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Sample records for ir loop maintained

  1. IR finite one-loop box scalar integral with massless internal lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplancic, G.; Nizic, B.

    2002-01-01

    The IR finite one-loop box scalar integral with massless internal lines has been recalculated. The result is very compact, simple and valid for arbitrary values of the relevant kinematic variables. It is given in terms of only two dilogarithms and a few logarithms, all of very simple arguments. (orig.)

  2. Kekuatan Geser dan Pola Patahan Loop Space Maintainer yang Dibuat dengan Teknik Spot Welding Elektrik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Karlina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of spot variations on shear strength of spot welds in an electric loop space maintainer. Stainless steel wire of 0.8 mm diameter and nickel chromium crwon for lower second molar of temporary teeth were used. A loop 1 cm wide, made of 3.5 cm stainless steel wire, was welded with 3 dots on the crown using an electric spot welder. Each dot for each group took different spot variations from 1 X – 4 X. A loop space maintainer made with the usual materials and techniques as applied at the IKGA FKG UI Clinic was used as a control, with a torch as heat source. Ten specimens each were prepared for shear testing and three spesimens each for metallography. Universal testing machine was used for shear strength testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and SEM/EDS was used for metallography and fractography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA at p = 0.05, and Tukey post hoc test. The results show that the shear strength of the welded loop space maintainer was higher than that of a soldered loop space maintainer, although the difference was not statistically significant with spot variation 1 X. SEM/EDS analysis suggests that a new alloy forms at the contact area of welded and soldered loop space maintainer. Fractography of the joints suggests that welds are better than soldered joints, with higher ductility and toughness, as can be seen from the dimpled pattern of the welded joint and cleavage patterns in the control joints. In conclusion, the loop space maintainer is better made by welding than by soldering.

  3. Space Maintenance with an Innovative ?Tube and Loop? Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance)

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Grover, Jyotika; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limit...

  4. UV / IR mixing in noncommutative field theory via open string loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiem, Youngjai; Lee, Sangmin

    2000-01-01

    We explicitly evaluate one-loop (annulus) planar and nonplanar open string amplitudes in the presence of the background NS-NS two-form field. In the decoupling limit of Seiberg and Witten, we find that the nonplanar string amplitudes reproduce the UV/IR mixing of noncommutative field theories. In particular, the investigation of the UV regime of the open string amplitudes shows that certain IR closed string degrees of freedom survive the decoupling limit as previously predicted from the noncommutative field theory analysis. These degrees of freedom are responsible for the quadratic, linear and logarithmic IR singularities when the D-branes embedded in space-time have the codimension zero, one and two, respectively. The analysis is given for both bosonic and supersymmetric open strings

  5. Space Maintenance with an Innovative "Tube and Loop" Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Grover, Jyotika; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limitations both for operators and for patients. Presented in this article is an innovative "Tube and Loop" SM (Nikhil appliance) which offers several advantages over the conventional band and loop SM. It is not only easy and quick to fabricate but can also be completed in a single sitting and cumbersome steps like impression making and laboratory procedures namely soldering are eliminated. How to cite this article: Srivastava N, Grover J, Panthri P. Space Maintenance with an Innovative "Tube and Loop" Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance). Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):86-89.

  6. ′Metal to resin′: A comparative evaluation of conventional band and loop space maintainer with the fiber reinforced composite resin space maintainer in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the clinical efficacy of two space maintainers namely, conventional band and loop and Fiber Reinforced Composite Resin (FRCR space maintainers . Subjects and Methods: Thirty healthy children, aged 5 to 8 years were selected having at least two deciduous molars in different quadrants indicated for extraction or lost previously. FRCR space maintainer was placed in one quadrant and in the other quadrant band and loop space maintainer was cemented. All the patients were recalled at 1 st , 3 rd , and 6 th months for evaluation of both types of space maintainer. Patient acceptability, time taken, and clinical efficacy was recorded. Statistical analysis used: The observations thus obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi- square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Patient acceptability was greater in Group I (FRCR in comparison to Group II (band and loop space maintainer. The time taken by Group I was significantly lower as compared to that of Group II. In Group I, debonding of enamel, composite was the most common complication leading to failure followed by debonding of fiber composite. In Group II, cement loss was the most common complication leading to failure followed by slippage of band and fracture of loop. The success rates of Groups I and Group II weares 63.3% and 36.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that FRCRFiber Reinforced Composite Resin (Ribbond space maintainers can be considered as viable alternative to the conventional band and loop space maintainers.

  7. IR1 flow tube and In-Pile Test Section Pressure drop test for the 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, K. N.; Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, S. K.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, H. N

    2006-02-15

    The in-pile Section (IPS) of 3-pin Fuel Test Loop(FTL) shall be installed in the vertical hole call IR1 of HANARO reactor core. In order to verify the pressure drop and flow rate both the inside region of IPS at the annular region between IPS and IR1 flow tube, a pressure drop was measured by varing the flow rate on both regions. The measured pressure drop in the annular region is 209kpa at 14.9kg/s which meets the limiting condition of operation of 200kpa. The measured pressure drop in side the IPS becomes 260.25kpa which is lower than the designed value of 306.65kpa. As the pressure drop is lower than the design value, it is quite conservative from the safety and operating point of view.

  8. Thermal responses in a coronal loop maintained by wave heating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2018-05-01

    A full 3-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation is conducted to investigate the thermal responses of a coronal loop to the dynamic dissipation processes of MHD waves. When the foot points of the loop are randomly and continuously forced, the MHD waves become excited and propagate upward. Then, 1-MK temperature corona is produced naturally as the wave energy dissipates. The excited wave packets become non-linear just above the magnetic canopy, and the wave energy cascades into smaller spatial scales. Moreover, collisions between counter-propagating Alfvén wave packets increase the heating rate, resulting in impulsive temperature increases. Our model demonstrates that the heating events in the wave-heated loops can be nanoflare-like in the sense that they are spatially localized and temporally intermittent.

  9. RTEL1 dismantles T loops and counteracts telomeric G4-DNA to maintain telomere integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean-Baptiste; Pavicic-Kaltenbrunner, Visnja; Petalcorin, Mark I R; Ding, Hao; Boulton, Simon J

    2012-05-11

    T loops and telomeric G-quadruplex (G4) DNA structures pose a potential threat to genome stability and must be dismantled to permit efficient telomere replication. Here we implicate the helicase RTEL1 in the removal of telomeric DNA secondary structures, which is essential for preventing telomere fragility and loss. In the absence of RTEL1, T loops are inappropriately resolved by the SLX4 nuclease complex, resulting in loss of the telomere as a circle. Depleting SLX4 or blocking DNA replication abolished telomere circles (TCs) and rescued telomere loss in RTEL1(-/-) cells but failed to suppress telomere fragility. Conversely, stabilization of telomeric G4-DNA or loss of BLM dramatically enhanced telomere fragility in RTEL1-deficient cells but had no impact on TC formation or telomere loss. We propose that RTEL1 performs two distinct functions at telomeres: it disassembles T loops and also counteracts telomeric G4-DNA structures, which together ensure the dynamics and stability of the telomere. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tunable erbium-doped fiber laser based on optical fiber Sagnac interference loop with angle shift spliced polarization maintaining fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhenming; Wang, Zhaokun; Zhao, Chunliu; Wang, Dongning

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a tunable erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with Sagnac interference loop with 45° angle shift spliced polarization maintaining fibers (PMFs). In the Sagnac loop, two PMFs with similar lengths. The Sagnac loop outputs a relatively complex interference spectrum since two beams transmitted in clockwise and counterclockwise encounter at the 3 dB coupler, interfere, and form two interference combs when the light transmitted in the Sagnac loop. The laser will excite and be stable when two interference lines in these two interference combs overlap together. Then by adjusting the polarization controller, the wide wavelength tuning is realized. Experimental results show that stable single wavelength laser can be realized in the wavelength range of 1585 nm-1604 nm under the pump power 157.1 mW. The side-mode suppression ratio is not less than 53.9 dB. The peak power fluctuation is less than 0.29 dB within 30 min monitor time and the side-mode suppression ratio is great than 57.49 dB when the pump power is to 222.7 mW.

  11. A role for myelin-associated peroxisomes in maintaining paranodal loops and axonal integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassmann, Celia M; Quintes, Susanne; Rietdorf, Jens; Möbius, Wiebke; Sereda, Michael Werner; Nientiedt, Tobias; Saher, Gesine; Baes, Myriam; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2011-07-21

    Demyelinating diseases of the nervous system cause axon loss but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show by confocal and electron microscopy that in myelin-forming glia peroxisomes are associated with myelin membranes. When peroxisome biogenesis is experimentally perturbed in Pex5 conditional mouse mutants, myelination by Schwann cells appears initially normal. However, in nerves of older mice paranodal loops become physically unstable and develop swellings filled with vesicles and electron-dense material. This novel model of a demyelinating neuropathy demonstrates that peroxisomes serve an important function in the peripheral myelin compartment, required for long-term axonal integrity. Copyright © 2011 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of CAD-CAM for Fabrication of Metal-Free Band and Loop Space Maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Harleen Kaur

    2017-02-01

    An ideal occlusion with proper tooth alignment and fully functional teeth is the ultimate goal of all dental treatments. Premature extraction of deciduous teeth is a common sequeale of untreated dental caries in teeth in which the damage is far beyond repair. Premature extraction might lead to loss of space for the successor tooth, drifting of teeth and loss of arch integrity leading to malocclusion in the permanent teeth. To prevent the space loss, space maintainers are designed and delivered at the time of extraction to allow for development of proper functional occlusion in children till the eruption of the succedaneous permanent tooth. A six-year-old female patient with chronic intra-radicular abscess in upper right first primary molar was treated with extraction followed by the placement of BruxZir zirconia space maintainer. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at one and six months. At the end of six months, the patient was completely asymptomatic and there were no visible signs of gingival inflammation and tissue irritation at the site of the space maintainer.

  13. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Linker Histone—Hho1p Maintains Chromatin Loop Organization during Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Uzunova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intricate, dynamic, and absolutely unavoidable ageing affects cells and organisms through their entire lifetime. Driven by diverse mechanisms all leading to compromised cellular functions and finally to death, this process is a challenge for researchers. The molecular mechanisms, the general rules that it follows, and the complex interplay at a molecular and cellular level are yet little understood. Here, we present our results showing a connection between the linker histones, the higher-order chromatin structures, and the process of chronological lifespan of yeast cells. By deleting the gene for the linker histone in Saccharomyces cerevisiae we have created a model for studying the role of chromatin structures mainly at its most elusive and so far barely understood higher-order levels of compaction in the processes of yeast chronological lifespan. The mutant cells demonstrated controversial features showing slower growth than the wild type combined with better survival during the whole process. The analysis of the global chromatin organization during different time points demonstrated certain loss of the upper levels of chromatin compaction in the cells without linker histone. The results underlay the importance of this histone for the maintenance of the chromatin loop structures during ageing.

  14. Activation of high and low affinity dopamine receptors generates a closed loop that maintains a conductance ratio and its activity correlate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf-Dieter Christian Krenz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulators alter network output and have the potential to destabilize a circuit. The mechanisms maintaining stability in the face of neuromodulation are not well described. Using the pyloric network in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, we show that dopamine (DA does not simply alter circuit output, but activates a closed loop in which DA-induced alterations in circuit output consequently drive a change in an ionic conductance to preserve a conductance ratio and its activity correlate. DA acted at low affinity type 1 receptors (D1Rs to induce an immediate modulatory decrease in the transient potassium current (IA of a pyloric neuron. This, in turn, advanced the activity phase of that component neuron, which disrupted its network function and thereby destabilized the circuit. DA simultaneously acted at high affinity D1Rs on the same neuron to confer activity-dependence upon the hyperpolarization activated current (Ih such that the DA-induced changes in activity subsequently reduced Ih. This DA-enabled, activity-dependent, intrinsic plasticity exactly compensated for the modulatory decrease in IA to restore the IA:Ih ratio and neuronal activity phase, thereby closing an open loop created by the modulator. Activation of closed loops to preserve conductance ratios may represent a fundamental operating principle neuromodulatory systems use to ensure stability in their target networks.

  15. Compensatory insulin receptor (IR) activation on inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R): rationale for cotargeting IGF-1R and IR in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Elizabeth; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Koujak, Susan; Brown, Eric; Eyzaguirre, Alexandra; Tao, Nianjun; Rosenfeld-Franklin, Maryland; Lerner, Lorena; Chiu, M Isabel; Wild, Robert; Epstein, David; Pachter, Jonathan A; Miglarese, Mark R

    2010-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and critical activator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway. IGF-1R is required for oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. These observations have spurred anticancer drug discovery and development efforts for both biological and small-molecule IGF-1R inhibitors. The ability for one RTK to compensate for another to maintain tumor cell viability is emerging as a common resistance mechanism to antitumor agents targeting individual RTKs. As IGF-1R is structurally and functionally related to the insulin receptor (IR), we asked whether IR is tumorigenic and whether IR-AKT signaling contributes to resistance to IGF-1R inhibition. Both IGF-1R and IR(A) are tumorigenic in a mouse mammary tumor model. In human tumor cells coexpressing IGF-1R and IR, bidirectional cross talk was observed following either knockdown of IR expression or treatment with a selective anti-IGF-1R antibody, MAB391. MAB391 treatment resulted in a compensatory increase in phospho-IR, which was associated with resistance to inhibition of IRS1 and AKT. In contrast, treatment with OSI-906, a small-molecule dual inhibitor of IGF-1R/IR, resulted in enhanced reduction in phospho-IRS1/phospho-AKT relative to MAB391. Insulin or IGF-2 activated the IR-AKT pathway and decreased sensitivity to MAB391 but not to OSI-906. In tumor cells with an autocrine IGF-2 loop, both OSI-906 and an anti-IGF-2 antibody reduced phospho-IR/phospho-AKT, whereas MAB391 was ineffective. Finally, OSI-906 showed superior efficacy compared with MAB391 in human tumor xenograft models in which both IGF-1R and IR were phosphorylated. Collectively, these data indicate that cotargeting IGF-1R and IR may provide superior antitumor efficacy compared with targeting IGF-1R alone.

  16. Loop kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Basic operators acting in the loop space are introduced. The topology of this space and properties of the Stokes type loop functionals are discussed. The parametrically invariant loop calculus developed here is used in the loop dynamics

  17. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  18. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  19. Maintaining evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  20. Space maintainers in dentistry: past to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Sekhon, Harveen Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favourable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. The safest way to prevent future malocclusions from tooth loss is to place a space maintainer that is effective and durable. An appropriate use of space maintainer is advocated to hold the space until the eruption of permanent teeth. This case report describes the various changing trends in use of space maintainers: conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop and glass fibre reinforced composite resins as space maintainers.

  1. Semiclassical relations and IR effects in de Sitter and slow-roll space-times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Giddings, Steven; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2010-01-01

    We calculate IR divergent graviton one-loop corrections to scalar correlators in de Sitter space, and show that the leading IR contribution may be reproduced via simple semiclassical consistency relations. One can likewise use such semiclassical relations to calculate leading IR corrections to co...... with a sharp perturbative calculation of "missing information" in Hawking radiation....

  2. Laser welding closed-loop power control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser.......A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser....

  3. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  4. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  5. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefpour, F., E-mail: fyousefpour@snira.co [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, F.; Soltani, H. [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  6. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefpour, F.; Shokri, F.; Soltani, H.

    2010-01-01

    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  7. Loop connectors in dentogenic diastema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a missing tooth along with diastema have limited treatment options to restore the edentulous space. The use of a conventional fixed partial denture (FPD to replace the missing tooth may result in too wide anterior teeth leading to poor esthetics. Loss of anterior teeth with existing diastema may result in excess space available for pontic. This condition presents great esthetic challenge for prosthodontist. If implant supported prosthesis is not possible because of inadequate bone support, FPD along with loop connector may be a treatment option to maintain the diastema and provide optimal esthetic restoration. Here, we report a clinical case where FPD along with loop connector was used to achieve esthetic rehabilitation in maxillary anterior region in which midline diastema has been maintained.

  8. On the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggiolaro, Enrico

    2005-01-01

    The high-energy elastic scattering amplitude of two colour-singlet qq-bar pairs is governed by the correlation function of two Wilson loops, which follow the classical straight lines for quark (antiquark) trajectories. This quantity is expected to be free of IR divergences, differently from what happens for the parton-parton elastic scattering amplitude, described, in the high-energy limit, by the expectation value of two Wilson lines. We shall explicitly test this IR finiteness by a direct non-perturbative computation of the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in the (pedagogic, but surely physically interesting) case of quenched QED. The results obtained for the Abelian case will be generalized to the case of a non-Abelian gauge theory with Nc colours, but stopping to the order O(g4) in perturbation theory. In connection with the above-mentioned IR finiteness, we shall also discuss some analytic properties of the loop-loop scattering amplitudes in both Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories, when going from Minkowskian to Euclidean theory, which can be relevant to the still unsolved problem of the s-dependence of hadron-hadron total cross-sections

  9. Loop Transfer Matrix and Loop Quantum Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvidy, George K.

    2000-01-01

    The gonihedric model of random surfaces on a 3d Euclidean lattice has equivalent representation in terms of transfer matrix K(Q i ,Q f ), which describes the propagation of loops Q. We extend the previous construction of the loop transfer matrix to the case of nonzero self-intersection coupling constant κ. We introduce the loop generalization of Fourier transformation which allows to diagonalize transfer matrices, that depend on symmetric difference of loops only and express all eigenvalues of 3d loop transfer matrix through the correlation functions of the corresponding 2d statistical system. The loop Fourier transformation allows to carry out the analogy with quantum mechanics of point particles, to introduce conjugate loop momentum P and to define loop quantum mechanics. We also consider transfer matrix on 4d lattice which describes propagation of memebranes. This transfer matrix can also be diagonalized by using the generalized Fourier transformation, and all its eigenvalues are equal to the correlation functions of the corresponding 3d statistical system. In particular the free energy of the 4d membrane system is equal to the free energy of 3d gonihedric system of loops and is equal to the free energy of 2d Ising model. (author)

  10. Dynamical gluon masses in perturbative calculations at the loop level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Fatima A.; Natale, Adriano A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In the phenomenology of strong interactions one always has to deal at some extent with the interplay between perturbative and non-perturbative QCD. On one hand, the former has quite developed tools, yielded by asymptotic freedom. On the other, concerning the latter, we nowadays envisage the following scenario: 1) There are strong evidences for a dynamically massive gluon propagator and infrared finite coupling constant; 2) There is an extensive and successful use of an infrared finite coupling constant in phenomenological calculations at tree level; 3) The infrared finite coupling improves the perturbative series convergence; 4) The dynamical gluon mass provides a natural infrared cutoff in the physical processes at the tree level. Considering this scenario it is natural to ask how these non-perturbative results can be used in perturbative calculations of physical observables at the loop level. Recent papers discuss how off-shell gauge and renormalization group invariant Green functions can be computed with the use of the Pinch Technique (PT), with IR divergences removed by the dynamical gluon mass, and using a well defined effective charge. In this work we improve the former results by the authors, which evaluate 1-loop corrections to some two- and three-point functions of SU(3) pure Yang-Mills, investigating the dressing of quantities that could account for an extension of loop calculations to the infrared domain of the theory, in a way applicable to phenomenological calculations. One of these improvements is maintaining the gluon propagator transverse in such a scheme. (author)

  11. Pemakaian Crown Loop dan Band Loop di Rahang Bawah Anak Usia Enam Tahun (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivi Isabela

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The function of space maintainer is to preserve arch length following the premature loss of a primary teeth. Early loss of primary tooth may compromise the eruption of succedaneous teeth if there is a reduction in the arch length. The Band and Crown Loop are used to maintain the loss of primary molar. The report describe a 6 year old girl who has premature loss of second left mandibular primary molar and first right mandibular primary molar treated using crown and band loop space maintainer. The patient still has mastication function from other posterior primary teeth.

  12. The Brownian loop soup

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Gregory F.; Werner, Wendelin

    2003-01-01

    We define a natural conformally invariant measure on unrooted Brownian loops in the plane and study some of its properties. We relate this measure to a measure on loops rooted at a boundary point of a domain and show how this relation gives a way to ``chronologically add Brownian loops'' to simple curves in the plane.

  13. Ergonomics Contribution in Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.

  14. Liquid Lead-Bismuth Materials Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcharnotskaia, Valentina; Ammerman, Curtt; Darling, Timothy; King, Joe; Li, Ning; Shaw, Don; Snodgrass, Leon; Woloshun, Keith

    2002-01-01

    We designed and built the Liquid Lead-Bismuth Materials Test Loop (MTL) to study the materials behavior in a flow of molten lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE). In this paper we present a description of the loop with main components and their functions. Stress distribution in the piping due to sustained, occasional and expansion loads is shown. The loop is designed so that a difference of 100 deg. C can be attained between the coldest and the hottest parts at a nominal flow rate of 8.84 GPM. Liquid LBE flow can be activated by a mechanical sump pump or by natural convection. In order to maintain a self-healing protective film on the surface of the stainless steel pipe, a certain concentration of oxygen has to be maintained in the liquid metal. We developed oxygen sensors and an oxygen control system to be implemented in the loop. The loop is outfitted with a variety of instruments that are controlled from a computer based data acquisition system. Initial experiments include preconditioning the loop, filling it up with LBE, running at uniform temperature and tuning the oxygen control system. We will present some preliminary results and discuss plans for the future tests. (authors)

  15. Development of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile IR24 and IR64 Using CW-CMS/Rf17 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriyama, Kinya; Kazama, Tomohiko

    2016-12-01

    A wild-abortive-type (WA) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been almost exclusively used for breeding three-line hybrid rice. Many indica cultivars are known to carry restorer genes for WA-CMS lines and cannot be used as maintainer lines. Especially elite indica cultivars IR24 and IR64 are known to be restorer lines for WA-CMS lines, and are used as male parents for hybrid seed production. If we develop CMS IR24 and CMS IR64, the combination of F1 pairs in hybrid rice breeding programs will be greatly broadened. For production of CMS lines and restorer lines of IR24 and IR64, we employed Chinese wild rice (CW)-type CMS/Restorer of fertility 17 (Rf17) system, in which fertility is restored by a single nuclear gene, Rf17. Successive backcrossing and marker-assisted selection of Rf17 succeeded to produce completely male sterile CMS lines and fully restored restorer lines of IR24 and IR64. CW-cytoplasm did not affect agronomic characteristics. Since IR64 is one of the most popular mega-varieties and used for breeding of many modern varieties, the CW-CMS line of IR64 will be useful for hybrid rice breeding.

  16. Renormalization of loop functions for all loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.A.; Neri, F.; Sato, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the vacuum expectation values W(C 1 ,xxx, C/sub n/) of products of the traces of the path-ordered phase factors P exp[igcontour-integral/sub C/iA/sub μ/(x)dx/sup μ/] are multiplicatively renormalizable in all orders of perturbation theory. Here A/sub μ/(x) are the vector gauge field matrices in the non-Abelian gauge theory with gauge group U(N) or SU(N), and C/sub i/ are loops (closed paths). When the loops are smooth (i.e., differentiable) and simple (i.e., non-self-intersecting), it has been shown that the generally divergent loop functions W become finite functions W when expressed in terms of the renormalized coupling constant and multiplied by the factors e/sup -K/L(C/sub i/), where K is linearly divergent and L(C/sub i/) is the length of C/sub i/. It is proved here that the loop functions remain multiplicatively renormalizable even if the curves have any finite number of cusps (points of nondifferentiability) or cross points (points of self-intersection). If C/sub γ/ is a loop which is smooth and simple except for a single cusp of angle γ, then W/sub R/(C/sub γ/) = Z(γ)W(C/sub γ/) is finite for a suitable renormalization factor Z(γ) which depends on γ but on no other characteristic of C/sub γ/. This statement is made precise by introducing a regularization, or via a loop-integrand subtraction scheme specified by a normalization condition W/sub R/(C-bar/sub γ/) = 1 for an arbitrary but fixed loop C-bar/sub γ/. Next, if C/sub β/ is a loop which is smooth and simple except for a cross point of angles β, then W(C/sub β/) must be renormalized together with the loop functions of associated sets S/sup i//sub β/ = ]C/sup i/ 1 ,xxx, C/sup i//sub p/i] (i = 2,xxx,I) of loops C/sup i//sub q/ which coincide with certain parts of C/sub β/equivalentC 1 1 . Then W/sub R/(S/sup i//sub β/) = Z/sup i/j(β)W(S/sup j//sub β/) is finite for a suitable matrix Z/sup i/j

  17. Parametric analysis of a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system for engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jian; Gu, Chun-wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is designed for engine waste heat recovery. • The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger. • The influence of the HT loop condensation parameters on the LT loop is evaluated. • Pinch point locations determine the thermal parameters of the LT loop. - Abstract: This paper presents a dual loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system consisting of a high temperature (HT) loop and a low temperature (LT) loop for engine waste heat recovery. The HT loop recovers the waste heat of the engine exhaust gas, and the LT loop recovers that of the jacket cooling water in addition to the residual heat of the HT loop. The two loops are coupled via a shared heat exchanger, which means that the condenser of the HT loop is the evaporator of the LT loop as well. Cyclohexane, benzene and toluene are selected as the working fluids of the HT loop. Different condensation temperatures of the HT loop are set to maintain the condensation pressure slightly higher than the atmosphere pressure. R123, R236fa and R245fa are chosen for the LT loop. Parametric analysis is conducted to evaluate the influence of the HT loop condensation temperature and the residual heat load on the LT loop. The simulation results reveal that under different condensation conditions of the HT loop, the pinch point of the LT loop appears at different locations, resulting in different evaporation temperatures and other thermal parameters. With cyclohexane for the HT loop and R245fa for the LT loop, the maximum net power output of the dual loop ORC system reaches 111.2 kW. Since the original power output of the engine is 996 kW, the additional power generated by the dual loop ORC system can increase the engine power by 11.2%.

  18. Automation of secondary loop operation in Indus-2 LCW plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, L.; Pandey, R.M.; Yadav, R.P.; Gupta, S.; Gandhi, M.L.; Thakurta, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Indus-2 Low Conductivity Water (LCW) plant has two loops, primary loop and secondary loop. The primary loop mainly supplies LCW to magnets, power supplies and RF systems at constant flow rate. The secondary loop extracts heat from the primary loop through heat exchangers to maintain the supply water temperature of the primary loop around a set value. The supply water temperature of the primary loop is maintained by operating the pumps and cooling towers in the secondary loop. The desired water flow rate in the secondary loop is met by the manual operation of the required number of the pumps. The automatic operation of the pumps and the cooling towers is proposed to replace the existing inefficient manual operation. It improves the operational reliability and ensures the optimum utilization of the pumps and the cooling towers. An algorithm has been developed using LabView programming to achieve optimized operation of the pumps and the cooling towers by incorporating First-In-First-Out (FIFO) logic. It also takes care of safety interlocks, and generates alarms. The program exchanges input and output signals of the plant using existing SCADA system. In this paper, the development of algorithm, its design and testing are elaborated. In the end, the results obtained thereof are discussed. (author)

  19. Random walk loop soup

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Gregory F.; Ferreras, José A. Trujillo

    2004-01-01

    The Brownian loop soup introduced in Lawler and Werner (2004) is a Poissonian realization from a sigma-finite measure on unrooted loops. This measure satisfies both conformal invariance and a restriction property. In this paper, we define a random walk loop soup and show that it converges to the Brownian loop soup. In fact, we give a strong approximation result making use of the strong approximation result of Koml\\'os, Major, and Tusn\\'ady. To make the paper self-contained, we include a proof...

  20. On loop extensions and cohomology of loops

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez, Rolando Jiménez; Meléndez, Quitzeh Morales

    2015-01-01

    In this paper are defined cohomology-like groups that classify loop extensions satisfying a given identity in three variables for association identities, and in two variables for the case of commutativity. It is considered a large amount of identities. This groups generalize those defined in works of Nishigori [2] and of Jhonson and Leedham-Green [4]. It is computed the number of metacyclic extensions for trivial action of the quotient on the kernel in one particular case for left Bol loops a...

  1. Neutron transport in irradiation loops (IRENE loop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarsam, Maher.

    1980-09-01

    This thesis is composed of two parts with different aspects. Part one is a technical description of the loop and its main ancillary facilities as well as of the safety and operational regulations. The measurement methods on the model of the ISIS reactor and on the loop in the OSIRIS reactor are described. Part two deals with the possibility of calculating the powers dissipated by each rod of the fuel cluster, using appropriate computer codes, not only in the reflector but also in the core and to suggest a method of calculation [fr

  2. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2016-01-01

    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  3. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  4. Water loop for training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.V.

    1983-02-01

    The procedures used to operate the water loop of the Institute of Nuclear Enginering (IEN) in Brazil are presented. The aim is to help future operators of the training water loop in the operation technique and in a better comprehension of the phenomena occured during the execution of an experience. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Soft thermal contributions to 3-loop gauge coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M.; Schicho, P.; Schröder, Y.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze 3-loop contributions to the gauge coupling felt by ultrasoft ("magnetostatic") modes in hot Yang-Mills theory. So-called soft/hard terms, originating from dimension-six operators within the soft effective theory, are shown to cancel 1097/1098 of the IR divergence found in a recent determination of the hard 3-loop contribution to the soft gauge coupling. The remaining 1/1098 originates from ultrasoft/hard contributions, induced by dimension-six operators in the ultrasoft effective theory. Soft 3-loop contributions are likewise computed, and are found to be IR divergent, rendering the ultrasoft gauge coupling non-perturbative at relative order O({α}s^{3/2}) . We elaborate on the implications of these findings for effective theory studies of physical observables in thermal QCD.

  6. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  7. Constructability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A set of principles for minimizing the construction schedule was established at the outset of the CANDU 300 programme. Consideration of these principles and other factors led to the development of the unique CANDU 300 station layout. The paper discusses the CANDU 300 station layout and construction methods. In summary, the station layout provides 360 deg. construction access to all buildings, separation of nuclear and non-nuclear systems, precise and minimal physical interfaces between buildings, accommodation of many contractors and construction activities without interference, and maximum flexibility in terms of constructional, financial and supply arrangements. The CANDU 300 further employs modularization, shop fabrication and advanced instrumentation (multiplexers, remote processors, data highways) to minimize construction time. Many of the CANDU 300 features that enhance constructability also contribute to maintainability. These include the 360 deg. access to all principal buildings, the uncluttered and spacious building layouts, the simplification of systems and the high level of modularization. The CANDU 300 has also been designed to facilitate the replacement of all key components, thereby offering an essentially unlimited station life. A prime example is a reduction in the fuel channel inlet end-fitting diameter such that the fuel channels can be shop assembled and easily replaced after the initial 40 years of operation, without an extended unit outage. Maintainability within the reactor building has been given particular attention in the CANDU 300 design; key features of other CANDU reactors (the ability to replace a heat transport system pump motor at power, for example) have been incorporated, while accessibility and maintainability of all systems and components have been enhanced. These and other aspects of maintainability are discussed. (author)

  8. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  9. Large lithium loop experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolowith, R.; Owen, T.J.; Berg, J.D.; Atwood, J.M.

    1981-10-01

    An engineering design and operating experience of a large, isothermal, lithium-coolant test loop are presented. This liquid metal coolant loop is called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS) and has operated safely and reliably for over 6500 hours through September 1981. The loop is used for full-scale testing of components for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Main system parameters include coolant temperatures to 430 0 C and flow to 0.038 m 3 /s (600 gal/min). Performance of the main pump, vacuum system, and control system is discussed. Unique test capabilities of the ELS are also discussed

  10. Seamless service: maintaining momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, N; Timoney, R

    1994-01-01

    Describes the process used by the Mater Infirmorum Hospital in Belfast in 1992-1994 to achieve high quality care (Seamless Service), motivate staff to deliver and measure performance. Aims of the project include focusing the organization on the customer, improving teamwork and motivation at all levels. After comprehensive data collection from GPs, patients and staff management forums developed a full TQM strategy to gain support and maintain momentum including innovative staff events (every staff member was given the opportunity to attend) where multilevel, multidisciplinary workshops enabled staff to design customer care standards, develop teams and lead customer-driven change.

  11. Gestures maintain spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K

    2001-01-01

    Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.

  12. Maintainability design guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Human Factors Design Guide for Maintainability provides guidance for systematically incorporating good human factors techniques into the design of power plants. The guide describes a means of developing a comprehensive program plan to ensure compliance with the human factors approaches specified by the utility. The guide also provides specific recommendations for design practices, with examples, bases, and references. The recommendations are formatted for easy use by nuclear power plant design teams and by utility personnel involved in specification and design review. The guide was developed under EPRI research project RP2166-4 and is currently being published

  13. Natively unstructured loops differ from other loops.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Schlessinger

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Natively unstructured or disordered protein regions may increase the functional complexity of an organism; they are particularly abundant in eukaryotes and often evade structure determination. Many computational methods predict unstructured regions by training on outliers in otherwise well-ordered structures. Here, we introduce an approach that uses a neural network in a very different and novel way. We hypothesize that very long contiguous segments with nonregular secondary structure (NORS regions differ significantly from regular, well-structured loops, and that a method detecting such features could predict natively unstructured regions. Training our new method, NORSnet, on predicted information rather than on experimental data yielded three major advantages: it removed the overlap between testing and training, it systematically covered entire proteomes, and it explicitly focused on one particular aspect of unstructured regions with a simple structural interpretation, namely that they are loops. Our hypothesis was correct: well-structured and unstructured loops differ so substantially that NORSnet succeeded in their distinction. Benchmarks on previously used and new experimental data of unstructured regions revealed that NORSnet performed very well. Although it was not the best single prediction method, NORSnet was sufficiently accurate to flag unstructured regions in proteins that were previously not annotated. In one application, NORSnet revealed previously undetected unstructured regions in putative targets for structural genomics and may thereby contribute to increasing structural coverage of large eukaryotic families. NORSnet found unstructured regions more often in domain boundaries than expected at random. In another application, we estimated that 50%-70% of all worm proteins observed to have more than seven protein-protein interaction partners have unstructured regions. The comparative analysis between NORSnet and DISOPRED2 suggested

  14. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  15. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  16. Diffusion of Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzoska, A.M.; Lenz, F.; Thies, M.; Negele, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the distribution of Wilson loops in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is presented in which Wilson loop distributions are described as the result of a diffusion process on the group manifold. It is shown that, in the absence of forces, diffusion implies Casimir scaling and, conversely, exact Casimir scaling implies free diffusion. Screening processes occur if diffusion takes place in a potential. The crucial distinction between screening of fundamental and adjoint loops is formulated as a symmetry property related to the center symmetry of the underlying gauge theory. The results are expressed in terms of an effective Wilson loop action and compared with various limits of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

  17. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001146.htm Blind loop syndrome To use the sharing features on ... Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC. Also reviewed by David ...

  18. Mashup the OODA Loop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heier, Jeffrey E

    2008-01-01

    ...) processes via the Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) Loop concept. As defined by Wikipedia, a mashup is a Website or application that combines the content from more than one source into an integrated presentation...

  19. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Vikas; Kumar Pandit, Inder; Srivastava, Nikhil; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Of this in vivo study was to evaluate various space maintainers in terms of survival rate, gingival health and presence of caries. A total of 60 extraction sites in the age group of 4 to 9 years were divided into four groups and different space maintainers were placed in them viz (conventional band and loop, prefabricated band with custom made loop, Ribbond, Super splint). Prefabricated bands with custom made loop showed maximum success rates (84.6%), while super splint (33.33%) was found to be least successful. In terms of gingival health, prefabricated band with custom made loop reported minimum cases with poor gingival health (27.2%), while maximum cases with poor gingival health (50%) were reported with Super splint. None of the space maintainers developed caries at the end of 9 months. How to cite this article: Setia v, Pandit IK, Srivastava N, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Banded vs Bonded Space Maintainers: Finding Better Way Out. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):97-104.

  20. Reactor loops at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochaski, R.O.

    1962-07-01

    This report describes broadly the nine in-reactor loops, and their components, located in and around the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River. First an introduction and general description is given of the loops and their function, supplemented with a table outlining some loop specifications and nine simplified flow sheets, one for each individual loop. The report then proceeds to classify each loop into two categories, the 'main loop circuit' and the 'auxiliary circuit', and descriptions are given of each circuit's components in turn. These components, in part, are comprised of the main loop pumps, the test section, loop heaters, loop coolers, delayed-neutron monitors, surge tank, Dowtherm coolers, loop piping. Here again photographs, drawings and tables are included to provide a clearer understanding of the descriptive literature and to include, in tables, some specifications of the more important components in each loop. (author)

  1. Automatic numerical integration methods for Feynman integrals through 3-loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Doncker, E; Olagbemi, O; Yuasa, F; Ishikawa, T; Kato, K

    2015-01-01

    We give numerical integration results for Feynman loop diagrams through 3-loop such as those covered by Laporta [1]. The methods are based on automatic adaptive integration, using iterated integration and extrapolation with programs from the QUADPACK package, or multivariate techniques from the ParInt package. The Dqags algorithm from QuadPack accommodates boundary singularities of fairly general types. PARINT is a package for multivariate integration layered over MPI (Message Passing Interface), which runs on clusters and incorporates advanced parallel/distributed techniques such as load balancing among processes that may be distributed over a network of nodes. Results are included for 3-loop self-energy diagrams without IR (infra-red) or UV (ultra-violet) singularities. A procedure based on iterated integration and extrapolation yields a novel method of numerical regularization for integrals with UV terms, and is applied to a set of 2-loop self-energy diagrams with UV singularities. (paper)

  2. Dechanneling by dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalant, Gerard.

    1976-09-01

    Ion implantation always induces the creation of dislocation loops. When the damage profile is determined by a backscattering technique, the dechanneling by these loops is implicitely at the origin of these measurements. The dechanneling of alpha particles by dislocation loops produced by the coalescence of quenched-in vacancies in aluminium is studied. The dechanneling and the concentration of loops were determined simultaneously. The dechanneling width around dislocation was found equal to lambda=6A, both for perfect and imperfect loops having a mean diameter d=250A. In the latter case, a dechanneling probability chi=0.34 was determined for the stacking fault, in good agreement with previous determination in gold. A general formula is proposed which takes into account the variation of lambda with the curvature (or the diameter d) of the loops. Finally, by a series of isothermal anneals, the self-diffusion energy ΔH of aluminium was measured. The value obtained ΔH=1.32+-0.10eV is in good agreement with the values obtained by other methods [fr

  3. Maintaining Relationship Based Procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Davis

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alliance and relationship projects are increasingin number and represent a large pool of work. Tobe successful relationship style contracts dependon soft-dollar factors, particularly the participants'ability to work together within an agreedframework, generally they are not based on lowbid tendering. Participants should be prepared todo business in an open environment based ontrust and mutually agreed governance. Theresearch evaluates relationship maintenance inthe implementation phase of constructionalliances - a particular derivative of relationshipstyle contracts. To determine the factors thatcontribute to relationship maintenance forty-nineexperienced Australian alliance projectmanagers were interviewed. The main findingswere; the development of relationships early inthe project form building blocks of success fromwhich relationships are maintained and projectvalue added; quality facilitation plays animportant part in relationship maintenance and ahybrid organisation created as a result of alliancedevelopment overcomes destructiveorganisational boundaries. Relationshipmaintenance is integral to alliance project controland failure to formalise it and pay attention toprocess and past outcomes will undermine analliance project's potential for success.

  4. Aesthetic rehabilitation with multiple loop connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a missing tooth along with diastema have limited treatment options to restore the edentulous space. The use of a conventional fixed partial denture (FPD to replace the missing tooth may result in too wide anterior teeth leading to poor esthetics. The diastema resulting from the missing central incisors can be managed with implant-supported prosthesis or FPD with loop connectors. An old lady reported with chief complaints of missing upper anterior teeth due to trauma. Her past dental history revealed that she was having generalized spacing between her upper anterior teeth. Considering her esthetic requirement of maintaining the diastema between 12, 11, 22, and 21, the treatment option of 06 units porcelain fused to metal FPD from canine to canine with intermittent loop connectors between 21, 22, 11, 12 was planned. Connectors basically link different parts of FPDs. The modified FPD with loop connectors enhanced the natural appearance of the restoration, maintained the diastemas and the proper emergence profile, and preserve the remaining tooth structure of abutment teeth. This clinical report discussed a method for fabrication of a modified FPD with loop connectors to restore the wide span created by missing central incisors.

  5. Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Moon Ki; Park, Choon Kyeong; Won, Soon Yeon; Yang, Sun Kyu; Cheong, Jang Whan; Cheon, Se Young; Song, Chul Hwa; Jeon, Hyeong Kil; Chang, Suk Kyu; Jeong, Heung Jun; Cho, Young Ro; Kim, Bok Duk; Min, Kyeong Ho

    1994-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics department have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within fuel bundle and to understand the characteristic of pressure drop required for improving the nuclear fuel and to develop the advanced measuring techniques. RCS Loop, which is used to measure the CHF, is presently under design and construction. B and C Loop is designed and constructed to assess the automatic depressurization safety system behavior. 4 tabs., 79 figs., 7 refs. (Author) .new

  6. UV/IR mixing and the Goldstone theorem in noncommutative field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Ruiz, F.

    2002-01-01

    Noncommutative IR singularities and UV/IR mixing in relation with the Goldstone theorem for complex scalar field theory are investigated. The classical model has two coupling constants, λ 1 and λ 2 , associated to the two noncommutative extensions phi*starphistarphi* starphi and phistarphi*starphistarphi of the interaction term vertical bar phi vertical bar 4 on commutative spacetime. It is shown that the symmetric phase is one-loop renormalizable for all λ 1 and λ 2 compatible with perturbation theory, whereas the broken phase is proved to exist at one loop only if λ 2 =0, a condition required by the Ward identities for global U(1) invariance. Explicit expressions for the noncommutative IR singularities in the 1PI Green functions of both phases are given. They show that UV/IR duality does not hold for any of the phases and that the broken phase is free of quadratic noncommutative IR singularities. More remarkably, the pion selfenergy does not have noncommutative IR singularities at all, which proves essential to formulate the Goldstone theorem at one loop for all values of the spacetime noncommutativity parameter θ

  7. One-loop Yukawa Couplings in Local Models

    CERN Document Server

    Conlon, Joseph P; Palti, Eran; 10.1007

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop Yukawa couplings and threshold corrections for supersymmetric local models of branes at singularities in type IIB string theory. We compute the corrections coming both from wavefunction and vertex renormalisation. The former comes in the IR from conventional field theory running and in the UV from threshold corrections that cause it to run from the winding scale associated to the full Calabi-Yau volume. The vertex correction is naively absent as it appears to correspond to superpotential renormalisation. However, we find that while the Wilsonian superpotential is not renormalised there is a physical vertex correction in the 1PI action associated to light particle loops.

  8. One-loop Yukawa couplings in local models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlon, Joseph P. [Rudolf Peierls Center for Theoretical Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Balliol College, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Palti, Eran [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    2010-07-15

    We calculate the one-loop Yukawa couplings and threshold corrections for supersymmetric local models of branes at singularities in type IIB string theory. We compute the corrections coming both from wavefunction and vertex renormalisation. The former comes in the IR from conventional field theory running and in the UV from threshold corrections that cause it to run from the winding scale associated to the full Calabi-Yau volume. The vertex correction is naively absent as it appears to correspond to superpotential renormalisation. However, we find that while the Wilsonian superpotential is not renormalised there is a physical vertex correction in the 1PI action associated to light particle loops. (orig.)

  9. One-loop Yukawa couplings in local models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, Joseph P.; Goodsell, Mark; Palti, Eran

    2010-07-01

    We calculate the one-loop Yukawa couplings and threshold corrections for supersymmetric local models of branes at singularities in type IIB string theory. We compute the corrections coming both from wavefunction and vertex renormalisation. The former comes in the IR from conventional field theory running and in the UV from threshold corrections that cause it to run from the winding scale associated to the full Calabi-Yau volume. The vertex correction is naively absent as it appears to correspond to superpotential renormalisation. However, we find that while the Wilsonian superpotential is not renormalised there is a physical vertex correction in the 1PI action associated to light particle loops. (orig.)

  10. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  11. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  12. Conformal boundary loop models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke; Saleur, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    We study a model of densely packed self-avoiding loops on the annulus, related to the Temperley-Lieb algebra with an extra idempotent boundary generator. Four different weights are given to the loops, depending on their homotopy class and whether they touch the outer rim of the annulus. When the weight of a contractible bulk loop x≡q+q -1 element of (-2,2], this model is conformally invariant for any real weight of the remaining three parameters. We classify the conformal boundary conditions and give exact expressions for the corresponding boundary scaling dimensions. The amplitudes with which the sectors with any prescribed number and types of non-contractible loops appear in the full partition function Z are computed rigorously. Based on this, we write a number of identities involving Z which hold true for any finite size. When the weight of a contractible boundary loop y takes certain discrete values, y r ≡([r+1] q )/([r] q ) with r integer, other identities involving the standard characters K r,s of the Virasoro algebra are established. The connection with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions in the O(n) model is discussed in detail, and new scaling dimensions are derived. When q is a root of unity and y=y r , exact connections with the A m type RSOS model are made. These involve precise relations between the spectra of the loop and RSOS model transfer matrices, valid in finite size. Finally, the results where y=y r are related to the theory of Temperley-Lieb cabling

  13. Endurance test for IR rig for RI production assembly (test procedure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2000-08-01

    This test procedure details the test loop, test method, and test procedure for pressure drop, vibration and endurance test of IR Rig for RI production. From the pressure drop test, the hydraulic design requirements of the capsule are verified. HANARO limit condition is checked and the compatibility with HANARO core is verified. From flow induced vibration test vibration frequency and displacement are investigated. The wear of IR Rig is investigated through endurance test, and these data are used to evaluate the expected wear at maximum resident time of the IR Rig for RI production

  14. Loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Loop quantum gravity is one of the approaches that are being studied to apply the rules of quantum mechanics to the gravitational field described by the theory of General Relativity . We present an introductory summary of the main ideas and recent results. (Author)

  15. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or scleroderma involving the small intestine History of radiation therapy to the abdomen Diabetes Diverticulosis of the small intestine Complications A blind loop can cause escalating problems, including: Poor absorption of fats. Bacteria in your small intestine break down the bile ...

  16. Improving Loop Dependence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Programmers can no longer depend on new processors to have significantly improved single-thread performance. Instead, gains have to come from other sources such as the compiler and its optimization passes. Advanced passes make use of information on the dependencies related to loops. We improve th...

  17. Cytokine loops driving senescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk; Lukáš, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2008), s. 887-889 ISSN 1465-7392 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cellular senescence * cytokines * autocrine feedback loop Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 17.774, year: 2008

  18. Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovelli Carlo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of finding the quantum theory of the gravitational field, and thus understanding what is quantum spacetime, is still open. One of the most active of the current approaches is loop quantum gravity. Loop quantum gravity is a mathematically well-defined, non-perturbative and background independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Research in loop quantum gravity today forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained are: (i The computation of the physical spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yields quantitative predictions on Planck-scale physics. (ii A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy formula. (iii An intriguing physical picture of the microstructure of quantum physical space, characterized by a polymer-like Planck scale discreteness. This discreteness emerges naturally from the quantum theory and provides a mathematically well-defined realization of Wheeler's intuition of a spacetime ``foam''. Long standing open problems within the approach (lack of a scalar product, over-completeness of the loop basis, implementation of reality conditions have been fully solved. The weak part of the approach is the treatment of the dynamics: at present there exist several proposals, which are intensely debated. Here, I provide a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  19. Effect of spin structure transition in IrMn on the CoPd/IrMn perpendicular exchange biased system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Muhammad Bilal; Guentherodt, Gernot [II. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The exchange bias (EB) phenomenon is studied in MBE grown Pd(10 nm)/CoPd(x=8,16,30 nm)/IrMn(15 nm)/Pd(4 nm) samples, which exhibit a perpendicular anisotropy of Co22Pd78. These samples are field cooled along the out-of-plane direction and hysteresis loops are measured along both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions. It is observed that there is a transition temperature where the out-of-plane EB becomes greater than the in-plane EB. This behavior of EB is an evidence of the change in the spin structure of the given system, which is also revealed by the magnetization versus temperature measurements of the exchange biased and of the sole IrMn samples. It is found that with increasing temperature there is a spin structure transition in Ir25Mn75 (15nm) related to the 2Q to 3Q transition in the bulk, which is responsible for the increase in out-of-plane EB. A vertical shift in the hysteresis loop is also observed in these exchange biased samples at low temperatures (T<50 K).

  20. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  1. Random walk loop soups and conformal loop ensembles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Brug, T.; Camia, F.; Lis, M.

    2016-01-01

    The random walk loop soup is a Poissonian ensemble of lattice loops; it has been extensively studied because of its connections to the discrete Gaussian free field, but was originally introduced by Lawler and Trujillo Ferreras as a discrete version of the Brownian loop soup of Lawler and Werner, a

  2. First cytoplasmic loop of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor can function at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takahiro; Tose, Koji; Shichida, Yoshinori

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classified into several families based on their amino acid sequences. In family 1, GPCRs such as rhodopsin and adrenergic receptor, the structure-function relationship has been extensively investigated to demonstrate that exposure of the third cytoplasmic loop is essential for selective G protein activation. In contrast, much less is known about other families. Here we prepared chimeric mutants between Gt-coupled rhodopsin and Gi/Go- and Gs-coupled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor of family 2 and tried to identify the loop region that functions at the third cytoplasmic loop position of rhodopsin. We succeeded in expressing a mutant having the first cytoplasmic loop of GLP-1 receptor and found that this mutant activated Gi and Go efficiently but did not activate Gt. Moreover, the rhodopsin mutant having the first loop of Gs-coupled secretin receptor of family 2 decreased the Gi and Go activation efficiencies. Therefore, the first loop of GLP-1 receptor would share a similar role to the third loop of rhodopsin in G protein activation. This result strongly suggested that different families of GPCRs have maintained molecular architectures of their ancestral types to generate a common mechanism, namely exposure of the cytoplasmic loop, to activate peripheral G protein.

  3. Closing the loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M

    2010-02-01

    The dream of closing the loop is actually the dream of creating an artificial pancreas and freeing the patients from being involved with the care of their own diabetes. Insulin-dependent diabetes (type 1) is a chronic incurable disease which requires constant therapy without the possibility of any 'holidays' or insulin-free days. It means that patients have to inject insulin every day of their life, several times per day, and in order to do it safely they also have to measure their blood glucose levels several times per day. Patients need to plan their meals, their physical activities and their insulin regime - there is only very small room for spontaneous activities. This is why the desire for an artificial pancreas is so strong despite the fact that it will not cure the diabetic patients. Attempts to develop a closed-loop system started in the 1960s but never got to a clinical practical stage of development. In recent years the availability of continuous glucose sensors revived those efforts and stimulated the clinician and researchers to believe that closing the loop might be possible nowadays. Many papers have been published over the years describing several different ideas on how to close the loop. Most of the suggested systems have a sensing arm that measures the blood glucose repeatedly or continuously, an insulin delivery arm that injects insulin upon command and a computer that makes the decisions of when and how much insulin to deliver. The differences between the various published systems in the literature are mainly in their control algorithms. However, there are also differences related to the method and site of glucose measurement and insulin delivery. SC glucose measurements and insulin delivery are the most studied option but other combinations of insulin measurements and glucose delivery including intravascular and intraperitoneal (IP) are explored. We tried to select recent publications that we believe had influenced and inspired people interested

  4. Loop Quantum Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2008-4.

  5. Loop Quantum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojowald Martin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations in which classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical spacetime inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding spacetime is then modified. One particular theory is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. The main effects are introduced into effective classical equations, which allow one to avoid the interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early-universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function, which allows an extension of quantum spacetime beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of spacetime arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds light on more general issues, such as the nature of time.

  6. Loop Quantum Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojowald Martin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is expected to be necessary in order to understand situations where classical general relativity breaks down. In particular in cosmology one has to deal with initial singularities, i.e., the fact that the backward evolution of a classical space-time inevitably comes to an end after a finite amount of proper time. This presents a breakdown of the classical picture and requires an extended theory for a meaningful description. Since small length scales and high curvatures are involved, quantum effects must play a role. Not only the singularity itself but also the surrounding space-time is then modified. One particular realization is loop quantum cosmology, an application of loop quantum gravity to homogeneous systems, which removes classical singularities. Its implications can be studied at different levels. Main effects are introduced into effective classical equations which allow to avoid interpretational problems of quantum theory. They give rise to new kinds of early universe phenomenology with applications to inflation and cyclic models. To resolve classical singularities and to understand the structure of geometry around them, the quantum description is necessary. Classical evolution is then replaced by a difference equation for a wave function which allows to extend space-time beyond classical singularities. One main question is how these homogeneous scenarios are related to full loop quantum gravity, which can be dealt with at the level of distributional symmetric states. Finally, the new structure of space-time arising in loop quantum gravity and its application to cosmology sheds new light on more general issues such as time.

  7. LoopIng: a template-based tool for predicting the structure of protein loops.

    KAUST Repository

    Messih, Mario Abdel

    2015-08-06

    Predicting the structure of protein loops is very challenging, mainly because they are not necessarily subject to strong evolutionary pressure. This implies that, unlike the rest of the protein, standard homology modeling techniques are not very effective in modeling their structure. However, loops are often involved in protein function, hence inferring their structure is important for predicting protein structure as well as function.We describe a method, LoopIng, based on the Random Forest automated learning technique, which, given a target loop, selects a structural template for it from a database of loop candidates. Compared to the most recently available methods, LoopIng is able to achieve similar accuracy for short loops (4-10 residues) and significant enhancements for long loops (11-20 residues). The quality of the predictions is robust to errors that unavoidably affect the stem regions when these are modeled. The method returns a confidence score for the predicted template loops and has the advantage of being very fast (on average: 1 min/loop).www.biocomputing.it/loopinganna.tramontano@uniroma1.itSupplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  9. Wilson loops in minimal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N = 4 supersymmetry in 4 dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS 5 x S 5 . The authors examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which the authors call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultra-violet divergence. They formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that they have checked, the minimal surface in AdS 5 x S 5 gives a solution of the equation. The authors also discuss the zig-zag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N = 4 gauge theory, they expect the zig-zag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. They will show how this is realized for the minimal surface

  10. Wilson loops and minimal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-01-01

    The AdS-CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry in four dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS 5 xS 5 . We examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which we call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultraviolet divergence. We formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that we have checked, the minimal surface in AdS 5 xS 5 gives a solution of the equation. We also discuss the zigzag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N=4 gauge theory, we expect the zigzag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. We will show how this is realized for the minimal surface. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. On some properties of conjugacy closed loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniran, John Olusola

    2002-07-01

    It is shown that central loops are not conjugacy closed loops but instead are loops of units in their loop algebras that are conjugacy closed. It is also shown that certain inner mappings of a conjugacy closed loop are nuclear. Some invariants of left conjugacy closed loops are obtained. (author)

  12. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and SCI • Depression and SCI • Taking Care of Pressure Sores • Maintaining Healthy Skin (Part I) • Maintaining Healthy Skin ( ... For information on establishing skin tolerance, see our “Pressure Sores” pamphlet.) Pressure releases in a wheelchair can be ...

  13. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  14. Supersymmetric Regularization Two-Loop QCD Amplitudes and Coupling Shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Lance

    2002-01-01

    We present a definition of the four-dimensional helicity (FDH) regularization scheme valid for two or more loops. This scheme was previously defined and utilized at one loop. It amounts to a variation on the standard 't Hooft-Veltman scheme and is designed to be compatible with the use of helicity states for ''observed'' particles. It is similar to dimensional reduction in that it maintains an equal number of bosonic and fermionic states, as required for preserving supersymmetry. Supersymmetry Ward identities relate different helicity amplitudes in supersymmetric theories. As a check that the FDH scheme preserves supersymmetry, at least through two loops, we explicitly verify a number of these identities for gluon-gluon scattering (gg → gg) in supersymmetric QCD. These results also cross-check recent non-trivial two-loop calculations in ordinary QCD. Finally, we compute the two-loop shift between the FDH coupling and the standard MS coupling, α s . The FDH shift is identical to the one for dimensional reduction. The two-loop coupling shifts are then used to obtain the three-loop QCD β function in the FDH and dimensional reduction schemes

  15. Supersymmetric Regularization Two-Loop QCD Amplitudes and Coupling Shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance

    2002-03-08

    We present a definition of the four-dimensional helicity (FDH) regularization scheme valid for two or more loops. This scheme was previously defined and utilized at one loop. It amounts to a variation on the standard 't Hooft-Veltman scheme and is designed to be compatible with the use of helicity states for ''observed'' particles. It is similar to dimensional reduction in that it maintains an equal number of bosonic and fermionic states, as required for preserving supersymmetry. Supersymmetry Ward identities relate different helicity amplitudes in supersymmetric theories. As a check that the FDH scheme preserves supersymmetry, at least through two loops, we explicitly verify a number of these identities for gluon-gluon scattering (gg {yields} gg) in supersymmetric QCD. These results also cross-check recent non-trivial two-loop calculations in ordinary QCD. Finally, we compute the two-loop shift between the FDH coupling and the standard {bar M}{bar S} coupling, {alpha}{sub s}. The FDH shift is identical to the one for dimensional reduction. The two-loop coupling shifts are then used to obtain the three-loop QCD {beta} function in the FDH and dimensional reduction schemes.

  16. Broadly tunable picosecond ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A completely grating tuned (1.9 to 2.4 μm) picosecond traveling wave IR generator capable of controlled spectral bandwidth operation down to the Fourier Transform limit is reported. Subsequent down conversion in CdSe extends tuning to 10 to 20 μm

  17. UV-IR mixing in nonassociative Snyder ϕ4 theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Mignemi, Salvatore; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2018-03-01

    Using a quantization of the nonassociative and noncommutative Snyder ϕ4 scalar field theory in a Hermitian realization, we present in this article analytical formulas for the momentum-conserving part of the one-loop two-point function of this theory in D -, 4-, and 3-dimensional Euclidean spaces, which are exact with respect to the noncommutative deformation parameter β . We prove that these integrals are regularized by the Snyder deformation. These results indicate that the Snyder deformation does partially regularize the UV divergences of the undeformed theory, as it was proposed decades ago. Furthermore, it is observed that different nonassociative ϕ4 products can generate different momentum-conserving integrals. Finally, most importantly, a logarithmic infrared divergence emerges in one of these interaction terms. We then analyze sample momentum nonconserving integral qualitatively and show that it could exhibit IR divergence too. Therefore, infrared divergences should exist, in general, in the Snyder ϕ4 theory. We consider infrared divergences at the limit p →0 as UV/IR mixings induced by nonassociativity, since they are associated to the matching UV divergence in the zero-momentum limit and appear in specific types of nonassociative ϕ4 products. We also discuss the extrapolation of the Snyder deformation parameter β to negative values as well as certain general properties of one-loop quantum corrections in Snyder ϕ4 theory at the zero-momentum limit.

  18. An Architectural Style for Closed-loop Process-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Eriksen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an architectural style for distributed closed-loop process control systems with high performance and hard real-time constraints. The style strikes a good balance between the architectural qualities of performance and modifiability/maintainability that traditionally are often...

  19. An Architectural Style for Closed-loop Process-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    This report describes an architectural style for distributed closed-loop process control systems with high performance and hard real-time constraints. The style strikes a good balance between the architectural qualities of performance and modifiability/maintainability that traditionally are often...

  20. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  1. Closed-loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  2. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Liberopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Tan, B.; MacGregor Smith, J.; Gershwin, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon epairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  3. Two-loop polygon Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasiou, C.; Brandhuber, A.; Heslop, P.; Spence, B.; Travaglini, G.; Khoze, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    We compute for the first time the two-loop corrections to arbitrary n-gon lightlike Wilson loops in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, using efficient numerical methods. The calculation is motivated by the remarkable agreement between the finite part of planar six-point MHV amplitudes and hexagon Wilson loops which has been observed at two loops. At n = 6 we confirm that the ABDK/BDS ansatz must be corrected by adding a remainder function, which depends only on conformally invariant ratios of kinematic variables. We numerically compute remainder functions for n = 7,8 and verify dual conformal invariance. Furthermore, we study simple and multiple collinear limits of the Wilson loop remainder functions and demonstrate that they have precisely the form required by the collinear factorisation of the corresponding two-loop n-point amplitudes. The number of distinct diagram topologies contributing to the n-gon Wilson loops does not increase with n, and there is a fixed number of 'master integrals', which we have computed. Thus we have essentially computed general polygon Wilson loops, and if the correspondence with amplitudes continues to hold, all planar n-point two-loop MHV amplitudes in the N = 4 theory.

  4. Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai

    OpenAIRE

    Mockevičius, Arminas

    2014-01-01

    Viešosios teisės magistro studijų programos studento Armino Mockevičiaus buvo parašytas magistro baigiamasis darbas „Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai“. Šis darbas parašytas Vilniuje, 2014 metais, Mykolo Romerio universiteto Teisės fakulteto Konstitucinės ir administracinės teisės institute, vadovaujant dr. Gintautui Vilkeliui, apimtis 98 p. Darbo tikslas yra atskleisti alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklau...

  5. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  6. Accelerating the loop expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermanson, R.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi 4 theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs

  7. Mirror symmetry and loop operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assel, Benjamin [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-11-09

    Wilson loops in gauge theories pose a fundamental challenge for dualities. Wilson loops are labeled by a representation of the gauge group and should map under duality to loop operators labeled by the same data, yet generically, dual theories have completely different gauge groups. In this paper we resolve this conundrum for three dimensional mirror symmetry. We show that Wilson loops are exchanged under mirror symmetry with Vortex loop operators, whose microscopic definition in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics coupled to the theory encode in a non-trivial way a representation of the original gauge group, despite that the gauge groups of mirror theories can be radically different. Our predictions for the mirror map, which we derive guided by branes in string theory, are confirmed by the computation of the exact expectation value of Wilson and Vortex loop operators on the three-sphere.

  8. Reactor recirculation pump test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taka, Shusei; Kato, Hiroyuki

    1979-01-01

    A test loop for a reactor primary loop recirculation pumps (PLR pumps) has been constructed at Ebara's Haneda Plant in preparation for production of PLR pumps under license from Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg-Warner Corporation. This loop can simulate operating conditions for test PLR pumps with 130 per cent of the capacity of pumps for a 1100 MWe BWR plant. A main loop, primary cooling system, water demineralizer, secondary cooling system, instrumentation and control equipment and an electric power supply system make up the test loop. This article describes the test loop itself and test results of two PLR pumps for Fukushima No. 2 N.P.S. Unit 1 and one main circulation pump for HAZ Demonstration Test Facility. (author)

  9. Coronal magnetic fields inferred from IR wavelength and comparison with EUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Liu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Spectropolarimetry using IR wavelength of 1075 nm has been proved to be a powerful tool for directly mapping solar coronal magnetic fields including transverse component directions and line-of-sight component intensities. Solar tomography, or stereoscopy based on EUV observations, can supply 3-D information for some magnetic field lines in bright EUV loops. In a previous paper \\citep{liu08} the locations of the IR emission sources in the 3-D coordinate system were inferred from the comparison between the polarization data and the potential-field-source-surface (PFSS model, for one of five west limb regions in the corona (Lin et al., 2004. The paper shows that the region with the loop system in the active region over the photospheric area with strong magnetic field intensity is the region with a dominant contribution to the observed Stokes signals. So, the inversion of the measured Stokes parameters could be done assuming that most of the signals come from a relatively thin layer over the area with a large photospheric magnetic field strength. Here, the five limb coronal regions are studied together in order to study the spatial correlation between the bright EUV loop features and the inferred IR emission sources. It is found that, for the coronal regions above the stronger photospheric magnetic fields, the locations of the IR emission sources are closer to or more consistent with the bright EUV loop locations than those above weaker photospheric fields. This result suggests that the structures of the coronal magnetic fields observed at IR and EUV wavelengths may be different when weak magnetic fields present there.

  10. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  11. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  12. Non-supersymmetric Wilson loop in N = 4 SYM and defect 1d CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Giombi, Simone; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2018-03-01

    Following Polchinski and Sully (arXiv:1104.5077), we consider a generalized Wilson loop operator containing a constant parameter ζ in front of the scalar coupling term, so that ζ = 0 corresponds to the standard Wilson loop, while ζ = 1 to the locally supersymmetric one. We compute the expectation value of this operator for circular loop as a function of ζ to second order in the planar weak coupling expansion in N = 4 SYM theory. We then explain the relation of the expansion near the two conformal points ζ = 0 and ζ = 1 to the correlators of scalar operators inserted on the loop. We also discuss the AdS5 × S 5 string 1-loop correction to the strong-coupling expansion of the standard circular Wilson loop, as well as its generalization to the case of mixed boundary conditions on the five-sphere coordinates, corresponding to general ζ. From the point of view of the defect CFT1 defined on the Wilson line, the ζ-dependent term can be seen as a perturbation driving a RG flow from the standard Wilson loop in the UV to the supersymmetric Wilson loop in the IR. Both at weak and strong coupling we find that the logarithm of the expectation value of the standard Wilson loop for the circular contour is larger than that of the supersymmetric one, which appears to be in agreement with the 1d analog of the F-theorem.

  13. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ežerskytė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  14. Vortex loops and Majoranas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesi, Stefano; Jaffe, Arthur; Loss, Daniel; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the role that vortex loops play in characterizing eigenstates of interacting Majoranas. We give some general results and then focus on ladder Hamiltonian examples as a test of further ideas. Two methods yield exact results: (i) A mapping of certain spin Hamiltonians to quartic interactions of Majoranas shows that the spectra of these two examples coincide. (ii) In cases with reflection-symmetric Hamiltonians, we use reflection positivity for Majoranas to characterize vortices in the ground states. Two additional methods suggest wider applicability of these results: (iii) Numerical evidence suggests similar behavior for certain systems without reflection symmetry. (iv) A perturbative analysis also suggests similar behavior without the assumption of reflection symmetry

  15. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  16. Dynamic PID loop control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Soyars, W.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.; DeGraff, B.; Darve, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter oscillations. This paper presents a type of PID parameter self-optimal and Time-Delay control method used to reduce cryogenic system parameters oscillation.

  17. Uranyl Nitrate Flow Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd-Lively, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the work discussed in this report were to: (1) develop a flow loop that would simulate the purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP); (2) develop a test plan that would simulate normal operation and disturbances that could be anticipated in an NUCP; (3) use the flow loop to test commercially available flowmeters for use as safeguards monitors; and (4) recommend a flowmeter for production-scale testing at an NUCP. There has been interest in safeguarding conversion plants because the intermediate products [uranium dioxide (UO 2 ), uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ), and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 )] are all suitable uranium feedstocks for producing special nuclear materials. Furthermore, if safeguards are not applied virtually any nuclear weapons program can obtain these feedstocks without detection by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Historically, IAEA had not implemented safeguards until the purified UF 6 product was declared as feedstock for enrichment plants. H. A. Elayat et al. provide a basic definition of a safeguards system: 'The function of a safeguards system on a chemical conversion plant is in general terms to verify that no useful nuclear material is being diverted to use in a nuclear weapons program'. The IAEA now considers all highly purified uranium compounds as candidates for safeguarding. DOE is currently interested in 'developing instruments, tools, strategies, and methods that could be of use to the IAEA in the application of safeguards' for materials found in the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle-prior to the production of the uranium hexafluoride or oxides that have been the traditional starting point for IAEA safeguards. Several national laboratories, including Oak Ridge, Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Brookhaven, have been involved in developing tools or techniques for safeguarding conversion plants. This study was sponsored by

  18. Loop Quantum Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime , is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i) The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii) A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler's "spacetime foam" intuition. (iii) Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv) A derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking black-hole entropy. (v) Low-energy calculations, yielding n -point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  19. Loop Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovelli Carlo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of describing the quantum behavior of gravity, and thus understanding quantum spacetime, is still open. Loop quantum gravity is a well-developed approach to this problem. It is a mathematically well-defined background-independent quantization of general relativity, with its conventional matter couplings. Today research in loop quantum gravity forms a vast area, ranging from mathematical foundations to physical applications. Among the most significant results obtained so far are: (i The computation of the spectra of geometrical quantities such as area and volume, which yield tentative quantitative predictions for Planck-scale physics. (ii A physical picture of the microstructure of quantum spacetime, characterized by Planck-scale discreteness. Discreteness emerges as a standard quantum effect from the discrete spectra, and provides a mathematical realization of Wheeler’s “spacetime foam” intuition. (iii Control of spacetime singularities, such as those in the interior of black holes and the cosmological one. This, in particular, has opened up the possibility of a theoretical investigation into the very early universe and the spacetime regions beyond the Big Bang. (iv A derivation of the Bekenstein–Hawking black-hole entropy. (v Low-energy calculations, yielding n-point functions well defined in a background-independent context. The theory is at the roots of, or strictly related to, a number of formalisms that have been developed for describing background-independent quantum field theory, such as spin foams, group field theory, causal spin networks, and others. I give here a general overview of ideas, techniques, results and open problems of this candidate theory of quantum gravity, and a guide to the relevant literature.

  20. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  1. A totally diverting loop colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, N. D.; Gartell, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described where the distal limb of a loop colostomy is tied with nylon or polydioxanone. This ensures total faecal diversion and dispenses with the supporting rod, enabling early application of stoma appliances. The technique does not interfere with the traditional transverse closure of a loop colostomy. PMID:8379632

  2. Radioluminescence dating: the IR emission of feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilles, Thomas.; Habermann, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A new luminescence reader for radioluminescence (RL) measurements is presented. The system allows detection of RL emissions in the near infrared region (IR). Basic bleaching properties of the IR-RL emission of feldspars are investigated. Sunlight-bleaching experiments as a test for sensitivity changes are presented. IR-bleaching experiments were carried out to obtain information about the underlying physical processes of the IR-RL emission

  3. Higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is the symmetric sector of loop quantum gravity. In this paper, we generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with arbitrary spacetime dimensions. The isotropic and homogeneous cosmological model in n + 1 dimensions is quantized by the loop quantization method. Interestingly, we find that the underlying quantum theories are divided into two qualitatively different sectors according to spacetime dimensions. The effective Hamiltonian and modified dynamical equations of n + 1 dimensional LQC are obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that the classical big bang singularity is resolved in arbitrary spacetime dimensions by a quantum bounce. We also briefly discuss the similarities and differences between the n + 1 dimensional model and the 3 + 1 dimensional one. Our model serves as a first example of higher dimensional loop quantum cosmology and offers the possibility to investigate quantum gravity effects in higher dimensional cosmology. (orig.)

  4. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabelac, M.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, P.; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report double-resonant IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy of neutral gramicidin peptides in the gas phase. The IR spectra of gramicidin A and C, recorded in both the 1000 cm(-1) to 1800 cm(-1) and the 2700 to 3750 cm(-1) region, allow structural analysis. By studying this broad IR range, various local

  5. Maintainability effectiveness evaluations and enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the mid-seventies EPRI initiated a research project to review the human factors aspects of nuclear power plant control rooms. In the course of investigating operator-control room interfaces in five operational control rooms, it became evident that many plant outages had either been caused or prolonged by human factors problems associated with maintenance activities. Consequently, as one of several follow-on projects, EPRI sponsored a review of nine power plants (five nuclear and four fossil) to examine the human factors aspects of plant maintainability. This survey revealed a wide variety of generic human factors problems that could negatively impact the effectiveness of plant maintenance personnel. It was clear that plant maintainability features deserved no less attention to human factors concerns than the operational features of the control room. This paper describes subsequent EPRI-initiated efforts to assist the utilities in conducting self-reviews of maintainability effectiveness and effect needed enhancements

  6. Banded versus Single-sided bonded space maintainers: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study is conducted to evaluate and compare the clinical performance of conventional band and loop space maintainer and fiber reinforced composite resin (FRCR space maintainers. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 extraction sites in the age group of 6–9 years having premature loss of primary molars or indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups as Group I, in which conventional band and loop space maintainer was given, Group II and Group III (FRCR, in which FRCR (everStick CandB and impregnated glass fibers (Interlig space maintainers were given, respectively. Patients were recalled at 3, 6, and 12-month interval for evaluation of all the three types of space maintainer. Results: Overall success rate of Group I was 86.7%, for Group II was 80%, and for Group III was 73.3% at the end of the study. Patient acceptability was significantly higher in Group II and Group III (FRCR as compared to Group I (Conventional band and loop. In Group I, cement loss and fracture of loop, whereas in Group II and Group III, debonding at enamel composite was the most common failure followed by debonding at fiber composite and fiber fracture. FRCR space maintainers were found to be cost-effective as compared to Group I. More linear changes and angular changes were recorded in Group I as compared to Group II and Group III but difference was not significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Only single (buccal surface application of FRCR space maintainers showed almost equal clinical efficacy compared to conventional band and loop space maintainer with significantly better patient acceptability, less cost, and time taken.

  7. A Nodal-independent and tissue-intrinsic mechanism controls heart-looping chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Emily S.; Verhoeven, Manon; Lagendijk, Anne Karine; Tessadori, Federico; Smith, Kelly; Choorapoikayil, Suma; den Hertog, Jeroen; Bakkers, Jeroen

    2013-11-01

    Breaking left-right symmetry in bilateria is a major event during embryo development that is required for asymmetric organ position, directional organ looping and lateralized organ function in the adult. Asymmetric expression of Nodal-related genes is hypothesized to be the driving force behind regulation of organ laterality. Here we identify a Nodal-independent mechanism that drives asymmetric heart looping in zebrafish embryos. In a unique mutant defective for the Nodal-related southpaw gene, preferential dextral looping in the heart is maintained, whereas gut and brain asymmetries are randomized. As genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Nodal signalling does not abolish heart asymmetry, a yet undiscovered mechanism controls heart chirality. This mechanism is tissue intrinsic, as explanted hearts maintain ex vivo retain chiral looping behaviour and require actin polymerization and myosin II activity. We find that Nodal signalling regulates actin gene expression, supporting a model in which Nodal signalling amplifies this tissue-intrinsic mechanism of heart looping.

  8. LoopIng: a template-based tool for predicting the structure of protein loops.

    KAUST Repository

    Messih, Mario Abdel; Lepore, Rosalba; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    ) and significant enhancements for long loops (11-20 residues). The quality of the predictions is robust to errors that unavoidably affect the stem regions when these are modeled. The method returns a confidence score for the predicted template loops and has

  9. IR-safe and UV-safe integrands in the EFTofLSS with exact time dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Matthew [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Senatore, Leonardo, E-mail: matthew.lewandowski@ipht.fr, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, 94306 CA (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Because large-scale structure surveys may very well be the next leading sources of cosmological information, it is important to have a precise understanding of the cosmological observables; for this reason, the Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) was developed. So far, most results in the EFTofLSS have used the so-called Einstein-de Sitter approximation, an approximation of the time dependence which is known to be accurate to better than one percent. However, in order to reach even higher accuracy, the full time dependence must be used. The computation with exact time dependence is sensitive to both infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) effects in the loop integrands, and while these effects must cancel because of diffeomorphism invariance, they make numerical computation much less efficient. We provide a formulation of the one-loop, equal-time exact-time-dependence power spectrum of density perturbations which is manifestly free of these spurious IR and UV divergences at the level of the integrand. We extend our results to the total matter mode with clustering quintessence, show that IR and UV divergences cancel, and provide the associated IR- and UV-safe integrand. This also establishes that the consistency conditions are satisfied in this system. We then use our one-loop result to do an improved precision comparison of the two-loop dark-matter power spectrum with the Dark Sky N -body simulation.

  10. Developing and maintaining nuclear competencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobert, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the following aspects on the nuclear knowledge management: assimilation of knowledge management, recognition of the nuclear specificity, attracting young talents. Another feature which, possibly, differentiates nuclear from other high-tech industries is that time constraints in some nuclear development may very well exceed the duration of a generation of professionals. That means, not only maintaining scientific and technical knowledge, which, as a minimum, leads to maintain: a rigorous supervision of human resources in quality and quantity; anticipatory planning of human resources, with a special focus on succession planning concerning expertise positions; a steady and continuous effort in training and retraining programs. Maintaining the safety culture is also one of the major managerial duties. Taking full account of the nuclear specificity in knowledge maintenance and development in the AREVA group, requests a multifunctional approach, which combines efforts of Research and Innovation, and Human Resources departments, plus the group Nuclear inspectorate. It is acknowledged that the industry, basically, would readily rely on the capabilities of the academic world and research centers in ensuring that training and education in nuclear science and technologies are attuned to the evolving needs of the industry, in maintaining the proper educational programs and in fostering fruitful cooperations between them

  11. [Maintaining patients' autonomy at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Bénédicte; Coudre, Jean Pierre

    2015-01-01

    To maintain the flow of hospital discharges, the patient's return home with support from a home nursing service is important. If any difficulties are identified, there are various programmes or good practices which can be put into place. The future law on adapting society to ageing also comprises a scheme combining home assistance and nursing care.

  12. Rogowski Loop design for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Hatcher, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Rogowski Loop is one of the most basic diagnostics for tokamak operations. On the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), the plasma current Rogowski Loop had the constraints of the very limited space available on the center stack, 5,000 volt isolation, flexibility requirements as it remained a part of the Center Stack assembly after the first phase of operation, and a +120 C temperature requirement. For the second phase of operation, four Halo Current Rogowski Loops under the Center Stack tiles will be installed having +600 C and limited space requirements. Also as part of the second operational phase, up to ten Rogowski Loops will installed to measure eddy currents in the Passive Plate support structures with +350 C, restricted space, and flexibility requirements. This presentation will provide the details of the material selection, fabrication techniques, testing, and installation results of the Rogowski Loops that were fabricated for the high temperature operational and bakeout requirements, high voltage isolation requirements, and the space and flexibility requirements imposed upon the Rogowski Loops. In the future operational phases of NSTX, additional Rogowski Loops could be anticipated that will measure toroidal plasma currents in the vacuum vessel and in the Passive Plate assemblies

  13. String corrections to circular Wilson loop and anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnazzo, Alessandra; Medina-Rincon, Daniel; Zarembo, Konstantin

    2018-02-01

    We study string quantum corrections to the ratio of latitude and circular Wilson loops in N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory at strong coupling. Conformal gauge for the corresponding minimal surface in AdS5 × S 5 is singular and we show that an IR anomaly associated with the divergence in the conformal factor removes previously reported discrepancy with the exact field-theory result. We also carefully check conformal anomaly cancellation and recalculate fluctuation determinants by directly evaluting phaseshifts for all the fluctuation modes.

  14. Symmetry-improved 2PI approach to the Goldstone-boson IR problem of the SM effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Pilaftsis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effective potential of the Standard Model (SM, from three loop order and higher, suffers from infrared (IR divergences arising from quantum effects due to massless would-be Goldstone bosons associated with the longitudinal polarizations of the W± and Z bosons. Such IR pathologies also hinder accurate evaluation of the two-loop threshold corrections to electroweak quantities, such as the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. However, these divergences are an artifact of perturbation theory, and therefore need to be consistently resummed in order to obtain an IR-safe effective potential. The so-called Two-Particle-Irreducible (2PI effective action provides a rigorous framework to consistently perform such resummations, without the need to resort to ad hoc subtractions or running into the risk of over-counting contributions. By considering the recently proposed symmetry-improved 2PI formalism, we address the problem of the Goldstone-boson IR divergences of the SM effective potential in the gaugeless limit of the theory. In the same limit, we evaluate the IR-safe symmetry-improved 2PI effective potential, after taking into account quantum loops of chiral fermions, as well as the renormalization of spurious custodially breaking effects triggered by fermionic Yukawa interactions. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained with other methods presented in the literature.

  15. UNRAVELLING THE COMPONENTS OF A MULTI-THERMAL CORONAL LOOP USING MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SEISMOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S. Krishna; Jess, D. B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, J. A. [Heliophysics Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771 (United States); Banerjee, D., E-mail: krishna.prasad@qub.ac.uk [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, II Block Koramangala, Bengaluru 560034 (India)

    2017-01-10

    Coronal loops, constituting the basic building blocks of the active Sun, serve as primary targets to help understand the mechanisms responsible for maintaining multi-million Kelvin temperatures in the solar and stellar coronae. Despite significant advances in observations and theory, our knowledge on the fundamental properties of these structures is limited. Here, we present unprecedented observations of accelerating slow magnetoacoustic waves along a coronal loop that show differential propagation speeds in two distinct temperature channels, revealing the multi-stranded and multithermal nature of the loop. Utilizing the observed speeds and employing nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolations, we derive the actual temperature variation along the loop in both channels, and thus are able to resolve two individual components of the multithermal loop for the first time. The obtained positive temperature gradients indicate uniform heating along the loop, rather than isolated footpoint heating.

  16. Two-loop hard-thermal-loop thermodynamics with quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Petitgirard, Emmanuel; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the quark contribution to the free energy of a hot quark-gluon plasma to two-loop order using hard-thermal-loop (HTL) perturbation theory. All ultraviolet divergences can be absorbed into renormalizations of the vacuum energy and the HTL quark and gluon mass parameters. The quark and gluon HTL mass parameters are determined self-consistently by a variational prescription. Combining the quark contribution with the two-loop HTL perturbation theory free energy for pure glue we obtain the total two-loop QCD free energy. Comparisons are made with lattice estimates of the free energy for N f =2 and with exact numerical results obtained in the large-N f limit

  17. String breaking with Wilson loops?

    CERN Document Server

    Kratochvila, S; Kratochvila, Slavo; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2003-01-01

    A convincing, uncontroversial observation of string breaking, when the static potential is extracted from Wilson loops only, is still missing. This failure can be understood if the overlap of the Wilson loop with the broken string is exponentially small. In that case, the broken string ground state will only be seen if the Wilson loop is long enough. Our preliminary results show string breaking in the context of the 3d SU(2) adjoint static potential, using the L\\"uscher-Weisz exponential variance reduction approach. As a by-product, we measure the fundamental SU(2) static potential with improved accuracy and see clear deviations from Casimir scaling.

  18. BMN correlators by loop equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynard, Bertrand; Kristjansen, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    In the BMN approach to N=4 SYM a large class of correlators of interest are expressible in terms of expectation values of traces of words in a zero-dimensional gaussian complex matrix model. We develop a loop-equation based, analytic strategy for evaluating such expectation values to any order in the genus expansion. We reproduce the expectation values which were needed for the calculation of the one-loop, genus one correction to the anomalous dimension of BMN-operators and which were earlier obtained by combinatorial means. Furthermore, we present the expectation values needed for the calculation of the one-loop, genus two correction. (author)

  19. Traceable calibration of hospital 192Ir HDR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govinda Rajan, K.N.; Sharma, S.D.; Palaniselvam, T.; Vandana, S.; Bhatt, B.C.; Vinatha, S.; Patki, V.S.; Pendse, A.M.; Kannan, V.

    2004-01-01

    A HDR 1000 PLUS well type ionization chamber, procured from Standard Imaging, USA, and maintained by medical Physics and Safety Section (MPSS), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, as a reference well chamber 1 (RWCH1), was traceably calibrated against the primary standard established by Radiological Standards Laboratory (RSL), BARC for 192 Ir HDR source, in terms of air kerma strength (AKS). An indigenously developed well-type ionization chamber, reference well chamber 2 (RWCH2) and electrometer system, fabricated by CD High Tech (CDHT) Instruments Private Ltd., Bangalore, India, was in turn calibrated against RWCH1. The CDHT system (i.e. RWCH2 and CDHT electrometer system) was taken to several hospitals, in different regions of the country, to check the calibration status of 192 Ir HDR sources. The result of this calibration audit work is reported here. (author)

  20. Optical loop framing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Prono, D.S.; Cavagnolo, H.R.

    1984-06-01

    The ATA provides an electron beam pulse of 70-ns duration at a 1-Hz rate. Our present optical diagnostics technique involve the imaging of the visible light generated by the beam incident onto the plant of a thin sheet of material. It has already been demonstrated that the light generated has a sufficiently fast temporal reponse in performing beam diagnostics. Notwithstanding possible beam emittance degradation due to scattering in the thin sheet, the observation of beam spatial profiles with relatively high efficiencies has provided data complementary to that obtained from beam wall current monitors and from various x-ray probes and other electrical probes. The optical image sensor consists of a gated, intensified television system. The gate pulse of the image intensifier can be appropriately delayed to give frames that are time-positioned from the head to the tail of the beam with a minimum gate time of 5-ns. The spatial correlation of the time frames from pulse to pulse is very good for a stable electron beam; however, when instabilities do occur, it is difficult to properly assess the spatial composition of the head and the tail of the beam on a pulse-to-pulse basis. Multiple gating within a pulse duration becomes desirable but cannot be performed because the recycle time (20-ms) of the TV system is much longer than the beam pulse. For this reason we have developed an optical-loop framing technique that will allow the recording of two frames within one pulse duration with our present gated/intensified TV system

  1. Maintaining steam/condensate lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russum, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Steam and condensate systems must be maintained with the same diligence as the boiler itself. Unfortunately, they often are not. The water treatment program, critical to keeping the boiler at peak efficiency and optimizing operating life, should not stop with the boiler. The program must encompass the steam and condensate system as well. A properly maintained condensate system maximizes condensate recovery, which is a cost-free energy source. The fuel needed to turn the boiler feedwater into steam has already been provided. Returning the condensate allows a significant portion of that fuel cost to be recouped. Condensate has a high heat content. Condensate is a readily available, economical feedwater source. Properly treated, it is very pure. Condensate improves feedwater quality and reduces makeup water demand and pretreatment costs. Higher quality feedwater means more reliable boiler operation

  2. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  3. Maintaining protein composition in cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Louise A; Elmaghloob, Yasmin; Ismail, Shehab

    2017-12-20

    The primary cilium is a sensory organelle that is vital in regulating several signalling pathways. Unlike most organelles cilia are open to the rest of the cell, not enclosed by membranes. The distinct protein composition is crucial to the function of cilia and many signalling proteins and receptors are specifically concentrated within distinct compartments. To maintain this composition, a mechanism is required to deliver proteins to the cilium whilst another must counter the entropic tendency of proteins to distribute throughout the cell. The combination of the two mechanisms should result in the concentration of ciliary proteins to the cilium. In this review we will look at different cellular mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the distinct composition of cilia, including regulation of ciliary access and trafficking of ciliary proteins to, from and within the cilium.

  4. Improving versus maintaining nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The concept of improving nuclear safety versus maintaining it has been discussed at a number of nuclear regulators meetings in recent years. National reports have indicated that there are philosophical differences between NEA member countries about whether their regulatory approaches require licensees to continuously improve nuclear safety or to continuously maintain it. It has been concluded that, while the actual level of safety achieved in all member countries is probably much the same, this is difficult to prove in a quantitative way. In practice, all regulatory approaches require improvements to be made to correct deficiencies and when otherwise warranted. Based on contributions from members of the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA), this publication provides an overview of current nuclear regulatory philosophies and approaches, as well as insights into a selection of public perception issues. This publication's intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  5. The recent and prospective developments of cooled IR FPAs for double application at Electron NRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutunov, V. A.; Vasilyev, I. S.; Ivanov, V. G.; Prokofyev, A. E.

    2003-09-01

    The recent and prospective developments of monolithic silicon IR-Schottky-barrier staring focal plane arrays (IR SB FPAs), photodetector assembly, and digital thermal imaging cameras (TICs) at Electron National Research Institute (Electron NRI) are considered. Basic parameters for IR SB FPAs with 256x256 and 512x512 pixels, and TICs based on these arrays are presented. The problems emerged while proceeding from the developments of IR SB FPAs for the wavelength range from 3 μm to 5 μm to the developments of those ones for xLWIR range are indicated (an abrupt increase in the level of background architecture). Possibility for further improvement in basic parameters of IR SB FPAs are discussed (a decrease in threshold signal power down to 0.5-1.0"1013 W/element with an increase in quantum efficiency, a decrease in output noise and proceeding to Schottky barriers of degenerated semiconductor/silicon heterojunction, and implementation of these array parameters in photodetector assembly with improved thermal background shielding taking into consideration an optical structure of TIC for concrete application). It is concluded that relative simplicity of the technology and expected low cost of monolithic silicon IR SB FPAs with basic parameters compared with hybrid IR FPAs for the wavelength ranges from 3 μm to 5 μm and from 8 μm to 12 μm maintain large monolithic IR SB FPAs as a basis for developments of double application digital TICs in the Russian Federation.

  6. Semiclassical relations and IR effects in de Sitter and slow-roll space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-01-01

    We calculate IR divergent graviton one-loop corrections to scalar correlators in de Sitter space, and show that the leading IR contribution may be reproduced via simple semiclassical consistency relations. One can likewise use such semiclassical relations to calculate leading IR corrections to correlators in slow-roll inflation. The regulated corrections shift the tensor/scalar ratio and consistency relation of single field inflation, and non-gaussianity parameters averaged over very large distances. For inflation of sufficient duration, for example arising from a chaotic inflationary scenario, these corrections become of order unity. First-order corrections of this size indicate a breakdown of the perturbative expansion, and suggest the need for a non-perturbative description of the corresponding regime. This is analogous to a situation argued to arise in black hole evolution, and to interfere with a sharp perturbative calculation of ''missing information'' in Hawking radiation.

  7. Semiclassical relations and IR effects in de Sitter and slow-roll space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giddings, Steven B.; Sloth, Martin S.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate IR divergent graviton one-loop corrections to scalar correlators in de Sitter space, and show that the leading IR contribution may be reproduced via simple semiclassical consistency relations. One can likewise use such semiclassical relations to calculate leading IR corrections to correlators in slow-roll inflation. The regulated corrections shift the tensor/scalar ratio and consistency relation of single field inflation, and non-gaussianity parameters averaged over very large distances. For inflation of sufficient duration, for example arising from a chaotic inflationary scenario, these corrections become of order unity. First-order corrections of this size indicate a breakdown of the perturbative expansion, and suggest the need for a non-perturbative description of the corresponding regime. This is analogous to a situation argued to arise in black hole evolution, and to interfere with a sharp perturbative calculation of ''missing information'' in Hawking radiation

  8. Osteoclasts and CD8 T cells form a negative feedback loop that contributes to homeostasis of both the skeletal and immune systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Zachary S; Aurora, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of dynamic regulatory loops that maintain homeostasis of the immune and skeletal systems. In this review, we highlight a number of these regulatory interactions that contribute to maintaining homeostasis. In addition, we review data on a negative regulatory feedback loop between osteoclasts and CD8 T cells that contributes to homeostasis of both the skeletal and immune systems.

  9. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  10. STATYBINIŲ MEDŽIAGŲ KONKURENCINGUMAS IR TENDENCIJOS

    OpenAIRE

    Kontrimas, Robertas

    2010-01-01

    Darbe analizuojamas statybinių medžiagų konkurencingumas, nustatyti statybinių medžiagų konkurencingumą įtakojantys veiksniai ir pateikti pasiūlymai rinkos gerinimui. Pasitvirtino hipotezė, kad statybinių medžiagų paklausą ir kainas įtakoja klientų poreikiai ir jų finansinės galimybės, tačiau pasaulinės krizės įtaka yra labai ženkli,. Atlikta darbuotojų ir pirkėjų apklausa padėjo nustatyti, kokios statybinės medžiagos dažniausiai yra perkamos, kaip klientai ir darbuotojai vertina įmonę ir jos...

  11. Developing and maintaining instructor capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, W.P.; Smith, G.

    1985-01-01

    The New York Power Authority, after surveying available courses, decided to develop an in-house instructor training program. Following the principles of the Systems Approach to Training the course embodied the results of a job analysis resulting in a program containing instruction in Educational Philosophy, the Systems Approach to Training, Methods and Media, and Testing. The course content is covered through classroom instruction, on-the-job training, instructor evaluations, and assignments. Instructors completing the program continue to maintain skills with inservice training

  12. Hermann agreement updates IRS guidelines for incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccolo, B M; Peregrine, M W

    1995-01-01

    The October 1994 agreement between the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Hermann Hospital of Houston, Texas, elucidates current IRS policy on physician recruitment incentives. The IRS distinguishes between the recruiting and the retention of physicians and perimts incentives beyond reasonable compensation in the former but not the latter circumstance. This new agreement, while not legally precedential, nevertheless provides guidance for healthcare organizations seeking safe harbor protection.

  13. Photothermal IR spectroscopy with perforated membrane micromechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian

    -IR method. In order to overcome them, string resonators were replaced by membranes. A reliable sampling technique was maintained by adding perforation to membranes and thereby essentially getting membrane porous filters. Membranes gave also access to fully integrated magnetic transduction that allowed...... for significant shrinkage and simplification of the system. An analytical model of a locally heated membrane was developed and confirmed through FEM simulations. Then, low stress silicon nitride perforated membranes were fabricated and characterized using two different experimental setups that employed optical...

  14. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    sensitivity and detection limit were due to the temperature difference between the two junctions formed by the nanohybrid thin film and copper-wire electrodes under asymmetric IR illumination, and the difference between the effective Seebeck coefficient of the nanohybrid thin film and that of the Cu wires. The IR sensor embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers was also fabricated and tested to demonstrate its potential application as a flexible IR sensor. In another application, energy harvesting, a new type of thermoelectric microgenerator enabled with the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterial, was fabricated. This type of microgenerator did not require any cooling or heat sink element to maintain the temperature difference or gradient in the device. Instead, the integrated nanomaterials in the device enhanced the local temperature and thus produced and maintained an intrinsic temperature difference or gradient across the microgenerator, thereby converting light and heat directly into electricity. In order to enhance the maximum output voltage, the incoming light had to be focused on the thin film region. A tunable lens was fabricated to collect and focus the ambient light on the thin film to enhance the output voltage of the microgenerators. The tunable lens was fabricated with a flexible polymer, PDMS. Therefore, the focal length of the tunable lens can be adjusted by pumping oil into the lens chamber to deform a PDMS membrane, resulting in the changed focus of the lens. In order to enhance the output power, two different arrays of thermoelectric generators in series and in parallel were fabricated. A hybrid nanomaterial thin film was also used to enhance the temperature gradient of the thermoelectric generators. For the devices in series, the generated voltage of all thermoelectric generators was combined together to enhance the output voltage. With the device in parallel, it can be used to combine all of the current of thermoelectric generators together to

  15. OH/IR stars in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, B.

    1978-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations leading to the discovery of 71 OH/IR sources are described in this thesis. These OH/IR sources are characterized by their double peaked OH emission profile at a wavelength of 18 cm and by their strong IR infrared emission. An analysis of the distribution and radial velocities of a number of previously known and new OH/IR sources was performed. The parameter ΔV (the velocity separation between two emission peaks of the 18 cm line profile) was found to be a good criterion for a population classification with respect to stellar age

  16. Loop equations in the theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Voronov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Loop-space variables (matrices of parallel transport) for the theory of gravitation are described. Loop equations, which are equivalent to the Einstein equations, are derived in the classical case. Loop equations are derived for gravity with cosmological constant as well. An analogy with the loop-space approach in Yang-Mills theory is discussed [ru

  17. Kalman Orbit Optimized Loop Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lawrence E.; Meehan, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Under certain conditions of low signal power and/or high noise, there is insufficient signal to noise ratio (SNR) to close tracking loops with individual signals on orbiting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In addition, the processing power available from flight computers is not great enough to implement a conventional ultra-tight coupling tracking loop. This work provides a method to track GNSS signals at very low SNR without the penalty of requiring very high processor throughput to calculate the loop parameters. The Kalman Orbit-Optimized Loop (KOOL) tracking approach constitutes a filter with a dynamic model and using the aggregate of information from all tracked GNSS signals to close the tracking loop for each signal. For applications where there is not a good dynamic model, such as very low orbits where atmospheric drag models may not be adequate to achieve the required accuracy, aiding from an IMU (inertial measurement unit) or other sensor will be added. The KOOL approach is based on research JPL has done to allow signal recovery from weak and scintillating signals observed during the use of GPS signals for limb sounding of the Earth s atmosphere. That approach uses the onboard PVT (position, velocity, time) solution to generate predictions for the range, range rate, and acceleration of the low-SNR signal. The low- SNR signal data are captured by a directed open loop. KOOL builds on the previous open loop tracking by including feedback and observable generation from the weak-signal channels so that the MSR receiver will continue to track and provide PVT, range, and Doppler data, even when all channels have low SNR.

  18. A type of loop algebra and the associated loop algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam Honwah; Zhang Yufeng

    2008-01-01

    A higher-dimensional twisted loop algebra is constructed. As its application, a new Lax pair is presented, whose compatibility gives rise to a Liouville integrable hierarchy of evolution equations by making use of Tu scheme. One of the reduction cases of the hierarchy is an analogous of the well-known AKNS system. Next, the twisted loop algebra, furthermore, is extended to another higher dimensional loop algebra, from which a hierarchy of evolution equations with 11-potential component functions is obtained, whose reduction is just standard AKNS system. Especially, we prove that an arbitrary linear combination of the four Hamiltonian operators directly obtained from the recurrence relations is still a Hamiltonian operator. Therefore, the hierarchy with 11-potential functions possesses 4-Hamiltonian structures. Finally, an integrable coupling of the hierarchy is worked out

  19. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  20. Deletion of Irs2 causes reduced kidney size in mice: role for inhibition of GSK3beta?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carew, Rosemarie M.

    2010-07-06

    Abstract Background Male Irs2-\\/- mice develop fatal type 2 diabetes at 13-14 weeks. Defects in neuronal proliferation, pituitary development and photoreceptor cell survival manifest in Irs2-\\/- mice. We identify retarded renal growth in male and female Irs2-\\/- mice, independent of diabetes. Results Kidney size and kidney:body weight ratio were reduced by approximately 20% in Irs2-\\/- mice at postnatal day 5 and was maintained in maturity. Reduced glomerular number but similar glomerular density was detected in Irs2-\\/- kidney compared to wild-type, suggesting intact global kidney structure. Analysis of insulin signalling revealed renal-specific upregulation of PKBβ\\/Akt2, hyperphosphorylation of GSK3β and concomitant accumulation of β-catenin in Irs2-\\/- kidney. Despite this, no significant upregulation of β-catenin targets was detected. Kidney-specific increases in Yes-associated protein (YAP), a key driver of organ size were also detected in the absence of Irs2. YAP phosphorylation on its inhibitory site Ser127 was also increased, with no change in the levels of YAP-regulated genes, suggesting that overall YAP activity was not increased in Irs2-\\/- kidney. Conclusions In summary, deletion of Irs2 causes reduced kidney size early in mouse development. Compensatory mechanisms such as increased β-catenin and YAP levels failed to overcome this developmental defect. These data point to Irs2 as an important novel mediator of kidney size.

  1. Overexpression of IRS2 in isolated pancreatic islets causes proliferation and protects human β-cells from hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S.; Spinas, G.A.; Maedler, K.; Zuellig, R.A.; Lehmann, R.; Donath, M.Y.; Trueb, T.; Niessen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Studies in vivo indicate that IRS2 plays an important role in maintaining functional β-cell mass. To investigate if IRS2 autonomously affects β-cells, we have studied proliferation, apoptosis, and β-cell function in isolated rat and human islets after overexpression of IRS2 or IRS1. We found that β-cell proliferation was significantly increased in rat islets overexpressing IRS2 while IRS1 was less effective. Moreover, proliferation of a β-cell line, INS-1, was decreased after repression of Irs2 expression using RNA oligonucleotides. Overexpression of IRS2 in human islets significantly decreased apoptosis of β-cells, induced by 33.3 mM D-glucose. However, IRS2 did not protect cultured rat islets against apoptosis in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitic acid. Overexpression of IRS2 in isolated rat islets significantly increased basal and D-glucose-stimulated insulin secretion as determined in perifusion experiments. Therefore, IRS2 is sufficient to induce proliferation in rat islets and to protect human β-cells from D-glucose-induced apoptosis. In addition, IRS2 can improve β-cell function. Our results indicate that IRS2 acts autonomously in β-cells in maintenance and expansion of functional β-cell mass in vivo

  2. Tritium Management Loop Design Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jordan D. [ORNL; Felde, David K. [ORNL; McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Greenwood, Michael Scott [ORNL; Qualls, A L. [ORNL; Calderoni, Pattrick [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2017-12-01

    This report summarizes physical, chemical, and engineering analyses that have been done to support the development of a test loop to study tritium migration in 2LiF-BeF2 salts. The loop will operate under turbulent flow and a schematic of the apparatus has been used to develop a model in Mathcad to suggest flow parameters that should be targeted in loop operation. The introduction of tritium into the loop has been discussed as well as various means to capture or divert the tritium from egress through a test assembly. Permeation was calculated starting with a Modelica model for a transport through a nickel window into a vacuum, and modifying it for a FLiBe system with an argon sweep gas on the downstream side of the permeation interface. Results suggest that tritium removal with a simple tubular permeation device will occur readily. Although this system is idealized, it suggests that rapid measurement capability in the loop may be necessary to study and understand tritium removal from the system.

  3. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, A.; Mikhov, M.; Skumryev, V.; Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E.; Geshev, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe_3O_4 and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  4. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harres, A. [Departamento de Física, UFSM, Santa Maria, 97105-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Mikhov, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Skumryev, V. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Geshev, J., E-mail: julian@if.ufrgs.br [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  5. Teaching IR to Medical Students: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aoife M; Lee, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has grown rapidly over the last 20 years and is now an essential component of modern medicine. Despite IR's increasing penetration and reputation in healthcare systems, IR is poorly taught, if taught at all, in most medical schools. Medical students are the referrers of tomorrow and potential IR recruits and deserve to be taught IR by expert IRs. The lack of formal IR teaching curricula in many medical schools needs to be addressed urgently for the continued development and dissemination of, particularly acute, IR services throughout Europe. We call on IRs to take up the baton to teach IR to the next generation of doctors.

  6. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  7. Operation of the nuclear fuel cycle test facilities -Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, S. Y.; Jeong, M. K.; Park, C. K.; Yang, S. K.; Won, S. Y.; Song, C. H.; Jeon, H. K.; Jeong, H. J.; Cho, S.; Min, K. H.; Jeong, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A performance and reliability of a advanced nuclear fuel and reactor newly designed should be verified by performing the thermal hydraulics tests. In thermal hydraulics research team, the thermal hydraulics tests associated with the development of an advanced nuclear fuel and reactor haven been carried out with the test facilities, such as the Hot Test Loop operated under high temperature and pressure conditions, Cold Test Loop, RCS Loop and B and C Loop. The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the advanced measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics research team have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for the double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of CANFLEX fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within HANARO fuel bundle and to study a thermal mixing characteristic of PWR fuel bundle. RCS thermal hydraulic loop was constructed and the experiments have been carried out to measure the critical heat flux. In B and C Loop, the performance tests for each component were carried out. (author). 19 tabs., 78 figs., 19 refs

  8. Operation of the nuclear fuel cycle test facilities -Operation of the hot test loop facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, S. Y.; Jeong, M. K.; Park, C. K.; Yang, S. K.; Won, S. Y.; Song, C. H.; Jeon, H. K.; Jeong, H. J.; Cho, S.; Min, K. H.; Jeong, J. H.

    1997-01-01

    A performance and reliability of a advanced nuclear fuel and reactor newly designed should be verified by performing the thermal hydraulics tests. In thermal hydraulics research team, the thermal hydraulics tests associated with the development of an advanced nuclear fuel and reactor haven been carried out with the test facilities, such as the Hot Test Loop operated under high temperature and pressure conditions, Cold Test Loop, RCS Loop and B and C Loop. The objective of this project is to obtain the available experimental data and to develop the advanced measuring techniques through taking full advantage of the facilities. The facilities operated by the thermal hydraulics research team have been maintained and repaired in order to carry out the thermal hydraulics tests necessary for providing the available data. The performance tests for the double grid type bottom end piece which was improved on the debris filtering effectivity were performed using the PWR-Hot Test Loop. The CANDU-Hot Test Loop was operated to carry out the pressure drop tests and strength tests of CANFLEX fuel. The Cold Test Loop was used to obtain the local velocity data in subchannel within HANARO fuel bundle and to study a thermal mixing characteristic of PWR fuel bundle. RCS thermal hydraulic loop was constructed and the experiments have been carried out to measure the critical heat flux. In B and C Loop, the performance tests for each component were carried out. (author). 19 tabs., 78 figs., 19 refs.

  9. Thermodynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.F.; Zhu, J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is very powerful to deal with the behavior of early universe. Moreover, the effective loop quantum cosmology gives a successful description of the universe in the semiclassical region. We consider the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe as a thermodynamical system and investigate the thermodynamics of LQC in the semiclassical region. The effective density and effective pressure in the modified Friedmann equation from LQC not only determine the evolution of the universe in LQC scenario but also are actually found to be the thermodynamic quantities. This result comes from the energy definition in cosmology (the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy) and is consistent with thermodynamic laws. We prove that within the framework of loop quantum cosmology, the elementary equation of equilibrium thermodynamics is still valid.

  10. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  11. Atom condensation on an atomically smooth surface: Ir, Re, W, and Pd on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Ehrlich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of condensing metal atoms over the two types of sites present on an atomically smooth Ir(111) has been measured in a field ion microscope. For Ir, Re, W, and Pd from a thermal source, condensing on Ir(111) at ∼20 K, the atoms are randomly distributed, as expected if they condense at the first site struck

  12. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  13. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myth...

  14. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  15. Benzene adsorption and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Ludwig, W.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption, decompn. and oxidn. of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) was studied by high resoln. (synchrotron) XPS, temp. programmed desorption and LEED. Mol. adsorption of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) is obsd. between 170 K and 350 K. Above this temp. both desorption and decompn. of benzene take place. An ordered

  16. High pressure experimental water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1958-01-01

    A high pressure experimental water loop has been made for studying the detection and evolution of cladding failure in a pressurized reactor. The loop has been designed for a maximum temperature of 360 deg. C, a maximum of 160 kg/cm 2 and flow rates up to 5 m 3 /h. The entire loop consists of several parts: a main circuit with a canned rotor circulation pump, steam pressurizer, heating tubes, two hydro-cyclones (one de-gasser and one decanter) and one tubular heat exchanger; a continuous purification loop, connected in parallel, comprising pressure reducing valves and resin pots which also allow studies of the stability of resins under pressure, temperature and radiation; following the gas separator is a gas loop for studying the recombination of the radiolytic gases in the steam phase. The preceding circuits, as well as others, return to a low pressure storage circuit. The cold water of the low pressure storage flask is continuously reintroduced into the high pressure main circuit by means of a return pump at a maximum head of 160 kg /cm 2 , and adjusted to the pressurizer level. This loop is also a testing bench for the tight high pressure apparatus. The circulating pump and the connecting flanges (Oak Ridge type) are water-tight. The feed pump and the pressure reducing valves are not; the un-tight ones have a system of leak recovery. To permanently check the tightness the circuit has been fitted with a leak detection system (similar to the HRT one). (author) [fr

  17. Integrable systems and loop coproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musso, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    We present a generalization of a framework for the construction of classical integrable systems that we call loop coproduct formulation (Musso 2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 434026). In this paper, the loop coproduct formulation includes systems of Gelfand-Tsetlin type, the linear r-matrix formulation, the Sklyanin algebras, the reflection algebras, the coalgebra symmetry approach and some of its generalizations as particular cases, showing that all these apparently different approaches have a common algebraic origin. On the other hand, all these subcases do not exhaust the domain of applicability of this new technique, so that new possible directions of investigation do naturally emerge in this framework.

  18. Perturbations in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W; Agullo, I; Ashtekar, A

    2014-01-01

    The era of precision cosmology has allowed us to accurately determine many important cosmological parameters, in particular via the CMB. Confronting Loop Quantum Cosmology with these observations provides us with a powerful test of the theory. For this to be possible, we need a detailed understanding of the generation and evolution of inhomogeneous perturbations during the early, quantum gravity phase of the universe. Here, we have described how Loop Quantum Cosmology provides a completion of the inflationary paradigm, that is consistent with the observed power spectra of the CMB

  19. LISA Pathfinder: OPD loop characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Michael; LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    The optical metrology system (OMS) of the LISA Pathfinder mission is measuring the distance between two free-floating test masses with unprecedented precision. One of the four OMS heterodyne interferometers reads out the phase difference between the reference and the measurement laser beam. This phase from the reference interferometer is common to all other longitudinal interferometer read outs and therefore subtracted. In addition, the phase is fed back via the digital optical pathlength difference (OPD) control loop to keep it close to zero. Here, we analyse the loop parameters and compare them to on-ground measurement results.

  20. LOOP: engineering marvel, economic calamity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brossard, E B

    1985-01-01

    The Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP) is the first superport built in the Lower 48. The United States was the only major oil-importing country that did not have a superport, and therefore, could not offload very large crude carriers (VLCCs). Unfortunately, a number of factors changed after it was decided to build LOOP, and these, plus the onerous provisions of the Deepwater Ports Act of 1974, which authorized superports, prevented LOOP from operating economically. LOOP's facilities consist of an offshore platform complex with three single-point-mooring (SPM) system buoys, 19 miles offshore in 110 feet of water, as well as a 32-million-barrel storage terminal 31 miles inland at Clovelly Salt Dome, and connecting pipelines offshore and onshore. By the time LOOP was started-up in May 1981, demand for oil had declined, because of rises in the price of oil, and the source of US oil imports had shifted back to the western hemisphere, away from the eastern hemisphere, closer to the US. The refinery mix in the US also changed, because of up-grading of a number of big refineries, which further reduced demand and made heavier crudes from countries like Mexico and Venezuela more economical. Because of reduced oil imports and shorter hauls, oil shippers started using or continued to use smaller tankers. Smaller tankers are not economical for LOOP, nor do they need LOOP. The start-up of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) in mid-1977 backed out 1.5 million bd/sup -1/ of foreign imports. TAPS' capacity coincides with LOOP's offloading capacity of 1.4 million bd/sup -1/. US decontrol of domestic crude in 1981 and increased drilling, plus general energy conservation further reduced US oil imports. US consumption declined to 15.1 million bd/sup -1/ in 1983, from 18.8 million bd/sup -1/ in 1978. This award-winning superport needed federal decontrol and increased oil imports along with more VLCCs, in order to operate economically.

  1. Two-Loop Splitting Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  2. Two-loop splitting amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Kosower, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Splitting amplitudes govern the behavior of scattering amplitudes at the momenta of external legs become collinear. In this talk we outline the calculation of two-loop splitting amplitudes via the unitarity sewing method. This method retains the simple factorization properties of light-cone gauge, but avoids the need for prescriptions such as the principal value or Mandelstam-Leibbrandt ones. The encountered loop momentum integrals are then evaluated using integration-by-parts and Lorentz invariance identities. We outline a variety of applications for these splitting amplitudes

  3. Fermions and loops on graphs: I. Loop calculus for determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, Vladimir Y; Chertkov, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series devoted to evaluation of the partition function in statistical models on graphs with loops in terms of the Berezin/fermion integrals. The paper focuses on a representation of the determinant of a square matrix in terms of a finite series, where each term corresponds to a loop on the graph. The representation is based on a fermion version of the loop calculus, previously introduced by the authors for graphical models with finite alphabets. Our construction contains two levels. First, we represent the determinant in terms of an integral over anti-commuting Grassmann variables, with some reparametrization/gauge freedom hidden in the formulation. Second, we show that a special choice of the gauge, called the BP (Bethe–Peierls or belief propagation) gauge, yields the desired loop representation. The set of gauge fixing BP conditions is equivalent to the Gaussian BP equations, discussed in the past as efficient (linear scaling) heuristics for estimating the covariance of a sparse positive matrix

  4. Robust fault detection in open loop vs. closed loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, J.

    1997-01-01

    The robustness aspects of fault detection and isolation (FDI) for uncertain systems are considered. The FDI problem is considered in a standard problem formulation. The FDI design problem is analyzed both in the case where the control input signal is considered as a known external input signal (o...... (open loop) and when the input signal is generated by a feedback controller...

  5. A virtual closed loop method for closed loop identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agüero, J.C.; Goodwin, G.C.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Indirect methods for the identification of linear plant models on the basis of closed loop data are based on the use of (reconstructed) input signals that are uncorrelated with the noise. This generally requires exact (linear) controller knowledge. On the other hand, direct identification requires

  6. Smulkaus ir vidutinio verslo konkurencingumas Lietuvoje

    OpenAIRE

    Vijeikis, Juozas; Makštutis, Antanas

    2009-01-01

    Straipsnio mokslinė problema, naujumas ir aktualumas. Konkurencingumas kaip įmonių efektyvios veiklos reiškinys yra aktualus šalies verslo gyvenime vykdant darnios ekonominės plėtros politiką. Ši politika kaip problema smulkaus ir vidutinio verslo (SVV) plėtrai ir konkurencingumui didinti nėra sistemiškai ištirta ir aprašyta Lietuvos sąlygomis mokslinėje ir praktinėje literatūroje. Vienas svarbiausių veiksnių, siekiant spartaus ekonominio augimo, yra darnios verslininkystės plėtra Lietuvoje n...

  7. Heating and dynamics of two flare loop systems observed by AIA and EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiu, J., E-mail: yingli@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We investigate heating and evolution of flare loops in a C4.7 two-ribbon flare on 2011 February 13. From Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) imaging observations, we can identify two sets of loops. Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectroscopic observations reveal blueshifts at the feet of both sets of loops. The evolution and dynamics of the two sets are quite different. The first set of loops exhibits blueshifts for about 25 minutes followed by redshifts, while the second set shows stronger blueshifts, which are maintained for about one hour. The UV 1600 observation by AIA also shows that the feet of the second set of loops brighten twice. These suggest that continuous heating may be present in the second set of loops. We use spatially resolved UV light curves to infer heating rates in the few tens of individual loops comprising the two loop systems. With these heating rates, we then compute plasma evolution in these loops with the 'enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops' model. The results show that, for the first set of loops, the synthetic EUV light curves from the model compare favorably with the observed light curves in six AIA channels and eight EIS spectral lines, and the computed mean enthalpy flow velocities also agree with the Doppler shift measurements by EIS. For the second set of loops modeled with twice-heating, there are some discrepancies between modeled and observed EUV light curves in low-temperature bands, and the model does not fully produce the prolonged blueshift signatures as observed. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies.

  8. Building and maintaining media contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bob

    2000-01-01

    This presentation is answering the question: 'how does British Energy build and maintain its relationships with journalists in so many areas', not only the basic industrial correspondents that you would expect to have to deal with an industry British Energy, but those dealing with science and technology, the environment, personnel and training, city and financial, political, and on and on, and that is just the national press. Then add the local and regional media around power station sites - literally hundreds of contacts and you start to get an idea about the size of our media contact database. But it is managed it rather well. Every six months British Energy takes part in a survey run by one of the UK's leading market research companies who conducts a poll among journalists and then rate each company's performance. In the last three years British Energy has not been outside the top five in most categories, and in the top two in several. The answer is a lot of work over a long period of time. You cannot expect to build trusting relationships with a journalist overnight. At British Energy the key is being open and honest, and always available. Of course good media relations is not a one-way street, and there has to be some element of compromise if you are to achieve a relationship based on mutual trust

  9. Tarptautinio turizmo raida ir vystymo prognozės Lietuvoje ir Lenkijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Veličkaitė, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    Išanalizuota ir įvertinta Lietuvos ir Lenkijos atvykstamojo turizmo raida 2000- 2007m., užsienio turistų srautai, apgyvendinimo paslaugų paklausa, turistų tikslai ir kelionių transporto pasirinkimas, turistų išlaidos ir šalių turizmo pajamos, iškeltos atvykstamojo turizmo problemos bei pateikti jų sprendimo siūlymai.paskutinėje darbo dalyje buvo atliktos 2008- 2015metų Lietuvos ir Lenkijos turizmo raidos prognozės. In the final master work Lithuanian and Poland arriving tourism development...

  10. TRF2 Recruits RTEL1 to Telomeres in S Phase to Promote T-Loop Unwinding

    OpenAIRE

    Sarek, Grzegorz; Vannier, Jean-Baptiste; Panier, Stephanie; Petrini, John?H.J.; Boulton, Simon?J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The helicase RTEL1 promotes t-loop unwinding and suppresses telomere fragility to maintain the integrity of vertebrate telomeres. An interaction between RTEL1 and PCNA is important to prevent telomere fragility, but how RTEL1 engages with the telomere to promote t-loop unwinding is unclear. Here, we establish that the shelterin protein TRF2 recruits RTEL1 to telomeres in S phase, which is required to?prevent catastrophic t-loop processing by structure-specific nucleases. We show that ...

  11. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirante, R.; Innone, A.; Catalano, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots

  12. Boosted PWM open loop control of hydraulic proportional valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirante, R.; Catalano, L.A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Gestionale, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy); Innone, A. [Universita degli Studi di Foggia, via Napoli, 25 Foggia (Italy)

    2008-08-15

    This paper presents an innovative open loop control technique for direct single stage hydraulic proportional valves whose response rate is significantly higher than that obtained by standard open loop control techniques, even comparable to more costly commercial closed loop systems. Different from standard open loop techniques, which provide the coil with a constant current proportional to the target position, the control strategy proposed in this paper employs the peak and hold (P and H) technique, widely used in Diesel engine modern supply systems, to boost the duty cycle value of the pulse width modulation (PWM) signal for a short time, namely during the spool displacement, while maintaining a lower duty cycle for holding the spool in the required opening position. The developed 'boosted PWM' technique only requires a low cost microcontroller, such as a peripheral interface controller (PIC) equipped with a metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) power driver. The PWM parameters are calibrated as a function of the spool displacement so as to maximize the response rate without introducing overshoots: the collected data are stored in the PIC. Different valve opening procedures with step response have been compared to demonstrate the merits of the proposed boosted PWM technique. No overshoots have been registered. Moreover, the proposed method is characterized by a significantly higher response rate with respect to a standard open loop control, which approximately has the same cost. Similar experimental tests show that the proposed boosted PWM technique has a response rate even higher than that provided by the more costly commercial closed loop system mounted on the valve, and it produces no overshoots. (author)

  13. Free loop spaces and cyclohedra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2003), s. 151-157 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : cyclohedron * free loop space * recognition Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Feedback - closing the loop digitally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagel, J.; Chase, B.

    1992-01-01

    Many feedback and feedforward systems are now using microprocessors within the loop. We describe the wide range of possibilities and problems that arise. We also propose some ideas for analysis and testing, including examples of motion control in the Flying Wire systems in Main Ring and Tevatron and Low Level RF control now being built for the Fermilab Linac upgrade. (author)

  15. Morbidity of temporary loop ileostomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakx, R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Bemelman, W. A.; Veldink, G. J.; Slors, J. F. M.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: A temporary loop ileostomy is constructed to protect a distal colonic anastomosis. Closure is usually performed not earlier than 8 - 12 weeks after the primary operation. During this period, stoma-related complications can occur and enhance the adverse effect on quality of life. The

  16. Wilson loops in Kerr gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Tiomno, J.

    1981-01-01

    The ordered integrals for several paths in Kerr gravitation is computed in a compact form. When the path is closed its relation with the angular parallel displacement is discussed and the corresponding Wilson loop is calculated. The validity of Mandelstam relations for gauge fields is also explicitly verified. (Author) [pt

  17. Loop quantum cosmology: Recent progress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aspects of the full theory of loop quantum gravity can be studied in a simpler .... group) 1-forms and vector fields and Λ is an SO(3)-matrix indicating the internal ... are p and c which are related to the more familiar scale factor by the relations.

  18. PONDEROMOTIVE ACCELERATION IN CORONAL LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Obenschain, K. [LCP and FD, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Laming, J. M. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Taylor, B. D. [AFRL Eglin AFB, Pensacola, FL 32542 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, the well-known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3–4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a “by-product” of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 to 0.02 T and lengths from 25,000 to 75,000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets, which act to heat the loop. As a consequence of coronal magnetic reconnection, small-scale, high-speed jets form. The familiar vortex quadrupoles form at reconnection sites. Between the magnetic footpoints and the corona the reconnection flow merges with the boundary flow. It is in this region that the ponderomotive acceleration occurs. Mirroring the character of the coronal reconnection, the ponderomotive acceleration is also found to be intermittent.

  19. Loop quantum cosmology and singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyve, Ward

    2017-08-15

    Loop quantum gravity is believed to eliminate singularities such as the big bang and big crunch singularity. This belief is based on studies of so-called loop quantum cosmology which concerns symmetry-reduced models of quantum gravity. In this paper, the problem of singularities is analysed in the context of the Bohmian formulation of loop quantum cosmology. In this formulation there is an actual metric in addition to the wave function, which evolves stochastically (rather than deterministically as the case of the particle evolution in non-relativistic Bohmian mechanics). Thus a singularity occurs whenever this actual metric is singular. It is shown that in the loop quantum cosmology for a homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker space-time with arbitrary constant spatial curvature and cosmological constant, coupled to a massless homogeneous scalar field, a big bang or big crunch singularity is never obtained. This should be contrasted with the fact that in the Bohmian formulation of the Wheeler-DeWitt theory singularities may exist.

  20. PONDEROMOTIVE ACCELERATION IN CORONAL LOOPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlburg, R. B.; Obenschain, K.; Laming, J. M.; Taylor, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderomotive acceleration has been asserted to be a cause of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect, the well-known enhancement in abundance by a factor of 3–4 over photospheric values of elements in the solar corona with FIP less than about 10 eV. It is shown here by means of numerical simulations that ponderomotive acceleration occurs in solar coronal loops, with the appropriate magnitude and direction, as a “by-product” of coronal heating. The numerical simulations are performed with the HYPERION code, which solves the fully compressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations including nonlinear thermal conduction and optically thin radiation. Numerical simulations of coronal loops with an axial magnetic field from 0.005 to 0.02 T and lengths from 25,000 to 75,000 km are presented. In the simulations the footpoints of the axial loop magnetic field are convected by random, large-scale motions. There is a continuous formation and dissipation of field-aligned current sheets, which act to heat the loop. As a consequence of coronal magnetic reconnection, small-scale, high-speed jets form. The familiar vortex quadrupoles form at reconnection sites. Between the magnetic footpoints and the corona the reconnection flow merges with the boundary flow. It is in this region that the ponderomotive acceleration occurs. Mirroring the character of the coronal reconnection, the ponderomotive acceleration is also found to be intermittent.

  1. Independent SU(2)-loop variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loll, R.

    1991-04-01

    We give a reduction procedure for SU(2)-trace variables and introduce a complete set of indepentent, gauge-invariant and almost local loop variables for the configuration space of SU(2)-lattice gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions. (orig.)

  2. An experimental study of dislocation loop nucleation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounaud, J.Y.; Leteurtre, J.

    1975-01-01

    The nucleation of dislocation loops is experimentally studied by observing the demixion of the Burgers vectors of dislocation loops nucleated in copper whiskers irradiated in flexion by fission fragments at room temperature. The demixion of Burgers vectors is observed by the dimensional effects of dislocation loops: after irradiation, the applied stress is removed; the whisker shows a residual strain that is due to loops because, after an annealing treatment to evaporate dislocation loops, each whisker recovers its initial straight shape. Everywhere along the whisker, the radius of curvature is measured and plotted vs the max. applied stress. Estimations of the interstitial and vacancy dislocation loop nuclei are derived [fr

  3. The efficacy of imagery rescripting (IR) for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Won; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2013-12-01

    There is a need for brief effective treatment of social phobia and Imagery Rescripting (IR) is a potential candidate. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of IR preceded by cognitive restructuring as a stand-alone brief treatment using a randomized controlled design. Twenty-three individuals with social phobia were randomly assigned to an IR group or to a control group. Participants in the IR group were provided with one session of imagery interviewing and two sessions of cognitive restructuring and Imagery Rescripting. Those in the control group had one session of clinical interviewing and two sessions of supportive therapy. Outcome measures including the Korean version of the social avoidance and distress scale (K-SADS) were administered before and after treatment, and at three-month follow-up. The short version of the Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery and the Traumatic Experience Scale were also administered before treatment. Participants in the IR group improved significantly on K-SADS and other outcome measures, compared to the control group. The beneficial effects of IR were maintained at three-month follow-up. It was also found that mental imagery ability and the severity of the traumatic experience did not moderate the outcome of IR. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of our study using a large sample. The efficacy of IR as a stand-alone brief treatment was demonstrated for social phobia. The findings indicate that IR could be utilized as a cost-effective intervention for social phobia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  5. Interventions for maintaining nasogastric feeding after stroke: An integrative review of effectiveness and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Catherine; Veitch, Linda

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of interventions for maintaining nasogastric tubes in adult stroke patients. Internationally, incidence of cerebral vascular disease continues to increase and stroke is the largest cause of complex disability in adults. Dysphagia is common following a stroke which necessitates feeding via a nasogastric tube. Nasogastric tubes are not well tolerated by stroke patients and may be frequently dislodged. Hence, interventions such as tape, the nasal bridle/loop or hand mittens may be used to maintain nasogastric tube position. However, evidence around the effectiveness and acceptability of these interventions has not been reviewed and synthesised. Integrative literature review. Database searches in MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane and EMBASE; manual reference list searches. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Evidence for the effectiveness of nasal bridle/loop and hand mittens to maintain nasogastric tube position in patients after a stroke is spare and methodologically poor, and especially limited around hand mittens use. There is insufficient evidence about the acceptability of both nasal bridle/loop and hand mittens among stroke patients. Current clinical practice is underpinned by assumptions around the acceptability of nasal bridle/loop and hand mittens to secure nasogastric tubes. This results in reliance on consensual judgement between professional, patients and their families to guide their use among individuals with dysphagia after stroke. Further research is required to assess the effectiveness of hand mittens and acceptability of both nasal bridle/loop and hand mittens among stroke patients to inform guideline development. Given the lack of evidence on the acceptability of hand mittens and nasal bridle/loop among stroke patients to inform evidence-based guidelines and protocols, healthcare professionals should reach consensus on their use by exercising clinical

  6. Systematic implementation of implicit regularization for multi-loop Feynman Diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherchiglia, Adriano Lana; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, Maria Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Implicit Regularization (IR) is a candidate to become an invariant framework in momentum space to perform Feynman diagram calculations to arbitrary loop order. The essence of the method is to write the divergences in terms of loop integrals in one internal momentum which do not need to be explicitly evaluated. Moreover it acts in the physical dimension of the theory and gauge invariance is controlled by regularization dependent surface terms which when set to zero define a constrained version of IR (CIR) and deliver gauge invariant amplitudes automatically. Therefore it is in principle applicable to all physical relevant quantum field theories, supersymmetric gauge theories included. A non trivial question is whether we can generalize this program to arbitrary loop order in consonance with locality, unitarity and Lorentz invariance, especially when overlapping divergences occur. In this work we present a systematic implementation of our method that automatically displays the terms to be subtracted by Bogoliubov's recursion formula. Therefore, we achieve a twofold objective: we show that the IR program respects unitarity, locality and Lorentz invariance and we show that our method is consistent since we are able to display the divergent content of a multi-loop amplitude in a well defined set of basic divergent integrals in one internal momentum. We present several examples (from 1-loop to n-loops) using scalar φ 6 3 theory in order to help the reader understand and visualize the essence of the IR program. The choice of a scalar theory does not reduce the generality of the method presented since all other physical theories can be treated within the same strategy after space time and internal algebra are performed. Another result of this contribution is to show that if the surface terms are not set to zero they will contaminate the renormalization group coefficients. Thus, we are forced to adopt CIR which is equivalent to demand momentum routing invariance

  7. Vartotojų lojalumas : formavimas ir valdymas

    OpenAIRE

    Zikienė, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Vienas iš esminių daugelio organizacijų tikslų, garantuojančių tolesnį sėkmingą konkuravimą nuolat besikeičiančiame verslo pasaulyje, yra vartotojų lojalumo įgijimas ir išlaikymas. Įvairios lojalumo formavimo ir valdymo problemos plačiai ir detaliai analizuojamos šioje mokomojoje knygoje. Knyga pradedama vartotojų lojalumo analize marketingo mokslo raidos kontekste. Tolesnis dėmesys skiriamas vartotojų lojalumo vadybinio aspekto analizei, atskleidžiant vartotojų lojalumo koncepcijos teorines ...

  8. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues; Das TApIR Experiment IR-Absorptionsspektren fluessiger Wasserstoffisotopologe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-11-27

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  9. Light-like noncommutativity, light-front quantization and new light on UV/IR mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.; Tureanu, A.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the problem of quantizing field theories on noncommutative Moyal space-time with light-like noncommutativity. To tackle the issues arising from noncommuting and hence nonlocal time, we argue that for this case light-front quantization procedure should be employed. In this appropriate quantization scheme we perform the non-planar loop analysis for the light-like noncommutative field theories. One of the important and peculiar features of light-front quantization is that the UV cutoff of the light-cone Hamiltonian manifests itself as an IR cutoff for the light-cone momentum, p + . Due to this feature, the naive results of covariant quantization for the light-like case allude to the absence of the UV/IR mixing in the light-front quantization. However, by a careful analysis of non-planar loop integrals we show that this is not the case and the UV/IR mixing persists. In addition, we argue in favour of the perturbative unitarity of light-like noncommutative field theories in the light-front quantization scheme.

  10. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    component will warrant redress. The degree of fault attributed to the producer will in part depend on whether they have met the best available standards at all stages in the preparation of the product. If a Transfusion Service can show that it's operation has external accreditation, particularly to an internationally recognised standard such as ISO 9000 and they can show that staff have been properly trained, that equipment is properly supplied and maintained and that the facility is appropriate to the work being carried out, then the liability that exists when something goes wrong will be reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  11. Two- and three-loop amplitudes in covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, K.

    1988-04-01

    We study 2- and 3-loop vacuum-amplitudes for the closed bosonic string. We compare two sets of expressions for the corresponding density on moduli space: One, based on the covariant Reggeon loop calculus (where modular invariance is not manifest). The other, based on analytic geometry. We want to prove identity between the two sets of expressions. Quite apart from demonstrating modular invariance of the Reggeon results, this would in itself be a remarkable mathematical feature. Identity is established to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. The expansions reveal an essentially number-theoretical structure. Agreement is found only by exploiting the connection between the 4 Jacobi θ-functions and number theory. (orig.)

  12. Two- and three-loop amplitudes in covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, K.

    1989-01-01

    We study two- and three-loop vacuum amplitudes for the closed bosonic string. We compare two sets of expressions for the corresponding density on moduli space. One is based on the covariant reggeon loop calculus (where modular invariance is not manifest). The other is based on analytic geometry. We want to prove identity between the two sets of expressions. Quite apart from demonstrating modular invariance of the reggeon results, this would in itself be a remarkable mathematical feature. Identity is established to ''high'' order in some moduli and exactly in others. The expansions reveal an essentially number-theoretic structure. Agreement is found only by exploiting the connection between the four Jacobi θ-functions and number theory. (orig.)

  13. Building and maintaining media relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterberg, Anders

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In my opinion good media relations are among the most valuable investments regarding the communications and Public Relations operations within an Organisation. This means, that all the work you put up in building and maintaining media relations, is worth all the efforts. It can mean the difference between success or failure. Although a reporter never would admit that he or she is easily influenced, the fact is that you would get better press in an emergency case if you have a positive personal relation to the reporter. So, in my opinion there is nothing more important, in building and maintaining media relations, than the face-to-face-contact. My experience of good personal relations to reporters is also that you're not only getting better press in emergency cases. You are more successful in getting published when you have something positive to say, too. Honesty and openness are two key-words in this context. I have never tried to manipulate and delude a reporter, since that definitely would ruin the relationship. I always try to be as straight forward as possible and underline what I can say and what I can't. That instead of presenting some forced lies. For me, it is also very important to create some kind of mid-field ground, where the reporter and I can meet unprejudiced. Sense of humour and distance, both to yourself and your organisation, are two main characteristics that are invaluable in order to create a good personal relationship with a reporter. But, I'm very accurate in emphasizing when I enter my role as a company representative. All in order to be regarded as correct, yet obliging. To be quick when it comes to returning calls is another vital component that gives the reporter a feeling that he or she is important enough to be contacted as soon as possible. This service-minded attitude is of course good for the relationship. Besides the more personal relation it's important to have a business-like relation, where you show a great deal of

  14. Design validation and performance of closed loop gas recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmani, S.D.; Majumder, G.; Mondal, N.K.; Shinde, R.R.; Joshi, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    A pilot experimental set up of the India Based Neutrino Observatory's ICAL detector has been operational for the last 4 years at TIFR, Mumbai. Twelve glass RPC detectors of size 2 × 2 m 2 , with a gas gap of 2 mm are under test in a closed loop gas recirculation system. These RPCs are continuously purged individually, with a gas mixture of R134a (C 2 H 2 F 4 ), isobutane (iC 4 H 10 ) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) at a steady rate of 360 ml/h to maintain about one volume change a day. To economize gas mixture consumption and to reduce the effluents from being released into the atmosphere, a closed loop system has been designed, fabricated and installed at TIFR. The pressure and flow rate in the loop is controlled by mass flow controllers and pressure transmitters. The performance and integrity of RPCs in the pilot experimental set up is being monitored to assess the effect of periodic fluctuation and transients in atmospheric pressure and temperature, room pressure variation, flow pulsations, uniformity of gas distribution and power failures. The capability of closed loop gas recirculation system to respond to these changes is also studied. The conclusions from the above experiment are presented. The validations of the first design considerations and subsequent modifications have provided improved guidelines for the future design of the engineering module gas system.

  15. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Michael W.; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKCδ on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKCδ catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1

  16. Mechanical properties of different types of space maintainers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldiman, M.-A.; Mârţu, I.; Leiţoiu, B.; Luchian, I.; Lupescu, O.; Bârcă, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    Currently, inside the oral cavity, the dental space maintainers are subjected to forces exerted on them when performing various functions; therefore, it is important to know how each of these mechanisms behave and respond to forces that are applied directly to them. The mechanical properties of the materials used in dentistry are defined by a set of characteristics representing the behaviour of their particular working conditions and it is qualitatively expressed by a number of parameters.The study aimed to determine the pressing force that can be taken by four 4 types of space maintainers frequently used in practice - fixed and removable, applied on four samples realized with human teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Static tests were carried out on a machine type short WDW-5 EC with a maximum force of 5 kN and a loading speed of 5 mm/min by a special testing machine, with an innovative appliance; data recording was automatically performed, using a computer with a special program that present the specific diagrams. Experimental determinations included the following aspects: to determine the maximum force that can be supported by each sample, and to observe the deformations. The values obtained indicate that the best option in terms of behavior under the conditions specified is the removable appliance, and the less functional version is the fixed space maintainer using brackets. According to tests conducted, the fracture strength was found to be more important for fixed space maintainers (band and loop, for example) so, in practice is using more frequent these types of space maintainers.

  17. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  18. Implementing GPS into Pave-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    To further enhance the capabilities of the Pave-IR thermal segregation detection system developed at the Texas Transportation Institute, researchers incorporated global positioning system (GPS) data collection into the thermal profiles. This GPS capa...

  19. Joint IAEA/NEA IRS guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants

  20. Estimation of complex permittivity using loop antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A method for estimating the complex permittivity of materials in the vicinity of a loop antenna is proposed. The method is based on comparing measured and numerically calculated input admittances for the loop antenna.......A method for estimating the complex permittivity of materials in the vicinity of a loop antenna is proposed. The method is based on comparing measured and numerically calculated input admittances for the loop antenna....

  1. A True Open-Loop Synchronization Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: Closed-loop and open-loop methods. The open-loop synchronization (OLS) techniques, contrary to the closed-loop ones, are unconditionally stable and benefit from a fast dynamic response. Their performance, however, tends...... is to develop a true OLS (and therefore, unconditionally stable) technique without any need for the calculation of sine and cosine functions. The effectiveness of the proposed synchronization technique is confirmed through the simulation and experimental results....

  2. String states, loops and effective actions in noncommutative field theory and matrix models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold C. Steinacker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Refining previous work by Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we discuss bi-local string states as a tool for loop computations in noncommutative field theory and matrix models. Defined in terms of coherent states, they exhibit the stringy features of noncommutative field theory. This leads to a closed form for the 1-loop effective action in position space, capturing the long-range non-local UV/IR mixing for scalar fields. The formalism applies to generic fuzzy spaces. The non-locality is tamed in the maximally supersymmetric IKKT or IIB model, where it gives rise to supergravity. The linearized supergravity interactions are obtained directly in position space at one loop using string states on generic noncommutative branes.

  3. String states, loops and effective actions in noncommutative field theory and matrix models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinacker, Harold C., E-mail: harold.steinacker@univie.ac.at

    2016-09-15

    Refining previous work by Iso, Kawai and Kitazawa, we discuss bi-local string states as a tool for loop computations in noncommutative field theory and matrix models. Defined in terms of coherent states, they exhibit the stringy features of noncommutative field theory. This leads to a closed form for the 1-loop effective action in position space, capturing the long-range non-local UV/IR mixing for scalar fields. The formalism applies to generic fuzzy spaces. The non-locality is tamed in the maximally supersymmetric IKKT or IIB model, where it gives rise to supergravity. The linearized supergravity interactions are obtained directly in position space at one loop using string states on generic noncommutative branes.

  4. Automation of loop amplitudes in numerical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, K.; Nakazawa, N.; Kaneko, T.

    1997-01-01

    An automatic calculating system GRACE-L1 of one-loop Feynman amplitude is reviewed. This system can be applied to 2 to 2-body one-loop processes. A sample calculation of 2 to 3-body one-loop amplitudes is also presented. (orig.)

  5. Fluctuation current in superconducting loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    A superconducting loop that encloses noninteger flux holds a permanent current. On the average, this current is also present above T c , and has been measured in recent years. We are able to evaluate the permanent current within the TDGL or the Kramer-Watts-Tobin models for loops of general configuration, i.e., we don't require uniform cross section, material or temperature. We can also consider situations in which the width is not negligible in comparison to the radius. Our results agree with experiments. The situations with which we deal at present include fluctuation superconductivity in two-band superconductors, equilibrium thermal fluctuations of supercurrent along a weak link, and ratchet effects.

  6. In pile helium loop ''COMEDIE''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abassin, J.J.; Blanchard, R.J.; Gentil, J.

    1981-01-01

    The SR1 test in the COMEDIE loop has permitted to demonstrate particularly the device operation reliability with a fuel loading. The post-irradiation examinations have pointed out the good filter efficiency and have enabled to determine the deposition profiles either for the activation products (e.g.: 51 Cr, 60 Co) or for the fission products (e.g.: sup(110m)Ag, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs). (author)

  7. Dispersion relations in loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    These lecture notes give a pedagogical introduction to the use of dispersion relations in loop calculations. We first derive dispersion relations which allow us to recover the real part of a physical amplitude from the knowledge of its absorptive part along the branch cut. In perturbative calculations, the latter may be constructed by means of Cutkosky's rule, which is briefly discussed. For illustration, we apply this procedure at one loop to the photon vacuum-polarization function induced by leptons as well as to the γf anti-f vertex form factor generated by the exchange of a massive vector boson between the two fermion legs. We also show how the hadronic contribution to the photon vacuum polarization may be extracted from the total cross section of hadron production in e + e - annihilation measured as a function of energy. Finally, we outline the application of dispersive techniques at the two-loop level, considering as an example the bosonic decay width of a high-mass Higgs boson. (author)

  8. NiTi bonded space regainer/maintainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negi K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Early orthodontic interventions are often initiated in the developing dentition to promote favorable developmental changes. Interceptive orthodontic can eliminate or reduce the severity of a developing malocclusion, the complexity of orthodontic treatment, overall treatment time and cost. Premature loss of deciduous tooth or teeth can often destroy the integrity of normal occlusion. There are many space regaining and maintaining devices mentioned in literature. In this article, I present a simple space regaining method by a piece of nickel titanium (NiTi wire bonded between the teeth in active loop form, and the unique shape memory property of NiTi wire will upright or move the teeth and the lost space can be regained easily.

  9. Optimal fit of chairside-fabricated distal shoe space maintainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, M R; Kennedy, D B

    2013-10-01

    Premature loss of a primary second molar may lead to space loss in the dental arch. This space loss tends to be more severe in unfavourable malocclusions. The distal shoe space maintainer (DSSM) may be beneficial in controlling the path of eruption of an unerupted permanent first molar from the primary into the early mixed dentition. This article describes the technique for achieving optimal fit of a chairside-fabricated band and DSSM in a single visit by contouring the distal shoe blade, and by extending it to the mesial surface of the permanent first molar. Upon the eruption of the permanent first molar DSSM may be modified to a reverse band-and-loop, or replaced by a lingual holding arch.

  10. Oscillation damping of chiral string loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav

    2002-01-01

    Chiral cosmic string loops tend to the stationary (vorton) configuration due to energy loss into gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We describe the asymptotic behavior of near stationary chiral loops and their fading to vortons. General limits on the gravitational and electromagnetic energy losses by near stationary chiral loops are found. For these loops we estimate the oscillation damping time. We present solvable examples of gravitational radiation energy loss by some chiral loop configurations. The analytical dependence of string energy with time is found in the case of the chiral ring with small amplitude radial oscillations

  11. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.; Roland, K.O.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The covariant loop calculus provides and efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit 2- and 3- loop results derived using analytic geometry (1 loop is known to be ok). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various non-trivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  12. Algorithm for counting large directed loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianconi, Ginestra [Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Gulbahce, Natali [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-06-06

    We derive a Belief-Propagation algorithm for counting large loops in a directed network. We evaluate the distribution of the number of small loops in a directed random network with given degree sequence. We apply the algorithm to a few characteristic directed networks of various network sizes and loop structures and compare the algorithm with exhaustive counting results when possible. The algorithm is adequate in estimating loop counts for large directed networks and can be used to compare the loop structure of directed networks and their randomized counterparts.

  13. Functional Fourier transforms and the loop equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadskii, M.A.; Vaisburd, I.D.; Migdal, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Migdal-Makeenko momentum-space loop equation is investigated. This equation is derived from the ordinary loop equation by taking the Fourier transform of the Wilson functional. A perturbation theory is constructed for the new equation and it is proved that the action of the loop operator is determined by vertex functions which coincide with those of the previous equation. It is shown how the ghost loop arises in direct iterations of the momentum-space equation with respect to the coupling constant. A simple example is used to illustrate the mechanism of appearance of an integration in the interior loops in transition to observables

  14. Modular invariance and covariant loop calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.L.; Roland, K.O.; Sidenius, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The covariant loop calculus provides an efficient technique for computing explicit expressions for the density on moduli space corresponding to arbitrary (bosonic string) loop diagrams. Since modular invariance is not manifest, however, we carry out a detailed comparison with known explicit two- and three-loop results derived using analytic geometry (one loop is known to be okay). We establish identity to 'high' order in some moduli and exactly in others. Agreement is found as a result of various nontrivial cancellations, in part related to number theory. We feel our results provide very strong support for the correctness of the covariant loop calculus approach. (orig.)

  15. Hyperstaticity and loops in frictional granular packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Antoinette; Lam, Edward; Metzger, Philip T.

    2009-06-01

    The hyperstatic nature of granular packings of perfectly rigid disks is analyzed algebraically and through numerical simulation. The elementary loops of grains emerge as a fundamental element in addressing hyperstaticity. Loops consisting of an odd number of grains behave differently than those with an even number. For odd loops, the latent stresses are exterior and are characterized by the sum of frictional forces around each loop. For even loops, the latent stresses are interior and are characterized by the alternating sum of frictional forces around each loop. The statistics of these two types of loop sums are found to be Gibbsian with a "temperature" that is linear with the friction coefficient μ when μ<1.

  16. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G., E-mail: gubbiotti@fisica.unipg.it; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (IOM-CNR), Unità di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Del Bianco, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  17. Assessing catchment connectivity using hysteretic loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jason; Masselink, Rens; Goni, Mikel; Gimenez, Rafael; Casali, Javier; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Storm events mobilize large proportions of sediments in catchment systems. Therefore understanding catchment sediment dynamics throughout the continuity of storms and how initial catchment states act as controls on the transport of sediment to catchment outlets is important for effective catchment management. Sediment connectivity is a concept which can explain the origin, pathways and sinks of sediments within catchments (Baartman et al., 2013; Parsons et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016a,b; Mekonnen et al., 2016). However, sediment connectivity alone does not provide a practicable mechanism by which the catchment's initial state - and thus the location of entrained sediment in the sediment transport cascade - can be characterized. Studying the dynamic relationship between water discharge (Q) and suspended sediment (SS) at the catchment outlet can provide a valuable research tool to infer the likely source areas and flow pathways contributing to sediment transport because the relationship can be characterized by predictable hysteresis patterns. Hysteresis is observed when the sediment concentration associated with a certain flow rate is different depending on the direction in which the analysis is performed - towards the increase or towards the diminution of the flow. However, the complexity of the phenomena and factors which determine the hysteresis make its interpretation ambiguous. Previous work has described various types of hysteretic loops as well as the cause for the shape of the loop, mainly pointing to the origin of the sediments. The data set for this study comes from four experimental watersheds in Navarre (Spain), owned and maintained by the Government of Navarre. These experimental watersheds have been monitored and studied since 1996 (La Tejería and Latxaga) and 2001 (Oskotz principal and Oskotz woodland). La Tejería and Latxaga watersheds are similar to each other regarding size (approximately 200 ha), geology (marls and sandstones), soils (fine

  18. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  19. Infrared (IR) photon-sensitive spectromicroscopy in a cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2016-06-14

    A system designed to suppress thermal radiation background and to allow IR single-photon sensitive spectromicroscopy of small samples by using both absorption, reflection, and emission/luminescence measurements. The system in one embodiment includes: a light source; a plurality of cold mirrors configured to direct light along a beam path; a cold or warm sample holder in the beam path; windows of sample holder (or whole sample holder) are transparent in a spectral region of interest, so they do not emit thermal radiation in the same spectral region of interest; a cold monochromator or other cold spectral device configured to direct a selected fraction of light onto a cold detector; a system of cold apertures and shields positioned along the beam path to prevent unwanted thermal radiation from arriving at the cold monochromator and/or the detector; a plurality of optical, IR and microwave filters positioned along the beam path and configured to adjust a spectral composition of light incident upon the sample under investigation and/or on the detector; a refrigerator configured to maintain the detector at a temperature below 1.0K; and an enclosure configured to: thermally insulate the light source, the plurality of mirrors, the sample holder, the cold monochromator and the refrigerator.

  20. Numerical method for IR background and clutter simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Carlo; Daniele, Gina; Balzarotti, Giorgio

    1997-06-01

    The paper describes a fast and accurate algorithm of IR background noise and clutter generation for application in scene simulations. The process is based on the hypothesis that background might be modeled as a statistical process where amplitude of signal obeys to the Gaussian distribution rule and zones of the same scene meet a correlation function with exponential form. The algorithm allows to provide an accurate mathematical approximation of the model and also an excellent fidelity with reality, that appears from a comparison with images from IR sensors. The proposed method shows advantages with respect to methods based on the filtering of white noise in time or frequency domain as it requires a limited number of computation and, furthermore, it is more accurate than the quasi random processes. The background generation starts from a reticule of few points and by means of growing rules the process is extended to the whole scene of required dimension and resolution. The statistical property of the model are properly maintained in the simulation process. The paper gives specific attention to the mathematical aspects of the algorithm and provides a number of simulations and comparisons with real scenes.

  1. Study of the influence of Nb buffer layer on the exchange coupling induced at the Co/IrMn interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merino, I.L.C., E-mail: isabel5cas@gmail.com [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil); Figueiredo, L.C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília 70910-900 (Brazil); Passamani, E.C.; Nascimento, V.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29075-910 (Brazil); Pelegrini, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia 74560-900 (Brazil); Baggio Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180 (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Nb buffer layer favors smooth/rough Co/IrMn interfaces, depending on its thickness. • Double and single-like hysteresis loop features depend on the Nb thickness. • Co uniaxial anisotropy induced exchange-bias in as-deposited sample. • Uniaxial and exchange-bias anisotropy directions depend on the Nb thickness. • Thicker Nb favors non-collinear anisotropies, while thinner Nb favors collinear. - Abstract: Hybrid Nb(t{sub Nb})/Co(10 nm)/IrMn(15 nm)/Nb(10 nm) heterostructured materials were prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering and systematically studied by X-ray, magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. For thinner Nb buffer layer (≤10 nm), it was found that there is an inter-diffusion at Co/IrMn interface, which favors double-like hysteresis loop. For thicker Nb layers, however, a gradual transition from double to single-like hysteresis loops is observed and it is associated with the reduction of the Nb roughness, which also enhances the exchange coupling at the Co/IrMn interface. Nb grown on IrMn layer induces the formation of an NbIrMn alloy layer, while no evidence of inter-diffusion at the Co/Nb interface is observed. For rougher Nb buffer layers (t{sub Nb} < 50 nm), exchange bias and Co uniaxial anisotropies are pointing at the same direction (β∼zero), but for smoother Nb buffer layer (t{sub Nb} = 50 nm) a β angle of 150{sup o} is found. Exchange bias effect was measured in as-prepared and in field-cooled samples; being its presence, in as-prepared sample, attributed to the unidirectional anisotropy of the Co layer (its intensity is modified in case of sample with a CoIrMn alloy layer). Considering that the Si/Nb/Co/IrMn interfaces have different β values (t{sub Nb} = 35 and 50 nm), a study of the influence of magnetization direction, governed by exchange-biased layers, on superconducting properties of Nb films can be successfully done in this hybrid system.

  2. Time evolution of the energy confinement time, internal inductance and effective edge safety factor on IR-T1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salar Elahi, A; Ghoranneviss, M

    2010-01-01

    An attempt is made to investigate the time evolution of the energy confinement time, internal inductance and effective edge safety factor on IR-T1 tokamak. For this purpose, four magnetic pickup coils were designed, constructed and installed on the outer surface of the IR-T1 and then the Shafranov parameter (asymmetry factor) was obtained from them. On the other hand, also a diamagnetic loop was designed and installed on IR-T1 and poloidal beta was determined from it. Therefore, the internal inductance and effective edge safety factor were measured. Also, the time evolution of the energy confinement time was measured using the diamagnetic loop. Experimental results on IR-T1 show that the maximum energy confinement time (which corresponds to minimum collisions, minimum microinstabilities and minimum transport) is at low values of the effective edge safety factor (2.5 eff (a) i <0.72). The results obtained are in agreement with those obtained with the theoretical approach [1-5].

  3. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.; Yang, Y. M.; Guo, Z. B.; Wu, Y. H.; Qiu, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb

  4. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-02

    Mar 2, 2017 ... Abstract. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and a complex female endocrine disorder, and is one of the leading cause of female infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR,. IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 gene in the ...

  5. Loop diagrams without γ matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Rebhan, A.

    1993-01-01

    By using a quantum-mechanical path integral to compute matrix elements of the form left-angle x|exp(-iHt)|y right-angle, radiative corrections in quantum-field theory can be evaluated without encountering loop-momentum integrals. In this paper we demonstrate how Dirac γ matrices that occur in the proper-time ''Hamiltonian'' H lead to the introduction of a quantum-mechanical path integral corresponding to a superparticle analogous to one proposed recently by Fradkin and Gitman. Direct evaluation of this path integral circumvents many of the usual algebraic manipulations of γ matrices in the computation of quantum-field-theoretical Green's functions involving fermions

  6. Perturbation calculations with Wilson loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peixoto Junior, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    We present perturbative calculations with the Wilson loop (WL). The dimensional regularization method is used with a special attention concerning to the problem of divergences in the WL expansion in second and fourth orders, in three and four dimensions. We show that the residue in the pole, in 4d, of the fourth order graphs contribution sum is important for the charge renormalization. We compute up to second order the exact expression of the WL, in three-dimensional gauge theories with topological mass as well as its assimptotic behaviour for small and large distances. the author [pt

  7. Development of Start-up and Shutdown Procedure for the HANARO Fuel Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Sim, B. S.; Chi, D. Y.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Ahn, S. H.

    2009-06-01

    A start-up and shutdown procedure for the HANARO fuel test loop has been developed. This is a facility for fuel and material irradiation tests. The facility provides experimental conditions similar to the normal operational pressures and temperatures of commercial PWR and CANDU plants. The normal operation modes of the HANARO fuel test loop are classified into loop shutdown, cold stand-by 1, cold stand-by 2, hot stand-by, and hot operation. The operation modes depend on the fission power of test fuels and the coolant temperature at the inlet of the in-pile test section. The HANARO must maintain a shutdown mode if the HANARO fuel test loop is loop shutdown, cold stand-by 1, cold stand-by 2, or hot stand-by. As the HANARO becomes power operation mode, the operation mode of the HANARO fuel test loop comes to hot operation from hot stand-by. The procedure for the HANARO fuel test loop consists of four main parts such as check of initial conditions, stat-up operation procedure, shutdown operation procedure, and check lists for operations. Several hot test operations ensure that the procedure is appropriate

  8. Availability analysis of nuclear power plant system with the consideration of logical loop structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have logical loop structures in their system configuration. The typical example is a power source system, that is, a nuclear plant generates electricity and it is used for the operation of pumps in the plant. For the reliability or availability analysis of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to treat accurately logical loop structures. Authors have proposed an exact method for solving logical loop structure in reliability analysis, and generalized method has recently been presented. A nuclear power plant system is taken up and essential parts of logical loop structures are modeled into relatively simple form. The procedure to solve a loop structure is shown in which the proposed generalized method is applied, and availability of the system with loop structure is accurately solved. The analysis results indicate that reconsideration of present plant operating procedure should be made for the increase of safety of nuclear power plant in case of 'Loss of offsite power' incident. The analysis results also show an important role of loop structures for maintaining the overall system availability. The analysis procedure is also useful in effectively designing high reliable systems. (author)

  9. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Teschner, Joerg

    2009-10-01

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S 4 - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  10. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  11. Kas netilpo tarp politikos ir diplomatijos?

    OpenAIRE

    Streikus, Arūnas

    2008-01-01

    The review analyzes A. Kasparavičius’s monograph “Tarp Politikos ir Diplomatijos: Šventasis Sostas ir Lietuvos Respublika” (Vilnius, 2008). The historiographic value of the study is undisputed. A. Kasperavičius had an opportunity to use a broad spectrum of sources, among which two sets of archive documents stand out: the funds of the archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Embassy under the Holy See in Rome. A. Kasparavičius managed to avoid the arid scientific...

  12. Elecciones Legislativas en Irán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sainz de la Peña

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Las elecciones legislativas en Irán, una vez eliminados los reformistas se han celebrado en un clima de rivalidad. Las elecciones tenían que dejar claro quién mandaba en Irán, si los clérigos y el Guía el ayatolá Seyed Ali Jamenei o, el Presidente de la República, el laico Mahmud Ahmadineyad, apoyado en el Cuerpo de Guardias Revolucionarios. La realidad ha sido que las facciones conservadoras encabezadas por el Frente Unido Principalista, apoyados por el Guía Supremo, han obtenido el triunfo.

  13. Evolution of maintainability in France since 1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to make the point of maintainability in France since 1971. The importance of maintainability is recalled. Publications in France from 1971 to 1975 show the interest arose by maintainability; their analysis permits to make clear the general plan followed by the studies and gives indications on the directions of actual efforts. Conclusion is drawn on the orientation of work at short, medium and long term [fr

  14. The human brain maintains contradictory and redundant auditory sensory predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika Pieszek

    Full Text Available Computational and experimental research has revealed that auditory sensory predictions are derived from regularities of the current environment by using internal generative models. However, so far, what has not been addressed is how the auditory system handles situations giving rise to redundant or even contradictory predictions derived from different sources of information. To this end, we measured error signals in the event-related brain potentials (ERPs in response to violations of auditory predictions. Sounds could be predicted on the basis of overall probability, i.e., one sound was presented frequently and another sound rarely. Furthermore, each sound was predicted by an informative visual cue. Participants' task was to use the cue and to discriminate the two sounds as fast as possible. Violations of the probability based prediction (i.e., a rare sound as well as violations of the visual-auditory prediction (i.e., an incongruent sound elicited error signals in the ERPs (Mismatch Negativity [MMN] and Incongruency Response [IR]. Particular error signals were observed even in case the overall probability and the visual symbol predicted different sounds. That is, the auditory system concurrently maintains and tests contradictory predictions. Moreover, if the same sound was predicted, we observed an additive error signal (scalp potential and primary current density equaling the sum of the specific error signals. Thus, the auditory system maintains and tolerates functionally independently represented redundant and contradictory predictions. We argue that the auditory system exploits all currently active regularities in order to optimally prepare for future events.

  15. Loop quantization as a continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, Elisa; Oeckl, Robert; Weber, Axel; Zapata, Jose A

    2006-01-01

    We present an implementation of Wilson's renormalization group and a continuum limit tailored for loop quantization. The dynamics of loop-quantized theories is constructed as a continuum limit of the dynamics of effective theories. After presenting the general formalism we show as a first explicit example the 2D Ising field theory, an interacting relativistic quantum field theory with local degrees of freedom quantized by loop quantization techniques

  16. Quantum chromodynamics as dynamics of loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    QCD is entirely reformulated in terms of white composite fields - the traces of the loop products. The 1/N expansion turns out to be the WKB (Hartree-Fock) approximation for these fields. The 'classical' equation describing the N = infinite case is reduced tp a bootstrap form. New, manifestly gauge-invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom, is developed by iterations of this equation. The area law appears to be a self-consistent solution at large loops. (orig.)

  17. Lattice QED in the loop space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, H.

    1994-01-01

    We present a survey on the state of the art in the formulation of lattice compact QED in the space of loops. In a first part we review our most recent Hamiltonian results which signal a second order transition for (3+1) compact QED. We devote the second part to the Lagrangian loop formalism, showing the equivalence of the recently proposed loop action with the Villain form. (orig.)

  18. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation

  19. Thermal analysis of reservoir structure versus capillary pumped loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Hungwen; Lin Weikeng

    2009-01-01

    Capillary pumped loop (CPL) was already used in man-made satellites and space aircrafts with proven heat control technology. However, small-sized CPL had not yet made a breakthrough application in electronic components owing to poor heat-absorption capacity of evaporator structure. Hence, a small-scale CPL was designed for server in this research. The evaporator was designed with a circular groove and embedded with a high density polyethylene (HDPE) as a capillary structure to absorb working fluid. The influence of reservoir upon thermal resistance was also analyzed. The experimental results showed that, under a filling level of 72%, CPL with optimized design could remove 110 W energy while maintaining its temperature at 80 deg. C. Comparison of CPL with/without reservoir, the loop thermal resistance R th,loop was reduced by 0.14 deg. C/W and was able to increase the stability of CPL, too, the results confirmed that reservoir could enhance CPL performance and this technology will probably find application in electronics cooling for electronic devices

  20. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tie-over dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  1. Redoable Tie-Over Dressing Using Multiple Loop Silk Threads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jong Jo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available After skin grafting, to prevent hematoma or seroma collection at the graft site, a tie-over dressing has been commonly used. However, although the conventional tie-over dressing by suture is a useful method for securing a graft site, refixation is difficult when repeated tieover dressing is needed. Therefore, we recommend a redoable tie-over dressing technique with multiple loops threads and connecting silk threads. After the raw surface of each of our cases was covered with a skin graft, multiple loop silk thread attached with nylon at the skin graft margin. We applied the ointment gauze and wet cotton/fluffy gauze over the skin graft, then fixed the dressing by connecting cross-counter multiple loop thread with connecting silk threads. When we opened the tie-over dressing by cutting the connecting silk threads, we repeated the tie-over dressing with the same method. The skin graft was taken successfully without hematoma or seroma collection or any other complications. In conclusion, we report a novel tie-over dressing enabling simple fixation of the dressing to maintain proper tension for wounds that require repetitive fixation. Further, with this reliable method, the skin grafts were well taken.

  2. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as

  3. TIJAH: Embracing IR Methods in XML Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    List, Johan; Mihajlovic, V.; Ramirez, Georgina; de Vries, A.P.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blok, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses our participation in INEX (the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval) using the TIJAH XML-IR system. TIJAH's system design follows a `standard' layered database architecture, carefully separating the conceptual, logical and physical levels. At the conceptual level, we

  4. IR and OLAP in XML document warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose to combine IR and OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies to exploit a warehouse of text-rich XML documents. In the system we plan to develop, a multidimensional implementation of a relevance modeling document model will be used for interactively querying...

  5. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabeláč, Martin; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, Pavel; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2011), s. 1816-1821 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : density functional calculations * gramicidin * IR spectroscopy * protein folding Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.412, year: 2011

  6. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  7. Near IR spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports on recent observations from the near IR spectra of symbiotic stars. The helium and oxygen lines useful for the construction of theoretical models are identified. Observations for cool stars and novae (nebular phase) are outlined and the spectra of specific symbiotic stars between lambdalambda 8000-11000 are presented and discussed. (Auth./C.F.)

  8. Methanol decomposition and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Ludwig, W.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption, decompn., and oxidn. of methanol (CH3OH) has been studied on Ir(111) using temp.-programmed desorption and high-energy resoln. fast XPS. Mol. methanol desorption from a methanol-satd. surface at low temp. shows three desorption peaks, around 150 K (alpha ), around 170 K (beta 1), and

  9. Column Stores as an IR Prototyping Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T. Samar (Thaer); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract. We make the suggestion that instead of implementing custom index structures and query evaluation algorithms, IR researchers should simply store document representations in a column-oriented relational database and write ranking models using SQL. For rapid prototyping, this is

  10. Soft Neutrosophic Loops and Their Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N -loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  11. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  12. Quantum chromodynamics as dynamics of loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.; Migdal, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of a possibility of reformulating quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in terms of colourless composite fields instead of coloured quarks and gluons is considered. The role of such fields is played by the gauge invariant loop functionals. The Shwinger equations of motion is derived in the loop space which completely describe dynamics of the loop fields. New manifestly gauge invariant diagram technique in the loop space is developed. These diagrams reproduce asymptotic freedom in the ultraviolet range and are consistent with the confinement law in the infrared range

  13. The Cost of Maintaining Educational Communications Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    Tentative formulas for calculating the cost of maintaining educational communications equipment are proposed. The formulas are based on a survey of campuses of the State University of New York. The survey analyzed the types of equipment to be maintained, types of maintenance, who uses the equipment, who services the equipment, and the cost…

  14. In pile helium loop ''Comedie''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The loop is located in the SILOE reactor at Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble. The purpose and objectives are divided into two groups, principal and secondary. The primary objective was to provide basic data on the deposition behavior of important condensable fission products on a variety of steel surfaces, i.e. temperature (sorption isotherms) and mass transfer (physical adsorption) dependencies; to provide information concerning the degree of penetration of important fission products into the metals comprising the heat exchanger-recuperator tubes as a function of alloy type and/or metal temperature; to provide complementary information on the reentrainment (liftoff) of important fission and activation products by performing out-of-pile blowdown experiments on tube samples representative of the alloy types used in the heat exchanger-recuperator and of the surface temperatures experienced during plateout. The secondary objective was to provide information concerning the migration of important fission products through graphite. To this end, concentration profiles in the web between the fuel rods containing the fission product source and the coolant channels and in the graphite diffusion sample will be measured to study the corrosion of metallic specimens placed in the conditions of high temperature gas cooled reactor. The first experiment SRO enables to determine the loop characteristics and possibilities related to thermal, thermodynamic, chemical and neutronic properties. The second experiment has been carried out in high temperature gas cooled reactor operating conditions. It enables to determine in particular the deposition axial profile of activation and fission products in the plateout section constituting the heat exchanger, the fission products balance trapped in the different filter components, and the cumulated released fraction of solid fission products. The SR1 test permits to demonstrate in particular the Comedie loop operation reliability, either

  15. Prevalence of dependent loops in urinary drainage systems in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danek, Gale; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Lizdas, David E; Lampotang, Samsun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence and configuration of dependent loops in urinary drainage systems in hospitalized, catheterized adults. The study sample comprised 141 patients with indwelling urinary catheters; subjects were hospitalized at an academic health center in northern Florida. We measured the prevalence of dependent loops in urine drainage systems and the incidence of urine-filled dependent loops over a 3-week period. We measured the heights of the crest (H(c)), trough (H(t)), and, when urine-filled dependent loops were present, the patient-side (H(p)) and bag-side (H(b)) menisci with a laser measurement system. All variables were measured in centimeters. The majority of observed urine drainage systems (85%) contained dependent loops in the drainage tubing and 93.8% of the dependent loops contained urine. H(c) and H(t) averaged 45.1 ± 11.1 and 27 ± 16.7 cm, respectively. Meniscus height difference (H(b) - H(p)) averaged 8.2 ± 5.8 and -12.2 ± 9.9 cm when H(p) H(b) (32.7%), respectively. We found that dependent loops are extremely common in urinary drainage systems among hospitalized patients despite the manufacturer recommendations and nursing and hospital policies. Maintaining the urine drainage tubing free of dependent loops would require incorporation into nursing care priorities and workflow as inadvertent force on the tubing, for example, patient movement or nurse contact can change tubing configuration and allow excess drainage tubing to re-form a dependent loop.

  16. A Triple-Loop Inductive Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byunghun; Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2016-02-01

    A triple-loop wireless power transmission (WPT) system equipped with closed-loop global power control, adaptive transmitter (Tx) resonance compensation (TRC), and automatic receiver (Rx) resonance tuning (ART) is presented. This system not only opposes coupling and load variations but also compensates for changes in the environment surrounding the inductive link to enhance power transfer efficiency (PTE) in applications such as implantable medical devices (IMDs). The Tx was built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader, operating at 13.56 MHz. A local Tx loop finds the optimal capacitance in parallel with the Tx coil by adjusting a varactor. A global power control loop maintains the received power at a desired level in the presence of changes in coupling distance, coil misalignments, and loading. Moreover, a local Rx loop is implemented inside a power management integrated circuit (PMIC) to avoid PTE degradation due to the Rx coil surrounding environment and process variations. The PMIC was fabricated in a 0.35- μm 4M2P standard CMOS process with 2.54 mm(2) active area. Measurement results show that the proposed triple-loop system improves the overall PTE by up to 10.5% and 4.7% compared to a similar open- and single closed-loop system, respectively, at nominal coil distance of 2 cm. The added TRC and ART loops contribute 2.3% and 1.4% to the overall PTE of 13.5%, respectively. This is the first WPT system to include three loops to dynamically compensate for environment and circuit variations and improve the overall power efficiency all the way from the driver output in Tx to the load in Rx.

  17. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  18. Rapid Simulation of Flat Knitting Loops Based On the Yarn Texture and Loop Geometrical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhiwen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the fast computer-aided design (CAD of the flat knitted fabric, we have a research on the geometric model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. Establish the texture variation model based on the changing process from the normal yarn to loop that provides the realistic texture of the simulative loop. Then optimize the simulative loop based on illumination variation. This paper develops the computer program with the optimization algorithm and achieves the loop simulation of different yarns to verify the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. Our work provides a fast CAD of the flat knitted fabric with loop simulation, and it is not only more realistic but also material adjustable. Meanwhile it also provides theoretical value for the flat knitted fabric computer simulation.

  19. Protein loop modeling using a new hybrid energy function and its application to modeling in inaccurate structural environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahnbeom Park

    Full Text Available Protein loop modeling is a tool for predicting protein local structures of particular interest, providing opportunities for applications involving protein structure prediction and de novo protein design. Until recently, the majority of loop modeling methods have been developed and tested by reconstructing loops in frameworks of experimentally resolved structures. In many practical applications, however, the protein loops to be modeled are located in inaccurate structural environments. These include loops in model structures, low-resolution experimental structures, or experimental structures of different functional forms. Accordingly, discrepancies in the accuracy of the structural environment assumed in development of the method and that in practical applications present additional challenges to modern loop modeling methods. This study demonstrates a new strategy for employing a hybrid energy function combining physics-based and knowledge-based components to help tackle this challenge. The hybrid energy function is designed to combine the strengths of each energy component, simultaneously maintaining accurate loop structure prediction in a high-resolution framework structure and tolerating minor environmental errors in low-resolution structures. A loop modeling method based on global optimization of this new energy function is tested on loop targets situated in different levels of environmental errors, ranging from experimental structures to structures perturbed in backbone as well as side chains and template-based model structures. The new method performs comparably to force field-based approaches in loop reconstruction in crystal structures and better in loop prediction in inaccurate framework structures. This result suggests that higher-accuracy predictions would be possible for a broader range of applications. The web server for this method is available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/loop with the PS2 option for the scoring function.

  20. Lose Your Loops with Numpy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developing in python is fast. Computation, however, can often be another story. Or at least that is how it may seem. When working with arrays and numerical datasets one can subvert many of python’s computational limitations by utilizing numpy. Numpy is python’s standard matrix computation library. Many python users only use numpy to store and generate arrays, failing to utilize one of python’s most powerful computational tools. By leveraging numpy’s ufuncs, aggregation, broadcasting and slicing/masking/indexing functionality one can cut back on slow python loops and increase the speed of their programs by as much as 100x. This talk aims at teaching attendees how to use these tools through toy examples.

  1. Closed loop steam cooled airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widrig, Scott M.; Rudolph, Ronald J.; Wagner, Gregg P.

    2006-04-18

    An airfoil, a method of manufacturing an airfoil, and a system for cooling an airfoil is provided. The cooling system can be used with an airfoil located in the first stages of a combustion turbine within a combined cycle power generation plant and involves flowing closed loop steam through a pin array set within an airfoil. The airfoil can comprise a cavity having a cooling chamber bounded by an interior wall and an exterior wall so that steam can enter the cavity, pass through the pin array, and then return to the cavity to thereby cool the airfoil. The method of manufacturing an airfoil can include a type of lost wax investment casting process in which a pin array is cast into an airfoil to form a cooling chamber.

  2. Neocortical electrical stimulation for epilepsy : Closed-loop versus open-loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassileva, Albena; van Blooijs, Dorien; Leijten, Frans; Huiskamp, Geertjan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate whether open-loop or closed-loop neocortical electrical stimulation should be the preferred approach to manage seizures in intractable epilepsy. Twenty cases of open-loop neocortical stimulation with an implanted device have been reported, in 5 case studies.

  3. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  4. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na+(Glucose) Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    We report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na+(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na+(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctive Na+ coordination. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Boosted Fast Flux Loop Alternative Cooling Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst; Donna Post Guillen; James R. Parry; Douglas L. Porter; Bruce W. Wallace

    2007-08-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) Project was instituted to develop the means for conducting fast neutron irradiation tests in a domestic radiation facility. It made use of booster fuel to achieve the high neutron flux, a hafnium thermal neutron absorber to attain the high fast-to-thermal flux ratio, a mixed gas temperature control system for maintaining experiment temperatures, and a compressed gas cooling system to remove heat from the experiment capsules and the hafnium thermal neutron absorber. This GTL system was determined to provide a fast (E > 0.1 MeV) flux greater than 1.0E+15 n/cm2-s with a fast-to-thermal flux ratio in the vicinity of 40. However, the estimated system acquisition cost from earlier studies was deemed to be high. That cost was strongly influenced by the compressed gas cooling system for experiment heat removal. Designers were challenged to find a less expensive way to achieve the required cooling. This report documents the results of the investigation leading to an alternatively cooled configuration, referred to now as the Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL). This configuration relies on a composite material comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) in an aluminum matrix to transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels while at the same time providing absorption of thermal neutrons. Investigations into the performance this configuration might achieve showed that it should perform at least as well as its gas-cooled predecessor. Physics calculations indicated that the fast neutron flux averaged over the central 40 cm (16 inches) relative to ATR core mid-plane in irradiation spaces would be about 1.04E+15 n/cm2-s. The fast-to-thermal flux ratio would be in excess of 40. Further, the particular configuration of cooling channels was relatively unimportant compared with the total amount of water in the apparatus in determining performance. Thermal analyses conducted on a candidate configuration showed the design of the water coolant and

  6. Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Smolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.

  7. Holonomy loops, spectral triples and quantum gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannes, Aastrup; Grimstrup, Jesper Møller; Nest, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    We review the motivation, construction and physical interpretation of a semi-finite spectral triple obtained through a rearrangement of central elements of loop quantum gravity. The triple is based on a countable set of oriented graphs and the algebra consists of generalized holonomy loops...

  8. Conformal anomaly of super Wilson loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Classically supersymmetric Wilson loop on a null polygonal contour possesses all symmetries required to match it onto non-MHV amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. However, to define it quantum mechanically, one is forced to regularize it since perturbative loop diagrams are not well defined due to presence of ultraviolet divergences stemming from integration in the vicinity of the cusps. A regularization that is adopted by practitioners by allowing one to use spinor helicity formalism, on the one hand, and systematically go to higher orders of perturbation theory is based on a version of dimensional regularization, known as Four-Dimensional Helicity scheme. Recently it was demonstrated that its use for the super Wilson loop at one loop breaks both conformal symmetry and Poincare supersymmetry. Presently, we exhibit the origin for these effects and demonstrate how one can undo this breaking. The phenomenon is alike the one emerging in renormalization group mixing of conformal operators in conformal theories when one uses dimensional regularization. The rotation matrix to the diagonal basis is found by means of computing the anomaly in the Ward identity for the conformal boost. Presently, we apply this ideology to the super Wilson loop. We compute the one-loop conformal anomaly for the super Wilson loop and find that the anomaly depends on its Grassmann coordinates. By subtracting this anomalous contribution from the super Wilson loop we restore its interpretation as a dual description for reduced non-MHV amplitudes which are expressed in terms of superconformal invariants.

  9. Feedback loop compensates for rectifier nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Signal processing circuit with two negative feedback loops rectifies two sinusoidal signals which are 180 degrees out of phase and produces a single full-wave rectified output signal. Each feedback loop incorporates a feedback rectifier to compensate for the nonlinearity of the circuit.

  10. Loop calculus for lattice gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, R.; Leal, L.; Trias, A.; Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47724, Caracas 1051, Venezuela; Departament de Matematiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Enginyers de Telecomunicaciones, Barcelona 08034, Spain)

    1989-01-01

    Hamiltonian calculations are performed using a loop-labeled basis where the full set of identities for the SU(N) gauge models has been incorporated. The loops are classified as clusterlike structures and the eigenvalue problem leads to a linear set of finite-difference equations easily amenable to numerical treatment. Encouraging results are reported for SU(2) at spatial dimension 2

  11. Design Principles for Closed Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Krikke (Harold); C.P. Pappis (Costas); G.T. Tsoulfas; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study design principles for closed loop supply chains. Closed loop supply chains aim at closing material flows thereby limiting emission and residual waste, but also providing customer service at low cost. We study 'traditional' and 'new' design principles known in the

  12. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  13. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  14. Guidelines on the use of space maintainers following premature loss of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothwell, D J

    1997-11-01

    To formulate evidence-based guidelines on the appropriate use of space maintaining appliances to prevent or reduce the severity of malocclusion in the permanent dentition following the premature loss of primary teeth. Placement of lingual arch, palatal arch, band-loop, crown-loop, and intra-alveolar space maintainers. Reduced prevalence or severity of space loss in the primary or mixed dentition, reduced prevalence or severity of malocclusion in the permanent dentition measured as significant changes in: crowding, ectopic eruption, impacted teeth, Angle's class II or III occlusion, crossbite, deep overbite, deep overjet, or midline shift. Articles published from 1966 to 1996, located though Medline searches. Only clinical trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, or large case series were considered. Relevant clinical findings were evaluated and categorized using evidence-based methods and values established by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. A recommendation was developed for the use of space maintainers. The potential benefits of using space maintaining appliances include reduced prevalence or severity of: crowding, ectopic eruption, tooth impaction, crossbite, excessive overbite and overjet, and poor molar relationship. Other advantages include the potential for considerable cost savings by reducing the need for future orthodontic treatment. The potential disadvantages of using space maintaining appliances include soft tissue impingement, interference with eruption of adjacent teeth, pain, plaque accumulation, caries, and broken, dislodged or lost appliances. There is poor evidence to recommend for or against the use of space maintainers to prevent or reduce the severity of malocclusion in the permanent dentition (see Table 1, Recommendation C) Decisions regarding the use of space maintainers must therefore be guided by factors other than scientific evidence.

  15. The Wilson loop and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, V.B.

    1983-04-01

    A simple relation between the classical Wilson loop and the angular deviation in the parallel displacement is found. An example of potentials which give field copies and which suplly the same classical Wilson loop for a particular trajectory is exhibited. The asymptotic behaviour of the Wilson loop for the BPST instanton and the meron, is discussed. By using the dimensional regularization technique to calculate the second order term of the quantum Wilson loop, the influence of geometrical factors for the residue in the pole due to contact points, cuspides and intersections, in function of the space-time ν, is investigated. Charge renormalization in Quantum electrodynamics is finally calculated by using the quantum Wilson loop. (L.C.) [pt

  16. The Wilson loop and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, V.B.

    1983-01-01

    A simple relation between the classical Wilson loop and the angular deviation in the parallel shift is found. An example of potential which given field copies and which give the same classical Wilson loop for a given trajectory is exchibited. Afterwards, the asymptotic behaviour of the Wilson loop for the BPST instanton and meron is discussed. Using the dimensional regularization technique to calculate the second order term of Quantum Wilson loop, the influence of geometrical factors for the residue in the polo due to contact points, cusp and intersections, in function of the upsilon dimension of the space-time is investigated. Finally, the charge renormalization in Quantum Electrodynamics using Quantum Wilson loop is calculated. (L.C.) [pt

  17. Hydraulic loop: practices using open control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.A.; Alonso, L.; Sanchez, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Tecnatom Hydraulic Loop is a dynamic training platform. It has been designed with the purpose of improving the work in teams. With this system, the student can obtain a full scope vision of a system. The hydraulic Loop is a part of the Tecnatom Maintenance Centre. The first objective of the hydraulic Loop is the instruction in components, process and process control using open control system. All the personal of an electric power plant can be trained in the Hydraulic Loop with specific courses. The development of a dynamic tool for tests previous to plant installations has been an additional objective of the Hydraulic Loop. The use of this platform is complementary to the use of full-scope simulators in order to debug and to analyse advanced control strategies. (Author)

  18. Osmotic mechanism of the loop extrusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Schiessel, Helmut

    2017-09-01

    The loop extrusion theory assumes that protein factors, such as cohesin rings, act as molecular motors that extrude chromatin loops. However, recent single molecule experiments have shown that cohesin does not show motor activity. To predict the physical mechanism involved in loop extrusion, we here theoretically analyze the dynamics of cohesin rings on a loop, where a cohesin loader is in the middle and unloaders at the ends. Cohesin monomers bind to the loader rather frequently and cohesin dimers bind to this site only occasionally. Our theory predicts that a cohesin dimer extrudes loops by the osmotic pressure of cohesin monomers on the chromatin fiber between the two connected rings. With this mechanism, the frequency of the interactions between chromatin segments depends on the loading and unloading rates of dimers at the corresponding sites.

  19. Feedback Loop Gains and Feedback Behavior (1996)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Christian Erik

    2012-01-01

    Linking feedback loops and system behavior is part of the foundation of system dynamics, yet the lack of formal tools has so far prevented a systematic application of the concept, except for very simple systems. Having such tools at their disposal would be a great help to analysts in understanding...... large, complicated simulation models. The paper applies tools from graph theory formally linking individual feedback loop strengths to the system eigenvalues. The significance of a link or a loop gain and an eigenvalue can be expressed in the eigenvalue elasticity, i.e., the relative change...... of an eigenvalue resulting from a relative change in the gain. The elasticities of individual links and loops may be found through simple matrix operations on the linearized system. Even though the number of feedback loops can grow rapidly with system size, reaching astronomical proportions even for modest systems...

  20. Coastal Maintained Channels in US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer shows coastal channels and waterways that are maintained and surveyed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). These channels are necessary...

  1. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  2. Magnetic and exchange bias properties of YCo thin films and IrMn/YCo bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat Narayana, M.; Manivel Raja, M.; Jammalamadaka, S. Narayana

    2018-02-01

    We report on the structural and magnetic properties of YCo thin films and IrMn/YCo bilayers. X-ray diffraction infer that all the films are amorphous in nature. Magnetization versus magnetic field measurements reveal room temperature soft ferromagnetism in all the YCo films. Thin films which were grown at 100 W sputter power with growth rates of 0.677, 0.694 and 0.711 Å/sec show better morphology and composition than 50 W (0.333, 0.444 and 0.277 Å/sec) grown films. Perpendicular exchange bias in as deposited bilayers is evident for IrMn/YCo bilayers. Exchange bias (EB) decreases in case of in plane measurements and enhances for out of plane measurements after perpendicular field annealing. EB is more in case of out of plane direction due to large perpendicular anisotropy in comparison with in plane direction. Above the critical thickness, EB variation is explained on the basis of random field model in the Heisenberg regime, which has been proposed by Malozemoff. Indeed there exists an inverse relationship between EB and IrMn layer thickness. Evidenced vertical shift apart from the horizontal shift for magnetization loops is attributed to frozen magnetic moments in one of the layers at the interface. Present results would prove to be helpful in spintronic device applications.

  3. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Damayanthi, Rathnayaka M. T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μm×45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES.

  4. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  5. Development of Ir/Au-TES microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Manabu; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors (TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Microcalorimeters are thermal detectors which measure the energy of an incident x-ray photon using a TES thermometer operated at a sharp transition edge between normal and superconducting states. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). We developed a bilayer TES where a normal metal Au was deposited on a superconductor Ir in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the Ir-TES. We investigated resistance-temperature characteristics. As a result, it showed a very sharp transition within 1 mK at the temperature of 110 mK. The energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. (author)

  6. A kinematic view of loop closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsias, Evangelos A; Seok, Chaok; Jacobson, Matthew P; Dill, Ken A

    2004-03-01

    We consider the problem of loop closure, i.e., of finding the ensemble of possible backbone structures of a chain segment of a protein molecule that is geometrically consistent with preceding and following parts of the chain whose structures are given. We reduce this problem of determining the loop conformations of six torsions to finding the real roots of a 16th degree polynomial in one variable, based on the robotics literature on the kinematics of the equivalent rotator linkage in the most general case of oblique rotators. We provide a simple intuitive view and derivation of the polynomial for the case in which each of the three pair of torsional axes has a common point. Our method generalizes previous work on analytical loop closure in that the torsion angles need not be consecutive, and any rigid intervening segments are allowed between the free torsions. Our approach also allows for a small degree of flexibility in the bond angles and the peptide torsion angles; this substantially enlarges the space of solvable configurations as is demonstrated by an application of the method to the modeling of cyclic pentapeptides. We give further applications to two important problems. First, we show that this analytical loop closure algorithm can be efficiently combined with an existing loop-construction algorithm to sample loops longer than three residues. Second, we show that Monte Carlo minimization is made severalfold more efficient by employing the local moves generated by the loop closure algorithm, when applied to the global minimization of an eight-residue loop. Our loop closure algorithm is freely available at http://dillgroup. ucsf.edu/loop_closure/. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 25: 510-528, 2004

  7. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  8. Sequence-structure relationships in RNA loops: establishing the basis for loop homology modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schudoma, Christian; May, Patrick; Nikiforova, Viktoria; Walther, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    The specific function of RNA molecules frequently resides in their seemingly unstructured loop regions. We performed a systematic analysis of RNA loops extracted from experimentally determined three-dimensional structures of RNA molecules. A comprehensive loop-structure data set was created and organized into distinct clusters based on structural and sequence similarity. We detected clear evidence of the hallmark of homology present in the sequence-structure relationships in loops. Loops differing by structures. Thus, our results support the application of homology modeling for RNA loop model building. We established a threshold that may guide the sequence divergence-based selection of template structures for RNA loop homology modeling. Of all possible sequences that are, under the assumption of isosteric relationships, theoretically compatible with actual sequences observed in RNA structures, only a small fraction is contained in the Rfam database of RNA sequences and classes implying that the actual RNA loop space may consist of a limited number of unique loop structures and conserved sequences. The loop-structure data sets are made available via an online database, RLooM. RLooM also offers functionalities for the modeling of RNA loop structures in support of RNA engineering and design efforts.

  9. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) / Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 1099

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A finder file from SSA's Title XVI database is provided to the IRS. The IRS discloses 1099 information to SSA for use in verifying eligibility, amount, and benefits...

  10. TS LOOP ALCOVE VENTILATION ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.M. Lahnalampi

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis is to examine the existing, constructor installed, physical ventilation installations located in each of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Springs (TS) Loop Alcoves No.1, No.2, No.3, No.4, No.6, and No.7. Alcove No.5 is excluded from the scope of this analysis since it is an A/E design system. Each ventilation installation will be analyzed for the purpose of determining if requirements for acceptance into the A/E design technical baseline have been met. The ventilation installations will be evaluated using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards and Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements (ESFDR) (YMP 1997) requirements. The end product will be a technical analysis that will define ventilation installation compliance issues, any outstanding field changes, and use-as-is design deviations that are required to bring the ventilation installations into compliance with requirements for acceptance into the A/E design technical baseline. The analysis will provide guidance for alcove ventilation component design modifications to be developed to correct any deficient components that do not meet minimum requirements and standards

  11. Loops in hierarchical channel networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    Nature provides us with many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture. Although a number of methods have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated and natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and animal vasculature. We calculate various metrics on the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs.

  12. Towards conformal loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Charles H-T

    2006-01-01

    A discussion is given of recent developments in canonical gravity that assimilates the conformal analysis of gravitational degrees of freedom. The work is motivated by the problem of time in quantum gravity and is carried out at the metric and the triad levels. At the metric level, it is shown that by extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) phase space of general relativity (GR), a conformal form of geometrodynamics can be constructed. In addition to the Hamiltonian and Diffeomorphism constraints, an extra first class constraint is introduced to generate conformal transformations. This phase space consists of York's mean extrinsic curvature time, conformal three-metric and their momenta. At the triad level, the phase space of GR is further enlarged by incorporating spin-gauge as well as conformal symmetries. This leads to a canonical formulation of GR using a new set of real spin connection variables. The resulting gravitational constraints are first class, consisting of the Hamiltonian constraint and the canonical generators for spin-gauge and conformorphism transformations. The formulation has a remarkable feature of being parameter-free. Indeed, it is shown that a conformal parameter of the Barbero-Immirzi type can be absorbed by the conformal symmetry of the extended phase space. This gives rise to an alternative approach to loop quantum gravity that addresses both the conceptual problem of time and the technical problem of functional calculus in quantum gravity

  13. Whole-loop mitochondrial DNA D-loop sequence variability in Egyptian Arabian equine matrilines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, William

    2017-01-01

    Background Egyptian Arabian horses have been maintained in a state of genetic isolation for over a hundred years. There is only limited genetic proof that the studbook records of female lines of Egyptian Arabian pedigrees are reliable. This study characterized the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) signatures of 126 horses representing 14 matrilines in the Egyptian Agricultural Organization (EAO) horse-breeding program. Findings Analysis of the whole D-loop sequence yielded additional information compared to hypervariable region-1 (HVR1) analysis alone, with 42 polymorphic sites representing ten haplotypes compared to 16 polymorphic sites representing nine haplotypes, respectively. Most EAO haplotypes belonged to ancient haplogroups, suggesting origin from a wide geographical area over many thousands of years, although one haplotype was novel. Conclusions Historical families share haplotypes and some individuals from different strains belonged to the same haplogroup: the classical EAO strain designation is not equivalent to modern monophyletic matrilineal groups. Phylogenetic inference showed that the foundation mares of the historical haplotypes were highly likely to have the same haplotypes as the animals studied (p > 0.998 in all cases), confirming the reliability of EAO studbook records and providing the opportunity for breeders to confirm the ancestry of their horses. PMID:28859174

  14. Image simulation for HardWare In the Loop simulation in EO domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera as a weapon sub system for automatic guidance is a key component for military carrier such as missile for example. The associated Image Processing, that controls the navigation, needs to be intensively assessed. Experimentation in the real world is very expensive. This is the main reason why hybrid simulation also called HardWare In the Loop (HWIL) is more and more required nowadays. In that field, IR projectors are able to cast IR fluxes of photons directly onto the IR camera of a given weapon system, typically a missile seeker head. Though in laboratory, the missile is so stimulated exactly like in the real world, provided a realistic simulation tool enables to perform synthetic images to be displayed by the IR projectors. The key technical challenge is to render the synthetic images at the required frequency. This paper focuses on OKTAL-SE experience in this domain through its product SE-FAST-HWIL. It shows the methodology and Return of Experience from OKTAL-SE. Examples are given, in the frame of the SE-Workbench. The presentation focuses on trials on real operational complex 3D cases. In particular, three important topics, that are very sensitive with regards to IG performance, are detailed: first the 3D sea surface representation, then particle systems rendering especially to simulate flares and at last sensor effects modelling. Beyond "projection mode", some information will be given on the SE-FAST-HWIL new capabilities dedicated to "injection mode".

  15. Stability, structure, and evolution of cool loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cally, P.S.; Robb, T.D.

    1991-01-01

    The criteria for the existence and stability of cool loops are reexamined. It is found that the stability of the loops strongly depends on the form of the heating and radiative loss functions and that if the Ly-alpha peak which appears in most calculations of the radiative loss function is real, cool loops are almost certainly unstable. Removing the hydrogen contribution from the recent loss function Q(T) by Cook et al. (1989) does not produce the much-used result, Q proportional to T-cubed, which is so favorable to cool loop stability. Even using the probably unrealistically favorable loss function Q1 of Cook et al. with the hydrogen contribution removed, the maximum temperature attainable in stable cool loops is a factor of 2-3 too small to account for the excess emission observed in lower transition region lines. Dynamical simulations of cool loop instabilities reveal that the final state of such a model is the hot loop equilibrium. 26 refs

  16. Reduction of the N-component scalar model at the two-loop level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovac, A.

    1996-01-01

    Dimensional reduction of high temperature field theories improves IR features of their perturbative treatment. A crucial question is the following: What three-dimensional theory is representing the full system the most faithful way? A careful investigation of the induced three-dimensional counterterm structure of the finite temperature 4D O(N) symmetric scalar theory at the two-loop level leads to proposing the presence of nonlocal operators in the effective theory. A three-dimensional matching process is applied for the construction of the optimal local, superrenormalizable approximation. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. IGF-IR targeted therapy: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A.J. Varewijck (Aimee)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) has been studied as an anti-cancer target. However, monotherapy trials with IGF-IR targeted antibodies or with IGF-IR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have, overall, been very disappointing in the clinical setting. This review discusses potential reasons

  18. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  19. BOOTES-IR: near IR follow-up GRB observations by a robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Postrigo, A. de Ugarte; Jelinek, M.

    2005-01-01

    BOOTES-IR is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which operates in Southern Spain since 1998, to the near IR (NIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission in the NIR, alike BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like INTEGRAL, SWIFT and GLAST. Given that the afterglow emission in both, the NIR and the optical, in the instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible to detect this prompt emission at NIR wavelengths too. The combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1 and BOOTES-2 will allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a high redshift (z > 5). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the IR magnitudes be H ∼ 7-10, hence very high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by larger instruments

  20. Loop-quantum-gravity vertex amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Jonathan; Pereira, Roberto; Rovelli, Carlo

    2007-10-19

    Spin foam models are hoped to provide the dynamics of loop-quantum gravity. However, the most popular of these, the Barrett-Crane model, does not have the good boundary state space and there are indications that it fails to yield good low-energy n-point functions. We present an alternative dynamics that can be derived as a quantization of a Regge discretization of Euclidean general relativity, where second class constraints are imposed weakly. Its state space matches the SO(3) loop gravity one and it yields an SO(4)-covariant vertex amplitude for Euclidean loop gravity.

  1. Technical specification of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y

    1998-03-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the operation limit, safety limit, operation condition and checking points of HANARO fuel test loop. This results will become guidances for the planning of irradiation testing and operation of HANARO fuel test loop. (author). 13 refs., 13 tabs., 8 figs.

  2. Numerical approach to one-loop integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Junpei; Shimizu, Yoshimitsu; Kato, Kiyoshi; Oyanagi, Yoshio.

    1992-01-01

    Two numerical methods are proposed for the calculation of one-loop scalar integrals. In the first method, the singularity is cancelled by the symmetrization of the integrand and the integration is done by a Monte-Carlo method. In the second one, after the transform of the integrand into a standard form, the integral is reduced into a regular numerical integral. These methods provide us practical tools to evaluate one-loop Feynman diagrams with desired numerical accuracy. They are extended to the integral with numerator and the treatment of the one-loop virtual correction to the cross section is also presented. (author)

  3. Zero point energy of renormalized Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The quark-antiquark potential, and its associated zero point energy, can be extracted from lattice measurements of the Wilson loop. We discuss a unique prescription to renormalize the Wilson loop, for which the perturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes identically. A zero point energy can arise nonperturbatively, which we illustrate by considering effective string models. The nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes in the Nambu model, but is nonzero when terms for extrinsic curvature are included. At one loop order, the nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy is negative, regardless of the sign of the extrinsic curvature term.

  4. Loop corrections to primordial non-Gaussianity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Sibel; Kahya, E. O.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss quantum gravitational loop effects to observable quantities such as curvature power spectrum and primordial non-Gaussianity of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. We first review the previously shown case where one gets a time dependence for zeta-zeta correlator due to loop corrections. Then we investigate the effect of loop corrections to primordial non-Gaussianity of CMB. We conclude that, even with a single scalar inflaton, one might get a huge value for non-Gaussianity which would exceed the observed value by at least 30 orders of magnitude. Finally we discuss the consequences of this result for scalar driven inflationary models.

  5. Sigma models and renormalization of string loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, A.A.

    1989-05-01

    An extension of the ''σ-model β-functions - string equations of motion'' correspondence to the string loop level is discussed. Special emphasis is made on how the renormalization group acts in string loops and, in particular, on the renormalizability property of the generating functional Z-circumflex for string amplitudes (related to the σ model partition function integrated over moduli). Renormalization of Z-circumflex at one and two loop order is analyzed in some detail. We also discuss an approach to renormalization based on operators of insertion of topological fixtures. (author). 70 refs

  6. Construction of the blowdown and condensation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Song, Chul Kyung; Cho, Seok; Chun, S. Y.; Chung, Moon Ki

    1997-12-01

    The blowdown and condensation loop (B and C loop) has been constructed to get experimental data for designing the safety depressurization system (SDS) and steam sparger which are considered to implement in the Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In this report, system description on the B and C loop is given in detail, which includes the drawings and technical specification of each component, instrumentation and control system, and the operational procedures and the results of the performance testing. (author). 7 refs., 11 tabs., 48 figs.

  7. Eigenvalue distributions of Wilson loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we focus on the distribution of the eigenvalues of the unitary Wilson loop matrix in the two-dimensional case at arbitrary finite N. To characterize the distribution of the eigenvalues, we introduce three density functions (the ''symmetric'', the ''antisymmetric'', and the ''true'' eigenvalue density) which differ at finite N but possess the same infinite-N limit, exhibiting the Durhuus-Olesen phase transition. Using expansions of determinants and inverse determinants in characters of totally symmetric or totally antisymmetric representations of SU(N), the densities at finite N can be expressed in terms of simple sums involving only dimensions and quadratic Casimir invariants of certain irreducible representations of SU(N), allowing for a numerical computation of the densities at arbitrary N to any desired accuracy. We find that the true eigenvalue density, adding N oscillations to the monotonic symmetric density, is in some sense intermediate between the symmetric and the antisymmetric density, which in turn is given by a sum of N delta peaks located at the zeros of the average of the characteristic polynomial. Furthermore, we show that the dependence on N can be made explicit by deriving integral representations for the resolvents associated to the three eigenvalue densities. Using saddle-point approximations, we confirm that all three densities reduce to the Durhuus-Olesen result in the infinite-N limit. In the second part, we study an exponential form of the multiplicative random complex matrix model introduced by Gudowska-Nowak et al. Varying a parameter which can be identified with the area of the Wilson loop in the unitary case, the region of non-vanishing eigenvalue density of the N-dimensional complex product matrix undergoes a topological change at a transition point in the infinite-N limit. We study the transition by a detailed analysis of the average of the modulus square of the characteristic polynomial. Furthermore

  8. Eigenvalue distributions of Wilson loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2010-07-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we focus on the distribution of the eigenvalues of the unitary Wilson loop matrix in the two-dimensional case at arbitrary finite N. To characterize the distribution of the eigenvalues, we introduce three density functions (the ''symmetric'', the ''antisymmetric'', and the ''true'' eigenvalue density) which differ at finite N but possess the same infinite-N limit, exhibiting the Durhuus-Olesen phase transition. Using expansions of determinants and inverse determinants in characters of totally symmetric or totally antisymmetric representations of SU(N), the densities at finite N can be expressed in terms of simple sums involving only dimensions and quadratic Casimir invariants of certain irreducible representations of SU(N), allowing for a numerical computation of the densities at arbitrary N to any desired accuracy. We find that the true eigenvalue density, adding N oscillations to the monotonic symmetric density, is in some sense intermediate between the symmetric and the antisymmetric density, which in turn is given by a sum of N delta peaks located at the zeros of the average of the characteristic polynomial. Furthermore, we show that the dependence on N can be made explicit by deriving integral representations for the resolvents associated to the three eigenvalue densities. Using saddle-point approximations, we confirm that all three densities reduce to the Durhuus-Olesen result in the infinite-N limit. In the second part, we study an exponential form of the multiplicative random complex matrix model introduced by Gudowska-Nowak et al. Varying a parameter which can be identified with the area of the Wilson loop in the unitary case, the region of non-vanishing eigenvalue density of the N-dimensional complex product matrix undergoes a topological change at a transition point in the infinite-N limit. We study the transition by a detailed analysis of the average of the

  9. Twisted Poincare invariance, noncommutative gauge theories and UV-IR mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, A.P. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse NY, 13244-1130 (United States)], E-mail: bal@physics.syr.edu; Pinzul, A. [Insituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: apinzul@fma.if.usp.br; Queiroz, A.R. [Centro Internacional de Fisica da Materia Condensada, Universidade de Brasilia, C.P. 04667, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Avancado de Catalao, Departamento de Fisica, St. Universitario - 75700-000, Catalao-GO (Brazil)], E-mail: amilcarq@gmail.com

    2008-10-09

    In the absence of gauge fields, quantum field theories on the Groenewold-Moyal (GM) plane are invariant under a twisted action of the Poincare group if they are formulated following [M. Chaichian, P.P. Kulish, K. Nishijima, A. Tureanu, Phys. Lett. B 604 (2004) 98, (hep-th/0408069); P. Aschieri, C. Blohmann, M. Dimitrijevic, F. Meyer, P. Schupp, J. Wess, Class. Quantum Grav. 22 (2005) 3511, (hep-th/0504183); A.P. Balachandran, A. Pinzul, B.A. Qureshi, S. Vaidya, (hep-th/0608138); A.P. Balachandran, A. Pinzul, B.A. Qureshi, S. Vaidya, (arXiv: 0708.0069 [hep-th]); A.P. Balachandran, A. Pinzul, B.A. Qureshi, S. Vaidya, (arXiv: 0708.1379 [hep-th]); A.P. Balachandran, A. Pinzul, B.A. Qureshi, (arXiv: 0708.1779 [hep-th])]. In that formulation, such theories also have no UV-IR mixing [A.P. Balachandran, A. Pinzul, B.A. Qureshi, Phys. Lett. B 634 (2006) 434, (hep-th/0508151)]. Here we investigate UV-IR mixing in gauge theories with matter following the approach of [A.P. Balachandran, A. Pinzul, B. A. Qureshi, S. Vaidya, (hep-th/0608138); A.P. Balachandran, A. Pinzul, B.A. Qureshi, S. Vaidya, (arXiv: 0708.0069 [hep-th])]. We prove that there is UV-IR mixing in the one-loop diagram of the S-matrix involving a coupling between gauge and matter fields on the GM plane, the gauge field being non-Abelian. There is no UV-IR mixing if it is Abelian.

  10. Mixed heavy–light matching in the Universal One-Loop Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Sebastian A.R.; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong; Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a general result for evaluating the path integral at one loop was obtained in the form of the Universal One-Loop Effective Action. It may be used to derive effective field theory operators of dimensions up to six, by evaluating the traces of matrices in this expression, with the mass dependence encapsulated in the universal coefficients. Here we show that it can account for loops of mixed heavy–light particles in the matching procedure. Our prescription for computing these mixed contributions to the Wilson coefficients is conceptually simple. Moreover it has the advantage of maintaining the universal structure of the effective action, which we illustrate using the example of integrating out a heavy electroweak triplet scalar coupling to a light Higgs doublet. Finally we also identify new structures that were previously neglected in the universal results.

  11. Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation Assessment, Diagnosis and Improvement of Control Loop Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jelali, Mohieddine

    2013-01-01

    Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation provides a coherent and self-contained treatment of a group of methods and applications of burgeoning importance to the detection and solution of problems with control loops that are vital in maintaining product quality, operational safety, and efficiency of material and energy consumption in the process industries. The monograph deals with all aspects of control performance management (CPM), from controller assessment (minimum-variance-control-based and advanced methods), to detection and diagnosis of control loop problems (process non-linearities, oscillations, actuator faults), to the improvement of control performance (maintenance, re-design of loop components, automatic controller re-tuning). It provides a contribution towards the development and application of completely self-contained and automatic methodologies in the field. Moreover, within this work, many CPM tools have been developed that goes far beyond available CPM packages. Control Perform...

  12. ROBUST CONTROL OF END-TIDAL CO2 USING THE H∞ LOOP-SHAPING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anake Pomprapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically ventilated patients require appropriate settings of respiratory control variables to maintain acceptable gas exchange. To control the carbon dioxide (CO2 level effectively and automatically, system identification based on a human subject was performed using a linear affine model and a nonlinear Hammerstein structure. Subsequently, a robust controller was designed using the H∞ loop-shaping approach, which synthesizes the optimal controller based on a specific objective by achieving stability with guaranteed performance. For demonstration purposes, the closed-loop control ventilation system was successfully tested in a human volunteer. The experimental results indicate that the blood CO2 level may indeed be controlled noninvasively by measuring end-tidal CO2 from expired air. Keeping the limited amount of experimental data in mind, we conclude that H∞ loop-shaping may be a promising technique for control of mechanical ventilation in patients with respiratory insufficiency.

  13. A closed-loop photon beam control study for the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portmann, G.; Bengtsson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The third generation Advanced Light Source (ALS) will produce extremely bright photon beams using undulators and wigglers. In order to position the photon beams accurate to the micron level, a closed-loop feedback system is being developed. Using photon position monitors and dipole corrector magnets, a closed-loop system can automatically compensate for modeling uncertainties and exogenous disturbances. The following paper will present a dynamics model for the perturbations of the closed orbit of the electron beam in the ALS storage ring including the vacuum chamber magnetic field penetration effects. Using this reference model, two closed-loop feedback algorithms will be compared -- a classical PI controller and a two degree-of-freedom approach. The two degree-of-freedom method provides superior disturbance rejection while maintaining the desired performance goals. Both methods will address the need to gain schedule the controller due to the time varying dynamics introduced by changing field strengths when scanning the insertion devices

  14. Characteristics of Ir/Au transition edge sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    A new type of microcalorimeter has been developed using a transition edge sensor (TES) and an electro-thermal feedback (ETF) method to achieve higher energy resolution and higher count rate. We are developing a superconducting Ir-based transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters. To improve thermal conductivity and achieve higher energy resolution with an Ir-TES, we fabricated an Ir/Au bilayer TES by depositing gold on Ir and investigated the influence of intermediate between superconducting and normal states at the transition edge for signal responses by microscopic observation in the Ir/Au-TES. (T. Tanaka)

  15. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Du, Li [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liao, Shijun, E-mail: chsjliao@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir. - Highlights: • Mesoporous nanoparticles were synthesized and used as support for metal catalyst. • PdIr bimetallic catalyst exhibited significantly improved hydrogenation activity. • The strong promotion of Ir was recognized firstly and investigated intensively. • PdIr exhibits 18 times higher activity than Pd to the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. - Abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction

  16. Controlling Hydrogenation of Graphene on Ir(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Richard; Andersen, Mie; Jørgensen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Combined fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of two types of hydrogen adsorbate structures at the graphene/ Ir(111) interface, namely, graphane-like islands and hydrogen dimer structures. While the former give rise to a periodic...... pattern, dimers tend to destroy the periodicity. Our data reveal distinctive growth rates and stability of both types of structures, thereby allowing one to obtain well-defined patterns of hydrogen clusters. The ability to control and manipulate the formation and size of hydrogen structures on graphene...

  17. PEP-II IR-2 Alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first results and preliminary analysis obtained with several alignment monitoring systems recently installed in the PEP-II interaction region. The hydrostatic level system, stretched wire system, and laser tracker have been installed in addition to the existing tiltmeters and LVDT sensors. These systems detected motion of the left raft, which correlated primarily with the low energy ring (LER) current. The motion is of the order of 120 micrometers. The cause was identified as synchrotron radiation heating the beampipe, causing its expansion which then results in its deformation and offset of the IR quadrupoles. We also discuss further plans on measurements, analysis and means to counteract this motion

  18. Computer dosimetry of 192Ir wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, R.W.; Gillin, M.T.; Grimm, D.F.; Niroomand-Rad, A.

    1985-01-01

    The dosimetry of 192 Ir linear sources with a commercial treatment planning computer system has been evaluated. Reference dose rate data were selected from the literature and normalized in a manner consistent with our clinical and dosimetric terminology. The results of the computer calculations are compared to the reference data and good agreement is shown at distances within about 7 cm from a linear source. The methodology of translating source calibration in terms of exposure rate for use in the treatment planning computer is developed. This may be useful as a practical guideline for users of similar computer calculation programs for iridium as well as other sources

  19. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  20. Stringy horizons and UV/IR mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2015-11-24

    The target-space interpretation of the exact (in α{sup ′}) reflection coefficient for scattering from Euclidean black-hole horizons in classical string theory is studied. For concreteness, we focus on the solvable SL(2,ℝ){sub k}/U(1) black hole. It is shown that it exhibits a fascinating UV/IR mixing, dramatically modifying the late-time behavior of general relativity. We speculate that this might play an important role in the black-hole information puzzle, as well as in clarifying features related with the non-locality of Little String Theory.

  1. Atsiskaitymai e. versle: ypatumai ir naujos tendencijos

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšniauskas, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Alternatyvių atsiskaitymų e. versle sistemos pradeda kelti rimtą grėsmę tradiciniams atsiskaitymams elektronine bankininkyste, mokėjimo kortelėmis ar grynaisiais pinigais. Todėl būtina detaliau išsiaiškinti kokie yra alternatyvių atsiskaitymų ypatumai, kurie veiksniai vartotojams yra svarbiausi ir kokie yra alternatyvūs atsiskaitymo būdai. Tai siekiama padaryti išanalizuojant mokslinę literatūrą, pateikiant pagrindines alternatyvių atsiskaitymų sistemas, atliekant alternatyvių atsiskaitymų pa...

  2. Fast IR diodes thermometer for tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangbo

    2001-01-01

    A 30 channel fast IR pyrometry array has been constructed for tokamak, which has 0.5 μs time response, 10 mm diameter spatial resolution and 5 degree C temperature resolution. The temperature measuring range is from 250 degree C to 1200 degree C. The two dimensional temperature profiles of the first wall during both major and minor disruptions can be measured with an accuracy of about 1% measuring temperature, which is adequate for tokamak experiments. This gives a very useful tool for the disruption study, especially for the divertor physics and edge heat flux research on tokamak and other magnetic confinement devices

  3. The Universal One-Loop Effective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Drozd, Aleksandra; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong

    2016-01-01

    We present the universal one-loop effective action for all operators of dimension up to six obtained by integrating out massive, non-degenerate multiplets. Our general expression may be applied to loops of heavy fermions or bosons, and has been checked against partial results available in the literature. The broad applicability of this approach simplifies one-loop matching from an ultraviolet model to a lower-energy effective field theory (EFT), a procedure which is now reduced to the evaluation of a combination of matrices in our universal expression, without any loop integrals to evaluate. We illustrate the relationship of our results to the Standard Model (SM) EFT, using as an example the supersymmetric stop and sbottom squark Lagrangian and extracting from our universal expression the Wilson coefficients of dimension-six operators composed of SM fields.

  4. The universal one-loop effective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozd, Aleksandra; Ellis, John; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong

    2016-01-01

    We present the universal one-loop effective action for all operators of dimension up to six obtained by integrating out massive, non-degenerate multiplets. Our general expression may be applied to loops of heavy fermions or bosons, and has been checked against partial results available in the literature. The broad applicability of this approach simplifies one-loop matching from an ultraviolet model to a lower-energy effective field theory (EFT), a procedure which is now reduced to the evaluation of a combination of matrices in our universal expression, without any loop integrals to evaluate. We illustrate the relationship of our results to the Standard Model (SM) EFT, using as an example the supersymmetric stop and sbottom squark Lagrangian and extracting from our universal expression the Wilson coefficients of dimension-six operators composed of SM fields.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Tarik; Ku, Jentung; Hoang, Triem T.; Cheung, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary focus of this study is to model steady-state performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP). The mathematical model is based on the steady-state energy balance equations at each component of the LHP. The heat exchange between each LHP component and the surrounding is taken into account. Both convection and radiation environments are modeled. The loop operating temperature is calculated as a function of the applied power at a given loop condition. Experimental validation of the model is attempted by using two different LHP designs. The mathematical model is tested at different sink temperatures and at different elevations of the loop. Tbc comparison of the calculations and experimental results showed very good agreement (within 3%). This method proved to be a useful tool in studying steady-state LHP performance characteristics.

  6. CHY loop integrands from holomorphic forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Humberto [Facultad de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Santiago de Cali,Calle 5 62-00 Barrio Pampalinda, Cali, Valle (Colombia); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Mizera, Sebastian; Zhang, Guojun [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-03-16

    Recently, the Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) approach for calculating scattering amplitudes has been extended beyond tree level. In this paper, we introduce a way of constructing CHY integrands for Φ{sup 3} theory up to two loops from holomorphic forms on Riemann surfaces. We give simple rules for translating Feynman diagrams into the corresponding CHY integrands. As a complementary result, we extend the L-algorithm, originally introduced in https://arxiv.org/abs/1604.05373, to two loops. Using this approach, we are able to analytically verify our prescription for the CHY integrands up to seven external particles at two loops. In addition, it gives a natural way of extending to higher-loop orders.

  7. Observing string breaking with Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Kratochvila, S; Kratochvila, Slavo; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2003-01-01

    An uncontroversial observation of adjoint string breaking is proposed, while measuring the static potential from Wilson loops only. The overlap of the Wilson loop with the broken-string state is small, but non-vanishing, so that the broken-string groundstate can be seen if the Wilson loop is long enough. We demonstrate this in the context of the (2+1)d SU(2) adjoint static potential, using an improved version of the Luscher-Weisz exponential variance reduction. To complete the picture we perform the more usual multichannel analysis with two basis states, the unbroken-string state and the broken-string state (two so-called gluelumps). As by-products, we obtain the temperature-dependent static potential measured from Polyakov loop correlations, and the fundamental SU(2) static potential with improved accuracy. Comparing the latter with the adjoint potential, we see clear deviations from Casimir scaling.

  8. Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTC has a suite of Hardware-in-the Loop facilities that include three operational facilities that provide performance assessment and production acceptance testing of...

  9. Loop Diuretics in the Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malha, Line; Mann, Samuel J

    2016-04-01

    Loop diuretics are not recommended in current hypertension guidelines largely due to the lack of outcome data. Nevertheless, they have been shown to lower blood pressure and to offer potential advantages over thiazide-type diuretics. Torsemide offers advantages of longer duration of action and once daily dosing (vs. furosemide and bumetanide) and more reliable bioavailability (vs. furosemide). Studies show that the previously employed high doses of thiazide-type diuretics lower BP more than furosemide. Loop diuretics appear to have a preferable side effect profile (less hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and possibly less glucose intolerance). Studies comparing efficacy and side effect profiles of loop diuretics with the lower, currently widely prescribed, thiazide doses are needed. Research is needed to fill gaps in knowledge and common misconceptions about loop diuretic use in hypertension and to determine their rightful place in the antihypertensive arsenal.

  10. Possible hysteresis loops of resonatorless optical bistability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Le Thi Cat Tuong.

    1990-05-01

    We qualitatively show that hysteresis loops of intrinsic optical bistability phenomena without any additional feedback may be of various shapes including those of a butterfly and a three-winged bow. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  11. Closed loop solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The system used for the closed loop operation of the solar chemical heat pipe comprises a reformer, heated by the solar furnace, a methanator and a storage assembly containing a compressor and storage cylinders. (authors). 7 figs

  12. Nonequilibrium Chromosome Looping via Molecular Slip Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackley, C. A.; Johnson, J.; Michieletto, D.; Morozov, A. N.; Nicodemi, M.; Cook, P. R.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a model for the formation of chromatin loops based on the diffusive sliding of molecular slip links. These mimic the behavior of molecules like cohesin, which, along with the CTCF protein, stabilize loops which contribute to organizing the genome. By combining 3D Brownian dynamics simulations and 1D exactly solvable nonequilibrium models, we show that diffusive sliding is sufficient to account for the strong bias in favor of convergent CTCF-mediated chromosome loops observed experimentally. We also find that the diffusive motion of multiple slip links along chromatin is rectified by an intriguing ratchet effect that arises if slip links bind to the chromatin at a preferred "loading site." This emergent collective behavior favors the extrusion of loops which are much larger than the ones formed by single slip links.

  13. A theory of desynchronisable closed loop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Beohar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The task of implementing a supervisory controller is non-trivial, even though different theories exist that allow automatic synthesis of these controllers in the form of automata. One of the reasons for this discord is due to the asynchronous interaction between a plant and its controller in implementations, whereas the existing supervisory control theories assume synchronous interaction. As a consequence the implementation suffer from the so-called inexact synchronisation problem. In this paper we address the issue of inexact synchronisation in a process algebraic setting, by solving a more general problem of refinement. We construct an asynchronous closed loop system by introducing a communication medium in a given synchronous closed loop system. Our goal is to find sufficient conditions under which a synchronous closed loop system is branching bisimilar to its corresponding asynchronous closed loop system.

  14. A multiple-pass ring oscillator based dual-loop phase-locked loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Danfeng; Ren Junyan; Deng Jingjing; Li Wei; Li Ning

    2009-01-01

    A dual-loop phase-locked loop (PLL) for wideband operation is proposed. The dual-loop architecture combines a coarse-tuning loop with a fine-tuning one, enabling a wide tuning range and low voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) gain without poisoning phase noise and reference spur suppression performance. An analysis of the phase noise and reference spur of the dual-loop PLL is emphasized. A novel multiple-pass ring VCO is designed for the dual-loop application. It utilizes both voltage-control and current-control simultaneously in the delay cell. The PLL is fabricated in Jazz 0.18-μm RF CMOS technology. The measured tuning range is from 4.2 to 5.9 GHz. It achieves a low phase noise of -99 dBc/Hz - 1 MHz offset from a 5.5 GHz carrier.

  15. A multiple-pass ring oscillator based dual-loop phase-locked loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Danfeng; Ren Junyan; Deng Jingjing; Li Wei; Li Ning, E-mail: dfchen@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A dual-loop phase-locked loop (PLL) for wideband operation is proposed. The dual-loop architecture combines a coarse-tuning loop with a fine-tuning one, enabling a wide tuning range and low voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) gain without poisoning phase noise and reference spur suppression performance. An analysis of the phase noise and reference spur of the dual-loop PLL is emphasized. A novel multiple-pass ring VCO is designed for the dual-loop application. It utilizes both voltage-control and current-control simultaneously in the delay cell. The PLL is fabricated in Jazz 0.18-{mu}m RF CMOS technology. The measured tuning range is from 4.2 to 5.9 GHz. It achieves a low phase noise of -99 dBc/Hz - 1 MHz offset from a 5.5 GHz carrier.

  16. How Do Positive Views Maintain Life Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Tsai, Ying-Mei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes three mediation pathways to explain how the positive views (perceived control, optimism and self-enhancement) proposed by Cummins and Nistico (Journal of Happiness Studies 3:37-69 2002) maintain life satisfaction. The three pathways were enhancing self-esteem, reducing have-want discrepancy and changing importance perceptions.…

  17. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Mølhave, Thomas; Revsbæk, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of maintaining the contour tree T of a terrain Sigma, represented as a triangulated xy-monotone surface, as the heights of its vertices vary continuously with time. We characterize the combinatorial changes in T and how they relate to topological changes in Sigma. We present ...

  18. Maintaining Contour Trees of Dynamic Terrains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Mølhave, Thomas

    We consider maintaining the contour tree T of a piecewise-linear triangulation M that is the graph of a time varying height function h:R2→R. We carefully describe the combinatorial change in T that happen as h varies over time and how these changes relate to topological changes in M. We present a...

  19. Maintainability of manpower system with restricted recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maintainability of a manpower system is studied under a Markov framework. The classical method of controlling only one factor of flow is extended to highlight the case in which two factors are under control simultaneously. One special case of this extension, where recruitment of units faces partial embargo, is given, ...

  20. Competence in radiation protection - acquisition, maintaining, extending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckow, J.; Geringer, T.; Radiation Protection Academy Seibersdorf; Haug, T.

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given on current initiatives, supranational in the EU and national in Germany and Switzerland, for education and training in radiation protection with the aim of maintaining and enlarging professional competence. Successively, individual studying possibilities and courses as well as some experiences with guidelines for professional knowledge in Germany are described. (orig.)

  1. Selfdual strings and loop space Nahm equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We give two independent arguments why the classical membrane fields should be take values in a loop algebra. The first argument comes from how we may construct selfdual strings in the M5 brane from a loop space version of the Nahm equations. The second argument is that there appears to be no infinite set of finite-dimensional Lie algebras (such as su(N) for any N) that satisfies the algebraic structure of the membrane theory

  2. FMFT. Fully massive four-loop tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikelner, Andrey [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-07-15

    We present FMFT - a package written in FORM that evaluates four-loop fully massive tadpole Feynman diagrams. It is a successor of the MATAD package that has been successfully used to calculate many renormalization group functions at three-loop order in a wide range of quantum field theories especially in the Standard Model. We describe an internal structure of the package and provide some examples of its usage.

  3. Higgs Decay to Photons at Two Loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fugel, F.

    2007-01-01

    The calculation of the two-loop corrections to the partial width of an intermediate-mass Higgs boson decaying into a pair of photons is reviewed. The main focus lies on the electroweak (EW) contributions. The sum of the EW corrections ranges from -4% to 0% for a Higgs mass between 100 GeV and 150 GeV, while the complete correction at two-loop order amounts to less than ± 1.5% in this regime. (author)

  4. Piles of dislocation loops in real crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinko, V.I.; Turkin, A.A.; Yanovskij, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    Behaviour of piles of dislocation loops in crystals was studied in order to define metal swelling under irradiation. Energy of pile interaction with point defects and intrinsic pile energy are studied in the framework of the linear elasticity theory. Preference of dislocation pile calculated in the paper decreases with radiation dose hence, material swelling rate also decreases. Creation of conditions, which assume an existence of piles of dislocation loops being stable under irradiation, is of particular interest

  5. Zero Point Energy of Renormalized Wilson Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The quark antiquark potential, and its associated zero point energy, can be extracted from lattice measurements of the Wilson loop. We discuss a unique prescription to renormalize the Wilson loop, for which the perturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes identically. A zero point energy can arise nonperturbatively, which we illustrate by considering effective string models. The nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes in the Nambu model, but is nonzero wh...

  6. FMFT: fully massive four-loop tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikelner, Andrey

    2018-03-01

    We present FMFT - a package written in FORM that evaluates four-loop fully massive tadpole Feynman diagrams. It is a successor of the MATAD package that has been successfully used to calculate many renormalization group functions at three-loop order in a wide range of quantum field theories especially in the Standard Model. We describe an internal structure of the package and provide some examples of its usage.

  7. Quantum Kinematics of Bosonic Vortex Loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldin, G.A.; Owczarek, R.; Sharp, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Poisson structure for vortex filaments (loops and arcs) in 2D ideal incompressible fluid is analyzed in detail. Canonical coordinates and momenta on coadjoint orbits of the area-preserving diffeomorphism group, associated with such vortices, are found. The quantum space of states in the simplest case of ''bosonic'' vortex loops is built within a geometric quantization approach to the description of a quantum fluid. Fock-like structure and non-local creation and annihilation operators of quantum vortex filaments are introduced

  8. Design and Development of transducer for IR radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattarachindanuwong, Surat; Poopat, Bovornchoke; Meethong, Wachira

    2003-06-01

    Recently, IR radiation has many important roles such as for plastics industry, food industry and medical instrumentation. The consequence of exposed irradiation objects from IR can be greatly affected by the quantity of IR radiation. Therefore the objectively this research is to design and develop a transducer for IR radiation measurement. By using a quartz halogen lamp as a IR heat source of IR radiation and a thermopile sensor as a transducer. The thermal conductivity of transducer and air flow, were also considered for design and development of transducer. The study shows that the designed transducer can be used and applied in high temperature process, for example, the quality control of welding, the non-contact temperature measurement of drying oven and the testing of IR source in medical therapy device

  9. Loop space representation of quantum general relativity and the group of loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, R.

    1991-01-01

    The action of the constraints of quantum general relativity on a general state in the loop representation is coded in terms of loop derivatives. These differential operators are related to the infinitesimal generators of the group of loops and generalize the area derivative first considered by Mandelstam. A new sector of solutions of the physical states space of nonperturbative quantum general relativity is found. (orig.)

  10. Multiple Flow Loop SCADA System Implemented on the Production Prototype Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wheat, Robert Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-16

    The following report covers FY 15 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production prototype gas flow loop. The goal of this effort is to expand the existing system to include a second flow loop with a larger production-sized blower. Besides testing the larger blower, this system will demonstrate the scalability of our solution to multiple flow loops.

  11. Evolution of the vertebrate insulin receptor substrate (Irs) gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salam, Ahmad; Irwin, David M

    2017-06-23

    Insulin receptor substrate (Irs) proteins are essential for insulin signaling as they allow downstream effectors to dock with, and be activated by, the insulin receptor. A family of four Irs proteins have been identified in mice, however the gene for one of these, IRS3, has been pseudogenized in humans. While it is known that the Irs gene family originated in vertebrates, it is not known when it originated and which members are most closely related to each other. A better understanding of the evolution of Irs genes and proteins should provide insight into the regulation of metabolism by insulin. Multiple genes for Irs proteins were identified in a wide variety of vertebrate species. Phylogenetic and genomic neighborhood analyses indicate that this gene family originated very early in vertebrae evolution. Most Irs genes were duplicated and retained in fish after the fish-specific genome duplication. Irs genes have been lost of various lineages, including Irs3 in primates and birds and Irs1 in most fish. Irs3 and Irs4 experienced an episode of more rapid protein sequence evolution on the ancestral mammalian lineage. Comparisons of the conservation of the proteins sequences among Irs paralogs show that domains involved in binding to the plasma membrane and insulin receptors are most strongly conserved, while divergence has occurred in sequences involved in interacting with downstream effector proteins. The Irs gene family originated very early in vertebrate evolution, likely through genome duplications, and in parallel with duplications of other components of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin and the insulin receptor. While the N-terminal sequences of these proteins are conserved among the paralogs, changes in the C-terminal sequences likely allowed changes in biological function.

  12. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir(4+) ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory, and Madelung potential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elijah E; Xiang, Hongjun; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2016-03-21

    The spins of the low-spin Ir(4+) (S = 1/2, d(5)) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3, both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir(4+) spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axis directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir(4+) ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir(4+) ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. The spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir(4+) is not as strong as has been assumed.

  13. Distribution of sizes of erased loops for loop-erased random walks

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Deepak; Dhar, Abhishek

    1997-01-01

    We study the distribution of sizes of erased loops for loop-erased random walks on regular and fractal lattices. We show that for arbitrary graphs the probability $P(l)$ of generating a loop of perimeter $l$ is expressible in terms of the probability $P_{st}(l)$ of forming a loop of perimeter $l$ when a bond is added to a random spanning tree on the same graph by the simple relation $P(l)=P_{st}(l)/l$. On $d$-dimensional hypercubical lattices, $P(l)$ varies as $l^{-\\sigma}$ for large $l$, whe...

  14. Hybrid Combustion-Gasification Chemical Looping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert Andrus; Gregory Burns; John Chiu; Gregory Lijedahl; Peter Stromberg; Paul Thibeault

    2009-01-07

    For the past several years Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), a leading world-wide power system manufacturer and supplier, has been in the initial stages of developing an entirely new, ultra-clean, low cost, high efficiency power plant for the global power market. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion-gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology The process consists of the oxidation, reduction, carbonation, and calcination of calcium-based compounds, which chemically react with coal, biomass, or opportunity fuels in two chemical loops and one thermal loop. The chemical and thermal looping technology can be alternatively configured as (i) a combustion-based steam power plant with CO{sub 2} capture, (ii) a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas for gas turbines or fuel cells, or (iii) an integrated hybrid combustion-gasification process producing hydrogen for gas turbines, fuel cells or other hydrogen based applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. In its most advanced configuration, this new concept offers the promise to become the technology link from today's Rankine cycle steam power plants to tomorrow's advanced energy plants. The objective of this work is to develop and verify the high temperature chemical and thermal looping process concept at a small-scale pilot facility in order to enable AL to design, construct and demonstrate a pre-commercial, prototype version of this advanced system. In support of this objective, Alstom and DOE started a multi-year program, under this contract. Before the contract started, in a preliminary phase (Phase 0) Alstom funded and built the required small-scale pilot facility (Process Development Unit, PDU) at its Power Plant Laboratories in Windsor, Connecticut. Construction was completed in calendar year 2003. The objective for Phase I was to develop the indirect combustion loop with CO{sub 2

  15. Scheme-Independent Calculation of $γ_{\\barψψ,IR}$ for an SU(3) Gauge Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas A.; Shrock, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We present a scheme-independent calculation of the infrared value of the anomalous dimension of the fermion bilinear, $\\gamma_{\\bar\\psi\\psi,IR}$ in an SU(3) gauge theory as a function of the number of fermions, $N_f$, via a series expansion in powers of $\\Delta_f$, where $\\Delta_f=(16.5-N......_f)$, to order $\\Delta_f^4$. We perform an extrapolation to obtain the first determination of the exact $\\gamma_{\\bar\\psi\\psi,IR}$ from continuum field theory. The results are compared with calculations of the $n$-loop values of this anomalous dimension from series in powers of the coupling and from lattice...

  16. Exchange bias and perpendicular anisotropy study of ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn multilayers sputtered on float glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, M.; Lüders, U.; Bobo, J. F.

    2007-09-01

    We have prepared ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn polycrystalline multilayers on float-glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We have determined the optimal set of thickness for both Pt layers, the Co layer and the IrMn biasing layer so that these samples exhibit at the same time out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and exchange bias. Kerr microscopy domain structure imaging evidences an increase of nucleation rate accompanied with inhomogeneous magnetic behavior in the case of exchange-biased films compared to Pt-Co-Pt trilayers. Polar hysteresis loops are measured in obliquely applied magnetic field conditions, allowing us to determine both perpendicular anisotropy effective constant Keff and exchange-bias coupling JE, which are significantly different from the ones determined by standard switching field measurements.

  17. Exchange bias and perpendicular anisotropy study of ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn multilayers sputtered on float glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, M.; Lueders, U.; Bobo, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    We have prepared ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn polycrystalline multilayers on float-glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We have determined the optimal set of thickness for both Pt layers, the Co layer and the IrMn biasing layer so that these samples exhibit at the same time out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and exchange bias. Kerr microscopy domain structure imaging evidences an increase of nucleation rate accompanied with inhomogeneous magnetic behavior in the case of exchange-biased films compared to Pt-Co-Pt trilayers. Polar hysteresis loops are measured in obliquely applied magnetic field conditions, allowing us to determine both perpendicular anisotropy effective constant K eff and exchange-bias coupling J E , which are significantly different from the ones determined by standard switching field measurements

  18. The detectability of cracks using sonic IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidini, Marco; Cawley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to study the detectability of fatigue cracks in metals using sonic IR (also known as thermosonics). The method relies on the validation of simple finite-element thermal models of the cracks and specimens in which the thermal loads have been defined by means of a priori measurement of the additional damping introduced in the specimens by each crack. This estimate of crack damping is used in conjunction with a local measurement of the vibration strain during ultrasonic excitation to retrieve the power released at the crack; these functions are then input to the thermal model of the specimens to find the resulting temperature rises (sonic IR signals). The method was validated on mild steel beams with two-dimensional cracks obtained in the low-cycle fatigue regime as well as nickel-based superalloy beams with three-dimensional "thumbnail" cracks generated in the high-cycle fatigue regime. The equivalent 40kHz strain necessary to obtain a desired temperature rise was calculated for cracks in the nickel superalloy set, and the detectability of cracks as a function of length in the range of 1-5mm was discussed.

  19. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  20. One-loop potential with scale invariance and effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D M

    2016-01-01

    We study quantum corrections to the scalar potential in classically scale invariant theories, using a manifestly scale invariant regularization. To this purpose, the subtraction scale $\\mu$ of the dimensional regularization is generated after spontaneous scale symmetry breaking, from a subtraction function of the fields, $\\mu(\\phi,\\sigma)$. This function is then uniquely determined from general principles showing that it depends on the dilaton only, with $\\mu(\\sigma)\\sim \\sigma$. The result is a scale invariant one-loop potential $U$ for a higgs field $\\phi$ and dilaton $\\sigma$ that contains an additional {\\it finite} quantum correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$, beyond the Coleman Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ contains new, non-polynomial effective operators like $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$ whose quantum origin is explained. A flat direction is maintained at the quantum level, the model has vanishing vacuum energy and the one-loop correction to the mass of $\\phi$ remains small without tuning (of its self-coupling, etc) bey...

  1. detectIR: a novel program for detecting perfect and imperfect inverted repeats using complex numbers and vector calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Congting; Ji, Guoli; Li, Lei; Liang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Inverted repeats are present in abundance in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and can form DNA secondary structures--hairpins and cruciforms that are involved in many important biological processes. Bioinformatics tools for efficient and accurate detection of inverted repeats are desirable, because existing tools are often less accurate and time consuming, sometimes incapable of dealing with genome-scale input data. Here, we present a MATLAB-based program called detectIR for the perfect and imperfect inverted repeat detection that utilizes complex numbers and vector calculation and allows genome-scale data inputs. A novel algorithm is adopted in detectIR to convert the conventional sequence string comparison in inverted repeat detection into vector calculation of complex numbers, allowing non-complementary pairs (mismatches) in the pairing stem and a non-palindromic spacer (loop or gaps) in the middle of inverted repeats. Compared with existing popular tools, our program performs with significantly higher accuracy and efficiency. Using genome sequence data from HIV-1, Arabidopsis thaliana, Homo sapiens and Zea mays for comparison, detectIR can find lots of inverted repeats missed by existing tools whose outputs often contain many invalid cases. detectIR is open source and its source code is freely available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/detectir.

  2. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  3. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Krüger, Marcus; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling...... properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type......, IRS-1-/-and IRS-2-/-mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1...

  4. Selective C--C coupling of ir-ethene and ir-carbenoid radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzik, W.I.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Bruin, B.

    2008-01-01

    The reactivity of the paramagnetic iridium(II) complex [IrII(ethene)(Me3tpa)]2+ (1) (Me3tpa=N,N,N-tris(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl) amine) towards the diazo compounds ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) and trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSDM) was investigated. The reaction with EDA gave rise to selective CC bond

  5. Improvenments in environmental trace analysis by GC-IR and LC-IR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; Vredenbregt, M.J.; Jong, A.P.J.M.; Somsen, G.W.; Hankemeier, T.; Velthorst, N.H.; Gooijer, C.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been carried out to enlarge the potential of infrared (IR) spectrometry as a detector in gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC). The study has been directed to applications in environmental analysis. Examples of recently obtained results are presented. The analyte detectability of

  6. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintentance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara; Steele, John W.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessonslearned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  7. Performance of Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Components for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Tony; Peyton, Barbara M.; Steele, John W.; Makinen, Janice; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Water loop maintenance components to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop have undergone a comparative performance evaluation with a second SWME water recirculation loop with no water quality maintenance. Results show the benefits of periodic water maintenance. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the evaluation of water recirculation maintenance components was to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a UTAS military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provided a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The maintenance cycle included the use of a biocide delivery component developed for ISS to introduce a biocide in a microgravity compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  8. Reconfiguration of the NRAD delay loop for proposed 1 MW operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidel, C.C.; Richards, W.J.; Pruett, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron radiography is provided by the NRAD reactor facility, which is located beneath the HFEF hot cell. The NRAD reactor is a TRIGA reactor and is operated at a steady-state power level of 250 kw solely for neutron radiography and the development of radiography techniques. When the NRAD facility was designed and constructed, an operating power level of 250 kw was considered to be adequate for obtaining radiographs of the type of specimens envisaged at that time. Since that time a second radiography station was installed and the thickness of the specimens being radiographed is greater than was initially envisaged. In order to decrease exposure times, the reactor power level is to be increased to 1 Mw. The present delay loop can not to be used at 1 Mw operation, because the passage way where the primary piping exits the reactor room must be maintained less than 1 MR/hr. To obtain the needed delay before the primary water exits the reactor room using the present internal delay loop system would require two more delay loops of the same size to be placed in series with the present delay loop. Because the NRAD reactor tank is small this is not possible; therefore, the delay must take place external to the reactor tank. The delay loop will have to be located in a shielded area to allow the decay of N 16 . The best location for the delay tank will be in the east radiography

  9. Basic Comparison of the Properties of the Loop and Frotte Yarns, Woven and Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Grabowska Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both loop fancy yarns and frotte fancy yarns belong to the group of yarns with continuous effects. The difference between frotte and loop yarn relies on the fact that the loop yarn is constructed with two core yarns and the frotte yarn is constructed with only one core yarn. The differences are evident in the shape of these two types of fancy yarns. These shape differences are the functions of the tensions of component yarns during the twisting process. The shape and construction of the fancy yarn influence its properties. The properties of loop and frotte fancy yarns, woven and knitted fabrics are compared in this article in order to find out the optimal yarn’s and fabric’s production condition to satisfy the final user and maintain low production costs. In terms of economy aspects only, the frotte fancy yarns are believed to be cheaper in production due to lower quantity of components utilize for their production to compare with loop fancy yarns, under conditions of the same settings of ring twisting frame.

  10. TRF2 recruits RTEL1 to telomeres in S phase to promote t-loop unwinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarek, Grzegorz; Vannier, Jean-Baptiste; Panier, Stephanie; Petrini, John H J; Boulton, Simon J

    2015-02-19

    The helicase RTEL1 promotes t-loop unwinding and suppresses telomere fragility to maintain the integrity of vertebrate telomeres. An interaction between RTEL1 and PCNA is important to prevent telomere fragility, but how RTEL1 engages with the telomere to promote t-loop unwinding is unclear. Here, we establish that the shelterin protein TRF2 recruits RTEL1 to telomeres in S phase, which is required to prevent catastrophic t-loop processing by structure-specific nucleases. We show that the TRF2-RTEL1 interaction is mediated by a metal-coordinating C4C4 motif in RTEL1, which is compromised by the Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) mutation, RTEL1(R1264H). Conversely, we define a TRF2(I124D) substitution mutation within the TRFH domain of TRF2, which eliminates RTEL1 binding and phenocopies the RTEL1(R1264H) mutation, giving rise to aberrant t-loop excision, telomere length heterogeneity, and loss of the telomere as a circle. These results implicate TRF2 in the recruitment of RTEL1 to facilitate t-loop disassembly at telomeres in S phase. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electronic structure, local magnetism, and spin-orbit effects of Ir(IV)-, Ir(V)-, and Ir(VI)-based compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Kayser, P.; Alonso, J. A.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Choi, Y.; Haskel, D.

    2015-06-01

    Element- and orbital-selective x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Ir 5d electronic states in double perovskite Sr2MIrO6 (M = Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, In) and La2NiIrO6 compounds. All the studied systems present a significant influence of spin-orbit interactions in the electronic ground state. In addition, we find that the Ir 5d local magnetic moment shows different character depending on the oxidation state despite the net magnetization being similar for all the compounds. Ir carries an orbital contribution comparable to the spin contribution for Ir4+ (5d(5)) and Ir5+ (5d(4)) oxides, whereas the orbital contribution is quenched for Ir6+ (5d(3)) samples. Incorporation of a magnetic 3d atom allows getting insight into the magnetic coupling between 5d and 3d transition metals. Together with previous susceptibility and neutron diffractionmeasurements, the results indicate that Ir carries a significant local magnetic moment even in samples without a 3d metal. The size of the (small) net magnetization of these compounds is a result of predominant antiferromagnetic interactions between local moments coupled with structural details of each perovskite structure

  12. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.; Shaygi, B.; Asadi, H.; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M.

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  13. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, M. [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Bradford Teaching Hospital Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Shaygi, B. [Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Asadi, H., E-mail: asadi.hamed@gmail.com; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  14. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...

  15. Maintaining Respiratory Health in Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Modaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an inherited disease that primarily affects the lungs and the digestive system, however, it also affects a number of other organs and systems. More than 90% of mortality of  CF patients is due to lung complications.  Healthy lungs are important for a long life for people with CF, We will discuss two important topics for maintaining respiratory health. Chronic use of drugs for maintaining respiratory health There are a number of drugs available to keep CF lungs healthy. We will discuss the science behind the recommendations for use of: Inhaled antibiotics Dornase alfa Azithromycin Hypertonic saline High-dose ibuprofen Ivacaftor CF Airway Clearance Therapies Airway Clearance therapy is very important to keeping CF lungs healthy. Our discussions cover the following topics such as the: Daily airway clearance Different techniques of airway clearance Effect of aerobic exercise on airway clearance  

  16. Maintaining the Identify of Dynamically Embodied Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Alan; O'Hare, Gregory; Duffy, Brian; Schoen-Phelan, Bianca; Bradley, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual agents are traditionally constrained in their embod- iment, as they are restricted to one form of body. We propose allowing them to change their embodiment in order to expand their capabili- ties. This presents users with a number of di±culties in maintaining the identity of the agents, but these can be overcome by using identity cues, certain features that remain constant across embodiment forms. This pa- per outlines an experiment that examines these identity cues, and shows that th...

  17. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    , closed-loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can be extended...

  18. High-temperature helium-loop facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100 0 F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system. The experimental capabilities and test conand presents the results that have been obtained. The study has been conducted using a four-phase approach. The first phase develops the solution to the steady-state radon-diffusion equation in one-dimensieered barriers; disposal charge analysis; analysis of spent fuel policy implementation; spent f water. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. Uranium concentrations in the sediments which were above detection limits ranged from 0.10 t 51.2 ppM. The mean of the logarithms of the uranium concentrations was 0.53. A group of high uranium concentrations occurs near the junctions of quadrangles AB, AC, BB, a 200 mK. In case 2), x-ray studies of isotopic phase separation in 3 He-- 4 He bcc solids were carried out by B. A. Fraass

  19. Two-phase Heating in Flaring Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunming; Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze and model a C5.7 two-ribbon solar flare observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hinode, and GOES on 2011 December 26. The flare is made of many loops formed and heated successively over one and half hours, and their footpoints are brightened in the UV 1600 Å before enhanced soft X-ray and EUV missions are observed in flare loops. Assuming that anchored at each brightened UV pixel is a half flaring loop, we identify more than 6700 half flaring loops, and infer the heating rate of each loop from the UV light curve at the footpoint. In each half loop, the heating rate consists of two phases: intense impulsive heating followed by a low-rate heating that is persistent for more than 20 minutes. Using these heating rates, we simulate the evolution of their coronal temperatures and densities with the model of the “enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops.” In the model, suppression of thermal conduction is also considered. This model successfully reproduces total soft X-ray and EUV light curves observed in 15 passbands by four instruments GOES, AIA, XRT, and EVE. In this flare, a total energy of 4.9 × 1030 erg is required to heat the corona, around 40% of this energy is in the slow-heating phase. About two-fifths of the total energy used to heat the corona is radiated by the coronal plasmas, and the other three fifth transported to the lower atmosphere by thermal conduction.

  20. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  1. Leaf venation, as a resistor, to optimize a switchable IR absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, M E; Barber, R

    2016-08-24

    Leaf vascular patterns are the mechanisms and mechanical support for the transportation of fluidics for photosynthesis and leaf development properties. Vascular hierarchical networks in leaves have far-reaching functions in optimal transport efficiency of functional fluidics. Embedding leaf morphogenesis as a resistor network is significant in the optimization of a translucent thermally functional material. This will enable regulation through pressure equalization by diminishing flow pressure variation. This paper investigates nature's vasculature networks that exhibit hierarchical branching scaling applied to microfluidics. To enable optimum potential for pressure drop regulation by algorithm design. This code analysis of circuit conduit optimization for transport fluidic flow resistance is validated against CFD simulation, within a closed loop network. The paper will propose this self-optimization, characterization by resistance seeking targeting to determine a microfluidic network as a resistor. To advance a thermally function material as a switchable IR absorber.

  2. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  3. Leak Mitigation in Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loops for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer R.; Birur, Gajanana; Bame, David; Mastropietro, A. J.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Lee, Darlene; Karlmann, Paul; Liu, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Mechanically pumped fluid loops (MPFLs) are increasingly considered for spacecraft thermal control. A concern for long duration space missions is the leak of fluid leading to performance degradation or potential loop failure. An understanding of leak rate through analysis, as well as destructive and non-destructive testing, provides a verifiable means to quantify leak rates. The system can be appropriately designed to maintain safe operating pressures and temperatures throughout the mission. Two MPFLs on the Mars Science Laboratory Spacecraft, launched November 26, 2011, maintain the temperature of sensitive electronics and science instruments within a -40 deg C to 50 deg C range during launch, cruise, and Mars surface operations. With over 100 meters of complex tubing, fittings, joints, flex lines, and pumps, the system must maintain a minimum pressure through all phases of the mission to provide appropriate performance. This paper describes the process of design, qualification, test, verification, and validation of the components and assemblies employed to minimize risks associated with excessive fluid leaks from pumped fluid loop systems.

  4. Reading handprinted addresses on IRS tax forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaprasad, Vemulapati; Shin, Yong-Chul; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1996-03-01

    The hand-printed address recognition system described in this paper is a part of the Name and Address Block Reader (NABR) system developed by the Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR). NABR is currently being used by the IRS to read address blocks (hand-print as well as machine-print) on fifteen different tax forms. Although machine- print address reading was relatively straightforward, hand-print address recognition has posed some special challenges due to demands on processing speed (with an expected throughput of 8450 forms/hour) and recognition accuracy. We discuss various subsystems involved in hand- printed address recognition, including word segmentation, word recognition, digit segmentation, and digit recognition. We also describe control strategies used to make effective use of these subsystems to maximize recognition accuracy. We present system performance on 931 address blocks in recognizing various fields, such as city, state, ZIP Code, street number and name, and personal names.

  5. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  6. Camouflage in thermal IR: spectral design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Anna; Fagerström, Jan; Kariis, Hans; Lindell, Roland; Hallberg, Tomas; Högström, Herman

    2016-10-01

    In this work a spectral designed coating from SPECTROGON is evaluated. Spectral design in this case means that the coating has a reflectivity equal to one at 3-5 and 8-12 microns were sensors operate and a much lower reflectivity in the other wave length regions. Three boxes are evaluated: one metallic, one black-body and one with a spectral designed surface, all with a 15 W radiator inside the box. It is shown that the box with the spectral designed surface can combine the two good characteristics of the other boxes: low signature from the metallic box and reasonable inside temperature from the black-body box. The measurements were verified with calculations using RadThermIR.

  7. Studies of IR-screening smoke clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudzilo, S. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-02-01

    This paper contains some results of research on the IR-screening capability of smoke clouds generated during the combustion process of varied pyrotechnic formulations. The smoke compositions were made from some oxygen or oxygen-free mixtures containing metal and chloroorganic compounds or mixtures based on red phosphorus. The camouflage effectiveness of clouds generated by these formulations was investigated under laboratory conditions with an infrared camera. The technique employed enables determination of radiant temperature distributions in a smoke cloud treated as an energy equivalent of a grey body emission. The results of the analysis of thermographs from the camera were the basis on which the mixtures producing screens of the highest countermeasure for thermal imaging systems have been chosen. (orig.)

  8. Mass inflation in the loop black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Eric G.; Mann, Robert; Modesto, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    In classical general relativity the Cauchy horizon within a two-horizon black hole is unstable via a phenomenon known as mass inflation, in which the mass parameter (and the spacetime curvature) of the black hole diverges at the Cauchy horizon. Here we study this effect for loop black holes - quantum gravitationally corrected black holes from loop quantum gravity - whose construction alleviates the r=0 singularity present in their classical counterparts. We use a simplified model of mass inflation, which makes use of the generalized Dray-'t Hooft relation, to conclude that the Cauchy horizon of loop black holes indeed results in a curvature singularity similar to that found in classical black holes. The Dray-'t Hooft relation is of particular utility in the loop black hole because it does not directly rely upon Einstein's field equations. We elucidate some of the interesting and counterintuitive properties of the loop black hole, and corroborate our results using an alternate model of mass inflation due to Ori.

  9. One-loop calculations with massive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenborgh, G.J. van.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis some techniques for performing one-loop calculations with massive particles are presented. Numerical techniques are presented necessary for evaluating one-loop integrals which occur in one-loop calculations of photon-photon scattering. The algorithms have been coded in FORTRAN (to evaluate the scalar integrals) and the algebraic language FORM (to reduce the tensor integrals to scalar integrals). Applications are made in the theory of the strong interaction, QCD, i.e. in handling one-loop integrals with massive particles, in order to regulate the infinities by mass parameters encountered in this theory. However this simplifies the computation considerably, the description of the proton structure functions have to be renormalized in order to obtain physical results. This renormalization is different from the published results for the gluon and thus has to be redone. The first physics results that have been obtained with these new methods are presented. These concern heavy quark production in semi-leptonic interactions, for instance neutrino charm production and top production at the electron-proton (ep) collider HERA and the proposed LEP/LHC combination. Total and differential cross-sections for one-loop corrections to top production at the HERA and proposed LEP/HLC ep colliders are given and structure functions for charmed quark production are compared with previously published results. (author). 58 refs.; 18 figs.; 5 tabs

  10. Bootstrapping the Three-Loop Hexagon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2011-11-08

    We consider the hexagonal Wilson loop dual to the six-point MHV amplitude in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. We apply constraints from the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit to the symbol of the remainder function at three loops. Using these constraints, and assuming a natural ansatz for the symbol's entries, we determine the symbol up to just two undetermined constants. In the multi-Regge limit, both constants drop out from the symbol, enabling us to make a non-trivial confirmation of the BFKL prediction for the leading-log approximation. This result provides a strong consistency check of both our ansatz for the symbol and the duality between Wilson loops and MHV amplitudes. Furthermore, we predict the form of the full three-loop remainder function in the multi-Regge limit, beyond the leading-log approximation, up to a few constants representing terms not detected by the symbol. Our results confirm an all-loop prediction for the real part of the remainder function in multi-Regge 3 {yields} 3 scattering. In the multi-Regge limit, our result for the remainder function can be expressed entirely in terms of classical polylogarithms. For generic six-point kinematics other functions are required.

  11. Logical inference techniques for loop parallelization

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automatic approach to loop parallelization that integrates the use of static and run-time analysis and thus overcomes many known difficulties such as nonlinear and indirect array indexing and complex control flow. Our hybrid analysis framework validates the parallelization transformation by verifying the independence of the loop\\'s memory references. To this end it represents array references using the USR (uniform set representation) language and expresses the independence condition as an equation, S = Ø, where S is a set expression representing array indexes. Using a language instead of an array-abstraction representation for S results in a smaller number of conservative approximations but exhibits a potentially-high runtime cost. To alleviate this cost we introduce a language translation F from the USR set-expression language to an equally rich language of predicates (F(S) ⇒ S = Ø). Loop parallelization is then validated using a novel logic inference algorithm that factorizes the obtained complex predicates (F(S)) into a sequence of sufficient-independence conditions that are evaluated first statically and, when needed, dynamically, in increasing order of their estimated complexities. We evaluate our automated solution on 26 benchmarks from PERFECTCLUB and SPEC suites and show that our approach is effective in parallelizing large, complex loops and obtains much better full program speedups than the Intel and IBM Fortran compilers. Copyright © 2012 ACM.

  12. Variational solution of the loop equation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agishtein, M.E.; Migdal, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique for the large N loop equation of QCD is worked out. The Wilson loop W(C) is approximated by a Gaussian functional. The parameters are fitted to the loop equation, after which the equation is statisfied up to 0.2%. The resulting Wilson loop corresponds to linearly rising Regge trajectories. The problem of tachyon is still present, but it could be cured by iteration of the loop equation starting from this variational solution. (orig.)

  13. Variational solution of the loop equation in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agishtein, M.E.; Migdal, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    A new technique for the large N loop equation of QCD is worked out. The Wilson loop W(C) is approximated by a Gaussian functional. The parameters are fitted to the loop equation, after which the equation is satisfied up to 0.2%. The resulting Wilson loop corresponds to linearly rising Regge trajectories. The problem of tachyon is still present, but it could be cured by iteration of the loop equation starting from this variational solution

  14. Novel cross-talk between IGF-IR and DDR1 regulates IGF-IR trafficking, signaling and biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Antonella; Morcavallo, Alaide; Vella, Veronica; Voci, Concetta; Spatuzza, Michela; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Iozzo, Renato V.; Vigneri, Riccardo; Morrione, Andrea; Belfiore, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), plays a key role in regulating mammalian development and growth, and is frequently deregulated in cancer contributing to tumor initiation and progression. Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen receptor tyrosine-kinase, is as well frequently overexpressed in cancer and implicated in cancer progression. Thus, we investigated whether a functional cross-talk between the IGF-IR and DDR1 exists and plays any role in cancer progression. Using human breast cancer cells we found that DDR1 constitutively associated with the IGF-IR. However, this interaction was enhanced by IGF-I stimulation, which promoted rapid DDR1 tyrosine-phosphorylation and co-internalization with the IGF-IR. Significantly, DDR1 was critical for IGF-IR endocytosis and trafficking into early endosomes, IGF-IR protein expression and IGF-I intracellular signaling and biological effects, including cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. These biological responses were inhibited by DDR1 silencing and enhanced by DDR1 overexpression. Experiments in mouse fibroblasts co-transfected with the human IGF-IR and DDR1 gave similar results and indicated that, in the absence of IGF-IR, collagen-dependent phosphorylation of DDR1 is impaired. These results demonstrate a critical role of DDR1 in the regulation of IGF-IR action, and identify DDR1 as a novel important target for breast cancers that overexpress IGF-IR. PMID:25840417

  15. Inhibition of PTP1B Restores IRS1-Mediated Hepatic Insulin Signaling in IRS2-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Gutierrez, Jose A. Mas; Sanz-González, Silvia; Ros, Manuel; Burks, Deborah J.; Valverde, Ángela M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mice with complete deletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) develop hyperglycemia, impaired hepatic insulin signaling, and elevated gluconeogenesis, whereas mice deficient for protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)1B display an opposing hepatic phenotype characterized by increased sensitivity to insulin. To define the relationship between these two signaling pathways in the regulation of liver metabolism, we used genetic and pharmacological approaches to study the effects of inhibiting PTP1B on hepatic insulin signaling and expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in IRS2−/− mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling in liver and isolated hepatocytes from IRS2−/− and IRS2−/−/PTP1B−/− mice. Additionally, hepatic insulin signaling was assessed in control and IRS2−/− mice treated with resveratrol, an antioxidant present in red wine. RESULTS In livers of hyperglycemic IRS2−/− mice, the expression levels of PTP1B and its association with the insulin receptor (IR) were increased. The absence of PTP1B in the double-mutant mice restored hepatic IRS1-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/Akt/Foxo1 signaling. Moreover, resveratrol treatment of hyperglycemic IRS2−/− mice decreased hepatic PTP1B mRNA and inhibited PTP1B activity, thereby restoring IRS1-mediated PI 3-kinase/Akt/Foxo1 signaling and peripheral insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS By regulating the phosphorylation state of IR, PTB1B determines sensitivity to insulin in liver and exerts a unique role in the interplay between IRS1 and IRS2 in the modulation of hepatic insulin action. PMID:20028942

  16. Study on IR Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyue; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Yuxiang; Zeng, Yurun

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummer method and characterized. Then, the complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide in IR band was tested and its IR absorption and radiation properties were researched by correlated calculation. The results show that reduced graphene oxide prepared by hummer method are multilayered graphene with defects and functional groups on its surface. Its absorption in near and far IR bands is strong, but it’s weaker in middle IR band. At the IR atmosphere Window, its normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength increasing, and its total normal spectral emissivity in 3 ∼ 5μm and 8 ∼ 14μm are 0.75 and 0.625, respectively. Therefore, reduced graphene oxide can be used as IR absorption and coating materials and have a great potential in microwave and infrared compatible materials.

  17. Endurance test on IR rig for RI production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Youn, Y. J.; Han, H. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ryu, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for IR rig for RI production which were desigened and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate through the IR rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 3.12 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the IR rig ranges from 13 to 17 Hz. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the IR rig is less than 30 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 110μm. These experimental results show that the design criteria of IR rig meet the HANARO limit conditions. Endurance test results show that the appreciable fretting wear for the IR rig does not occur, however tiny trace of wear between contact points is observed

  18. Future development of IR thermovision weather satellite equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listratov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The self radiation of the surface being viewed is used for image synthesis in IR thermovision equipment. The installation of such equipment aboard weather satellites makes it possible to obtain cloud cover pictures of the earth's surface in a complete orbit, regardless of the illumination conditions, and also provides quantitative information on the underlying surface temperature and cloud top height. Such equipment is used successfully aboard the Soviet satellites of the Meteor system, and experimentally on the American satellites of the Nimbus series. With regard to surface resolution, the present-day IR weather satellite equipment is inferior to the television equipment. This is due primarily to the comparatively low detectivity of the IR detectors used. While IR equipment has several fundamental advantages in comparison with the conventional television equipment, the problem arises of determining the possibility for future development of weather satellite IR thermovision equipment. Criteria are examined for evaluating the quality of IR.

  19. BPS Wilson loops and Bremsstrahlung function in ABJ(M): a two loop analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marco S. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Griguolo, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parmaand INFN Gruppo Collegato di Parma,Viale G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Leoni, Matias [Physics Department, FCEyN-UBA & IFIBA-CONICETCiudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Penati, Silvia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicoccaand INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Seminara, Domenico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenzeand INFN Sezione di Firenze,via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-06-19

    We study a family of circular BPS Wilson loops in N=6 super Chern-Simons-matter theories, generalizing the usual 1/2-BPS circle. The scalar and fermionic couplings depend on two deformation parameters and these operators can be considered as the ABJ(M) counterpart of the DGRT latitudes defined in N=4 SYM. We perform a complete two-loop analysis of their vacuum expectation value, discuss the appearance of framing-like phases and propose a general relation with cohomologically equivalent bosonic operators. We make an all-loop proposal for computing the Bremsstrahlung function associated to the 1/2-BPS cusp in terms of these generalized Wilson loops. When applied to our two-loop result it reproduces the known expression. Finally, we comment on the generalization of this proposal to the bosonic 1/6-BPS case.

  20. IR sensor for monitoring of burner flame; IR sensor foer oevervakning av braennarflamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanberg, Marcus; Funkquist, Jonas; Clausen, Soennik; Wetterstroem, Jonas

    2007-12-15

    To obtain a smooth operation of the coal-fired power plants many power plant managers have installed online mass flow measurement of coal to all burners. This signal is used to monitor the coal mass flow to the individual burner and match it with appropriate amount of air and also to monitor the distribution of coal between the burners. The online mass flow measurement system is very expensive (approximately 150 kEUR for ten burners) and is not beneficial for smaller plants. The accuracy of the measurement and the sample frequency are also questionable. The idea in this project has been to evaluate a cheaper system that can present the same information and may also provide better accuracy and faster sample frequency. The infrared sensor is a cheap narrow banded light emission sensor that can be placed in a water cooed probe. The sensor was directed at the burner flame and the emitted light was monitored. Through calibration the mass flow of coal can be presented. Two measurement campaigns were performed. Both campaigns were carried out in Nordjyllandsverket in Denmark even though the second campaign was planned to be in Uppsala. Due to severe problems in the Uppsala plant the campaign was moved to Nordjyllandsverket. The pre-requisites for the test plant were that online measurement of coal flow was installed. In Nordjyllandsverket 4 out of 16 burners have the mass flow measurement installed. Risoe Laboratories has vast experiences in the IR technology and they provided the IR sensing equipment. One IR sensor was placed in the flame guard position just behind the flame directed towards the ignition zone. A second sensor was placed at the boiler wall directed towards the flame. The boiler wall position did not give any results and the location was not used during the second campaign. The flame-guard-positioned-sensor- signal was thoroughly evaluated and the results show that there is a clear correlation between the coal mass flow and the IR sensor signal. Tests were

  1. Flat Knitting Loop Deformation Simulation Based on Interlacing Point Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Gaoming

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the faster CAD of the flat-knitted fabric, we have performed research on the model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. This paper proposes an interlacing point-based model for the loop center curve, and uses the cubic Bezier curve to fit the central curve of the regular loop, elongated loop, transfer loop, and irregular deformed loop. In this way, a general model for the central curve of the deformed loop is obtained. The obtained model is then utilized to perform texture mapping, texture interpolation, and brightness processing, simulating a clearly structured and lifelike deformed loop. The computer program LOOP is developed by using the algorithm. The deformed loop is simulated with different yarns, and the deformed loop is applied to design of a cable stitch, demonstrating feasibility of the proposed algorithm. This paper provides a loop primitive simulation method characterized by lifelikeness, yarn material variability, and deformation flexibility, and facilitates the loop-based fast computer-aided design (CAD of the knitted fabric.

  2. New Ir Bis-Carbonyl Precursor for Water Oxidation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Daria L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Beltrán-Suito, Rodrigo [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Thomsen, Julianne M. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Hashmi, Sara M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental; Materna, Kelly L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Sheehan, Stafford W. [Catalytic Innovations LLC, 70 Crandall; Mercado, Brandon Q. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Brudvig, Gary W. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Crabtree, Robert H. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225

    2016-02-05

    This paper introduces IrI(CO)2(pyalc) (pyalc = (2-pyridyl)-2-propanoate) as an atom-efficient precursor for Ir-based homogeneous oxidation catalysis. This compound was chosen to simplify analysis of the water oxidation catalyst species formed by the previously reported Cp*IrIII(pyalc)OH water oxidation precatalyst. Here, we present a comparative study on the chemical and catalytic properties of these two precursors. Previous studies show that oxidative activation of Cp*Ir-based precursors with NaIO4 results in formation of a blue IrIV species. This activation is concomitant with the loss of the placeholder Cp* ligand which oxidatively degrades to form acetic acid, iodate, and other obligatory byproducts. The activation process requires substantial amounts of primary oxidant, and the degradation products complicate analysis of the resulting IrIV species. The species formed from oxidation of the Ir(CO)2(pyalc) precursor, on the other hand, lacks these degradation products (the CO ligands are easily lost upon oxidation) which allows for more detailed examination of the resulting Ir(pyalc) active species both catalytically and spectroscopically, although complete structural analysis is still elusive. Once Ir(CO)2(pyalc) is activated, the system requires acetic acid or acetate to prevent the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of the activated bis-carbonyl complex also suggests several Ir(pyalc) isomers may exist in solution. By 1H NMR, activated Ir(CO)2(pyalc) has fewer isomers than activated Cp*Ir complexes, allowing for advanced characterization. Future research in this direction is expected to contribute to a better structural understanding of the active species. A diol crystallization agent was needed for the structure determination of 3.

  3. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Spectral imaging and detection of mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths are emerging as an enabling technology of great technical and scientific interest; primarily because important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints revealing valuable chemical information. Whi...... 20 % for polarized incoherent light at 3 \\mum. The proposed method is relevant for existing and new mid-IR applications like gas analysis and medical diagnostics....

  4. Identifying crucial parameter correlations maintaining bursting activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Doloc-Mihu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, [Formula: see text]Leak; a persistent K current, [Formula: see text]K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, [Formula: see text]P that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of [Formula: see text]Leak, [Formula: see text]K2, and [Formula: see text]P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained.

  5. Įvairialyčiai lantano ir mangano oksido ir multiferoinio bismuto ferito heterodariniai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifacas VENGALIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastaruoju metu naujų elektronikos prietaisų gamyboje buvo pasiekta didelė pažanga auginant, tyrinėjant ir pritaikant plonasluoksnes struktūras, sudarytas iš įvairių daugiakomponenčių funkcinių oksidų. Šiai oksidų grupei priklauso superlaidieji kupratai, mangano oksidai (manganitai, pasižymintys magnetovaržos reiškiniu, taip pat kiti feromagnetiniai, feroelektriniai, multiferoiniai oksidai. Manganitams (jų bendra formulė Ln1-xAxMnO3, kur Ln = La, Nd,..., o A - dvivalentis katijonas, toks kaip Ba, Sr ar Ca skiriama daug dėmesio dėl jų įdomių elektrinių savybių bei tinkamumo įvairiems spintronikos prietaisams kurti. Multiferoikai  (feroelektriniai feromagnetai pasižymi magnetoelektriniu efektu, duodančiu unikalią galimybę elektrinėms ir magnetinėms medžiagos savybėms valdyti panaudoti elektrinius ir magnetinius laukus. Bismuto feritas BiFeO3 (BFO, turintis romboedriškai deformuotą perovskito struktūrą, šiuo metu yra vienas labiausiai tyrinėjamų šios klasės junginių. Organiniai puslaidininkiai (OP taip pat atveria daug naujų galimybių elektronikai. Jų pranašumas yra didelė organinių junginių įvairovė ir palyginti paprasta ir pigi plonų sluoksnių gamybos technologija. Be to, OP pasižymi neįprastai didelėmis sukinių relaksacijos laiko vertėmis, todėl ateityje jie gali būti naudojami naujiems spintronikos prietaisams gaminti. Šiame straipsnyje apžvelgiami pastarųjų metų darbo autorių ir jų kolegų atlikti anksčiau minėtų medžiagų tyrimai. Daugiausia dėmesio skiriama magnetovaržinėmis savybėmis pasižyminčių lantano ir mangano oksidų (manganitų bei multiferoinio  BiFeO3 (BFO junginio plonųjų sluoksnių ir heterodarinių auginimui, tarpfazinių ribų tarp minėtų oksidų, laidžiojo SrTiO3 ir organinio puslaidininkio (Alq3 sudarymui, taip pat elektrinėms heterodarinių savybėms. Plonieji La2/3A1/3MnO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Ce sluoksniai, kurių storis d

  6. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-08-01

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  7. Store operations to maintain cache coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Nair, Ravi; Ohmacht, Martin

    2017-09-12

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes encountering a store operation during a compile-time of a program, where the store operation is applicable to a memory line. It is determined, by a computer processor, that no cache coherence action is necessary for the store operation. A store-without-coherence-action instruction is generated for the store operation, responsive to determining that no cache coherence action is necessary. The store-without-coherence-action instruction specifies that the store operation is to be performed without a cache coherence action, and cache coherence is maintained upon execution of the store-without-coherence-action instruction.

  8. Transition probability spaces in loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiao-Kan

    2018-03-01

    We study the (generalized) transition probability spaces, in the sense of Mielnik and Cantoni, for spacetime quantum states in loop quantum gravity. First, we show that loop quantum gravity admits the structures of transition probability spaces. This is exemplified by first checking such structures in covariant quantum mechanics and then identifying the transition probability spaces in spin foam models via a simplified version of general boundary formulation. The transition probability space thus defined gives a simple way to reconstruct the discrete analog of the Hilbert space of the canonical theory and the relevant quantum logical structures. Second, we show that the transition probability space and in particular the spin foam model are 2-categories. Then we discuss how to realize in spin foam models two proposals by Crane about the mathematical structures of quantum gravity, namely, the quantum topos and causal sites. We conclude that transition probability spaces provide us with an alternative framework to understand various foundational questions of loop quantum gravity.

  9. Solar flare loops observations and interpretations

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Guangli; Ji, Haisheng; Ning, Zongjun

    2018-01-01

    This book provides results of analysis of typical solar events, statistical analysis, the diagnostics of energetic electrons and magnetic field, as well as the global behavior of solar flaring loops such as their contraction and expansion. It pays particular attention to analyzing solar flare loops with microwave, hard X-ray, optical and EUV emissions, as well as the theories of their radiation, and electron acceleration/transport. The results concerning influence of the pitch-angle anisotropy of non-thermal electrons on their microwave and hard X-ray emissions, new spectral behaviors in X-ray and microwave bands, and results related to the contraction of flaring loops, are widely discussed in the literature of solar physics. The book is useful for graduate students and researchers in solar and space physics.

  10. Automatic Loop Parallelization via Compiler Guided Refactoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Ladelsky, Razya; Lidman, Jacob

    For many parallel applications, performance relies not on instruction-level parallelism, but on loop-level parallelism. Unfortunately, many modern applications are written in ways that obstruct automatic loop parallelization. Since we cannot identify sufficient parallelization opportunities...... for these codes in a static, off-line compiler, we developed an interactive compilation feedback system that guides the programmer in iteratively modifying application source, thereby improving the compiler’s ability to generate loop-parallel code. We use this compilation system to modify two sequential...... benchmarks, finding that the code parallelized in this way runs up to 8.3 times faster on an octo-core Intel Xeon 5570 system and up to 12.5 times faster on a quad-core IBM POWER6 system. Benchmark performance varies significantly between the systems. This suggests that semi-automatic parallelization should...

  11. Microwave emission from flaring magnetic loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.

    1980-01-01

    The microwave emission from a flaring loop is considered. In particular the author examines the question: What will be the characteristics of the radio emission at centimeter wavelengths from a small compact flaring loop when the mechanism which pumps magnetic energy into the plasma in the form of heating and/or electron acceleration satisfies the conditions: (a) the magnetic energy is released in a small volume compared to the volume of the loop, and the rate at which magnetic energy is transformed into plasma energy is faster than the energy losses from the same volume. This causes a local enhancement of the temperature by as much as one or two orders of magnitude above the coronal temperature; (b) The bulk of the energy released goes into heating the plasma and heats primarily the electrons. (Auth.)

  12. Experimental loop for SH2 (LECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehar, N.R.; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Moras, J.J.; Cogozzo, E.O.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental loop is described for circulation of SH 2 that operates at 2 x 10 6 Pascal and 33 deg C. It was designed and constructed with the purpose of experimentally studying the hydraulic instability phenomenon that can be detected in cold isotopic exchange columns in the Girdler-Sulfide (GS) process of heavy water production. The main features of the different components of the loop are described, as well as the materials, the measurement and control instruments and the auxiliary equipment used, and finally the measuring methods to qualify and quantify the formation of froth. Furthermore, the loop's transportable metallic container is described, which allows to transport and connect it to CNEA's experimental heavy water plant or to any other heavy water plants using the GS method. Some tests made with inert gases that intended to verify the equipment's performance and to select the most adequate sieve trays for its operation are discussed. (M.E.L.) [es

  13. Automated one-loop calculations with GOSAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, Gavin; Greiner, Nicolas; Heinrich, Gudrun; Reiter, Thomas; Luisoni, Gionata

    2011-11-01

    We present the program package GoSam which is designed for the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes in renormalisable quantum field theories. The amplitudes, which are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams, can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop QCD and/or electroweak corrections to Standard Model processes and offers the flexibility to link model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also implemented. We demonstrate the flexibility of the program by presenting examples of processes with up to six external legs attached to the loop. (orig.)

  14. Automated one-loop calculations with GOSAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, Gavin [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Zeuthen [DESY; Germany; Greiner, Nicolas [Illinois Univ., Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Heinrich, Gudrun; Reiter, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Luisoni, Gionata [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ossola, Giovanni [New York City Univ., NY (United States). New York City College of Technology; New York City Univ., NY (United States). The Graduate School and University Center; Tramontano, Francesco [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-11-15

    We present the program package GoSam which is designed for the automated calculation of one-loop amplitudes for multi-particle processes in renormalisable quantum field theories. The amplitudes, which are generated in terms of Feynman diagrams, can be reduced using either D-dimensional integrand-level decomposition or tensor reduction. GoSam can be used to calculate one-loop QCD and/or electroweak corrections to Standard Model processes and offers the flexibility to link model files for theories Beyond the Standard Model. A standard interface to programs calculating real radiation is also implemented. We demonstrate the flexibility of the program by presenting examples of processes with up to six external legs attached to the loop. (orig.)

  15. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2016-10-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  16. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics (MCTP), University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-05-30

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed “covariant diagrams.” The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  17. Defect networks and supersymmetric loop operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullimore, Mathew [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-02-10

    We consider topological defect networks with junctions in A{sub N−1} Toda CFT and the connection to supersymmetric loop operators in N=2 theories of class S on a four-sphere. Correlation functions in the presence of topological defect networks are computed by exploiting the monodromy of conformal blocks, generalising the notion of a Verlinde operator. Concentrating on a class of topological defects in A{sub 2} Toda theory, we find that the Verlinde operators generate an algebra whose structure is determined by a set of generalised skein relations that encode the representation theory of a quantum group. In the second half of the paper, we explore the dictionary between topological defect networks and supersymmetric loop operators in the N=2{sup ∗} theory by comparing to exact localisation computations. In this context, the the generalised skein relations are related to the operator product expansion of loop operators.

  18. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhengkang [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gaugecovariant quantities and are thus dubbed ''covariant diagrams.'' The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  19. Covariant diagrams for one-loop matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengkang

    2017-01-01

    We present a diagrammatic formulation of recently-revived covariant functional approaches to one-loop matching from an ultraviolet (UV) theory to a low-energy effective field theory. Various terms following from a covariant derivative expansion (CDE) are represented by diagrams which, unlike conventional Feynman diagrams, involve gauge-covariant quantities and are thus dubbed “covariant diagrams.” The use of covariant diagrams helps organize and simplify one-loop matching calculations, which we illustrate with examples. Of particular interest is the derivation of UV model-independent universal results, which reduce matching calculations of specific UV models to applications of master formulas. We show how such derivation can be done in a more concise manner than the previous literature, and discuss how additional structures that are not directly captured by existing universal results, including mixed heavy-light loops, open covariant derivatives, and mixed statistics, can be easily accounted for.

  20. Role of IRS-2 in insulin and cytokine signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X J; Wang, L M; Zhang, Y; Yenush, L; Myers, M G; Glasheen, E; Lane, W S; Pierce, J H; White, M F

    1995-09-14

    The protein IRS-1 acts as an interface between signalling proteins with Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) and the receptors for insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL-4, IL-9, IL-13) and other cytokines. It regulates gene expression and stimulates mitogenesis, and appears to mediate insulin/IGF-1-stimulated glucose transport. Thus, survival of the IRS-1-/- mouse with only mild resistance to insulin was surprising. This dilemma is provisionally resolved with our discovery of a second IRS-signalling protein. We purified and cloned a likely candidate called 4PS from myeloid progenitor cells and, because of its resemblance to IRS-1, we designate it IRS-2. Alignment of the sequences of IRS-2 and IRS-1 revealed a highly conserved amino terminus containing a pleckstrin-homology domain and a phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and a poorly conserved carboxy terminus containing several tyrosine phosphorylation motifs. IRS-2 is expressed in many cells, including tissues from IRS-1-/- mice, and may be essential for signalling by several receptor systems.

  1. Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) IRS Medicare Part D

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA uses the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) information in determing the eligibility of Medicare recipients to receive subsidy payments for Medicare premiums. SSA...

  2. Proteins mediating DNA loops effectively block transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vörös, Zsuzsanna; Yan, Yan; Kovari, Daniel T; Finzi, Laura; Dunlap, David

    2017-07-01

    Loops are ubiquitous topological elements formed when proteins simultaneously bind to two noncontiguous DNA sites. While a loop-mediating protein may regulate initiation at a promoter, the presence of the protein at the other site may be an obstacle for RNA polymerases (RNAP) transcribing a different gene. To test whether a DNA loop alters the extent to which a protein blocks transcription, the lac repressor (LacI) was used. The outcome of in vitro transcription along templates containing two LacI operators separated by 400 bp in the presence of LacI concentrations that produced both looped and unlooped molecules was visualized with scanning force microscopy (SFM). An analysis of transcription elongation complexes, moving for 60 s at an average of 10 nt/s on unlooped DNA templates, revealed that they more often surpassed LacI bound to the lower affinity O2 operator than to the highest affinity Os operator. However, this difference was abrogated in looped DNA molecules where LacI became a strong roadblock independently of the affinity of the operator. Recordings of transcription elongation complexes, using magnetic tweezers, confirmed that they halted for several minutes upon encountering a LacI bound to a single operator. The average pause lifetime is compatible with RNAP waiting for LacI dissociation, however, the LacI open conformation visualized in the SFM images also suggests that LacI could straddle RNAP to let it pass. Independently of the mechanism by which RNAP bypasses the LacI roadblock, the data indicate that an obstacle with looped topology more effectively interferes with transcription. © 2017 The Authors Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Protein Society.

  3. Coronal Loops: Evolving Beyond the Isothermal Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Cirtain, J. W.; Allen, J. D.

    2002-05-01

    Are coronal loops isothermal? A controversy over this question has arisen recently because different investigators using different techniques have obtained very different answers. Analysis of SOHO-EIT and TRACE data using narrowband filter ratios to obtain temperature maps has produced several key publications that suggest that coronal loops may be isothermal. We have constructed a multi-thermal distribution for several pixels along a relatively isolated coronal loop on the southwest limb of the solar disk using spectral line data from SOHO-CDS taken on 1998 Apr 20. These distributions are clearly inconsistent with isothermal plasma along either the line of sight or the length of the loop, and suggested rather that the temperature increases from the footpoints to the loop top. We speculated originally that these differences could be attributed to pixel size -- CDS pixels are larger, and more `contaminating' material would be expected along the line of sight. To test this idea, we used CDS iron line ratios from our data set to mimic the isothermal results from the narrowband filter instruments. These ratios indicated that the temperature gradient along the loop was flat, despite the fact that a more complete analysis of the same data showed this result to be false! The CDS pixel size was not the cause of the discrepancy; rather, the problem lies with the isothermal approximation used in EIT and TRACE analysis. These results should serve as a strong warning to anyone using this simplistic method to obtain temperature. This warning is echoed on the EIT web page: ``Danger! Enter at your own risk!'' In other words, values for temperature may be found, but they may have nothing to do with physical reality. Solar physics research at the University of Memphis is supported by NASA grant NAG5-9783. This research was funded in part by the NASA/TRACE MODA grant for Montana State University.

  4. High-Order Frequency-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In very recent years, some attempts for designing high-order frequency-locked loops (FLLs) have been made. Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of these structures, particularly in comparison with a standard FLL and high-order phase-locked loops (PLLs), are rather unclear. This lack...... study, and its small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and parameter tuning are presented. Finally, to gain insight about advantages and disadvantages of high-order FLLs, a theoretical and experimental performance comparison between the designed second-order FLL and a standard FLL (first-order FLL...

  5. Accident analysis of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.; Chi, D. Y

    1998-03-01

    Steady state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterment of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. The HANARO fuel test loop was designed to match the CANDU and PWR fuel operating conditions. The accident analysis was performed by RELAP5/MOD3 code based on FTL system designs and determined the detail engineering specification of in-pile test section and out-pile systems. The accident analysis results of FTL system could be used for the fuel and materials designer to plan the irradiation testing programs. (author). 23 refs., 20 tabs., 178 figs.

  6. A keyboard control method for loop measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a keyboard control mode based on the DEC VAX computer. The VAX Keyboard code can be found under running of a program was developed. During the loop measurement or multitask operation, it ables to be distinguished from a keyboard code to stop current operation or transfer to another operation while previous information can be held. The combining of this mode, the author successfully used one key control loop measurement for test Dual Input Memory module which is used in a rearrange Energy Trigger system for LEP 8 Bunch operation

  7. Anomaly freedom in perturbative loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojowald, Martin; Hossain, Golam Mortuza; Kagan, Mikhail; Shankaranarayanan, S.

    2008-01-01

    A fully consistent linear perturbation theory for cosmology is derived in the presence of quantum corrections as they are suggested by properties of inverse volume operators in loop quantum gravity. The underlying constraints present a consistent deformation of the classical system, which shows that the discreteness in loop quantum gravity can be implemented in effective equations without spoiling space-time covariance. Nevertheless, nontrivial quantum corrections do arise in the constraint algebra. Since correction terms must appear in tightly controlled forms to avoid anomalies, detailed insights for the correct implementation of constraint operators can be gained. The procedures of this article thus provide a clear link between fundamental quantum gravity and phenomenology.

  8. Logical inference techniques for loop parallelization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oancea, Cosmin Eugen; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    the parallelization transformation by verifying the independence of the loop's memory references. To this end it represents array references using the USR (uniform set representation) language and expresses the independence condition as an equation, S={}, where S is a set expression representing array indexes. Using...... of their estimated complexities. We evaluate our automated solution on 26 benchmarks from PERFECT-CLUB and SPEC suites and show that our approach is effective in parallelizing large, complex loops and obtains much better full program speedups than the Intel and IBM Fortran compilers....

  9. Description of the sodium loop ML-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, de la M.; Melches, I; Lapena, J.; Martinez, T.A.; Miguel, de D.; Duran, F.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium loop ML-3 is described. The main objective of this facility is to obtain mechanical property data for LMFBR materials in creep and low cycle fatigue testing in flowing sodium. ML-3 includes 10 test stations for creep and two for fatigue. It is possible to operate simultaneously at three different temperature levels. The maximum operating temperature is 650 deg C at flow velocities up to 5 m/s. The ML-3 loop has been located in a manner that permits the fill/dump tank cover gas and security systems to be shared with an earlier circuit, the ML-1. (author)

  10. Tuning OpenACC loop execution

    KAUST Repository

    Feki, Saber

    2017-01-07

    The purpose of this chapter is to help OpenACC developer who is already familiar with the basic and essential directives to further improve his code performance by adding more descriptive clauses to OpenACC loop constructs. At the end of this chapter the reader will: • Have a better understanding of the purpose of the OpenACC loop construct and its associated clauses illustrated with use cases • Use the acquired knowledge in practice to further improve the performance of OpenACC accelerated codes

  11. Topspin networks in loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duston, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the extension of loop quantum gravity to topspin networks, a proposal which allows topological information to be encoded in spin networks. We will show that this requires minimal changes to the phase space, C*-algebra and Hilbert space of cylindrical functions. We will also discuss the area and Hamiltonian operators, and show how they depend on the topology. This extends the idea of ‘background independence’ in loop quantum gravity to include topology as well as geometry. It is hoped this work will confirm the usefulness of the topspin network formalism and open up several new avenues for research into quantum gravity. (paper)

  12. Loop quantum gravity in asymptotically flat spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsdorf, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes applications and extensions of the loop variable approach to non-perturbative quantum gravity. The common theme of the work presented, is the need to generalise loop quantum gravity to be applicable in cases where space is asymptotically flat, and no longer compact as is usually assumed. This is important for the study of isolated gravitational systems. It also presents a natural context in which to search for the semi-classical limit, one of the main outstanding problems in loop quantum gravity. In the first part of the thesis we study how isolated gravitational systems can be attributed particle-like properties. In particular, we show how spinorial states can arise in pure loop quantum gravity if spatial topology is non-trivial, thus confirming an old conjecture of Friedman and Sorkin. Heuristically, this corresponds to the idea that we can rotate isolated regions of spatial topology relative to the environment at infinity, and that only a 4π-rotation will take us back to the original configuration. To do this we extend the standard loop quantum gravity formalism by introducing a compactification of our non-compact spatial manifold, and study the knotting of embedded graphs. The second part of the thesis takes a more systematic approach to the study of loop quantum gravity on non-compact spaces. We look for new representations of the loop algebra, which give rise to quantum theories that are inequivalent to the standard one. These theories naturally describe excitations of a fiducial background state, which is specified via the choice of its vacuum expectation values. In particular, we can choose background states that describe the geometries of non-compact manifolds. We also discuss how suitable background states can be constructed that can approximate classical phase space data, in our case holonomies along embedded paths and geometrical quantities related to areas and volumes. These states extend the notion of the weave and provide a

  13. Automation of one-loop QCD corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, Valentin; Frixione, Stefano; Garzelli, Maria Vittoria; Maltoni, Fabio; Pittau, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present the complete automation of the computation of one-loop QCD corrections, including UV renormalization, to an arbitrary scattering process in the Standard Model. This is achieved by embedding the OPP integrand reduction technique, as implemented in CutTools, into the MadGraph framework. By interfacing the tool so constructed, which we dub MadLoop, with MadFKS, the fully automatic computation of any infrared-safe observable at the next-to-leading order in QCD is attained. We demonstrate the flexibility and the reach of our method by calculating the production rates for a variety of processes at the 7 TeV LHC.

  14. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  15. Maintaining ancient organelles: mitochondrial biogenesis and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rick B; Horton, Julie L; Kelly, Daniel P

    2015-05-22

    The ultrastructure of the cardiac myocyte is remarkable for the high density of mitochondria tightly packed between sarcomeres. This structural organization is designed to provide energy in the form of ATP to fuel normal pump function of the heart. A complex system comprised of regulatory factors and energy metabolic machinery, encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, is required for the coordinate control of cardiac mitochondrial biogenesis, maturation, and high-capacity function. This process involves the action of a transcriptional regulatory network that builds and maintains the mitochondrial genome and drives the expression of the energy transduction machinery. This finely tuned system is responsive to developmental and physiological cues, as well as changes in fuel substrate availability. Deficiency of components critical for mitochondrial energy production frequently manifests as a cardiomyopathic phenotype, underscoring the requirement to maintain high respiration rates in the heart. Although a precise causative role is not clear, there is increasing evidence that perturbations in this regulatory system occur in the hypertrophied and failing heart. This review summarizes current knowledge and highlights recent advances in our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory factors and signaling networks that serve to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis and function in the mammalian heart. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research.

  17. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  18. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Krüger, Marcus; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jacob; Kahn, C Ronald; Emanuelli, Brice

    2018-07-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type, IRS-1 -/- and IRS-2 -/- mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1. These regulated sites included previously reported substrates of the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, as well as novel substrates including Nuclear Factor I X and Semaphorin-4B. In silico prediction suggests the protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC), and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) as the main mediators of these phosphorylation events. Importantly, we found preferential phosphorylation patterns depending on the presence of either IRS-1 or IRS-2, which was associated with specific sets of kinases involved in signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2. Overall, by generating a comprehensive phosphoproteomic profile from brown preadipocyte cells in response to IGF-1 stimulation, we reveal both common and distinct insulin/IGF-1 signalling events mediated by specific IRS proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kibernetinis saugumas ir Kinijos nacionalinis saugumas

    OpenAIRE

    Vedrickas, Jurgis

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this research is Cyber Security and Chinese National Security. Relevance and novelty: Cyber security is often viewed in very narrow terms, only relating the concept to the direct challenges of securing infrastructure, but not the broader implications, including impact on end users and their environments. This paper proposes to look at cyber security from a more holistic perspective, considering both the military and civilian dimensions of it, while maintaining perspective on the ...

  20. Multi-loop PWR modeling and hardware-in-the-loop testing using ACSL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.M.; Heibel, M.D.; Catullo, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Westinghouse has developed an Advanced Digital Feedwater Control System (ADFCS) which is aimed at reducing feedwater related reactor trips through improved control performance for pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants. To support control system setpoint studies and functional design efforts for the ADFCS, an ACSL based model of the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a Westinghouse (PWR) was generated. Use of this plant model has been extended from system design to system testing through integration of the model into a Hardware-in-Loop test environment for the ADFCS. This integration includes appropriate interfacing between a Gould SEL 32/87 computer, upon which the plant model executes in real time, and the Westinghouse Distributed Processing family (WDPF) test hardware. A development program has been undertaken to expand the existing ACSL model to include capability to explicitly model multiple plant loops, steam generators, and corresponding feedwater systems. Furthermore, the program expands the ADFCS Hardware-in-Loop testing to include the multi-loop plant model. This paper provides an overview of the testing approach utilized for the ADFCS with focus on the role of Hardware-in-Loop testing. Background on the plant model, methodology and test environment is also provided. Finally, an overview is presented of the program to expand the model and associated Hardware-in-Loop test environment to handle multiple loops

  1. Fundamental and Harmonic Oscillations in Neighboring Coronal Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Liu, Yu; Vai Tam, Kuan

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of multimode (fundamental and harmonic) oscillations in a loop system, which appear to be simultaneously excited by a GOES C-class flare. Analysis of the periodic oscillations reveals that (1) the primary loop with a period of P a ≈ 4 minutes and a secondary loop with two periods of P a ≈ 4 minutes and P b ≈ 2 minutes are detected simultaneously in closely spaced loop strands; (2) both oscillation components have their peak amplitudes near the loop apex, while in the second loop the low-frequency component P a dominates in a loop segment that is two times larger than the high-frequency component P b ; (3) the harmonic mode P b shows the largest deviation from a sinusoidal loop shape at the loop apex. We conclude that multiple harmonic modes with different displacement profiles can be excited simultaneously even in closely spaced strands, similar to the overtones of a violin string.

  2. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  3. Growth and phase transformations of Ir on Ge(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, C. H.; Stenger, B. H.; Durand, A. M.; Morad, J. A.; Sato, Y.; Poppenheimer, E. C.; Chiang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The growth of Ir on Ge(111) as a function of temperature between 23 °C and 820 °C is characterized with low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Deposition onto a substrate at 350 °C revealed a novel growth mode consisting of multilayer Ir islands with (√3 × √3)R30° (abbreviated as √3) structure interconnected by ;bridges; of single-layer Ir several atoms wide. For deposition onto substrates above 500 °C, the √3 Ir phase grows with dendritic morphology, and substrate step bunches act as barriers to √3 Ir growth. LEEM images showed Stranski-Krastanov growth for 650-820 °C: after the √3 phase covers the surface, corresponding to 2 monolayers (ML) Ir coverage, multilayer hexagonal-shaped Ir islands form, surrounded by regions of IrGe alloy. Hexagonal-shaped Ir islands also formed upon heating 1.2 ML of √3 Ir beyond 830 °C, which resulted in the elimination of √3 structure from the surface. The transformation from √3 to (1 × 1) structure upon heating to 830 °C was an irreversible surface phase transition. Annealing > 2.0 ML of Ir in the √3 phase above the 830 °C disorder temperature, followed by cooling, produced a (3 × 1) structure. Subsequent heating and cooling through 830 °C give evidence for a reversible (3 × 1) to (1 × 1) phase transition.

  4. Structural, phase stability, electronic, elastic properties and hardness of IrN{sub 2} and zinc blende IrN: First-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhaobo [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Yunnan Province & Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Non-Ferrous and Precious Rare Metals Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhou, Xiaolong, E-mail: kmzxlong@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Yunnan Province & Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Non-Ferrous and Precious Rare Metals Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhang, Kunhua [State Key Laboratory of Rare Precious Metals Comprehensive Utilization of New Technologies, Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China)

    2016-12-15

    First-principle calculations were performed to investigate the structural, phase stability, electronic, elastic properties and hardness of monoclinic structure IrN{sub 2} (m-IrN{sub 2}), orthorhombic structure IrN{sub 2} (o-IrN{sub 2}) and zinc blende structure IrN (ZB IrN). The results show us that only m-IrN{sub 2} is both thermodynamic and dynamic stability. The calculated band structure and density of states (DOS) curves indicate that o-IrN{sub 2} and ZB Ir-N compounds we calculated have metallic behavior while m-IrN{sub 2} has a small band gap of ~0.3 eV, and exist a common hybridization between Ir-5d and N-2p states, which forming covalent bonding between Ir and N atoms. The difference charge density reveals the electron transfer from Ir atom to N atom for three Ir-N compounds, which forming strong directional covalent bonds. Notable, a strong N-N bond appeared in m-IrN{sub 2} and o-IrN{sub 2}. The ratio of bulk to shear modulus (B/G) indicate that three Ir-N compounds we calculated are ductile, and ZB IrN possesses a better ductility than two types IrN{sub 2}. m-IrN{sub 2} has highest Debye temperature (736 K), illustrating it possesses strongest covalent bonding. The hardness of three Ir-N compounds were also calculated, and the results reveal that m-IrN{sub 2} (18.23 GPa) and o-IrN{sub 2} (18.02 GPa) are ultraincompressible while ZB IrN has a negative value, which may be attributed to phase transition at ca. 1.98 GPa.

  5. PHOTOSPHERIC PROPERTIES OF WARM EUV LOOPS AND HOT X-RAY LOOPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kano, R. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ueda, K. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsuneta, S., E-mail: ryouhei.kano@nao.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    We investigate the photospheric properties (vector magnetic fields and horizontal velocity) of a well-developed active region, NOAA AR 10978, using the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope specifically to determine what gives rise to the temperature difference between ''warm loops'' (1-2 MK), which are coronal loops observed in EUV wavelengths, and ''hot loops'' (>3 MK), coronal loops observed in X-rays. We found that outside sunspots, the magnetic filling factor in the solar network varies with location and is anti-correlated with the horizontal random velocity. If we accept that the observed magnetic features consist of unresolved magnetic flux tubes, this anti-correlation can be explained by the ensemble average of flux-tube motion driven by small-scale random flows. The observed data are consistent with a flux tube width of ∼77 km and horizontal flow at ∼2.6 km s{sup –1} with a spatial scale of ∼120 km. We also found that outside sunspots, there is no significant difference between warm and hot loops either in the magnetic properties (except for the inclination) or in the horizontal random velocity at their footpoints, which are identified with the Hinode X-Ray Telescope and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. The energy flux injected into the coronal loops by the observed photospheric motion of the magnetic fields is estimated to be 2 × 10{sup 6} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}, which is the same for both warm and hot loops. This suggests that coronal properties (e.g., loop length) play a more important role in giving rise to temperature differences of active-region coronal loops than photospheric parameters.

  6. [Maintaining solidarity: is mutuality the solution?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, J K M; Ploem, M C

    2013-01-01

    Solidarity is essentially the willingness to contribute to the community and its demands, which may even involve contributing more than one is expecting to receive. Another principle is mutuality: this refers to a balance between rights and obligations or between mutual obligations. In its advisory document 'The importance of mutuality......solidarity takes work!', The Dutch Council for Public Health and Health Care underlines the importance of ensuring solidarity within the Dutch health care system, e.g. by encouraging patients to take responsibility for their own health, possibly by introducing elements of mutuality. In our contribution, we comment on the Council's advice. Although we fully agree with the overall conclusion that solidarity should be maintained within the system, we do not see how the introduction of increased mutuality will contribute to this goal.

  7. Maintaining human productivity during Mars transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Billings, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses the special nature of the human-machine relationship during a trip to Mars. In particular, the potential for monotony and boredom during a long-duration space voyage and the effect on motivation and productivity can be important considerations to the health and welfare of the crew. For the voyage to Mars, a design may be considered that will purposefully maintain some level of workload for the crew as a preventive measure for the deterioration of productivity that comes with boredom. This paper speculates on these considerations, on the appropriate level of workload for maximum productivity, and on what might be done during the mission to alleviate the problems caused by monotony and boredom.

  8. Heartwarming memories: Nostalgia maintains physiological comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Chen, Xiaoxi; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M

    2012-08-01

    Nostalgia, a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, is a predominantly positive and social emotion. Recent evidence suggests that nostalgia maintains psychological comfort. Here, we propose, and document in five methodologically diverse studies, a broader homeostatic function for nostalgia that also encompasses the maintenance of physiological comfort. We show that nostalgia--an emotion with a strong connotation of warmth--is triggered by coldness. Participants reported stronger nostalgia on colder (vs. warmer) days and in a cold (vs. neutral or warm) room. Nostalgia, in turn, modulates the interoceptive feeling of temperature. Higher levels of music-evoked nostalgia predicted increased physical warmth, and participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event perceived ambient temperature as higher. Finally, and consistent with the close central nervous system integration of temperature and pain sensations, participants who recalled a nostalgic (vs. ordinary autobiographical) event evinced greater tolerance to noxious cold.

  9. Human factors review of power plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Parsons, S.O.; Schmidt, W.J.; Gonzalez, W.R.; Dove, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary science and technology concerned with shaping the design of machines, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable performance on the part of operators and maintainers of equipment systems. The human factors aspects of five nuclear power plants and four fossil fuel plants were evaluated using such methods as a checklist guided observation system, structured interviews with maintenance personnel, direct observations of maintenance tasks, reviews of procedures, and analyses of maintenance errors or accidents by means of the critical incident technique. The study revealed a wide variety of human factors problem areas, most of which are extensively photodocumented. The study recommends that a more systematic and formal approach be adopted to ensure that future power plants are human engineered to the needs of maintenance personnel

  10. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  11. Balancing selection maintains cryptic colour morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Maren

    2017-11-01

    Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not. Theory predicts that genetic drift and various forms of selection reduce variation over time, making the persistence of colour variants over generations a puzzle. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. () study the cryptic colour morphs of Timema cristinae walking sticks to shed light on the genetic architecture and mechanisms that allow colour polymorphism maintenance over long timescales. By combining genome-wide data with phenotyping information from natural populations, they were able to map the green and melanistic colour to one genomic region with highly reduced effective recombination rate between two main chromosomal variants, consistent with an inversion polymorphism. These two main chromosomal variants showed geographically widespread heterozygote excess, and genomic signatures consistent with long-term balancing selection. A younger chromosomal variant was detected for the third morph, the green-striped colour morphs, in the same genomic regions as the melanistic and the green-unstriped morphs. Together, these results suggest that the genetic architecture of cryptic T. cristinae morphs is caused by nonrecombining genomic blocks that have been maintained over extended time periods by balancing selection making this study one of the few available empirical examples documenting that balancing selection of various forms may play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic

  12. Parallelizing More Loops with Compiler Guided Refactoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Ladelsky, Razya; Lidman, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    an interactive compilation feedback system that guides programmers in iteratively modifying their application source code. This helps leverage the compiler’s ability to generate loop-parallel code. We employ our system to modify two sequential benchmarks dealing with image processing and edge detection...

  13. Loop quantum gravity; Gravedad cuantica de lazos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullin, J.

    2015-07-01

    Loop quantum gravity is one of the approaches that are being studied to apply the rules of quantum mechanics to the gravitational field described by the theory of General Relativity . We present an introductory summary of the main ideas and recent results. (Author)

  14. Potential drop sensors for sodium loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraj, R.

    1978-11-01

    Potential drop sensors to detect the presence or the absence of sodium in pipe lines are described. These are very handy during loop charging and dumping operations. Their suitability to detect level surges and to monitor continuous level of liquid metals in certain applications is discussed. (author)

  15. Loop residues and catalysis in OMP synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Gary P.; Hansen, Michael Riis; Grubmeyer, Charles

    2012-01-01

    binding of OMP or PRPP in binary complexes was affected little by loop mutation, suggesting that the energetics of ground-state binding have little contribution from the catalytic loop, or that a favorable binding energy is offset by costs of loop reorganization. Pre-steady-state kinetics for mutants...... values for all four substrate molecules. The 20% (i.e., 1.20) intrinsic [1?-3H]OMP kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for WT is masked because of high forward and reverse commitment factors. K103A failed to express intrinsic KIEs fully (1.095 ± 0.013). In contrast, H105A, which has a smaller catalytic lesion...... (preceding paper in this issue, DOI 10.1021/bi300083p)]. The full expression of KIEs by H105A and E107A may result from a less secure closure of the catalytic loop. The lower level of expression of the KIE by K103A suggests that in these mutant proteins the major barrier to catalysis is successful closure...

  16. Quenched Chiral Perturbation Theory to one loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colangelo, G.; Pallante, E.

    The divergences of the generating functional of quenched Chiral Perturbation theory (qCHPT) to one loop are computed in closed form. We show how the quenched chiral logarithms can be reabsorbed in the renormalization of the B0 parameter of the leading order Lagrangian. Finally, we do the chiral

  17. CMOS switched current phase-locked loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Persoon, G.G.; Putter, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors present an integrated circuit realisation of a switched current phase-locked loop (PLL) in standard 2.4 µm CMOS technology. The centre frequency is tunable to 1 MHz at a clock frequency of 5.46 MHz. The PLL has a measured maximum phase error of 21 degrees. The chip consumes

  18. Semiclassical analysis of loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrady, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this Ph.D. thesis, we explore and develop new methods that should help in determining an effective semiclassical description of canonical loop quantum gravity and spin foam gravity. A brief introduction to loop quantum gravity is followed by three research papers that present the results of the Ph.D. project. In the first article, we deal with the problem of time and a new proposal for implementing proper time as boundary conditions in a sum over histories: we investigate a concrete realization of this formalism for free scalar field theory. In the second article, we translate semiclassical states of linearized gravity into states of loop quantum gravity. The properties of the latter indicate how semiclassicality manifests itself in the loop framework, and how this may be exploited for doing semiclassical expansions. In the third part, we propose a new formulation of spin foam models that is fully triangulation- and background-independent: by means of a symmetry condition, we identify spin foam models whose triangulation-dependence can be naturally removed. (orig.)

  19. Semiclassical analysis of loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrady, F.

    2005-10-17

    In this Ph.D. thesis, we explore and develop new methods that should help in determining an effective semiclassical description of canonical loop quantum gravity and spin foam gravity. A brief introduction to loop quantum gravity is followed by three research papers that present the results of the Ph.D. project. In the first article, we deal with the problem of time and a new proposal for implementing proper time as boundary conditions in a sum over histories: we investigate a concrete realization of this formalism for free scalar field theory. In the second article, we translate semiclassical states of linearized gravity into states of loop quantum gravity. The properties of the latter indicate how semiclassicality manifests itself in the loop framework, and how this may be exploited for doing semiclassical expansions. In the third part, we propose a new formulation of spin foam models that is fully triangulation- and background-independent: by means of a symmetry condition, we identify spin foam models whose triangulation-dependence can be naturally removed. (orig.)

  20. Looping up Professional Reflection in Honours Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Trijntje

    2012-01-01

    Within the Saxion Universities in the Netherlands, a profile of the "Reflective Professional" comprises a number of competencies that the honours programmes are designed to develop and support. This article describes the process of developing these competencies. The process involves three loops of learning, characterized by three sets of…

  1. Wilson-loop symmetry breaking reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, A.; Shiraishi, K.

    1988-07-01

    The splitting in the energy of gauge field vacua on non-simply connected space S 3 /Z 2 is reconsidered. We show the calculation to the one-loop level for a Yang-Mills vector with a ghost field. We confirm our previous result and give a solution to the question offered by Freire, Romao and Barroso. (author)

  2. The Alpine loop of the tethys zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmelen, R.W. van

    The Alpine loop in Europe results from semi-autochthonous crustal movements which are restricted to the mobile Tethys zone. Its evolution cannot be explained by a uniform northward drift and push of the African continent; it has to be sought, in the first place, in geodynamic processes occurring in

  3. Spontaneous fluxoid formation in superconducting loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Rivers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the experimental verification of the Zurek-Kibble scenario in an isolated superconducting ring over a wide parameter range. The probability of creating a single flux quantum spontaneously during the fast normal-superconducting phase transition of a wide Nb loop clearly follows...

  4. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  5. String loop effect on the BRST charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Nishino, H.

    1987-07-01

    An effective BRST charge Q BRST which incorporates the string one-loop corrections is presented for the closed bosonic string in an arbitrary background. The effective σ-model action which leads to such a Q BRST is obtained and some consequences are discussed. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  6. Logical inference techniques for loop parallelization

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.; Rauchwerger, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automatic approach to loop parallelization that integrates the use of static and run-time analysis and thus overcomes many known difficulties such as nonlinear and indirect array indexing and complex control flow. Our hybrid analysis framework validates the parallelization transformation by verifying the independence of the loop's memory references. To this end it represents array references using the USR (uniform set representation) language and expresses the independence condition as an equation, S = Ø, where S is a set expression representing array indexes. Using a language instead of an array-abstraction representation for S results in a smaller number of conservative approximations but exhibits a potentially-high runtime cost. To alleviate this cost we introduce a language translation F from the USR set-expression language to an equally rich language of predicates (F(S) ⇒ S = Ø). Loop parallelization is then validated using a novel logic inference algorithm that factorizes the obtained complex predicates (F(S)) into a sequence of sufficient-independence conditions that are evaluated first statically and, when needed, dynamically, in increasing order of their estimated complexities. We evaluate our automated solution on 26 benchmarks from PERFECTCLUB and SPEC suites and show that our approach is effective in parallelizing large, complex loops and obtains much better full program speedups than the Intel and IBM Fortran compilers. Copyright © 2012 ACM.

  7. Afferent loop syndrome - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Ana Karina Nascimento; Pinheiro, Marco Antonio Lopes; Galvao, Cristine Norwig

    2000-01-01

    The afferent loop syndrome occurs in patients with previous gastric surgery for tumor, when there is anastomotic edema, use of inappropriate reconstruction technique for gastro jejunostomy or recurrent gastric cancer. Complaints such jaundice, intermittent abdominal distension associated with pain, and vomiting should be investigated in order to rule out this syndrome. (author)

  8. Loop quasi-invariant chunk detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyen, Jean-Yves; Rubiano, Thomas; Seiller, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Several techniques for analysis and transformations are used in compilers. Among them, the peeling of loops for hoisting quasi-invariants can be used to optimize generated code, or simply ease developers’ lives. In this paper, we introduce a new concept of dependency analysis borrowed from the fi...

  9. Tuning OpenACC loop execution

    KAUST Repository

    Feki, Saber; Smaoui, Malek

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to help OpenACC developer who is already familiar with the basic and essential directives to further improve his code performance by adding more descriptive clauses to OpenACC loop constructs. At the end

  10. Particle Scattering in Loop Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Rovelli, Carlo

    2005-01-01

    We devise a technique for defining and computing n-point functions in the context of a background-independent gravitational quantum field theory. We construct a tentative implementation of this technique in a perturbatively finite model defined using spin foam techniques in the context of loop quantum gravity

  11. Local expressions for one-loop calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasson, D.A.; Koonin, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    We develop local expressions for the contributions of the short-wavelength vacuum modes to the one-loop vacuum energy. These expressions significantly improve the convergence properties of various ''brute-force'' calculational methods. They also provide a continuous series of approximations that interpolate between the brute-force calculations and the derivative expansion

  12. Prediction of protein loop geometries in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, Chaya S.; Strauss, Temima; Nederveen, Aart; Fuentes, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    The ability to determine the structure of a protein in solution is a critical tool for structural biology, as proteins in their native state are found in aqueous environments. Using a physical chemistry based prediction protocol, we demonstrate the ability to reproduce protein loop geometries in

  13. Associated technologies ensures complete loop mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay could be a useful adjunct diagnostic assay along with the conventional methods that would preclude the requirement of continuous maintenance of pure cultures. Moreover, LAMP assay is simple, rapid, specific and sensitive for the detection of pathogens. Having ...

  14. Technical specification for IR rig manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Hyon Soo; Cho, W. K.; Kim, S. D.; Park, U. J.; Hong, S. B.; Yoo, K. M

    2000-10-01

    IR Rig is one of the equipments are required in HANARO core for a radioisotope target. The various conditions like high radiation, high heat, rapid flow and vibration may cause swelling, Brittleness and acceleration of corrosion in HANARO core. These specific problems can be prevented and the safety of such equipment are prerequisite as well as durableness and surveillance. Therefore, the selection of material has to be made on the basis of small cross-section area, low energy emission by the gamma ray due to the absorption of neutron and short half life. The body is consist of aluminum and Inconel-750 was used for the internal spring(coil) which is known to be durable. The whole production process including the purchase of accessory, mechanical processing, welding and assembly was carried out according to the standard procedure to meet the requirement. A design, manufacture, utilization of reactor core and the other relevant uses were fit to class ''T'' to certify the whole process as general. And design, fabrication, analytical test, materials and accessory were carried out based on the ASME, ASTM, ANSI, AWS, JIS and KS standard.

  15. Characterization of Hydrogen Bonds by IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojta, D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the identification and quantification of hydrogen bond, as one of the most abundant non-covalent interactions in phenomena like self-assembly and molecular recognition, IR spectrosopy has been employed as the most sensitive method. The performance of the high dilution method enables determination of the stability constant of hydrogen-bonded complex as one of the most important thermodynamic quantities used in their characterization. However, the alleged experimental simplicity of the mentioned method is loaded with errors originating not only from researcher intervention but also independent from it. The second source of error is particularly emphasized and elaborated in this paper, which is designed as the recipe for the successful characterization of hydrogen bonds. Besides the enumeration of all steps in the determination of hydrogen-bonded stability constants, the reader can be acquainted with the most important ex perimental conditions that should be fulfilled in order to minimize the naturally occurring errors in this type of investigation. In the spectral analysis, the application of both uni- and multivariate approach has been discussed. Some computer packages, considering the latter, are mentioned, described, and recommended. KUI -10/2012Received August 1, 2011Accepted October 24, 2011

  16. The nature of OH/IR stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this work masers in evolved stars are studied, in particular the emission from the OH radical. The time variability of the OH masers was measured over a period of five years with the Dwingeloo Radio Telescope. These single-dish observations proved that most of the underlying stars are very long period variables, apparently a kind of extension of the well-known long period Mira variables. The mean OH fluxes and epochs were obtained as well as a confirmation of the radiative coupling between the maser and the star (by comparison with infrared data provided by other observers), the degree of saturation, and, most important of all, a determination of the linear dimensions of the circumstellar shells. Multi-element interferometer observations were made in order to study the spatial structure of OH masers. By combining the phase lag measurements and the spatial extent distances to individual stars could be determined with a high, unprecedented accuracy. Infrared broad-band photometry was done in the wavelength region from 3 μm to 20 μm, where most of the energy of these objects is radiated. The space density and galactic distribution of OH/IR stars are discussed and compared with the appearance of OH masers in the solar neighbourhood. (Auth.)

  17. Loop Evolution Observed with AIA and Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu-Moore, Fana; Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Kobayashi, Ken; Korreck, Kelly E.; Golub, Leon; Kuzin, Sergei; Walsh, Robert William; DeForest, Craig E.; De Pontieu, Bart; hide

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, the evolution of EUV loops has been used to infer the loop substructure. With the recent launch of High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), this inference can be validated. In this presentation we discuss the first results of loop analysis comparing AIA and Hi-C data. In the past decade, the evolution of EUV loops has been used to infer the loop substructure. With the recent launch of High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C), this inference can be validated. In this presentation we discuss the first results of loop analysis comparing AIA and Hi-C data.

  18. Cooling Active Region Loops Observed With SXT and TRACE

    OpenAIRE

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, Harry P.

    2005-01-01

    An Impulsive Heating Multiple Strand (IHMS) Model is able to reproduce the observational characteristics of EUV (~ 1 MK) active region loops. This model implies that some of the loops must reach temperatures where X-ray filters are sensitive (> 2.5 MK) before they cool to EUV temperatures. Hence, some bright EUV loops must be preceded by bright X-ray loops. Previous analysis of X-ray and EUV active region observations, however, have concluded that EUV loops are not preceded by X-ray loops. In...

  19. Effect of vacancy loops on swelling of metals under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    Subsequent analysis of vacancy loops formation in metals under irradiation is carried out and effect of vacancy loops on vacancy porosity is studied. Expression for quasistationary function of vacancy loops distribution according to sizes taking into consideration two mechanisms of their initiation-cascade and fluctuational ones - is obtained. It is shown that rate of vacancy absorption and interstitials by vacancy loops in quasiequilibrium state is similar and depends only on summary length of loops, for its calculations the self-coordinated procedure is formulated. For the rate of metal swelling under irradiation obtained is the expression taking into consideration the presence of vacancy loops [ru

  20. Thermal instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas: Solar coronal loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habbal, S.R.; Rosner, R.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal stability of confined solar coronal structures (''loops'') is investigated, following both normal mode and a new, global instability analysis. We demonstrate that: (a) normal mode analysis shows modes with size scales comparable to that of loops to be unstable, but to be strongly affected by the loop boundary conditions; (b) a global analysis, based upon variation of the total loop energy losses and gains, yields loop stability conditions for global modes dependent upon the coronal loop heating process, with magnetically coupled heating processes giving marginal stability. The connection between the present analysis and the minimum flux corona of Hearn is also discussed