.

    2016-11-01

    The conversion of broadband IR radiation when the noncritical phase matching condition is fulfilled in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals with stoichiometric (R = Li/Nb = 1) and congruent (R = 0.946) compositions, as well as in congruent single crystals doped with zinc has been investigated. It is shown that the spectrum parameters of converted radiation, such as the conversion efficiency, spectral width and position of maximum, depend on the ordering degree of structural units of the cation sublattice along the polar axis of crystal.

  13. The upgraded ring loss radiation monitorinng system at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.W.; Beadle, E.; Castille, V.; Witkover, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    With the Booster the AGS will accelerate protons to 3 /times/ 10 13 per cycle, polarized protons at 10 12 , and ions from Carbon to Gold at intensities from 50 to 3 /times/ 10 9 . A loss monitoring system is being developed to facilitate tuning, and to reduce personnel radiation exposure by minimizing residual induced activity and by allowing remote monitoring of activity in the accelerator enclosure. The monitoring system must have a large dynamic range to monitor high intensity beam losses and to measure induced activity down to the level of a few mrad/hour. Various detectors are being evaluated, including ion chambers, proportional counters, and aluminium cathode electronmultipliers. Measurements of the prompt ionization distribution in the median plane at various energies from point targets at two representative locations in the accelerator lattice have been completed. Details of the monitoring system will be presented, as well as the experimental measurements of the prompt radiation field, and a comparable Monte Carlo calculation. 2 refs., 5 figs

  14. 1 D analysis of Radiative Shock damping by lateral radiative losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Audit, Edouard

    2008-11-01

    We have demonstrated the effect of the lateral radiative losses in radiative shocks propagative in layered quasi-planar atmospheres.[1,2] The damping of the precursor is sensitive to the fraction of self-emitted radiation reflected by the walls (called albedo) We have given recently an experimental determination of the wall albedo.[2] For parametric analysis of this effect, we implement lateral losses in the 1D hydro-rad code MULTI [3] and compared results with 2D simulations. [1] S.Leygnac, et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 113301 (2006) [2] M.Busquet, et al, High Energy Density Plasmas 3, 8-11 (2007); M.Gonzalez, et al, Laser Part. Beams 24, 1-6 (2006) [3] Ramis et al, Comp. Phys. Comm., 49, 475 (1988)

  15. Improvement in HOMA-IR is an independent predictor of reduced carotid intima-media thickness in obese adolescents participating in an interdisciplinary weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Sanches, Priscila; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Elias, Natália; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; de Piano, Aline; Carnier, June; Oyama, Lila Missae; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether a 1-year interdisciplinary weight-loss program improved common carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and whether insulin resistance and/or inflammation (as measured by the markers plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and adiponectin) might underlie obesity in adolescents. A group of 29 post-pubescent obese adolescents were submitted to an interdisciplinary intervention over the course of 1 year. Common carotid artery IMT was determined ultrasonographically. Body composition, blood pressure (BP), glycemia, insulinemia, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile and adipokine concentrations were analyzed before and after the intervention. The interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a significant improvement in body composition, insulin concentration, HOMA-IR, lipid profile, BP and inflammatory state, in addition to significantly decreasing the common carotid artery IMT. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the difference between baseline and final values of HOMA-IR (ΔHOMA-IR) was negatively correlated with concomitant changes in the adiponectin concentration (Δadiponectin; r=-0.42; P=0.02) and positively correlated with changes in common carotid artery IMT (Δcarotid IMT; r=0.41; P=0.03). Multiple regression analysis adjusted by age, cardiovascular risk factors and inflammatory markers showed that ΔHOMA-IR was an independent predictor of significant changes in common carotid artery IMT. This investigation demonstrated that an interdisciplinary weight-loss program promoted a reduction of the common carotid artery IMT in obese Brazilian adolescents, and the improvement of HOMA-IR was an independent predictor of carotid IMT changes in this population.

  16. Interactions of monochromatic visible light and near-IR radiation with cells: currently discussed mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karu, Tiina I.

    1995-05-01

    Biological responses of cells to visible and near IR (laser) radiation occur due to physical and/or chemical changes in photoacceptor molecules, components of respiratory chains (cyt a/a3 in mitochondria, and cyt d in E. coli). As a result of the photoexcitation of electronic states, the following physical and/or chemical changes can occur: alteration of redox properties and acceleration of electron transfer, changes in biochemical activity due to local transient heating of chromophores, one-electron auto-oxidation and O2- production, and photodynamic action and 1O2 production. Different reaction channels can be activated to achieve the photobiological macroeffect. The primary physical and/or chemical changes induced by light in photoacceptor molecules are followed by a cascade of biochemical reactions in the cell that do not need further light activation and occur in the dark (photosignal transduction and amplification chains). These reactions are connected with changes in cellular homeostasis parameters. The crucial step here is thought to be an alteration of the cellular redox state: a shift towards oxidation is associated with stimulation of cellular vitality, and a shift towards reduction is linked to inhibition. Cells with a lower than normal pH, where the redox state is shifted in the reduced direction, are considered to be more sensitive to the stimulative action of light than those with the respective parameters being optimal or near optimal. This circumstance explains the possible variations in observed magnitudes of low-power laser effects. Light action on the redox state of a cell via the respiratory chain also explains the diversity of low-power laser effects. Beside explaining many controversies in the field of low-power laser effects (i.e., the diversity of effects, the variable magnitude or absence of effects in certain studies), the proposed redox-regulation mechanism may be a fundamental explanation of some clinical effects of irradiation, for

  17. Examining Relativistic Electron Loss in the Outer Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. C.; Onsager, T. G.; O'Brien, P.

    2003-12-01

    Since the discovery of earth's radiation belts researchers have sought to identify the mechanisms that dictate the seemingly erratic relativistic electron flux levels in the outer belt. Contrary to intuition, relativistic electron flux levels do not always increase during geomagnetic storms even though these storms signify enhanced energy input from the solar wind to the magnetosphere [Reeves et al., 2003; O'Brien et al., 2001]. The fickle response of the radiation belt electrons to geomagnetic activity suggests that flux levels are determined by the outcome of a continuous competition between acceleration and loss. Some progress has been made developing and testing acceleration mechanisms but little is known about how relativistic electrons are lost. We examine relativistic electron losses in the outer belt focusing our attention on flux decrease events of the type first described by Onsager et al. [2002]. The study showed a sudden decrease of geosynchronous >2MeV electron flux occurring simultaneously with local stretching of the magnetic field. The decrease was first observed near 15:00 MLT and progressed to all local times after a period of ˜10 hours. Expanding on the work of Onsager et al. [2002], we have identified ˜ 51 such flux decrease events in the GOES and LANL data and present the results of a superposed epoch analysis of solar wind data, geomagnetic activity indicators, and locally measured magnetic field and plasma data. The analysis shows that flux decreases occur after 1-2 days of quiet condition. They begin when either the solar wind dynamic pressure increases or Bz turns southward pushing hot dense plasma earthward to form a partial ring current and stretched magnetic field at dusk. Adiabatic electron motion in response to the stretched magnetic field may explain the initial flux reduction; however, often the flux does not recover with the magnetic field recovery, indicating that true loss from the magnetosphere is occurring. Using Polar and

  18. Radiation loss of planar surface plasmon polaritons transmission lines at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixia; Li, Shunli; Yin, Xiaoxing; Zhao, Hongxin; Liu, Leilei

    2017-07-21

    Radiation loss of a typical spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) transmission line (TL) is investigated in this paper. A 325 mm-long SSPPs TL is designed and fabricated. Simulated results show that radiation loss contributes more to transmission loss than dielectric loss and conductor loss from 2 GHz to 10 GHz. Radiation loss of the SSPPs TL could be divided into two parts, one is caused by the input mode converter, and the other is caused by the corrugated metallic strip. This paper explains mechanisms of radiation loss from different parts, designs a loaded SSPPs TL with a series of resistors to absorb electromagnetic energy on corrugated metallic strip, and then discriminates radiation loss from the input mode converter, proposes the concept of average radiation length (ARL) to evaluate radiation loss from SSPPs of finite length, and concludes that radiation loss is mainly caused by corrugated structure of finite length at low frequency band and by the input mode converter at high frequency band. To suppress radiation loss, a mixed slow wave TL based on the combination of coplanar waveguides (CPWs) and SSPPs is presented. The designed structure, sample fabrication and experimental verification are discussed.

  19. Calculation of radiation production of high specific activity isotopes 192Ir and 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Quan; Zhong Wenfa; Xu Xiaolin

    1997-01-01

    The high specific activity isotopes: 192 Ir and 60 Co in the high neutron flux reactor are calculated with the method of reactor physics. The results of calculation are analyzed in two aspects: the production of isotopes and the influence to parameters of the reactor, and hence a better case is proposed as a reference to the production

  20. Radiation losses in microwave K_u region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kumar, Sachin; Narang, S.B.; Srivastava, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (−14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm"−"1) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer. - Highlights: • Composites having polymer, barium titanate and hexaferrite have been successfully prepared. • Effective radiation absorption and losses have been achieved. • Magnetic properties have made an impact on shielding effectiveness.

  1. Radiation losses in microwave K{sub u} region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Talwinder [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India); Kumar, Sachin [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, S.B. [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Srivastava, A.K., E-mail: srivastava_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (−14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm{sup −1}) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer. - Highlights: • Composites having polymer, barium titanate and hexaferrite have been successfully prepared. • Effective radiation absorption and losses have been achieved. • Magnetic properties have made an impact on shielding effectiveness.

  2. Best practices for ink jet decoration lines in ceramics. Electromagnetic radiation IR machine (wavelength technology); Mejoras practicas para lineas de decoracion Inkjet en ceramica. Maquina IR de radiaciones electromagneticas (tecnologia de longitud de onda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, J; Galvez, D

    2012-07-01

    SACMI IBERICA, S.A., has been awarded by the Spanish Society of Ceramics and Glass (SECV), with one GOLD ALFA, in its 2012 edition, during CEVISAMA for the presentation of the innovative IR Electromagnetic Radiation Machine, which improves the conditions and the production performance of digital decoration lines INKJET and other decorative applications ceramic tile. (Author)

  3. Multiple Scattering Principal Component-based Radiative Transfer Model (PCRTM) from Far IR to UV-Vis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Wu, W.; Yang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Modern satellite hyperspectral satellite remote sensors such as AIRS, CrIS, IASI, CLARREO all require accurate and fast radiative transfer models that can deal with multiple scattering of clouds and aerosols to explore the information contents. However, performing full radiative transfer calculations using multiple stream methods such as discrete ordinate (DISORT), doubling and adding (AD), successive order of scattering order of scattering (SOS) are very time consuming. We have developed a principal component-based radiative transfer model (PCRTM) to reduce the computational burden by orders of magnitudes while maintain high accuracy. By exploring spectral correlations, the PCRTM reduce the number of radiative transfer calculations in frequency domain. It further uses a hybrid stream method to decrease the number of calls to the computational expensive multiple scattering calculations with high stream numbers. Other fast parameterizations have been used in the infrared spectral region reduce the computational time to milliseconds for an AIRS forward simulation (2378 spectral channels). The PCRTM has been development to cover spectral range from far IR to UV-Vis. The PCRTM model have been be used for satellite data inversions, proxy data generation, inter-satellite calibrations, spectral fingerprinting, and climate OSSE. We will show examples of applying the PCRTM to single field of view cloudy retrievals of atmospheric temperature, moisture, traces gases, clouds, and surface parameters. We will also show how the PCRTM are used for the NASA CLARREO project.

  4. Properties of transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenide crystals for tunable IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L.D.; Page, R.H.; Wilke, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Cr 2+ , Co 2+ , and Ni 2+ -doped single crystals of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe have been investigated to understand their potential application as mid-IR tunable solid-state laser media. The spectroscopy indicated divalent Cr was the most favorable candidate for efficient room temperature lasing, and accordingly, a laser-pumped laser demonstration of Cr:ZnS and Cr:ZnSe has been performed. The lasers' output were peaked at ∼ 2.35 μm and the highest measured slope efficiencies were ∼ 20% in both cases

  5. Calculation of radiation losses in cylinder symmetric high pressure discharges by means of a digital computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriessen, F.J.; Boerman, W.; Holtz, I.F.E.M.

    1973-08-01

    Computer calculations have been made of radiative energy losses in a cylindrically symmetric high pressure discharge. The calculations show that the radiation losses which occur in discharges at pressures of a few atmospheres and central temperatures of about 20000degK when compared with the electrical energy supplied, are only of importance in the neighbourhood of the centre of discharge

  6. A dedicated storage ring for Far-IR coherent synchrotron radiation at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.C.; Baptist, K.M.; Benjegerdes, R.J.; Biocca, A.K.; Byrd, J.M.; Byrne, W.E.; Cambie, D.; Chin, M.J.; Harkins, J.P.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Li, D.; Marks, S.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Munson, D.V.; Nishimura, H.; Paterson, J.A.; Plate, D.W.; Rex, K.R.; Robin, D.S.; Rossi, S.L.; Sannibale, F.; Scarvie, T.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.A.; Stover, G.D.; Thur, W.G.; Jung, J.Y.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We present the concepts for a storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of stable coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) over the far-infrared wavelength range from about 200 microns to 1 mm

  7. Modelling of radiation losses for ion acceleration at ultra-high laser intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capdessus Remi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiation losses of charged particles can become important in ultra high intensity laser plasma interaction. This process is described by the radiation back reaction term in the electron equation of motion. This term is implemented in the relativistic particle-in-cell code by using a renormalized Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac model. In the hole boring regime case of laser ion acceleration it is shown that radiation losses results in a decrease of the piston velocity.

  8. 3D printed polarizing grids for IR-THz synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Meguya; Linklater, Denver; Hart, William; Balčytis, Armandas; Skliutas, Edvinas; Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Appadoo, Dominique; Tan, Yaw-Ren Eugene; Ivanova, Elena P.; Morikawa, Junko; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2018-03-01

    Grid polarisers 3D-printed out of commercial acrilic resin were tested for the polariser function and showed spectral regions where the dichroic ratio {D}R> 1 and The used 3D printing method allows for fabrication of an arbitrary high aspect ratio grid polarisers. Polarization analysis of synchrotron THz radiation was carried out with a standard stretched polyethylene polariser and revealed that the linearly polarized (horizontal) component contributes up to 22% ± 5% to the circular polarized synchrotron emission extracted by a gold-coated mirror with a horizontal slit inserted near the bending magnet edge. Comparison with theoretical predictions shows a qualitative match with dominance of the edge radiation.

  9. Safety Study of the X-Ray Reference Laboratory for Radiation Protection Levels (IR-14D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a study about the safety of the X-ray reference laboratory that has been recently constructed in the building 2 of the CIEMAT. After a brief description of the apparatus, we present the method used to calculate the exposure and absorbed dose rates in the most characteristic points of the laboratory. This method takes into account the spectral distribution of the radiation beams as a function of the accelerating voltage. The built-up factors of the absorbent materials have been considered to calculate the transmission of the radiation beams through the filters and shielding. Scattered radiations has been introduced in the calculations by means of a semiempirical method. This model supposes that multiple scattering processes give an isotropic contribution to the reflected beams and the single scattered can be described in terms of the differential cross section of Klein-Nishina. The results of this study have been applied to determine the maximum dose equivalent that the personnel of the laboratory could receive in normal operation conditions. (Author) 5 refs

  10. UV and IR laser radiation's interaction with metal film and teflon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedenev, A. V.; Alekseev, S. B.; Goncharenko, I. M.; Koval', N. N.; Lipatov, E. I.; Orlovskii, V. M.; Shulepov, M. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2003-04-01

    The interaction of Xe ([lambda] [similar] 1.73 [mu]m) and XeCl (0.308 [mu]m) laser radiation with surfaces of metal and TiN-ceramic coatings on glass and steel substrates has been studied. Correlation between parameters of surface erosion versus laser-specific energy was investigated. Monitoring of laser-induced erosion on smooth polished surfaces was performed using optical microscopy. The correlation has been revealed between characteristic zones of thin coatings damaged by irradiation and energy distribution over the laser beam cross section allowing evaluation of defects and adhesion of coatings. The interaction of pulsed periodical CO2 ([lambda] [similar] 10.6 [mu]m), and Xe ([lambda] [similar] 1.73 [mu]m) laser radiation with surfaces of teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene—PTFE) has been studied. Monitoring of erosion track on surfaces was performed through optical microscopy. It has been shown that at pulsed periodical CO2-radiation interaction with teflon the sputtering of polymer with formation of submicron-size particles occurs. Dependencies of particle sizes, form, and sputtering velocity on laser pulse duration and target temperature have been obtained.

  11. Optical losses in p-type layers of GaN ridge waveguides in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Ohad; Katz, Moti; Atar, Gil; Paltiel, Yossi; Sicron, Noam

    2017-07-01

    Optical losses in c-plane (0001) GaN ridge waveguides, containing Mg-doped layers, were measured at 1064 nm, using the Fabry-Perot method. The losses increase linearly with the modal content of the p-layer, indicating that the absorption in these waveguides is dominated by p-layer absorption. The p-layer absorption is strongly anisotropic with E⊥c losses 4 times higher than E∥c. The absorption is temperature independent between 10 °C and 60 °C, supporting the possibility that it is related to Mg-bound holes.

  12. Improving a radiative plus collisional energy loss model for application to RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, Simon; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2007-01-01

    With the QGP opacity computed perturbatively and with the global entropy constraints imposed by the observed dN ch /dy ∼ 1000, radiative energy loss alone cannot account for the observed suppression of single non-photonic electrons. Collisional energy loss is comparable in magnitude to radiative loss for both light and heavy jets. Two aspects that significantly affect the collisional energy loss are examined: the role of fluctuations and the effect of introducing a running QCD coupling as opposed to the fixed α s = 0.3 used previously

  13. Study of the radiated energy loss during massive gas injection mitigated disruptions on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Y. M.; Hao, Z. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wang, L.; Xu, P.; Xu, L. Q.; Zhuang, H. D.; EAST Team

    2015-08-01

    The MGI mitigated disruption experiments were carried out on EAST with a new fast gas controlling valve in 2012. Different amounts of noble gas He or mixed gas of 99% He + 1% Ar are injected into plasma in current flat-top phase and current ramp-down phase separately. The initial results of MGI experiments are described. The MGI system and the radiation measurement system are briefly introduced. The characteristics of radiation distribution and radiation energy loss are analyzed. About 50% of the stored thermal energy Wdia is dissipated by radiation during the entire disruption process and the impurities of C and Li from the PFC play important roles to radiative energy loss. The amount of the gas can affect the pre-TQ phase. Strong poloidal asymmetry of radiation begins to appear in the CQ phase, which is possibly caused by the plasma configuration changes as a result of VDE. No toroidal radiation asymmetry is observed presently.

  14. Real-Time Patient and Staff Radiation Dose Monitoring in IR Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: karmanna@stanford.edu; Paulis, Leonie, E-mail: leonie.paulis@mumc.nl; Vergoossen, Laura; Kovac, Axel O., E-mail: axel.kovac@mumc.nl; Wijnhoven, Geert, E-mail: g.wijnhoven@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl; Mees, Barend, E-mail: barend.mees@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Das, Marco, E-mail: m.das@mumc.nl; Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N., E-mail: cecile.jeukens@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    PurposeKnowledge of medical radiation exposure permits application of radiation protection principles. In our center, the first dedicated real-time, automated patient and staff dose monitoring system (DoseWise Portal, Philips Healthcare) was installed. Aim of this study was to obtain insight in the procedural and occupational doses.Materials and MethodsAll interventional radiologists, vascular surgeons, and technicians wore personal dose meters (PDMs, DoseAware, Philips Healthcare). The dose monitoring system simultaneously registered for each procedure dose-related data as the dose area product (DAP) and effective staff dose (E) from PDMs. Use and type of shielding were recorded separately. All procedures were analyzed according to procedure type; these included among others cerebral interventions (n = 112), iliac and/or caval venous recanalization procedures (n = 68), endovascular aortic repair procedures (n = 63), biliary duct interventions (n = 58), and percutaneous gastrostomy procedure (n = 28).ResultsMedian (±IQR) DAP doses ranged from 2.0 (0.8–3.1) (percutaneous gastrostomy) to 84 (53–147) Gy cm{sup 2} (aortic repair procedures). Median (±IQR) first operator doses ranged from 1.6 (1.1–5.0) μSv to 33.4 (12.1–125.0) for these procedures, respectively. The relative exposure, determined as first operator dose normalized to procedural DAP, ranged from 1.9 in biliary interventions to 0.1 μSv/Gy cm{sup 2} in cerebral interventions, indicating large variation in staff dose per unit DAP among the procedure types.ConclusionReal-time dose monitoring was able to identify the types of interventions with either an absolute or relatively high staff dose, and may allow for specific optimization of radiation protection.

  15. 192Ir Preservation, radiation protection and its application in the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guevara, A.; Leonard Valhuerdi, M.; Silvestre Patallo, I.; Bernal Rodriguez, M.; Gonzalez Quintana, J.

    1996-01-01

    Since the beginning of 1990 the first steps were taken in our Hospital for the use of the 192I r radioisotope in the treatment of malignant tumors. In order to use this radioisotope it has been necessary tomanufacture different instruments to manipulate it as the building the place for its storage preservation and preparation ( HOT ROOM). The radiation protection prerequisites established by standards and decrees issued were taken into account for the design and construction thus allowing to obtain the license granted by the Regulations Organization (Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear)

  16. Studies for the radiation levels and shielding in RR73, RR77 and UJ76 in IR7 for collimation phase 1 - 035

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulou, A; Ferrari, A; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2005-01-01

    The Collimation project is one of the most crucial for the LHC performance. 54 movable, two-sided collimators will be placed in two insertions, i.e. IR3 and IR7, which will be among the most radioactive in the LHC. For a normal machine operation, it is essential that the electronics do not degrade or fail â€" at least very often â€" due to irradiation. The radiation levels initially estimated in IR7 (RR73/77 and UJ76) were too high for the electronics to tolerate. A shielding study was necessary to be done, in parallel with the study for the absorber positions. This article summarizes the shielding proposed and the radiation levels calculated for the final collimator and absorber positions as indicated by the FLUKA team.

  17. Studies for the radiation levels and shielding in RR73, RR77 and UJ76 in IR7 for collimation phase 1 - 372

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoulou, A; Ferrari, A

    2005-01-01

    The Collimation project is one of the most crucial for the LHC performance. 54 movable, two-sided collimators will be placed in two insertions, i.e. IR3 and IR7, which will be among the most radioactive in the LHC. For a normal machine operation, it is essential that the electronics do not degrade or fail â€" at least very often â€" due to irradiation. The radiation levels initially estimated in IR7 (RR73/77 and UJ76) were too high for the electronics to tolerate. A shielding study was necessary to be done, in parallel with the study for the absorber positions. This article summarizes the shielding proposed and the radiation levels calculated for the final collimator and absorber positions as indicated by the FLUKA team.

  18. Optimization and decision-making radiation protection in gamma radiography facilities 192 Ir - with roof bunker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    2001-01-01

    To determine optimized dose limits for workers, a study was undertaken of radiation protection optimization in gamma radiography facilities, using the Multi-Attribute Utility Analysis technique. A total of 66 protection options, distributed in 6 irradiation configurations in a closed installation, with roof, type 'bunker', were analyzed. In the determination of the optimized dose limit, the following attributes were considered: cost of the protection, cost of the detriment for different alpha values, cost of the isolation area, individual equivalent doses and collective dose. The variables considered in the evaluation included: effective work load, type and activity of the radiation sources, source-operator distance, and type and thickness of the material used in the protection shielding. Other parameters analyzed included the quality of the radiographic image and the technical procedures employed. The optimal analytic solutions obtained that resulted in the optimized dose limit were determined by means of a sensitivity analysis and by direct and logical evaluations. Thus, independent of the values of the monetary coefficient attributed to the detriment, the annual interests applied to the protection cost, and the type of installation studied, it was concluded that the primary limit of annual dose for workers, 50 mSv, can be easily reduced to an optimized annual dose limit of 5 mSv. (author)

  19. Optical Cherenkov radiation by cascaded nonlinear interaction: an efficient source of few-cycle energetic near- to mid-IR pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Zhou, Binbin

    2011-01-01

    When ultrafast noncritical cascaded second-harmonic generation of energetic femtosecond pulses occur in a bulk lithium niobate crystal optical Cherenkov waves are formed in the near- to mid-IR. Numerical simulations show that the few-cycle solitons radiate Cherenkov (dispersive) waves in the λ = 2...

  20. Results of the studies on energy deposition in IR6 superconducting magnets from continuous beam loss on the TCDQ system

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Presland, A; Redaelli, S; Sarchiapone, L; Weiler, T

    2007-01-01

    A single sided mobile graphite diluter block TCDQ, in combination with a two-sided secondary collimator TCS and an iron shield TCDQM, will be installed in front of the superconducting quadrupole Q4 magnets in IR6, in order to protect it and other downstream LHC machine elements from destruction in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the abort gap. The TCDQ will be positioned close to the beam, and will intercept the particles from the secondary halo during low beam lifetime. Previous studies (1-4) have shown that the energy deposited in the Q4 magnet coils can be close to or above the quench limit. In this note the results of the latest FLUKA energy deposition simulations for Beam 2 are described, including an upgrade possibility for the TCDQ system with an additional shielding device. The results are discussed in the context of the expected performance levels for the different phases of LHC operation.

  1. The use of combined synchrotron radiation micro FT-IR and XRD for the characterization of Romanesque wall paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvado, N.; Buti, S.; Pantos, E.; Bahrami, F.; Labrador, A.; Pradell, T.

    2008-01-01

    The high analytical sensitivity and high spatial resolution of synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular SR-XRD and SR-FT-IR, allows the identification of complex micrometric mixtures of compounds that constitute the different layers of ancient paintings. The reliability of the measurements even with an extremely small amount of sampled material is very high, and this is particularly important when analyzing art works. Furthermore, the micro size (10 x 10μm for FT-IR and 30 to 50 μm squared spot size for XRD) of the beam enables one to obtain detailed compositional profiles from the different chromatic and preparation layers. The sensitivity of the techniques is high enough for the determination of minor and trace compounds, such as reaction and weathering compounds. We report here the identification of pigments in the Romanesque wall paintings found in situ in the church of Saint Eulalia of Unha place in the Aran valley (central Pyrenees). During the first centuries of the second millennium numerous religious buildings were built in Western Europe in the Romanesque style. In particular, a great number of churches were built in the Pyrenees, most of which were decorated with wall paintings. Although only a few of these paintings have survived, they represent one of the most important collections of Romanesque art, both for their quantity and quality. A full identification of the pigments, binder, supports, and reaction and weathering compounds has been obtained. The results obtained, in particular aerinite as a pigment, indicate a clear connection between the paintings found in this Occitanian church and the Catalan Romanesque paintings from the south bound of the Pyrenees. (orig.)

  2. The use of combined synchrotron radiation micro FT-IR and XRD for the characterization of Romanesque wall paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvado, N.; Buti, S. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. d' Enginyeria Quimica, EPSEVG, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Pantos, E.; Bahrami, F. [CCLRC, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom); Labrador, A. [LLS, BM16-ESRF, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Pradell, T. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, ESAB, Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    The high analytical sensitivity and high spatial resolution of synchrotron radiation-based techniques, in particular SR-XRD and SR-FT-IR, allows the identification of complex micrometric mixtures of compounds that constitute the different layers of ancient paintings. The reliability of the measurements even with an extremely small amount of sampled material is very high, and this is particularly important when analyzing art works. Furthermore, the micro size (10 x 10{mu}m for FT-IR and 30 to 50 {mu}m squared spot size for XRD) of the beam enables one to obtain detailed compositional profiles from the different chromatic and preparation layers. The sensitivity of the techniques is high enough for the determination of minor and trace compounds, such as reaction and weathering compounds. We report here the identification of pigments in the Romanesque wall paintings found in situ in the church of Saint Eulalia of Unha place in the Aran valley (central Pyrenees). During the first centuries of the second millennium numerous religious buildings were built in Western Europe in the Romanesque style. In particular, a great number of churches were built in the Pyrenees, most of which were decorated with wall paintings. Although only a few of these paintings have survived, they represent one of the most important collections of Romanesque art, both for their quantity and quality. A full identification of the pigments, binder, supports, and reaction and weathering compounds has been obtained. The results obtained, in particular aerinite as a pigment, indicate a clear connection between the paintings found in this Occitanian church and the Catalan Romanesque paintings from the south bound of the Pyrenees. (orig.)

  3. Experimental study of the counting loss in an ionization chamber in pulsed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, O.L.; Yanagihara, L.S.; Veissid, V.L.C.P.; Herdade, S.B.; Teixeira, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The behavior of an ionization chamber gamma ray monitor in a pulsed radiation field at a linear electron accelerator facility was studied experiementally. A loss of sensitivity was observed as expected due to the pulsed nature of the radiation. By fitting the experiemental data to semi-empirical expressions, parameters for the correction of the counting efficiency were obtained. (Author) [pt

  4. Equation of Motion of an Interstellar Bussard Ramjet with Radiation and Mass Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly…

  5. A Method for Estimating the Probability of Floating Gate Prompt Charge Loss in a Radiation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Since advancing technology has been producing smaller structures in electronic circuits, the floating gates in modern flash memories are becoming susceptible to prompt charge loss from ionizing radiation environments found in space. A method for estimating the risk of a charge-loss event is given.

  6. Gustatory tissue injury in man: radiation dose response relationships and mechanisms of taste loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    In this report dose response data for gustatory tissue damage in patients given total radiation doses ranging from 3000 to 6000 cGy are presented. In order to evaluate direct radiation injury to gustatory tissues as a mechanism of taste loss, measurements of damage to specific taste structures in bovine and murine systems following radiation exposure in the clinical range are correlated to taste impairment observed in radiotherapy patients. (author)

  7. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Dunston, S.G.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Holeski, C.; Eaton, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to 137 Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy

  8. Thermal and radiation losses in a linear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenau, P.; Degani, D.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the electron temperature in a linear device which includes the effect of thermal conduction, heat flux limit, radiation, and end plugs. It is found that the thermal conduction and the heat flux limit are dominant in the initial phase of cooling, while the later phase is almost completely controlled by radiation that spatially homogenizes the temperature distribution. In the case of bremsstrahlung, within the frame of the present model, the temperature decays to zero in a finite time. This process takes the form of a cooling wave that moves from the ends of the column to the center. Impurities cause a milder, exponential decay, which is still much faster than the algebraic conduction decay. The thermal effectiveness of the end plugs is described by a convective transfer coefficient h/sub p/. Its scaling law (in terms of the coupled plamsa-plug system) reveals that a very high plug-plasma density ratio provides a simple way to significantly retard the cooling

  9. Spectral filter for splitting a beam with electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) or soft X-Ray (Soft X) and the infrared (IR) wavelength range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bijkerk, Frederik; van den Boogaard, Toine; van den Boogaard, A.J.R.; van der Meer, R.

    2012-01-01

    Spectral filter for splitting the primary radiation from a generated beam with primary electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation) or soft X-ray (soft X) wavelength range and parasitic radiation having a wavelength in the infrared wavelength range (IR

  10. Radiative energy losses from a high-current air-blast arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.C.; Lidgate, D.; Jones, G.R.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of total radiation losses from high-current arcs burning in highly accelerated air flows representative of conditions existing in commercial gas-blast switchgear has been investigated. Such losses have been measured both in the high-pressure region upstream of a shaped orifice, where gas velocities are low, and in the region downstream where velocities become supersonic and pressure conditions approach ambient. The dominance of upstream electrode vapor as the source of plasma radiation losses is demonstrated and the importance of radiated losses within the arc energy balance is examined using measured values of axial electric field. For upstream electrodes of elkonite (sintered copper/tungsten) as used in high-power gas-blast circuit breakers, it is shown that some 30--40% of the electrical energy input upstream of the orifice is lost as radiation, while downstream this figure becomes 10--20%. The effect of reservoir pressure on arc electric fields is examined and the contribution to this effect of radiation losses is quantified

  11. Cobalt-60 simulation of LOCA [loss of coolant accident] radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckalew, W.H.

    1989-07-01

    The consequences of simulating nuclear reactor loss of coolant accident (LOCA) radiation effects with Cobalt-60 gamma ray irradiators have been investigated. Based on radiation induced damage in polymer base materials, it was demonstrated that electron/photon induced radiation damage could be related on the basis of average absorbed radiation dose. This result was used to estimate the relative effectiveness of the mixed beta/gamma LOCA and Cobalt-60 radiation environments to damage both bare and jacketed polymer base electrical insulation materials. From the results obtained, it is concluded that present simulation techniques are a conservative method for simulating LOCA radiation effects and that the practices have probably substantially overstressed both bare and jacketed materials during qualification testing. 9 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Phototoxic effect of conjugates of plasmon-resonance nanoparticles with indocyanine green dye on Staphylococcus aureus induced by IR laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchina, E S; Tuchin, Valerii V; Khlebtsov, B N; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2011-01-01

    The effect of IR laser radiation (λ = 805 - 808 nm) on the bacteria of the strain Staphylococcus aureus 209 P, incubated in indocyanine green solutions, is studied, as well as that of colloid gold nanoshells, nanocages and their conjugates with indocyanine green. It is found that the S. aureus 209 P cells are equally subjected to the IR laser radiation (λ = 805 nm) after preliminary sensitisation with indocyanine green and gold nanoparticles separately and with conjugates of nanoparticles and indocyanine green. The enhancement of photodynamic and photothermal effects by 5 % is observed after 30 min of laser illumination (λ = 808 nm) of bacteria, treated with conjugates of indocyanine green and nanocages. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  13. Radiation losses from oxygen and iron impurities in a high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, C.; Michelis, C. de; Mattioli, M.

    1976-06-01

    Radiation and ionization losses due to impurities present in a high temperature plasma have been calculated for a light element (oxygen), which is completely stripped in the core of existing Tokamak discharges, and a heavy one (iron), which is only partially stripped. Two extreme cases have been treated: in the first one coronal equilibrium is reached; the radiated power is then equal to the product of the electron density, the impurity density, and a function of the electron temperature; in the second one impurities recycle with a constant radial velocity v 0 in a background plasma; radiation and ionization losses are proportional to the impurity flux and are a decreasing function of the diffusion velocity. The results presented can be used to evaluate losses in a practical case [fr

  14. Radiation losses in the microwave Ku band in magneto-electric nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwinder Kaur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A study on radiation losses in conducting polymer nanocomposites, namely La–Co-substituted barium hexaferrite and polyaniline, is presented. The study was performed by means of a vector network analyser, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy and a vibrating sample magnetometer. It is found that the maximum loss occurs at 17.9 GHz (−23.10 dB, 99% loss which is due to the composition of a conducting polymer and a suitable magnetic material. A significant role of polyaniline has been observed in ESR. The influence of the magnetic properties on the radiation losses is explained. Further studies revealed that the prepared material is a nanocomposite. FTIR spectra show the presence of expected chemical structures such as C–H bonds in a ring system at 1512 cm−1.

  15. A unified approach for radiative losses and backscattering in optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melati, D; Morichetti, F; Melloni, A

    2014-01-01

    Sidewall roughness in optical waveguides represents a severe impairment for the proper functionality of photonic integrated circuits. The interaction between the propagating mode and the roughness is responsible for both radiative losses and distributed backscattering. In this paper, a unified vision on these extrinsic loss phenomena is discussed, highlighting the fundamental role played by the sensitivity of the effective index n eff of the optical mode to waveguide width variations. The n w model presented applies to both 2D slab waveguides and 3D laterally confined waveguides and is in very good agreement with existing models that individually describe radiative loss or backscattering only. Experimental results are presented, demonstrating the validity of the n w model for arbitrary waveguide geometries and technologies. This approach enables an accurate description of realistic optical waveguides and provides simple design rules for optimization of the waveguide geometry in order to reduce the propagation losses generated by sidewall roughness. (paper)

  16. Radiation loss and global energy balance of ohmically heated divertor discharge in JT-60 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Kimio; Yoshida, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Hiroo; Niikura, Setsuo; Tsuji, Shunji

    1986-03-01

    Divertor experiment in JT-60 with a small divertor chamber has been successfully performed up to 1.6 MA discharge. Several divertor effects were experimentally confirmed as follows. Radiation loss in main plasma saturates with the increase of plasma current and its ratio to the input power is about 20 % at 1.5 MA. The rest of input power is exhausted into the divertor chamber and a half of it is dissipated as the radiation loss. Impurity accumulation is not observed during a few sec without internal MHD activity and gross impurity confinement time is several hundred msec. (author)

  17. Intrinsic non-radiative voltage losses in fullerene-based organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benduhn, Johannes; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Ullbrich, Sascha; Fan, Yeli; Tropiano, Manuel; McGarry, Kathryn A.; Zeika, Olaf; Riede, Moritz K.; Douglas, Christopher J.; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R.; Neher, Dieter; Spoltore, Donato; Vandewal, Koen

    2017-06-01

    Organic solar cells demonstrate external quantum efficiencies and fill factors approaching those of conventional photovoltaic technologies. However, as compared with the optical gap of the absorber materials, their open-circuit voltage is much lower, largely due to the presence of significant non-radiative recombination. Here, we study a large data set of published and new material combinations and find that non-radiative voltage losses decrease with increasing charge-transfer-state energies. This observation is explained by considering non-radiative charge-transfer-state decay as electron transfer in the Marcus inverted regime, being facilitated by a common skeletal molecular vibrational mode. Our results suggest an intrinsic link between non-radiative voltage losses and electron-vibration coupling, indicating that these losses are unavoidable. Accordingly, the theoretical upper limit for the power conversion efficiency of single-junction organic solar cells would be reduced to about 25.5% and the optimal optical gap increases to 1.45-1.65 eV, that is, 0.2-0.3 eV higher than for technologies with minimized non-radiative voltage losses.

  18. Origin of Non-Radiative Voltage Losses in Fullerene-Based Organic Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benduhn, Johannes; Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Ullbrich, Sascha; Neher, Dieter; Spoltore, Donato; Vandewal, Koen

    The open-circuit voltage of organic solar cells (OSCs) is low as compared to the optical gap of the absorber molecules, indicating high energy losses per absorbed photon. These voltage losses arise only partly due to necessity of an electron transfer event to dissociate the excitons. A large part of these voltage losses is due to recombination of photo-generated charge carriers, including inevitable radiative recombination. In this work, we study the non-radiative recombination losses and we find that they increase when the energy difference between charge transfer (CT) state and ground state decreases. This behavior is in agreement with the \\x9Denergy gap law for non-radiative transition\\x9D, which implies that internal conversion from CT state to ground state is facilitated by skeletal molecular vibrations. This intrinsic loss mechanism, which until now has not been thoroughly considered for OSCs, is different in its nature as compared to the commonly considered inorganic photovoltaic loss mechanisms of defect, surface, and Auger recombination. As a consequence, the theoretical upper limit for the power conversion efficiency of a single junction OSC reduces by 25% as compared to the Shockley-Queisser limit for an optimal optical gap of the main absorber between (1.45-1.65) eV.

  19. The Effect of Radiation Timing on Patients With High-Risk Features of Parameningeal Rhabdomyosarcoma: An Analysis of IRS-IV and D9803

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, Aaron C., E-mail: Aaron.Spalding@nortonhealthcare.org [Kosair Children' s Hospital and Brain Tumor Center, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Hawkins, Douglas S. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Seattle Children' s Hospital, and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Anderson, James R.; Lyden, Elizabeth [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Laurie, Fran [Quality Assurance Review Center, Providence, Rhode Island and Seattle, Washington (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Arndt, Carola A.S. [Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy remains an essential treatment for patients with parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma (PMRMS), and early radiation therapy may improve local control for patients with intracranial extension (ICE). Methods and Materials: To address the role of radiation therapy timing in PMRMS in the current era, we reviewed the outcome from 2 recent clinical trials for intermediate-risk RMS: Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS)-IV and Children's Oncology Group (COG) D9803. The PMRMS patients on IRS-IV with any high-risk features (cranial nerve palsy [CNP], cranial base bony erosion [CBBE], or ICE) were treated immediately at day 0, and PMRMS patients without any of these 3 features received week 6-9 radiation therapy. The D9803 PMRMS patients with ICE received day 0 X-Ray Therapy (XRT) as well; however, those with either CNP or CBBE had XRT at week 12. Results: Compared with the 198 PMRMS patients from IRS-IV, the 192 PMRMS patients from D9803 had no difference (P<.05) in 5-year local failure (19% vs 19%), failure-free-survival (70% vs 67%), or overall survival (75% vs 73%) in aggregate. The 5-year local failure rates by subset did not differ when patients were classified as having no risk features (None, 15% vs 19%, P=.25), cranial nerve palsy/cranial base of skull erosion (CNP/CBBE, 15% vs 28%, P=.22), or intracranial extension (ICE, 21% vs 15%, P=.27). The D9083 patients were more likely to have received initial staging by magnetic resonance imaging (71% vs 53%). Conclusions: These data support that a delay in radiation therapy for high-risk PMRMS features of CNP/CBBE does not compromise clinical outcomes.

  20. Unique loss of heterozygosity of murine thymic lymphomas as a candidate of radiation signature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Yoshiya; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Wakana, Shigeharu; Okumoto, Masaaki

    1999-06-01

    Signature(s) of prior exposure to carcinogens have immediate application to the identification of environmental risk factors. Such signatures have been sought to aid in developing policies for the protection from risks of environmental carcinogens. Although ionizing radiation is a potent carcinogenic agent, little is known about possible radiation signatures. This is because radiation induces a broad spectrum of DNA lesions. Here we describe a diversity of K-ras mutations and a unique locus with frequent loss of heterozygisity (LOH) on chromosome 11 of radiation induced thymic lymphomas. The latter locus has never been observed to be similarly altered in either ethylnitrosourea-induced or spontaneously developed lymphomas. These results describe, to our knowledge for the first time, a molecular basis for radiation signature. (author)

  1. Non-radiative recombination losses in polymer light-emitting diodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, M.; Koster, L. J. A.; Dijkstra, A. G.; Wetzelaer, G. A. H.; Blom, P. W. M.

    We present a quantitative analysis of the loss of electroluminescence in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) due to the combination of non-radiative trap-assisted recombination and exciton quenching at the metallic cathode. It is

  2. Calculation of radiation loss of 1. 2 GeV-electrons in a thick silicon monocrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshtova, S.V.; Komarov, F.F.; Telegin, V.I.

    1988-10-01

    The angular distribution of radiation loss of different fractions of 1.2 GeV-electrons during axial channeling in a Si monocrystal of 1.6 mm thickness is discussed. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the experimental data.

  3. Radiative losses and electron cooling rates for carbon and oxygen plasma impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, R.; Bonnin, X.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative losses and electron cooling rates are calculated for carbon and oxygen ions under conditions relevant to fusion plasmas. Both rates are calculated with the most recent recommended atomic data. A modified coronal model which includes the effects of metastable states is described and used to calculate the rates. Comparisons with other approaches are also discussed. (author). 36 ref, figs

  4. Ionization equilibrium and radiation losses of molybdenum in a high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-11-01

    The ionization equilibrium and the associated radiation losses of molybdenum have been calculated as a function of the electron temperature. In the 1-2keV range the computed fractional abundances are supported by experimental facts obtained in T.F.R. Tokamak plasmas

  5. Radiation losses and global energy balance for Ohmically heated discharges in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.R.; Behringer, K.; Niedermeyer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Global energy balance, radiation profiles and dominant impurity radiation sources are compared for Ohmically heated limiter and divertor discharges in the ASDEX tokamak. In discharges with a poloidal stainless-steel limiter, total radiation from the plasma is the dominant energy loss channel. The axisymmetric divertor reduces this volume-integrated radiation to 30-35% of the heating power and additional Ti-gettering halves it again to 10-15%. Local radiation losses in the plasma centre, which are mainly due to the presence of iron impurity ions, are reduced by about one order of magnitude. In high-current (Isub(p) = 400 kA) and high-density (nsub(e)-bar = 6 x 10 13 cm -3 ) ungettered divertor discharges, up to 55% of the heating power is dumped into a cold-gas target inside the divertor chambers. The bolometrically detected volume power losses in the chambers can mainly be attributed to neutral hydrogen atoms with kinetic energies of a few eV. In this parameter range, the divertor plasma is dominated by inelastic molecular and atomic processes, the main process being Franck-Condon dissociation of H 2 molecules. (author)

  6. Evaluation of radiation exposure in interventional radiology (IR) using active personal dosimeters (APD); Evaluierung der Strahlenexposition in der Interventionellen Radiologie (IR) mit Hilfe von Aktiv-Personen-Dosimetern (APD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugschwandtner, K. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Krankenhausphysik; TU Wien (Austria). Atominstitut; Freund, R. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Krankenhausphysik; Mertikian, G. [KH Hietzing mit NZ Rosenhuegel, Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Poljanc, K. [TU Wien (Austria). Atominstitut; Ibi, B. [KA Rudolfstiftung, Wien (Austria). Stabstelle Medizinphysik

    2015-07-01

    Increased awareness of high personal dose exposure of medical staff in interventional radiology (IR) demands an assessment of radiation protection procedures. Mandatory dose monitoring systems do not allow to relate dose to specific actions of the staff as they just accumulate a total dose per month. Doses of head and limbs are expected to be high as those body parts which are not protected by the lead apron. We decided to use a measuring system by Unfors, RaySafe i2 which is built for real- time- dosimetry of scattered radiation in pulsed X-ray fields. An increased dose of the body side closer to the X-ray source (left body side) was detected. This is due to the position and the posture of the radiologist during intervention. Separating the phases of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) from those of fluoroscopy allowed not only to list the separate accumulated doses, but showed as well a big difference in dose rate. The measurements revealed the need of an improvement of common radiation protection, especially while DSA.

  7. A Raman scattering and FT-IR spectroscopic study on the effect of the solar radiation in Antarctica on bovine cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuyuki; Murakami, Naoki; Yoshikiyo, Keisuke; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2010-01-01

    The Raman scattering and FT-IR spectra of the corneas, transported to the Syowa station in Antarctica and exposed to the solar radiation of the mid-summer for four weeks, were studied to reveal that type IV collagen involved in corneas were fragmented. The amide I and III Raman bands were observed at 1660 and 1245 cm -1, respectively, and the amide I and II infrared bands were observed at 1655 and 1545 cm -1, respectively, for original corneas before exposure. The background of Raman signals prominently increased and the ratio of amide II infrared band versus amide I decreased by the solar radiation in Antarctica. The control experiment using an artificial UV lamp was also performed in laboratory. The decline rate of the amide II/amide I was utilized for estimating the degree of fragmentation of collagen, to reveal that the addition of vitamin C suppressed the reaction while the addition of sugars promoted it. The effect of the solar radiation in Antarctica on the corneas was estimated as the same as the artificial UV lamp of four weeks (Raman) or one week (FT-IR) exposure.

  8. Quantifying the Precipitation Loss of Radiation Belt Electrons during a Rapid Dropout Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, K. H.; Tu, W.; Xiang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Relativistic electron flux in the radiation belt can drop by orders of magnitude within the timespan of hours. In this study, we used the drift-diffusion model that includes azimuthal drift and pitch angle diffusion of electrons to simulate low-altitude electron distribution observed by POES/MetOp satellites for rapid radiation belt electron dropout event occurring on May 1, 2013. The event shows fast dropout of MeV energy electrons at L>4 over a few hours, observed by the Van Allen Probes mission. By simulating the electron distributions observed by multiple POES satellites, we resolve the precipitation loss with both high spatial and temporal resolution and a range of energies. We estimate the pitch angle diffusion coefficients as a function of energy, pitch angle, and L-shell, and calculate corresponding electron lifetimes during the event. The simulation results show fast electron precipitation loss at L>4 during the electron dropout, with estimated electron lifetimes on the order of half an hour for MeV energies. The electron loss rate show strong energy dependence with faster loss at higher energies, which suggest that this dropout event is dominated by quick and localized scattering process that prefers higher energy electrons. The estimated pitch angle diffusion rates from the model are then compared with in situ wave measurements from Van Allen Probes to uncover the underlying wave-particle-interaction mechanisms that are responsible for the fast electron precipitation. Comparing the resolved precipitation loss with the observed electron dropouts at high altitudes, our results will suggest the relative role of electron precipitation loss and outward radial diffusion to the radiation belt dropouts during storm and non-storm times, in addition to its energy and L dependence.

  9. A Numerical Study on Effect of Gas-Phase Radiative Heat Loss on Extinction of Hydrogen Diffusion Flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Chae Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Extinction characteristics of hydrogen-air diffusion flames are investigated numerically by adopting counterflow flame configuration. At various pressures, effect of radiative heat loss on flame extinction is examined. Only gas-phase radiation is considered here. Radiative heat loss depends on flame thickness, temperature, H 2 O concentration, and pressure. From flame structures at various pressures, flame thickness decreases with pressure, but its gradient decreases at high pressure. Flame temperature and mole fraction of H 2 O increase slightly with pressure. Accordingly, as pressure increases, radiative heat loss becomes dominant. When radiative heat loss is considered, radiation-induced extinction is observed at low strain rate in addition to transport-induced extinction. As pressure increases, flammable region shifts to the high-temperature region and then, shrunk to the point on the coordinate plane of flame temperature and strain rate

  10. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    Meaningful qualification testing of nuclear reactor components requires a knowledge of the radiation fields expected in a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The overall objective of this program is to define the LOCA source terms and compare these with the output of various simulators employed for radiation qualification testing. The basis for comparison will be the energy deposition in a model reactor component. The results of the calculations are presented and some interpretation of the results given. The energy release rates and spectra were validated by comparison with other calculations using different codes since experimental data appropriate to these calculations do not exist.

  11. Mitotic chromosome loss in a radiation-sensitive strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, R.K.; Contopoulou, R.; Schild, D.

    1981-01-01

    Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with mutations in the RAD52 gene have previously been shown to be defective in meiotic and mitotic recombination, in sporulation, and in repair of radiation-induced damage to DNA. In this study we show that diploid cells homozygous for rad52 lose chromosomes at high frequencies and that these frequencies of loss can be increased dramatically by exposure of these cells to x-rays. Genetic analyses of survivors of x-ray treatment demonstrate that chromosome loss events result in the conversion of diploid cells to cells with near haploid chromosome numbers

  12. Tight-binding calculation of radiation loss in photonic crystal CROW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Martínez, Luis Javier; Fan, Shanhui; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2013-01-28

    The tight binding approximation (TBA) is used to relate the intrinsic, radiation loss of a coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) to that of a single constituent resonator within a light cone picture. We verify the validity of the TBA via direct, full-field simulation of CROWs based on the L2 photonic crystal cavity. The TBA predicts that the quality factor of the CROW increases with that of the isolated cavity. Moreover, our results provide a method to design CROWs with low intrinsic loss across the entire waveguide band.

  13. Stellar model chromospheres. VI - Empirical estimates of the chromospheric radiative losses of late-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, J. L.; Ayres, T. R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is developed for estimating the nonradiative heating of stellar chromospheres by measuring the net radiative losses in strong Fraunhofer line cores. This method is applied to observations of the Mg II resonance lines in a sample of 32 stars including the sun. At most a small dependence of chromospheric nonradiative heating on stellar surface gravity is found, which is contrary to the large effect predicted by recent calculations based on acoustic-heating theories.

  14. Radiation losses plasma with multicharged ions under non stationary conditions in the T-10 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Vertiporokh, A.N.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Notkin, G.E.; Shcheglov, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of experimental investigations of changes in the radi iation power of impurities at the initial stage of the plasma ECR-heating at the t-10 plant. An increase in the radiation losses is observed which is not as ssociated with a further addition of impurities. The mechanism is proposed which enables to explain this effect and is based on assumption of a growing pla asma mixing rate in the central zone at a local heating of the electron componen

  15. Optical transport and statistics of radiative losses in disordered chains of microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chaosheng; Xu Hui; Deych, Lev

    2010-01-01

    Optical transport in a one-dimensional chain of microspherical resonators with size disorder is studied in the spectral range of high-Q whispering gallery modes. An ab initio approach is used to develop a theoretical framework for analysis of steady-state transport parameters with main emphasis on properly defined radiative loss coefficient. Probability distribution and scaling properties of the latter are established and explained.

  16. Thermal performance of a porus radial fin with natural convection and radiative heat losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darvishi M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic (series solution is developed to describe the thermal performance of a porous radial fin with natural convection in the fluid saturating the fin and radiation heat loss from the top and bottom surfaces of the fin. The HAM results for the temperature distribution and base heat flux are compared with the direct numerical results and found to be very accurate.

  17. Radiative interaction of a focused relativistic electron beam in energy-loss spectroscopy of nanoscopic platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itskovsky, M. A.; Maniv, T.; Cohen, H.

    2008-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical scattering theory for relativistic, highly focused electron beams in the vacuum near nanoscopic platelets is presented, revealing an excitation mechanism due to the electron wave scattering from the platelet edges. Radiative electromagnetic excitations within the light cone are shown to arise, allowed by the breakdown of momentum conservation along the beam axis in the inelastic-scattering process. Calculated for metallic (silver and gold) and insulating (SiO 2 and MgO) nanoplatelets, radiative features are revealed above the main surface-plasmon-polariton peak, and dramatic enhancements in the electron-energy-loss probability at gaps of the 'classical' spectra are found. The corresponding radiation should be detectable in the vacuum far-field zone, with e beams exploited as sensitive 'tip detectors' of electronically excited nanostructures

  18. Radiative interaction of a focused relativistic electron beam in energy-loss spectroscopy of nanoscopic platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itskovsky, M. A.; Cohen, H.; Maniv, T.

    2008-07-01

    A quantum-mechanical scattering theory for relativistic, highly focused electron beams in the vacuum near nanoscopic platelets is presented, revealing an excitation mechanism due to the electron wave scattering from the platelet edges. Radiative electromagnetic excitations within the light cone are shown to arise, allowed by the breakdown of momentum conservation along the beam axis in the inelastic-scattering process. Calculated for metallic (silver and gold) and insulating ( SiO2 and MgO) nanoplatelets, radiative features are revealed above the main surface-plasmon-polariton peak, and dramatic enhancements in the electron-energy-loss probability at gaps of the “classical” spectra are found. The corresponding radiation should be detectable in the vacuum far-field zone, with e beams exploited as sensitive “tip detectors” of electronically excited nanostructures.

  19. Weight loss in patients receiving radical radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.A.; Keane, T.J.; Prudo, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for localized cancer of the head and neck areas were systematically assessed before, during, and after treatment. The pathogenesis of weight loss and its association with treatment morbidity and other determinants were sought. The serial data collected consisted of a food frequency questionnaire based on Canada's Food Guide, anthropometric measurements, 10 Linear Analogue Self Assessment questions on morbidity, and biochemical and hematological indices. Twenty of 31 patients (68%) lost over 5% of their presenting weight within one month after completing treatment. The mean weight loss was 10% and the range of weight loss in this group was 5.4 to 18.9%. Pretreatment dietary habits, serum albumin, absolute lymphocyte count, serum creatinine, creatinine height index, and anthropometric measurements did not predict for weight loss. However, weight loss can be predicted on the basis of field size and site irradiated. Treatment-related morbidity involving dysguesia, xerostomia, dysphagia of solids, and mouth pain was greater and of longer duration in patients with weight loss. The sequence of development of these symptoms during treatment and their duration provide a rational basis for the timing and methods of nutritional intervention in this patient population

  20. Radiative loss and charge exchange in low energy Na - Ca+ collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, B. M.; McAlpine, K.; McCann, J. F.; Pattillo, R.; Stancil, P. C.; Forrey, R. C.; Babb, J. F.

    2016-05-01

    Experiments on radiative loss and capture are currently being performed at the University of Connecticut. In response to this experimental effort we have performed detailed calculations for a variety of loss and capture processes. Several low lying states of the NaCa+ cation are used with the accurate potentials energy curves, transition dipole moments and non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements between the states, obtained at the MRCI+Q level of approximation with the MOLPRO suite of quantum chemistry codes. Cross sections and rate coefficients are calculated for radiative charge transfer (RCX), radiative association (RA) and charge exchange in a fully quantum molecular close-coupling (MOCC) approximation at the higher energies. We use a variety of approaches, the optical potential method, semi-classical and MOCC methods to compare and contrast approximations. In addition a kinetic theory recently applied to SiO is utilized which illustrates the dramatic impact resonances have on the radiative association rates. Supported by NASA and HLRS at Stuttgart University.

  1. Influence of induced colour centres on the frequency - angular spectrum of a light bullet of mid-IR radiation in lithium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekalin, S. V.; Kompanets, V. O.; Dormidonov, A. E.; Kandidov, V. P.

    2017-04-01

    The influence of the occurrence of a structure consisting of long-lived colour centres, formed in an LiF crystal upon filamentation of femtosecond mid-IR radiation, on the supercontinuum characteristics is investigated. With an increase in the number of incident pulses, the length and transverse size of the structure of colour centres induced in LiF increase, and the supercontinuum spectrum in the short-wavelength region is markedly transformed due to the occurrence of the waveguide propagation regime, absorption, and scattering of radiation from the newly formed structure of colour centres. Under these conditions, the intensity of the anti-Stokes wing decreases by two orders of magnitude after several tens of pulses. Spectral components arise in the visible range, the angular divergence of which increases with increasing wavelength.

  2. Terahertz and infrared Smith-Purcell radiation from Babinet metasurfaces: Loss and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Chang, Huiting; Zhang, Chi; Song, Yanan; Hu, Xinhua

    2017-10-01

    When a charged particle moves close and parallel to the surface of a Babinet metasurface composed of metallic C -aperture resonators, strong electromagnetic radiation arises at resonant frequency. Here we systematically study the Smith-Purcell effects in Babinet metasurfaces with different periods. By tuning the period, the resonant (or working) frequency of the metasurface can vary from GHz to THz and infrared ranges. It is found that for working frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the ratio of absorption loss to input power is about 3.7%. Although the loss ratio increases with increasing working frequency, it remains as low as 11% (29%) at a working frequency of 10 THz (224 THz). Due to the existence of loss, a nonlinear relationship is also found between resonant frequency and the reciprocal of period. Our results suggest that Babinet metasurfaces could be a good candidate for fabricating efficient, compact THz and infrared free-electron light sources.

  3. Frequency Tuning of IR First-Overtone CO Laser Radiation by Diffraction Grating and Frequency Selective Output Couplers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ionin, Andre

    1999-01-01

    ...: The contractor will investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, the feasibility of frequency tuning the first overtone carbon monoxide laser radiation by the use of diffraction gratings...

  4. Pathological characteristics of extremely severe acute radiation injury in a patient's legs and hands after a very uneven accidental exposure to an extremely high dose of 192Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Li Guomin; Liu Shujun; Yang Yijing; Li Fumeng; Yang Junhua

    1997-01-01

    The pathological characteristics of an extremely high dose radiation in the legs and hands of a patient is reported. the patient was exposed to 192 Ir γ-rays for 9 hours and 20 minutes, the activity of which was 2.76 TBq. The amputations of the right thigh and left forearm had to be performed 8 days after the irradiation and the debridements and skin graftings were performed on the right hand and the inner side of left knee 55 days after the radiation. Microscopically, massive necrosis of cells of the epidermis, cutaneous appendages, hypodermics and skeletal muscles, and hemorrhage in the dermis, hypodermics and skeletal muscles were seen in the local irradiated parts of the right shank. But the arrector pili muscles in the dermis of the right shank remained. On the fingers and the palm of the left hand, vacuolar degeneration and massive necrosis of the cells of epidermis were present with extensive neutrophil infiltration. Cysts of large or small size were formed from the necrotic cells, separating epidermis from dermis. There were degeneration and necrosis of glandular epithelium cells of sweat glands. Hemorrhage was present in dermis and hypodermics. All the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow in the upper ends of the tibia and fibula and in the lower ends of the femur, the radius and the ulna disappeared. Acute radiation ulcers were present on the skin of the left knee and on the skin of the thumb, index finger and middle finger of the right hand. The extremely severe acute radiation injury caused by extremely high dose of 192 Ir led to the necrosis of the extensive soft tissues deep to skeletal muscles and the disappearance of the hematopoietic tissues in the bone marrow

  5. Multi-Point Measurements to Characterize Radiation Belt Electron Precipitation Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, L. W.

    2017-12-01

    Multipoint measurements in the inner magnetosphere allow the spatial and temporal evolution of various particle populations and wave modes to be disentangled. To better characterize and quantify radiation belt precipitation loss, we utilize multi-point measurements both to study precipitating electrons directly as well as the potential drivers of this loss process. Magnetically conjugate CubeSat and balloon measurements are combined to estimate of the temporal and spatial characteristics of dusk-side precipitation features and quantify loss due to these events. To then understand the drivers of precipitation events, and what determines their spatial structure, we utilize measurements from the dual Van Allen Probes to estimate spatial and temporal scales of various wave modes in the inner magnetosphere, and compare these to precipitation characteristics. The structure, timing, and spatial extent of waves are compared to those of MeV electron precipitation during a few individual events to determine when and where EMIC waves cause radiation belt electron precipitation. Magnetically conjugate measurements provide observational support of the theoretical picture of duskside interaction of EMIC waves and MeV electrons leading to radiation belt loss. Finally, understanding the drivers controlling the spatial scales of wave activity in the inner magnetosphere is critical for uncovering the underlying physics behind the wave generation as well as for better predicting where and when waves will be present. Again using multipoint measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we estimate the spatial and temporal extents and evolution of plasma structures and their gradients in the inner magnetosphere, to better understand the drivers of magnetospheric wave characteristic scales. In particular, we focus on EMIC waves and the plasma parameters important for their growth, namely cold plasma density and cool and warm ion density, anisotropy, and composition.

  6. Safety and otoprotection of metformin in radiation-induced sensorineural hearing loss in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Mota, Mario A; Salehi, Pezhman; Devic, Slobodan; Daniel, Sam J

    2014-05-01

    There is currently no treatment available to prevent radiation-induced sensorineural hearing loss. Metformin has antineoplastic effects and is able to regulate the mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species after cellular stress, which is one of the mechanisms involved in apoptosis after radiation damage. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and radioprotective properties of metformin against radiation-induced cochlear damage both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro and prospective animal study. Animal Care Facilities of the Montreal Children's Hospital Research Institute. Cultured auditory hair cells (HEI-OC1) were exposed to different concentrations of metformin to determine its safety. Cells were incubated with different metformin concentrations and subjected to radiation. Cell viability after experiments was determined with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Sixteen guinea pigs were divided in 2 groups: drinking tap water (n = 8) and drinking water containing metformin (n = 8). The animals were unilaterally irradiated for 20 days (total dose 70 Gy), and the ears were divided in 4 groups: control (n = 8), irradiated (n = 8), metformin (n = 8), and experimental (n = 8). Auditory brainstem responses were assessed before and 1, 6, and 16 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Metformin was not cytotoxic or radioprotective in cultured auditory hair cells. Experimental ears had less hearing loss than radiated ones; however, differences were not statistically significant (P > .05). Metformin is not ototoxic or radioprotective in vitro or in vivo. Ears solely subjected to metformin had better hearing thresholds than the rest of the groups.

  7. Hearing Loss in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma after Chemotherapy and Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Feng Wang

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In light of the possible adverse effects of radiation on hearing, we conducted a study to evaluate the long-term sensorineural hearing status following radiotherapy (RT in patients suffering from nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Audiologic examinations were performed at regular intervals before and after RT. We also analyzed the effects of age, chemotherapy, pre-RT hearing status, and post-RT otitis media with effusion (OME on post-RT hearing change. A total of 150 patients (261 ears were enrolled in this study and followed up for a mean of 43.8 months. After RT, 8.9-28.8% of ears had at least a 10 dB loss in bone conduction threshold at speech frequency, which was defined as an average of hearing threshold at 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz, while the percentage was 18-34.2% at 4 kHz. Patient age was related to these changes at speech frequency, and the presence of post-RT OME was related to significant loss at both speech frequency and 4 kHz. Pre-RT hearing status and chemotherapy did not influence hearing change. To sum up, sensorineural hearing loss began as early as after completion of RT. Early changes may be transient, but the effect of radiation on hearing tended to be chronic and progressive.

  8. FT-IR reflection spectra of single crystals: resolving phonons of different symmetry without using polarised radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    METODIJA NAJDOSKI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR reflection spectra, asquired at nearnormal incidence, were recorded from single crystals belonging to six crystal systems: CsCr(SO42.12H2O (alum, cubic, K2CuCl2·2H2O (Mitscherlichite, tetragonal, CaCO3 (calcite, hexagonal, KHSO4 (mercallite, orthorhombic, CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum, monoclinic and CuSO4·5H2O (chalcantite, triclinic. The acquired IR reflection spectra were further transformed into absorption spectra, employing the Kramers-Kronig transformation. Except for the cubic alums, the spectra strongly depend on the crystal face from which they were recorded; this is a consequence of anisotropy. Phonons of a given symmetry (E-species, in tetragonal/hexagonal and B-species, in monoclinic crystals may be resolved without using a polariser. The spectrum may be simplified in the case of an orthorhombic crystal, as well. The longitudinal-optical (LO and transversal-optical (TO mode frequencies were calculated in the case of optically isotropic and the simplified spectra of optically uniaxial crystals.

  9. Mechanical Loading Attenuates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Bone Marrow Transplanted Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govey, Peter M.; Zhang, Yue; Donahue, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of bone to ionizing radiation, as occurs during radiotherapy for some localized malignancies and blood or bone marrow cancers, as well as during space travel, incites dose-dependent bone morbidity and increased fracture risk. Rapid trabecular and endosteal bone loss reflects acutely increased osteoclastic resorption as well as decreased bone formation due to depletion of osteoprogenitors. Because of this dysregulation of bone turnover, bone’s capacity to respond to a mechanical loading stimulus in the aftermath of irradiation is unknown. We employed a mouse model of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation simulating treatment of hematologic cancers, hypothesizing that compression loading would attenuate bone loss. Furthermore, we hypothesized that loading would upregulate donor cell presence in loaded tibias due to increased engraftment and proliferation. We lethally irradiated 16 female C57Bl/6J mice at age 16 wks with 10.75 Gy, then IV-injected 20 million GFP(+) total bone marrow cells. That same day, we initiated 3 wks compression loading (1200 cycles 5x/wk, 10 N) in the right tibia of 10 of these mice while 6 mice were irradiated, non-mechanically-loaded controls. As anticipated, before-and-after microCT scans demonstrated loss of trabecular bone (-48.2% Tb.BV/TV) and cortical thickness (-8.3%) at 3 wks following irradiation. However, loaded bones lost 31% less Tb.BV/TV and 8% less cortical thickness (both pbones also had significant increases in trabecular thickness and tissue mineral densities from baseline. Mechanical loading did not affect donor cell engraftment. Importantly, these results demonstrate that both cortical and trabecular bone exposed to high-dose therapeutic radiation remain capable of an anabolic response to mechanical loading. These findings inform our management of bone health in cases of radiation exposure. PMID:27936104

  10. Modeling Loss-of-Flow Accidents and Their Impact on Radiation Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jivan Khatry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term high payload missions necessitate the need for nuclear space propulsion. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA investigated several reactor designs from 1959 to 1973 in order to develop the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA. Study of planned/unplanned transients on nuclear thermal rockets is important due to the need for long-term missions. In this work, a system model based on RELAP5 is developed to simulate loss-of-flow accidents on the Pewee I test reactor. This paper investigates the radiation heat transfer between the fuel elements and the structures around it. In addition, the impact on the core fuel element temperature and average core pressure was also investigated. The following expected results were achieved: (i greater than normal fuel element temperatures, (ii fuel element temperatures exceeding the uranium carbide melting point, and (iii average core pressure less than normal. Results show that the radiation heat transfer rate between fuel elements and cold surfaces increases with decreasing flow rate through the reactor system. However, radiation heat transfer decreases when there is a complete LOFA. When there is a complete LOFA, the peripheral coolant channels of the fuel elements handle most of the radiation heat transfer. A safety system needs to be designed to counteract the decay heat resulting from a post-LOFA reactor scram.

  11. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied

  12. Equation of motion of an interstellar Bussard ramjet with radiation and mass losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semay, Claude [Groupe de Physique Nucleaire Theorique, Universite de Mons-Hainaut, Academie universitaire Wallonie-Bruxelles, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Silvestre-Brac, Bernard [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, Avenue des Martyrs 53, F-38026 Grenoble-Cedex (France)], E-mail: claude.semay@umh.ac.be, E-mail: silvestre@lpsc.in2p3.fr

    2008-11-15

    An interstellar Bussard ramjet is a spaceship using the protons of the interstellar medium in a fusion engine to produce thrust. In recent papers, it was shown that the relativistic equation of motion of an ideal ramjet and that of a ramjet with radiation loss are analytical. When a mass loss appears, the limit speed of the ramjet is more strongly reduced. However, the parametric equations in terms of the ramjet's speed for the position of the ramjet in the inertial frame of the interstellar medium, the time in this frame and the proper time indicated by the clocks on board the spaceship can still be obtained in an analytical form. The non-relativistic motion and the motion near the limit speed are studied.

  13. Construction tolerances for low loss, dielectric coated, metallic waveguide for transmission optical radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandweiss, J.

    1984-08-01

    The transmission of radiation, in a specific mode of interest for the IFELA, past a symmetric step in dielectric coating thickness has been calculated. The result shows that the transmission loss depends on the quantity (s/D) 2 and vanishes to first order in the ratio of the step s to the guide aperture D. With the reasonable assumption that this feature holds for all forms of surface imperfections, the attenuation length due to imperfections has been estimated. It is found that rms surface roughness of approx. 0.1 μ m leads to attenuation lengths of 25 km or greater

  14. A Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation of Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping

    2014-11-10

    In this report, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation in order to calculate the path loss due to light absorption and scattering in various type of underwater channels. In the proposed scheme, we apply a direct non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. A Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation of Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping; Park, Ki-Hong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation in order to calculate the path loss due to light absorption and scattering in various type of underwater channels. In the proposed scheme, we apply a direct non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-11-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. This made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. The principles used to provide supplemental shielding to the NSLS-II accelerators and the lessons learned from this process are presented.

  17. Impacts of propagating, frustrated and surface modes on radiative, electrical and thermal losses in nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Michael P.; Dupré, Olivier; Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of radiative, electrical and thermal losses on the performances of nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic (nano-TPV) power generators consisting of a gallium antimonide cell paired with a broadband tungsten and a radiatively-optimized Drude radiator are analyzed. Results reveal that surface mode mediated nano-TPV power generation with the Drude radiator outperforms the tungsten radiator, dominated by frustrated modes, only for a vacuum gap thickness of 10 nm and if both electrical and thermal losses are neglected. The key limiting factors for the Drude- and tungsten-based devices are respectively the recombination of electron-hole pairs at the cell surface and thermalization of radiation with energy larger than the cell absorption bandgap. A design guideline is also proposed where a high energy cutoff above which radiation has a net negative effect on nano-TPV power output due to thermal losses is determined. It is shown that the power output of a tungsten-based device increases by 6.5% while the cell temperature decreases by 30 K when applying a high energy cutoff at 1.45 eV. This work demonstrates that design and optimization of nano-TPV devices must account for radiative, electrical and thermal losses. PMID:26112658

  18. Urban-rural solar radiation loss in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo region, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaa, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study for measured global solar radiation, G, during the period (1969-2006) and the corresponding global radiation loss in the atmosphere, R L %, over urban and rural districts in Greater Cairo region have been performed. The climatic variabilities of G radiation at the urban and rural sites are also investigated and discussed. Monthly, seasonal and annual mean values of extraterrestrial radiation, Go, and R L % during four successive periods, (1969-1978), (1979-1988), (1989-1998) and (1999-2006) at the above two sites have been calculated and investigated. The results revealed that urban area was always received lower amount of solar radiation due to urbanization factors. The yearly mean values of G radiation were distinctly decreased from maximum value 21.93 and 22.62 MJ m -2 during 1970 year to minimum value 17.57 and 17.87 MJ m -2 during 2004 and 2006 years with average decrease rate 0.09 and 0.10 MJ m -2 per year for the urban and rural areas, respectively. Also, the seasonal and annual mean anomalies of G radiation have been also gradually decreased from maximum values during the eldest period (1969-1978) to minimum values during the recent period (1999-2006). R L % over the urban area was always higher than that rural area. The urban-rural R L % differences range from 0.61% in 1999 year to 4.19% in 2002 year and 2.20% as average value. The yearly mean of R L % values distinctly gradually increase from minimum value 29.47% and 27.28% during 1970 year to maximum value 43.50% and 42.60% during 2004 and 2006 years with average increase rate 0.28% and 0.32% per year for the urban and rural areas, respectively. The minimum value of R L % (26.88%) occurred at rural area during summer season of the eldest period (1969-1978) while the maximum value of R L % (51.27%) occurred at the urban area during winter season of the last recent urbanized period (1999-2006). The linear trend of the yearly variations of R L % revealed that G values will reach zero

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of zoledronic acid and amifostine on radiation induced bone loss in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Sueum; Kang, Sohi; Moon, Cahng Jong; Kim, Jong Choon; Kim, Sung Ho [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung Kee [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeungeup (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study investigated the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on radiation-induced bone loss in C3H/HeN mice. C3H/HeN mice were divided into sham control and three irradiated groups (3 Gy, gamma ray). The irradiated mice were treated for 12 weeks with vehicle, amifostine (intraperitoneal injection), or ZA (subcutaneous injection). Grip strength, uterus weight, and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) levels were measured. Tibiae were analyzed using micro-computed tomography. Treatment of ZA (100 μg·kg{sup -1}·week{sup -1}) significantly preserved trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, trabecular separation, bone mineral density of proximal tibia metaphysic, and cortical bone volume, but did not alter the uterus weight of the mice. The administration of ZA for 12 weeks lowered serum ALP and TRAP levels in irradiated mice, suggesting that ZA can reduce the bone turnover rate in mice. No differences were apparent between the amifostine-treated group and the irradiation control group. The results indicate that ZA can prevent radiation-induced bone loss in mice.

  20. A mechanism for large divertor plasma energy loss via lithium radiation in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognlien, T. D.; Meier, E. T.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2012-10-01

    Lithium has been used as a wall-conditioning element in a number of tokamaks over the years, including TFTR, FTU, and NSTX, where core plasma energy confinement and particle control are often found to improve following such conditioning. Here the possible role of Li in providing substantial energy loss for divertor plasmas via line radiation is reported. A multi-charge-state 2D UEDGE fluid model is used where the hydrogenic and Li ions and neutrals are each evolved as separate species and separate equations are solved for the electron and ion temperatures. It is shown that a sufficient level of Li neutrals evolving from the divertor surface via sputtering or evaporation can induce energy detachment of the divertor plasma, yielding a strongly radiating zone near the divertor where ionization and recombination from/to neutral Li can radiate most of the power flowing into the scrape-off layer while maintaining low core contamination. A local peaking of Li emissivity for electron temperatures near 1 eV appears to play an important role in the detachment of the mixed deuterium/Li plasma. Evidence of such behavior from NSTX discharges will be discussed.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission in Spitzer /IRS Maps. II. A Direct Link between Band Profiles and the Radiation Field Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E., E-mail: dstock84@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-03-10

    We decompose the observed 7.7 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission complexes in a large sample of over 7000 mid-infrared spectra of the interstellar medium using spectral cubes observed with the Spitzer /IRS-SL instrument. In order to fit the 7.7 μ m PAH emission complex we invoke four Gaussian components, which are found to be very stable in terms of their peak positions and widths across all of our spectra, and subsequently define a decomposition with fixed parameters, which gives an acceptable fit for all the spectra. We see a strong environmental dependence on the interrelationships between our band fluxes—in the H ii regions all four components are intercorrelated, while in the reflection nebulae (RNs) the inner and outer pairs of bands correlate in the same manner as previously seen for NGC 2023. We show that this effect arises because the maps of RNs are dominated by emission from strongly irradiated photodissociation regions, while the much larger maps of H ii regions are dominated by emission from regions much more distant from the exciting stars, leading to subtly different spectral behavior. Further investigation of this dichotomy reveals that the ratio of two of these components (centered at 7.6 and 7.8 μ m) is linearly related to the UV-field intensity (log G {sub 0}). We find that this relationship does not hold for sources consisting of circumstellar material, which are known to have variable 7.7 μ m spectral profiles.

  2. Influence of radiation defects on electrical losses in silicon diodes irradiated with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poklonski, N. A.; Gorbachuk, N. I.; Shpakovski, S. V.; Lastovskii, S. B.; Wieck, A.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diodes with a p + -n junction irradiated with 3.5-MeV electrons (the fluence ranged from 10 15 to 4 x 10 16 cm -2 ) have been studied. It is established that the dependence of the tangent of the angle of electrical losses tanδ on the frequency f of alternating current in the range f = 10 2 -10 6 Hz is a nonmonotonic function with two extrema: a minimum and a maximum. Transformation of the dependences tanδ(f) as the electron fluence and annealing temperature are increased is caused by a variation in the resistance of n-Si (the base region of the diodes) as a result of accumulation (as the fluence is increased) or disappearance and reconfiguration (in the course of annealing) of radiation defects. The role of time lag of the defect recharging in the formation of tanδ(f) is insignificant.

  3. Brome isotope selective control of CF3Br molecule clustering by IR laser radiation in gas-dynamic expansion of CF3Br - Ar mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apatin, V. M.; Lokhman, V. N.; Makarov, G. N.; Ogurok, N.-D. D.; Ryabov, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    We report the results of research on the experimental control of CF3Br molecule clustering under gas-dynamic expansion of the CF3Br - Ar mixture at a nozzle exit by using IR laser radiation. A cw CO2 laser is used for exciting molecules and clusters in the beam and a time-of-flight mass-spectrometer with laser UV ionisation of particles for their detection. The parameters of the gas above the nozzle are determined (compositions and pressure) at which intensive molecule clustering occurs. It is found that in the case of the CF3Br gas without carrier when the pressure P0 above the nozzle does not exceed 4 atm, molecular clusters actually are not generated in the beam. If the gas mixture of CF3Br with argon is used at a pressure ratio 1 : N, where N >= 3, and the total pressure above the nozzle is P0 >= 2 atm, then there occurs molecule clustering. We study the dependences of the efficiency of suppressing the molecule clustering on parameters of the exciting pulse, gas parameters above the nozzle, and on a distance of the molecule irradiation zone from the nozzle exit section. It is shown that in the case of resonant vibrational excitation of gas-dynamically cooled CF3Br molecules at the nozzle exit one can realise isotope-selective suppression of molecule clustering with respect to bromine isotopes. With the CF3Br - Ar mixtures having the pressure ratio 1 : 3 and 1 : 15, the enrichment factors obtained with respect to bromine isotopes are kenr ≈ 1.05 ± 0.005 and kenr ≈ 1.06 ± 0.007, respectively, under jet irradiation by laser emission in the 9R(30) line (1084.635 cm-1). The results obtained let us assume that this method can be used to control clustering of molecules comprising heavy element isotopes, which have a small isotopic shift in IR absorption spectra.

  4. Effect of radiation losses on the compression of hydrogen by imploding solid liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Peterkin, R.E.; Smith, G.A.; Turchi, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Quasispherical solid liner implosions with little or no instability growth have been achieved experimentally. Applications for such implosions include the uniform, shock-free compression of some sort of on-axis target. One proposed means of obtaining such compression is to inject a 1 eV hydrogen plasma working fluid between the liner and the target, and imploding the liner around it. the high initial temperature assures that the sound speed within the liner is always greater than the inner surface implosion velocity of the liner, and the initial density is chosen so that the volume of the working fluid at peak compression is sufficiently large so that perfectly spherical convergence of the liner is not required. One concern with such an approach is that energy losses associated with ionization and radiation will degrade the effective gamma of the compression. To isolate and, therefore, understand these effects the authors have developed a simple zero-dimensional model for the liner implosion that accurately accounts for the shape and thickness of the liner as it implodes and compresses the working fluid. Based on simple considerations they make a crude estimate of the range of initial densities of interest for this technique. They then observe that within this density rage, for the temperatures of interest, the lines are strongly self-absorbed so that the transport of radiation is dominated by bound-free and free-free processes

  5. Evaluation of Mid-IR Laser radiation effect on 316l stainless steel corrosion resistance in physiological saline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khosroshahi, M.E.; Valanezhad, A.; Tavakoli, J.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a short pulsed (∼ 400 ns ) multi line hydrogen fluoride laser radiation operating on average at 2.8 μm has been studied on 316l stainless steel in terms of optical and physical parameters. At low fluences ≤ 8 Jcm -2 (phase l) no morphological changes occurred at the surface and melting began at ∼ 8.8 Jcm -2 (phase l l) which continued up to about 30 Jcm -2 . In this range the melting zone was effectively produced by high temperature surface centres growth which subsequently joined these centres together. Thermal ablation via surface vaporization began at ∼ 33 Jcm -2 (phase lll). The results of scanning electron microscopy evaluation and corrosion resistance experiment which was carried out using Eg and G device with cyclic potentiodynamic polarization method in a physiological (Hank's) solution indicated that pitting corrosion sensitivity was decreased i.e.. enhancement of corrosion resistance. Also, the x-ray diffraction results showed a double increase of γ (lll) at microstructure, thus in effect a super austenite stainless steel was obtained at an optimized melting fluence

  6. Diminished levels of allelic losses by homologous recombination in radiation-hypersensitive cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, K.; Abe, M.; Hoki, Y.; Kubo, E.; Muto, M.; Araki, R.; Sato, K.

    2003-01-01

    Mitotic recombination (MR) due to somatic crossing-over is a predominant mechanism for allelic losses in mammalian cells either spontaneous or radiation-induced. A selectable mutation assay accompanying real-time detection PCR was developed to analyze the second step in loss-of-function mutations employing a human lympho-blastoid cell line derived from an obligate heterozygote of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency with a nonsense mutation at exon 3 of the gene. 68 % of spontaneously arising 2,6-diaminopurine resistance (DAP r ) mutant clones were associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH), while 92 % of 2 Gy gamma-ray induced mutant clones were so associated. Investigation of gene dosage revealed that about one half of the spontaneously arising mutant clones and two-thirds of those induced by gamma-rays showed reduction to homozygosity of the constitutionally inactivated APRT allele. In an ataxia telangiectasia (AT) cell subline in which a new inactivation mutation had been introduced into one APRT allele by ICR-191, MR rarely occurred and exclusively deletions predominated in both spontaneous and X-ray induced DAP r mutants with LOH. A similar assay system was also developed with C3H mouse FM3A mammary tumor cells, SR-1, carrying a C .T transition at exon 5 of an APRT allele. In an XRCC7 (DNA-PKcs) deficient subline of SR-1, SX9 , spontaneous mutation frequencies for the Aprt locus (8AA r ) was 10 -3 , which was about 10 times higher than that in parental SR-1 cells. Mutation frequencies induced by X-rays comparably increased in a dose-dependent manner for the Aprt locus in both cell lines. Against our expectation, the lack of an NHEJ pathway of DNA double strand break repair resulted in a lower proportion (11.1 %) of MR with deletions (77.8 %) as the molecular cause for 8AA r mutations following X-irradiation, while virtually all of X-ray induced 8AA r mutant clones were MR in the control SR-1 cells. Factors

  7. Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasma with high density and high radiation loss operation in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaga, H.; Asakura, N.; Kubo, H.; Higashijima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Nakano, T.; Oyama, N.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Takizuka, T.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; Porter, G.D.; Rognlien, T.D.; Rensink, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasmas with high density and high radiation loss has been investigated in both reversed shear (RS) plasmas and high β p H-mode plasmas with a weak positive shear on JT-60U. In the RS plasmas, the operation regime is extended to high density above the Greenwald density (n GW ) with high confinement (HH y2 >1) and high radiation loss fraction (f rad >0.9) by tailoring the internal transport barriers (ITBs). High confinement of HH y2 =1.2 is sustained even with 80% radiation from the main plasma enhanced by accumulated metal impurity. The divertor radiation is enhanced by Ne seeding and the ratio of the divertor radiation to the total radiation is increased from 20% without seeding to 40% with Ne seeding. In the high β p H-mode plasmas, high confinement (HH y2 =0.96) is maintained at high density (n-bar e /n GW =0.92) with high radiation loss fraction (f rad ∼1) by utilizing high-field-side pellets and Ar injections. The high n-bar e /n GW is obtained due to a formation of clear density ITB. Strong core-edge parameter linkage is observed, as well as without Ar injection. In this linkage, the pedestal β p , defined as β p ped =p ped /(B p 2 /2μ 0 ) where p ped is the plasma pressure at the pedestal top, is enhanced with the total β p . The radiation profile in the main plasma is peaked due to Ar accumulation inside the ITB and the measured central radiation is ascribed to Ar. The impurity transport analyses indicate that Ar accumulation by a factor of 2 more than the electron, as observed in the high β p H-mode plasma, is acceptable even with peaked density profile in a fusion reactor for impurity seeding. (author)

  8. Radiation-induced temporary hair loss as a radiation damage only occurring in patients who had the combination of MDCT and DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Fukui, Atsushi; Itoh, Daisuke; Nozaki, Kyouko; Nakaji, Shunsuke; Ishizuka, Kumiko; Nakajima, Yasuo; Niimi, Hiroshi; Tabata, Hitoshi; Arima, Shiro; Furuya, Yu; Uzura, Masahiko; Takahama, Hideto; Hashizume, Suzuo

    2005-01-01

    As imaging technologies become increasingly advanced, it is possible to obtain detailed morphological information as well as functional imaging data. In some imaging technologies, the radiation dose increases with the ability to obtain better images or more detailed information. We encountered three cases of temporary bandage-shaped hair loss, which was caused by perfusion studies of the head by multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) for evaluation of cerebral blood flow in patients with vascular disorders. In all three patients with temporary hair loss, two angiographies of the head had been performed in the period of serial CT examinations. This suggested the possibility that radiation exposure from angiography performed in serial examinations, combined with the perfusion studies of the head with MDCT, played an important role in this temporary, bandage-shaped hair loss. Radiologists should be aware that a cumulative or multiplier effect of radiation exposure from multiple diagnostic techniques may result in hair loss and other types of radiation complications. (orig.)

  9. Loss and source mechanisms of Jupiter's radiation belts near the inner boundary of trapping regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bolton, Scott J.; Becker, Heidi N.; Clark, George; Kollmann, Peter; Paranicas, Chris; Mauk, Barry; Joergensen, John L.; Adriani, Alberto; Thorne, Richard M.; Bagenal, Fran; Janssen, Mike A.; Levin, Steve M.; Oyafuso, Fabiano A.; Williamson, Ross; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Kurth, Bill; Connerney, John E. P.

    2017-04-01

    We have merged a set of physics-based and empirical models to investigate the energy and spatial distributions of Jupiter's electron and proton populations in the inner and middle magnetospheric regions. Beyond the main source of plasma (> 5 Rj) where interchange instability is believed to drive the radial transport of charged particles, the method originally developed by Divine and Garrett [J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6889-6903, 1983] has been adapted. Closer to the planet where field fluctuations control the radial transport, a diffusion theory approach is used. Our results for the equatorial and mid-latitude regions are compared with Pioneer and Galileo Probe measurements. Data collected along Juno's polar orbit allow us to examine the features of Jupiter's radiation environment near the inner boundary of trapping regions. Significant discrepancies between Juno (JEDI keV energy particles and high energy radiation environment measurements made by Juno's SRU and ASC star cameras and the JIRAM infrared imager) and Galileo Probe data sets and models are observed close to the planet. Our simulations of Juno MWR observations of Jupiter's electron-belt emission confirm the limitation of our model to realistically depict the energy and spatial distributions of the ultra-energetic electrons. In this paper, we present our modeling approach, the data sets and resulting data-model comparisons for Juno's first science orbits. We describe our effort to improve our models of electron and proton belts. To gain a physical understanding of the dissimilarities with observations, we revisit the magnetic environment and the mechanisms of loss and source in our models.

  10. Calculation of radiation loss of 1.2 GeV-electrons in a thick silicon monocrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshtova, S.V.; Komarov, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    The angular distribution of radiation loss of different fractions of 1.2 GeV-electrons during axial channeling in a Si monocrystal of 1.6 mm thickness is discussed. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the experimental data. (author)

  11. Effective treatment of Stage I uterine papillary serous carcinoma with high dose-rate vaginal apex radiation (192Ir) and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Bruce C.; Knisely, Jonathan P. S.; Kacinski, Barry M.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Roberts, Kenneth B.; Frank, Alex H.; Peschel, Richard E.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Edraki, Babak; Kohorn, Ernest I.; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Schwartz, Peter E.; Wilson, Lynn D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) is a morphologically distinct variant of endometrial carcinoma that is associated with a poor prognosis, high recurrence rate, frequent clinical understaging, and poor response to salvage treatment. We retrospectively analyzed local control, actuarial overall survival (OS), actuarial disease-free survival (DFS), salvage rate, and complications for patients with Federation International of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) (1988) Stage I UPSC. Methods and Materials: This retrospective analysis describes 38 patients with FIGO Stage I UPSC who were treated with the combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, total abdominal hysterectomy, and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH/BSO), with or without a surgical staging procedure. Twenty of 38 patients were treated with a combination of low dose-rate (LDR) uterine/vaginal brachytherapy using 226 Ra or 137 Cs and conventional whole-abdomen radiation therapy (WART) or whole-pelvic radiation therapy (WPRT). Of 20 patients (10%) in this treatment group, 2 received cisplatin chemotherapy. Eighteen patients were treated with high dose-rate (HDR) vaginal apex brachytherapy using 192 Ir with an afterloading device and cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (CAP) chemotherapy (5 of 18 patients). Only 6 of 20 UPSC patients treated with combination LDR uterine/vaginal brachytherapy and conventional external beam radiotherapy underwent complete surgical staging, consisting of TAH/BSO, pelvic/para-aortic lymph node sampling, omentectomy, and peritoneal fluid analysis, compared to 15 of 18 patients treated with HDR vaginal apex brachytherapy. Results: The 5-year actuarial OS for patients with complete surgical staging and adjuvant radiation/chemotherapy treatment was 100% vs. 61% for patients without complete staging (p = 0.002). The 5-year actuarial OS for all Stage I UPSC patients treated with postoperative HDR vaginal apex brachytherapy and systemic chemotherapy was 94

  12. Infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Ellis, R.J.; Murray, W.E.; Parr, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    All people are exposed to IR radiation from sunlight, artificial light and radiant heating. Exposures to IR are quantified by irradiance and radiant exposure to characterize biological effects on the skin and cornea. However, near-IR exposure to the retina requires knowledge of the radiance of the IR source. With most IR sources in everyday use the health risks are considered minimal; only in certain high radiant work environments are individuals exposed to excessive levels. The interaction of IR radiation with biological tissues is mainly thermal. IR radiation may augment the biological response to other agents. The major health hazards are thermal injury to the eye and skin, including corneal burns from far-IR, heat stress, and retinal and lenticular injury from near-IR radiation. 59 refs, 13 figs, 2 tabs

  13. Interpolation formulas for quantities related to radiative energy-loss of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, T.; Ito, R.

    1977-01-01

    An interpolation formula is given for the quantity PHIsub(rad)/PHI(bar) that is proportional to the radiative energy-loss divided by the total energy of the incident electron. Errors caused by the formula have been checked for three sets of values of PHIsub(rad)/PHI(bar) which have been computed by Berger and Seltzer with different empirical corrections to reduce Born-approximation errors. Incident energies from 1 keV to 1000 MeV and atomic numbers of material from 1 to 92 have been considered. Values of six parameters in the formula have been determined by using Tschebyschev's criterion of approximation, and the maximum error has been found to be less than 1.9% for the intermediate set with Aiginger-Rester correction as well as for the no-correction set. A table of parameters in the case of the Aiginger-Rester set is provided for 59 elements. An interpolation formula for the Aginger-Rester correction factor is also given. (Auth.)

  14. Mass loss from Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent results relating to the stellar winds and mass loss rates of the WR stars are reviewed, emphasising new data and their interpretation acquired at UV, IR and Radio wavelengths. The subject is discussed under the headings: physical and chemical properties of WR stars (effective temperatures and radiative luminosities; masses; chemical abundances); velocity, ionisation and excitation structure of WR winds; mass loss rates of WR stars; mass loss properties of WR stars in the LMC; comparisons with theoretical models of mass loss; ring nebulae around WR stars; conclusions. (author)

  15. Entropy is conserved in Hawking radiation as tunneling: A revisit of the black hole information loss paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baocheng; Cai Qingyu; Zhan Mingsheng; You Li

    2011-01-01

    Research Highlights: → Information is found to be encoded and carried away by Hawking radiations. → Entropy is conserved in Hawking radiation. → We thus conclude no information is lost. → The dynamics of black hole may be unitary. - Abstract: We revisit in detail the paradox of black hole information loss due to Hawking radiation as tunneling. We compute the amount of information encoded in correlations among Hawking radiations for a variety of black holes, including the Schwarzchild black hole, the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole, the Kerr black hole, and the Kerr-Newman black hole. The special case of tunneling through a quantum horizon is also considered. Within a phenomenological treatment based on the accepted emission probability spectrum from a black hole, we find that information is leaked out hidden in the correlations of Hawking radiation. The recovery of this previously unaccounted for information helps to conserve the total entropy of a system composed of a black hole plus its radiations. We thus conclude, irrespective of the microscopic picture for black hole collapsing, the associated radiation process: Hawking radiation as tunneling, is consistent with unitarity as required by quantum mechanics.

  16. Shielding NSLS-II light source: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses [Shielding Synchrotron Light Sources: Importance of geometry for calculating radiation levels from beam losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.; Wahl, W.

    2016-01-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produces significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than a lower energy beam injection and ramped operations. Minimizing this dose will require adequate knowledge of where the miss-steered beam can occur and sufficient EM shielding close to the loss point, in order to attenuate the energy of the particles in the EM shower below the neutron production threshold (<10 MeV), which will spread the incident energy on the bulk shield walls and thereby the dose penetrating the shield walls. Designing supplemental shielding near the loss point using the analytic shielding model is shown to be inadequate because of its lack of geometry specification for the EM shower process. To predict the dose rates outside the tunnel requires detailed description of the geometry and materials that the beam losses will encounter inside the tunnel. Modern radiation shielding Monte-Carlo codes, like FLUKA, can handle this geometric description of the radiation transport process in sufficient detail, allowing accurate predictions of the dose rates expected and the ability to show weaknesses in the design before a high radiation incident occurs. The effort required to adequately define the accelerator geometry for these codes has been greatly reduced with the implementation of the graphical interface of FLAIR to FLUKA. This made the effective shielding process for NSLS-II quite accurate and reliable. Lastly, the principles used to provide

  17. Numerical analysis of the effects of radiation heat transfer and ionization energy loss on the cavitation Bubble's dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi, M.; Ebrahimi, R.; Shams, M.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack. -- Highlights: → Heat transfer and ionization energy losses were analyzed in the cavitation bubble. → Radiation of hydrodynamic bubble was approximately equal to the black body. → Radiation heat transfer did not affect the bubble dynamic. → Conduction decreased the bubble pressure and increased the bubble temperature. → Ionization decreased the temperature and increased the pressure in the bubble.

  18. An on-chip polarization splitter based on the radiation loss in the bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengwei; Rong, Kexiu; Gan, Fengyuan; Chu, Saisai; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitters (PBSs) are one of the key components in the integrated photonic circuits. To increase the integration density, various complex hybrid plasmonic structures have been numerically designed to shrink the footprints of the PBSs. Here, to decrease the complexity of the small hybrid structures and the difficulty of the hybrid micro-nano fabrications, the radiation losses are utilized to experimentally demonstrate an ultra-small, broadband, and efficient PBS in a simple bending hybrid plasmonic waveguide structure. The hybrid plasmonic waveguide comprising a dielectric strip on the metal surface supports both the transverse-magnetic (TM) and transverse-electric (TE) waveguide modes. Because of the different field confinements, the TE waveguide mode has larger radiation loss than the TM waveguide mode in the bending hybrid strip waveguide. Based on the different radiation losses, the two incident waveguide modes of orthogonal polarization states are efficiently split in the proposed structure with a footprint of only about 2.2 × 2.2 μm2 on chips. Since there is no resonance or interference in the splitting process, the operation bandwidth is as broad as Δλ = 70 nm. Moreover, the utilization of the strongly confined waveguide modes instead of the bulk free-space light (with the spot size of at least a few wavelengths) as the incident source considerably increases the coupling efficiency, resulting in a low insertion loss of <3 dB.

  19. A MONOLITHIC PREAMPLIFIER-SHAPER FOR MEASUREMENT LOSS AND TRANSITION RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KANDASAMY, A.

    1999-01-01

    A custom monolithic circuit has been developed for the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC) of the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This detector identifies particles by sampling their ionization energy loss (dE/dx) over a 3 cm drift space and by detecting associated transition radiation (TR) photons. The requirement of being simultaneously sensitive to dE/dx and TR events requires a dual-gain system. We have developed a compact solution featuring an octal preamplifier/shaper (P/S) IC with a split gain stage. The circuit, fabricated in 1.2 microm CMOS process, incorporates a trans-impedance preamplifier and a 70 ns unipolar CR-RC 4 shaper with ion tail compensation and active DC offset cancellation. Digitally selectable gain, peaking time, and tail cancellation as well as channel-by-channel charge injection and disable can be configured in the system via a 3-wire interface. The 3.5 x 5 mm 2 die is packaged in a fine-pitch 64-pin PQFP. Equivalent input noise is less than 1500 rms electrons at a power dissipation of 30 mW per channel. On a sample of 2400 chips, the DC offset was 2.3 ± 3 mV rms without trimming. A chamber-mounted TEC-PS Printed Circuit Board (PCB) houses four PIS chips, on-board calibration circuit, and 64 analog differential line drivers which transmit the shaped pulses to crate-mounted flash ADC's. 7 m apart An RS-422 link provides digital configuration downloading and read back, and supplies the calibration strobe. The 24.6 cm x 9.5 cm board dissipates 8.5 W

  20. A MONOLITHIC PREAMPLIFIER-SHAPER FOR MEASUREMENT LOSS AND TRANSITION RADIATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KANDASAMY,A.

    1999-11-08

    A custom monolithic circuit has been developed for the Time Expansion Chamber (TEC) of the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This detector identifies particles by sampling their ionization energy loss (dE/dx) over a 3 cm drift space and by detecting associated transition radiation (TR) photons. The requirement of being simultaneously sensitive to dE/dx and TR events requires a dual-gain system. We have developed a compact solution featuring an octal preamplifier/shaper (P/S) IC with a split gain stage. The circuit, fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m CMOS process, incorporates a trans-impedance preamplifier and a 70 ns unipolar CR-RC{sup 4} shaper with ion tail compensation and active DC offset cancellation. Digitally selectable gain, peaking time, and tail cancellation as well as channel-by-channel charge injection and disable can be configured in the system via a 3-wire interface. The 3.5 x 5 mm{sup 2} die is packaged in a fine-pitch 64-pin PQFP. Equivalent input noise is less than 1500 rms electrons at a power dissipation of 30 mW per channel. On a sample of 2400 chips, the DC offset was 2.3 {+-} 3 mV rms without trimming. A chamber-mounted TEC-PS Printed Circuit Board (PCB) houses four PIS chips, on-board calibration circuit, and 64 analog differential line drivers which transmit the shaped pulses to crate-mounted flash ADC's. 7 m apart An RS-422 link provides digital configuration downloading and read back, and supplies the calibration strobe. The 24.6 cm x 9.5 cm board dissipates 8.5 W.

  1. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-01-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14–19% and the ambient radiation by 9–16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. PMID:26423726

  2. Mass loss and chemical structures of wheat and maize straws in response to ultraviolet-B radiation and soil contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guixiang; Zhang, Jiabao; Mao, Jingdong; Zhang, Congzhi; Chen, Lin; Xin, Xiuli; Zhao, Bingzi

    2015-10-01

    The role of photodegradation, an abiotic process, has been largely overlooked during straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems. We investigated the mass loss and chemical structures of straw decomposition in response to elevated UV-B radiation with or without soil contact over a 12-month litterbag experiment. Wheat and maize straw samples with and without soil contact were exposed to three radiation levels: a no-sunlight control, ambient solar UV-B, and artificially elevated UV-B radiation. A block control with soil contact was not included. Compared with the no-sunlight control, UV-B radiation increased the mass loss by 14-19% and the ambient radiation by 9-16% for wheat and maize straws without soil contact after 12 months. Elevated UV-B exposure decreased the decomposition rates of both wheat and maize straws when in contact with soil. Light exposure resulted in decreased O-alkyl carbons and increased alkyl carbons for both the wheat and maize straws compared with no-sunlight control. The difference in soil contact may influence the contribution of photodegradation to the overall straw decomposition process. These results indicate that we must take into account the effects of photodegradation when explaining the mechanisms of straw decomposition in mesic ecosystems.

  3. Combining the absorptive and radiative loss in metasurfaces for multi-spectral shaping of the electromagnetic scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenbo; Huang, Cheng; Pu, Mingbo; Ma, Xiaoliang; Cui, Jianhua; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-02-19

    The absorptive and radiative losses are two fundamental aspects of the electromagnetic responses, which are widely occurring in many different systems such as waveguides, solar cells, and antennas. Here we proposed a metasurface to realize the control of the absorptive and radiative loss and to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) in multi-frequency bands. The anti-phase gradient and absorptive metasurfaces were designed that consists of metallic square patch and square loop structure inserted with resistors, acting as an phase gradient material in the X and Ku band, while behaving as an absorber in the S band. The simulation and experiment results verified the double-band, wideband and polarization-independent RCS reduction by the absorptive and anti-phase gradient metasurfaces.

  4. Transport, charge exchange and loss of energetic heavy ions in the earth's radiation belts - Applicability and limitations of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1981-01-01

    Computer simulations of processes which control the relative abundances of ions in the trapping regions of geospace are compared with observations from discriminating ion detectors. Energy losses due to Coulomb collisions between ions and exospheric neutrals are considered, along with charge exchange losses and internal charge exchanges. The time evolution of energetic ion fluxes of equatorially mirroring ions under radial diffusion is modelled to include geomagnetic and geoelectric fluctutations. Limits to the validity of diffusion transport theory are discussed, and the simulation is noted to contain provisions for six ionic charge states and the source effect on the radiation belt oxygen ion distributions. Comparisons are made with ion flux data gathered on Explorer 45 and ISEE-1 spacecraft and results indicate that internal charge exchanges cause the radiation belt ion charge state to be independent of source charge rate characteristics, and relative charge state distribution is independent of the radially diffusive transport rate below the charge state redistribution zone.

  5. Relative Contributions of Radiation and Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy to Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, Ying J.; Tward, Jonathan D.; Szabo, Aniko; Bentz, Brandon G.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the risk of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in patients with head-and-neck cancer and treated with radiation therapy (RT) or concomitant cisplatin-based chemoradiation, the relationship among SNHL and radiation dose to the cochlea, the use of two common cisplatin dose regimens. Methods and Materials: A total of 62 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with curative intent were included in this prospective study. Of the patients, 21 received RT alone, 27 received 40 mg/m 2 weekly cisplatin, 13 received 100 mg/m 2 every 3 weeks during RT, and 1 received RT with weekly epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor antibody. The effect of chemotherapy and RT dose on hearing was determined using a model that accounted for the age and variability between each ear for each patient. Results: We constructed a model to predict dose-dependent hearing loss for RT or cisplatin-based chemotherapy either alone or in combination. For patients only receiving RT, no significant hearing loss was found at doses to the cochlea of less than 40 Gy. Patients receiving 100 mg/m 2 or 40 mg/m 2 of cisplatin chemotherapy had an estimated +21.5 dB and +9.5 dB hearing loss at 8,000 Hz with low radiation doses (10 Gy), which rose to +38.4 dB and +18.9 dB for high radiation doses (40 Gy). Conclusions: Use of RT alone with doses of less than 40 Gy did not result in clinically significant hearing loss. High-frequency SNHL was profoundly damaged in patients who received concomitant cisplatin when doses of 100 mg/m 2 were used. The threshold cochlear dose for hearing loss with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and RT was predicted to be 10 Gy. The inner ear radiation dose constraints and cisplatin dose intensity should be considered in the treatment of advanced head-and-neck cancer

  6. Determination of the parametric region in which runaway electron energy losses are dominated by bremsstrahlung radiation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Gomez, I.; Martin-Solis, J. R.; Sanchez, R.

    2007-01-01

    It has been recently argued that, at sufficiently large parallel electric fields, bremsstrahlung radiation can greatly reduce the maximum energy that runaway electrons can gain in tokamaks [M. Bakhtiari et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102503 (2005)]. In this contribution, the work of these authors is extended to show that the region where bremsstrahlung radiation dominate runaway energy losses is however more restricted than reported by them. Expressions will be provided for the limits of this region within the parameter space spanned by the background density and parallel electric field, as a function of the rest of the plasma parameters. It will be shown that the background density has to be above a certain critical value and that the parallel electric field must lie within a range of values, below and above which synchrotron radiation dominate the runaway energy losses. Finally, it will be demonstrated that typical disruption parameters lie within this region and, as a result, bremsstrahlung losses still play an important role in controlling the runaway energy

  7. Prediction of critical weight loss during radiation treatment in head and neck cancer patients is dependent on BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to explore pre-treatment predictors of weight loss during radiation treatment only in head and neck cancer (HNSCC) patients and investigate the weight loss in patients with or without a feeding tube. METHODS: Retrospectively, weight change during curative...... patients without (73.8 vs 78.3 kg) and feeding tube reduced, but did not prevent, weight loss which averaged 6.7 ± 4.7 kg (7.4 ± 4.7 %) compared with 4.7 ± 5.9 kg (5.5 ± 6.0 %) in patients without a feeding tube (P 

  8. Bifurcation and extinction limit of stretched premixed flames with chain-branching intermediate kinetics and radiative loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huangwei; Chen, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Premixed counterflow flames with thermally sensitive intermediate kinetics and radiation heat loss are analysed within the framework of large activation energy. Unlike previous studies considering one-step global reaction, two-step chemistry consisting of a chain branching reaction and a recombination reaction is considered here. The correlation between the flame front location and stretch rate is derived. Based on this correlation, the extinction limit and bifurcation characteristics of the strained premixed flame are studied, and the effects of fuel and radical Lewis numbers as well as radiation heat loss are examined. Different flame regimes and their extinction characteristics can be predicted by the present theory. It is found that fuel Lewis number affects the flame bifurcation qualitatively and quantitatively, whereas radical Lewis number only has a quantitative influence. Stretch rates at the stretch and radiation extinction limits respectively decrease and increase with fuel Lewis number before the flammability limit is reached, while the radical Lewis number shows the opposite tendency. In addition, the relation between the standard flammability limit and the limit derived from the strained near stagnation flame is affected by the fuel Lewis number, but not by the radical Lewis number. Meanwhile, the flammability limit increases with decreased fuel Lewis number, but with increased radical Lewis number. Radical behaviours at flame front corresponding to flame bifurcation and extinction are also analysed in this work. It is shown that radical concentration at the flame front, under extinction stretch rate condition, increases with radical Lewis number but decreases with fuel Lewis number. It decreases with increased radiation loss.

  9. Radiation distribution sensor with optical fibers for high radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Eiji; Kimura, Atsushi; Hosono, Yoneichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    Radiation distribution sensors with their feasibilities have been described in earlier works. However, due to large radiation induced transmission losses in optical fibers, especially in the visible wavelength region, it has been difficult to apply these techniques to high radiation fields. In this study, we proposed a new concept of optical fiber based radiation distribution measurements with near infrared (IR) emission. Near IR scintillators were attached to the ends of optical fibers, where the fibers were bundled and connected to an N-MOS line sensor or a cooled CCD camera. From the measurements of each area density, the radiation levels at the positions of the scintillators can be known. The linearity between the gamma dose rate at each scintillator and the registered counts has been examined. For correcting the radiation induced loss effects, we applied the Optical Time Domain Reflectometry technique to measure the loss distribution and from the results, a possibility for correction of the loss effect has been demonstrated. The applicable dose rate range was evaluated to be from 0.1 to 10 3 Gy/h. This system can be a promising tool as a flexible dose rate distribution monitor in radiation facilities like nuclear plants and accelerator facilities. (author)

  10. Time-dependent mass loss from hot stars with and without radiative driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, J.I.; Owocki, S.P.; Rybicki, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical hydrodynamics code is used to investigate two aspects of the winds of hot stars. The first is the question of the instability of the massive radiatively-driven wind of an O star that is caused by the line shape mechanism: modulation of the radiation force by velocity fluctuations. The evolution of this instability is studied in a model O star wind, and is found, /ital modulo/ some numerical uncertainty, to lead to wave structures that are compatible with observations of wind instabilities. The other area of investigation is of main-sequence B star winds. Attempts were made to simulate a radiatively-driven and a pulsation-driven wind in a B star, but in each case the wind turned out to be very weak. It is argued that the pulsation-driven wind model is not likely to apply to B stars. 28 refs., 11 figs

  11. Characterization of a wide dynamic-range, radiation-tolerant charge-digitizer asic for monitoring of Beam losses

    CERN Document Server

    Guido Venturini, G G; Dehning, B; Kayal, M

    2012-01-01

    An Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) has been designed and fabricated to provide a compact solution to digitize current signals from ionization chambers and diamond detectors, employed as beam loss monitors at CERN and several other high energy physics facilities. The circuit topology has been devised to accept positive and negative currents, to have a wide dynamic range (above 120 dB), withstand radiation levels over 10 Mrad and offer different modes of operation, covering a broad range of applications. Furthermore, an internal conversion reference is employed in the digitization, to provide an accurate absolute measurement. This paper discusses the detailed characterization of the first prototype: linearity, radiation tolerance and temperature dependence of the conversion, as well as implications and system-level considerations regarding its use for beam instrumentation applications in a high energy physics facility.

  12. Definition of loss-of-coolant accident radiation source: summary and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzon, L.L.; Lurie, N.A.; Houston, D.H.; Naber, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    The radiation energy release rates and spectra corresponding to those sources specified in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.89 for the radiation qualification of Class 1E equipment were calculated. The effects of several parameters (some not specific in the Guide), such as reactor fuel composition, operating duration and power level, and treatment of progeny, are evaluated. The results are presented as time-dependent beta and gamma-ray energy release rates and spectra which are fundamental quantities that are not specific to a plant design but are generally applicable to any nuclear power station

  13. Dielectric and magnetic losses of microwave electromagnetic radiation in granular structures with ferromagnetic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lutsev, L V; Tchmutin, I A; Ryvkina, N G; Kalinin, Y E; Sitnikoff, A V

    2003-01-01

    We have studied dielectric and magnetic losses in granular structures constituted by ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Co, Fe, B) in an insulating amorphous a-SiO sub 2 matrix at microwave frequencies, in relation to metal concentration, substrate temperatures and gas content, in the plasma atmosphere in sputtering and annealing. The magnetic losses are due to fast spin relaxation of nanoparticles, which becomes more pronounced with decreasing metal content and occur via simultaneous changes in the granule spin direction and spin polarization of electrons on exchange-split localized states in the matrix (spin-polarized relaxation mechanism). The difference between the experimental values of the imaginary parts of magnetic permeability for granular structures prepared in Ar and Ar + O sub 2 atmospheres is determined by different electron structures of argon and oxygen impurities in the matrix. To account for large dielectric losses in granular structures, we have developed a model of cluster electron states (CESs)....

  14. Prospective study of inner ear radiation dose and hearing loss in head-and-neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Charlie C.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Lee, Julia S.; Snorrason, Rhonda M.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Kileny, Paul R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between the radiation dose to the inner ear and long-term hearing loss. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those receiving curative radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer. After enrollment, patients underwent three-dimensional conformal RT planning and delivery (180-200 cGy/fraction) appropriate for their disease site and stage. The inner ear was contoured on axial CT planning images. Dose-volume histograms, as well as the mean and maximal dose for each structure, were calculated. Patients underwent pure tone audiometry at baseline (before treatment) and 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after RT. The threshold level (the greater the value, the more hearing loss) in decibels was recorded for 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 Hz. For patients receiving predominantly unilateral RT, the contralateral ear served as the de facto control. The differences in threshold level between the ipsilateral and contralateral ears were calculated, and the temporal pattern and dose-response relation of hearing loss were analyzed using statistical methods that take into account the correlation between two ears in the same subject and repeated, sequential measurements of each subject. Results: Of the 40 patients enrolled in this study, 35 qualified for analysis. Four patients who received concurrent chemotherapy and RT were analyzed separately. The 31 unilaterally treated patients received a median dose of 47.4 Gy (range, 14.1-68.8 Gy) to the ipsilateral inner ear and 4.2 Gy (range, 0.5-31.3 Gy) to the contralateral inner ear. Hearing loss was associated with the radiation dose received by the inner ear (loss of 210dB was observed in ears receiving ≥45 Gy) and was most appreciable in the higher frequencies (≥2000 Hz). For a 60-year-old patient with no previous hearing loss in either ear, after receiving 45 Gy, the ipsilateral ear, according to our clinical model, would have a 19.3-dB (95% confidence interval [CI], 15

  15. The mean photon energy anti E{sub F} at the point of measurement determines the detector-specific radiation quality correction factor k{sub Q,M} in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chofor, Ndimofor; Harder, Dietrich; Selbach, Hans-Joachim; Poppe, Bjoern [University of Oldenburg and Pius-Hospital Oldenburg (Germany). Medical Radiation Physics Group

    2016-11-01

    The application of various radiation detectors for brachytherapy dosimetry has motivated this study of the energy dependence of radiation quality correction factor k{sub Q,M}, the quotient of the detector responses under calibration conditions at a {sup 60}Co unit and under the given non-reference conditions at the point of measurement, M, occurring in photon brachytherapy. The investigated detectors comprise TLD, radiochromic film, ESR, Si diode, plastic scintillator and diamond crystal detectors as well as ionization chambers of various sizes, whose measured response-energy relationships, taken from the literature, served as input data. Brachytherapy photon fields were Monte-Carlo simulated for an ideal isotropic {sup 192}Ir point source, a model spherical {sup 192}Ir source with steel encapsulation and a commercial HDR GammaMed Plus source. The radial source distance was varied within cylindrical water phantoms with outer radii ranging from 10 to 30 cm and heights from 20 to 60 cm. By application of this semiempirical method - originally developed for teletherapy dosimetry - it has been shown that factor k{sub Q,M} is closely correlated with a single variable, the fluence-weighted mean photon energy anti E{sub F} at the point of measurement. The radial profiles of anti E{sub F} obtained with either the commercial {sup 192}Ir source or the two simplified source variants show little variation. The observed correlations between parameters k{sub Q,M} and anti E{sub F} are represented by fitting formulae for all investigated detectors, and further variation of the detector type is foreseen. The herewith established close correlation of radiation quality correction factor k{sub Q,M} with local mean photon energy anti E{sub F} can be regarded as a simple regularity, facilitating the practical application of correction factor k{sub Q,M} for in-phantom dosimetry around {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources. anti E{sub F} values can be assessed by Monte Carlo simulation or

  16. Observational evidence of competing source, loss, and transport processes for relativistic electrons in Earth's outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Drew; Mann, Ian; Usanova, Maria; Rodriguez, Juan; Henderson, Mike; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Morley, Steven; Claudepierre, Seth; Li, Wen; Kellerman, Adam; Boyd, Alexander; Kim, Kyung-Chan

    Earth’s outer electron radiation belt is a region of extreme variability, with relativistic electron intensities changing by orders of magnitude over time scales ranging from minutes to years. Extreme variations of outer belt electrons ultimately result from the relative impacts of various competing source (and acceleration), loss, and transport processes. Most of these processes involve wave-particle interactions between outer belt electrons and different types of plasma waves in the inner magnetosphere, and in turn, the activity of these waves depends on different solar wind and magnetospheric driving conditions and thus can vary drastically from event to event. Using multipoint analysis with data from NASA’s Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, and SAMPEX missions, NOAA’s GOES and POES constellations, and ground-based observatories, we present results from case studies revealing how different source/acceleration and loss mechanisms compete during active periods to result in drastically different distributions of outer belt electrons. By using a combination of low-Earth orbiting and high-altitude-equatorial orbiting satellites, we briefly review how it is possible to get a much more complete picture of certain wave activity and electron losses over the full range of MLTs and L-shells throughout the radiation belt. We then show example cases highlighting the importance of particular mechanisms, including: substorm injections and whistler-mode chorus waves for the source and acceleration of relativistic electrons; magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions with EMIC waves for sudden losses; and ULF wave activity for driving radial transport, a process which is important for redistributing relativistic electrons, contributing both to acceleration and loss processes. We show how relativistic electron enhancement events involve local acceleration that is consistent with wave-particle interactions between a seed population of 10s to 100s of keV electrons, with a

  17. Regional radiation dose susceptibility within the parotid gland: Effects on salivary loss and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Haley, E-mail: hdclark@phas.ubc.ca; Reinsberg, Stefan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hovan, Allan [Oral Oncology/Dentistry, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Moiseenko, Vitali [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Thomas, Steven [Department of Medical Physics, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Wu, Jonn [Radiation Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency–Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E6 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is one of the most likely late toxic effects of radiotherapy treatment in patients with head-and-neck cancers. Modern treatment techniques can incorporate knowledge of complication risk into treatment plans. To this end, the authors attempt to quantify the regional radiotherapy dose-dependence of salivary output loss and recovery in a prospective study. Methods: Salivary output was collected from patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment for head-and-neck cancers at the BC Cancer Agency between February 2008 and May 2013. Regional dose-dependence (i.e., dose susceptibility) of loss and recovery is quantified using nonparametric (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients, local linear regression) and parametric (least-sum of squares, least-median of squares) techniques. Results: Salivary flow recovery was seen in 79 of 102 patients considered (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon sign rank test). Output loss was strongly correlated with left- and right parotid combined dose φ = min (D{sub L},  45 Gy) + min (D{sub R},  45 Gy), and can be accurately predicted. Median early loss (three months) was 72% of baseline, while median overall loss (1 yr) was 56% of baseline. Fitting an exponential model to whole parotid yields dose sensitivities A{sub 3m} = 0.0604 Gy{sup −1} and A{sub 1y} = 0.0379 Gy{sup −1}. Recovery was not significantly associated with dose. Hints of lateral organ sub-segment dose–response dimorphism were observed. Conclusions: Sub-segmentation appears to predict neither loss nor recovery with any greater precision than whole parotid mean dose, though it is not any worse. Sparing the parotid to a combined dose φ of <50 Gy is recommended for a patient to keep ≈40% of baseline function and thus avoid severe xerostomia at 12 months post-treatment. It seems unlikely that a population’s mean recovery will exceed 20%–30% of baseline output at 1 yr after radiotherapy treatment using current (whole-organ based) clinical guidelines.

  18. Multiple loss processes of relativistic electrons outside the heart of outer radiation belt during a storm sudden commencement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.

    2015-01-01

    By examining the compression-induced changes in the electron phase space density and pitch angle distribution observed by two satellites of Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A/B), we find that the relativistic electrons (>2 MeV) outside the heart of outer radiation belt (L*≥5) undergo multiple losses during a storm sudden commencement. The relativistic electron loss mainly occurs in the field-aligned direction (pitch angle α < 30° or >150°), and the flux decay of the field-aligned electrons is independent of the spatial location variations of the two satellites. However, the relativistic electrons in the pitch angle range of 30°–150° increase (decrease) with the decreasing (increasing) geocentric distance (|ΔL|<0.25) of the RBSP-B (RBSP-A) location, and the electron fluxes in the quasi-perpendicular direction display energy-dispersive oscillations in the Pc5 period range (2–10 min). The relativistic electron loss is confirmed by the decrease of electron phase space density at high-L shell after the magnetospheric compressions, and their loss is associated with the intense plasmaspheric hiss, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, relativistic electron precipitation (observed by POES/NOAA satellites at 850 km), and magnetic field fluctuations in the Pc5 band. Finally, the intense EMIC waves and whistler mode hiss jointly cause the rapidly pitch angle scattering loss of the relativistic electrons within 10 h. Moreover, the Pc5 ULF waves also lead to the slowly outward radial diffusion of the relativistic electrons in the high-L region with a negative electron phase space density gradient.

  19. Loss of Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Attenuates Murine Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechsig, Paul; Hartenstein, Bettina; Teurich, Sybille; Dadrich, Monika; Hauser, Kai; Abdollahi, Amir; Groene, Hermann-Josef; Angel, Peter; Huber, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary fibrosis is a disorder of the lungs with limited treatment options. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a family of proteases that degrade extracellular matrix with roles in fibrosis. Here we studied the role of MMP13 in a radiation-induced lung fibrosis model using a MMP13 knockout mouse. Methods and Materials: We investigated the role of MMP13 in lung fibrosis by investigating the effects of MMP13 deficiency in C57Bl/6 mice after 20-Gy thoracic irradiation (6-MV Linac). The morphologic results in histology were correlated with qualitative and quantitative results of volume computed tomography (VCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and clinical outcome. Results: We found that MMP13 deficient mice developed less pulmonary fibrosis than their wildtype counterparts, showed attenuated acute pulmonary inflammation (days after irradiation), and a reduction of inflammation during the later fibrogenic phase (5-6 months after irradiation). The reduced fibrosis in MMP13 deficient mice was evident in histology with reduced thickening of alveolar septi and reduced remodeling of the lung architecture in good correlation with reduced features of lung fibrosis in qualitative and quantitative VCT and MRI studies. The partial resistance of MMP13-deficient mice to fibrosis was associated with a tendency towards a prolonged mouse survival. Conclusions: Our data indicate that MMP13 has a role in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Further, our findings suggest that MMP13 constitutes a potential drug target to attenuate radiation-induced lung fibrosis.

  20. Loss tangent and complex modulus estimated by acoustic radiation force creep and shear wave dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Carolina; Urban, Matthew W; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F

    2012-03-07

    Elasticity imaging methods have been used to study tissue mechanical properties and have demonstrated that tissue elasticity changes with disease state. In current shear wave elasticity imaging methods typically only shear wave speed is measured and rheological models, e.g. Kelvin-Voigt, Maxwell and Standard Linear Solid, are used to solve for tissue mechanical properties such as the shear viscoelastic complex modulus. This paper presents a method to quantify viscoelastic material properties in a model-independent way by estimating the complex shear elastic modulus over a wide frequency range using time-dependent creep response induced by acoustic radiation force. This radiation force induced creep method uses a conversion formula that is the analytic solution of a constitutive equation. The proposed method in combination with shearwave dispersion ultrasound vibrometry is used to measure the complex modulus so that knowledge of the applied radiation force magnitude is not necessary. The conversion formula is shown to be sensitive to sampling frequency and the first reliable measure in time according to numerical simulations using the Kelvin-Voigt model creep strain and compliance. Representative model-free shear complex moduli from homogeneous tissue mimicking phantoms and one excised swine kidney were obtained. This work proposes a novel model-free ultrasound-based elasticity method that does not require a rheological model with associated fitting requirements.

  1. Oocyte toxicity: female germ-cell loss from radiation and chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    In some mammals, female germ cells are extraordinarily sensitive to killing by exposure to ionizing radiation, especially during development. Immature oocytes, which constitute the lifetime germ-cell pool of the female, have an LD 50 in juvenile mice of only 6 rad (compared with typical LD 50 s of 100-300 rad for most other cell types studied). Essentially, the entire germ-cell supply in female squirrel monkeys is destroyed prenatally by exposure of only 0.7 rad/day. Severe but lesser destruction has been found in other species. However, evidence suggests (though not ruled out for all developmental stages) that unusually high sensitivity probably does not occur in the human female. Germ cells can also be killed by certain chemicals, and similarities exist between chemical and radiation effects. More than 75 compounds have been quantitatively studied in mice, with determination of OTI values (OTI = oocyte toxicity index = mouse LD 50 /oocyte LD 50 ) to measure the degree of preferential oocyte killing. High sensitivity in mice does not mean necessarily high sensitivity in women. Of special interest is the recent discovery that the lethal target in the extremely sensitive mouse immature oocyte is probably the plasma membrane, not DNA. Since mouse data form the main basis from which human genetic hazard (for both radiation and chemicals) is estimated, this has important implications for the determination of genetic risk in women

  2. NOy production, ozone loss and changes in net radiative heating due to energetic particle precipitation in 2002-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnhuber, Miriam; Berger, Uwe; Funke, Bernd; Nieder, Holger; Reddmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas; Maik Wissing, Jan

    2018-01-01

    winter, ranging from 10-50 % during solar maximum to 2-10 % during solar minimum. Ozone loss continues throughout polar summer after strong solar proton events in the Southern Hemisphere and after large sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere. During mid-winter, the ozone loss causes a reduction of the infrared radiative cooling, i.e., a positive change of the net radiative heating (effective warming), in agreement with analyses of geomagnetic forcing in stratospheric temperatures which show a warming in the late winter upper stratosphere. In late winter and spring, the sign of the net radiative heating change turns to negative (effective cooling). This spring-time cooling lasts well into summer and continues until the following autumn after large solar proton events in the Southern Hemisphere, and after sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere.

  3. Possible Role of Garlic Oil and Parsley Extract in Ameliorating Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, L.; El-Sabbagh, W.; Kenawy, S.

    2011-01-01

    To Investigate the possible protective effect of garlic oil and parsley extract against bone loss resulted in female virgin rats exposed to fractionated doses of gamma-radiation (1 Gy 3 times weekly for 5 weeks). Urinary calcium (U Ca), calcium to creatinine ratio (Ca/Cr), hydroxyproline and serum phosphorus were measured as bone resorption bio markers, while serum osteocalcine (OST) and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured as bone formation bio markers. Furthermore, nitric oxide (NO) which represents the balance in bone remodeling was measured. Malondiadehyde level (MDA) as well as superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) was measured as oxidative stress bio markers. Female irradiated rats in the present study had significant increases in both bone resorption and bone formation bio markers after 6 weeks from the last exposure to gamma-radiation. Irradiated rats also had significant decreases in plasma NO indicating imbalance in bone remodeling as well as significant increase in oxidative stress bio markers. Daily treatment with garlic oil extracted in olive oil improved all measured parameters except OST level, while the vehicle used for garlic oil (extra virgin olive oil) significantly decreased bone resorption bio markers. Parsley extract induced normalization to all bone resorption and formation parameters measured in irradiated rats. Daily administration of garlic oil and parsley extract protected the bone from degeneration induced by exposure to fractionated doses of gamma radiation.

  4. Respective roles of direct GHG radiative forcing and induced Arctic sea ice loss on the Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, Thomas; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Chauvin, Fabrice; Cattiaux, Julien; Terray, Laurent; Cassou, Christophe

    2017-12-01

    The large-scale and synoptic-scale Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation responses to projected late twenty-first century Arctic sea ice decline induced by increasing Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) concentrations are investigated using the CNRM-CM5 coupled model. An original protocol, based on a flux correction technique, allows isolating the respective roles of GHG direct radiative effect and induced Arctic sea ice loss under RCP8.5 scenario. In winter, the surface atmospheric response clearly exhibits opposing effects between GHGs increase and Arctic sea ice loss, leading to no significant pattern in the total response (particularly in the North Atlantic region). An analysis based on Eady growth rate shows that Arctic sea ice loss drives the weakening in the low-level meridional temperature gradient, causing a general decrease of the baroclinicity in the mid and high latitudes, whereas the direct impact of GHGs increase is more located in the mid-to-high troposphere. Changes in the flow waviness, evaluated from sinuosity and blocking frequency metrics, are found to be small relative to inter-annual variability.

  5. Coherent Radiative Parton Energy Loss beyond the BDMPS-Z Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Zapp, Korinna C

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a phenomenologically viable theory of jet quenching for heavy ion collisions requires the understanding of medium-induced parton energy loss beyond the limit of eikonal kinematics formulated by Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff and Zakharov (BDMPS-Z). Here, we supplement a recently developed exact Monte Carlo implementation of the BDMPS-Z formalism with elementary physical requirements including exact energy-momentum conservation, a refined formulation of jet-medium interactions and a treatment of all parton branchings on the same footing. We document the changes induced by these physical requirements and we describe their kinematic origin.

  6. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de [Institute for Experimental Nuclear Physics (IEKP), KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne [CERN, Meyrin (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb{sup -1} corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the

  7. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de; Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb -1 corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the CCE in

  8. Mass and loss analysis of a space-type radiation cooled insulated DC transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarze, g.E.

    1986-01-01

    As both the power levels and transmission distances increase such as for large future nuclear power systems, the transmission line becomes an important element in the power chain between the source and load bus. Thus, the transmission line's characteristics must be determined so that the effect of these characteristics on the total power system can be assessed. These design characteristics include the specific mass, percent power loss, size, voltage and power levels, and operating temperatures of the conductor and insulating materials. In a previous paper, the dc transmission line's characteristics of a noninsulated solid cylindrical conductor were determined. In that analysis the expression derived for the transmission line's mass only included the conductor mass and the operating temperature of the line was that of the conductor. In the analysis of this paper, a single layer of insulation is added to the solid cylindrical conductor. In this analysis the dependency of the dc transmission line's mass, loss, and size on the power and voltage levels, conductor and insulation surface temperatures, transmission distance, and conductor and insulation material properties is determined. This analysis can be extended to multi-layers of insulation but the complexity of the analysis increases as the number of layers increase

  9. Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of Radiative Transfer Equation: Temperature and Gas Mixing Ratio Weighting Functions for Remote Sensing of Scattering Atmospheres in Thermal IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, E.

    1999-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis based on using of the adjoint equation of radiative transfer is applied to the case of atmospheric remote sensing in the thermal spectral region with non-negligeable atmospheric scattering.

  10. On the Use of a Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation in Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping; Park, Kihong; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation based on the approach in [1] in order to calculate the optical path loss of light propagation suffering from attenuation due to the absorption and scattering in various water types. We apply an optimal non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. Finally, we extend the resulting radiance in 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional by the azimuthal symmetric assumption to compute the received optical power under the given receiver aperture and field of view. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are validated by uniform RTE solver and Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Fast pyrobolometers for measurements of plasma heat fluxes and radiation losses in the MST Reversed Field Pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Frank, J.; Holly, D.

    1993-01-01

    Two types of fast bolometers are described for the plasma energy transport study in the Madison Symmetric Torus plasma confinement device. Both types use pyrocrystals of LiTaO 3 or LiNbO 3 as the sensors. One type is used for measurements of the radiated heat losses and is situated at the vacuum shell inner surface. Another type is insertable in the plasma and measures the plasma particle heat flux. The frequency response of the bolometers is measured to be in the 150--200 kHz range. The range of the measured power fluxes is 0.1 W/cm 2 10 kW/cm 2 and can be adjusted by changing the size of the entrance aperture. The lower limit is determined by the amplifier noise and the frequency bandwidth, the higher limit by destruction of the bolometer sensor

  12. On the Use of a Direct Radiative Transfer Equation Solver for Path Loss Calculation in Underwater Optical Wireless Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Changping

    2015-07-22

    In this letter, we propose a fast numerical solution for the steady state radiative transfer equation based on the approach in [1] in order to calculate the optical path loss of light propagation suffering from attenuation due to the absorption and scattering in various water types. We apply an optimal non-uniform method to discretize the angular space and an upwind type finite difference method to discretize the spatial space. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method is then applied to solve the fully discretized system of linear equations. Finally, we extend the resulting radiance in 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional by the azimuthal symmetric assumption to compute the received optical power under the given receiver aperture and field of view. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed scheme are validated by uniform RTE solver and Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Method of and system for determining a spectrum of radiation characteristics with full counting-loss compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Real-time correction of counting losses in the operation of a pulse-height analyzer, connected to the output of a radiation detector, is accomplished by establishing a gating interval at a time when the analyzer is available after processing the last detector pulse, this interval beginning at an instant delayed beyond the trailing edge of that last pulse by at least a predetermined rise time and ending with the leading edge of the next detector pulse. Test pulses generated during this gating interval are counted and their number is used to determine a probability ratio whose reciprocal constitutes a weighting factor; the digitized amplitude of each detector pulse addresses a corresponding memory cell whose contents are thereupon increased by the current weighting factor

  14. Effects of hyperthermia on radiation-induced chromosome breakage and loss in excision repair deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittler, S.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperthermia increased radiosensitivity with respect to γ-ray induced chromosome loss and breakage in all stages of spermatogenesis in the wild type Oregon R strain of Drosophila melanogaster, whereas hyperthermia increased radiosensitivity to a lesser extent in cn mus(2) 201sup(D1), an excision repair mutant with 0 per cent excision capacity and in mus(3) 308sup(D1), a strain with 24 per cent excision capacity. The differences in hyperthermia-induced radiation sensitivity between the excision repair mutants and the wild strain may be due to the hyperthermia affecting the excision repair mechanism, suggesting that one of the possible mechanisms involved in hyperthermia-increased radiosensitivity is an effect on excision repair. (author)

  15. Blackbody Radiation and the Loss of Universality: Implications for Planck's Formulation and Boltzman's Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Through the reevaluation of Kirchhoff's law (Robitaille P.M.L. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., 2003, v.31(6, 1263-1267, Planck's blackbody equation (Planck M. Ann. der Physik, 1901, v.4, 553-356 loses its universal significance and becomes restricted to perfect absorbers. Consequently, the proper application of Planck's radiation law involves the study of solid opaque objects, typically made from graphite, soot, and carbon black. The extension of this equation to other materials may yield apparent temperatures, which do not have any physical meaning relative to the usual temperature scales. Real temperatures are exclusively obtained from objects which are known solids, or which are enclosed within, or in equilibrium with, a perfect absorber. For this reason, the currently accepted temperature of the microwave background must be viewed as an apparent temperature. Rectifying this situation, while respecting real temperatures, involves a reexamination of Boltzman's constant. In so doing, the latter is deprived of its universal nature and, in fact, acts as a temperature dependent variable. In its revised form, Planck's equation becomes temperature insensitive near 300K, when applied to the microwave background.

  16. Thermal conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotube sheets: radiation losses and quenching of phonon modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, Ali E; Lima, Marcio H; Baughman, Ray H [Alan G MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Silverman, Edward M, E-mail: Ali.Aliev@utdallas.edu [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States)

    2010-01-22

    The extremely high thermal conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes, predicted theoretically and observed experimentally, has not yet been achieved for large nanotube assemblies. Resistances at tube-tube interconnections and tube-electrode interfaces have been considered the main obstacles for effective electronic and heat transport. Here we show that, even for infinitely long and perfect nanotubes with well-designed tube-electrode interfaces, excessive radial heat radiation from nanotube surfaces and quenching of phonon modes in large bundles are additional processes that substantially reduce thermal transport along nanotubes. Equivalent circuit simulations and an experimental self-heating 3{omega} technique were used to determine the peculiarities of anisotropic heat flow and thermal conductivity of single MWNTs, bundled MWNTs and aligned, free-standing MWNT sheets. The thermal conductivity of individual MWNTs grown by chemical vapor deposition and normalized to the density of graphite is much lower ({kappa}{sub MWNT} = 600 {+-} 100 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) than theoretically predicted. Coupling within MWNT bundles decreases this thermal conductivity to 150 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}. Further decrease of the effective thermal conductivity in MWNT sheets to 50 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1} comes from tube-tube interconnections and sheet imperfections like dangling fiber ends, loops and misalignment of nanotubes. Optimal structures for enhancing thermal conductivity are discussed.

  17. In situ radiation test of silicon and diamond detectors operating in superfluid helium and developed for beam loss monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurfürst, C.; Dehning, B.; Sapinski, M.; Bartosik, M. R.; Eisel, T.; Fabjan, C.; Rementeria, C. A.; Griesmayer, E.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Zabrodskii, A.; Fadeeva, N.; Tuboltsev, Y.; Eremin, I.; Egorov, N.; Härkönen, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.

    2015-05-01

    As a result of the foreseen increase in the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the discrimination between the collision products and possible magnet quench-provoking beam losses of the primary proton beams is becoming more critical for safe accelerator operation. We report the results of ongoing research efforts targeting the upgrading of the monitoring system by exploiting Beam Loss Monitor detectors based on semiconductors located as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. In practice, this means that the detectors will have to be immersed in superfluid helium inside the cold mass and operate at 1.9 K. Additionally, the monitoring system is expected to survive 20 years of LHC operation, resulting in an estimated radiation fluence of 1×1016 proton/cm2, which corresponds to a dose of about 2 MGy. In this study, we monitored the signal degradation during the in situ irradiation when silicon and single-crystal diamond detectors were situated in the liquid/superfluid helium and the dependences of the collected charge on fluence and bias voltage were obtained. It is shown that diamond and silicon detectors can operate at 1.9 K after 1×1016 p/cm2 irradiation required for application as BLMs, while the rate of the signal degradation was larger in silicon detectors than in the diamond ones. For Si detectors this rate was controlled mainly by the operational mode, being larger at forward bias voltage.

  18. A retrospective study to determine if there is a gender-related difference in weight loss in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.; Hodson, I.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if male non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy experience greater weight loss than female patients. A secondary objective was to demonstrate that a specific gender could be targeted earlier during treatment for nutritional consultations. Weight and nutritional consultation data were retrospectively collected from 40 patient charts. The sample had an equal number of males and females with similar patient characteristics. It was found that, on average, males lost more weight than females during radiation therapy and at follow-up. An independent samples t-test showed that the difference was statistically significant. Men had more weight loss than women during radiation therapy, suggesting men are at a greater risk for nutritional problems. Furthermore, more men that women experienced their maximum weight loss before receiving a nutritional consultation. Thus, males with NSCLC should be targeted earlier for dietary consultations to help maintain their weight. (author)

  19. Studies on antioxidant properties before and after UV- and γ-IR radiation of Bulgarian lavender essential oil isolated from Lavandula Angostifolia Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamalakova, Yanka; Nikolova, Galina; Gadjeva, Veselina; Zheleva, Antoaneta; Sharma, Jyoti; Stanev, Stanko; Arora, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    At present there is not enough data about different types of radiation on Bulgarian essential oils isolated from medicinal plants. Here we report for the first time our studies on the effects of UV-radiation (290 nm to 320 nm) and γ-radiation (doses of 5 Gy, 10 Gy, 20 Gy and 30 Gy) on Bulgarian lavender essential oil isolated from Lavandulla angustifolia Mill. A spectrophotometry method was used for evaluation of the changes in the reducing power of the Bulgarian lavender oil before and after radiation. The electron donation potential of non-irradiated oil was found to be lower (0.268 ± 0.0244) than those of both, UV-irradiated (0.336 ± 0.0121) and γ-irradiated, oil samples (0.427 ± 0.0251 at 5 Gy radiation, 0.341 ± 0.0371 at 10 Gy; 0.328± 0.0173 at 20 Gy). By direct electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, single almost symmetrical EPR signals with different values of the g-factor were registered in non-irradiated (g = 2.0047 ± 0.0002), UV-irradiated (g = 2.01050 ± 0.00005) and γ-irradiated oil samples (g = 2.0017 ± 0.0002), respectively. EPR spectroscopy was used for assessment of the radical scavenging capacity of the non-irradiated and UV- and γ-irradiated samples of the Bulgarian lavender oil towards the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Excellent DPPH radical scavenging capacities were found for UV- and 30 Gy-irradiated lavender oil samples. Based on these preliminary results, we consider that, after proper UV- or γ-radiation treatment, Bulgarian lavender oil might find application as a good radioprotector and antioxidant in cosmetics and medicine

  20. In situ radiation test of silicon and diamond detectors operating in superfluid helium and developed for beam loss monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfürst, C.; Dehning, B.; Sapinski, M.; Bartosik, M.R.; Eisel, T.; Fabjan, C.; Rementeria, C.A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Griesmayer, E. [CIVIDEC Instrumentation, GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Verbitskaya, E., E-mail: elena.verbitskaya@cern.ch [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Zabrodskii, A.; Fadeeva, N.; Tuboltsev, Y.; Eremin, I. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Egorov, N. [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology, Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Härkönen, J.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-05-11

    As a result of the foreseen increase in the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider, the discrimination between the collision products and possible magnet quench-provoking beam losses of the primary proton beams is becoming more critical for safe accelerator operation. We report the results of ongoing research efforts targeting the upgrading of the monitoring system by exploiting Beam Loss Monitor detectors based on semiconductors located as close as possible to the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. In practice, this means that the detectors will have to be immersed in superfluid helium inside the cold mass and operate at 1.9 K. Additionally, the monitoring system is expected to survive 20 years of LHC operation, resulting in an estimated radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 16} proton/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to a dose of about 2 MGy. In this study, we monitored the signal degradation during the in situ irradiation when silicon and single-crystal diamond detectors were situated in the liquid/superfluid helium and the dependences of the collected charge on fluence and bias voltage were obtained. It is shown that diamond and silicon detectors can operate at 1.9 K after 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} irradiation required for application as BLMs, while the rate of the signal degradation was larger in silicon detectors than in the diamond ones. For Si detectors this rate was controlled mainly by the operational mode, being larger at forward bias voltage. - Highlights: • Silicon and diamond detectors are proposed for beam loss monitoring at LHC. • The first in situ radiation test of Si and diamond detectors at 1.9 K is described. • Both diamond and silicon detectors survived after 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} irradiation at 1.9 K. • The rate of Si detectors degradation depends on bias polarity and is larger at V{sub forw}. • Sensitivity of Si detectors irradiated to 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2} is independent on resistivity.

  1. NOy production, ozone loss and changes in net radiative heating due to energetic particle precipitation in 2002–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sinnhuber

    2018-01-01

    the models in nearly every polar winter, ranging from 10–50 % during solar maximum to 2–10 % during solar minimum. Ozone loss continues throughout polar summer after strong solar proton events in the Southern Hemisphere and after large sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere. During mid-winter, the ozone loss causes a reduction of the infrared radiative cooling, i.e., a positive change of the net radiative heating (effective warming, in agreement with analyses of geomagnetic forcing in stratospheric temperatures which show a warming in the late winter upper stratosphere. In late winter and spring, the sign of the net radiative heating change turns to negative (effective cooling. This spring-time cooling lasts well into summer and continues until the following autumn after large solar proton events in the Southern Hemisphere, and after sudden stratospheric warmings in the Northern Hemisphere.

  2. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  3. Radiation induced topotactic [2 + 2] dimerisation of acrylate derivatives among the layers of a CaFe layered double hydroxide followed by IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srankó, D. F.; Canton, S.; Enghdahl, A.; Muráth, Sz.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.; Sipiczki, M.; Sipos, P.; Pálinkó, I.

    2013-07-01

    Various acrylates [E-phenylpropenoate, E-3(4‧-nitrophenyl)propenoate, E-3(2‧,5‧-difluorphenyl)propenoate, E-3(2‧-thienyl)propenoate, E-3(4‧-imidazolyl)propenoate or E-2,3-dimethylpropenoate] were successfully intercalated into Ca(II)Fe(III) layered double hydroxide (CaFe-LDH) verified by a range of instrumental methods. The possible arrangements for the organic anions were suggested on the basis of basal spacing data, layer thickness and the dimensions of the quantum chemically optimised structures of the acrylate ions. Using the acrylate-CaFe-LDHs as reactant-filled nanoreactors, photoinitiated topotactic [2 + 2] cyclisation reactions followed by IR spectroscopy could be performed with many representatives [E-phenylpropenoate-, E-3(4‧-nitrophenyl)propenoate-, E-3(2‧,5‧-difluorphenyl)propenoate- or E-3(2‧-thienyl)propenoate-CaFe-LDHs] resulting in cyclobutane derivatives within the layers of the host material indicating that there were domains where the intercalated anions were in close proximity to each other and in proper arrangement for the reaction to occur.

  4. A survey of infrared continuum versus line radiation from metal halide lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, M; Herd, M T; Lawler, J E

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation (near-IR) losses from the arcs of six commercial metal halide high intensity discharge (MH-HID) lamps with various power levels and with both Na/Sc and rare earth doses were surveyed in this paper. A radiometrically calibrated Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used. Lamps with rare earth doses have appreciably better color rendering indices (CRIs) than lamps with Na/Sc doses. The ratios of near-IR continuum emission over near-IR line emission from these six lamps were compared. The near-IR continuum dominates near-IR losses from lamps with rare earth doses and the continuum is significant, but not dominant, from lamps with Na/Sc doses. There was no strong dependence of this ratio on input power or color temperature (T c ). Total near-IR losses were estimated using absolutely calibrated, horizontal irradiance measurements. Estimated total near-IR losses were correlated with CRI. The lamps with rare earth doses yield the best CRIs, but have appreciably higher near-IR losses due primarily to continuum processes. One of these rare earth MH-HID lamps was used in a more detailed study of the microscopic physics of the continuum mechanism (Herd M T and Lawler E 2007 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 40 3386)

  5. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The chapter one presents the composition of matter and atomic theory; matter structure; transitions; origin of radiation; radioactivity; nuclear radiation; interactions in decay processes; radiation produced by the interaction of radiation with matter

  6. Evaluation of the radiative transfer in the core of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) during the reflooding step of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardin, J.

    2012-01-01

    We developed a method of resolution of radiative transfer inside a medium of vapor-droplets surrounded by hot walls, in order to couple it with a simulation of the flow at the CFD scale. The scope is the study of the cooling of the core of nuclear reactor following a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). The problem of radiative transfer can be cut into two sub problems, one concerning the evaluation of the radiative properties of the medium and a second concerning the solution of the radiative transfer equation. The radiative properties of the droplets have been computed with the use of the Mie Theory and those of the vapor have been computed with a Ck model. The medium made of vapor and droplets is an absorbing, anisotropically scattering, emissive, non grey, non homogeneous medium. Hence, owing to the possible variations of the flow properties (diameter and volumetric fraction of the droplets, temperature and pressure of the vapor), the medium can be optically thin or thick. Consequently, a method is required which solves the radiative transfer accurately, with a moderate calculation time for all of these prerequisites. The IDA has been chosen, derived from the well-known P1-approximation. Its accuracy has been checked on academical cases found in the literature and by comparison with experimental data. Simulations of LOCA flows have been conducted taking account of the radiative transfer, evaluating the radiative fluxes and showing that radiative transfer influence cannot be neglected. (author)

  7. Photodynamic Treatment of Cultured Human Malignant Melanoma cells and Assessment of Resultant Cell Death and Inflicted Bio molecular Damage As Determined by Synchrotron I.R. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamoon, A.; Ruppel, M.; Miller, L.M.; Smith, S.; Tsang, T.; Miller, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a very serious skin cancer that if not discovered early and treated by surgery can become fatal. Photodynamic treatment involves the use of a photosensitive dye that is not toxic by itself and is taken up by all cells normal and tumor cells. However it is released from normal cells in a short time while it is kept inside tumor cells for a longer time. A laser light of wave length that is maximally absorbed by the used dye is then used to illuminate tumor cells, still having the dye, and a reaction takes place resulting in the liberation of s inglet oxygen , a very active form of oxygen that damages important biomolecules and results eventually in cell death. The photosensitive dye I ndocyanine green a nd a Ti - Sapphire laser (780 nm wave length ) and power density of 55 m Watt/ cm 2 were used. The percentage of cell death increased slowly with the strength of the PDT until it reached 75% death of the exposed cells at a net dye concentration of 150 u M and laser exposure dose of 60 minute duration.Synchrotron infrared imaging was carried out on control and experimental cultures at the national synchrotron light source (BNL) using FTIR spectro microscopy to reveal the I.R. absorption characteristics of protein, lipids and nucleic acids biomolecules. It was found that increasing the strength of the PDT had an increasingly damaging effect on the concentration of cellular biomolecules, the largest effect being in the protein, lipids and nucleic acid components of the cell. More experiments are planned involving changes in the strengths of the PDT treatments for eventually reaching 100% melanoma cell death

  8. Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Boschini, M.J.; Gervasi, M.; Giani, S.; Grandi, D.; Ivantchenko, V.; Pensotti, S.; Rancoita, P.G.; Tacconi, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the space environment, instruments onboard of spacecrafts can be affected by displacement damage due to radiation. The differential scattering cross section for screened nucleus--nucleus interactions - i.e., including the effects due to screened Coulomb nuclear fields -, nuclear stopping powers and non-ionization energy losses are treated from about 50\\,keV/nucleon up to relativistic energies.

  9. Evolution of radiation losses and importance of charge exchange between plasma impurities and injection beam neutrals in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeulders, P.

    1981-01-01

    In certain discharges during Neutral Injection (N.I.) (84 0 CO-injection) in the 1 = 2, m = 5 WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator impurity accumulation in the plasma center seems to occur as seen by bolometric, spectroscopic and ultra soft X-ray (USX) measurement. The time evolution of the radiation losses is shown. Three possible sources of the impurities which are responsible for the high central radiation losses are: - Beam injected impurities. - Plasma wall interaction. - Molybdenum protection plates. Possible mechanisms that can be responsible for the central impurity accumulations are: - An inward flow of the plasma or beam impurities. - An increased peaking of the depostion of the beam impurities. Various factors influencing the behaviour of the central radiation are mentioned. (orig./AH)

  10. Recovery of reticulocytes and prevention of radiation-induced weight loss in mice by γ-tocotrienol: possible application to cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Toles, R.E.; Miner, V.L.; Seed, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-tocotrienol (GT), an alpha-tocopherol (AT, vitamin E) isomer was found to be better than AT against radiation-induced lethality. CD2F1 male mice (LD 50/30 radiation dose 9 Gy) were injected subcutaneously with 10 mg/mouse each of GT or AT. After 24 hrs, mice were given 11 Gy 60 Cobalt radiation. All mice treated with AT survived; only 50% of the mice treated with GT survived. The mechanism of protection may not involve apoptotic pathway since GT did not affect caspase-3 activity whereas AT suppressed radiation-induced increase in activity. Recovery profiles of blood cells and weight loss were also evaluated. Mice were treated with AT, GT, or vehicle prior to sublethal whole-body gamma irradiation. In the AT- and GT-treated mice, the recovery rates of neutrophils, platelets, erythrocytes, and reticulocytes were greater than in vehicle-treated controls. The highest level (265% of the normal) of reticulocytes in GT or AT treated mice was reached in 15 days postirradiation; the highest level (450% of the normal) in vehicle-treated controls was reached 20 days after irradiation. Recovery profile of erythrocytes suggested that reticulocytes in the irradiated controls matured slowly into erythrocytes; reticulocytes in GT or AT treated mice matured at a faster rate. Radiation-induced weight loss was studied at a supralethal dose of 10.5 Gy. All animals, irrespective of the treatments lost up to 20% weight in 5 days. After a transient increase, irradiated controls and AT-treated mice continued to decline in weight (13 to 17%) till day 16 after irradiation. GT-treated mice lost only 1% to 9% after the initial loss in 5 days. These studies indicate that GT may be preferable than AT not only as a non-toxic radiation protective agent but also as an ideal adjuvant in alleviating anemia and weight loss accompanying radiotherapy or chemotherapy of cancer

  11. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Change in the optical properties of hyaline cartilage heated by the near-IR laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagratashvili, Viktor N.; Bagratashvili, N. V.; Gapontsev, V. P.; Makhmutova, G. Sh; Minaev, V. P.; Omel'chenko, A. I.; Samartsev, I. E.; Sviridov, A. P.; Sobol', E. N.; Tsypina, S. I.

    2001-06-01

    The in vitro dynamics of the change in optical properties of hyaline cartilage heated by fibre lasers at wavelengths 0.97 and 1.56 μm is studied. The laser-induced bleaching (at 1.56 μm) and darkening (at 0.97 μm) of the cartilage, caused by the heating and transport of water as well as by a change in the cartilage matrix, were observed and studied. These effects should be taken into account while estimating the depth of heating of the tissue. The investigated dynamics of light scattering in the cartilage allows one to choose the optimum radiation dose for laser plastic surgery of cartilage tissues.

  12. Numerical analysis of the effects of radiation heat transfer and ionization energy loss on the cavitation Bubble's dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, M. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, R. [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shams, M., E-mail: shams@kntu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Pardis St., Molla-Sadra Ave, Vanak. Sq., P.O. Box: 19395-1999, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-13

    A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack. -- Highlights: → Heat transfer and ionization energy losses were analyzed in the cavitation bubble. → Radiation of hydrodynamic bubble was approximately equal to the black body. → Radiation heat transfer did not affect the bubble dynamic. → Conduction decreased the bubble pressure and increased the bubble temperature. → Ionization decreased the temperature and increased the pressure in the bubble.

  13. On the laser lift-off of lightly doped micrometer-thick n-GaN films from substrates via the absorption of IR radiation in sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronenkov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Virko, M. V.; Kogotkov, V. S.; Leonidov, A. A. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Pinchuk, A. V.; Zubrilov, A. S.; Gorbunov, R. I.; Latishev, F. E.; Bochkareva, N. I.; Lelikov, Y. S.; Tarkhin, D. V.; Smirnov, A. N.; Davydov, V. Y. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Sheremet, I. A. [Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Shreter, Y. G., E-mail: y.shreter@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The intense absorption of CO{sub 2} laser radiation in sapphire is used to separate GaN films from GaN templates on sapphire. Scanning of the sapphire substrate by the laser leads to the thermal dissociation of GaN at the GaN/sapphire interface and to the detachment of GaN films from the sapphire. The threshold density of the laser energy at which n-GaN started to dissociate is 1.6 ± 0.5 J/cm{sup 2}. The mechanical-stress distribution and the surface morphology of GaN films and sapphire substrates before and after laser lift-off are studied by Raman spectroscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. A vertical Schottky diode with a forward current density of 100 A/cm{sup 2} at a voltage of 2 V and a maximum reverse voltage of 150 V is fabricated on the basis of a 9-μm-thick detached n-GaN film.

  14. Analysis of FT-IR for dosimetric characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride - hexafluoropropylene) irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liz, Otavio Souza Rocha; Medeiros, Adriana de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Polymeric materials when exposed to ionizing radiation undergo changes such as the crosslinking and chain oxidation. Recently, the optical absorption intensities in the ultraviolet visible region (273 nm) due to radio- induction of conjugated C=C bonds in P(VDF-TrFE) copolymers has been successfully used for high dose dosimetry purposes in gamma fields ranging from 0.1 to 200 kGy. In this context, the interest of performing a systematic investigation on another fluorinated copolymer of PVDF, the (Polyvinylidene fluoride - hexa fluoro propylene) [P(VDF- HFP)] has come to light, not only for UV-VIS range but also for the near and medium infrared ranges. In this investigation FTIR and UV-Vis spectra, acquired before and after irradiation, were used to investigate the relationship between optical absorbance and delivered gamma doses ranging from 100 to 3,000 kGy. The results indicate that the absorption band at 1729 cm-1, originated by the chain oxidation through the radioinduction of C=O bonds, presents an unambiguous behavior with the delivered gamma doses in a very large extension, ranging from 0 to 1,000 kGy. This results lead to conclude that P(VDF-HFP) copolymer shows excellent dosimetric properties which make it able to be investigated as a high dose dosimeter

  15. Workshop on the coupling of synchrotron radiation IR and X-rays with tip based scanning probe microscopies X-TIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comin, F.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Mundboth, K.; Susini, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 38 - Grenoble (France); Purans, J.; Sammelselg, V. [Tartu Univ. (Estonia); Chevrier, J.; Huant, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, LEPES, 38 (France); Hamilton, B. [School of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Manchester (United Kingdom); Saito, A. [Osaka Univ., RIKEN/SPring8 (Japan); Dhez, O. [OGG, INFM/CNR, 38 - Grenoble (France); Brocklesby, W.S. [Southampton Univ., Optoelectronics Research Centre (United Kingdom); Alvarez-Prado, L.M. [Ovieado, Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Kuzmin, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics - Riga (Latvia); Pailharey, D. [CRMC-N - CNRS, 13 - Marseille (France); Tonneau, D. [CRMCN - Faculte des sciences de Luminy, 13 - Marseille (France); Chretien, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris, 75 - Paris (France); Cricenti, A. [ISM-CNR, Rome (Italy); DeWilde, Y. [ESPCI, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The coupling of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with synchrotron radiation is attracting increasing attention from nano-science community. By combining these 2 tools one can visualize, for example, the sample nano-structure prior to any X-ray characterization. Coupled with focusing devices or independently, SPM can provide spatial resolution below the optical limits. Furthermore, the possibility of employing SPM to manipulate nano-objects under X-ray beams is another exciting perspective. This document gathers the transparencies of 6 of the presentations made at the workshop: 1) the combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray beam - experimental set-up and objectives; 2) the combination of scanning probe microscope and X-rays for detection of electrons; 3) towards soft X-ray scanning microscopy using tapered capillaries and laser-based high harmonic sources; 4) near-field magneto-optical microscopy; 5) near-field scanning optical microscopy - a brief overview -; and 6) from aperture-less near-field optical microscopy to infra-red near-field night vision. 4 posters entitled: 1) development of laboratory setup for X-ray/AFM experiments, 2) towards X-ray diffraction on single islands, 3) nano-XEOL using near-field detection, and 4) local collection with a STM tip of photoelectrons emitted by a surface irradiated by visible of UV laser beam, are included in the document.

  16. Workshop on the coupling of synchrotron radiation IR and X-rays with tip based scanning probe microscopies X-TIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comin, F.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Mundboth, K.; Susini, J.; Purans, J.; Sammelselg, V.; Chevrier, J.; Huant, S.; Hamilton, B.; Saito, A.; Dhez, O.; Brocklesby, W.S.; Alvarez-Prado, L.M.; Kuzmin, A.; Pailharey, D.; Tonneau, D.; Chretien, P.; Cricenti, A.; DeWilde, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The coupling of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) with synchrotron radiation is attracting increasing attention from nano-science community. By combining these 2 tools one can visualize, for example, the sample nano-structure prior to any X-ray characterization. Coupled with focusing devices or independently, SPM can provide spatial resolution below the optical limits. Furthermore, the possibility of employing SPM to manipulate nano-objects under X-ray beams is another exciting perspective. This document gathers the transparencies of 6 of the presentations made at the workshop: 1) the combination of atomic force microscopy and X-ray beam - experimental set-up and objectives; 2) the combination of scanning probe microscope and X-rays for detection of electrons; 3) towards soft X-ray scanning microscopy using tapered capillaries and laser-based high harmonic sources; 4) near-field magneto-optical microscopy; 5) near-field scanning optical microscopy - a brief overview -; and 6) from aperture-less near-field optical microscopy to infra-red near-field night vision. 4 posters entitled: 1) development of laboratory setup for X-ray/AFM experiments, 2) towards X-ray diffraction on single islands, 3) nano-XEOL using near-field detection, and 4) local collection with a STM tip of photoelectrons emitted by a surface irradiated by visible of UV laser beam, are included in the document

  17. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Krüger, Marcus; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling...... properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type......, IRS-1-/-and IRS-2-/-mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1...

  18. Sensorineural hearing loss in patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective study of the effect of radiation and cisplatin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, Dora L.W.; Wei, William I.; Sham, Jonathan S. T.; Ho, W.K.; Yuen, P.W.; Chua, Daniel T.T.; Au, Dennis K.K.; Wu, P.M.; Choy, Damon T.K.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The pattern of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) after primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was studied, and the effect of cisplatin, radiotherapy dose, and fractionation were evaluated. Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty-two patients, 227 ears, and 1100 audiogram reports were analyzed. Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty-two patients, 227 ears, and 1100 audiogram reports were analyzed. Radiotherapy dose ranged from 59.5 to 76.5 Gy. Fifty-two patients received preirradiation cisplatin, total dose 100-185 mg/m 2 . Serial postirradiation bone conduction thresholds at 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz, and 4 kHz were compared with pretreatment thresholds at respective frequencies. Increase of at least 15 dB was considered as significant and was further grouped as transient or persistent SNHL. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predicting factors for persistent SNHL. Results: At median follow-up of 30 months, 24.2% of ears developed persistent SNHL. High frequency was more affected than low frequencies, 22 vs. 5.3%. Males were more affected than females, 29.4 vs. 15.5%, p = 0.0132. Incidence of persistent SNHL increased with age, with 0, 17.2, and 37.4% of patients aged under 30, between 30-50 and over 50 affected, respectively, p = 0.0001. High incidence was found in patient with postirradiation serous otitis media (SOM), 46.9%. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and radiation dose or fractionation had no significant effect. Multivariate analysis confirmed age, sex, and postirradiation SOM as significant prognostic factors for persistent SNHL. Conclusions: Transient and persistent SNHL occurred after radiotherapy, more commonly affecting high frequency. A low dose of preirradiation cisplatin did not increase the risk. A dose fractionation effect of radiotherapy was not confirmed in this study

  19. Valproic acid reduces hair loss and improves survival in patients receiving temozolomide-based radiation therapy for high-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yui; Suehiro, Satoshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mamoru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Ohue, Shiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is also used to manage seizures in glioblastoma patients. HDAC inhibitors can protect normal cells and tissues from the deleterious effects of radiotherapy, and VPA is reported to improve the survival of glioblastoma patients receiving chemoradiation therapy. VPA also promotes hair growth, and thus has the potential to reduce the radiotherapy side effect of hair loss while improving the survival of patients with glioblastoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether VPA use during radiotherapy for high-grade glioma is associated with decreased side effects of radiotherapy and an improvement in overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Medical records of 112 patients with high-grade glioma were retrospectively reviewed. We grouped patients by VPA use or non-use during radiotherapy, and evaluated hair loss, OS, and PFS. The radiation dose and fractionation at the onset of hair loss were 4 Gy and two fractions higher, respectively, in the VPA group compared with the VPA non-use group (P hair loss and improvement in survival. Hair loss prevention benefits patients suffering from the deleterious effects of radiation.

  20. Premature Senescence Induced by Ionizing Radiation Requires AKT Activity and Reactive Oxygen Species in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Jung; Kim, Bong Cho; Yoo, Hee Jung; Lee, Jae Seon

    2010-01-01

    Loss of PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene has frequently observed in human gliomas, which conferred AKT activation and resistance to ionizing radiation (IR) and anti-cancer drugs. Recent reports have shown that AKT activation induces premature senescence through increase of oxygen consumption and inhibition of expression of ROS scavenging enzymes. In this study, we compared cellular response to IR in the PTEN-deficient U87, U251, U373 or PTEN-proficient LN18, LN428 glioma cells

  1. The Response of the Ocean Thermal Skin Layer to Variations in Incident Infrared Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elizabeth W.; Minnett, Peter J.

    2018-04-01

    Ocean warming trends are observed and coincide with the increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resulting from human activities. At the ocean surface, most of the incoming infrared (IR) radiation is absorbed within the top micrometers of the ocean's surface where the thermal skin layer (TSL) exists. Thus, the incident IR radiation does not directly heat the upper few meters of the ocean. This paper investigates the physical mechanism between the absorption of IR radiation and its effect on heat transfer at the air-sea boundary. The hypothesis is that given the heat lost through the air-sea interface is controlled by the TSL, the TSL adjusts in response to variations in incident IR radiation to maintain the surface heat loss. This modulates the flow of heat from below and hence controls upper ocean heat content. This hypothesis is tested using the increase in incoming longwave radiation from clouds and analyzing vertical temperature profiles in the TSL retrieved from sea-surface emission spectra. The additional energy from the absorption of increasing IR radiation adjusts the curvature of the TSL such that the upward conduction of heat from the bulk of the ocean into the TSL is reduced. The additional energy absorbed within the TSL supports more of the surface heat loss. Thus, more heat beneath the TSL is retained leading to the observed increase in upper ocean heat content.

  2. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Yeager, J G; Ashley, C S

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content of the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized slu...

  3. Simulation of equivalent dose due to accidental electron beam loss in Indus-1 and Indus-2 synchrotron radiation sources using FLUKA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahani, P.K.; Dev, Vipin; Singh, Gurnam; Haridas, G.; Thakkar, K.K.; Sarkar, P.K.; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Indus-1 and Indus-2 are two Synchrotron radiation sources at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), India. Stored electron energy in Indus-1 and Indus-2 are 450MeV and 2.5GeV respectively. During operation of storage ring, accidental electron beam loss may occur in addition to normal beam losses. The Bremsstrahlung radiation produced due to the beam losses creates a major radiation hazard in these high energy electron accelerators. FLUKA, the Monte Carlo radiation transport code is used to simulate the accidental beam loss. The simulation was carried out to estimate the equivalent dose likely to be received by a trapped person closer to the storage ring. Depth dose profile in water phantom for 450MeV and 2.5GeV electron beam is generated, from which percentage energy absorbed in 30cm water phantom (analogous to human body) is calculated. The simulation showed the percentage energy deposition in the phantom is about 19% for 450MeV electron and 4.3% for 2.5GeV electron. The dose build up factor in 30cm water phantom for 450MeV and 2.5GeV electron beam are found to be 1.85 and 2.94 respectively. Based on the depth dose profile, dose equivalent index of 0.026Sv and 1.08Sv are likely to be received by the trapped person near the storage ring in Indus-1 and Indus-2 respectively. (author)

  4. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.

  5. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.L.; Yeager, J.G.; Ashley, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content on the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria in sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized sludge as well as survival data on bacteria indigenous to sludge. Growth of bacteria was stimulated in sludge during the initial phase of moisture removal by evaporation, but the reduction of moisture content below about 50% by weight caused a proportional decrease in bacterial numbers. The rates of inactivation of bacteria by ionizing radiation in sludge were usually modified to some degree by variations in moisture content. Most bacteria were found to be somewhat protected from ionizing radiation at reduced moisture levels

  6. Study on IR Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyue; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Yuxiang; Zeng, Yurun

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummer method and characterized. Then, the complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide in IR band was tested and its IR absorption and radiation properties were researched by correlated calculation. The results show that reduced graphene oxide prepared by hummer method are multilayered graphene with defects and functional groups on its surface. Its absorption in near and far IR bands is strong, but it’s weaker in middle IR band. At the IR atmosphere Window, its normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength increasing, and its total normal spectral emissivity in 3 ∼ 5μm and 8 ∼ 14μm are 0.75 and 0.625, respectively. Therefore, reduced graphene oxide can be used as IR absorption and coating materials and have a great potential in microwave and infrared compatible materials.

  7. Future development of IR thermovision weather satellite equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listratov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The self radiation of the surface being viewed is used for image synthesis in IR thermovision equipment. The installation of such equipment aboard weather satellites makes it possible to obtain cloud cover pictures of the earth's surface in a complete orbit, regardless of the illumination conditions, and also provides quantitative information on the underlying surface temperature and cloud top height. Such equipment is used successfully aboard the Soviet satellites of the Meteor system, and experimentally on the American satellites of the Nimbus series. With regard to surface resolution, the present-day IR weather satellite equipment is inferior to the television equipment. This is due primarily to the comparatively low detectivity of the IR detectors used. While IR equipment has several fundamental advantages in comparison with the conventional television equipment, the problem arises of determining the possibility for future development of weather satellite IR thermovision equipment. Criteria are examined for evaluating the quality of IR.

  8. Influence of gamma radiation on oviposition and egg viability of Callosobruchus maculatus F. and grain loss in mungbean storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongre, T.K.; Rananavare, H.D.; Padwal Desai, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    Influence of gamma radiation on reproductive potential of Callosobruchus maculatus F. was studied by exposing them to 10, 30 and 50 Gy of radiation. Radiation at pupal stage was more effective in arresting egg laying and its further development. The dose of 50 Gy induced complete infertility in males when they were irradiated at pupal stage and only partial infertility was induced when irradiated at adult stage. In case of females whether irradiated at pupal or adult stage the dose of 50 Gy was sufficient to induce complete infertility. In order to assess the requirement of radiation doses for preventing the insect multiplication and subsequent damage in storage, mungbean samples with various developmental stages of insect were exposed to radiation at 50, 100 and 150 Gy. After three months of storage no grain damage was noticed when grains infested with different insect stages were irradiated with the dose of 100 or 150 Gy. (author)

  9. Communication: IR spectroscopy of neutral transition metal clusters through thermionic emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.; Bakker, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The resonant multiple photon excitation of neutral niobium clusters using tunable infrared (IR) radiation leads to thermionic emission. By measuring the mass-resolved ionization yield as a function of IR wavenumber species selective IR spectra are obtained for Nb-n (n = 5-20) over the 200-350 cm(-1)

  10. Semiclassical relations and IR effects in de Sitter and slow-roll space-times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Giddings, Steven; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2010-01-01

    We calculate IR divergent graviton one-loop corrections to scalar correlators in de Sitter space, and show that the leading IR contribution may be reproduced via simple semiclassical consistency relations. One can likewise use such semiclassical relations to calculate leading IR corrections to co...... with a sharp perturbative calculation of "missing information" in Hawking radiation....

  11. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kassel, Florian; Dabrowski, Anne; de Boer, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field,...

  12. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  13. Water concentration/activity and loss of vitamins B1 and E in pork due to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.B. Jr.; Lakritz, L.; Kohout, K.M.; Thayer, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    When irradiated, increasing the water content of pork by partial rehydration of freeze-dried L. dorsi muscle resulted in increasing rate of thiamin loss from zero in dry tissue to ca 6%/kGy of irradiation in tissue with 70% water. Conversely, the rate of loss of alpha-tocopherol decreased from 44%/kGy at 0% to 32%/kGy at 70% water. Decreasing water activity in buffers or in ground or freeze-dried pork by salt or sucrose had no effect on rate of loss of either vitamin following irradiation. Salt decreased the loss of both vitamins in pork due to competition for the hydroxyl radical by chloride ions

  14. New model for assessing dose and dose rate sensitivity of Gamma ray radiation loss in polarization maintaining optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongchen; Liu Hai; Qiao Wenqiang; Xue Huijie; He Shiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Building a new phenomenological theory model to investigate the relation about the irradiation induced loss with irradiation dose and dose rate. ► The Gamma ray irradiation induced loss of the “Capsule” type and “Panda” type polarization maintaining optical fibers at 1310 nm wavelength are investigated. ► The anti irradiation performance of the “Panda” type polarization maintaining optical fiber is better than that of the “Capsule” type polarization maintaining optical fiber, the reason is that the stress region doped by GeO 2 . - Abstract: The Gamma ray irradiation induced loss of the “Capsule” type and “Panda” type polarization maintaining optical fibers at 1310 nm wavelength are investigated. A phenomenological theory model is introduced and the influence of irradiation dose and dose rate on the irradiation induced loss is discussed. The phenomenological theoretical results are consistent with the experimental results of the irradiation induced loss for the two types of polarization maintaining optical fibers. The anti irradiation performance of the “Panda” type polarization maintaining optical fiber is better than that of the “Capsule” type polarization maintaining optical fiber, the reason is that the stress region dope with GeO 2 . Meanwhile, both of the polarization maintaining optical fiber irradiation induced loss increase with increasing the irradiation dose. In the case of same dose, the high dose rate Gamma ray irradiation induced optical fiber losses are higher than that of the low dose rate.

  15. Numerical analysis of the effects of radiation heat transfer and ionization energy loss on the cavitation Bubble's dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, M.; Ebrahimi, R.; Shams, M.

    2011-06-01

    A numerical scheme for simulating the acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation was developed. Bubble instantaneous radius was obtained using Gilmore equation which considered the compressibility of the liquid. A uniform temperature was assumed for the inside gas during the collapse. Radiation heat transfer inside the bubble and the heat conduction to the bubble was considered. The numerical code was validated with the experimental data and a good correspondence was observed. The dynamics of hydrofoil cavitation bubble were also investigated. It was concluded that the thermal radiation heat transfer rate strongly depended on the cavitation number, initial bubble radius and hydrofoil angle of attack.

  16. Thermal-to-visible transducer (TVT) for thermal-IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flusberg, Allen; Swartz, Stephen; Huff, Michael; Gross, Steven

    2008-04-01

    We have been developing a novel thermal-to-visible transducer (TVT), an uncooled thermal-IR imager that is based on a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI). The FPI-based IR imager can convert a thermal-IR image to a video electronic image. IR radiation that is emitted by an object in the scene is imaged onto an IR-absorbing material that is located within an FPI. Temperature variations generated by the spatial variations in the IR image intensity cause variations in optical thickness, modulating the reflectivity seen by a probe laser beam. The reflected probe is imaged onto a visible array, producing a visible image of the IR scene. This technology can provide low-cost IR cameras with excellent sensitivity, low power consumption, and the potential for self-registered fusion of thermal-IR and visible images. We will describe characteristics of requisite pixelated arrays that we have fabricated.

  17. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  18. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  19. New Ir Bis-Carbonyl Precursor for Water Oxidation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Daria L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Beltrán-Suito, Rodrigo [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Thomsen, Julianne M. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Hashmi, Sara M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental; Materna, Kelly L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Sheehan, Stafford W. [Catalytic Innovations LLC, 70 Crandall; Mercado, Brandon Q. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Brudvig, Gary W. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Crabtree, Robert H. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225

    2016-02-05

    This paper introduces IrI(CO)2(pyalc) (pyalc = (2-pyridyl)-2-propanoate) as an atom-efficient precursor for Ir-based homogeneous oxidation catalysis. This compound was chosen to simplify analysis of the water oxidation catalyst species formed by the previously reported Cp*IrIII(pyalc)OH water oxidation precatalyst. Here, we present a comparative study on the chemical and catalytic properties of these two precursors. Previous studies show that oxidative activation of Cp*Ir-based precursors with NaIO4 results in formation of a blue IrIV species. This activation is concomitant with the loss of the placeholder Cp* ligand which oxidatively degrades to form acetic acid, iodate, and other obligatory byproducts. The activation process requires substantial amounts of primary oxidant, and the degradation products complicate analysis of the resulting IrIV species. The species formed from oxidation of the Ir(CO)2(pyalc) precursor, on the other hand, lacks these degradation products (the CO ligands are easily lost upon oxidation) which allows for more detailed examination of the resulting Ir(pyalc) active species both catalytically and spectroscopically, although complete structural analysis is still elusive. Once Ir(CO)2(pyalc) is activated, the system requires acetic acid or acetate to prevent the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of the activated bis-carbonyl complex also suggests several Ir(pyalc) isomers may exist in solution. By 1H NMR, activated Ir(CO)2(pyalc) has fewer isomers than activated Cp*Ir complexes, allowing for advanced characterization. Future research in this direction is expected to contribute to a better structural understanding of the active species. A diol crystallization agent was needed for the structure determination of 3.

  20. Visible-to-near IR quantum dot-based hypermulticolor high-content screening of herbal medicines for the efficacy monitoring of hair growth promotion and hair loss inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Lim, Chaeyun; Lee, Jun Young; Im, Kyung Ran; Yoon, Kyung-Sup; Song, Joon Myong

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing interest in alopecia prevention strategies, as the number of alopecia patients is increasing. We examine the efficacy of herbal medicine for hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition in two cell lines via Western blot and high-content screening (HCS). Nine herbal extracts were obtained from three different herbal medicine mixtures using 3 different extraction methods. Five target proteins-IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), TGF-β2 (transforming growth factor-β2), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), DKK-1 (Dickkopf-1), and Wnt5α-were observed for the assessment of hair growth promotion/hair loss inhibition efficacy. The efficacies of nine extracts were compared with minoxidil as control. Efficacy was defined as a rise in the expression levels of IGF-1, VEGF, and Wnt5α but a decrease in DKK-1 and TGF-β2. Intracellular concurrent imaging of these proteins was successfully achieved using HCS, employing visible-to-near infrared probing based on quantum-antibody conjugates and hypermulticolor imaging.

  1. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  2. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Krüger, Marcus; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jacob; Kahn, C Ronald; Emanuelli, Brice

    2018-07-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type, IRS-1 -/- and IRS-2 -/- mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1. These regulated sites included previously reported substrates of the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, as well as novel substrates including Nuclear Factor I X and Semaphorin-4B. In silico prediction suggests the protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC), and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) as the main mediators of these phosphorylation events. Importantly, we found preferential phosphorylation patterns depending on the presence of either IRS-1 or IRS-2, which was associated with specific sets of kinases involved in signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2. Overall, by generating a comprehensive phosphoproteomic profile from brown preadipocyte cells in response to IGF-1 stimulation, we reveal both common and distinct insulin/IGF-1 signalling events mediated by specific IRS proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-signaling mediates radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells with loss of p53 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Harold E.; Han, Sue J.; Kasza, Thomas; Han, Richard; Choi, Hyeong-Seon; Palmer, Kenneth C.; Kim, Hyeong-Reh C.

    1997-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signals a diversity of cellular responses in vitro, including cell proliferation, survival, transformation, and chemotaxis. PDGF functions as a 'competence factor' to induce a set of early response genes expressed in G 1 including p21 WAF1/CIP1 , a functional mediator of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in G 1 /S checkpoint. For PDGF-stimulated cells to progress beyond G 1 and transit the cell cycle completely, progression factors in serum such as insulin and IGF-1 are required. We have recently shown a novel role of PDGF in inducing apoptosis in growth-arrested murine fibroblasts. The PDGF-induced apoptosis is rescued by insulin, suggesting that G 1 /S checkpoint is a critical determinant for PDGF-induced apoptosis. Because recent studies suggest that radiation-induced signal transduction pathways interact with growth factor-mediated signaling pathways, we have investigated whether activation of the PDGF-signaling facilitates the radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of functional p53. For this study we have used the 125-IL cell line, a mutant p53-containing, highly metastatic, and hormone-unresponsive human prostate carcinoma cell line. PDGF signaling is constitutively activated by transfection with a p28 v-sis expression vector, which was previously shown to activate PDGF α- and β- receptors. Although the basal level of p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression and radiation-induced apoptosis were not detectable in control 125-IL cells as would be predicted in mutant p53-containing cells, activation of PDGF-signaling induced expression of p21 WAF1/CIP1 and radiation-induced apoptosis. Our study suggests that the level of 'competence' growth factors including PDGF may be one of the critical determinants for radiation-induced apoptosis, especially in cells with loss of p53 function at the site of radiotherapy in vivo

  4. Solubility and IR studies of gamma-irradiated arabinoxylan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebringerova, A.; Kacurakova, M.; Hromadkova, Z.; Pruzinec, J.

    1989-01-01

    The structural and solubility changes of a water-insoluble arabinoxylan with a low degree of branching was studied after γ-irradiation by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the polysaccharide and its polymeric fractions. New functional groups like hydroperoxidic, carbonylic and endiolic ones were found after irradiation. The IR spectra shows that the structural changes involved by radiolytic treatment are reflected in the shape of the IR spectra of both polymeric fractions. The ratio of absorbance of the peaks at 1725 and 2920 cm -1 increased with radiation dose. (author) 17 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol Mora, J.

    1999-01-01

    The exposition to ionizing radiations is a constant fact in the life of the human being and its utilization as diagnostic and therapeutic method is generalized. However, it is notorious how as years go on, the fear to the ionizing radiation seems to persist too, and this fact is not limited to the common individual, but to the technical personnel and professional personnel that labors with them same. (S. Grainger) [es

  6. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    The basic facts about radiation are explained, along with some simple and natural ways of combating its ill-effects, based on ancient healing wisdom as well as the latest biochemical and technological research. Details are also given of the diet that saved thousands of lives in Nagasaki after the Atomic bomb attack. Special comment is made on the use of radiation for food processing. (U.K.)

  7. Bacterial ice nuclei impact cloud lifetime and radiative properties and reduce atmospheric heat loss in the BRAMS simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Tassio S; Gonçalves, Fábio L T; Yamasoe, Marcia A; Martins, Jorge A; Morris, Cindy E

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the bacterial species Pseudomonas syringae acting as ice nuclei (IN) on cloud properties to understand its impact on local radiative budget and heating rates. These bacteria may become active IN at temperatures as warm as −2 °C. Numerical simulations were developed using the Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Model System (BRAMS). To investigate the isolated effect of bacterial IN, four scenarios were created considering only homogeneous and bacterial ice nucleation, with 1, 10 and 100 IN per cubic meter of cloud volume and one with no bacteria. Moreover, two other scenarios were generated: the BRAMS default parameterization and its combination with bacterial IN. The model reproduced a strong convective cell over São Paulo on 3 March 2003. Results showed that bacterial IN may change cloud evolution as well as its microphysical properties, which in turn influence cloud radiative properties. For example, the reflected shortwave irradiance over an averaged domain in a scenario considering bacterial IN added to the BRAMS default parameterization was 14% lower than if bacteria were not considered. Heating rates can also be impacted, especially due to differences in cloud lifetime. Results suggest that the omission of bacterial IN in numerical models, including global cloud models, could neglect relevant ice nucleation processes that potentially influence cloud radiative properties. (letter)

  8. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-20

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  9. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  10. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  11. Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winther, J.F.; Ulbak, K.; Dreyer, L.; Pukkala, E.; Oesterlind, A.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to solar and ionizing radiation increases the risk for cancer in humans. Some 5% of solar radiation is within the ultraviolet spectrum and may cause both malignant melanoma and non-melanocytic skin cancer; the latter is regarded as a benign disease and is accordingly not included in our estimation of avoidable cancers. Under the assumption that the rate of occurrence of malignant melanoma of the buttocks of both men and women and of the scalp of women would apply to all parts of the body in people completely unexposed to solar radiation, it was estimated that approximately 95% of all malignant melanomas arising in the Nordic populations around the year 2000 will be due to exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation, equivalent to an annual number of about 4700 cases, with 2100 in men and 2600 in women, or some 4% of all cancers notified. Exposure to ionizing radiation in the Nordic countries occurs at an average effective dose per capita per year of about 3 mSv (Iceland, 1.1 mSv) from natural sources, and about 1 mSv from man-made sources. While the natural sources are primarily radon in indoor air, natural radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation and gamma radiation from soil and building materials, the man-made sources are dominated by the diagnostic and therapeutic use of ionizing radiation. On the basis of measured levels of radon in Nordic dwellings and associated risk estimates for lung cancer derived from well-conducted epidemiological studies, we estimated that about 180 cases of lung cancer (1% of all lung cancer cases) per year could be avoided in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 if indoor exposure to radon were eliminated, and that an additional 720 cases (6%) could be avoided annually if either radon or tobacco smoking were eliminated. Similarly, it was estimated that the exposure of the Nordic populations to natural sources of ionizing radiation other than radon and to medical sources will each give rise to an annual total of 2120

  12. Exposure to 16O-particle radiation causes aging-like decrements in rats through increased oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulose, Shibu M; Bielinski, Donna F; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Rabin, Bernard M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays, enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation, disrupts the functioning of neuronal communication, and alters cognitive behaviors. Even though exposure to HZE particles occurs at low fluence rates, the cumulative effects of long-term exposure result in molecular changes similar to those seen in aged animals. In the present study, we assessed markers of autophagy, a dynamic process for intracellular degradation and recycling of toxic proteins and organelles, as well as stress and inflammatory responses, in the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated at 2 months of age with 5 and 50 cGy and 1 Gy of ionizing oxygen particles ((16)O) (1000 MeV/n). Compared to nonirradiated controls, exposure to (16)O particles significantly inhibited autophagy function in the hippocampus as measured by accumulation of ubiquitin inclusion bodies such as P62/SQSTM1, autophagosome marker microtubule-associated protein 1 beta light chain 3 (MAP1B-LC3), beclin1 and proteins such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The molecular changes measured at short (36 h) and long (75 days) intervals after (16)O-particle exposure indicate that the loss of autophagy function occurred shortly after exposure but was recovered via inhibition of mTOR. However, HZE-particle radiation caused significant sustained loss of protein kinase C alpha (PKC-α), a key G protein modulator involved in neuronal survival and functions of neuronal trophic factors. Exposure to (16)O particles also caused substantial increases in the levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), indicating glial cell activation 75 days after exposure. This is the first report to show the molecular effects of (16)O-particle radiation on oxidative stress, inflammation and loss of autophagy in the brain of young rats.

  13. Improvements in modelling (by ESCADRE mod1.0) radiative heat losses through gas and aerosols generated by molten corium-concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passalacqua, R.

    1996-01-01

    Aerosols generated during the molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) influence the reactor cavity thermal hydraulics: the cloud of aerosols, located inside the reactor cavity, restrains the upward-directed heat exchange consequently the cool-down of the high-temperature molten corium for a considerable period of time. IPSN is developing a computer code system for source predictions in severe accident scenarios. This code system is named ESCADRE. WECHSL/CALTHER is internal module dealing with MCCI (it is also a stand-alone code): it models the heat transfers involving the superior volume of the cavity. When modelling the upward-directed power distribution by WECHSL/CALTHER, a faster concrete basemat penetration takes place due to the low heat losses of the closed MCCI cavity enclosure. The model, here presented, is going to be validated with data from the AEROSTAT experiment. This experiment, planned at CEA Cadarache, will evaluate the influence of aerosols on the global power distribution in the reactor cavity. Radiative heat losses are important especially for cavity configurations such as those of new plant designs (equipped with a core-catcher) where the upward power losses are promoted by the corium spreading in a flat cavity

  14. The effect of sea ice loss on sea salt aerosol concentrations and the radiative balance in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Struthers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding Arctic climate change requires knowledge of both the external and the local drivers of Arctic climate as well as local feedbacks within the system. An Arctic feedback mechanism relating changes in sea ice extent to an alteration of the emission of sea salt aerosol and the consequent change in radiative balance is examined. A set of idealized climate model simulations were performed to quantify the radiative effects of changes in sea salt aerosol emissions induced by prescribed changes in sea ice extent. The model was forced using sea ice concentrations consistent with present day conditions and projections of sea ice extent for 2100. Sea salt aerosol emissions increase in response to a decrease in sea ice, the model results showing an annual average increase in number emission over the polar cap (70–90° N of 86 × 106 m−2 s−1 (mass emission increase of 23 μg m−2 s−1. This in turn leads to an increase in the natural aerosol optical depth of approximately 23%. In response to changes in aerosol optical depth, the natural component of the aerosol direct forcing over the Arctic polar cap is estimated to be between −0.2 and −0.4 W m−2 for the summer months, which results in a negative feedback on the system. The model predicts that the change in first indirect aerosol effect (cloud albedo effect is approximately a factor of ten greater than the change in direct aerosol forcing although this result is highly uncertain due to the crude representation of Arctic clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions in the model. This study shows that both the natural aerosol direct and first indirect effects are strongly dependent on the surface albedo, highlighting the strong coupling between sea ice, aerosols, Arctic clouds and their radiative effects.

  15. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  16. Influence of radiation exposure rate on somatic mutation frequency and loss of reproductive integrity in tradescantia stamen hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, S.; Nauman, C.H.; Sparrow, A.H.; Takahashi, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inflorescences of Tradescantia clone 02 (2n=12), hetero- or hemi-zygous for flower color, were exposed to a series of γ-ray exposures at two different exposure rates, 29.3 R/min and 0.026-0.52 R/min. Pink mutation-response curves, and survival curves based on reproductive integrity, were constructed for each of the exposure rates. Loss of reproductive integrity was also assessed at high (256 R/min) and low (0.52-4.17 R/min) γ-ray exposure rates in T. blossfeldiana (2n=72). All observations were made on stamen hairs. The higher exposure rate was 1.3-1.7 times more effective in inducing pink mutations in clone 02. A greater efficiency of the higher exposure rate was also found for both taxa at the loss of reproductive integrity endpoint. The D 0 values obtained at the higher exposure rates, 154 R for clone 02 and 720 R for T. blossfeldiana, were significantly lower than the corresponding values of 270 R and 1880 R obtained at the lower exposure rates. These D 0 's differ by factors of 1.75 and 2.61 for clone 02 and T. blossfeldiana, respectively. D 0 's for the two taxa were found to be inversely correlated with their interphase chromosome volumes. (Auth.)

  17. Evaluation of effect of body mass index and weight loss on survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Kuo-Ping; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chang, Ting-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies report body-mass index (BMI) and percent weight loss (WL) to have prognostic significance when treating patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, most of these investigations studied patients treated using different radiotherapeutic techniques. We evaluated the predictive effect of these two nutrition-related measurements on therapeutic outcome in NPC patients who only received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as part of their total treatment program. We retrospectively studied NPC patients treated with IMRT from January 2006 to February 2012. Cox proportional hazards was used to test the association of pretreatment BMI (<23 kg/m 2 vs. ≥23 kg/m 2 ) and percent weight loss (≥5 % vs. <5 %) during therapy and related survival rates while controlling for various potential confounders. Eighty-one (34 %) of the 238 patients had BMIs ≥23 kg/m 2 at pretreatment and 150 (63 %) had significant (≥5 %) weight loss. Median follow-up time was 41.71 months; median radiotherapy was 7.46 ± 0.77 weeks. Those with BMIs ≥23 kg/m 2 did not have a better 3-year overall survival (p = 0.672), 3-year disease specific survival (p = 0.341), 3-year locoregional free survival (p = 0.281), or 3-year distant metastatic free survival (p = 0.134). Those with significant WL (≥5 %) did not have worse 3-year clinical endpoints, even after stratifying magnitude of weight loss by BMI category. In sensitivity test, the adjusted hazard ratio remained statistically insignificant using different cutoffs for BMIs and percent weight loss. This study found no significant relationship between BMI and percent weight loss on survival of NPC patients receiving IMRT based therapy. Further studies might want to consider other nutrition related factors as prognostic indicators when studying the correlate between malnutrition and survival in this population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0443-3) contains supplementary material, which

  18. Temperature Profile of IR Blocking Windows Used in Cryogenic X-Ray Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Funk, T.; Drury, O.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Cryogenic high-resolution X-ray spectrometers are typically operated with thin IR blocking windows to reduce radiative heating of the detector while allowing good x-ray transmission. We have estimated the temperature profile of these IR blocking windows under typical operating conditions. We show that the temperature in the center of the window is raised due to radiation from the higher temperature stages. This can increase the infrared photon flux onto the detector, thereby increasing the IR noise and decreasing the cryostat hold time. The increased window temperature constrains the maximum window size and the number of windows required. We discuss the consequences for IR blocking window design

  19. PEP-II IR-2 Alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first results and preliminary analysis obtained with several alignment monitoring systems recently installed in the PEP-II interaction region. The hydrostatic level system, stretched wire system, and laser tracker have been installed in addition to the existing tiltmeters and LVDT sensors. These systems detected motion of the left raft, which correlated primarily with the low energy ring (LER) current. The motion is of the order of 120 micrometers. The cause was identified as synchrotron radiation heating the beampipe, causing its expansion which then results in its deformation and offset of the IR quadrupoles. We also discuss further plans on measurements, analysis and means to counteract this motion

  20. Accounting for beta-particle energy loss to cortical bone via paired-image radiation transport (PIRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Amish P.; Rajon, Didier A.; Patton, Phillip W.; Jokisch, Derek W.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2005-01-01

    Current methods of skeletal dose assessment in both medical physics (radionuclide therapy) and health physics (dose reconstruction and risk assessment) rely heavily on a single set of bone and marrow cavity chord-length distributions in which particle energy deposition is tracked within an infinite extent of trabecular spongiosa, with no allowance for particle escape to cortical bone. In the present study, we introduce a paired-image radiation transport (PIRT) model which provides a more realistic three-dimensional (3D) geometry for particle transport in the skeletal site at both microscopic and macroscopic levels of its histology. Ex vivo CT scans were acquired of the pelvis, cranial cap, and individual ribs excised from a 66-year male cadaver (BMI of 22.7 kg m -2 ). For the three skeletal sites, regions of trabecular spongiosa and cortical bone were identified and segmented. Physical sections of interior spongiosa were taken and subjected to microCT imaging. Voxels within the resulting microCT images were then segmented and labeled as regions of bone trabeculae, endosteum, active marrow, and inactive marrow through application of image processing algorithms. The PIRT methodology was then implemented within the EGSNRC radiation transport code whereby electrons of various initial energies are simultaneously tracked within both the ex vivo CT macroimage and the CT microimage of the skeletal site. At initial electron energies greater than 50-200 keV, a divergence in absorbed fractions to active marrow are noted between PIRT model simulations and those estimated under existing techniques of infinite spongiosa transport. Calculations of radionuclide S values under both methodologies imply that current chord-based models may overestimate the absorbed dose to active bone marrow in these skeletal sites by 0% to 27% for low-energy beta emitters ( 33 P, 169 Er, and 177 Lu), by ∼4% to 49% for intermediate-energy beta emitters ( 153 Sm, 186 Re, and 89 Sr), and by ∼14% to

  1. Relation between radiation-induced whole lung functional loss and regional structural changes in partial irradiated rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luijk, Peter van; Novakova-Jiresova, Alena; Faber, Hette; Steneker, Marloes N.J.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Meertens, Haarm; Coppes, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary toxicity is characterized by dose, region, and time-dependent severe changes in lung morphology and function. This study sought to determine the relation between the structural and functional changes in the irradiated rat lung at three different phases after irradiation. Materials and Methods: Six groups of animals were irradiated to 16-22 Gy to six different lung regions, each containing 50% of the total lung volume. Before and every 2 weeks after irradiation, the breathing rate (BR) was measured, and at Weeks 8, 26, and 38 CT was performed. From the computed tomography scans, the irradiated lung tissue was delineated using a computerized algorithm. A single quantitative measure for structural change was derived from changes of the mean and standard deviation of the density within the delineated lung. Subsequently, this was correlated with the BR in the corresponding phase. Results: In the mediastinal and apex region, the BR and computed tomography density changes did not correlate in any phase. After lateral irradiation, the density changes always correlated with the BR; however, in all other regions, the density changes only correlated significantly (r 2 = 0.46-0.85, p < 0.05) with the BR in Week 26. Conclusion: Changes in pulmonary function correlated with the structural changes in the absence of confounding heart irradiation

  2. Observations of radiation-induced chromosome fragment loss in live mammalian cells in culture, and its effect on colony-forming ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, S.J.; Joshi, G.P.; Revell, S.H.; Shaw, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A preceding paper (Grote, Joshi, Revell and Shaw 1981) describe a method for the direct scrutiny of live cultured mammalian cells with a microscope, and reported that all diploid Syrian hamster cells (BHK 21 C13) of a sample given 1.4 Gy of 220 kV X-rays in G1 reached post-radiation mitosis without discernible abnormality, but then diverged in observed behaviour: descendant cells from some first mitoses continued to proliferate normally while cells from other first mitoses behaved abnormally and produced either slow-growth or stop-growth colonies. This paper completes the study of the same irradiated cell sample, and shows that these post-mitotic differences in clonogenic ability were related to acentric chromosome fragment losses at post-radiation mitosis, which were detected in live daughter-cell pairs as micronuclei. The proportion of live daughter-cell pairs scored as deficient was at least 80 per cent of the proportion of comparable fixed-and-stained mitoses with detected acentric fragments. (author)

  3. Analysis of effect of cable degradation on SPND IR calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamboli, P.K.; Sharma, A.; Prasad, A.D.; Singh, Nita; Antony, J.; Kelkar, M.G.; Kaurav, Reetesh; Pramanik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron flux is the most vital parameter in the nuclear reactor safety against Neutronic over power. The modern days Indian PHWRs with large core size are loosely coupled reactors and hence In-core Self Power Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) are most suitable for monitoring local neutron power for generating Regional Overpower Trip. However the SPNDs and its Mineral Insulation Cable are prone to IR loss due to use of ceramic insulation which are highly hygroscopic. The present paper covers the online analysis of IR f degraded cable as per the surveillance requirement of monitoring the IR to assess the healthiness of SPNDs which are part of SSC/SSE for Reactor Protection Systems. The paper also proposes an alternative method for monitoring IR for startup//low power range when SPND signals are yet to pick up and Reactor Control and Protection are based on out of core Ionization Chambers. (author)

  4. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  5. Measurements of Plasma Power Losses in the C-2 Field-Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Garate, Eusebio; Donin, Alexandr; Kondakov, Alexey; Singatulin, Shavkat

    2013-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment. To analyze the power balance in C-2, two new diagnostic instruments - the pyroelectric (PE) and infrared (IR) bolometers - were developed. The PE bolometer, designed to operate in the incident power density range from 0.1-100 W/cm2, is used to measure the radial power loss, which is dominated by charge-exchange neutrals and radiation. The IR bolometer, which measures power irradiated onto a thin metal foil inserted in the plasma, is designed for the power density range from 0.5-5 kW/cm2. The IR bolometer is used to measure the axial power loss from the plasma near the end divertors. The maximum measurable pulse duration of ~ 10 ms is limited by the heat capacitance of the IR detector. Both detectors have time resolution of about 10-100 μs and were calibrated in absolute units using a high power neutral beam. We present the results of first direct measurements of axial and radial plasma power losses in C-2.

  6. Evaluation of an industrial gas-fired IR dryer; Utvaerdering av en industriell gaseldad IR-straalare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, S; Hermodsson, S

    1994-11-01

    The IR dryer is used in a paper making machine to dry the paper web after it has been coated with a surface layer. In part 1 of the project a mathematical model have been developed, capable of calculating the radiation intensity and other energy flows in the dryer. In part 2 of the project, measurements have been made on the IR radiator mounted in the paper making machine. The calculation model shows the efficiency of the radiator to 39% at full power and 35% at half power. The direct measurements were made at half power and gave an efficiency of 31% for new radiators and 28% for old ones. The conclusion is that the calculation model values corresponds very well compared with direct measurements.

  7. Supercontinuum based mid-IR imaging spectroscopy for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    -power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation, have precluded mid-IR applications where the spatial coherence, broad bandwidth, high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. In an international collaboration in the EU project MINERVA [minerva...

  8. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  9. Use of Ir192 interstitial brachytherapy for an equine malignant dermal schwannoma : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Saulez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old Hanoverian mare was evaluated for a right buccal swelling that recurred 3 months following surgical resection. Ultrasonographic examination showed a broadly pedunculated subcutaneous mass at the level of 106-109 and 406-409 cheek teeth associated with an erosive mucosal lesion on the inside of the cheek. Histological examination of a biopsy specimen revealed a well-demarcated, malignant, dermal schwannoma. Following subcutaneous placement of platinum coated Ir192 wires under general anaesthesia, low-dose radiation of 5 gray per day was delivered for 14 days. Short-term complications included loss of patency of the right nasolacrimal duct, erythema, dermatitis, leukotrichia and left-sided deviation of the muzzle. Ten months later, there has been no tumour recurrence. Findings suggest that the use of interstitial brachytherapy should be considered for a malignant, dermal schwannoma that has recurred or is not amenable to surgery.

  10. Cotton responses to simulated insect damage: radiation-use efficiency, canopy architecture and leaf nitrogen content as affected by loss of reproductive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadras, V.O.

    1996-01-01

    Key cotton pests feed preferentially on reproductive organs which are normally shed after injury. Loss of reproductive organs in cotton may decrease the rate of leaf nitrogen depletion associated with fruit growth and increase nitrogen uptake and reduction by extending the period of root and leaf growth compared with undamaged plants. Higher levels of leaf nitrogen resulting from more assimilation and less depletion could increase the photosynthetic capacity of damaged crops in relation to undamaged controls. To test this hypothesis, radiation-use efficiency (RUE = g dry matter per MJ of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by the canopy) of crops in which flowerbuds and young fruits were manually removed was compared with that of undamaged controls. Removal of fruiting structures did not affect RUE when cotton was grown at low nitrogen supply and high plant density. In contrast, under high nitrogen supply and low plant density, fruit removal increased seasonal RUE by 20–27% compared to controls. Whole canopy measurements, however, failed to detect the expected variations in foliar nitrogen due to damage. Differences in RUE between damaged and undamaged canopies were in part associated with changes in plant and canopy structure (viz. internode number and length, canopy height, branch angle) that modified light distribution within the canopy. These structural responses and their influence on canopy light penetration and photosynthesis are synthetised in coefficients of light extinction (k) that were 10 to 30% smaller in damaged crops than in controls and in a positive correlation between RUE−1 and k for crops grown under favourable conditions (i.e. high nitrogen, low density). Changes in plant structure and their effects on canopy architecture and RUE should be considered in the analysis of cotton growth after damage by insects that induce abscission of reproductive organs. (author)

  11. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  12. Role of Ionizing Radiation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel K. Sharma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation (IR from terrestrial sources is continually an unprotected peril to human beings. However, the medical radiation and global radiation background are main contributors to human exposure and causes of radiation sickness. At high-dose exposures acute radiation sickness occurs, whereas chronic effects may persist for a number of years. Radiation can increase many circulatory, age related and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases occur a long time after exposure to radiation, as demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors, and are still controversial. This review discuss the role of IR in neurodegenerative diseases and proposes an association between neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to IR.

  13. Role of Ionizing Radiation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neel K.; Sharma, Rupali; Mathur, Deepali; Sharad, Shashwat; Minhas, Gillipsie; Bhatia, Kulsajan; Anand, Akshay; Ghosh, Sanchita P.

    2018-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) from terrestrial sources is continually an unprotected peril to human beings. However, the medical radiation and global radiation background are main contributors to human exposure and causes of radiation sickness. At high-dose exposures acute radiation sickness occurs, whereas chronic effects may persist for a number of years. Radiation can increase many circulatory, age related and neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases occur a long time after exposure to radiation, as demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors, and are still controversial. This review discuss the role of IR in neurodegenerative diseases and proposes an association between neurodegenerative diseases and exposure to IR. PMID:29867445

  14. Ionizing Radiation Affects Gene Expression in Mouse Skin and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Tahimic, Candice; Sowa, Marianne B.; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Globus, Ruth K.

    2017-01-01

    Future long-duration space exploration beyond low earth orbit will increase human exposure to space radiation and microgravity conditions as well as associated risks to skeletal health. In animal studies, radiation exposure (greater than 1 Gy) is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility. Definitive measurements and detection of bone loss typically require large and specialized equipment which can make their application to long duration space missions logistically challenging. Towards the goal of developing non-invasive and less complicated monitoring methods to predict astronauts' health during spaceflight, we examined whether radiation induced gene expression changes in skin may be predictive of the responses of skeletal tissue to radiation exposure. We examined oxidative stress and growth arrest pathways in mouse skin and long bones by measuring gene expression levels via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to total body irradiation (IR). To investigate the effects of irradiation on gene expression, we used skin and femora (cortical shaft) from the following treatment groups: control (normally loaded, sham-irradiated), and IR (0.5 Gy 56Fe 600 MeV/n and 0.5 Gy 1H 150 MeV/n), euthanized at one and 11 days post-irradiation (IR). To determine the extent of bone loss, tibiae were harvested and cancellous microarchitecture in the proximal tibia quantified ex vivo using microcomputed tomography (microCT). Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test. At one day post-IR, expression of FGF18 in skin was significantly greater (3.8X) than sham-irradiated controls, but did not differ at 11 days post IR. Expression levels of other genes associated with antioxidant response (Nfe2l2, FoxO3 and Sod1) and the cell cycle (Trp53, Cdkn1a, Gadd45g) did not significantly differ between the control and IR groups

  15. Radiation protection in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, Manuel

    1996-02-01

    It covers technical procedures in medical applications for cancer treatment. Radiation protection principles in brachytherapy. Medical uses in therapy for Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Ra-226, Ir-192, Au-198, Bi-214, Pb-214. (The author)

  16. IR characteristic simulation of city scenes based on radiosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xixian; Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi; Yu, Xiyu

    2013-09-01

    Reliable modeling for thermal infrared (IR) signatures of real-world city scenes is required for signature management of civil and military platforms. Traditional modeling methods generally assume that scene objects are individual entities during the physical processes occurring in infrared range. However, in reality, the physical scene involves convective and conductive interactions between objects as well as the radiations interactions between objects. A method based on radiosity model describes these complex effects. It has been developed to enable an accurate simulation for the radiance distribution of the city scenes. Firstly, the physical processes affecting the IR characteristic of city scenes were described. Secondly, heat balance equations were formed on the basis of combining the atmospheric conditions, shadow maps and the geometry of scene. Finally, finite difference method was used to calculate the kinetic temperature of object surface. A radiosity model was introduced to describe the scattering effect of radiation between surface elements in the scene. By the synthesis of objects radiance distribution in infrared range, we could obtain the IR characteristic of scene. Real infrared images and model predictions were shown and compared. The results demonstrate that this method can realistically simulate the IR characteristic of city scenes. It effectively displays the infrared shadow effects and the radiation interactions between objects in city scenes.

  17. The effect of radiation-induced crosslinking on loss of Chimassorb 944 from (polyethylene-ethylene vinylacetate) blend in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanpour, S.; Khoylou, F.

    2006-01-01

    Loss of a high molecular weight hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS) from irradiated low density polyethylene-ethylene vinyl acetate blends (LD/EVA) in hot water has been investigated. The effect of Chimassorb 944 and two trifunctional monomers, triallyloxy-1, 3,5-triazine and 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propandiol-trimethacrylate on LD/EVA properties after irradiation and their effect on the stabilizer migration from the polymer base during thermal aging in hot water has been studied. The samples in both pure form and mixed with additives were exposed to electron beam radiation at doses between 100 and 150 kGy, at room temperature, in air. In order to study the thermal aging property, irradiated samples were placed in hot water bath at 95 deg C for 1000 hours and in an oven at 140 deg C for several hours. Irradiated samples showed noticeable changes in mechanical properties. Long term heat stability of polymer blend was improved significantly by using polyfunctional monomers. From the results of the thermal aging procedures, the HALS showed a convenient influence on the increase of the polymer blend thermal stability at 95 deg C. However under the accelerated conditions, the value of OIT decreased as a result of HALS depletion from the polymer base during immersion in hot water. (author)

  18. Study on seasonal IR signature change of a ship by considering seasonal marine environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hwi; Han, Kuk-Il; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Kuk

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) signal emitted from objects over 0 degree Kelvin has been used to detect and recognize the characteristics of those objects. Recently more delicate IR sensors have been applied for various guided missiles and they affect a crucial influence on object's survivability. Especially, in marine environment it is more vulnerable to be attacked by IR guided missiles since there are nearly no objects for concealment. To increase the survivability of object, the IR signal of the object needs to be analyzed properly by considering various marine environments. IR signature of a naval ship consists of the emitted energy from ship surface and the reflected energy by external sources. Surface property such as the emissivity and the absorptivity on the naval ship varies with different paints applied on the surface and the reflected IR signal is also affected by the surface radiative property, the sensor's geometric position and various climatic conditions in marine environment. Since the direct measurement of IR signal using IR camera is costly and time consuming job, computer simulation methods are developing rapidly to replace those experimental tasks. In this study, we are demonstrate a way of analyzing the IR signal characteristics by using the measured background IR signals using an IR camera and the estimated target IR signals from the computer simulation to find the seasonal trends of IR threats of a naval ship. Through this process, measured weather data are used to analyze more accurate IR signal conditions for the naval ship. The seasonal change of IR signal contrast between the naval ship and the marine background shows that the highest contrast radiant intensity (CRI) value is appeared in early summer.

  19. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  20. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  1. Optical properties of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 composites in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, De-yue; Li, Xiao-xia; Guo, Yu-xiang; Zeng, Yu-run

    2018-01-01

    The complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 composites prepared by hydrothermal method was calculated using infrared Micro-reflective spectra and K-K relation, and the calculation errors were analyzed according to its IR transmission and spectral reflectivity calculated by Fresnel formula. And then normal emissivity of the composite in IR atmospheric window was calculated by means of Fresnel formula and modified refraction angle formula. The calculation accuracy was verified by comparing measured normal total emissivity with the calculated one. The results show that complex refractive index and normal emissivity calculated by the formulas have a high accuracy. It has been found that the composite has a good absorption and radiation characteristics in IR atmospheric window and a strong scattering ability in middle IR region by analyzing its extinction, absorption and radiation properties in IR region. Therefore, it may be used as IR absorption, extinction and radiation materials in some special fields.

  2. Ir-based refractory superalloys by pulse electric current sintering (PECS) process (II prealloyed powder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.; Harada, H.

    2002-02-01

    Five prealloyed powder samples prepared from binary Ir-based refractory superalloys were sintered at 1800 °C for 4 h by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS). No metal loss was observed during sintering. The relative densities of the sintered specimens all exceeded 90% T.D. The best one was Ir-13% Hf with the density of 97.82% T.D. Phases detected in sintered samples were in accordance with the phase diagram as expected. Fractured surfaces were observed in two samples (Ir-13% Hf and Ir-15% Zr). Some improvements obtained by using prealloyed powders instead of elemental powders, which were investigated in the previous studies, were presented.

  3. Camouflage in thermal IR: spectral design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Anna; Fagerström, Jan; Kariis, Hans; Lindell, Roland; Hallberg, Tomas; Högström, Herman

    2016-10-01

    In this work a spectral designed coating from SPECTROGON is evaluated. Spectral design in this case means that the coating has a reflectivity equal to one at 3-5 and 8-12 microns were sensors operate and a much lower reflectivity in the other wave length regions. Three boxes are evaluated: one metallic, one black-body and one with a spectral designed surface, all with a 15 W radiator inside the box. It is shown that the box with the spectral designed surface can combine the two good characteristics of the other boxes: low signature from the metallic box and reasonable inside temperature from the black-body box. The measurements were verified with calculations using RadThermIR.

  4. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  5. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls affected by U.S. nuclear testing: all exposure pathways, remedial measures, and environmental loss of (137)Cs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, William L; Hamilton, Terry F

    2010-01-01

    Radiation doses calculated for people resettling Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll, Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll, Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll, and Utrōk Island at Utrōk Atoll are presented. Residence is assumed to begin in 2010. In previous dose assessments it was shown that (137)Cs accounts for about 98% of the total dose for returning residents. About 85 to 90% (depending on the atoll) is via consumption of locally grown foods containing (137)Cs, and about 10 to 15% is due to external exposure from (137)Cs in the soil. These assessments were made using only the radiological half-life of (137)Cs (30.1 y). We have shown since that there is an environmental loss of (137)Cs from soil to groundwater that results in a more rapid loss of (137)Cs from the atoll ecosystem. The mean effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls is 8.5 y. Moreover, treatment of coconut trees with potassium (K) reduces (137)Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat at Bikini Atoll to about 5% of pretreatment concentrations. The magnitude of reduction is dependent on the concentration of (137)Cs in soil, and thereby in food crops, and is less for Enjebi and Rongelap Islands than for Bikini Island. Treatment of food crops and fruit trees with K and removal of the top 15 cm of soil around houses and community buildings prior to construction to reduce external exposure where people spend most of their time has been presented to the communities as a "Combined Option" remediation strategy. Doses presented here are calculated using the Combined Option, effective half-life of (137)Cs at the atolls, and a diet of both imported and local foods. The average natural background dose in the Marshall Islands, plus the anthropogenic nuclear test-related dose at Bikini, Enjebi, and Rongelap Islands, is less for each of the islands than the average background dose in the U.S. and Europe.

  6. Pulsed infrared radiation excites cultured neonatal spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons by modulating mitochondrial calcium cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbreras, Vicente; Bas, Esperanza; Gupta, Chhavi; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2014-09-15

    Cochlear implants are currently the most effective solution for profound sensorineural hearing loss, and vestibular prostheses are under development to treat bilateral vestibulopathies. Electrical current spread in these neuroprostheses limits channel independence and, in some cases, may impair their performance. In comparison, optical stimuli that are spatially confined may result in a significant functional improvement. Pulsed infrared radiation (IR) has previously been shown to elicit responses in neurons. This study analyzes the response of neonatal rat spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons in vitro to IR (wavelength = 1,863 nm) using Ca(2+) imaging. Both types of neurons responded consistently with robust intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients that matched the low-frequency IR pulses applied (4 ms, 0.25-1 pps). Radiant exposures of ∼637 mJ/cm(2) resulted in continual neuronal activation. Temperature or [Ca(2+)] variations in the media did not alter the IR-evoked transients, ruling out extracellular Ca(2+) involvement or primary mediation by thermal effects on the plasma membrane. While blockage of Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) plasma membrane channels did not alter the IR-evoked response, blocking of mitochondrial Ca(2+) cycling with CGP-37157 or ruthenium red reversibly inhibited the IR-evoked [Ca(2+)]i transients. Additionally, the magnitude of the IR-evoked transients was dependent on ryanodine and cyclopiazonic acid-dependent Ca(2+) release. These results suggest that IR modulation of intracellular calcium cycling contributes to stimulation of spiral and vestibular ganglion neurons. As a whole, the results suggest selective excitation of neurons in the IR beam path and the potential of IR stimulation in future auditory and vestibular prostheses. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Broadly tunable picosecond ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A completely grating tuned (1.9 to 2.4 μm) picosecond traveling wave IR generator capable of controlled spectral bandwidth operation down to the Fourier Transform limit is reported. Subsequent down conversion in CdSe extends tuning to 10 to 20 μm

  8. Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demizu, Yusuke; Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue; Akagi, Takashi; Sasaki, Ryohei; Terashima, Kazuki; Suga, Daisaku; Kamae, Isao; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at α/β = 3 gray equivalent (GyE 3 ). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE 3 ) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

  9. Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai

    OpenAIRE

    Mockevičius, Arminas

    2014-01-01

    Viešosios teisės magistro studijų programos studento Armino Mockevičiaus buvo parašytas magistro baigiamasis darbas „Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai“. Šis darbas parašytas Vilniuje, 2014 metais, Mykolo Romerio universiteto Teisės fakulteto Konstitucinės ir administracinės teisės institute, vadovaujant dr. Gintautui Vilkeliui, apimtis 98 p. Darbo tikslas yra atskleisti alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklau...

  10. IR emission and UV extinction in two open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackwell, J.A.; Hecht, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent models of interstellar extinction have shown the importance of understanding both the UV and IR properties of interstellar dust grains. IRAS data have shown variations in 60 and 100 micron emissions presumably due to the presence of IR cirrus, while recent observations in the UV by Fitzpatrick and Massa have identified components in the UV extinction curve which vary in different star regions. A Draine and Anderson model connects these results by proposing that different size variations in interstellar grains would cause distinct changes in both the IR emission and the UV extinction. In order to test this model it is necessary to make observations in well defined locations away from peculiar extinction regions. In the infrared this means looking away from the galactic plane so as to limit non-local sources of IR radiation. Two open clusters that are out of the galactic plane and which contain a number of late B and early A stars suitable for UV extinction studies, and whose IRAS data show variations in the 60/100 micron ratio were studied. Based on the Drain and Anderson model, variations were expected in their UV extinction curves that correlate with the IR cirrus emission

  11. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  12. Thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Smith, J. A.; Link, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy based on a mathematical abstraction of three horizontal layers of vegetation was developed. Canopy geometry within each layer is quantitatively described by the foliage and branch orientation distributions and number density. Given this geometric information for each layer and the driving meteorological variables, a system of energy budget equations was determined and solved for average layer temperatures. These estimated layer temperatures, together with the angular distributions of radiating elements, were used to calculate the emitted thermal IR radiation as a function of view angle above the canopy. The model was applied to a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) canopy over a diurnal cycle. Simulated vs measured radiometric average temperatures of the midcanopy layer corresponded with 2 C. Simulation results suggested that canopy geometry can significantly influence the effective radiant temperature recorded at varying sensor view angles.

  13. Dependence of the coefficient of environmental thermal losses of radiation-absorbing thermal exchange panels of flat solar collectors for heating heat-transfer fluid from their average operating and ambient temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avezova, N.R.; Avezov, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    The approximation formula is derived for calculating the normalized coefficient of thermal losses of flat solar collectors (FSCs) for heating heat-transfer fluid (HTF). These are used in hot water supply systems in the warmer part of the year, depending on the average working surface temperature of their radiation-absorbing thermal exchange panels (RATEPs) (t"-_w_s_r) and the ambient temperature (t_a_m_b) in their realistic variation range. (author)

  14. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ežerskytė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  15. The nature of OH/IR stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this work masers in evolved stars are studied, in particular the emission from the OH radical. The time variability of the OH masers was measured over a period of five years with the Dwingeloo Radio Telescope. These single-dish observations proved that most of the underlying stars are very long period variables, apparently a kind of extension of the well-known long period Mira variables. The mean OH fluxes and epochs were obtained as well as a confirmation of the radiative coupling between the maser and the star (by comparison with infrared data provided by other observers), the degree of saturation, and, most important of all, a determination of the linear dimensions of the circumstellar shells. Multi-element interferometer observations were made in order to study the spatial structure of OH masers. By combining the phase lag measurements and the spatial extent distances to individual stars could be determined with a high, unprecedented accuracy. Infrared broad-band photometry was done in the wavelength region from 3 μm to 20 μm, where most of the energy of these objects is radiated. The space density and galactic distribution of OH/IR stars are discussed and compared with the appearance of OH masers in the solar neighbourhood. (Auth.)

  16. Analysis of FT-IR for dosimetric characterization of poly(vinylidene fluoride - hexafluoropropylene) irradiated with high doses of gamma radiation; Analise de FT-IR para caracterizacao dosimetrica do poli(fluoreto de vinilideno - hexafluorpropileno) irradiado com altas doses de radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liz, Otavio Souza Rocha; Medeiros, Adriana de Souza [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Faria, Luiz Oliveira de, E-mail: farialo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    Polymeric materials when exposed to ionizing radiation undergo changes such as the crosslinking and chain oxidation. Recently, the optical absorption intensities in the ultraviolet visible region (273 nm) due to radio- induction of conjugated C=C bonds in P(VDF-TrFE) copolymers has been successfully used for high dose dosimetry purposes in gamma fields ranging from 0.1 to 200 kGy. In this context, the interest of performing a systematic investigation on another fluorinated copolymer of PVDF, the (Polyvinylidene fluoride - hexa fluoro propylene) [P(VDF- HFP)] has come to light, not only for UV-VIS range but also for the near and medium infrared ranges. In this investigation FTIR and UV-Vis spectra, acquired before and after irradiation, were used to investigate the relationship between optical absorbance and delivered gamma doses ranging from 100 to 3,000 kGy. The results indicate that the absorption band at 1729 cm-1, originated by the chain oxidation through the radioinduction of C=O bonds, presents an unambiguous behavior with the delivered gamma doses in a very large extension, ranging from 0 to 1,000 kGy. This results lead to conclude that P(VDF-HFP) copolymer shows excellent dosimetric properties which make it able to be investigated as a high dose dosimeter

  17. Radiation and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Noriah Jamal

    1996-01-01

    Radiation consists of ionizing radiation (IR) and non-ionizing radiation (NIR). Apart from naturally occuring sources, these types of radiation are widely used in Malaysia and can easily be found in Malaysia environment. IR is widely used in industry, medicine and research; while NIR is widely used in industry, medicine, telecommunication, defence, entertainment and research. Recent studies indicate that these radiations are potentially harmful to human beings, in particular the chronic late effects. Based on this understanding, in 1986 (beginning IRPA RM5) Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) had initiated a number of research projects which primary aims are to gather baseline informations and later to make assessments on the health impact of workers and the population. The projects started off by looking at problems associated with ionizing radiation and these were extended in late 1993, to include non-ionizing radiation

  18. Radiation and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd Ali, Mohd Yusof; Jamal, Noriah [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1997-12-31

    Radiation consists of ionizing radiation (IR) and non-ionizing radiation (NIR). Apart from naturally occuring sources, these types of radiation are widely used in Malaysia and can easily be found in Malaysia environment. IR is widely used in industry, medicine and research; while NIR is widely used in industry, medicine, telecommunication, defence, entertainment and research. Recent studies indicate that these radiations are potentially harmful to human beings, in particular the chronic late effects. Based on this understanding, in 1986 (beginning IRPA RM5) Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) had initiated a number of research projects which primary aims are to gather baseline informations and later to make assessments on the health impact of workers and the population. The projects started off by looking at problems associated with ionizing radiation and these were extended in late 1993, to include non-ionizing radiation.

  19. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  20. The changing role of the radiographer under IR(ME)R 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with the way in which the College of Radiographers has used the new Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 [IR(ME)R] to promote role development among its 17,000 radiographers in the UK. It aims to show that the resultant role development will have a beneficial effect on the radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiography. (author)

  1. Thermal And Gamma-Radiation Annealing Of The Iridium-192 Recoil Species In Crystalline Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O; Recuit Thermique et par Rayonnement Gamma de l'espece {sup 192}Ir de Recul dans des Cristaux de Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} * 6H{sub 2}O; 0422 0415 041f 041b 041e 0412 041e 0419 0418 0413 0410 041c 041c 0410 - 041e 0422 0416 0418 0413 041f 0420 041e 0414 0423 041a 0422 041e 0412 041e 0422 0414 0410 0427 0418 0418 0420 0418 0414 0418 042f -192 0412 041a 0420 0418 0421 0422 0410 041b 041b 0418 0427 0415 0421 041a 041e 041c Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O; Regeneracion Termica y por Irradiacion Gamma de las Especies de Retroceso del Iridio-192 en Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O Cristalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Rita; Herr, W. [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich, Institut fuer Kernchemie der Universitaet Koeln, Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1965-04-15

    Ii is possible to separate by means of paper electrophoresis as many as 13 different recoil compounds from Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6}H{sub 2}O {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O as a result of the nuclear reaction Ir{sup 191} (n, {gamma}) Ir{sup 192}. While most of them have anionic character, two of them act as Irwz-labelled cations. These carrier-free compounds have been studied as regards their behaviour towards reducing and oxidizing agents and aging in solution. Independently the hydrolysis of the hexachloro complexes of ter- and quadrivalent iridium, which had been labelled with Cl{sup 36} and Ir{sup 192}, was investigated. A comparison between these two series of results supported by further results from neutron activation analysis enables the recoil products to be identified mostly as octahedral complexes of Ir-III containing Cl{sup -}, H{sub 2}O and OH{sup -} ligands to a different extent. Evidently the water of crystallization plays an important role in the formation of the recoil species. The thermal annealing of these products at 120 Degree-Sign C shows a rapid decrease in the yields of the aquochloro, hydroxochloro and aquohydroxochloro complexes towards formation of the mother compound with the exception of the pentachloro complex. This complex decreases only after an initial increase, indicating that it is involved as an intermediate from other accompanying products during their annealing. Gamma-radiation annealing reveals many single steps whose general trend is a transition from lesser Cl-containing species to a higher Cl content leading finally to the hexachloro complex. This shows that the annealing process consists in the re-entering of Cl atoms (or ions) into the ligand sphere with the accompanying displacement of H{sub 2}O as well as OH (OH{sup -}). (author) [French] Il est possible de separer de Na{sub 2}IrCl{sub 6}(6H{sub 2}O), au moyen de l'electrophorese sur papier, jusqu'a 13 composes de recul resultant de la reaction nucleaire {sup 191}Ir(n, {gamma

  2. Non-ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The technical papers deal with health hazards from radiation, rules for the prevention of accidents, the risk of cancer and radiation effects, as well as the international standardization of UV, light, IR, LASER, static and low-frequency fields, electromagnetic fields, cardiac pacemakers, infrasound, ultrasound, and visual display units. (DG) [de

  3. Radioluminescence dating: the IR emission of feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilles, Thomas.; Habermann, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A new luminescence reader for radioluminescence (RL) measurements is presented. The system allows detection of RL emissions in the near infrared region (IR). Basic bleaching properties of the IR-RL emission of feldspars are investigated. Sunlight-bleaching experiments as a test for sensitivity changes are presented. IR-bleaching experiments were carried out to obtain information about the underlying physical processes of the IR-RL emission

  4. Detecting infrared luminescence and non-chemical signaling of living cells: single cell mid-IR spectroscopy in cryogenic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    Many life-relevant interaction energies are in IR range, and it is reasonable to believe that some biochemical reactions inside cells can results in emission of IR photons. Cells can use this emission for non-chemical and non-electrical signaling. Detecting weak infrared radiation from live cells is complicated because of strong thermal radiation background and absorption of radiation by tissues. A microfluidic device with live cells inside a vacuum cryogenic environment should suppress this background, and thereby permit observation of live cell auto-luminescence or signaling in the IR regime. One can make IR-transparent windows not emitting in this range, so only the cell and a small amount of liquid around it will emit infrared radiation. Currently mid-IR spectroscopy of single cells requires the use of a synchrotron source to measure absorption or reflection spectra. Decreasing of thermal radiation background will allow absorption and reflection spectroscopy of cells without using synchrotron light. Moreover, cell auto-luminescence can be directly measured. The complete absence of thermal background radiation for cryogenically cooled samples allows the use IR photon-sensitive detectors and obtaining single molecule sensitivity in IR photo-luminescence measurements. Due to low photon energies, photo-luminescence measurements will be non-distractive for pressures samples. The technique described here is based upon US patent 9366574.

  5. Synchrotron Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfour, F.I

    2000-01-01

    Synchrotron light is produced by electron accelerators combined with storage rings. This light is generated over a wide spectral region; from infra-red (IR) through the visible and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), and into the X-ray region. For relativistic electrons (moving nearly with the speed of light), most radiation is concentrated in a small cone with an opening angle of 1/gamma(some 0.1 to 1 milliradian),where gamma is the electron energy in units of rest energy (typically 10 3 -10 4 ). In synchrotron radiation sources (storage rings) highly relativistic electrons are stored to travel along a circular path for many hours. Radiation is caused by transverse acceleration due to magnetic forces(bending magnets). The radiation is emitted in pulses of 10-20 picosecond, separated by some 2 nanosecond or longer separation

  6. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabelac, M.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, P.; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report double-resonant IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy of neutral gramicidin peptides in the gas phase. The IR spectra of gramicidin A and C, recorded in both the 1000 cm(-1) to 1800 cm(-1) and the 2700 to 3750 cm(-1) region, allow structural analysis. By studying this broad IR range, various local

  7. Multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband...

  8. Mock Target Window OTR and IR Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-19

    In order to fully verify temperature measurements made on the target window using infrared (IR) optical non-contact methods, actual comparative measurements are made with a real beam distribution as the heat source using Argonne National Laboratory’s (ANL) 35 MeV electron accelerator. Using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) simulations and thermal Finite Element Analysis (FEA), a cooled mock target window with thermocouple implants is designed to be used in such a test to achieve window temperatures up to 700°C. An uncoated and blackcoated mock window is designed to enhance the IR temperature measurements and verify optical transmitted radiation (OTR) imagery. This allows us to fully verify and characterize our temperature accuracy with our current IR camera method and any future method we may wish to explore using actual production conditions. This test also provides us with valuable conclusions/concerns regarding the calibration method we developed using our IR test stand at TA-53 in MPF-14.

  9. Molecular Active Sites in Heterogeneous Ir-La/C-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methanol to Acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ja Hun; Dagle, Robert; Tustin, Gerald C; Zoeller, Joseph R; Allard, Lawrence F; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-06

    We report that when Ir and La halides are deposited on carbon, exposure to CO spontaneously generates a discrete molecular heterobimetallic structure, containing an Ir-La covalent bond that acts as a highly active, selective, and stable heterogeneous catalyst for the carbonylation of methanol to produce acetic acid. This catalyst exhibits a very high productivity of ∼1.5 mol acetyl/mol Ir·s with >99% selectivity to acetyl (acetic acid and methyl acetate) without detectable loss in activity or selectivity for more than 1 month of continuous operation. The enhanced activity can be mechanistically rationalized by the presence of La within the ligand sphere of the discrete molecular Ir-La heterobimetallic structure, which acts as a Lewis acid to accelerate the normally rate-limiting CO insertion in Ir-catalyzed carbonylation. Similar approaches may provide opportunities for attaining molecular (single site) behavior similar to homogeneous catalysis on heterogeneous surfaces for other industrial applications.

  10. Fiber optic lasers with emission to the region 2-3 μm of IR medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzuelo Sanchez, G.; Osuna Galan, I.; Camas Anzueto, J.; Martinez Rios, A.; Selvas Aguilar, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent advances in laser emission in the 2-2-5 μm mid-IR, using a chalcogenide fiber with low loss and a high Raman gain in the region 2-10 μm. We present a review of fiber lasers operating in 2-3 μm of the mid IR. (Author)

  11. Compact erbium lasers in the IR photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baining; Eichler, Hans J.; Sperlich, O.; Holschbach, A.; Kayser, M.

    1996-09-01

    Erbium lasers deliver laser radiation near 3 micrometers and are a promising alternative to excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (UV-PRK). In addition to easier handling due to all solid state technology, especially when operated in the fundamental mode, IR-PRK eliminates the potential of mutagenic side effects associated with UV-PRK. However, a successful IR-PRK for the clinic treatment in the near future demands both technological development of erbium lasers in different operation modes and clinical investigation of interaction between 3 micrometers radiation and human corneas. The excellent cooperation between university, company and hospital makes this possible. Uncoated thin plates made from infrared materials were found to be effective etalon reflectors with high damage threshold as high as 1 GW/cm2 for erbium lasers. Four kinds of such reflectors were successfully tested in Q-switched Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 micrometers and Er:Cr:YSGG-laser at 2.80 micrometers. Very stable operation of our erbium lasers with high output energy both in free-running and Q-switched modes is realized. First infrared photorefractive keratectomy (IR-PRK) for myopic correction in human corneas by a free-running erbium laser based on our new construction concepts was achieved.

  12. Industrial radiography with Ir-192 using computed radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngernvijit, Narippawaj; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Chankow, Nares; Sukbumperng, Ampai; Thong-Aram, Decho

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the utilization of a low activity Ir-192 gamma source for industrial radiographic testing using the Computed Radiography (CR) system. Due to a photo-salbutamol Imaging Plate (I P) using in CR is much more radiation sensitive than a type II film with lead foil intensifying screen, the exposure time with CR can be significantly reduced. For short-lived gamma-ray source like Ir-192 source, the exposure time must be proportionally increased until it is not practical particularly for thick specimens. Generally, when the source decays to an activity of about 5 Ci or less, it will be returned to the manufacturer as a radioactive waste. In this research, the optimum conditions for radiography of a 20 mm thick welded steel sample with 2.4 Ci Ir-192 was investigated using the CR system with high resolution image plate, i.e. type Bas-SR of the Fuji Film Co. Ltd. The I P was sandwiched by a pair of 0.25 mm thick Pb intensifying sere en. Low energy scattered radiations was filtered by placing another Pb sheet with a thickness of 3 mm under the cassette. It was found that the CR image could give a contrast sensitivity of 2.5 % using only 3-minute exposure time which was comparable to the image taken by the type II film with Pb intensifying screen using the exposure time of 45 minutes

  13. Technical specification for IR rig manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Hyon Soo; Cho, W. K.; Kim, S. D.; Park, U. J.; Hong, S. B.; Yoo, K. M

    2000-10-01

    IR Rig is one of the equipments are required in HANARO core for a radioisotope target. The various conditions like high radiation, high heat, rapid flow and vibration may cause swelling, Brittleness and acceleration of corrosion in HANARO core. These specific problems can be prevented and the safety of such equipment are prerequisite as well as durableness and surveillance. Therefore, the selection of material has to be made on the basis of small cross-section area, low energy emission by the gamma ray due to the absorption of neutron and short half life. The body is consist of aluminum and Inconel-750 was used for the internal spring(coil) which is known to be durable. The whole production process including the purchase of accessory, mechanical processing, welding and assembly was carried out according to the standard procedure to meet the requirement. A design, manufacture, utilization of reactor core and the other relevant uses were fit to class ''T'' to certify the whole process as general. And design, fabrication, analytical test, materials and accessory were carried out based on the ASME, ASTM, ANSI, AWS, JIS and KS standard.

  14. IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α are induced by solar radiation in vitro and may be involved in facial subcutaneous fat loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Hwa; Pappas, Apostolos; Zhang, Li; Ruvolo, Eduardo; Cavender, Druie

    2013-07-01

    The loss of subcutaneous (sc) fat is associated with aging. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 α (IL-1α), interleukin-11 (IL-11) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), are known to inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes. This study investigated the potential role of inflammatory cytokines in solar-radiation-induced facial fat loss. Cultured fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and skin equivalents were exposed to various doses of radiation from a solar simulator. Inflammatory cytokines' mRNA production and protein secretion were examined by qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. In some experiments, epidermal-dermal equivalents were pretreated topically with a broad-spectrum sunscreen prior to solar simulated radiation (SSR). Human facial preadipocytes treated with recombinant IL-11 or with conditioned media from solar-irradiated equivalents were evaluated for the level of adipocyte differentiation by image analyses, Oil red O staining, and the expression of adipocyte differentiation markers. IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α protein secretion were induced from epidermal-dermal equivalents by exposure to SSR. A sunscreen prevented SSR-induced inflammatory cytokines production from such equivalents. Exposure of facial preadipocytes to conditioned medium from solar-irradiated epidermal-dermal equivalents inhibited their differentiation into mature adipocytes. Consequently, conditioned medium from sunscreen-pretreated, solar-irradiated equivalents did not inhibit differentiation of preadipocytes. A cocktail of neutralizing antibodies to IL-11, IL-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α significantly reduced the SSR-induced inhibition of preadipocyte differentiation. These results support the hypothesis that SSR-induced inflammatory cytokine may be involved in the photoaging-induced loss of facial subcutaneous fat. Inhibition of this process, e.g. by sunscreens, might slow or prevent photoaging-induced changes in facial contouring. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative

  15. IR-laser assisted additive freeform optics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhihan; Liang, Rongguang

    2017-08-02

    Computer-controlled additive manufacturing (AM) processes, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, create 3D objects by the successive adding of a material or materials. While there have been tremendous developments in AM, the 3D printing of optics is lagging due to the limits in materials and tight requirements for optical applicaitons. We propose a new precision additive freeform optics manufacturing (AFOM) method using an pulsed infrared (IR) laser. Compared to ultraviolet (UV) curable materials, thermally curable optical silicones have a number of advantages, such as strong UV stability, non-yellowing, and high transmission, making it particularly suitable for optical applications. Pulsed IR laser radiation offers a distinct advantage in processing optical silicones, as the high peak intensity achieved in the focal region allows for curing the material quickly, while the brief duration of the laser-material interaction creates a negligible heat-affected zone.

  16. Loss of covalently linked lipid as the mechanism for radiation-induced release of membrane-bound polysaccharide and exonuclease from Micrococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of γ-radiation-induced release of polysaccharide and exonuclease from the midwall membrane of Micrococcus radiodurans has been examined. These two components appear to be released independently, but by very similar processes. Direct analysis of radiation-released polysaccharide indicated the absence of an alkali-labile neutral lipid normally present in the native material. Radiation-induced release therefore probably results from the radiolytic cleavage of a covalently linked lipid which normally serves to anchor these substances to the membrane. The absence of a natural membrane-bound carotenoid had no effect on the rate of release of these components. Likewise, the absence of exonuclease in an exonuclease minus mutant did not influence the release of polysaccharide. It is suggested that the major pathway of radical transfer from the initiating .OH and culminating in the cleavage of the neutral lipid anchor may not be via the membrane

  17. Experimental comparison of laser energy losses in high-quality laser-oxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using radiation from fibre and CO2 lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyshev, A A; Malikov, A G; Orishich, A M; Shulyat'ev, V B

    2015-01-01

    We report a comparative experimental study of laseroxygen cutting of low-carbon steel using a fibre laser with a wavelength of 1.07 μm and a CO 2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm at the sheet thickness of 3 – 16 mm. For the two lasers we have measured the dependence of the cutting speed on the radiation power and determined the cutting speed at which the surface roughness is minimal. The coefficient of laser radiation absorption in the laser cutting process is measured for these lasers at different values of the cutting speed and radiation power. It is found that the minimal roughness of the cut surface is reached at the absorbed laser energy per unit volume of the removed material, equal to 11 – 13 J mm -3 ; this value is the same for the two lasers and does not depend on the sheet thickness. (laser technologies)

  18. Vitamin C affects the antioxidative/oxidative status in rats irradiated with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemiec, T.; Sawosz, E.; Chwalibog, André

    2006-01-01

    Four grups of twenty growing Wistar rats were irradiated with either UV, IR, UV+IR light or were not irradiated (control). Ten rats from each group received a diet supplemented with 0.6% of L-ascorbic acid. The effects of the mega-dose of vitamin C were evaluated by changes in the antioxidative....../oxidative status. UV and IR radiation promoted oxidative DNA degradation in rat livers and supplementation with ascorbic acid strengthened the prooxidative effects on DNA oxidation in rats irradiated with UV or IR light. Vitamin C also increased the tiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration...

  19. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  20. Short communication: timeline of radiation-induced kidney function loss after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma as evaluated by serial 99mTc-DMSA SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Price; Foroudi, Farshad; Pham, Daniel; Hofman, Michael S; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Siva, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) has been proposed as a definitive treatment for patients with inoperable primary renal cell carcinoma. However, there is little documentation detailing the radiobiological effects of hypofractionated radiation on healthy renal tissue. In this study we describe a methodology for assessment of regional change in renal function in response to single fraction SABR of 26 Gy. In a patient with a solitary kidney, detailed follow-up of kidney function post-treatment was determined through 3-dimensional SPECT/CT imaging and 51 Cr-EDTA measurements. Based on measurements of glomerular filtration rate, renal function declined rapidly by 34% at 3 months, plateaued at 43% loss at 12 months, with minimal further decrease to 49% of baseline by 18 months. The pattern of renal functional change in 99m Tc-DMSA uptake on SPECT/CT imaging correlates with dose delivered. This study demonstrates a dose effect relationship of SABR with loss of kidney function

  1. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.

    2013-12-01

    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  2. STATYBINIŲ MEDŽIAGŲ KONKURENCINGUMAS IR TENDENCIJOS

    OpenAIRE

    Kontrimas, Robertas

    2010-01-01

    Darbe analizuojamas statybinių medžiagų konkurencingumas, nustatyti statybinių medžiagų konkurencingumą įtakojantys veiksniai ir pateikti pasiūlymai rinkos gerinimui. Pasitvirtino hipotezė, kad statybinių medžiagų paklausą ir kainas įtakoja klientų poreikiai ir jų finansinės galimybės, tačiau pasaulinės krizės įtaka yra labai ženkli,. Atlikta darbuotojų ir pirkėjų apklausa padėjo nustatyti, kokios statybinės medžiagos dažniausiai yra perkamos, kaip klientai ir darbuotojai vertina įmonę ir jos...

  3. Hermann agreement updates IRS guidelines for incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccolo, B M; Peregrine, M W

    1995-01-01

    The October 1994 agreement between the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Hermann Hospital of Houston, Texas, elucidates current IRS policy on physician recruitment incentives. The IRS distinguishes between the recruiting and the retention of physicians and perimts incentives beyond reasonable compensation in the former but not the latter circumstance. This new agreement, while not legally precedential, nevertheless provides guidance for healthcare organizations seeking safe harbor protection.

  4. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  5. Low cost, patterning of human hNT brain cells on parylene-C with UV & IR laser machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raos, Brad J; Unsworth, C P; Costa, J L; Rohde, C A; Doyle, C S; Delivopoulos, E; Murray, A F; Dickinson, M E; Simpson, M C; Graham, E S; Bunting, A S

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of 800nm femtosecond infrared (IR) and 248nm nanosecond ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation in performing ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO2 substrates for the patterning of human hNT astrocytes. Results are presented that support the validity of using IR laser ablative micromachining for patterning human hNT astrocytes cells while UV laser radiation produces photo-oxidation of the parylene-C and destroys cell patterning. The findings demonstrate how IR laser ablative micromachining of parylene-C on SiO2 substrates can offer a low cost, accessible alternative for rapid prototyping, high yield cell patterning.

  6. OH/IR stars in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, B.

    1978-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations leading to the discovery of 71 OH/IR sources are described in this thesis. These OH/IR sources are characterized by their double peaked OH emission profile at a wavelength of 18 cm and by their strong IR infrared emission. An analysis of the distribution and radial velocities of a number of previously known and new OH/IR sources was performed. The parameter ΔV (the velocity separation between two emission peaks of the 18 cm line profile) was found to be a good criterion for a population classification with respect to stellar age

  7. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  8. Infrared (IR) photon-sensitive spectromicroscopy in a cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2016-06-14

    A system designed to suppress thermal radiation background and to allow IR single-photon sensitive spectromicroscopy of small samples by using both absorption, reflection, and emission/luminescence measurements. The system in one embodiment includes: a light source; a plurality of cold mirrors configured to direct light along a beam path; a cold or warm sample holder in the beam path; windows of sample holder (or whole sample holder) are transparent in a spectral region of interest, so they do not emit thermal radiation in the same spectral region of interest; a cold monochromator or other cold spectral device configured to direct a selected fraction of light onto a cold detector; a system of cold apertures and shields positioned along the beam path to prevent unwanted thermal radiation from arriving at the cold monochromator and/or the detector; a plurality of optical, IR and microwave filters positioned along the beam path and configured to adjust a spectral composition of light incident upon the sample under investigation and/or on the detector; a refrigerator configured to maintain the detector at a temperature below 1.0K; and an enclosure configured to: thermally insulate the light source, the plurality of mirrors, the sample holder, the cold monochromator and the refrigerator.

  9. Fast rise time IR detectors for lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, A.; Bini, S.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostics is a fundamental issue for accelerators whose demands are continuously increasing. In particular bunch-by-bunch diagnostics is a key challenge for the latest generation of lepton colliders and storage rings. The Frascati Φ-factory, DAΦNE, colliding at 1.02 GeV in the centre of mass, hosts in the main rings few synchrotron radiation beamlines and two of them collect the synchrotron radiation infrared emission: SINBAD from the electron ring and 3+L from the positron ring. At DAΦNE each bucket is 2.7 ns long and particles are gathered in bunches emitting pulsed IR radiation, whose intensity in the long wavelength regime is directly proportional to the accumulated particles. Compact uncooled photoconductive HgCdTe detectors have been tested in both beamlines using dedicated optical layouts. Actually, the fast rise time of HgCdTe semiconductors give us the chance to test bunch-by-bunch devices for both longitudinal and transverse diagnostics. For the longitudinal case, single pixel detectors have been used, while for the transverse diagnostics, multi-pixel array detectors, with special custom design, are under test. This contribution will briefly describe the status of the research on fast IR detectors at DAΦNE, the results obtained and possible foreseen developments.

  10. 76 FR 22336 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... intercompany loss when B recognizes a corresponding gain. For example, if S sells 30 percent of T's stock to B... occurrence of either of two events. The deferred loss is taken into account to the extent of any... Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of...

  11. Teaching IR to Medical Students: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aoife M; Lee, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has grown rapidly over the last 20 years and is now an essential component of modern medicine. Despite IR's increasing penetration and reputation in healthcare systems, IR is poorly taught, if taught at all, in most medical schools. Medical students are the referrers of tomorrow and potential IR recruits and deserve to be taught IR by expert IRs. The lack of formal IR teaching curricula in many medical schools needs to be addressed urgently for the continued development and dissemination of, particularly acute, IR services throughout Europe. We call on IRs to take up the baton to teach IR to the next generation of doctors.

  12. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references

  13. 77 FR 15003 - Passive Activity Losses and Credits Limited; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-109369-10] RIN 1545-BJ33 Passive Activity Losses and Credits Limited; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. [[Page 15004

  14. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  15. Ultra-broadband mid-wave-IR upconversion detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate efficient room temperature detection of ultra-broadband mid-wave-infrared (MWIR) light with an almost flat response over more than 1200 nm, exploiting an efficient nonlinear upconversion technique. Black-body radiation from a hot soldering iron rod is used as the IR...... test source. Placing a 20 mm long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in a compact intra-cavity setup (> 20 WCW pump at 1064 nm), MWIR wavelengths ranging from 3.6 to 4.85 mu m are upconverted to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (820-870 nm). The NIR light is detected using a standard low...

  16. Simultaneous diffusion, reaction and radiative loss processes in plasmas: Numerical analysis with application to the dynamics of a fusion reactor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmsson, H.; Le Roux, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented accounting for a selection of extensive numerical calculations of the evolution in space and time for a dynamic system, governed by a nonlinear diffusion equation with source and loss terms (which could also be nonlinear). The system is assumed to be circularly symmetric and limited by an external boundary where the value of the depending variable (e.g. temperature) is supposed to be zero. (au)

  17. Atom condensation on an atomically smooth surface: Ir, Re, W, and Pd on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Ehrlich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of condensing metal atoms over the two types of sites present on an atomically smooth Ir(111) has been measured in a field ion microscope. For Ir, Re, W, and Pd from a thermal source, condensing on Ir(111) at ∼20 K, the atoms are randomly distributed, as expected if they condense at the first site struck

  18. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  19. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myth...

  20. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  1. Benzene adsorption and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Ludwig, W.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption, decompn. and oxidn. of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) was studied by high resoln. (synchrotron) XPS, temp. programmed desorption and LEED. Mol. adsorption of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) is obsd. between 170 K and 350 K. Above this temp. both desorption and decompn. of benzene take place. An ordered

  2. Radiation leukemogenesis in mice: loss of PU.1 on chromosome 2 in CBA and C57BL/6 mice after irradiation with 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions, X rays or gamma rays. Part I. Experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuanlin; Brown, Natalie; Finnon, Rosemary; Warner, Christy L; Liu, Xianan; Genik, Paula C; Callan, Matthew A; Ray, F Andrew; Borak, Thomas B; Badie, Christophe; Bouffler, Simon D; Ullrich, Robert L; Bedford, Joel S; Weil, Michael M

    2009-04-01

    Since deletion of the PU.1 gene on chromosome 2 is a crucial acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initiating step in the mouse model, we quantified PU.1 deleted cells in the bone marrow of gamma-, X- and 56Fe-ion-irradiated mice at various times postirradiation. Although 56Fe ions were initially some two to three times more effective than X or gamma rays in inducing PU.1 deletions, by 1 month postirradiation, the proportions of cells with PU.1 deletions were similar for the HZE particles and the sparsely ionizing radiations. These results indicate that while 56Fe ions are more effective in inducing PU.1 deletions, they are also more effective in causing collateral damage that removes hit cells from the bone marrow. After X, gamma or 56Fe-ion irradiation, AML-resistant C57BL/6 mice have fewer cells with PU.1 deletions than CBA mice, and those cells do not persist in the bone marrow of the C57B6/6 mice. Our findings suggest that quantification of PU.1 deleted bone marrow cells 1 month postirradiation can be used as surrogate for the incidence of radiation-induced AML measured in large-scale mouse studies. If so, PU.1 loss could be used to systematically assess the potential leukemogenic effects of other ions and energies in the space radiation environment.

  3. Smulkaus ir vidutinio verslo konkurencingumas Lietuvoje

    OpenAIRE

    Vijeikis, Juozas; Makštutis, Antanas

    2009-01-01

    Straipsnio mokslinė problema, naujumas ir aktualumas. Konkurencingumas kaip įmonių efektyvios veiklos reiškinys yra aktualus šalies verslo gyvenime vykdant darnios ekonominės plėtros politiką. Ši politika kaip problema smulkaus ir vidutinio verslo (SVV) plėtrai ir konkurencingumui didinti nėra sistemiškai ištirta ir aprašyta Lietuvos sąlygomis mokslinėje ir praktinėje literatūroje. Vienas svarbiausių veiksnių, siekiant spartaus ekonominio augimo, yra darnios verslininkystės plėtra Lietuvoje n...

  4. Par and IR reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance of four crop canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjura, D.F.; Hatfield, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of electromagnetic radiation by cotton, soybeans, grain sorghum, and sunflower was measured at three growth stages in two wavebands (PAR: 0.4 to 0.7 pun and IR: 0.7 to 1.1 yim). As leaf area increased in each crop there were increases in IR reflectance and PAR absorptance and decreases in PAR reflectance and both PAR and IR transmittance. IR radiation was concentrated at the soil surface between rows by reflectance from the sides of canopies when crop cover was less than 80%. Across all crops one parameter, leaf overlap index, explained 81 and 71% of the PAR reflectance and another, crop cover, explained 86 and 94% of IR reflectance from rows and interrows, respectively. Attenuation of PAR radiation through the canopies of cotton and sunflower was similar (K = 0.62 and 0.67) but different from that of soybeans and grain sorghum (K = 0.46 and 0.43) which were the same

  5. Ionizing radiation induces tumor cell lysyl oxidase secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Colette J; Sharma, Ashish; Vuong, Dinh-Van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) is a mainstay of cancer therapy, but irradiation can at times also lead to stress responses, which counteract IR-induced cytotoxicity. IR also triggers cellular secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta and matrix...

  6. Loss of lung function after chemo-radiotherapy for NSCLC measured by perfusion SPECT/CT: Correlation with radiation dose and clinical morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farr, Katherina P; Møller, Ditte S; Khalil, Azza A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to assess dose and time dependence of radiotherapy (RT)-induced changes in regional lung function measured with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the lung and relate these changes to the symptomatic endpoint of radiation pneumonitis (RP......) in patients treated for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: NSCLC patients scheduled to receive curative RT of minimum 60 Gy were included prospectively in the study. Lung perfusion SPECT/CT was performed before and three months after RT. Reconstructed SPECT/CT data were registered...

  7. Tarptautinio turizmo raida ir vystymo prognozės Lietuvoje ir Lenkijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Veličkaitė, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    Išanalizuota ir įvertinta Lietuvos ir Lenkijos atvykstamojo turizmo raida 2000- 2007m., užsienio turistų srautai, apgyvendinimo paslaugų paklausa, turistų tikslai ir kelionių transporto pasirinkimas, turistų išlaidos ir šalių turizmo pajamos, iškeltos atvykstamojo turizmo problemos bei pateikti jų sprendimo siūlymai.paskutinėje darbo dalyje buvo atliktos 2008- 2015metų Lietuvos ir Lenkijos turizmo raidos prognozės. In the final master work Lithuanian and Poland arriving tourism development...

  8. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  9. MicroRNA-145 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting IRS1 and its downstream Akt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yelin [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Hu, Chen; Cheng, Jun [Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Chen, Binquan [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Ke, Qinghong; Lv, Zhen; Wu, Jian [Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Zhou, Yanfeng, E-mail: zyfhdj@yahoo.com [Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • MiR-145 expression is down-regulated in HCC tissues and inversely related with IRS1 levels. • MiR-145 directly targets IRS1 in HCC cells. • Restored expression of miR-145 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and growth. • MiR-145 induced IRS1 under-expression potentially reduced downstream AKT signaling. - Abstract: Accumulating evidences have proved that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we showed that miRNA-145 level was significantly decreased in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) tissues and cell lines, and its low expression was inversely associated with the abundance of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), a key mediator in oncogenic insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. We verified IRS1 as a direct target of miR-145 using Western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. Further, the restoration of miR-145 in HCC cell lines suppressed cancer cell growth, owing to down-regulated IRS1 expression and its downstream Akt/FOXO1 signaling. Our results demonstrated that miR-145 could inhibit HCC through targeting IRS1 and its downstream signaling, implicating the loss of miR-145 regulation may be a potential molecular mechanism causing aberrant oncogenic signaling in HCC.

  10. Insight into regulation of emission color and photodeactivation process from heteroleptic to homoleptic Ir(III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Danning; Feng, Songyan; Wang, Li, E-mail: chemwangl@henu.edu.cn; Li, Junfeng, E-mail: jfli@theochem.kth.se; Zhang, Jinglai, E-mail: zhangjinglai@henu.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    The phosphorescent process of two heteroleptic ((DMDPI){sub 2}Ir(tftap) and (tftap){sub 2}Ir(DMDPI)) and one homoleptic (Ir(DMDPI){sub 3}) Ir(III) complexes (See ) is theoretically investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and quadratic response (QR) time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Two or three triplet excited states are confirmed for three complexes, respectively. On the basis of the respective optimized triplet geometry, the emissive wavelength is determined by the ΔSCF-DFT method. Furthermore, the radiative rate constant (k{sub r}) is also calculated corresponding to each triplet state. Combination of k{sub r} and emissive energy, the emission rule is determined. It is found that complex (DMDPI){sub 2}Ir(tftap) follows the dual emission scenarios, while complexes (tftap){sub 2}Ir(DMDPI) and Ir(DMDPI){sub 3} obey the Kasha rule. The nonradiative rate constant (k{sub nr}) is qualitatively evaluated by the construction of triplet potential surface via metal centered ({sup 3}MC d-d) state. Finally, the sequence of quantum yield is compared by both k{sub r} and k{sub nr}. The quantum yield of homoleptic Ir(III) complex Ir(DMDPI){sub 3} is higher than that of heteroleptic Ir(III) complexes (DMDPI){sub 2}Ir(tftap) and (tftap){sub 2}Ir(DMDPI). However, the emissive wavelength of Ir(DMDPI){sub 3} is in the red color region rather than blue color.

  11. Research of radiation firmness of transparent melamine-formaldehyde polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation properties of the transparent melamine-formaldehyde polymers offered in quality polymeric basis for making of plastic scintillators are explored in this work. Plastic scintillator is composition, that consists of polymer (polymeric basis) and organic fluorescent addition. Scintillation efficiency and light output are basic properties of plastic scintillators. Firmness to influencing of ionizing radiation is important property of scintillators. From all types of scintillators the plastic are most radiation-proof. Cured melamine-formaldehyde resin and melamine-formaldehyde resin modified by different polyol modifiers was a research object. It is shown that radiation firmness for given types of polymeric material considerably depends on composition of polymer and from technology and temperature condition of its receipt. By the method IR-spectroscopy the structural changes in melamine-formaldehyde polymers under action of irradiation were explored. The maximal falling after the irradiation was marked in intensity of luminescence, which went down to 50% from an initial level. Like the coefficients of admission for all compositions got worse of a to 30-35% level from initial one. Mechanical properties went down on 20-30%. The radiation loss of mass made less than 1% for all polymers. With the increase of temperature of curing firmness rises. Thus, on the basis of the conducted researches radiation firmness for different melamine-formaldehyde polymers is determined and processes what is going on in material under action of radiation are studied. The limited doses of irradiation for each of explored polymers are determined. (authors)

  12. Coniferyl aldehyde attenuates radiation enteropathy by inhibiting cell death and promoting endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ye-Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Son, Yeonghoon; Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Young-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Hae-June

    2015-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA), an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR) to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function.

  13. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju

    2012-04-01

    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  14. Fiber optic components compatibility with the PWR containment radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuze, G.; Serre, J.

    1990-01-01

    Present and future applications of fiber optics transmission in the nuclear industrial field are emphasized. Nuclear acceptance criteria for relevant electronic equipments in terms of radiation dose rate, integrated dose and required reliability are given. Ambient conditions of PWR containment are especially considered in the present paper. Experimental results of optical fibers and end-components exposed to 60 Co gamma rays are successively shown. Main radiation response characteristics up to 10 4 Gy (with dose rates of about 100 Gy.h -1 ) of both multimodal fiber families (step index and gradient index fibers) are compared. Predominant features of pure silica core fibers are: * an efficient photobleaching with near IR light from LED and LD commonly used in transmission data links, * a radiation hardening reducing induced losses down to 10 dB.km -1 in fine fibers up to date with latest developments. Dose rate effect on induced losses is also outlined for these fibers. Optoelectronic fiber-end components radiation response is good only for special LED (AsGa) and PD (Si). Radiation behavior of complex pigtailed LDM (laser diode + photodiode + Peltier element + thermistor) is not fully acceptable and technological improvements were made. Preliminary results are given. Two applications of fiber links transmitting data in a PWR containment and a hot cell are described. Hardening levels obtained and means required are given

  15. Reduction of radiation-induced vitamin losses by irradiation of food-stuffs at low temperatures and by exclusion of atmospheric oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The protective effect of low temperatures during irradiation on vitamin B 1 and E levels in foods is not abolished by subsequent storage or heating. Egg powder irradiated at 1 Mrad in the presence of air and stored for 4 months at ambient temperature lost 68% of its thiamin content when irradiated at 20 0 C, 33% when irradiated at -30 0 C. Sunflower oil irradiated at 3 Mrad in the presence of air and subsequently heated for 1 hour at 180 0 C lost 98% of its α-tocopherol content when irradiated at 20 0 C, 65% when irradiated at -30 0 C. Exclusion of atmospheric oxygen by packaging under nitrogen reduced the loss of α-tocopherol in irradiated (0.1 Mrad) rolled oats after 8 months of storage from 56 to 5% and the loss of thiamin from 86 to 26%. Vacuum packaging was equally effective during the first 3 months and somewhat less effective during the following 5 months. Packaging under carbon dioxide showed no advantage over packaging in air. Sensory evaluation of rolled oats, raw or cooked, 1 and 3 months after irradiation with 0.1 Mrad indicated no significant quality difference between unirradiated and irradiated samples packaged under nitrogen. (orig.) [de

  16. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  17. Study of radiation induced structural changes in nitrile rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona, F.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Copolymers of butadiene (BD) and acrylonitrile (AN) (NBR rubber), have become important commercial material. NBR rubbers are part of a larger classification of products often referred to as special-purpose rubbers. Oil resistance is the most important property of nitrile rubbers, and refer to the ability of the vulcanised product to retain its original physical properties such as modulus, tensile strength, abrasion resistance and dimensions, while in contact with oils and fuels. Despite these reported advantages very few studies have been conducted on the radiation yields and structural changes in nitrile rubbers during exposure to high energy radiation. In this study we are investigating the stability against gamma and UV radiation, to different doses in vacuum, of butadiene, acrylonitrile and NBR copolymers with different composition ratio BD/AN. The mechanism of radiation induced structural changes is being investigated using experimental techniques such as ESR, NMR (Solid-state), FT-IR, RAMAN and UV spectroscopy. Also is being investigated the effect of irradiation on the mechanical properties of stressed and unstressed samples by TGA, DSC, DMA, Instron and Creep Test measurements. So far the main effect have been a marked radiation-induced loss of unsaturation in the butadiene units, cis to trans isomerization and formation of crosslink structures (intermolecular and intramolecular). One of the main challenges in the studies of NBR polymers is to observe directly the crosslinks produces by the radiation induced chemical reactions. IR spectroscopy is unsuitable because of the low molar absorbity of the peaks related to intermolecular crosslinking and the overlapping of the peaks (1630-1670 cm-1) related to intramolecular crosslinking (cyclization), with conjugated and nonconjugated (-C=C-; -C=N-) double bonds. A. K. Whittaker has shown that crosslink structures in PBD can be detected and measured directly using solid-state 13 C NMR. This technique

  18. Features of dynamics of sanitary losses formation in case of large-scale radiation accidents and organization of hospital functioning when admitting the injured persons from the radiation focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisov, G.M.; Vorontsov, I.V.; Goncharov, S.F.; Ivanov, V.B.

    1995-01-01

    Specific features of therapeutic-evacuation and sanitary-hygienic arrangements in case of large-scale radiation accidents are considered. The substantiation is given for the necessity of setting up to a field hospital near the focus of such an accident for rendering first medical aid and expert medical care, distribution of the injured and organization of their evacuation to specialized medical establishments in due time. 17 refs.; 1 tab

  19. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  20. Vartotojų lojalumas : formavimas ir valdymas

    OpenAIRE

    Zikienė, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Vienas iš esminių daugelio organizacijų tikslų, garantuojančių tolesnį sėkmingą konkuravimą nuolat besikeičiančiame verslo pasaulyje, yra vartotojų lojalumo įgijimas ir išlaikymas. Įvairios lojalumo formavimo ir valdymo problemos plačiai ir detaliai analizuojamos šioje mokomojoje knygoje. Knyga pradedama vartotojų lojalumo analize marketingo mokslo raidos kontekste. Tolesnis dėmesys skiriamas vartotojų lojalumo vadybinio aspekto analizei, atskleidžiant vartotojų lojalumo koncepcijos teorines ...

  1. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues; Das TApIR Experiment IR-Absorptionsspektren fluessiger Wasserstoffisotopologe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-11-27

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  2. Simultaneous IR and optical light curves of 2A0311-227

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.; Hough, J.H.; Axon, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    It is reported that the optical and IR flickering of the AM Herculis type binary 2A0311 - 227 are highly correlated indicating that in this object the dominant source of cyclotron radiation at both wavelengths is the same accretion column. (U.K.)

  3. Report of research and investigation committee for infrared radiation heating technology. Sekigai hosha kanetsu gijutsu kenkyu chosa iinkai hokoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, M. (Fukuyama Univ., Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-07-01

    The committee was established in July 1990 for research and investigation of infrared (IR) heating technology and finished its activity in March 1993. This report describes the committee members and the results of research and investigation. (1) Application of IR radiation (sensing): the research and investigation results were reported on the following items; the recognition of letters and patterns on cultural properties by IR radiation, the passive sensor (detecting the IR radiated from the object without emitting from the sensor), the IR image system, and the diagnosis of outer wail of buildings. (2) The following were researched on the IR radiation source and IR emitting material; multi-functional heating element having far infrared radiation function and deodorant function, the emissivity of far IR radiation, and the evaluation of the functions by the difference in emissivity. (3) The IR heating technology was described on the following: drying the persimmon using far IR radiation, the present situation of research on IR heating done by foreign power supply companies, and the feature and the application of far IR heater. In addition to these, the following were also reported; (4) measurement of IR radiation and (5) effect of living body and organism.

  4. Invited Article: Multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR, and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal is pumped in the mid-IR. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed. The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS2 pumped in the 3-4 μm range with 85 fs 50 μJ pulse energy, with the broadest supercontinuum covering 1.6-7.0 μm. We measured up 30 μJ energy in the supercontinuum, and the energy promises to scale favorably with an increased pump energy. Other mid-IR crystals can readily be used as well to cover other pump wavelengths and target other supercontinuum wavelength ranges.

  5. Gene expression profiling of PBL in response to ionising radiation and modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR) to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis...

  6. Identification of miRNAs involved in cell response to ionising radiation and modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BACKGROUND: Ionizing radiation (IR) can be extremely harmful for human cells since an improper DNA-damage response (DDR) to IR can contribute to carcinogenesis...

  7. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Michael W.; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKCδ on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKCδ catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1

  8. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  9. Analysis of the internal heat losses in a thermoelectric generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Eriksen, Dan

    2014-01-01

    and radiative heat losses, including surface to surface radiation. For radiative heat losses it is shown that for the temperatures considered here, surface to ambient radiation is a good approximation of the heat loss. For conductive heat transfer the module efficiency is shown to be comparable to the case...... of radiative losses. Finally, heat losses due to internal natural convection in the module is shown to be negligible for the millimetre sized modules considered here. The combined case of radiative and conductive heat transfer resulted in the lowest efficiency. The optimized load resistance is found...... to decrease for increased heat loss. The leg dimensions are varied for all heat losses cases and it is shown that the ideal way to construct a TEG module with minimal heat losses and maximum efficiency is to either use a good insulating material between the legs or evacuate the module completely, and use...

  10. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  11. Implementing GPS into Pave-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    To further enhance the capabilities of the Pave-IR thermal segregation detection system developed at the Texas Transportation Institute, researchers incorporated global positioning system (GPS) data collection into the thermal profiles. This GPS capa...

  12. Joint IAEA/NEA IRS guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants

  13. Effective atomic number, energy loss and radiation damage studies in some materials commonly used in nuclear applications for heavy charged particles such as H, C, Mg, Fe, Te, Pb and U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Commonly used nuclear physics materials such as water, concrete, Pb-glass, paraffin, freon and P 10 gases, some alloys such as brass, bronze, stainless-steel and some scintillators such as anthracene, stilbene and toluene have been investigated with respect to the heavy charged particle interaction as means of projected range and effective atomic number (Zeff) in the energy region 10 keV to 10 MeV. Calculations were performed for heavy ions such as H, C, Mg, Fe, Te, Pb and U. Also, the energy loss and radiation damage were studied using SRIM Monte Carlo code for anthracene for different heavy ions of 100 keV kinetic energy. It has been observed that the variation in Zeff becomes less when the atomic number of the ions increase. Glass-Pb, bronze, brass, stainless-steel and Freon gas were found to vary less than 10% in the energy region 10 keV to 10 MeV. For total proton interaction, discrepancies up to 10% and 18% between two databases namely PSTAR and SRIM were noted in mass stopping power and Zeff of water, respectively. The range calculations resulted with a conclusion that the metal alloys and glass-Pb have lowest values of ranges confirming best shielding against energetic heavy ions whereas freon and P 10 gases have the highest values of ranges in the entire energy region. The simulation results showed that the energy loss (%) to target electrons decreases as the Z of the incident ion increases. Also, it was observed that the radiation damage first increases with Z of the ion and then keeps almost constant for ions with Z≥52.

  14. Zebrafish as an In Vivo Model to Assess Epigenetic Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Yi Kong; Shuk Han Cheng; Kwan Ngok Yu

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations (IRs) is ubiquitous in our environment and can be categorized into ?targeted? effects and ?non-targeted? effects. In addition to inducing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, IR exposure leads to epigenetic alterations that do not alter DNA sequence. Using an appropriate model to study the biological effects of radiation is crucial to better understand IR responses as well as to develop new strategies to alleviate exposure to IR. Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is a sci...

  15. Relationships between changes in leptin and insulin resistance levels in obese individuals following weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Nai Wang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity can augment insulin resistance (IR, leading to increased risk of diabetes and heart disease. Leptin, ghrelin, and various fatty acids present in the cell membrane may modulate IR. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of weight loss on IR, serum leptin/ghrelin levels, and erythrocyte fatty acids, and studied the associations between changes in these variables. A total of 35 obese (body mass index ≥ 27 adults participated in a weight loss program for 3 months. IR was assessed using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. The obese participants had a mean weight loss of 5.6 ± 3.8 kg followed by a 16.7% and 23.3% reduction in HOMA-IR and leptin (p  0.05 levels. After adjusting for age, gender, changes in ghrelin, and body fat, we found a significant correlation between decreases in leptin and less risk of no improvement in HOMA-IR levels [odds ratio (OR = 0.69, p = 0.039]. In conclusion, a moderate weight reduction in obese participants over a short period significantly improved IR. This weight reduction concomitantly decreased serum leptin, increased ghrelin, and elevated some erythrocyte unsaturates. Only leptin correlated independently with IR improvement upon multivariable logistic regression analysis, which indicates that leptin may play a role in the modulation of IR following weight loss.

  16. Clinical practitioners' knowledge of ionizing radiation doses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions on radiosensitivity of different organs, imaging modalities that use ionizing radiation and considerations for the choice of ionizing radiation (IR) based examinations were included. Participants were also asked for their preferred methods of filling any knowledge gap on IR issues. Responses were presented in ...

  17. The genetic analysis of heading time in hybrid rice IR54 and its early-maturity mutant-5460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuanchang; Cai Junmai; Li Weiming

    1994-01-01

    V 20 A, IR 54 and its early mutant line 5460 were used as parents in three crosses. The heading time of radiation induced 5460 was 35(1986)∼40(1989) days earlier than that of IR 54 , and the F 1 plants of 5460/IR 54 showed a heading time close to that of their middle-parent. The segregation ratio of early-, intermediate- and late heading plants are given. From the segregation patterns, it may be assumed that three dominant genes, A,B and C, are involved and when they are combined, their complementary interaction expresses a late-heading phenotype which is strongly sensitive to photo-period. As V 20 A is previously suggested to have abC, it is expected that IR 54 has ABc, and 5460 has Abc. This means that gene b in 5460 is a single locus recessive mutation for early-maturity from gene B in IR 54

  18. Test and evaluation of IR detectors and arrays II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22, 23, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Forney M.

    The present conference discusses a radiometric calibration system for IR cameras, a methodology for testing IR focal-plane arrays in simulated nuclear radiation environments, process optimization for Si:As In-bumped focal-plane arrays, precise MTF measurements for focal-plane arrays, and IR focal-plane array crosstalk measurement. Also discussed are an imaging metric for IR focal-plane arrays, optical stimuli for high-volume automated testing of 2D HgCdTe focal-plane arrays, the evaluation of a solid-state photomultiplier focal-plane array for SDI, spectral effects on bulk photoconductors operated at cryogenic temperatures, and a novel technique for measuring the ionizing radiation effects in MOS transistors.

  19. Clusterin: an IR-inducible protein determining life and death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVID A. BOOTHMAN

    2006-01-01

    The roles of ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible genes/proteins are now being elucidated and the research team will focus on the functions of the clusterin (CLU) proteins after low dose IR exposures. With funding from the DOE, we discovered that x-ray-inducible transcript/protein No.8 (xip8) bound to the Ku70 DNA double strand break repair protein using various molecular biology techniques. We showed that translation of the CLU/xip8 transcript was complicated, leading to two classes of proteins separated by their intracellular processing. One set of CLU proteins (a secreted and precursor protein, sCLU and psCLU, respectively) were induced by very low doses of IR (>2.0 cGy) and subsequently secreted from the cell. The functions of sCLU, particularly in bystander effects, are not known; sCLU does not bind Ku70, but can interact with the TGF-? II receptor. Another intracellular class of CLU proteins was targeted to the cytoplasm and existed in a dormant precursor nuclear form (pnCLU). After higher IR doses (>1.0 Gy), pnCLU was activated via post-translational modification, and translocated to the nucleus, where nuclear CLU (nCLU) interacted with Ku70/Ku80, and signaled cell death. The mechanism(s) of how cells die following nCLU accumulation are unknown. Recent data from our lab indicate that CLU gene transcription is also complicated. Thus far, the data suggest that: (a) p53 is a negative regulator of CLU transcription, however, the mechanisms by which it exerts this negative pressure are not known; and (b) IR induces transcription of the CLU promoter, independent of p53, at regulatory elements that lie between -1403 and -325 bps 5'-from the TATAA box. In this renewal, the research team will investigate three separate, but interrelated hypotheses: (1) p53 negatively regulates the CLU promoter via distinct head to tail p53 half sites, and induction is mediated by the combination of retinoblatoma control elements (RCEs) and NF-?B sites; (2) sCLU is cytoprotective and

  20. Clusterin: an IR-inducible protein determining life and death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVID A. BOOTHMAN, Ph.D.

    2006-07-11

    The roles of ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible genes/proteins are now being elucidated and the research team will focus on the functions of the clusterin (CLU) proteins after low dose IR exposures. With funding from the DOE, we discovered that x-ray-inducible transcript/protein #8 (xip8) bound to the Ku70 DNA double strand break repair protein using various molecular biology techniques. We showed that translation of the CLU/xip8 transcript was complicated, leading to two classes of proteins separated by their intracellular processing. One set of CLU proteins (a secreted and precursor protein, sCLU and psCLU, respectively) were induced by very low doses of IR (>2.0 cGy) and subsequently secreted from the cell. The functions of sCLU, particularly in bystander effects, are not known; sCLU does not bind Ku70, but can interact with the TGF-ß II receptor. Another intracellular class of CLU proteins was targeted to the cytoplasm and existed in a dormant precursor nuclear form (pnCLU). After higher IR doses (>1.0 Gy), pnCLU was activated via post-translational modification, and translocated to the nucleus, where nuclear CLU (nCLU) interacted with Ku70/Ku80, and signaled cell death. The mechanism(s) of how cells die following nCLU accumulation are unknown. Recent data from our lab indicate that CLU gene transcription is also complicated. Thus far, the data suggest that: (a) p53 is a negative regulator of CLU transcription, however, the mechanisms by which it exerts this negative pressure are not known; and (b) IR induces transcription of the CLU promoter, independent of p53, at regulatory elements that lie between -1403 and -325 bps 5'-from the TATAA box. In this renewal, the research team will investigate three separate, but interrelated hypotheses: (1) p53 negatively regulates the CLU promoter via distinct head to tail p53 half sites, and induction is mediated by the combination of retinoblatoma control elements (RCEs) and NF-∫B sites; (2) sCLU is cytoprotective

  1. Simulation of Thermal Processes in Metamaterial MM-to-IR Converter for MM-wave Imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagubisalo, Peter S; Paulish, Andrey G; Kuznetsov, Sergey A

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristics of MM-wave image detector were simulated by means of accurate numerical modelling of thermophysical processes in a metamaterial MM-to-IR converter. The converter represents a multilayer structure consisting of an ultra thin resonant metamaterial absorber and a perfect emissive layer. The absorber consists of a dielectric self-supporting film that is metallized from both sides. A micro-pattern is fabricated from one side. Resonant absorption of the MM waves induces the converter heating that yields enhancement of IR emission from the emissive layer. IR emission is detected by IR camera. In this contribution an accurate numerical model for simulation of the thermal processes in the converter structure was created by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation results are in a good agreement with experimental results that validates the model. The simulation shows that the real time operation is provided for the converter thickness less than 3 micrometers and time response can be improved by decreasing of the converter thickness. The energy conversion efficiency of MM waves into IR radiation is over 80%. The converter temperature increase is a linear function of a MM-wave radiation power within three orders of the dynamic range. The blooming effect and ways of its reducing are also discussed. The model allows us to choose the ways of converter structure optimization and improvement of image detector parameters

  2. Anisotropy in Bone Demineralization Revealed by Polarized Far-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Schuetz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone material is composed of an organic matrix of collagen fibers and apatite nanoparticles. Previously, vibrational spectroscopy techniques such as infrared (IR and Raman spectroscopy have proved to be particularly useful for characterizing the two constituent organic and inorganic phases of bone. In this work, we tested the potential use of high intensity synchrotron-based far-IR radiation (50–500 cm−1 to gain new insights into structure and chemical composition of bovine fibrolamellar bone. The results from our study can be summarized in the following four points: (I compared to far-IR spectra obtained from synthetic hydroxyapatite powder, those from fibrolamellar bone showed similar peak positions, but very different peak widths; (II during stepwise demineralization of the bone samples, there was no significant change neither to far-IR peak width nor position, demonstrating that mineral dissolution occurred in a uniform manner; (III application of external loading on fully demineralized bone had no significant effect on the obtained spectra, while dehydration of samples resulted in clear differences. (IV using linear dichroism, we showed that the anisotropic structure of fibrolamellar bone is also reflected in anisotropic far-IR absorbance properties of both the organic and inorganic phases. Far-IR spectroscopy thus provides a novel way to functionally characterize bone structure and chemistry, and with further technological improvements, has the potential to become a useful clinical diagnostic tool to better assess quality of collagen-based tissues.

  3. Effect of source encapsulation on the energy spectra of sup 192 Ir and sup 137 Cs seed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomason, C [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Medical Physics; Mackie, T R [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Medical Physics Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Human Oncology; Lindstrom, M J [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Biostatistics Center

    1991-04-01

    The effect of source encapsulation on the energy spectra of {sup 192}Ir and {sup 137}Cs seed sources, both with stainless steel and with platinum encapsulation, was determined from results of Monte Carlo simulation. The fractional scatter dose around these sources has also been determined from Monte Carlo simulation. The platinum-encapsulated {sup 192}Ir source exhibited greater attenuation of the primary spectrum, as expected, and, consistent with this greater attenuation, exhibited more scattered radiation. Significantly less scatter was seen with the {sup 137}Cs source than with either {sup 192}Ir source, as is consistent with the higher-energy photons from {sup 137}Cs. (author).

  4. Infrared polarimetry of the reflection nebula near L 1551 IRS 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Takuya; Sato, Shuji; Suzuki, Hiro; Hough, J H; Garden, R; Gatley, I

    1986-11-01

    The K-band polarization has been measured in the region extending 30 arcsec to the SW of L 1551 IRS5. The degree of polarization is exceptionally high, reaching approx. 67 per cent. The large polarizations and the azimuthal pattern of the position angles are attributed to scattering of infrared radiation from IRS5 by dust grains. The infrared brightness distribution resembles that of the optical nebulosity. It is proposed that infrared scattering occurs at the 'walls' of a cavity formed by the interaction of stellar winds with the ambient cloud.

  5. Photofragmentation of colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles under femtosecond laser pulses in IR and visible ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, P A; Zayarnyi, D A; Ionin, A A; Kudryashov, S I; Makarov, S V; Rudenko, A A; Saraeva, I N; Yurovskikh, V I; Lednev, V N; Pershin, S M

    2015-01-01

    The specific features of photofragmentation of sols of gold nanoparticles under focused femtosecond laser pulses in IR (1030 nm) and visible (515 nm) ranges is experimentally investigated. A high photofragmentation efficiency of nanoparticles in the waist of a pulsed laser beam in the visible range (at moderate radiation scattering) is demonstrated; this efficiency is related to the excitation of plasmon resonance in nanoparticles on the blue shoulder of its spectrum, in contrast to the regime of very weak photofragmentation in an IR-laser field of comparable intensity. Possible mechanisms of femtosecond laser photofragmentation of gold nanoparticles are discussed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  6. Energy-beam processing studies on Ta/U and Ir/Ta systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Peercy, P.S.; Jacobson, D.C.; Draper, C.W.; Huegel, F.J.; Echer, C.J.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Balser, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Films of Ta metal on uranium and of Ir metal on tantalum have been irradiated and melted by pulses from Q-switched Ruby and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers to investigate the nature of the resulting mixtures in light of the very different binary-phase diagrams of the two systems. In addition, a two-phase Ir-Ta alloy has been surface-processed with CW CO 2 -laser radiation and with an electron beam in order to study microstructure refinement and test the advantage of using alloys as opposed to film-on-substrate combinations for the development of claddings

  7. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  8. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-118761-09] RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... deferred losses on the sale or exchange of property between members of a controlled group. DATES: The...

  9. 76 FR 30052 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-118761-09] RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... deferred losses on the sale or exchange of property between members of a controlled group. FOR FURTHER...

  10. Tidal Distortion of the Envelope of an AGB Star IRS 3 near Sgr A{sup *}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M. J.; Roberts, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Research Center for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cotton, W.; Kunneriath, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Schödel, R. [Instituto de Astfisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    We present radio and millimeter continuum observations of the Galactic center taken with the Very Large Array (VLA) and ALMA at 44 and 226 GHz, respectively. We detect radio and millimeter emission from IRS 3, lying ∼4.″5 NW of Sgr A*, with a spectrum that is consistent with the photospheric emission from an AGB star at the Galactic center. Millimeter images reveal that the envelope of IRS 3, the brightest and most extended 3.8 μ m Galactic center stellar source, consists of two semicircular dust shells facing the direction of Sgr A*. The outer circumstellar shell, at a distance of 1.6 × 10{sup 4} au, appears to break up into “fingers” of dust directed toward Sgr A*. These features coincide with molecular CS (5–4) emission and a near-IR extinction cloud distributed between IRS 3 and Sgr A*. The NE–SW asymmetric shapes of the IRS 3 shells seen at 3.8 μ m and radio are interpreted as structures that are tidally distorted by Sgr A*. Using the kinematics of CS emission and the proper motion of IRS 3, the tidally distorted outflowing material from the envelope after 5000 yr constrains the distance of IRS 3 to ∼0.7 pc in front of or ∼0.5 pc behind Sgr A*. This suggests that the mass loss by stars near Sgr A* can supply a reservoir of molecular material near Sgr A*. We also present dark features in radio continuum images coincident with the envelope of IRS 3. These dusty stars provide examples in which high-resolution radio continuum images can identify dust-enshrouded stellar sources embedded in an ionized medium.

  11. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.; Yang, Y. M.; Guo, Z. B.; Wu, Y. H.; Qiu, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb

  12. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-02

    Mar 2, 2017 ... Abstract. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and a complex female endocrine disorder, and is one of the leading cause of female infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR,. IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 gene in the ...

  13. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Model for forecasting of monthly average insulation at ground level taking into account the radiation absorption losses crossing atmosphere in the thermal solar applications; Modelo de previsao da insolacao media mensal ao nivel do solo levando em conta a perda por absorcao na atmosfera em aplicacoes solares termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, J.C.; Apolinario, F.R.; Silva, E.P. da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogenio]. E-mails: joaoc@fem.unicamp.br; rezende@ifi.unicamp.br; lh2ennio@ifi.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    The use of the solar energy, for thermal or photovoltaic ends, depends basically on the amount of radiation that reaches the ground in the place where desires to carry through this use, defining the necessary area of the collectors, or panels, that in turn are the main components of the final cost of the system and, therefore, of the viability or not on its use. The incident radiation in the terrestrial surface is minor that one reaches the top of the atmosphere due to the absorption and dispersion factors. The objective of this work is to present a model of forecast the monthly average radiation for ends of use in systems of flat solar collectors for heating water, in the city of Campinas - Sao Paulo, Brazil. This work has been developed by the Hydrogen Laboratory of the Institute of Physics of the UNICAMP, being also used for other applications with solar energy. Based in the radiation data, taken from a local station, a theoretical study was developed to calculate a parameter of loss of radiation when this cross the atmosphere. This Kt loss factor, has basic importance for the knowledge of the effective available energy for use. With this data it is possible to determine, on the basis of the incident radiation in the top of the atmosphere, the value of the radiation on a surface. (author)

  15. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.

    2016-03-01

    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  16. Kas netilpo tarp politikos ir diplomatijos?

    OpenAIRE

    Streikus, Arūnas

    2008-01-01

    The review analyzes A. Kasparavičius’s monograph “Tarp Politikos ir Diplomatijos: Šventasis Sostas ir Lietuvos Respublika” (Vilnius, 2008). The historiographic value of the study is undisputed. A. Kasperavičius had an opportunity to use a broad spectrum of sources, among which two sets of archive documents stand out: the funds of the archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Embassy under the Holy See in Rome. A. Kasparavičius managed to avoid the arid scientific...

  17. Elecciones Legislativas en Irán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sainz de la Peña

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Las elecciones legislativas en Irán, una vez eliminados los reformistas se han celebrado en un clima de rivalidad. Las elecciones tenían que dejar claro quién mandaba en Irán, si los clérigos y el Guía el ayatolá Seyed Ali Jamenei o, el Presidente de la República, el laico Mahmud Ahmadineyad, apoyado en el Cuerpo de Guardias Revolucionarios. La realidad ha sido que las facciones conservadoras encabezadas por el Frente Unido Principalista, apoyados por el Guía Supremo, han obtenido el triunfo.

  18. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  19. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Lukka, Himu; Cheung, Patrick; Corbett, Tom; Briones-Urbina, Rosario; Vieth, Reinhold; Ehrlich, Lisa; Kiss, Alex; Danjoux, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT

  20. Nb$_{3}$Sn quadrupole magnets for the LHC IR

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G L; Chiesa, L; Coccoli, M; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Gourlay, S A; Hafalia, R R; Lietzke, A F; McInturff, A D; Scanlan, R M

    2003-01-01

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 * 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb/sub 3/Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb/sub 3/Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented. (25 refs).

  1. Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the LHC IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbi, G.; Caspi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Coccoli, M.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hafalia, R.R.; Lietzke, A.F.; McInturff, A.D.; Scanlan, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb 3 Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb 3 Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented.

  2. Bio-inspired, sub-wavelength surface structures for ultra-broadband, omni-directional anti-reflection in the mid and far IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Federico Lora; Gordon, Michael J

    2014-06-02

    Quasi-ordered moth-eye arrays were fabricated in Si using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering was explored experimentally and modeled quantitatively using effective medium theory. The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for λ = 7-30 μm. A detailed photon balance was constructed by measuring transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior anti-reflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0-60° incidence). The colloidal lithography method presented here is scalable and substrate-independent, providing a general approach to realize moth-eye structures and anti-reflection in many IR-compatible material systems.

  3. Semiclassical relations and IR effects in de Sitter and slow-roll space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-01-01

    We calculate IR divergent graviton one-loop corrections to scalar correlators in de Sitter space, and show that the leading IR contribution may be reproduced via simple semiclassical consistency relations. One can likewise use such semiclassical relations to calculate leading IR corrections to correlators in slow-roll inflation. The regulated corrections shift the tensor/scalar ratio and consistency relation of single field inflation, and non-gaussianity parameters averaged over very large distances. For inflation of sufficient duration, for example arising from a chaotic inflationary scenario, these corrections become of order unity. First-order corrections of this size indicate a breakdown of the perturbative expansion, and suggest the need for a non-perturbative description of the corresponding regime. This is analogous to a situation argued to arise in black hole evolution, and to interfere with a sharp perturbative calculation of ''missing information'' in Hawking radiation.

  4. Semiclassical relations and IR effects in de Sitter and slow-roll space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.; Sloth, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate IR divergent graviton one-loop corrections to scalar correlators in de Sitter space, and show that the leading IR contribution may be reproduced via simple semiclassical consistency relations. One can likewise use such semiclassical relations to calculate leading IR corrections to correlators in slow-roll inflation. The regulated corrections shift the tensor/scalar ratio and consistency relation of single field inflation, and non-gaussianity parameters averaged over very large distances. For inflation of sufficient duration, for example arising from a chaotic inflationary scenario, these corrections become of order unity. First-order corrections of this size indicate a breakdown of the perturbative expansion, and suggest the need for a non-perturbative description of the corresponding regime. This is analogous to a situation argued to arise in black hole evolution, and to interfere with a sharp perturbative calculation of ''missing information'' in Hawking radiation

  5. Innovative monolithic detector for tri-spectral (THz, IR, Vis) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocas, S.; Perenzoni, M.; Massari, N.; Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Rabaud, W.; Martin, S.; Delplanque, B.; Imperinetti, P.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Fusion of multispectral images has been explored for many years for security and used in a number of commercial products. CEA-Leti and FBK have developed an innovative sensor technology that gathers monolithically on a unique focal plane arrays, pixels sensitive to radiation in three spectral ranges that are terahertz (THz), infrared (IR) and visible. This technology benefits of many assets for volume market: compactness, full CMOS compatibility on 200mm wafers, advanced functions of the CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and operation at room temperature. The ROIC houses visible APS diodes while IR and THz detections are carried out by microbolometers collectively processed above the CMOS substrate. Standard IR bolometric microbridges (160x160 pixels) are surrounding antenna-coupled bolometers (32X32 pixels) built on a resonant cavity customized to THz sensing. This paper presents the different technological challenges achieved in this development and first electrical and sensitivity experimental tests.

  6. EFFECTS OF FATLIQURING PROCESS ON LEATHERS COLOURED WITH IR REFLECTIVE DYES AND PIGMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUTLU Mehmet Mete

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Black coloured materials and consumer goods are known to be heating up more, because they absorb sun radiation more than light colours. This heating is a problem for the users for black automotive or motorcycle leathers and also for dark shoes and boots which are exposed to sun heat. Human vision system can distinguish visible colours between the wavelengths of 390-700 nm. So reflecting the sun radiation in the infrared area of radiation spectrum higher than 700nm, is a solution for heating problem without affecting the visible colour. For this reason IR reflective dyes and pigments are designed. A leading Leather Chemical Company has developed an IR reflecting dyeing system for leather keeping the dark coloured leathers cooler under sun radiation. Additionally in theory, fat and water content of leather affects its heating properties. In this study, effect of natural, synthetic and waterproof fatliquoring systems on heating properties of leathers coloured with IR reflective dyes and pigments are investigated.

  7. Early insulin sensitivity after restrictive bariatric surgery, inconsistency between HOMA-IR and steady-state plasma glucose levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dielen, Francois M H; Nijhuis, Jeroen; Rensen, Sander S M; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Wiebolt, Janneke; Koks, Afra; Prakken, Fred J; Buurman, Wim A; Greve, Jan Willem M

    2010-01-01

    The low-grade inflammatory condition present in morbid obesity is thought to play a causative role in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance (IR). Bariatric surgery fails to improve this inflammatory condition during the first months after surgery. Considering the close relation between inflammation and IR, we conducted a study in which insulin sensitivity was measured during the first months after bariatric surgery. Different methods to measure IR shortly after bariatric surgery have given inconsistent data. For example, the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) levels have been reported to decrease rapidly after bariatric surgery, although clamp techniques have shown sustained insulin resistance. In the present study, we evaluated the use of steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) levels to assess insulin sensitivity 2 months after bariatric surgery. Insulin sensitivity was measured using HOMA-IR and SSPG levels in 11 subjects before surgery and at 26% excess weight loss (approximately 2 months after restrictive bariatric surgery). The SSPG levels after 26% excess weight loss did not differ from the SSPG levels before surgery (14.3 +/- 5.4 versus 14.4 +/- 2.7 mmol/L). In contrast, the HOMA-IR values had decreased significantly (3.59 +/- 1.99 versus 2.09 +/- 1.02). During the first months after restrictive bariatric surgery, we observed a discrepancy between the HOMA-IR and SSPG levels. In contrast to the HOMA-IR values, the SSPG levels had not improved, which could be explained by the ongoing inflammatory state after bariatric surgery. These results suggest that during the first months after restrictive bariatric surgery, HOMA-IR might not be an adequate marker of insulin sensitivity. Copyright 2010 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as

  9. TIJAH: Embracing IR Methods in XML Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    List, Johan; Mihajlovic, V.; Ramirez, Georgina; de Vries, A.P.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blok, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses our participation in INEX (the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval) using the TIJAH XML-IR system. TIJAH's system design follows a `standard' layered database architecture, carefully separating the conceptual, logical and physical levels. At the conceptual level, we

  10. IR and OLAP in XML document warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose to combine IR and OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies to exploit a warehouse of text-rich XML documents. In the system we plan to develop, a multidimensional implementation of a relevance modeling document model will be used for interactively querying...

  11. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabeláč, Martin; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, Pavel; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2011), s. 1816-1821 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : density functional calculations * gramicidin * IR spectroscopy * protein folding Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.412, year: 2011

  12. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  13. Near IR spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports on recent observations from the near IR spectra of symbiotic stars. The helium and oxygen lines useful for the construction of theoretical models are identified. Observations for cool stars and novae (nebular phase) are outlined and the spectra of specific symbiotic stars between lambdalambda 8000-11000 are presented and discussed. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Methanol decomposition and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Ludwig, W.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption, decompn., and oxidn. of methanol (CH3OH) has been studied on Ir(111) using temp.-programmed desorption and high-energy resoln. fast XPS. Mol. methanol desorption from a methanol-satd. surface at low temp. shows three desorption peaks, around 150 K (alpha ), around 170 K (beta 1), and

  15. Column Stores as an IR Prototyping Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T. Samar (Thaer); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract. We make the suggestion that instead of implementing custom index structures and query evaluation algorithms, IR researchers should simply store document representations in a column-oriented relational database and write ranking models using SQL. For rapid prototyping, this is

  16. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  17. Non-invasive thermal IR detection of breast tumor development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-03-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy comprises the treatment of breast cancer for many patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that can be used in real-time to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy. This novel enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8- 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (~0.5 °C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Post-acquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and is sensitive to the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent and enhanced thermal imaging modalities were used to estimate breast cancer tumor volumes as a function of time in 19 murine subjects over a 30-day study period. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after Day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging and the enhanced IR images, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging is capable monitoring tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses. This novel IR technique could be used to estimate tumor margins in real-time during surgical procedures.

  18. Heat loss from an open cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.G. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1995-12-01

    Cavity type receivers are used extensively in concentrating solar thermal energy collecting systems. The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia is a large scale field test for the collection of solar thermal energy. The STEP experiment consists of a large field array of solar collectors used to supplement the process steam, cooling and other electrical power requirements of an adjacent knitwear manufacturing facility. The purpose of the tests, conducted for this study, was to isolate and quantify the radiative, conductive, and convective components of total heat loss, and to determine the effects of operating temperature, receiver angle, and aperture size on cavity heat loss. An analytical model for radiative heat loss was developed and compared with two other methods used to determine radiative heat loss. A proposed convective heat loss correlation, including effects of aperture size, receiver operating temperature, and receiver angle is presented. The resulting data is a source to evaluate the STEP measurements.

  19. The Interventional Radiology (IR) Gender Gap: A Prospective Online Survey by the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Tze Min; Belli, Anna Maria

    2018-05-22

    A prospective online survey was conducted by the Cardiovascular Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) to evaluate the gender gap within interventional radiology (IR) and the barriers facing women in IR. A questionnaire ("Appendix") was devised by the authors and the CIRSE communication and publication team and sent electronically to 750 identifiable female members of CIRSE. Responses were collected from 7 August to 24 August 2017. The response rate was 19.9% (n = 149) with highest responses from UK (18%), Italy (11%), Germany (11%), Spain (7%), Netherlands (5%), France (5%), Sweden (4%), USA (4%). 91% of the respondents were between 31 and 46 years, 83% work full time, 62% spend > 50% of their working time in IR, and 67% practice in a university or tertiary referral institution. 85% were in the minority in their department. 52% had no leadership role in their department, but 67% expressed willingness to consider a leadership position. Their main concerns were work/family life balance, the risks of radiation exposure, the effect of pregnancy on training and practice and the male-dominated work environment. This survey highlights issues experienced by women in IR. Clear guidance on concerns regarding radiation exposure particularly during pregnancy is needed. Structured and supportive training is required for female IRs who may wish to train or work flexibly. The male-dominated environment is discouraging, and a scheme to promote female IRs would encourage women to take on senior leadership positions and attract more women into the specialty.

  20. Mechanism of radiation induced chemical and enzymatic changes in the lipid voluble basic compounds of fish products resulting in sensory losses, losses in nutritional value and eventually in toxicity and mutagenicity. Coordinated programme on wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobback, B.

    1979-01-01

    The following topics are covered: Radiation destruction of vitamin A in lipid solvents; influence of emulsion nature on radiation response of beta-carotene in aqueous medium; influence of malonaldehyde of lipase activity; radiation response of vitamin D in solution; radiation induced lipid oxidation in fish

  1. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R.; Nzabarushimana, Etienne; Pathak, Rupak; Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R.; Allen, Antiño R.; Raber, Jacob; Tackett, Alan J.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5′-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. - Highlights: • DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements is dependent on their evolutionary age. • Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements. • Radiation-induced reactivation of LINE-1 is DNA methylation-independent. • Histone modifications dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1.

  2. Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Sara; Miousse, Isabelle R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nzabarushimana, Etienne [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Department of Bioinformatics, School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Pathak, Rupak [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Skinner, Charles; Kutanzi, Kristy R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Allen, Antiño R. [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Raber, Jacob [Departments of Behavioral Neuroscience, Neurology, and Radiation Medicine, Division of Neuroscience, ONPRC, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR 97239 (United States); Tackett, Alan J. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin [Division of Radiation Health, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Nelson, Gregory A. [Department of Basic Sciences, Division of Radiation Research, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350 (United States); and others

    2016-10-15

    Long Interspersed Nucleotide Element 1 (LINE-1) retrotransposons are heavily methylated and are the most abundant transposable elements in mammalian genomes. Here, we investigated the differential DNA methylation within the LINE-1 under normal conditions and in response to environmentally relevant doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. We demonstrate that DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements in the lungs of C57BL6 mice is dependent on their evolutionary age, where the elder age of the element is associated with the lower extent of DNA methylation. Exposure to 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and methionine-deficient diet affected DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements in an age- and promoter type-dependent manner. Exposure to densely IR, but not sparsely IR, resulted in DNA hypermethylation of older LINE-1 elements, while the DNA methylation of evolutionary younger elements remained mostly unchanged. We also demonstrate that exposure to densely IR increased mRNA and protein levels of LINE-1 via the loss of the histone H3K9 dimethylation and an increase in the H3K4 trimethylation at the LINE-1 5′-untranslated region, independently of DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that DNA methylation is important for regulation of LINE-1 expression under normal conditions, but histone modifications may dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1 in response to exposure to densely IR. - Highlights: • DNA methylation of LINE-1 elements is dependent on their evolutionary age. • Densely ionizing radiation affects DNA methylation of selective LINE-1 elements. • Radiation-induced reactivation of LINE-1 is DNA methylation-independent. • Histone modifications dictate the transcriptional activity of LINE-1.

  3. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  4. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na+(Glucose) Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    We report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na+(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na+(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctive Na+ coordination. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. IR femtochemistry on the surface of wide-gap ionic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laptev, V. B.; Chekalin, S. V.; Dorofeyev, I. A.; Kompanets, V. O.; Pigulsky, S. V.; Ryabov, E. A.

    2018-02-01

    We have found and studied a phenomenon of the growth of films resulting from decomposition of some organic and silicon-containing molecules adsorbed on the surface of ionic crystals under the action of IR (1.4-5.4 µm) femtosecond radiation of a moderate intensity, ~1011 W cm-2. In the gas phase, these molecules do not decompose. Microstructured films consisting of amorphous carbon, graphite oxide, and silicon dioxide have been obtained. The formation of carbon films was accompanied by the appearance of different hydrocarbons in the gas phase. The extensive films of graphite oxide have been obtained. The decomposition of molecules on the surface is apparently caused by non-resonant ionization and subsequent deep fragmentation. The mechanisms of ionization at relatively low intensities of the femtosecond IR radiation have been discussed.

  6. Strain induced atomic structure at the Ir-doped LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Arras, R; Warot-Fonrose, B; Hungria, T; Lippmaa, M; Daimon, H; Casanove, M J

    2017-11-01

    The structure of Ir-doped LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 (001) interfaces was investigated on the atomic scale using probe-corrected transmission electron microscopy in high-angle annular dark-field scanning mode (HAADF-STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), combined with first-principles calculations. We report the evolution of the strain state experimentally measured in a 5 unit-cell thick LaAlO 3 film as a function of the Ir concentration in the topmost SrTiO 3 layer. It is shown that the LaAlO 3 layers remain fully elastically strained up to 3% of Ir doping, whereas a higher doping level seems to promote strain relaxation through enhanced cationic interdiffusion. The observed differences between the energy loss near edge structure (ELNES) of Ti-L 2,3 and O-K edges at non-doped and Ir-doped interfaces are consistent with the location of the Ir dopants at the interface, up to 3% of Ir doping. These findings, supported by the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, provide strong evidence that the effect of dopant concentrations on the properties of this kind of interface should not be analyzed without obtaining essential information from the fine structural and chemical analysis of the grown structures.

  7. THE ROLE OF THE ACCRETION DISK, DUST, AND JETS IN THE IR EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Nemmen, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Alonso-Herrero, A., E-mail: rmason@gemini.edu [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    We use recent high-resolution infrared (IR; 1-20 μm) photometry to examine the origin of the IR emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). The data are compared with published model fits that describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of LLAGN in terms of an advection-dominated accretion flow, truncated thin accretion disk, and jet. The truncated disk in these models is usually not luminous enough to explain the observed IR emission, and in all cases its spectral shape is much narrower than the broad IR peaks in the data. Synchrotron radiation from the jet appears to be important in very radio-loud nuclei, but the detection of strong silicate emission features in many objects indicates that dust must also contribute. We investigate this point by fitting the IR SED of NGC 3998 using dusty torus and optically thin (τ{sub mid-IR} ∼ 1) dust shell models. While more detailed modeling is necessary, these initial results suggest that dust may account for the nuclear mid-IR emission of many LLAGN.

  8. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  9. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  10. Increase in the temperature of a laser plasma formed by two-frequency UV - IR irradiation of metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, A A; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z; Efimovskii, S V; Kurbasov, Sergei V; Losev, Leonid L; Soskov, V I

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made of a laser plasma formed by successive irradiation of a metal target with 30-ps UV and IR laser pulses. The UV prepulse, of 266 nm wavelength, was of relatively low intensity (∼ 10 12 W cm -2 ), whereas the intensity of an IR pulse, of 10.6 μm wavelength, was considerably higher (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) and it was delayed by 0 - 6 ns (the optimal delay was 2 ns). Such two-frequency UV - IR irradiation produced a laser plasma with an electron temperature 5 times higher than that of a plasma created by singe-frequency IR pulses of the same (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  11. Design and Operation of an IR-CAGE For Thermal Vacuum Testing of a Communication Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuersching, C.

    2004-08-01

    A specific infrared radiation device was designed and manufactured for infrared simulation on a communication satellite. For the thermal vacuum test of this satellite, radiation fields with different sizes, shapes and radiation intensities were required to deliver additional heating power onto the space- craft panels. Five of the six sides of the cube- shaped satellite had to be equipped with flat IR- frames so that a cage surrounding the S/C had to be designed. The following features of the IR-cage were re- quired: A lightweight, but still rigid construction of the frame with space-proofed materials; using of standard components for cost reasons; radiation intensities of 400 to 1100 W/m2; a computer-based system for individual control of the heating circuits; a user friendly and safe handling of the operation panel and the recording of all operational parame- ter. The mechanical construction was realised by using aluminium profiles. The standard components al- lowed completing the mechanical set-up within a short time. After some investigation concerning the heating devices it was decided to use heating strips for the radiation fields of low intensity and com- mercial IR-quartz radiators for fields with higher intensity. A special suspension for the heating strips was designed to keep them under defined tension. The power supplies for the heating circuits were computer-controlled. The software allowed the individual power setting of each heater. Addition- ally an automatic mode for controlling the heaters by a reference thermocouple was foreseen. Beside design features of the cage, this paper will also describe the heater concept and the control system, and it will have a look at QA relevant mat- ters.

  12. Energy Loss of Coasting Gold Ions and Deuterons in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, N P; Brown, K; Burkhardt, H; Butler, J; Fischer, W; Harvey, M; Tepikian, S

    2008-01-01

    The total energy loss of coasting gold ion beams at two different energies and deuterons at one energy were measured at RHIC, corresponding to a gamma of 75.2, 107.4 and 108.7 respectively. We describe the experiment and observations and compare the measured total energy loss with expectations from ionization losses at the residual gas, the energy loss due to impedance and synchrotron radiation. We find that the measured energy losses are below what is expected from free space synchrotron radiation. We believe that this shows evidence for suppression of synchrotron radiation which is cut off at long wavelength by the presence of the conducting beam pipe.

  13. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Damayanthi, Rathnayaka M. T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μm×45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES.

  14. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  15. Development of Ir/Au-TES microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Manabu; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors (TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Microcalorimeters are thermal detectors which measure the energy of an incident x-ray photon using a TES thermometer operated at a sharp transition edge between normal and superconducting states. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). We developed a bilayer TES where a normal metal Au was deposited on a superconductor Ir in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the Ir-TES. We investigated resistance-temperature characteristics. As a result, it showed a very sharp transition within 1 mK at the temperature of 110 mK. The energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. (author)

  16. Knockdown of TWIST1 enhances arsenic trioxide- and ionizing radiation-induced cell death in lung cancer cells by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Sung-Keum; Kim, Jae-Hee; Choi, Ha-Na [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Tae-Boo [Department of Microbiological Engineering, Kon-Kuk University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seok-Il [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jae-Youn [Laboratory of Modulation of Radiobiological Responses, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Gyu [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun-Han, E-mail: yhlee87@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, 250 Seongsan-no, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, In-Chul, E-mail: parkic@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, 215-4 Gongneung-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Knockdown of TWIST1 enhanced ATO- and IR-induced cell death in NSCLCs. • Intracellular ROS levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA. • TWIST1 siRNA induced MMP loss and mitochondrial fragmentation. • TWIST1 siRNA upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. - Abstract: TWIST1 is implicated in the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition, metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance in cancer cells, and therefore is a potential target for cancer therapy. In the present study, we found that knockdown of TWIST1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced arsenic trioxide (ATO)- and ionizing radiation (IR)-induced cell death in non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Interestingly, intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were increased in cells treated with TWIST1 siRNA and further increased by co-treatment with ATO or IR. Pretreatment of lung cancer cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine markedly suppressed the cell death induced by combined treatment with TWIST1 siRNA and ATO or IR. Moreover, treatment of cells with TWIST1 siRNA induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and significantly increased mitochondrial fragmentation (fission) and upregulated the fission-related proteins FIS1 and DRP1. Collectively, our results demonstrate that siRNA-mediated TWIST1 knockdown induces mitochondrial dysfunction and enhances IR- and ATO-induced cell death in lung cancer cells.

  17. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  18. Infrared A radiation promotes survival of human melanocytes carrying ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimeswenger, Susanne; Schwarz, Agatha; Födinger, Dagmar; Müller, Susanne; Pehamberger, Hubert; Schwarz, Thomas; Jantschitsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The link between solar radiation and melanoma is still elusive. Although infrared radiation (IR) accounts for over 50% of terrestrial solar energy, its influence on human skin is not well explored. There is increasing evidence that IR influences the expression patterns of several molecules independently of heat. A previous in vivo study revealed that pretreatment with IR might promote the development of UVR-induced non-epithelial skin cancer and possibly of melanoma in mice. To expand on this, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of IR on UVR-induced apoptosis and DNA repair in normal human epidermal melanocytes. The balance between these two effects is a key factor of malignant transformation. Human melanocytes were exposed to physiologic doses of IR and UVR. Compared to cells irradiated with UVR only, simultaneous exposure to IR significantly reduced the apoptotic rate. However, IR did not influence the repair of UVR-induced DNA damage. IR partly reversed the pro-apoptotic effects of UVR via modification of the expression and activity of proteins mainly of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, IR enhances the survival of melanocytes carrying UVR-induced DNA damage and thereby might contribute to melanomagenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. IR thermocycler for centrifugal microfluidic platform with direct on-disk wireless temperature measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J.; Gross, A.; Mark, D.; Roth, G.; von Stetten, F.; Zengerle, R.

    2011-06-01

    The direct on-disk wireless temperature measurement system [1,2] presented at μTAS 2010 was further improved in its robustness. We apply it to an IR thermocycler as part of a centrifugal microfluidic analyzer for polymerase chain reactions (PCR). This IR thermocycler allows the very efficient direct heating of aqueous liquids in microfluidic cavities by an IR radiation source. The efficiency factor of this IR heating system depends on several parameters. First there is the efficiency of the IR radiator considering the transformation of electrical energy into radiation energy. This radiation energy needs to be focused by a reflector to the center of the cavity. Both, the reflectors shape and the quality of the reflecting layer affect the efficiency. On the way to the center of the cavity the radiation energy will be diminished by absorption in the surrounding air/humidity and especially in the cavity lid of the microfluidic disk. The transmission spectrum of the lid material and its thickness is of significant impact. We chose a COC polymer film with a thickness of 150 μm. At a peak frequency of the IR radiator of ~2 μm approximately 85 % of the incoming radiation energy passes the lid and is absorbed within the first 1.5 mm depth of liquid in the cavity. As we perform the thermocycling for a PCR, after heating to the denaturation temperature of ~ 92 °C we need to cool down rapidly to the primer annealing temperature of ~ 55 °C. Cooling is realized by 3 ventilators venting air of room temperature into the disk chamber. Due to the air flow itself and an additional rotation of the centrifugal microfluidic disk the PCR reagents in the cavities are cooled by forced air convection. Simulation studies based upon analogous electrical models enable to optimize the disk geometry and the optical path. Both the IR heater and the ventilators are controlled by the digital PID controller HAPRO 0135 [3]. The sampling frequency is set to 2 Hz. It could be further increased up

  20. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... of visual aids. Some options include: Magnifiers High power reading glasses Devices that make it easier to ...

  1. 75 FR 35643 - Extended Carryback of Losses to or from a Consolidated Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... loss for any taxable year must generally be carried back to each of the two taxable years preceding the... and are available to offset CTI in the same year, the two losses offset the X Group's $500 CTI on a... Extended Carryback of Losses to or from a Consolidated Group AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  2. 75 FR 44901 - Extended Carryback of Losses to or From a Consolidated Group; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Carryback of Losses to or From a Consolidated Group; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... pursuant to section 172(b)(1)(H) for specific losses attributable to certain acquired members. DATES: This... operating losses (temporary). * * * * * (B) Taxpayer's taxable income. For purposes of computing the...

  3. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) / Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 1099

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A finder file from SSA's Title XVI database is provided to the IRS. The IRS discloses 1099 information to SSA for use in verifying eligibility, amount, and benefits...

  4. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, J.

    2006-12-01

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of -8 cm -1 Hz -1/2 and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO 2 , CO, C 2 H 2 , CH 4 and the determination of the isotopic ratio 13 CO 2 / 12 CO 2 in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 μm), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C 2 H 4 ) and benzene (C 6 H 6 ). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  5. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-section measurements of 1-butene (1-C4H8) in VUV and IR

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Bé nilan, Yves; Farooq, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    synchrotron radiation as a tunable VUV light source. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is employed to measure absorption cross-section and band strengths in the IR region between 1.54 and 25μm (~6500-400cm-1). The measured room-temperature VUV

  6. Intensification of ultraviolet-induced dermal damage by infrared radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kligman, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    To assess the role of IR in actinic damage to the dermis, albino guinea pigs were irradiated for 45 weeks with UV-B and UV-A, with and without IR. Control animals received IR only or no irradiation at all. Unirradiated dermis contains small amounts of elastic fibers in the upper dermis with greater depositions around follicles and sebaceous glands. After irradiation with UV, the fibers became more numerous, thicker, and more twisted; IR alone producd many fine, feathery fibers. The addition of IR to UV resulted in dense matlike elastic fiber depositions that exceeded what was observed with either irradiation alone. In combination or alone UV and IR radiation produced a large increase in ground substance, a finding also seen in actinically damaged human skin. Infrared radiation, in the physiologic range, though pleasant is not innocuous. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Heavy quark energy loss in nuclear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Benr-Wei; Wang, Enke; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2003-01-01

    Multiple scattering, modified fragmentation functions and radiative energy loss of a heavy quark propagating in a nuclear medium are investigated in perturbative QCD. Because of the quark mass dependence of the gluon formation time, the medium size dependence of heavy quark energy loss is found to change from a linear to a quadratic form when the initial energy and momentum scale are increased relative to the quark mass. The radiative energy loss is also significantly suppressed relative to a light quark due to the suppression of collinear gluon emission by a heavy quark

  8. Beam Cleaning in Experimental IRs in HL-LHC for the Incoming Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Morales, H; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The HL-LHC will store 675 MJ of energy per beam, about 300 MJ more than the nominal LHC. Due to the increase in stored energy and a different interaction region (IR) optics layout, the collimation system for the incoming beam must be revisited in order to avoid dangerous losses that could cause quenches or machine damage. This paper studies the effectiveness of the current LHC collimation system in intercepting cleaning losses close to the experiments in the HL-LHC. The study reveals that additional tertiary collimators would be beneficial in order to protect not only the final focusing triplets but also the two quadrupoles further upstream.

  9. Beam cleaning of the incoming beam in experimental IRs in HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Redaelli, Stefano; De Maria, Riccardo; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    The HL-LHC will store 675 MJ of energy per beam, about 300 MJ more than the nominal LHC. Due to the increase in stored energy and a different interaction region (IR) layout and optics design, the collimation system for the incoming beam must be revisited in order to avoid dangerous losses that could cause quenches and machine damage. This paper studies the effectiveness of the current LHC collimation system in intercepting cleaning losses close to the experiments in the HL-LHC. The study reveals that in addition to the triplet also the Q4 needs local protection, which could be provided by an additional pair of TCTs.

  10. Radiation protection in technical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, H.

    1980-01-01

    In on-site inspections, e.g. double-plate radiography of circumferential pipe welds Ir-192 is most frequently used. Methods, controlled area, possible personnel doses, and radiation protection measures for the inspection and construction personnel are briefly discussed. (HP) [de

  11. IR sensor design insight from missile-plume prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John L.; Gilbert, Bruno; Richer, Guy; Stowe, Robert

    2002-08-01

    Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment have significantly reduced the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. An analysis of missile propellants suggests that missile detection based on plume characteristics alone may be more difficult than anticipated. Currently, the passive detection of missiles depends on signatures with a significant ultraviolet component. This approach is effective in detecting anti-aircraft missiles that rely on powerful motors to pursue high-speed aircraft. The high temperature exhaust from these missiles contains significant levels of carbon dioxide, water and, often, metal oxides such as alumina. The plumes emits strongest in the infrared, 1 to 5micrometers , regions with a significant component of the signature extending into the ultraviolet domain. Many anti-tank missiles do not need the same level of propulsion and radiate significantly less. These low velocity missiles, relying on the destructive force of shaped-charge warhead, are more difficult to detect. There is virtually no ultraviolet component and detection based on UV sensors is impractical. The transition in missile detection from UV to IR is reasonable, based on trends in imaging technology, but from the analysis presented in this paper even IR imagers may have difficulty in detecting missile plumes. This suggests that the emphasis should be placed in the detection of the missile hard body in the longer wavelengths of 8 to 12micrometers . The analysis described in this paper is based on solution of the governing equations of plume physics and chemistry. These models will be used to develop better sensors and threat detection algorithms.

  12. IGF-IR targeted therapy: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A.J. Varewijck (Aimee)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) has been studied as an anti-cancer target. However, monotherapy trials with IGF-IR targeted antibodies or with IGF-IR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have, overall, been very disappointing in the clinical setting. This review discusses potential reasons

  13. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  14. Ice contamination on satellite IR sensors: the MIPAS case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niro, F.; Fehr, T.; Kleinert, A.; Laur, H.; Lecomte, P.; Perron, G.

    2009-04-01

    MIPAS on board the ENVISAT platform is a Michelson Interferometer measuring the atmospheric limb emission in the mid-infrared (IR), from 4.15 µm to 14.5 µm [1]. The calibrated MIPAS measurements are radiance spectra as a function of wavenumber. The radiometric and spectral calibrations of the raw data are part of the Level 1 processing in the Ground Segment [2]. The accuracy of the radiometric calibration is essential in order to ensure precise temperature and trace gas retrieval in the Level 2 processing. This calibration process requires a set of cold space measurements and a series of measurements of a black body source to determine the radiometric gain function and to correct for instrument self-emission. The deep space measurements are repeated every four limb scanning sequences with the purpose of compensating the variation of instrument's temperature along the orbit. The radiometric gain function is updated every week to correct for a degraded transmission at the detector due to ice contamination. The ice contamination leads to a decrease of the signal, mainly due to ice absorption of the incoming IR radiation. This paper presents an analysis of the effect of ice contamination during the MIPAS mission; in particular we will study its impact on the radiometric accuracy and on the Level 2 retrieval precision. We will highlight the importance of the ice monitoring for the MIPAS mission and we will show that this type of monitoring allows improving the stability and the overall performances of the MIPAS instrument. The effect of ice in other ENVISAT instruments will be also mentioned (e.g., AATSR). The lessons learned during the mission about ice contamination are very important, especially for IR sensors that are the most affected by this type of problem. These lessons will be useful in order to improve the in-flight operations of present and future satellite missions. [1] H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A

  15. BOOTES-IR: near IR follow-up GRB observations by a robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Postrigo, A. de Ugarte; Jelinek, M.

    2005-01-01

    BOOTES-IR is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which operates in Southern Spain since 1998, to the near IR (NIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission in the NIR, alike BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like INTEGRAL, SWIFT and GLAST. Given that the afterglow emission in both, the NIR and the optical, in the instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible to detect this prompt emission at NIR wavelengths too. The combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1 and BOOTES-2 will allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a high redshift (z > 5). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the IR magnitudes be H ∼ 7-10, hence very high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by larger instruments

  16. Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Hair loss Overview Hereditary hair loss: Millions of men ... of hair loss can often be successfully treated. Hair loss: Overview Also called alopecia (al-o-PEE- ...

  17. Radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, F.; Rodgers, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book include: Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter; Primary products in radiation chemistry; Theoretical aspects of radiation chemistry; Theories of the solvated electron; The radiation chemistry of gases; Radiation chemistry of colloidal aggregates; Radiation chemistry of the alkali halides; Radiation chemistry of polymers; Radiation chemistry of biopolymers; Radiation processing and sterilization; and Compound index

  18. Characteristics of Ir/Au transition edge sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    A new type of microcalorimeter has been developed using a transition edge sensor (TES) and an electro-thermal feedback (ETF) method to achieve higher energy resolution and higher count rate. We are developing a superconducting Ir-based transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters. To improve thermal conductivity and achieve higher energy resolution with an Ir-TES, we fabricated an Ir/Au bilayer TES by depositing gold on Ir and investigated the influence of intermediate between superconducting and normal states at the transition edge for signal responses by microscopic observation in the Ir/Au-TES. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Du, Li [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liao, Shijun, E-mail: chsjliao@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir. - Highlights: • Mesoporous nanoparticles were synthesized and used as support for metal catalyst. • PdIr bimetallic catalyst exhibited significantly improved hydrogenation activity. • The strong promotion of Ir was recognized firstly and investigated intensively. • PdIr exhibits 18 times higher activity than Pd to the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. - Abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction

  20. Controlling Hydrogenation of Graphene on Ir(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Richard; Andersen, Mie; Jørgensen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Combined fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of two types of hydrogen adsorbate structures at the graphene/ Ir(111) interface, namely, graphane-like islands and hydrogen dimer structures. While the former give rise to a periodic...... pattern, dimers tend to destroy the periodicity. Our data reveal distinctive growth rates and stability of both types of structures, thereby allowing one to obtain well-defined patterns of hydrogen clusters. The ability to control and manipulate the formation and size of hydrogen structures on graphene...

  1. Computer dosimetry of 192Ir wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, R.W.; Gillin, M.T.; Grimm, D.F.; Niroomand-Rad, A.

    1985-01-01

    The dosimetry of 192 Ir linear sources with a commercial treatment planning computer system has been evaluated. Reference dose rate data were selected from the literature and normalized in a manner consistent with our clinical and dosimetric terminology. The results of the computer calculations are compared to the reference data and good agreement is shown at distances within about 7 cm from a linear source. The methodology of translating source calibration in terms of exposure rate for use in the treatment planning computer is developed. This may be useful as a practical guideline for users of similar computer calculation programs for iridium as well as other sources

  2. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  3. Stringy horizons and UV/IR mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2015-11-24

    The target-space interpretation of the exact (in α{sup ′}) reflection coefficient for scattering from Euclidean black-hole horizons in classical string theory is studied. For concreteness, we focus on the solvable SL(2,ℝ){sub k}/U(1) black hole. It is shown that it exhibits a fascinating UV/IR mixing, dramatically modifying the late-time behavior of general relativity. We speculate that this might play an important role in the black-hole information puzzle, as well as in clarifying features related with the non-locality of Little String Theory.

  4. Atsiskaitymai e. versle: ypatumai ir naujos tendencijos

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšniauskas, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Alternatyvių atsiskaitymų e. versle sistemos pradeda kelti rimtą grėsmę tradiciniams atsiskaitymams elektronine bankininkyste, mokėjimo kortelėmis ar grynaisiais pinigais. Todėl būtina detaliau išsiaiškinti kokie yra alternatyvių atsiskaitymų ypatumai, kurie veiksniai vartotojams yra svarbiausi ir kokie yra alternatyvūs atsiskaitymo būdai. Tai siekiama padaryti išanalizuojant mokslinę literatūrą, pateikiant pagrindines alternatyvių atsiskaitymų sistemas, atliekant alternatyvių atsiskaitymų pa...

  5. Fast IR diodes thermometer for tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangbo

    2001-01-01

    A 30 channel fast IR pyrometry array has been constructed for tokamak, which has 0.5 μs time response, 10 mm diameter spatial resolution and 5 degree C temperature resolution. The temperature measuring range is from 250 degree C to 1200 degree C. The two dimensional temperature profiles of the first wall during both major and minor disruptions can be measured with an accuracy of about 1% measuring temperature, which is adequate for tokamak experiments. This gives a very useful tool for the disruption study, especially for the divertor physics and edge heat flux research on tokamak and other magnetic confinement devices

  6. Hygienic aspects of the classification of works with ionizing radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplavskij, K.K.

    1978-01-01

    Classification is presented of ionizing radiation sources (IRS) the underlying principle of which is the effect of radiation on living organisms. The ways of improving the classification and expanding it by identifying more groups of IRS and defining the terminology more precisely are suggested. On this basis, a classification of IRS-handling activities has been developed and recommendations on conditions of work with each group have been given

  7. Radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.; Leer, J.W.H.; Craandijk, M.; Feenstra, W.F.F.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective inventory analysis of 169 irradiated patients concerning the incidence and course of Acute Radiation Sickness (fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting), it was found that 2/3 of the patients had these complaints. The complaints started during the first week of treatment and mostly even within a few hours after each radiotherapy session. All complaints were progressive during the radiotherapy course, but disappeared spontaneously within one week after completion of the treatment. The possible occurrence of these symptoms soon after the start of radiotherapy should be kept in mind, especially since they can be reduced by simple retimens. (author). 14 refs.; 2 tabs

  8. Feasibility of Jujube peeling using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) radiation heating has a promising potential to be used as a sustainable and effective method to eliminate the use of water and chemicals in the jujube-peeling process and enhance the quality of peeled products. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of use IR he...

  9. Modeling and Compensating Temperature-Dependent Non-Uniformity Noise in IR Microbolometer Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Wolf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Images rendered by uncooled microbolometer-based infrared (IR cameras are severely degraded by the spatial non-uniformity (NU noise. The NU noise imposes a fixed-pattern over the true images, and the intensity of the pattern changes with time due to the temperature instability of such cameras. In this paper, we present a novel model and a compensation algorithm for the spatial NU noise and its temperature-dependent variations. The model separates the NU noise into two components: a constant term, which corresponds to a set of NU parameters determining the spatial structure of the noise, and a dynamic term, which scales linearly with the fluctuations of the temperature surrounding the array of microbolometers. We use a black-body radiator and samples of the temperature surrounding the IR array to offline characterize both the constant and the temperature-dependent NU noise parameters. Next, the temperature-dependent variations are estimated online using both a spatially uniform Hammerstein-Wiener estimator and a pixelwise least mean squares (LMS estimator. We compensate for the NU noise in IR images from two long-wave IR cameras. Results show an excellent NU correction performance and a root mean square error of less than 0.25 ∘ C, when the array’s temperature varies by approximately 15 ∘ C.

  10. Competing reaction channels in IR-laser-induced unimolecular reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The competing reaction channels in the unimolecular decomposition of two molecules, formaldehyde and tetralin were studied. A TEA CO 2 laser was used as the excitation source in all experiments. The dissociation of D 2 CO was studied by infrared multiphoton dissociation (MPD) and the small-molecule nature of formaldehyde with regard to MPD was explored. The effect of collisions in MPD were probed by the pressure dependence of the MPD yield and ir fluorescence from multiphoton excited D 2 CO. MPD yield shows a near cubic dependence in pure D 2 CO which is reduced to a 1.7 power dependence when 15 torr of NO is added. The peak amplitude of 5 μm ir fluorescence from D 2 CO is proportional to the square of the D 2 CO pressure in pure D 2 CO or in the presence of 50 torr of Ar. Results are explained in terms of bottlenecks to excitation at the v = 1 level which are overcome by a combination of vibrational energy transfer and rotational relaxation. The radical/molecule branching ratio in D 2 CO MPD was 0.10 +- 0.02 at a fluence of 125 J/cm 2 at 946.0 cm -1 . The barrier height to molecular dissociation was calculated to be 3.6 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 85.0 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state of D 2 CO. In H 2 CO, this corresponds to 2.5 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 83.8 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state. Comparison with uv data indicate that RRKM theory is an acceptable description of formaldehyde dissociation in the 5 to 10 torr pressure range. The unimolecular decomposition of tetralin was studied by MPD and SiF 4 - sensitized pyrolysis. Both techniques induce decomposition without the interference of catalytic surfaces. Ethylene loss is identified as the lowest energy reaction channel. Dehydrogenation is found to result from step-wise H atom loss. Isomerization via disproportionation is also identified as a primary reaction channel

  11. Evolution of the vertebrate insulin receptor substrate (Irs) gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salam, Ahmad; Irwin, David M

    2017-06-23

    Insulin receptor substrate (Irs) proteins are essential for insulin signaling as they allow downstream effectors to dock with, and be activated by, the insulin receptor. A family of four Irs proteins have been identified in mice, however the gene for one of these, IRS3, has been pseudogenized in humans. While it is known that the Irs gene family originated in vertebrates, it is not known when it originated and which members are most closely related to each other. A better understanding of the evolution of Irs genes and proteins should provide insight into the regulation of metabolism by insulin. Multiple genes for Irs proteins were identified in a wide variety of vertebrate species. Phylogenetic and genomic neighborhood analyses indicate that this gene family originated very early in vertebrae evolution. Most Irs genes were duplicated and retained in fish after the fish-specific genome duplication. Irs genes have been lost of various lineages, including Irs3 in primates and birds and Irs1 in most fish. Irs3 and Irs4 experienced an episode of more rapid protein sequence evolution on the ancestral mammalian lineage. Comparisons of the conservation of the proteins sequences among Irs paralogs show that domains involved in binding to the plasma membrane and insulin receptors are most strongly conserved, while divergence has occurred in sequences involved in interacting with downstream effector proteins. The Irs gene family originated very early in vertebrate evolution, likely through genome duplications, and in parallel with duplications of other components of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin and the insulin receptor. While the N-terminal sequences of these proteins are conserved among the paralogs, changes in the C-terminal sequences likely allowed changes in biological function.

  12. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir(4+) ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory, and Madelung potential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elijah E; Xiang, Hongjun; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2016-03-21

    The spins of the low-spin Ir(4+) (S = 1/2, d(5)) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3, both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir(4+) spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axis directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir(4+) ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir(4+) ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. The spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir(4+) is not as strong as has been assumed.

  13. The detectability of cracks using sonic IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidini, Marco; Cawley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to study the detectability of fatigue cracks in metals using sonic IR (also known as thermosonics). The method relies on the validation of simple finite-element thermal models of the cracks and specimens in which the thermal loads have been defined by means of a priori measurement of the additional damping introduced in the specimens by each crack. This estimate of crack damping is used in conjunction with a local measurement of the vibration strain during ultrasonic excitation to retrieve the power released at the crack; these functions are then input to the thermal model of the specimens to find the resulting temperature rises (sonic IR signals). The method was validated on mild steel beams with two-dimensional cracks obtained in the low-cycle fatigue regime as well as nickel-based superalloy beams with three-dimensional "thumbnail" cracks generated in the high-cycle fatigue regime. The equivalent 40kHz strain necessary to obtain a desired temperature rise was calculated for cracks in the nickel superalloy set, and the detectability of cracks as a function of length in the range of 1-5mm was discussed.

  14. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  15. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  16. AXION DECAY AND ANISOTROPY OF NEAR-IR EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yan; Chen, Xuelei [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Cooray, Asantha; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Zemcov, Michael [Center for Detectors, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Smidt, Joseph [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-07-10

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is composed of the cumulative radiation from all galaxies and active galactic nuclei over cosmic history. In addition to point sources, the EBL also contains information from diffuse sources of radiation. The angular power spectra of the near-infrared intensities could contain additional signals, and a complete understanding of the nature of the infrared (IR) background is still lacking in the literature. Here we explore the constraints that can be placed on particle decays, especially candidate dark matter (DM) models involving axions that trace DM halos of galaxies. Axions with a mass around a few electronvolts will decay via two photons with wavelengths in the near-IR band and will leave a signature in the IR background intensity power spectrum. Using recent power spectra measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment, we find that the 0.6–1.6 μ m power spectra can be explained by axions with masses around 4 eV. The total axion abundance Ω{sub a} ≃ 0.05, and it is comparable to the baryon density of the universe. The suggested mean axion mass and abundance are not ruled out by existing cosmological observations. Interestingly, the axion model with a mass distribution is preferred by the data, which cannot be explained by the standard quantum chromodynamics theory and needs further discussion.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Clinicians Practicing at the Kenyatta National Hospital on Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecaga, W.

    2015-01-01

    The Clinicians practicing is to determine the level of knowledge on ionizing radiation (IR) and their attitudes and practice. All the cadres of clinicians faired poorly when it came to estimating the radiation dose when imaging different body parts. There were no statistically significant differences in unnecessary referrals between health workers who reported having trained in IR 33/53 (62.3%) compared those who had not trained in IR 61/109 (56%), chi = 0.58 (df= 1), p = 0.45. The Clinicians lack knowledge on ionizing radiation. There is a significant knowledge gap between the senior clinicians and junior clinicians when it comes to some aspects of ionizing radiation. Health workers with no IR training are less likely to correctly identify all the techniques that use ionizing radiation compared to those with IR training (50.9% versus 27.5%; OR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.18-0.72)

  18. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  19. Selective C--C coupling of ir-ethene and ir-carbenoid radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzik, W.I.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Bruin, B.

    2008-01-01

    The reactivity of the paramagnetic iridium(II) complex [IrII(ethene)(Me3tpa)]2+ (1) (Me3tpa=N,N,N-tris(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl) amine) towards the diazo compounds ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) and trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSDM) was investigated. The reaction with EDA gave rise to selective CC bond

  20. Improvenments in environmental trace analysis by GC-IR and LC-IR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; Vredenbregt, M.J.; Jong, A.P.J.M.; Somsen, G.W.; Hankemeier, T.; Velthorst, N.H.; Gooijer, C.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been carried out to enlarge the potential of infrared (IR) spectrometry as a detector in gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC). The study has been directed to applications in environmental analysis. Examples of recently obtained results are presented. The analyte detectability of