WorldWideScience

Sample records for ir isophot images

  1. ISOPHOT - Capabilities and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, D.; Klaas, U.; Abolins, J.

    1996-01-01

    ISOPHOT covers the largest wavelength range on ISO from 2.5 to 240 mu m. Its scientific capabilities include multi filter and multi-aperture photometry, polarimetry, imaging and spectrophotometry. All modes can optionally include a focal plane chopper. The backbone of the photometric calibration...

  2. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  3. Image registration of naval IR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodland, Arne J.

    1996-06-01

    In a real world application an image from a stabilized sensor on a moving platform will not be 100 percent stabilized. There will always be a small unknown error in the stabilization due to factors such as dynamic deformations in the structure between sensor and reference Inertial Navigation Unit, servo inaccuracies, etc. For a high resolution imaging sensor this stabilization error causes the image to move several pixels in unknown direction between frames. TO be able to detect and track small moving objects from such a sensor, this unknown movement of the sensor image must be estimated. An algorithm that searches for land contours in the image has been evaluated. The algorithm searches for high contrast points distributed over the whole image. As long as moving objects in the scene only cover a small area of the scene, most of the points are located on solid ground. By matching the list of points from frame to frame, the movement of the image due to stabilization errors can be estimated and compensated. The point list is searched for points with diverging movement from the estimated stabilization error. These points are then assumed to be located on moving objects. Points assumed to be located on moving objects are gradually exchanged with new points located in the same area. Most of the processing is performed on the list of points and not on the complete image. The algorithm is therefore very fast and well suited for real time implementation. The algorithm has been tested on images from an experimental IR scanner. Stabilization errors were added artificially to the image such that the output from the algorithm could be compared with the artificially added stabilization errors.

  4. BEYOND ELLIPSE(S): ACCURATELY MODELING THE ISOPHOTAL STRUCTURE OF GALAXIES WITH ISOFIT AND CMODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciambur, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces a new fitting formalism for isophotes that enables more accurate modeling of galaxies with non-elliptical shapes, such as disk galaxies viewed edge-on or galaxies with X-shaped/peanut bulges. Within this scheme, the angular parameter that defines quasi-elliptical isophotes is transformed from the commonly used, but inappropriate, polar coordinate to the “eccentric anomaly.” This provides a superior description of deviations from ellipticity, better capturing the true isophotal shape. Furthermore, this makes it possible to accurately recover both the surface brightness profile, using the correct azimuthally averaged isophote, and the two-dimensional model of any galaxy: the hitherto ubiquitous, but artificial, cross-like features in residual images are completely removed. The formalism has been implemented into the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility tasks Ellipse and Bmodel to create the new tasks “Isofit,” and “Cmodel.” The new tools are demonstrated here with application to five galaxies, chosen to be representative case-studies for several areas where this technique makes it possible to gain new scientific insight. Specifically: properly quantifying boxy/disky isophotes via the fourth harmonic order in edge-on galaxies, quantifying X-shaped/peanut bulges, higher-order Fourier moments for modeling bars in disks, and complex isophote shapes. Higher order (n > 4) harmonics now become meaningful and may correlate with structural properties, as boxyness/diskyness is known to do. This work also illustrates how the accurate construction, and subtraction, of a model from a galaxy image facilitates the identification and recovery of over-lapping sources such as globular clusters and the optical counterparts of X-ray sources

  5. Mid-IR Imaging: Upconversion imager improves IR gas sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahlberg, Anna-Lena; Li, Zhongshan; Høgstedt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    A nonlinear upconversion detector shows near-shot-noise-limited performance and compares favorably—while adding additional imaging information—to conventional cryogenic detectors in the measurement of trace-level gases at atmospheric pressure....

  6. THE CARNEGIE-IRVINE GALAXY SURVEY. II. ISOPHOTAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaoyu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.; Peng, Chien Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B T ≤ 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  7. Effect of massive disks on bulge isophotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monet, D.G.; Richstone, D.O.; Schechter, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    Massive disks produce flattened equipotentials. Unless the stars in a galaxy bulge are preferentially hotter in the z direction than in the plane, the isophotes will be at least as flat as the equipotentials. The comparison of two galaxy models having flat rotation curves with the available surface photometry for five external galaxies does not restrict the mass fraction which might reside in the disk. However, star counts in our own Galaxy indicate that unless the disk terminates close to the solar circle, no more than half the mass within that circle lies in the disk. The remaining half must lie either in the bulge or, more probably, in a third dark, round, dynamically distinct component

  8. Early-type galaxies in the Antlia cluster: catalogue and isophotal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan P.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Cellone, Sergio A.; Gómez, Matías

    2018-06-01

    We present a statistical isophotal analysis of 138 early-type galaxies in the Antlia cluster, located at a distance of ˜ 35 Mpc. The observational material consists of CCD images of four 36 × 36 arcmin2 fields obtained with the MOSAIC II camera at the Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. Our present work supersedes previous Antlia studies in the sense that the covered area is four times larger, the limiting magnitude is MB ˜ -9.6 mag, and the surface photometry parameters of each galaxy are derived from Sérsic model fits extrapolated to infinity. In a companion previous study we focused on the scaling relations obtained by means of surface photometry, and now we present the data, on which the previous paper is based, the parameters of the isophotal fits as well as an isophotal analysis. For each galaxy, we derive isophotal shape parameters along the semimajor axis and search for correlations within different radial bins. Through extensive statistical tests, we also analyse the behaviour of these values against photometric and global parameters of the galaxies themselves. While some galaxies do display radial gradients in their ellipticity (ɛ) and/or their Fourier coefficients, differences in mean values between adjacent regions are not statistically significant. Regarding Fourier coefficients, dwarf galaxies usually display gradients between all adjacent regions, while non-dwarfs tend to show this behaviour just between the two outermost regions. Globally, there is no obvious correlation between Fourier coefficients and luminosity for the whole magnitude range (-12 ≳ MV ≳ -22); however, dwarfs display much higher dispersions at all radii.

  9. Early-type galaxies in the Antlia Cluster: Catalogue and isophotal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan P.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Cellone, Sergio A.; Gómez, Matías

    2018-03-01

    We present a statistical isophotal analysis of 138 early-type galaxies in the Antlia cluster, located at a distance of ˜ 35 Mpc. The observational material consists of CCD images of four 36 arcmin × 36 arcmin fields obtained with the MOSAIC II camera at the Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. Our present work supersedes previous Antlia studies in the sense that the covered area is four times larger, the limiting magnitude is MB ˜ -9.6 mag, and the surface photometry parameters of each galaxy are derived from Sérsic model fits extrapolated to infinity. In a companion previous study we focused on the scaling relations obtained by means of surface photometry, and now we present the data, on which the previous paper is based, the parameters of the isophotal fits as well as an isophotal analysis. For each galaxy, we derive isophotal shape parameters along the semi-major axis and search for correlations within different radial bins. Through extensive statistical tests, we also analyse the behaviour of these values against photometric and global parameters of the galaxies themselves. While some galaxies do display radial gradients in their ellipticity (ɛ) and/or their Fourier coefficients, differences in mean values between adjacent regions are not statistically significant. Regarding Fourier coefficients, dwarf galaxies usually display gradients between all adjacent regions, while non-dwarfs tend to show this behaviour just between the two outermost regions. Globally, there is no obvious correlation between Fourier coefficients and luminosity for the whole magnitude range (-12 ≳ MV ≳ -22); however, dwarfs display much higher dispersions at all radii.

  10. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Spectral imaging and detection of mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths are emerging as an enabling technology of great technical and scientific interest; primarily because important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints revealing valuable chemical information. Whi...... 20 % for polarized incoherent light at 3 \\mum. The proposed method is relevant for existing and new mid-IR applications like gas analysis and medical diagnostics....

  11. A Modified Harris Corner Detection for Breast IR Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yen Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Harris corner detectors, which depend on strong invariance and a local autocorrelation function, display poor detection performance for infrared (IR images with low contrast and nonobvious edges. In addition, feature points detected by Harris corner detectors are clustered due to the numerous nonlocal maxima. This paper proposes a modified Harris corner detector that includes two unique steps for processing IR images in order to overcome the aforementioned problems. Image contrast enhancement based on a generalized form of histogram equalization (HE combined with adjusting the intensity resolution causes false contours on IR images to acquire obvious edges. Adaptive nonmaximal suppression based on eliminating neighboring pixels avoids the clustered features. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can solve the clustering problem and successfully identify the representative feature points of IR breast images.

  12. Upconversion applied for mid-IR hyperspectral image acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai Højer

    2015-01-01

    Different schemes for upconversion mid-IR hyperspectral imaging is implemented and compared in terms of spectral coverage, spectral resolution, speed and noise. Phasematch scanning and scanning of the object within the field of view is considered....

  13. Multi-scale Adaptive Gain Control of IR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, K.

    1997-01-01

    IR imagery tends to have a higher dynamic range then typical display devices such as a CRT. Global methods such as stretching and histogram equalization improve the visibility of many images, but some information in the images stays hidden for a human operator. This paper reports about the

  14. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  15. Assessment of COTS IR image simulation tools for ATR development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Heiko; Stahl, Christoph; Bjerkeli, Frode; Skaaren-Fystro, Paal

    2005-05-01

    Following the tendency of increased use of imaging sensors in military aircraft, future fighter pilots will need onboard artificial intelligence e.g. ATR for aiding them in image interpretation and target designation. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company (EADS) in Germany has developed an advanced method for automatic target recognition (ATR) which is based on adaptive neural networks. This ATR method can assist the crew of military aircraft like the Eurofighter in sensor image monitoring and thereby reduce the workload in the cockpit and increase the mission efficiency. The EADS ATR approach can be adapted for imagery of visual, infrared and SAR sensors because of the training-based classifiers of the ATR method. For the optimal adaptation of these classifiers they have to be trained with appropriate and sufficient image data. The training images must show the target objects from different aspect angles, ranges, environmental conditions, etc. Incomplete training sets lead to a degradation of classifier performance. Additionally, ground truth information i.e. scenario conditions like class type and position of targets is necessary for the optimal adaptation of the ATR method. In Summer 2003, EADS started a cooperation with Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) from Norway. The EADS/KDA approach is to provide additional image data sets for training-based ATR through IR image simulation. The joint study aims to investigate the benefits of enhancing incomplete training sets for classifier adaptation by simulated synthetic imagery. EADS/KDA identified the requirements of a commercial-off-the-shelf IR simulation tool capable of delivering appropriate synthetic imagery for ATR development. A market study of available IR simulation tools and suppliers was performed. After that the most promising tool was benchmarked according to several criteria e.g. thermal emission model, sensor model, targets model, non-radiometric image features etc., resulting in a

  16. Development of IR imaging at IRnova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Henk; Asplund, Carl; Malm, Hedda; Smuk, Sergiy; Höglund, Linda; Gustafsson, Oscar; Hammar, Mattias; Hellström, Staffan

    2009-05-01

    Historically IRnova has exclusively been a company, focused on manufacturing of QWIP detectors. Nowadays, besides continuous improvements of the performance of QWIP FPAs and development of new formats IRnova is involved in development of QWIP detectors for special applications and has started the development of the next generation infrared detectors, as well. In the light of the development of new formats we validate experimentally theoretical calculations of the response of QWIPs for smaller pixel size. These results allow for the development of high performance megapixel QWIP FPA that exhibit the high uniformity and operability QWIP detectors are known for. QWIP is also being considered for space applications. The requirements on dark current and operating temperature are however much more stringent as compared to the terrestrial applications. We show ways to improve the material quality with as a result a higher detector operating temperature. IRnova is also looking at antimony-based strained superlattice material for the LWIR region together with partners at the IMAGIC centre of excellence. One of the ways to overcome the problem with surface currents is passivating overgrowth. We will report the status and results of overgrowing the detector mesas with AlGa(As)Sb in a MOVPE system. At the same centre of excellence a novel material concept is being developed for LWIR detection. This new material contains a superlattice of vertically aligned and electronically coupled InAs and GaSb quantum dots. Simulations show that it should be possible to have LWIR detection in this material. We will present the current status and report results in this research.

  17. Thermal-to-visible transducer (TVT) for thermal-IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flusberg, Allen; Swartz, Stephen; Huff, Michael; Gross, Steven

    2008-04-01

    We have been developing a novel thermal-to-visible transducer (TVT), an uncooled thermal-IR imager that is based on a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI). The FPI-based IR imager can convert a thermal-IR image to a video electronic image. IR radiation that is emitted by an object in the scene is imaged onto an IR-absorbing material that is located within an FPI. Temperature variations generated by the spatial variations in the IR image intensity cause variations in optical thickness, modulating the reflectivity seen by a probe laser beam. The reflected probe is imaged onto a visible array, producing a visible image of the IR scene. This technology can provide low-cost IR cameras with excellent sensitivity, low power consumption, and the potential for self-registered fusion of thermal-IR and visible images. We will describe characteristics of requisite pixelated arrays that we have fabricated.

  18. Image quality testing of assembled IR camera modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Daniel; Erichsen, Patrik

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) camera modules for the LWIR (8-12_m) that combine IR imaging optics with microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) sensors with readout electronics are becoming more and more a mass market product. At the same time, steady improvements in sensor resolution in the higher priced markets raise the requirement for imaging performance of objectives and the proper alignment between objective and FPA. This puts pressure on camera manufacturers and system integrators to assess the image quality of finished camera modules in a cost-efficient and automated way for quality control or during end-of-line testing. In this paper we present recent development work done in the field of image quality testing of IR camera modules. This technology provides a wealth of additional information in contrast to the more traditional test methods like minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) which give only a subjective overall test result. Parameters that can be measured are image quality via the modulation transfer function (MTF) for broadband or with various bandpass filters on- and off-axis and optical parameters like e.g. effective focal length (EFL) and distortion. If the camera module allows for refocusing the optics, additional parameters like best focus plane, image plane tilt, auto-focus quality, chief ray angle etc. can be characterized. Additionally, the homogeneity and response of the sensor with the optics can be characterized in order to calculate the appropriate tables for non-uniformity correction (NUC). The technology can also be used to control active alignment methods during mechanical assembly of optics to high resolution sensors. Other important points that are discussed are the flexibility of the technology to test IR modules with different form factors, electrical interfaces and last but not least the suitability for fully automated measurements in mass production.

  19. IR imaging of blood circulation of patients with vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin; Wade, Dwight R., Jr.; Kam, Jack

    2004-04-01

    We conducted a preliminary IR imaging study of blood circulation in patients with peripheral vascular diseases. Abnormal blood flow is common in older adults, especially those with elevated blood lipids, diabetes, hypertension, and a history of smoking. All of these conditions have a high prevalence in our population, often with more than one condition in the same individual. The differences in blood flow is revealed by temperature differences in areas of the extremities as well as other regions of the body. However, what is needed is an imaging technique that is relatively inexpensive and can reveal the blood flow in real time. The IR imaging can show detailed venous system and small tempearture changes associated with blood flow. Six patients with vascular diseases were tested in a clinic set up. Their legs and feet were imaged. We observed large temperature differences (cooling of more than 10° C) at the foot, especially toes. More valuable information were obtained from the temperature distribution maps. IR thermography is potentially a very valuable tool for medical application, especially for vascular diseases.

  20. Alignment statistics of clusters with their brightest members at bright and faint isophotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    For a sample of 21 first-ranked cluster galaxies with published isophotal photometry and position angles of these isophotes, it is found that the major axes of both the bright and faint isophotal contours tend to be aligned within about 30 deg of the major axis of the parent cluster. This supports the hypothesis that first-ranked galaxies are formed already aligned with their parent clusters rather than the hypothesis that only outer envelopes which accreted after formation are aligned with the cluster. 21 references

  1. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.

    2013-12-01

    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  2. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.

    2016-03-01

    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  3. Data fusion of Landsat TM and IRS images in forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangxing Wang; Markus Holopainen; Eero Lukkarinen

    2000-01-01

    Data fusion of Landsat TM images and Indian Remote Sensing satellite panchromatic image (IRS-1C PAN) was studied and compared to the use of TM or IRS image only. The aim was to combine the high spatial resolution of IRS-1C PAN to the high spectral resolution of Landsat TM images using a data fusion algorithm. The ground truth of the study was based on a sample of 1,020...

  4. Research into the usage of integrated jamming of IR weakening and smoke-screen resisting the IR imaging guided missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-tao; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Ming-shan

    2015-10-01

    With the emergence of the anti-ship missle with the capability of infrared imaging guidance, the traditional single jamming measures, because of the jamming mechanism and technical flaws or unsuitable use, greatly reduced the survival probability of the war-ship in the future naval battle. Intergrated jamming of IR weakening + smoke-screen Can not only make jamming to the search and tracking of IR imaging guidance system , but also has feasibility in conjunction, besides , which also make the best jamming effect. The research conclusion has important realistic meaning for raising the antimissile ability of surface ships. With the development of guidance technology, infrared guidance system has expanded by ir point-source homing guidance to infrared imaging guidance, Infrared imaging guidance has made breakthrough progress, Infrared imaging guidance system can use two-dimensional infrared image information of the target, achieve the precise tracking. Which has Higher guidance precision, better concealment, stronger anti-interference ability and could Target the key parts. The traditional single infrared smoke screen jamming or infrared decoy flare interference cannot be imposed effective interference. So, Research how to effectively fight against infrared imaging guided weapons threat measures and means, improving the surface ship antimissile ability is an urgent need to solve.

  5. The design and application of a multi-band IR imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan

    2018-02-01

    Multi-band IR imaging system has many applications in security, national defense, petroleum and gas industry, etc. So the relevant technologies are getting more and more attention in rent years. As we know, when used in missile warning and missile seeker systems, multi-band IR imaging technology has the advantage of high target recognition capability and low false alarm rate if suitable spectral bands are selected. Compared with traditional single band IR imager, multi-band IR imager can make use of spectral features in addition to space and time domain features to discriminate target from background clutters and decoys. So, one of the key work is to select the right spectral bands in which the feature difference between target and false target is evident and is well utilized. Multi-band IR imager is a useful instrument to collect multi-band IR images of target, backgrounds and decoys for spectral band selection study at low cost and with adjustable parameters and property compared with commercial imaging spectrometer. In this paper, a multi-band IR imaging system is developed which is suitable to collect 4 spectral band images of various scenes at every turn and can be expanded to other short-wave and mid-wave IR spectral bands combination by changing filter groups. The multi-band IR imaging system consists of a broad band optical system, a cryogenic InSb large array detector, a spinning filter wheel and electronic processing system. The multi-band IR imaging system's performance is tested in real data collection experiments.

  6. Upconversion imager measures single mid-IR photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    the performance of today's state of the art IR detectors for the visible/near-IR region shows a striking contrast, as the latter can have dark currents in the range of 0.001 electrons per second. Demonstrated performance of waveguide upconversion techniques still show considerable dark noise, even when working...

  7. Deep far infrared ISOPHOT survey in "Selected Area 57" - I. Observations and source counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vornle, M.J.D.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Jørgensen, H.E.

    2000-01-01

    We present here the results of a deep survey in a 0.4 deg(2) blank field in Selected Area 57 conducted with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard ESAs Infrared Space Observatory (ISO1) at both 60 mu m and 90 mu m. The resulting sky maps have a spatial resolution of 15 x 23 arcsrc(2) per pixel which is much...

  8. Supercontinuum based mid-IR imaging spectroscopy for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01

    -power laser diodes, quantum cascade lasers and synchrotron radiation, have precluded mid-IR applications where the spatial coherence, broad bandwidth, high brightness and portability of a supercontinuum laser are all required. In an international collaboration in the EU project MINERVA [minerva...

  9. Analysis of the development of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key

  10. Simultaneous monitoring of ice accretion and thermography of an airfoil: an IR imaging methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, M; Frioult, M; Amirfazli, A

    2012-01-01

    A novel image analysis methodology based on infrared (IR) imaging was developed for simultaneous monitoring of ice accretion and thermography of airfoils. In this study, an IR camera was calibrated and used to measure the surface temperature of the energized airfoils, and monitor the ice accretion and growth pattern on the airfoils’ surfaces. The methodology comprises the automatic processing of a series of IR video frames with the purpose of detecting ice pattern evolution during the icing test period. A specially developed MATLAB code was used to detect the iced areas in the IR images, and simultaneously monitor surface temperature evolution of the airfoil during an icing test. Knowing the correlation between the icing pattern and surface temperature changes during an icing test is essential for energy efficient design of thermal icing mitigation systems. Processed IR images were also used to determine the ice accumulation rate on the airfoil's surface in a given icing test. The proposed methodology has been demonstrated to work successfully, since the optical images taken at the end of icing tests from the airfoils’ surfaces compared well with the processed IR images detecting the ice grown outward from the airfoils’ leading edge area. (paper)

  11. Noninvasive enhanced mid-IR imaging of breast cancer development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-11-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy is commonly used to treat breast cancer patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that has the potential to provide real-time imaging to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy by delineating tumor margins. This enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8 to 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (˜0.5°C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Postacquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent, standard thermal, and enhanced thermal imaging modalities, as well as physical caliper measurements, were used to monitor breast cancer tumor volumes over a 30-day study period in 19 mice implanted with 4T1-RFP tumor cells. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging, standard thermal imaging, and caliper measurements all show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging, standard IR imaging, and caliper measurements with enhanced thermal imaging, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging monitors tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses associated with the tumor margin. In the future, this IR technique might be used to estimate tumor margins in real time during surgical procedures.

  12. Method of forming half-tone test images in the IR spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebova, L.N.; Gridin, A.S.; Denisov, V.N.; Dmitriev, I.Yu.; Mochalov, I.V.; Chebotarev, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Test charts in the form of half-tone IR images, including not only an image of the interference-producing background (the underlying earth's surface and clouds), but also the observation objects, are required for conducting bench tests on the noise immunity of modern optoelectronic equipment designed to solve observation problems under background-interference conditions. The simulation of extended half-tone IR images containing the high spatial frequencies of background formations having an appreciable dynamic range of reproducible radiances is a complex problem in technical and processing aspects. The use of phosphorus as visible-to-IR converters for the creation of IR-background simulators is shown to be possible in principle in this paper. 2 refs., 3 figs

  13. Slant Path Distances Through Cells in Cylindrical Geometry and an Application to the Computation of Isophotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney Whitaker

    2007-12-17

    In computer programs involving two-dimensional cylindrical geometry, it is often necessary to calculate the slant path distance in a given direction from a point to the boundary of a mesh cell. A subroutine, HOWFAR, has been written that accomplishes this, and is very economical in computer time. An example of its use is given in constructing the isophotes for a low altitude nuclear fireball.

  14. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Tissue Sections towards Improving Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter L.; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis. PMID:25650759

  15. Simulation of Thermal Processes in Metamaterial MM-to-IR Converter for MM-wave Imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagubisalo, Peter S; Paulish, Andrey G; Kuznetsov, Sergey A

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristics of MM-wave image detector were simulated by means of accurate numerical modelling of thermophysical processes in a metamaterial MM-to-IR converter. The converter represents a multilayer structure consisting of an ultra thin resonant metamaterial absorber and a perfect emissive layer. The absorber consists of a dielectric self-supporting film that is metallized from both sides. A micro-pattern is fabricated from one side. Resonant absorption of the MM waves induces the converter heating that yields enhancement of IR emission from the emissive layer. IR emission is detected by IR camera. In this contribution an accurate numerical model for simulation of the thermal processes in the converter structure was created by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation results are in a good agreement with experimental results that validates the model. The simulation shows that the real time operation is provided for the converter thickness less than 3 micrometers and time response can be improved by decreasing of the converter thickness. The energy conversion efficiency of MM waves into IR radiation is over 80%. The converter temperature increase is a linear function of a MM-wave radiation power within three orders of the dynamic range. The blooming effect and ways of its reducing are also discussed. The model allows us to choose the ways of converter structure optimization and improvement of image detector parameters

  16. Innovative monolithic detector for tri-spectral (THz, IR, Vis) imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocas, S.; Perenzoni, M.; Massari, N.; Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Rabaud, W.; Martin, S.; Delplanque, B.; Imperinetti, P.; Goudon, V.; Vialle, C.; Arnaud, A.

    2012-10-01

    Fusion of multispectral images has been explored for many years for security and used in a number of commercial products. CEA-Leti and FBK have developed an innovative sensor technology that gathers monolithically on a unique focal plane arrays, pixels sensitive to radiation in three spectral ranges that are terahertz (THz), infrared (IR) and visible. This technology benefits of many assets for volume market: compactness, full CMOS compatibility on 200mm wafers, advanced functions of the CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC), and operation at room temperature. The ROIC houses visible APS diodes while IR and THz detections are carried out by microbolometers collectively processed above the CMOS substrate. Standard IR bolometric microbridges (160x160 pixels) are surrounding antenna-coupled bolometers (32X32 pixels) built on a resonant cavity customized to THz sensing. This paper presents the different technological challenges achieved in this development and first electrical and sensitivity experimental tests.

  17. Exploration of the Infrared Sensitivity for a ZnSe Electrode of an IR Image Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, H. Hilal

    2018-05-01

    Significant improvement has been carried out in the field of the II-VI group semiconductor device technology. Semiconductors based on the II-VI group are attractive due to their alternative uses for thermal imaging systems and photonic applications. This study focuses on experimental work on the optical, electrical and structural characterization of an infrared (IR) photodetector zinc selenide (ZnSe). In addition, the IR sensitivity of the ZnSe has primarily been investigated by exploiting the IR responses of the material for various gas pressures, p, and interelectrode distances, d, in the IR converter. The experimental findings include the results of plasma current and plasma discharge emission under various illumination conditions in the IR region. The electron density distributions inside the gas discharge gap have also been simulated in two-dimensional media. Experimentally, the current-voltage, current-time, and discharge light emission plots are produced for a wide experimental parameter range. Consequently, the structural and optical properties have been studied through atomic force microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy techniques to obtain a comprehensive knowledge of the material.

  18. Ellipticity and twisting of the isophotes of some bright galaxies in Virgo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbon, R.; Benacchio, L.; Capaccioli, M.

    1980-01-01

    Ellipticity and twisting of the isophotes of four lenticular and seven elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster are presented as a sample of a more complete photometric investigation. This work has been motivated by the increasing importance of this kind of information for the understanding of the spatial structure of E galaxies. The calibrated plate material from the Loiano 1.52 meter and Tautenburg Schmidt telescopes has been digitized with a PDS microdensitometer and analysed by means of the Interactive Numerical Mapping Package (INMP). Ellipticity and orientation profiles are presented in a graphical form together with a preliminary discussion. A correlation has been found between ellipticity and twisting in barred lenticulars which might help in the understanding of some E galaxies such as NGC 4406 and NGC 4374. Twisting has been detected in all of the seven ellipticals of the sample

  19. Modulation transfer function cascade model for a sampled IR imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, L; Cardone, G

    1991-05-01

    The performance of the infrared scanning radiometer (IRSR) is strongly stressed in convective heat transfer applications where high spatial frequencies in the signal that describes the thermal image are present. The need to characterize more deeply the system spatial resolution has led to the formulation of a cascade model for the evaluation of the actual modulation transfer function of a sampled IR imaging system. The model can yield both the aliasing band and the averaged modulation response for a general sampling subsystem. For a line scan imaging system, which is the case of a typical IRSR, a rule of thumb that states whether the combined sampling-imaging system is either imaging-dependent or sampling-dependent is proposed. The model is tested by comparing it with other noncascade models as well as by ad hoc measurements performed on a commercial digitized IRSR.

  20. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-18

    The high-transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) can be exploited for real-time imaging of ablation crater formation during drilling with lasers. NIR images were acquired with an InGaAs focal plane array and a NIR zoom microscope during drilling incisions in human enamel samples with a lambda=9.3-microm CO(2) laser operating at repetition rates of 50-300-Hz with and without a water spray. Crack formation, dehydration and thermal changes were observed during ablation. These initial images demonstrate the potential of NIR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to provide information about the mechanism of ablation and to evaluate the potential for peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.

  1. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G. A.; Dunn, J. P.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m"2), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  2. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, G. A., E-mail: wurden@lanl.gov; Dunn, J. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stephey, L. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M. [Max Planck Institut für Plasma Physik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m{sup 2}), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  3. Mid-infrared multi-wavelength imaging of Ophiuchus IRS 48 transitional disk†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Kazushi; Miyata, Takashi; Mulders, Gijs D.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Kamizuka, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryou; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Yamashita, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Transitional disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars are fascinating targets in the contexts of disk evolution and planet formation. Oph IRS 48 is one of such Herbig Ae stars, which shows an inner dust cavity and azimuthally lopsided large dust distribution. We present new images of Oph IRS 48 at eight mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths from 8.59 to 24.6 μm taken with COMICS mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The N-band (7 to 13 μm) images show that the flux distribution is centrally peaked with a slight spatial extent, while the Q-band (17 to 25 μm) images show asymmetric double peaks (east and west). Using 18.8- and 24.6 μm images, we derived the dust temperature at both east and west peaks to be 135 ± 22 K. Thus, the asymmetry may not be attributed to a difference in the temperature. Comparing our results with previous modeling works, we conclude that the inner disk is aligned to the outer disk. A shadow cast by the optically thick inner disk has a great influence on the morphology of MIR thermal emission from the outer disk.

  4. Mid-infrared multi-wavelength imaging of Ophiuchus IRS 48 transitional disk†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mitsuhiko; Okada, Kazushi; Miyata, Takashi; Mulders, Gijs D.; Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Kamizuka, Takashi; Ohsawa, Ryou; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Fujiwara, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Yamashita, Takuya; Onaka, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    Transitional disks around the Herbig Ae/Be stars are fascinating targets in the contexts of disk evolution and planet formation. Oph IRS 48 is one of such Herbig Ae stars, which shows an inner dust cavity and azimuthally lopsided large dust distribution. We present new images of Oph IRS 48 at eight mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths from 8.59 to 24.6 μm taken with COMICS mounted on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The N-band (7 to 13 μm) images show that the flux distribution is centrally peaked with a slight spatial extent, while the Q-band (17 to 25 μm) images show asymmetric double peaks (east and west). Using 18.8- and 24.6 μm images, we derived the dust temperature at both east and west peaks to be 135 ± 22 K. Thus, the asymmetry may not be attributed to a difference in the temperature. Comparing our results with previous modeling works, we conclude that the inner disk is aligned to the outer disk. A shadow cast by the optically thick inner disk has a great influence on the morphology of MIR thermal emission from the outer disk.

  5. Real-time near-IR imaging of laser-ablation crater evolution in dental enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    We have shown that the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm in the near-infrared and that near-IR (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue and for observing defects in the interior of the tooth. Lasers are now routinely used for many applications in dentistry including the ablation of dental caries. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that real-time NIR imaging can be used to monitor laser-ablation under varying conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage and to measure the rate and efficiency of ablation. Moreover, NIR imaging may have considerable potential for monitoring the removal of demineralized areas of the tooth during cavity preparations. Sound human tooth sections of approximately 3-mm thickness were irradiated by a CO II laser under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with band-pass filter centered at 131--nm combined with an InGaAs focal plane array with a NIR zoom microscope in transillumination. Due to the high transparency of enamel at 1310-nm, laser-incisions were clearly visible to the dentin-enamel junction and crack formation, dehydration and irreversible thermal changes were observed during ablation. This study showed that there is great potential for near-IR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to: assess safe laser operating parameters by imaging thermal and stress-induced damage, elaborate the mechanisms involved in ablation such as dehydration, and monitor the removal of demineralized enamel.

  6. IR sensitivity enhancement of CMOS Image Sensor with diffractive light trapping pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, Sozo; Oshiyama, Itaru; Ikeda, Harumi; Ebiko, Yoshiki; Hirano, Tomoyuki; Saito, Suguru; Oinoue, Takashi; Hagimoto, Yoshiya; Iwamoto, Hayato

    2017-06-19

    We report on the IR sensitivity enhancement of back-illuminated CMOS Image Sensor (BI-CIS) with 2-dimensional diffractive inverted pyramid array structure (IPA) on crystalline silicon (c-Si) and deep trench isolation (DTI). FDTD simulations of semi-infinite thick c-Si having 2D IPAs on its surface whose pitches over 400 nm shows more than 30% improvement of light absorption at λ = 850 nm and the maximum enhancement of 43% with the 540 nm pitch at the wavelength is confirmed. A prototype BI-CIS sample with pixel size of 1.2 μm square containing 400 nm pitch IPAs shows 80% sensitivity enhancement at λ = 850 nm compared to the reference sample with flat surface. This is due to diffraction with the IPA and total reflection at the pixel boundary. The NIR images taken by the demo camera equip with a C-mount lens show 75% sensitivity enhancement in the λ = 700-1200 nm wavelength range with negligible spatial resolution degradation. Light trapping CIS pixel technology promises to improve NIR sensitivity and appears to be applicable to many different image sensor applications including security camera, personal authentication, and range finding Time-of-Flight camera with IR illuminations.

  7. IR-to-visible image upconverter under nonlinear crystal thermal gradient operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Fernández-Pousa, C R; Capmany, J

    2018-01-22

    In this work we study the enhancement of the field-of-view of an infrared image up-converter by means of a thermal gradient in a PPLN crystal. Our work focuses on compact upconverters, in which both a short PPLN crystal length and high numerical aperture lenses are employed. We found a qualitative increase in both wavelength and angular tolerances, compared to a constant temperature upconverter, which makes it necessary a correct IR wavelength allocation in order to effectively increase the up-converted area.

  8. FT-IR imaging for quantitative determination of liver fat content in non-alcoholic fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, K; Maslak, E; Chlopicki, S; Baranska, M

    2015-08-07

    In this work we apply FT-IR imaging of large areas of liver tissue cross-section samples (∼5 cm × 5 cm) for quantitative assessment of steatosis in murine model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD). We quantified the area of liver tissue occupied by lipid droplets (LDs) by FT-IR imaging and Oil Red O (ORO) staining for comparison. Two alternative FT-IR based approaches are presented. The first, straightforward method, was based on average spectra from tissues and provided values of the fat content by using a PLS regression model and the reference method. The second one – the chemometric-based method – enabled us to determine the values of the fat content, independently of the reference method by means of k-means cluster (KMC) analysis. In summary, FT-IR images of large size liver sections may prove to be useful for quantifying liver steatosis without the need of tissue staining.

  9. About possibility of temperature trace observing on a human skin through clothes by using computer processing of IR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Shestakov, Ivan L.; Blednov, Roman G.

    2017-05-01

    One of urgent security problems is a detection of objects placed inside the human body. Obviously, for safety reasons one cannot use X-rays for such object detection widely and often. For this purpose, we propose to use THz camera and IR camera. Below we continue a possibility of IR camera using for a detection of temperature trace on a human body. In contrast to passive THz camera using, the IR camera does not allow to see very pronounced the object under clothing. Of course, this is a big disadvantage for a security problem solution based on the IR camera using. To find possible ways for this disadvantage overcoming we make some experiments with IR camera, produced by FLIR Company and develop novel approach for computer processing of images captured by IR camera. It allows us to increase a temperature resolution of IR camera as well as human year effective susceptibility enhancing. As a consequence of this, a possibility for seeing of a human body temperature changing through clothing appears. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water and eats chocolate. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments are made with observing of temperature trace from objects placed behind think overall. Demonstrated results are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, concealed inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  10. Surface enhanced imaging and IR spectroscopy of the biological cells on the nanostructured gold film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.I. Dovbeshko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New approach for optical imaging, structural study and cell cultivation based on the effect of the enhancement of optical signals from biomolecules and biological cells near nanostructured rough gold surface is proposed. The surface enhanced IR absorption (SEIRA spectroscopy and confocal microscopy experiments were made using the culture of SPEV (porcine embryonic kidney epithelium transplantable line and fibroblast cells, cultivated and/or adsorbed on the gold substrate. The SEIRA spectra registered from monolayer of the SPEV cells cultivated on the rough gold showed a low frequency shift of about 2 to 7 cm 1 for the most characteristic IR vibrations, compared with those adsorbed from suspension on the same substrate. An enhancement factor of 15…30 was obtained for different molecular vibrations. The confocal microscopy contrast images of the SPEV cells on rough gold substrate were obtained in laser fluorescence mode. This approach opens new possibilities for visualization of the living cells in vivo without staining. The fluorescence of the rough gold surfaces and effects responsible for our findings have been discussed.

  11. Near-IR Spectral Imaging of Semiconductor Absorption Sites in Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Samson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive spectral maps of absorption sites in integrated circuits (ICs by varying the wavelength of the optical probe within the near-IR range. This method has allowed us to improve the contrast of the acquired images by revealing structures that have a different optical absorption from neighboring sites. A false color composite image from those acquired at different wavelengths is generated from which the response of each semiconductor structure can be deduced. With the aid of the spectral maps, nonuniform absorption was also observed in a semiconductor structure located near an electrical overstress defect. This method may prove important in failure analysis of ICs by uncovering areas exhibiting anomalous absorption, which could improve localization of defective edifices in the semiconductor parts of the microchip

  12. MicrOmega IR: a new infrared hyperspectral imaging microscope or in situ analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitua, Leroi; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Berthé, Michel

    2017-11-01

    MicrOmega IR is an ultra miniaturized Near Infrared hyperspectral microscope for in situ analysis of samples. It is designed to be implemented on board space planetary vehicles (lander and/or rovers). It acquires images of samples typically some 5 mm in width with a spatial sampling of 20 μm. On each pixel, MicrOmega acquires the spectrum in the spectral range 0.9 - 2.6 μm, with a possibility to extend the sensibility up to 4 μm. The spectrum will be measured in up to 300 contiguous spectral channels (600 in the extended range): given the diagnostic spectral features present in this domain, it provides the composition of each spatially resolved constituent. MicrOmega has thus the potential to identify: minerals, such as pyroxene and olivine, ferric oxides, hydrated phases such as phyllosilicates, sulfates and carbonates, ices and organics. The composition of the various phases within a given sample is a critical record of its formation and evolution. Coupled to the mapping information, it provides unique clues to describe the history of the parent body. In particular, the capability to identify hydrated grains and to characterize their adjacent phases has a huge potential in the search for potential bio-relics in Martian samples. This purely non destructive characterization enables further analyses (e.g. through mass spectrometry) to be performed, and/or to contribute to sample selection to return to Earth. MicrOmega IR is coupled to a visible microscope: MicrOmega VIS. Thus, the MicrOmega instrument is developed by an international consortium: IAS (Orsay, France), LESIA (Meudon, France), CBM (Orléans, France), University Of Bern (Bern, Switzerland), IKI (Moscow, Russia). This instrument (MicrOmega IR, MicrOmega VIS and the electronics) is selected for the ESA Exomars mission (launch scheduled for 2013). MicrOmega IR will be used in a reduced spectral range (0.9 - 2.6 μm), due to power, mass and thermal constraints: however, most minerals and other

  13. Similarity maps and hierarchical clustering for annotating FT-IR spectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qiaoyong; Yang, Chen; Großerüschkamp, Frederik; Kallenbach-Thieltges, Angela; Serocka, Peter; Gerwert, Klaus; Mosig, Axel

    2013-11-20

    Unsupervised segmentation of multi-spectral images plays an important role in annotating infrared microscopic images and is an essential step in label-free spectral histopathology. In this context, diverse clustering approaches have been utilized and evaluated in order to achieve segmentations of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microscopic images that agree with histopathological characterization. We introduce so-called interactive similarity maps as an alternative annotation strategy for annotating infrared microscopic images. We demonstrate that segmentations obtained from interactive similarity maps lead to similarly accurate segmentations as segmentations obtained from conventionally used hierarchical clustering approaches. In order to perform this comparison on quantitative grounds, we provide a scheme that allows to identify non-horizontal cuts in dendrograms. This yields a validation scheme for hierarchical clustering approaches commonly used in infrared microscopy. We demonstrate that interactive similarity maps may identify more accurate segmentations than hierarchical clustering based approaches, and thus are a viable and due to their interactive nature attractive alternative to hierarchical clustering. Our validation scheme furthermore shows that performance of hierarchical two-means is comparable to the traditionally used Ward's clustering. As the former is much more efficient in time and memory, our results suggest another less resource demanding alternative for annotating large spectral images.

  14. Characterization of a novel miniaturized burst-mode infrared laser system for IR-MALDESI mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelöf, Måns; Manni, Jeffrey; Nazari, Milad; Bokhart, Mark; Muddiman, David C

    2018-03-01

    Laser systems are widely used in mass spectrometry as sample probes and ionization sources. Mid-infrared lasers are particularly suitable for analysis of high water content samples such as animal and plant tissues, using water as a resonantly excited sacrificial matrix. Commercially available mid-IR lasers have historically been bulky and expensive due to cooling requirements. This work presents a novel air-cooled miniature mid-IR laser with adjustable burst-mode output and details an evaluation of its performance for mass spectrometry imaging. The miniature laser was found capable of generating sufficient energy for complete ablation of animal tissue in the context of an IR-MALDESI experiment with exogenously added ice matrix, yielding several hundred confident metabolite identifications. Graphical abstract The use of a novel miniature 2.94 μm burst-mode laser in IR-MALDESI allows for rapid and sensitive mass spectrometry imaging of a whole mouse.

  15. Image transmission in mid-IR using a solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Kratovil, Pat; Magee, James R.

    2002-04-01

    In this paper, image transmission using a mid-wave IR (MWIR) optical transceiver based free-space data link under low visibility conditions is presented. The all-solid-state MWIR transceiver primarily consisted of a passively Q-switched, short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser pumping a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) based optical parametric oscillator and a Dember effect detector. The MILES transceiver generates pulse position waveforms. The optical data link consisting of transmitter drive electronics, pulse conditioning electronics and a computer generating pulses compatible with the 2400-baud rate RS232 receiver was utilized. Data formatting and RS232 transmission and reception were achieved using a computer. Data formatting transformed an arbitrary image file format compatible with the basic operation of pump laser. Images were transmitted at a date rate of 2400 kbits/sec with 16 bits/pixel. Test images consisting of 50X40 pixels and 100X80 pixels were transmitted through free-space filled with light fog up to 120 ft. Besides optical parametric oscillators, the proposed concept can be extended to optical parametric amplifiers, Raman lasers and other nonlinear optical devices to achieve multi-functionality.

  16. Mid-IR hyperspectral imaging for label-free histopathology and cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, M.; Brandstrup Morrish, R.; Huot, L.; Meng, L.; Junaid, S.; Tomko, J.; Lloyd, G. R.; Masselink, W. T.; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, P.; Pedersen, C.; Palombo, F.; Stone, N.

    2018-02-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging has emerged as a valuable tool to investigate biological samples, such as tissue histological sections and cell cultures, by providing non-destructive chemical specificity without recourse to labels. While feasibility studies have shown the capabilities of MIR imaging approaches to address key biological and clinical questions, these techniques are still far from being deployable by non-expert users. In this review, we discuss the current state of the art of MIR technologies and give an overview on technical innovations and developments with the potential to make MIR imaging systems more readily available to a larger community. The most promising developments over the last few years are discussed here. They include improvements in MIR light sources with the availability of quantum cascade lasers and supercontinuum IR sources as well as the recently developed upconversion scheme to improve the detection of MIR radiation. These technical advances can substantially speed up data acquisition of multispectral or hyperspectral datasets thus providing the end user with vast amounts of data when imaging whole tissue areas of many mm2. Therefore, effective data analysis is of tremendous importance, and progress in method development is discussed with respect to the specific biomedical context.

  17. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of reactions in multiphase flow in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2012-05-01

    Rapid, in situ, and label-free chemical analysis in microfluidic devices is highly desirable. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging has previously been shown to be a powerful tool to visualize the distribution of different chemicals in flows in a microfluidic device at near video rate imaging speed without tracers or dyes. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using this imaging technology to capture the chemical information of all reactants and products at different points in time and space in a two-phase system. Differences in the rates of chemical reactions in laminar flow and segmented flow systems are also compared. Neutralization of benzoic acid in decanol with disodium phosphate in water has been used as the model reaction. Quantitative information, such as concentration profiles of reactant and products, can be extracted from the imaging data. The same feed flow rate was used in both the laminar flow and segmented flow systems. The laminar flow pattern was achieved using a plain wide T-junction, whereas the segmented flow was achieved by introducing a narrowed section and a nozzle at the T-junction. The results show that the reaction rate is limited by diffusion and is much slower with the laminar flow pattern, whereas the reaction is completed more quickly in the segmented flow due to better mixing.

  18. Visible, Very Near IR and Short Wave IR Hyperspectral Drone Imaging System for Agriculture and Natural Water Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, H.; Akujärvi, A.; Holmlund, C.; Ojanen, H.; Kaivosoja, J.; Nissinen, A.; Niemeläinen, O.

    2017-10-01

    The accurate determination of the quality parameters of crops requires a spectral range from 400 nm to 2500 nm (Kawamura et al., 2010, Thenkabail et al., 2002). Presently the hyperspectral imaging systems that cover this wavelength range consist of several separate hyperspectral imagers and the system weight is from 5 to 15 kg. In addition the cost of the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) cameras is high (  50 k€). VTT has previously developed compact hyperspectral imagers for drones and Cubesats for Visible and Very near Infrared (VNIR) spectral ranges (Saari et al., 2013, Mannila et al., 2013, Näsilä et al., 2016). Recently VTT has started to develop a hyperspectral imaging system that will enable imaging simultaneously in the Visible, VNIR, and SWIR spectral bands. The system can be operated from a drone, on a camera stand, or attached to a tractor. The targeted main applications of the DroneKnowledge hyperspectral system are grass, peas, and cereals. In this paper the characteristics of the built system are shortly described. The system was used for spectral measurements of wheat, several grass species and pea plants fixed to the camera mount in the test fields in Southern Finland and in the green house. The wheat, grass and pea field measurements were also carried out using the system mounted on the tractor. The work is part of the Finnish nationally funded DroneKnowledge - Towards knowledge based export of small UAS remote sensing technology project.

  19. Solar system objects in the ISOPHOT 170 mu m serendipity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, T. G.; Hotzel, S.; Stickel, M.

    2002-07-01

    The ISOPHOT Serendipity Survey (ISOSS) covered approximately 15% of the sky at a wavelength of 170 mu m while the ISO satellite was slewing from one target to the next. By chance, ISOSS slews went over many solar system objects (SSOs). We identified the comets, asteroids and planets in the slews through a fast and effective search procedure based on N-body ephemeris and flux estimates. The detections were analysed from a calibration and scientific point of view. Through the measurements of the well-known asteroids Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta and the planets Uranus and Neptune it was possible to improve the photometric calibration of ISOSS and to extend it to higher flux regimes. We were also able to establish calibration schemes for the important slew end data. For the other asteroids we derived radiometric diameters and albedos through a recent thermophysical model. The scientific results are discussed in the context of our current knowledge of size, shape and albedos, derived from IRAS observations, occultation measurements and lightcurve inversion techniques. In all cases where IRAS observations were available we confirm the derived diameters and albedos. For the five asteroids without IRAS detections only one was clearly detected and the radiometric results agreed with sizes given by occultation and HST observations. Four different comets have clearly been detected at 170 mu m and two have marginal detections. The observational results are presented to be used by thermal comet models in the future. The nine ISOSS slews over Hale-Bopp revealed extended and asymmetric structures related to the dust tail. We attribute the enhanced emission in post-perihelion observations to large particles around the nucleus. The signal patterns are indicative of a concentration of the particles in the trail direction. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the

  20. Wide-band IR imaging in the NIR-MIR-FIR regions for in situ analysis of frescoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, C.; Pezzati, L.; Ambrosini, D.; Paoletti, D.; Di Biase, R.; Mariotti, P. I.; Frosinini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Imaging methods offer several advantages in the field of conservation allowing to perform non-invasive inspection of works of art. In particular, non-invasive techniques based on imaging in different infrared (IR) regions are widely used for the investigation of paintings. Using radiation beyond the visible range, different characteristics of the inspected artwork may be revealed according to the bandwidth acquired. In this paper we present the recent results of a joint project among the two research institutes DIMEG and CNR-INO, and the restoration facility Opificio delle Pietre Dure, concerning the wide-band integration of IR imaging techniques, in the spectral ranges NIR 0.8-2.5 μm, MIR 3-5 μm, and FIR 8-12 μm, for in situ analysis of artworks. A joint, multi-mode use of reflection and thermal bands is proposed for the diagnostics of mural paintings, and it is demonstrated to be an effective tool in inspecting the layered structure. High resolution IR reflectography and, to a greater extent, IR imaging in the 3-5 μm band, are effectively used to characterize the superficial layer of the fresco and to analyze the stratigraphy of different pictorial layers. IR thermography in the 8-12 μm band is used to characterize the support deep structure. The integration of all the data provides a multi- layered and multi-spectral representation of the fresco that yields a comprehensive analysis.

  1. Near-IR Two-Photon Fluorescent Sensor for K(+) Imaging in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Binglin; Yue, Xiling; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D

    2015-08-19

    A new two-photon excited fluorescent K(+) sensor is reported. The sensor comprises three moieties, a highly selective K(+) chelator as the K(+) recognition unit, a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) derivative modified with phenylethynyl groups as the fluorophore, and two polyethylene glycol chains to afford water solubility. The sensor displays very high selectivity (>52-fold) in detecting K(+) over other physiological metal cations. Upon binding K(+), the sensor switches from nonfluorescent to highly fluorescent, emitting red to near-IR (NIR) fluorescence. The sensor exhibited a good two-photon absorption cross section, 500 GM at 940 nm. Moreover, it is not sensitive to pH in the physiological pH range. Time-dependent cell imaging studies via both one- and two-photon fluorescence microscopy demonstrate that the sensor is suitable for dynamic K(+) sensing in living cells.

  2. Hot Spots Detection of Operating PV Arrays through IR Thermal Image Using Method Based on Curve Fitting of Gray Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall efficiency of PV arrays is affected by hot spots which should be detected and diagnosed by applying responsible monitoring techniques. The method using the IR thermal image to detect hot spots has been studied as a direct, noncontact, nondestructive technique. However, IR thermal images suffer from relatively high stochastic noise and non-uniformity clutter, so the conventional methods of image processing are not effective. The paper proposes a method to detect hotspots based on curve fitting of gray histogram. The result of MATLAB simulation proves the method proposed in the paper is effective to detect the hot spots suppressing the noise generated during the process of image acquisition.

  3. Problems of thermal IR-imaging in evaluation of burn wounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, A.

    2009-01-01

    Results of the research devoted to application of thermal IR-imaging in diagnostics of burn wounds are discussed. The main aim of the work was to develop an effective method for quantitative evaluation of the depth of a burn wound and for classification of regions for surgical treatment. The criterion of determination the area of the wound to be treated surgically is the time, which should not exceed three weeks for natural healing of a burn wound. Prediction that the healing process may last longer is concluded by immediate surgical intervention. We concentrate on using for this purpose QIRT - NDT TI methods (Quantitative Infra-Red Thermography - Non-Destructive Testing Thermal Imaging); especially - active dynamic thermography - ADT. In this work both, classical thermography using a high quality thermal camera as well as ADT are applied and the results of analysis are joined, allowing multimodality diagnostic approach and improved classification of burns requiring surgical treatment. Now our work in application of thermal imaging in determination of burns is continued for around 10 years, as the first publication showing our methodology was presented in 1999. In 2001, during the Thermosense conference, we have been awarded the Andronicos Kantsios Award for the work on Medical applications of model based dynamic thermography. Important reports of our experience in classical as well as ADT thermography are already published. Now we concentrate on practical aspects of the problem, trying to construct a measuring set to be operative even by not experienced staff and meeting all of necessary requirements for clinical applications. (author)

  4. Methodology for automatic process of the fired ceramic tile's internal defect using IR images and artificial neural network

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Roberto Márcio de; Eduardo, Alexandre Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In the ceramic industry, rarely testing systems were employed to on-line detect the presence of defects in ceramic tiles. This paper is concerned with the problem of automatic inspection of ceramic tiles using Infrared Images and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The performance of the technique has been evaluated theoretically and experimentally from laboratory and on line tile samples. It has been performed system for IR image processing and, utilizing an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), det...

  5. 3D FT-IR imaging spectroscopy of phase-separation in a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(L-lactic acid) blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miriam Unger; Julia Sedlmair; Heinz W. Siesler; Carol Hirschmugl; Barbara Illman

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, 3D FT-IR spectroscopic imaging measurements were applied to study the phase separation of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) (50:50 wt.%) polymer blend film. While in 2D projection imaging the z-dependent information is overlapped, thereby complicating the analysis, FT-IR spectro-micro-tomography,...

  6. Automated jitter correction for IR image processing to assess the quality of W7-X high heat flux components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuner, H; De Marne, P; Herrmann, A; Boeswirth, B; Schindler, T; Smirnow, M

    2009-01-01

    An automated IR image processing method was developed to evaluate the surface temperature distribution of cyclically loaded high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing components. IPP Garching will perform the HHF testing of a high percentage of the series production of the WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) divertor targets to minimize the number of undiscovered uncertainties in the finally installed components. The HHF tests will be performed as quality assurance (QA) complementary to the non-destructive examination (NDE) methods used during the manufacturing. The IR analysis of an HHF-loaded component detects growing debonding of the plasma facing material, made of carbon fibre composite (CFC), after a few thermal cycles. In the case of the prototype testing, the IR data was processed manually. However, a QA method requires a reliable, reproducible and efficient automated procedure. Using the example of the HHF testing of W7-X pre-series target elements, the paper describes the developed automated IR image processing method. The algorithm is based on an iterative two-step correlation analysis with an individually defined reference pattern for the determination of the jitter.

  7. Multi-imaging adaptive concept for IR and submillimeter space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Victor P.

    1995-06-01

    Nontraditional IR and submillimeter spaceborne telescope concept basing on blind-type parabolic multi-ring mirror is proposed and discussed. Preliminary results for optimization of mirror parameters by means of computer simulation are presented.

  8. Identification of urushi coated films taken from ancient Buddha images by using PIXE, FT-IR, and organic elemental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagemori, N.; Umemura, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Inoue, M.; Kawai, S.; Yano, K.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Nakamura, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Six types of samples including urushi, urushi tree and black coating films taken from ancient Buddha images were examined by analyses of PIXE, organic element and FT-IR to identify with urushi or another material. Based on the results of three analytical experiments above mentioned, the coating materials aging over hundreds of years were identified with weathered urushi films mixed with other material. Further investigation may reveal the urushi coating techniques used in the past. (author)

  9. Identification of {sup 192}Ir seeds in localization images using a novel statistical pattern recognition approach and a priori information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, William F; Chaney, Edward L; Coggins, James M

    1995-07-01

    Purpose / Objective: Manual labeling of individual {sup 192}Ir seeds in localization images for dosimetry of multi-strand low-dose-rate (LDR) implants is labor intensive, tedious and prone to error. The objective of this investigation is to develop computer-based methods that analyze digitized localization images, improve dosimetric efficiency, and reduce labeling errors. Materials and Methods: {sup 192}Ir localization films were digitized with a scanned-laser system and analyzed using Multiscale, Geometric, Statistical Pattern Recognition (MGSPR), a technique that recognizes and classifies pixels in gray-scale images based on their surrounding, neighborhood geometry. To 'teach' MGSPR how to recognize specific objects, a Gaussian-based mathematical filter set is applied to training images containing user-labeled examples of the desired objects. The filters capture a broad range of descriptive geometric information at multiple spatial scales. Principled mathematical analysis is used to determine the linear combination of filters from a large base set that yields the best discrimination between object types. Thus the sensitivity of the filters can be 'tuned' to detect specific objects such as{sup 192} Ir seeds. For a given pixel, the output of the filter is a multi-component feature vector that uniquely describes the pixel's geometric characteristics. Pixels with similar geometric attributes have feature vectors that naturally 'cluster', or group, in the multidimensional space called 'feature space'. After statistically quantifying the training-set clusters in feature space, pixels found in new images are automatically labeled by correlation with the nearest cluster, e.g., the cluster representing {sup 192}Ir seeds. One of the greatest challenges in statistical pattern recognition is to determine which filters result in the best labeling. Good discrimination is achieved when clusters are compact and well isolated from one another in feature space. The filters used in

  10. Identification of 192Ir seeds in localization images using a novel statistical pattern recognition approach and a priori information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, William F.; Chaney, Edward L.; Coggins, James M.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose / Objective: Manual labeling of individual 192 Ir seeds in localization images for dosimetry of multi-strand low-dose-rate (LDR) implants is labor intensive, tedious and prone to error. The objective of this investigation is to develop computer-based methods that analyze digitized localization images, improve dosimetric efficiency, and reduce labeling errors. Materials and Methods: 192 Ir localization films were digitized with a scanned-laser system and analyzed using Multiscale, Geometric, Statistical Pattern Recognition (MGSPR), a technique that recognizes and classifies pixels in gray-scale images based on their surrounding, neighborhood geometry. To 'teach' MGSPR how to recognize specific objects, a Gaussian-based mathematical filter set is applied to training images containing user-labeled examples of the desired objects. The filters capture a broad range of descriptive geometric information at multiple spatial scales. Principled mathematical analysis is used to determine the linear combination of filters from a large base set that yields the best discrimination between object types. Thus the sensitivity of the filters can be 'tuned' to detect specific objects such as 192 Ir seeds. For a given pixel, the output of the filter is a multi-component feature vector that uniquely describes the pixel's geometric characteristics. Pixels with similar geometric attributes have feature vectors that naturally 'cluster', or group, in the multidimensional space called 'feature space'. After statistically quantifying the training-set clusters in feature space, pixels found in new images are automatically labeled by correlation with the nearest cluster, e.g., the cluster representing 192 Ir seeds. One of the greatest challenges in statistical pattern recognition is to determine which filters result in the best labeling. Good discrimination is achieved when clusters are compact and well isolated from one another in feature space. The filters used in this study are

  11. Automated Recognition of Vegetation and Water Bodies on the Territory of Megacities in Satellite Images of Visible and IR Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozgovoy, Dmitry k.; Hnatushenko, Volodymyr V.; Vasyliev, Volodymyr V.

    2018-04-01

    Vegetation and water bodies are a fundamental element of urban ecosystems, and water mapping is critical for urban and landscape planning and management. A methodology of automated recognition of vegetation and water bodies on the territory of megacities in satellite images of sub-meter spatial resolution of the visible and IR bands is proposed. By processing multispectral images from the satellite SuperView-1A, vector layers of recognized plant and water objects were obtained. Analysis of the results of image processing showed a sufficiently high accuracy of the delineation of the boundaries of recognized objects and a good separation of classes. The developed methodology provides a significant increase of the efficiency and reliability of updating maps of large cities while reducing financial costs. Due to the high degree of automation, the proposed methodology can be implemented in the form of a geo-information web service functioning in the interests of a wide range of public services and commercial institutions.

  12. Composite multi-lobe descriptor for cross spectral face recognition: matching active IR to visible light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2015-05-01

    Matching facial images across electromagnetic spectrum presents a challenging problem in the field of biometrics and identity management. An example of this problem includes cross spectral matching of active infrared (IR) face images or thermal IR face images against a dataset of visible light images. This paper describes a new operator named Composite Multi-Lobe Descriptor (CMLD) for facial feature extraction in cross spectral matching of near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) against visible light images. The new operator is inspired by the design of ordinal measures. The operator combines Gaussian-based multi-lobe kernel functions, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), generalized LBP (GLBP) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) and modifies them into multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods. The new operator encodes both the magnitude and phase responses of Gabor filters. The combining of LBP and WLD utilizes both the orientation and intensity information of edges. Introduction of multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods further makes the proposed operator robust against noise and poor image quality. Output templates are transformed into histograms and then compared by means of a symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric resulting in a matching score. The performance of the multi-lobe descriptor is compared with that of other operators such as LBP, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), ordinal measures, and their combinations. The experimental results show that in many cases the proposed method, CMLD, outperforms the other operators and their combinations. In addition to different infrared spectra, various standoff distances from close-up (1.5 m) to intermediate (50 m) and long (106 m) are also investigated in this paper. Performance of CMLD is evaluated for of each of the three cases of distances.

  13. Fluorenyl benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole near-IR fluorescent probes for two-photon fluorescence imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Kevin D.; Yao, Sheng; Kim, Bosung; Yue, Xiling

    2016-03-01

    Imaging biological samples with two-photon fluorescence (2PF) microscopy has the unique advantage of resulting high contrast 3D resolution subcellular image that can reach up to several millimeters depth. 2PF probes that absorb and emit at near IR region need to be developed. Two-photon excitation (2PE) wavelengths are less concerned as 2PE uses wavelengths doubles the absorption wavelength of the probe, which means 2PE wavelengths for probes even with absorption at visible wavelength will fall into NIR region. Therefore, probes that fluoresce at near IR region with high quantum yields are needed. A series of dyes based on 5-thienyl-2, 1, 3-benzothiadiazole and 5-thienyl-2, 1, 3-benzoselenadiazole core were synthesized as near infrared two-photon fluorophores. Fluorescence maxima wavelengths as long as 714 nm and fluorescence quantum yields as high as 0.67 were achieved. The fluorescence quantum yields of the dyes were nearly constant, regardless of solvents polarity. These diazoles exhibited large Stokes shift (GM), and high two-photon fluorescence figure of merit (FM , 1.04×10-2 GM). Cells incubated on a 3D scaffold with one of the new probes (encapsulated in Pluronic micelles) exhibited bright fluorescence, enabling 3D two-photon fluorescence imaging to a depth of 100 µm.

  14. Identification and Quantification of Microplastics in Wastewater Using Focal Plane Array-Based Reflectance Micro-FT-IR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagg, Alexander S; Sapp, Melanie; Harrison, Jesse P; Ojeda, Jesús J

    2015-06-16

    Microplastics (microplastics in these matrices has not been investigated. Although efficient methods for the analysis of microplastics in sediment samples and marine organisms have been published, no methods have been developed for detecting these pollutants within organic-rich wastewater samples. In addition, there is no standardized method for analyzing microplastics isolated from environmental samples. In many cases, part of the identification protocol relies on visual selection before analysis, which is open to bias. In order to address this, a new method for the analysis of microplastics in wastewater was developed. A pretreatment step using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to remove biogenic material, and focal plane array (FPA)-based reflectance micro-Fourier-transform (FT-IR) imaging was shown to successfully image and identify different microplastic types (polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon-6, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene). Microplastic-spiked wastewater samples were used to validate the methodology, resulting in a robust protocol which was nonselective and reproducible (the overall success identification rate was 98.33%). The use of FPA-based micro-FT-IR spectroscopy also provides a considerable reduction in analysis time compared with previous methods, since samples that could take several days to be mapped using a single-element detector can now be imaged in less than 9 h (circular filter with a diameter of 47 mm). This method for identifying and quantifying microplastics in wastewater is likely to provide an essential tool for further research into the pathways by which microplastics enter the environment.

  15. NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

    2013-01-12

    Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ≤SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (≤SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

  16. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 ?m) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ?0.06?, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August,

  17. Mid-IR hyperspectral imaging for label-free histopathology and cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermes, M.; Morrish, R. Brandstrup; Huot, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Mid-infrared (MIR) imaging has emerged as a valuable tool to investigate biological samples, such as tissue histological sections and cell cultures, by providing non-destructive chemical specificity without recourse to labels. While feasibility studies have shown the capabilities of MIR imaging a...

  18. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43−at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43− from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with

  19. Assessing various Infrared (IR microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Woess

    Full Text Available Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43-at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43- from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio

  20. Assessing various Infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques for post-mortem interval evaluation of human skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woess, Claudia; Unterberger, Seraphin Hubert; Roider, Clemens; Ritsch-Marte, Monika; Pemberger, Nadin; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan; Hatzer-Grubwieser, Petra; Parson, Walther; Pallua, Johannes Dominikus

    2017-01-01

    Due to the influence of many environmental processes, a precise determination of the post-mortem interval (PMI) of skeletal remains is known to be very complicated. Although methods for the investigation of the PMI exist, there still remains much room for improvement. In this study the applicability of infrared (IR) microscopic imaging techniques such as reflection-, ATR- and Raman- microscopic imaging for the estimation of the PMI of human skeletal remains was tested. PMI specific features were identified and visualized by overlaying IR imaging data with morphological tissue structures obtained using light microscopy to differentiate between forensic and archaeological bone samples. ATR and reflection spectra revealed that a more prominent peak at 1042 cm-1 (an indicator for bone mineralization) was observable in archeological bone material when compared with forensic samples. Moreover, in the case of the archaeological bone material, a reduction in the levels of phospholipids, proteins, nucleic acid sugars, complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars was detectable at (reciprocal wavelengths/energies) between 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1. Raman spectra illustrated a similar picture with less ν2PO43-at 450 cm-1 and ν4PO43- from 590 cm-1 to 584 cm-1, amide III at 1272 cm-1 and protein CH2 deformation at 1446 cm-1 in archeological bone material/samples/sources. A semi-quantitative determination of various distributions of biomolecules by chemi-maps of reflection- and ATR- methods revealed that there were less carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates as well as amorphous or fully hydrated sugars in archaeological samples compared with forensic bone samples. Raman- microscopic imaging data showed a reduction in B-type carbonate and protein α-helices after a PMI of 3 years. The calculated mineral content ratio and the organic to mineral ratio displayed that the mineral content ratio increases, while the organic to mineral ratio decreases with time

  1. α-Lipoic acid stabilized DTX/IR780 micelles for photoacoustic/fluorescence imaging guided photothermal therapy/chemotherapy of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, WenTing; Peng, JinRong; Yang, Qian; Chen, LiJuan; Zhang, Lan; Chen, XiaoXin; Qian, ZhiYong

    2018-05-01

    Micellar nanoparticles have unique advantages as carriers for therapeutic or imaging agents, owing to their smaller size and better penetration of tumors. However, some agents, due to their physical or chemical properties, are difficult to load into micelles. IR780 is one of these agents, and is also a promising near-infrared dye for fluorescence imaging (FI)/photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and cancer photothermal therapy (PTT). Its hydrophobic and high crystallization structure results in limited bioavailability in vivo. It is difficult to load into micelles constructed from an amphiphilic block polymer with relatively low molecular weight. In this study, we use computer simulation and introduce another small biomolecule, α-lipoic acid, into the micelles constructed from a mPEG-PCL copolymer, to lower the energy of molecular interaction between MPEG-PCL and IR780, and expect to enhance the loading capacity of the micelles to IR780. The introduction of α-lipoic acid decreases the energy of molecular interaction between MEPG-PCL and IR780 from -46.18 kJ mol-1 to -196.52 kJ mol-1 and increases the loading capacity and stability of the mPEG-PCL micelles to IR780, which also maintains the loading capacity to DTX. We further construct DTX/IR780 co-loaded mPEG-PCL micelles for FI/PAI dual modal imaging guided PTT/chemotherapy of cancer. By FI and PAI evaluation in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that the DTX/IR780 co-loaded micelles can be used as FI and PAI probes. By further evaluating the therapeutic outcome of PTT/chemotherapy co-therapy of breast cancer, we demonstrate that the DTX/IR780 co-loaded mPEG-PCL micelles can serve as promising candidates for FI and PAI guided PTT/chemotherapy of breast cancer.

  2. Keck i LWS Mid-Ir Images and Photometry of 9P/TEMPEL 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Y. R.; Lisse, C. M.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Belton, M. J. S.

    2010-01-01

    This data set contains raw and reduced mid-infrared images and photometry of comet 9P/Tempel 1, the target of the Deep Impact mission. Images were acquired on the night of 21 August 2000, about 7.5 months after perihelion, by Y. Fernandez, C. Lisse, M. A'Hearn and M. Belton using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer instrument at the Keck I telescope.

  3. Combined IR imaging-neural network method for the estimation of internal temperature in cooked chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Juan G.; Tao, Yang; Xin, Hongwei

    2000-11-01

    A noninvasive method for the estimation of internal temperature in chicken meat immediately following cooking is proposed. The external temperature from IR images was correlated with measured internal temperature through a multilayer neural network. To provide inputs for the network, time series experiments were conducted to obtain simultaneous observations of internal and external temperatures immediately after cooking during the cooling process. An IR camera working at the spectral band of 3.4 to 5.0 micrometers registered external temperature distributions without the interference of close-to-oven environment, while conventional thermocouples registered internal temperatures. For an internal temperature at a given time, simultaneous and lagged external temperature observations were used as the input of the neural network. Based on practical and statistical considerations, a criterion is established to reduce the nodes in the neural network input. The combined method was able to estimate internal temperature for times between 0 and 540 s within a standard error of +/- 1.01 degree(s)C, and within an error of +/- 1.07 degree(s)C for short times after cooking (3 min), with two thermograms at times t and t+30s. The method has great potential for monitoring of doneness of chicken meat in conveyor belt type cooking and can be used as a platform for similar studies in other food products.

  4. Detection of Degradation Effects in Field-Aged c-Si Solar Cells through IR Thermography and Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kaplani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the vast expansion of photovoltaic (PV module production nowadays, a great interest is shown in factors affecting PV performance and efficiency under real conditions. Particular attention is being given to degradation effects of PV cells and modules, which during the last decade are seen to be responsible for significant power losses observed in PV systems. This paper presents and analyses degradation effects observed in severely EVA discoloured PV cells from field-aged modules operating already for 18–22 years. Temperature degradation effects are identified through IR thermography in bus bars, contact solder bonds, blisters, hot spots, and hot areas. I-V curve analysis results showed an agreement between the source of electrical performance degradation and the degradation effects in the defected cell identified by the IR thermography. Finally, an algorithm was developed to automatically detect EVA discoloration in PV cells through processing of the digital image alone in a way closely imitating human perception of color. This nondestructive and noncostly solution could be applied in the detection of EVA discoloration in existing PV installations and the automatic monitoring and remote inspection of PV systems.

  5. THE ORION FINGERS: NEAR-IR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF AN EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    We present near-IR (1.1–2.4 μ m) position–position–velocity cubes of the 500 year old Orion BN/KL explosive outflow with spatial resolution 1″ and spectral resolution 86 km s{sup −1}. We construct integrated intensity maps free of continuum sources of 15 H{sub 2} and [Fe ii] lines while preserving kinematic information of individual outflow features. Included in the detected H{sub 2} lines are the 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 Q(3) transitions, allowing extinction measurements across the outflow. Additionally, we present dereddened flux ratios for over two dozen outflow features to allow for the characterization of the true excitation conditions of the BN/KL outflow. All of the ratios show the dominance of the shock excitation of the H{sub 2} emission, although some features exhibit signs of fluorescent excitation from stellar radiation or J-type shocks. We also detect tracers of the PDR/ionization front north of the Trapezium stars in [O i] and [Fe ii] and analyze other observed outflows not associated with the BN/KL outflow.

  6. Thermal effects of CO2 capture by solid adsorbents: some approaches by IR image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benevides Ferreira, J.F.; Pradere, C.; Batsale, J.C.; Jolly, J.; Pavageau, B.; Le Bourdon, G.; Mascetti, J.; Servant, L.

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to infrared thermography, we have studied the mechanisms of CO 2 capture by solid adsorbents (CO 2 capture via gas adsorption on various types of porous substrates) to better understand the physico-chemical mechanisms that control CO 2 -surface interactions. In order to develop in the future an efficient process for post-combustion CO 2 capture, it is necessary to quantify the energy of adsorption of the gas on the adsorbent (exothermic process). The released heat (heat of adsorption) is a key parameter for the choice of materials and for the design of capture processes. Infrared thermography is used, at first approach, to detect the temperature fields on a thin-layer of adsorbent during CO 2 adsorption. An analytical heat transfer model was developed to evaluate the adsorption heat flux and to estimate, via an inverse technique, the heat of adsorption. The main originality of our method is to estimate heat losses directly from the heat generated during the adsorption process. Then, the estimated heat loss is taken for an a posteriori calculation of the adsorption heat flux. Finally, the heat of adsorption may be estimated. The interest in using infrared thermography is also its ability to quickly change the experimental setup, for example, to switch from the adsorbent thin-layer to the adsorbent bed configuration. We present the first results tempting to link the thin-layer data to the propagation speed of the thermal front in a milli-fluidics adsorption bed, also observed by IR thermography. (authors)

  7. Mid-IR Imaging of Orion BN/KL: Modeling of Physical Conditions and Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezari, Daniel; Varosi, Frank; Dwek, Eli; Danchi, William C.; Tan, Jonathan; Okumura, Shin-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We have modeled two mid-infrared imaging photometry data sets to determine the spatial distribution of physical conditions in the BN/KL (Becklin-Neugebauer / Kleinmann-Low) infrared complex. We observed the BN/KL region using the 10-meter Keck I telescope and the LWS (Living With a Star) in the direct imaging mode, over a 13 inch by 19 inch field . We also modeled images obtained with COMICS (Cooled Mid-Infrared Camera and Spectrometer, Kataza et al. 2000) at the 8.2-meter SUBARU telescope, over a total field of view [which] is 31 inches by 41 inches in a total of nine bands: 7.8, 8.8, 9.7, 10.5, 11.7, 12.4, 18.5, 20.8 and 24.8 microns with 1-micron bandwidth interference filters.

  8. First results from a 1-D imaging spectrometer using Ir TESs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.J.Stephen J. E-mail: sts@star.le.ac.uk; Whitford, Chris; Fraser, George W.; Holland, Andrew D.; Goldie, David; Ashton, Terence J.R.; Limpenny, Robert J.; Stevenson, Tim

    2004-03-11

    We are investigating Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) for future X-ray Astronomy missions. In this paper, we report the first X-ray results from a one-dimensional imaging spectrometer or Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID). The DROID consists of two Iridium TESs with transitions temperatures of {approx}172 mK, at the ends of a 250 {mu}m by 4.7 mm Gold absorber. The event position can be determined from pulse height and rise/fall time information. Initial results were obtained by reading one end of the DROID only.

  9. First results from a 1-D imaging spectrometer using Ir TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.J.Stephen J.; Whitford, Chris; Fraser, George W.; Holland, Andrew D.; Goldie, David; Ashton, Terence J.R.; Limpenny, Robert J.; Stevenson, Tim

    2004-01-01

    We are investigating Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) for future X-ray Astronomy missions. In this paper, we report the first X-ray results from a one-dimensional imaging spectrometer or Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID). The DROID consists of two Iridium TESs with transitions temperatures of ∼172 mK, at the ends of a 250 μm by 4.7 mm Gold absorber. The event position can be determined from pulse height and rise/fall time information. Initial results were obtained by reading one end of the DROID only

  10. High-Resolution Mid-IR Imaging of Jupiter's Great Red Spot: Comparing Cassini, VLT and Subaru Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, G. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Baines, K. H.; Edkins, E.; Line, M. R.; Mousis, O.; Parrish, P. D.; Vanzi, L.; Fuse, T.; Fujoyoshi, T.

    2008-09-01

    In the eight years since the Cassini fly-by of Jupiter, the spatial resolution of ground-based observations of Jupiter's giant anticyclonic storm systems (the Great Red Spot, Oval BA and others) using 8m-class telescopes has surpassed the resolution of the Cassini/CIRS maps. We present a time-series of mid-IR imaging of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and its environs from the VISIR instrument on the Very Large Telescope (UT3/Melipal) and the COMICS instrument on the Subaru telescope (Hawaii). The NEMESIS optimal-estimation retrieval algorithm (Irwin et al., 2008) is used to analyse both the 7-25 micron filtered imaging from 2005-2008 and Cassini/CIRS 7-16 micron data from 2000. We demonstrate the ability to map temperatures in the 100-400 mbar range, NH3, aerosol opacity and the para-H2 fraction from the filtered imaging. Furthermore, the Cassini/CIRS spectra are used to map the PH3 mole fraction around the GRS. The thermal field, gaseous composition and aerosol distribution are used as diagnostics for the atmospheric motion associated with the GRS. Changes in the atmospheric state in response to close encounters with Oval BA and other vortices will be assessed. These results will be discussed in light of their implications for the planning of the Europa-Jupiter System Mission.

  11. Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Bitewing radiography is still considered state-of-the-art diagnostic technology for assessing cavitation within approximal carious dental lesions, even though radiographs cannot resolve cavitated surfaces but instead are used to measure lesion depth in order to predict cavitation. Clinicians need new technologies capable of determining whether approximal carious lesions have become cavitated because not all lesions progress to cavitation. Assessing lesion cavitation from near-infrared (NIR) imaging methods holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel in the NIR region from λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. The objective of this study was to measure the change in lesion appearance between non-cavitated and cavitated lesions in artificially generated lesions using NIR imaging modalities (two-dimensional) at λ=1300-nm and λ=1450-nm and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) (thee-dimensional) λ=1300-nm. Extracted human posterior teeth with sound proximal surfaces were chosen for this study and imaged before and after artificial lesions were made. A high speed dental hand piece was used to create artificial cavitated proximal lesions in sound samples and imaged. The cavitated artificial lesions were then filled with hydroxyapatite powder to simulate non-cavitated proximal lesions.

  12. Near-IR High-Resolution Imaging Polarimetry of the SU Aur Disk: Clues for Tidal Tails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Jerome; Michihiro, Takami; Karr, Jennifer; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sitko, Michael; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    We present new high-resolution (approximately 0.09) H-band imaging observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star SU Aur. Our observations with Subaru-HiCIAO have revealed the presence of scattered light as close as 0.15 (approximately 20 AU) to the star. Within our image, we identify bright emission associated with a disk with a minimum radius of approximately 90 AU, an inclination of approximately 35 deg from the plane of the sky, and an approximate PA of 15 deg for the major axis. We find a brightness asymmetry between the northern and southern sides of the disk due to a non-axisymmetric disk structure. We also identify a pair of asymmetric tail structures extending east and west from the disk. The western tail extends at least 2. 5 (350 AU) from the star, and is probably associated with a reflection nebula previously observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths. The eastern tail extends at least 1 (140 AU) at the present signal-to-noise. These tails are likely due to an encounter with an unseen brown dwarf, but our results do not exclude the explanation that these tails are outflow cavities or jets.

  13. IR Image upconversion using band-limited ASE illumination fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, H; Torregrosa, A J; Capmany, J

    2016-04-18

    We study the field-of-view (FOV) of an upconversion imaging system that employs an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) fiber source to illuminate a transmission target. As an intermediate case between narrowband laser and thermal illumination, an ASE fiber source allows for higher spectral intensity than thermal illumination and still keeps a broad wavelength spectrum to take advantage of an increased non-collinear phase-matching angle acceptance that enlarges the FOV of the upconversion system when compared to using narrowband laser illumination. A model is presented to predict the angular acceptance of the upconverter in terms of focusing and ASE spectral width and allocation. The model is experimentally checked in case of 1550-630 nm upconversion.

  14. Near-IR imaging of thermal changes in enamel during laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, Linn H.; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this work was to observe the various thermal-induced optical changes that occur in the near-infrared (NIR) during drilling in dentin and enamel with the laser and the high-speed dental handpiece. Tooth sections of ~ 3 mm-thickness were prepared from extracted human incisors (N=60). Samples were ablated with a mechanically scanned CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3-μm, a 300-Hz laser pulse repetition rate, and a laser pulse duration of 10-20 μs. An InGaAs imaging camera was used to acquire real-time NIR images at 1300-nm of thermal and mechanical changes (cracks). Enamel was rapidly removed by the CO2 laser without peripheral thermal damage by mechanically scanning the laser beam while a water spray was used to cool the sample. Comparison of the peripheral thermal and mechanical changes produced while cutting with the laser and the high-speed hand-piece suggest that enamel and dentin can be removed at high speed by the CO2 laser without excessive peripheral thermal or mechanical damage. Only 2 of the 15 samples ablated with the laser showed the formation of small cracks while 9 out of 15 samples exhibited crack formation with the dental hand-piece. The first indication of thermal change is a decrease in transparency due to loss of the mobile water from pores in the enamel which increase lightscattering. To test the hypothesis that peripheral thermal changes were caused by loss of mobile water in the enamel, thermal changes were intentionally induced by heating the surface. The mean attenuation coefficient of enamel increased significantly from 2.12 +/- 0.82 to 5.08 +/- 0.98 with loss of mobile water due to heating.

  15. Effects of Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet on atherosclerotic plaque phenotype in ApoE/LDLR-/- mice: FT-IR and Raman imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, T P; Marzec, K M; Chlopicki, S; Maślak, E; Jasztal, A; Franczyk-Żarów, M; Czyżyńska-Cichoń, I; Moszkowski, T; Kostogrys, R B; Baranska, M

    2015-09-22

    Low Carbohydrate High Protein (LCHP) diet displays pro-atherogenic effects, however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here, with the use of vibrational imaging, such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman (RS) spectroscopies, we characterize biochemical content of plaques in Brachiocephalic Arteries (BCA) from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet as compared to control, recomended by American Institute of Nutrition, AIN diet. FT-IR images were taken from 6-10 sections of BCA from each mice and were complemented with RS measurements with higher spatial resolution of chosen areas of plaque sections. In aortic plaques from LCHP fed ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice, the content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters was increased, while that of proteins was decreased as evidenced by global FT-IR analysis. High resolution imaging by RS identified necrotic core/foam cells, lipids (including cholesterol crystals), calcium mineralization and fibrous cap. The decreased relative thickness of the outer fibrous cap and the presence of buried caps were prominent features of the plaques in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed LCHP diet. In conclusion, FT-IR and Raman-based imaging provided a complementary insight into the biochemical composition of the plaque suggesting that LCHP diet increased plaque cholesterol and cholesterol esters contents of atherosclerotic plaque, supporting the cholesterol-driven pathogenesis of LCHP-induced atherogenesis.

  16. High-resolution T1-weighted 3D real IR imaging of the temporal bone using triple-dose contrast material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, 466-8550, Nagoya (Japan); Aoki, Ikuo [Medical System Company, Toshiba Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    The small structures in the temporal bone are surrounded by bone and air. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images acquired by fast spin-echo-based three-dimensional real inversion recovery (3D rIR) against those acquired by gradient echo-based 3D SPGR in the visualization of the enhancement of small structures in the temporal bone, and (b) to determine whether either 3D rIR or 3D SPGR is useful for visualizing enhancement of the cochlear lymph fluid. Seven healthy men (age range 27-46 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All MR imaging was performed using a dedicated bilateral quadrature surface phased-array coil for temporal bone imaging at 1.5 T (Visart EX, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan). The 3D rIR images (TR/TE/TI: 1800 ms/10 ms/500 ms) and flow-compensated 3D SPGR images (TR/TE/FA: 23 ms/10 ms/25 ) were obtained with a reconstructed voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm{sup 3}. Images were acquired before and 1, 90, 180, and 270 min after the administration of triple-dose Gd-DTPA-BMA (0.3 mmol/kg). In post-contrast MR images, the degree of enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct, endolymphatic sac, subarcuate artery, geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve, and cochlear lymph fluid space was assessed by two radiologists. The degree of enhancement was scored as follows: 0 (no enhancement); 1 (slight enhancement); 2 (intermediate between 1 and 3); and 3 (enhancement similar to that of vessels). Enhancement scores for the endolymphatic sac, subarcuate artery, and geniculate ganglion were higher in 3D rIR than in 3D SPGR. Washout of enhancement in the endolymphatic sac appeared to be delayed compared with that in the subarcuate artery, suggesting that the enhancement in the endolymphatic sac may have been due in part to non-vascular tissue enhancement. Enhancement of the cochlear lymph space was not observed in any of the subjects in 3D rIR and 3D SPGR. The 3D rIR sequence may be more sensitive than the 3D SPGR sequence in

  17. Effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution and multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodent brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanckaert, P.; Burvenich, I.; Bruyne, S. de; Moerman, L.; Wyffels, L.; Vos, F. de [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Gent (Belgium); Staelens, S. [Ghent University - IBBT, MEDISIP, Faculty of Engineering, Gent (Belgium)

    2009-03-15

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an efflux protein found amongst other locations in the blood-brain barrier. It is important to investigate the effect of Pgp modulation on clinically used brain tracers, because brain uptake of the tracer can be altered by blocking of the Pgp efflux transporter. The function of Pgp can be blocked with cyclosporin A. We investigated the effect of cyclosporin A administration on the biodistribution of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in rodents, and the effect of Pgp blocking on the quality of multipinhole {mu}SPECT imaging with [{sup 123}I]R91150. The influence of increasing doses of cyclosporin A on the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 was investigated in NMRI mice. A biodistribution study with [{sup 123}I]R91150 was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats pretreated with cyclosporin A and not pretreated. Brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 after cyclosporin A injection was compared to the brain uptake in untreated animals, and a displacement study with ketanserin was performed in both groups. A multipinhole {mu}SPECT brain imaging study was also performed using a Milabs U-SPECT-II camera in male Sprague-Dawley rats. To exclude the effect of possible metabolites, a metabolite study was also performed. At the highest cyclosporin A dose (50 mg/kg), a sevenfold increase in brain radioactivity concentration was observed in NMRI mice. Also, a dose-response relationship was established between the dose of cyclosporin A and the brain uptake of [{sup 123}I]R91150 in mice. Compared to the control group, a five-fold increase in [{sup 123}I]R91150 radioactivity concentration was observed in the brain of Sprague-Dawley rats after cyclosporin A treatment (50 mg/kg). Radioactivity concentration in the frontal cortex increased from 0.24{+-}0.0092 to 1.58{+-}0.097% injected dose per gram of tissue after treatment with cyclosporin A (at the 1-h time-point). Blood radioactivity concentrations did not increase to the same extent. The cortical activity was displaced by

  18. Direct imaging of thermally-activated grain-boundary diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange-bias structures using atom-probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letellier, F.; Lardé, R.; Le Breton, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.lebreton@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Lechevallier, L. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Département de GEII, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Auffret, S.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-28

    Magnetic devices are often subject to thermal processing steps, such as field cooling to set exchange bias and annealing to crystallize amorphous magnetic electrodes. These processing steps may result in interdiffusion and the subsequent deterioration of magnetic properties. In this study, we investigated thermally-activated diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange biased polycrystalline thin-film structures using atom probe tomography. Images taken after annealing at 400 °C for 60 min revealed Mn diffusion into Co grains at the Co/IrMn interface and along Pt grain boundaries for the IrMn/Pt stack, i.e., a Harrison type C regime. Annealing at 500 °C showed further Mn diffusion into Co grains. At the IrMn/Pt interface, annealing at 500 °C led to a type B behavior since Mn diffusion was detected both along Pt grain boundaries and also into Pt grains. The deterioration of the films' exchange bias properties upon annealing was correlated to the observed diffusion. In particular, the topmost Pt capping layer thickness turned out to be crucial since a faster deterioration of the exchange bias properties for thicker caps was observed. This is consistent with the idea that Pt acts as a getter for Mn, drawing Mn out of the IrMn layer.

  19. SWUIS-A: A Versatile, Low-Cost UV/VIS/IR Imaging System for Airborne Astronomy and Aeronomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durda, Daniel D.; Stern, S. Alan; Tomlinson, William; Slater, David C.; Vilas, Faith

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and successfully flight-tested on 14 different airborne missions the hardware and techniques for routinely conducting valuable astronomical and aeronomical observations from high-performance, two-seater military-type aircraft. The SWUIS-A (Southwest Universal Imaging System - Airborne) system consists of an image-intensified CCD camera with broad band response from the near-UV to the near IR, high-quality foreoptics, a miniaturized video recorder, an aircraft-to-camera power and telemetry interface with associated camera controls, and associated cables, filters, and other minor equipment. SWUIS-A's suite of high-quality foreoptics gives it selectable, variable focal length/variable field-of-view capabilities. The SWUIS-A camera frames at 60 Hz video rates, which is a key requirement for both jitter compensation and high time resolution (useful for occultation, lightning, and auroral studies). Broadband SWUIS-A image coadds can exceed a limiting magnitude of V = 10.5 in <1 sec with dark sky conditions. A valuable attribute of SWUIS-A airborne observations is the fact that the astronomer flies with the instrument, thereby providing Space Shuttle-like "payload specialist" capability to "close-the-loop" in real-time on the research done on each research mission. Key advantages of the small, high-performance aircraft on which we can fly SWUIS-A include significant cost savings over larger, more conventional airborne platforms, worldwide basing obviating the need for expensive, campaign-style movement of specialized large aircraft and their logistics support teams, and ultimately faster reaction times to transient events. Compared to ground-based instruments, airborne research platforms offer superior atmospheric transmission, the mobility to reach remote and often-times otherwise unreachable locations over the Earth, and virtually-guaranteed good weather for observing the sky. Compared to space-based instruments, airborne platforms typically offer

  20. Influence of Desorption Conditions on Analyte Sensitivity and Internal Energy in Discrete Tissue or Whole Body Imaging by IR-MALDESI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elias P.; Bokhart, Mark T.; Ghashghaei, H. Troy; Muddiman, David C.

    2015-06-01

    Analyte signal in a laser desorption/postionization scheme such as infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) is strongly coupled to the degree of overlap between the desorbed plume of neutral material from a sample and an orthogonal electrospray. In this work, we systematically examine the effect of desorption conditions on IR-MALDESI response to pharmaceutical drugs and endogenous lipids in biological tissue using a design of experiments approach. Optimized desorption conditions have then been used to conduct an untargeted lipidomic analysis of whole body sagittal sections of neonate mouse. IR-MALDESI response to a wide range of lipid classes has been demonstrated, with enhanced lipid coverage received by varying the laser wavelength used for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Targeted MS2 imaging (MS2I) of an analyte, cocaine, deposited beneath whole body sections allowed determination of tissue-specific ion response factors, and CID fragments of cocaine were monitored to comment on wavelength-dependent internal energy deposition based on the "survival yield" method.

  1. Quantification of plaque area and characterization of plaque biochemical composition with atherosclerosis progression in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice by FT-IR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Tomasz P; Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Kostogrys, Renata B; Chlopicki, Stefan; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2013-11-07

    In this work the quantitative determination of atherosclerotic lesion area (ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice) by FT-IR imaging is presented and validated by comparison with atherosclerotic lesion area determination by classic Oil Red O staining. Cluster analysis of FT-IR-based measurements in the 2800-3025 cm(-1) range allowed for quantitative analysis of the atherosclerosis plaque area, the results of which were highly correlated with those of Oil Red O histological staining (R(2) = 0.935). Moreover, a specific class obtained from a second cluster analysis of the aortic cross-section samples at different stages of disease progression (3, 4 and 6 months old) seemed to represent the macrophages (CD68) area within the atherosclerotic plaque.

  2. Design and Calibration of a Dispersive Imaging Spectrometer Adaptor for a Fast IR Camera on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reksoatmodjo, Richard; Gray, Travis; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2017-10-01

    A dispersive spectrometer adaptor was designed, constructed and calibrated for use on a fast infrared camera employed to measure temperatures on the lower divertor tiles of the NSTX-U tokamak. This adaptor efficiently and evenly filters and distributes long-wavelength infrared photons between 8.0 and 12.0 microns across the 128x128 pixel detector of the fast IR camera. By determining the width of these separated wavelength bands across the camera detector, and then determining the corresponding average photon count for each photon wavelength, a very accurate measurement of the temperature, and thus heat flux, of the divertor tiles can be calculated using Plank's law. This approach of designing an exterior dispersive adaptor for the fast IR camera allows accurate temperature measurements to be made of materials with unknown emissivity. Further, the relative simplicity and affordability of this adaptor design provides an attractive option over more expensive, slower, dispersive IR camera systems. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. DIRECT IMAGING OF A COMPACT MOLECULAR OUTFLOW FROM A VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECT: L1521F-IRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Ohashi, Nagayoshi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bourke, Tyler L., E-mail: satoko.takahashi@nao.ac.jp [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Studying the physical conditions of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub bol} < 0.1 L{sub Sun }) is important for understanding the earliest evolutionary stage of protostars and brown dwarfs. We report interferometric observations of the VeLLO L1521F-IRS, in {sup 12}CO (2-1) line emission and the 1.3 mm continuum emission, using the Submillimeter Array. With the {sup 12}CO (2-1) high-resolution observations, we have spatially resolved a compact but poorly collimated molecular outflow associated with L1521F-IRS for the first time. The blueshifted and redshifted lobes are aligned along the east and west side of L1521F-IRS with a lobe size of Almost-Equal-To 1000 AU. The estimated outflow mass, maximum outflow velocity, and outflow force are (9.0-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }, 7.2 km s{sup -1}, and (7.4-66) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively. The estimated outflow parameters such as size, mass, and momentum rate are similar to values derived for other VeLLOs, and are located at the lower end of values compared to previously studied outflows associated with low- to high-mass star-forming regions. Low-velocity less collimated (1.5 km s{sup -1}/1200 AU) and higher-velocity compact (4.0 km s{sup -1}/920 AU) outflow components are suggested by the data. These velocity structures are not consistent with those expected in the jet-driven or wind-driven outflow models, perhaps suggesting a remnant outflow from the first hydrostatic core as well as an undeveloped outflow from the protostar. Detection of an infrared source and compact millimeter continuum emission suggests the presence of the protostar, while its low bolometric luminosity (0.034-0.07 L{sub Sun }) and small outflow suggests that L1521F is in the earliest protostellar stage (<10{sup 4} yr) and contains a substellar mass object. The bolometric (or internal) luminosity of L1521F-IRS suggests that the current mass accretion rate is an order of

  4. MR imaging of the bone marrow using short TI IR, 1. Normal and pathological intensity distribution of the bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaka, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Mikiko; Tomioka, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Kanako; Sato, Noriko; Nagai, Teruo; Heshiki, Atsuko; Amanuma, Makoto; Mizuno, Hitomi.

    1989-02-01

    Normal vertebral bone marrow intensity distribution and its alteration in various anemias were evaluated on short TI IR sequences. Material consists of 73 individuals, 48 normals and 25 anemic patients excluding neoplastic conditions. All normal and reactive hypercellular bone marrow revealed characteristic intensity distribution; marginal high intensity and central low intensity, corresponding well to normal distribution of red and yellow marrows and their physiological or reactive conversion between red and yellow marrows. Aplastic anemia did not reveal normal intensity distribution, presumably due to autonomous condition.

  5. GTC/CanariCam Mid-IR Imaging of the Fullerene-rich Planetary Nebula IC 418: Searching for the Spatial Distribution of Fullerene-like Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Luis, J. J.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.; García-Lario, P.; Villaver, E.; García-Segura, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present seeing-limited narrow-band mid-IR GTC/CanariCam images of the spatially extended fullerene-containing planetary nebula (PN) IC 418. The narrow-band images cover the C60 fullerene band at 17.4 μm, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon like (PAH-like) feature at 11.3 μm, the broad 9–13 μm feature, and their adjacent continua at 9.8 and 20.5 μm. We study the relative spatial distribution of these complex species, all detected in the Spitzer and Infrared Space Observatory spectra of IC 418, with the aim of getting observational constraints to the formation process of fullerenes in H-rich circumstellar environments. A similar ring-like extended structure is seen in all narrow-band filters, except in the dust continuum emission at 9.8 μm, which peaks closer to the central star. The continuum-subtracted images display a clear ring-like extended structure for the carrier of the broad 9–13 μm emission, while the spatial distribution of the (PAH-like) 11.3 μm emission is not so well defined. Interestingly, a residual C60 17.4 μm emission (at about 4σ from the sky background) is seen when subtracting the dust continuum emission at 20.5 μm. This residual C60 emission, if real, might have several interpretations, the most exciting being perhaps that other fullerene-based species like hydrogenated fullerenes with very low H-content may contribute to the observed 17.4 μm emission. We conclude that higher sensitivity mid-IR images and spatially resolved spectroscopic observations (especially in the Q-band) are necessary to get some clues about fullerene formation in PNe.

  6. Correcting the effect of refraction and dispersion of light in FT-IR spectroscopic imaging in transmission through thick infrared windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2013-01-15

    Transmission mode is one of the most common sampling methods for FT-IR spectroscopic imaging because the spectra obtained generally have a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. However, dispersion and refraction of infrared light occurs when samples are sandwiched between infrared windows or placed underneath a layer of liquid. Dispersion and refraction cause infrared light to focus with different focal lengths depending on the wavelength (wavenumber) of the light. As a result, images obtained are in focus only at a particular wavenumber while they are defocused at other wavenumber values. In this work, a solution to correct this spread of focus by means of adding a lens on top of the infrared transparent window, such that a pseudo hemisphere is formed, has been investigated. Through this lens (or pseudo hemisphere), refraction of light is removed and the light across the spectral range has the same focal depth. Furthermore, the lens acts as a solid immersion objective and an increase of both magnification and spatial resolution (by 1.4 times) is demonstrated. The spatial resolution was investigated using an USAF resolution target, showing that the Rayleigh criterion can be achieved, as well as a sample with a sharp polymer interface to indicate the spatial resolution that can be expected in real samples. The reported approach was used to obtain chemical images of cross sections of cancer tissue and hair samples sandwiched between infrared windows showing the versatility and applicability of the method. In addition to the improved spatial resolution, the results reported herein also demonstrate that the lens can reduce the effect of scattering near the edges of tissue samples. The advantages of the presented approach, obtaining FT-IR spectroscopic images in transmission mode with the same focus across all wavenumber values and simultaneous improvement in spatial resolution, will have wide implications ranging from studies of live cells to sorption of drugs into tissues.

  7. Multi- and hyperspectral remote sensing change detection with generalized difference images by the IR-MAD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Canty, Morton J.

    2005-01-01

    -based method for determining thresholds for differentiating between change and no-change in the difference images, and for estimating the variance of the no-change observations. This variance is used to establish a single change/no-change image based on the general multivariate difference image. The resulting....../no-change image can be used to establish both change regions and to extract observations based on which a fully automated orthogonal regression analysis based normalization of the multivariate data between the two points in time can be developed. Also, regularization issues typically important in connection...

  8. Motion-insensitive carotid intraplaque hemorrhage imaging using 3D inversion recovery preparation stack of stars (IR-prep SOS) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Roberts, John A; Eisenmenger, Laura B; Aldred, Booth W; Jamil, Osama; Bolster, Bradley D; Bi, Xiaoming; Parker, Dennis L; Treiman, Gerald S; McNally, J Scott

    2017-02-01

    Carotid artery imaging is important in the clinical management of patients at risk for stroke. Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) presents an important diagnostic challenge. 3D magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (MPRAGE) has been shown to accurately image carotid IPH; however, this sequence can be limited due to motion- and flow-related artifact. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate an improved 3D carotid MPRAGE sequence for IPH detection. We hypothesized that a radial-based k-space trajectory sequence such as "Stack of Stars" (SOS) incorporated with inversion recovery preparation would offer reduced motion sensitivity and more robust flow suppression by oversampling of central k-space. A total of 31 patients with carotid disease (62 carotid arteries) were imaged at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with 3D IR-prep Cartesian and SOS sequences. Image quality was determined between SOS and Cartesian MPRAGE in 62 carotid arteries using t-tests and multivariable linear regression. Kappa analysis was used to determine interrater reliability. In all, 25 among 62 carotid plaques had carotid IPH by consensus from the reviewers on SOS compared to 24 on Cartesian sequence. Image quality was significantly higher with SOS compared to Cartesian (mean 3.74 vs. 3.11, P SOS acquisition yielded sharper image features with less motion (19.4% vs. 45.2%, P SOS (kappa = 0.89), higher than that of Cartesian (kappa = 0.84). By minimizing flow and motion artifacts and retaining high interrater reliability, the SOS MPRAGE has important advantages over Cartesian MPRAGE in carotid IPH detection. 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:410-417. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Reduction of vascular artifact on T1-weighted images of the brain by using three-dimensional double IR fast spoiled gradient echo recalled acquisition in the steady state (FSPGR) at 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Isao; Ookoshi, Yusuke; Ootani, Yuriko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kimura, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to decrease vascular artifacts caused by the in-flow effect in three-dimensional inversion recovery prepared fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D IR FSPGR) at 3.0 Tesla. We developed 3D double IR FSPGR and investigated the signal characteristics of the new sequence. The 3D double IR FSPGR sequence uses two inversion pulses, the first for obtaining tissue contrast and the second for nulling vascular signal, which is applied at the time of the first IR period at the neck region. We have optimized scan parameters based on both phantom and in-vivo study. As a result, optimized parameters (1st TI=700 ms, 2nd TI=400 ms) successfully have produced much less vessel signal at reduction than conventional 3D IR FSPGR over a wide imaging range, while preserving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and gray/white matter contrast. Moreover, the decreased artifact was also confirmed by visual inspection of the images obtained in vivo using those parameters. Thus, 3D double IR FSPGR was a useful sequence for the acquisition of T1-weighted images at 3.0 Tesla. (author)

  10. Imaging of lipids in atherosclerotic lesion in aorta from ApoE/LDLR-/- mice by FT-IR spectroscopy and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Wrobel, Tomasz; Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Chlopicki, Stefan; Malek, Kamilla; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2011-12-21

    Spectroscopy-based approaches can provide an insight into the biochemical composition of a tissue sample. In the present work Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to develop a reliable methodology to study the content of free fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesteryl esters as well as cholesterol in aorta from mice with atherosclerosis (ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice). In particular, distribution and concentration of palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid derivatives were analyzed. Spectral analysis of pure compounds allowed for clear discrimination between free fatty acids and other similar moieties based on the carbonyl band position (1699-1710 cm(-1) range). In order to distinguish cholesteryl esters from triglycerides a ratio of carbonyl band to signal at 1010 cm(-1) was used. Imaging of lipids in atherosclerotic aortic lesions in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice was followed by Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). The aorta from C57Bl/6J control mice (fed with chow diet) was used for comparison. The measurements were completed with an FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a 128 × 128 FPA detector. In cross-section of aorta from ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice a region of atherosclerotic plaque was clearly identified by HCA, which was later divided into 2 sub-regions, one characterized by the higher content of cholesterol, while the other by higher contents of cholesteryl esters. HCA of tissues deposited on normal microscopic glass, hence limited to the 2200-3800 cm(-1) spectral range, also identified a region of atherosclerotic plaque. Importantly, this region correlates with the area stained by standard histological staining for atherosclerotic plaque (Oil Red O). In conclusion, the use of FT-IR and HCA may provide a novel tool for qualitative and quantitative analysis of contents and distribution of lipids in atherosclerotic plaque.

  11. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  12. Experimental determination of the radial dose distribution in high gradient regions around 192Ir wires: Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging, films, and Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbun, N.; Leveque, Ph.; Abboud, F.; Bol, A.; Vynckier, S.; Gallez, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The experimental determination of doses at proximal distances from radioactive sources is difficult because of the steepness of the dose gradient. The goal of this study was to determine the relative radial dose distribution for a low dose rate 192 Ir wire source using electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) and to compare the results to those obtained using Gafchromic EBT film dosimetry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Lithium formate and ammonium formate were chosen as the EPR dosimetric materials and were used to form cylindrical phantoms. The dose distribution of the stable radiation-induced free radicals in the lithium formate and ammonium formate phantoms was assessed by EPRI. EBT films were also inserted inside in ammonium formate phantoms for comparison. MC simulation was performed using the MCNP4C2 software code. Results: The radical signal in irradiated ammonium formate is contained in a single narrow EPR line, with an EPR peak-to-peak linewidth narrower than that of lithium formate (∼0.64 and 1.4 mT, respectively). The spatial resolution of EPR images was enhanced by a factor of 2.3 using ammonium formate compared to lithium formate because its linewidth is about 0.75 mT narrower than that of lithium formate. The EPRI results were consistent to within 1% with those of Gafchromic EBT films and MC simulations at distances from 1.0 to 2.9 mm. The radial dose values obtained by EPRI were about 4% lower at distances from 2.9 to 4.0 mm than those determined by MC simulation and EBT film dosimetry. Conclusions: Ammonium formate is a suitable material under certain conditions for use in brachytherapy dosimetry using EPRI. In this study, the authors demonstrated that the EPRI technique allows the estimation of the relative radial dose distribution at short distances for a 192 Ir wire source.

  13. Design and high-volume manufacture of low-cost molded IR aspheres for personal thermal imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, A. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Deegan, J. P.; Bundschuh, B.; Patton, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for infrared optical elements, particularly those made of chalcogenide materials, is rapidly increasing as thermal imaging becomes affordable to the consumer. The use of these materials in conjunction with established lens manufacturing techniques presents unique challenges relative to the cost sensitive nature of this new market. We explore the process from design to manufacture, and discuss the technical challenges involved. Additionally, facets of the development process including manufacturing logistics, packaging, supply chain management, and qualification are discussed.

  14. High Resolution Near-IR Imaging of VY Canis Majoris with LBT / LMIRCam (2 - 5 μm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Dinesh; Jones, T. J.; Humphreys, R. M.; LMIRCam Instrument Team

    2013-06-01

    HST imaging of the famous red hypergiant VY Canis Majoris shows a complex circumstellar reflection nebula indicative of multiple asymmetric ejection episodes. Constructing a more complete picture of the mass loss mechanism compels extending high resolution imaging of massive stars such as VY CMa into the near-infrared, where the mechanism for emission from circumstellar ejecta transitions from scattering to thermal. We present LBT/LMIRCam observations of VY CMa at Ks (2.2 μm), L' (3.8 μm) and M (4.9 μm) at sub-arcsecond resolution, comparable to the HST in the optical. The peculiar Southwest (SW) Clump, first identified as a highly reddened feature seen only at the longest wavelength (1 μm) in the HST images, appears bright in the three LMIRCam filters. The SW Clump is found to be optically thick at all three wavelengths. A silicate grain model yields a lower limit mass on the order of 7E-4 M⊙

  15. A Robust 96.6-dB-SNDR 50-kHz-Bandwidth Switched-Capacitor Delta-Sigma Modulator for IR Imagers in Space Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dei, Michele; Sutula, Stepan; Cisneros, Jose; Pun, Ernesto; Jansen, Richard Jan Engel; Terés, Lluís; Serra-Graells, Francisco

    2017-06-02

    Infrared imaging technology, used both to study deep-space bodies' radiation and environmental changes on Earth, experienced constant improvements in the last few years, pushing data converter designers to face new challenges in terms of speed, power consumption and robustness against extremely harsh operating conditions. This paper presents a 96.6-dB-SNDR (Signal-to-Noise-plus-Distortion Ratio) 50-kHz-bandwidth fourth-order single-bit switched-capacitor delta-sigma modulator for ADC operating at 1.8 V and consuming 7.9 mW fit for space instrumentation. The circuit features novel Class-AB single-stage switched variable-mirror amplifiers (SVMAs) enabling low-power operation, as well as low sensitivity to both process and temperature deviations for the whole modulator. The physical implementation resulted in a 1.8-mm 2 chip integrated in a standard 0.18-µm 1-poly-6-metal (1P6M) CMOS technology, and it reaches a 164.6-dB Schreier figure of merit from experimental SNDR measurements without making use of any clock bootstrapping,analogcalibration,nordigitalcompensationtechnique. Whencoupledtoa2048×2048 IR imager, the current design allows more than 50 frames per minute with a resolution of 16 effective number of bits (ENOB) while consuming less than 300 mW.

  16. High-repetition-rate setup for pump-probe time-resolved XUV-IR experiments employing ion and electron momentum imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Robatjazi, Seyyed Javad; Wright Lee, Pearson; Raju Pandiri, Kanaka; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem

    2017-04-01

    J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan KS, USA We report on the development of a versatile experimental setup for XUV-IR pump-probe experiments using a 10 kHz high-harmonic generation (HHG) source and two different charged-particle momentum imaging spectrometers. The HHG source, based on a commercial KM Labs eXtreme Ultraviolet Ultrafast Source, is capable of delivering XUV radiation of less than 30 fs pulse duration in the photon energy range of 17 eV to 100 eV. It can be coupled either to a conventional velocity map imaging (VMI) setup with an atomic, molecular, or nanoparticle target; or to a novel double-sided VMI spectrometer equipped with two delay-line detectors for coincidence studies. An overview of the setup and results of first pump-probe experiments including studies of two-color double ionization of Xe and time-resolved dynamics of photoionized CO2 molecule will be presented. This project is supported in part by National Science Foundation (NSF-EPSCOR) Award No. IIA-1430493 and in part by the Chemical science, Geosciences, and Bio-Science division, Office of Basic Energy Science, Office of science, U.S. Department of Energy. K.

  17. Deep VLA images of the HH 124 IRS radio cluster and its surroundings, and a new determination of the distance to NGC 2264

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzib, Sergio A. [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf del Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Loinard, Laurent; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Galli, Phillip, E-mail: sdzib@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-06-20

    We present new deep (σ ∼ 6 μJy) radio images of the HH 124 IRS radio cluster at 4.8 and 7.5 GHz. We detect a total of 50 radio sources, most of them compact. Variability and spectral indices were analyzed in order to determine the nature of the sources and of their radio emission. A proper motion study was also performed for several of these radio sources using previously reported radio observations. Our analysis shows that 11 radio sources can be associated with Galactic objects, most of them probably young stars. Interestingly, 8 of these sources are in an area less than 1 arcmin{sup 2} in size. The importance of such compact clusters resides in that all of its members can be observed in a single pointing with most telescopes and are, therefore, ideal for multi-wavelength studies of variability. Another 4 of the detected sources are clearly extragalactic. Finally, we propose from statistical arguments that out of the remaining sources, about 10 are Galactic, but our study does not allow us to identify which of the sources fall in that specific category. The relatively large proper motions observed for the sources in HH 124 IRS suggest that this region is located at about 400 pc from the Sun. This is significantly smaller than the ∼800-900 pc distance usually assigned to the nearby open cluster NGC 2264 with which HH 124 is thought to be associated. However, a reanalysis of the Hipparcos parallaxes for members of NGC 2264, a convergent point approach, and a kinematic analysis all argue in favor of a distance of the order of 400 pc for NGC 2264 as well.

  18. Back-illuminated, fully-depleted CCD image sensors for use in optical and near-IR astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Groom, D E; Levi, M E; Palaio, N P; Perlmutter, S; Stover, R J; Wei, M

    2000-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) of novel design have been fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and the first large-format science-grade chips for astronomical imaging are now being characterized at Lick Observatory. They are made on 300-mu m thick n-type high-resistivity (approx 10 000 OMEGA cm) silicon wafers, using a technology developed at LBNL to fabricate low-leakage silicon microstrip detectors for high-energy physics. A bias voltage applied via a transparent contact on the back side fully depletes the substrate, making the entire volume photosensitive and ensuring that charge reaches the potential wells with minimal lateral diffusion. The development of a thin, transparent back-side contact compatible with fully depleted operation permits blue response comparable to that obtained with thinned CCDs. Since the entire region is active, high quantum efficiency is maintained to nearly lambda=1000 nm, above which the silicon band gap effectively truncates photoproduction. Early character...

  19. Investigating the Capability of IRS-P6-LISS IV Satellite Image for Pistachio Forests Density Mapping (case Study: Northeast of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, F.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Zargham, N.

    2012-07-01

    In order to investigate the capability of satellite images for Pistachio forests density mapping, IRS-P6-LISS IV data were analyzed in an area of 500 ha in Iran. After geometric correction, suitable training areas were determined based on fieldwork. Suitable spectral transformations like NDVI, PVI and PCA were performed. A ground truth map included of 34 plots (each plot 1 ha) were prepared. Hard and soft supervised classifications were performed with 5 density classes (0-5%, 5-10%, 10-15%, 15-20% and > 20%). Because of low separability of classes, some classes were merged and classifications were repeated with 3 classes. Finally, the highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 70% and 0.44, respectively, were obtained with three classes (0-5%, 5-20%, and > 20%) by fuzzy classifier. Considering the low kappa value obtained, it could be concluded that the result of the classification was not desirable. Therefore, this approach is not appropriate for operational mapping of these valuable Pistachio forests.

  20. Mapping of sugarcane crop area in the Paraná State using Landsat/TM/OLI and IRS/LISS-3 images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Cechim Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The knowledge on reliable estimates of areas under sugarcane cultivation is essential for the Brazilian agribusiness, since it helps in the development of public policies, in determining prices by sugar mills to producers and allows establishing the logistics of production disposal. The objective of this work was to develop a methodology for mapping the sugarcane crop area in the state of Paraná, Brazil, using images from the Landsat/TM/OLI and IRS/LISS-3 satellites, for the crop years from 2010/2011 to 2013/2014. The mappings were conducted through the supervised Maximum likelihood classification (Maxver achieving, on average, an overall accuracy of 94.13% and kappa index of 0.82. The correlation with the official data of the IBGE ranged from moderate to strong (0.64 ≤ rs ≤ 0.80 with average agreement (dr of 0.81. There was an increase of 2.73% (18,630 ha in the area with sugarcane in Paraná between 2010/2011 and 2013/2014.

  1. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging. A clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, F.G.; Koerner, M.; Scherr, M.K.; Geyer, L.L.; Deak, Z.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, +1: superior, +2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. (orig.)

  2. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging. A clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, F.G.; Koerner, M.; Scherr, M.K.; Geyer, L.L.; Deak, Z.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2012-03-15

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, +1: superior, +2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 {+-} 5.5 to 12.2 {+-} 4.7 mGy (p < 0.001). The ICC was 0.861. The total image quality of the dose-reduced ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. (orig.)

  3. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging: a clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, F G; Körner, M; Scherr, M K; Geyer, L L; Deak, Z; Linsenmaier, U; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2012-03-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (- 2: diagnostically inferior, - 1: inferior, 0: equal, + 1: superior, + 2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Performance evaluation of a direct-conversion flat-panel detector system in imaging and quality assurance for a high-dose-rate 192Ir source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Hara, Yuki; Nakashima, Hiroto; Nishimura, Tomonori; Itakura, Kanae; Inomata, Taisuke; Kitagaki, Hajime

    2018-03-01

    In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a direct-conversion flat-panel detector (d-FPD) clearly depicts a 192Ir source without image halation, even under the emission of high-energy gamma rays. However, it was unknown why iridium is visible when using a d-FPD. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reasons for visibility of the source core based on physical imaging characteristics, including the modulation transfer functions (MTF), noise power spectral (NPS), contrast transfer functions, and linearity of d-FPD to high-energy gamma rays. The acquired data included: x-rays, [X]; gamma rays, [γ] dual rays (X  +  γ), [D], and subtracted data for depicting the source ([D]  -  [γ]). In the quality assurance (QA) test for the positional accuracy of a source core, the coordinates of each dwelling point were compared between the planned and actual source core positions using a CT/MR-compatible ovoid applicator and a Fletcher-Williamson applicator. The profile curves of [X] and ([D]  -  [γ]) matched well on MTF and NPS. The contrast resolutions of [D] and [X] were equivalent. A strongly positive linear correlation was found between the output data of [γ] and source strength (r 2  >  0.99). With regard to the accuracy of the source core position, the largest coordinate difference (3D distance) was noted at the maximum curvature of the CT/MR-compatible ovoid and Fletcher-Williamson applicators, showing 1.74  ±  0.02 mm and 1.01  ±  0.01 mm, respectively. A d-FPD system provides high-quality images of a source, even when high-energy gamma rays are emitted to the detector, and positional accuracy tests with clinical applicators are useful in identifying source positions (source movements) within the applicator for QA.

  5. 5-HT2A receptor SPECT imaging with [123I]R91150 under P-gp inhibition with tariquidar: More is better?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsartsalis, Stergios; Tournier, Benjamin B.; Huynh-Gatz, Trinh; Dumas, Noé; Ginovart, Nathalie; Moulin-Sallanon, Marcelle; Millet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pharmacological P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition with tariquidar (TQD) is considered a promising strategy for the augmentation of radiotracer brain uptake. However, a region-dependent effect may compromise the robustness of quantitative studies. For this reason, we studied the effect of a TQD pretreatment on 5-HT2A imaging with [ 123 I]R91150 and compared results with those obtained in Mdr1a knock-out (KO) rats. Methods: Ex vivo autoradiography was performed in TQD (15 mg/kg) pretreated wild-type (WT-TQD), Mdr1a knock-out (KO) and untreated WT rats for Specific Binding Ratio (SBR) estimation. In vivo dynamic SPECT imaging with serial arterial blood sampling was performed in the former two groups of rats and kinetic analysis was performed with a one tissue-compartment (1TC) model and the Specific Uptake Ratio (SUR). Results were analyzed statistically using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: SBR values differed between WT-TQD, Mdr1a KO and WT rats in a region-dependent manner (p < 0.0001). In vivo brain uptake of radiotracer did not differ between groups. Similarly, kinetic analysis provided distribution volume (V T ) values that did not differ significantly between groups. SUR binding potential (BP ND ) values from both groups highly correlated with corresponding V T (r = 0.970, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.962, p < 0.0001, respectively). However, SUR measured over averaged images between 100 and 120 min, using cerebellum as reference region, demonstrated values that were, by average, 2.99 ± 0.53 times higher in the WT-TQD group, with the difference between groups being region-dependent (p < 0.001). In addition, coefficient of variation of the SUR BP ND values across brain regions was significantly higher in the WT-TQD rats (41.25% ± 9.63% versus 11.13% ± 5.59%, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: P-gp inhibition with TQD leads to region-dependent effect in the rat brain, with probably sub-optimal effect in cerebellum. This warrants attention when it is used as a

  6. Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac imaging on a 3T scanner with parallel RF transmission technique: prospective comparison of 3D-PSIR and 3D-IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Anthony; Caspar, Thibault; Schaeffer, Mickael; Labani, Aissam; Jeung, Mi-Young; El Ghannudi, Soraya; Roy, Catherine; Ohana, Mickael

    2016-01-01

    To qualitatively and quantitatively compare different late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences acquired at 3T with a parallel RF transmission technique. One hundred and sixty participants prospectively enrolled underwent a 3T cardiac MRI with 3 different LGE sequences: 3D Phase-Sensitive Inversion-Recovery (3D-PSIR) acquired 5 minutes after injection, 3D Inversion-Recovery (3D-IR) at 9 minutes and 3D-PSIR at 13 minutes. All LGE-positive patients were qualitatively evaluated both independently and blindly by two radiologists using a 4-level scale, and quantitatively assessed with measurement of contrast-to-noise ratio and LGE maximal surface. Statistical analyses were calculated under a Bayesian paradigm using MCMC methods. Fifty patients (70 % men, 56yo ± 19) exhibited LGE (62 % were post-ischemic, 30 % related to cardiomyopathy and 8 % post-myocarditis). Early and late 3D-PSIR were superior to 3D-IR sequences (global quality, estimated coefficient IR > early-PSIR: -2.37 CI = [-3.46; -1.38], prob(coef > 0) = 0 % and late-PSIR > IR: 3.12 CI = [0.62; 4.41], prob(coef > 0) = 100 %), LGE surface estimated coefficient IR > early-PSIR: -0.09 CI = [-1.11; -0.74], prob(coef > 0) = 0 % and late-PSIR > IR: 0.96 CI = [0.77; 1.15], prob(coef > 0) = 100 %. Probabilities for late PSIR being superior to early PSIR concerning global quality and CNR were over 90 %, regardless of the aetiological subgroup. In 3T cardiac MRI acquired with parallel RF transmission technique, 3D-PSIR is qualitatively and quantitatively superior to 3D-IR. (orig.)

  7. Climatic potential productivity and an IRS-1CWiFS image in Natural Park Los Alcornocales. Relationship with the standing forest biomass; Productividad Potencial Climatica y una imagen IRS-1CWiFS en el Parque Natural Los Alcornocales. Relacion con la biomasa forestal real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, J. M.; Gonzalez-Alonso, F.; Roldan, A.; Huesca, M.

    2009-07-01

    It is studied the use of the Map of Forest Potential Productivity of Spain as information in base to which classify an Indian IRS-1C WiFS satellite image in Los Alcornocales Natural Park (Andalucia, Spain), a large forest area covered by natural forests of Mediterranean broad-leaved species, mainly cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Grouping the classes of climatic potential productivity of this map were obtained three macro classes that resulted significantly different among them at the 99% confidence level for the visible and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the WiFS image. It was built a classifier using these macro classes of climatic potential productivity as ground truth areas. By maximum likelihood supervised classification of the NDVI were obtained classes who resulted significantly different among them at the 90% confidence level for the basal area from the Second Spanish National Forest Inventory ground plots located in the park. (Author) 60 refs.

  8. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) Imaging of Cerebral Ischemia: Combined Analysis of Rat Brain Thin Cuts Toward Improved Tissue Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbekova, Anna; Lohninger, Hans; van Tilborg, Geralda A F; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Bonta, Maximilian; Limbeck, Andreas; Lendl, Bernhard; Al-Saad, Khalid A; Ali, Mohamed; Celikic, Minja; Ofner, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    Microspectroscopic techniques are widely used to complement histological studies. Due to recent developments in the field of chemical imaging, combined chemical analysis has become attractive. This technique facilitates a deepened analysis compared to single techniques or side-by-side analysis. In this study, rat brains harvested one week after induction of photothrombotic stroke were investigated. Adjacent thin cuts from rats' brains were imaged using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The LA-ICP-MS data were normalized using an internal standard (a thin gold layer). The acquired hyperspectral data cubes were fused and subjected to multivariate analysis. Brain regions affected by stroke as well as unaffected gray and white matter were identified and classified using a model based on either partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) or random decision forest (RDF) algorithms. The RDF algorithm demonstrated the best results for classification. Improved classification was observed in the case of fused data in comparison to individual data sets (either FT-IR or LA-ICP-MS). Variable importance analysis demonstrated that both molecular and elemental content contribute to the improved RDF classification. Univariate spectral analysis identified biochemical properties of the assigned tissue types. Classification of multisensor hyperspectral data sets using an RDF algorithm allows access to a novel and in-depth understanding of biochemical processes and solid chemical allocation of different brain regions.

  10. Estimation and Mapping Forest Attributes Using “k Nearest Neighbor” Method on IRS-P6 LISS III Satellite Image Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Eslam Bonyad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we explored the utility of k Nearest Neighbor (kNN algorithm to integrate IRS-P6 LISS III satellite imagery data and ground inventory data for application in forest attributes (DBH, trees height, volume, basal area, density and forest cover type estimation and mapping. The ground inventory data was based on a systematic-random sampling grid and the numbers of sampling plots were 408 circular plots in a plantation in Guilan province, north of Iran. We concluded that kNN method was useful tool for mapping at a fine accuracy between 80% and 93.94%. Values of k between 5 and 8 seemed appropriate. The best distance metrics were found Euclidean, Fuzzy and Mahalanobis. Results showed that kNN was accurate enough for practical applicability for mapping forest areas.

  11. Quantification of gadolinium-DTPA concentrations for different inversion times using an IR-turbo flash pulse sequence: a study on optimizing multislice perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill; Ring, P B

    1998-01-01

    a system responding linearly to input. R1 are linearly related to changes in the concentration of gadolinium (Gd)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and R1 is a parameter that can be derived from the magnetic resonance (MR) signal. The accuracy of calculated R1 using an IR turbo fast low-angle shot...... was evaluated in phantoms and for increasing TIs using spectroscopically measured R1 values as reference. Signal curves, obtained in vivo after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA, were used in an analytical computer program to study the effect of different TI-values on accurate calculation of R1. Results show...... that TIeff should be DTPA in blood accurately, whereas the myocardial response can be measured correctly for TIeff

  12. pXRF and IR Fluorescence Imaging Studies of CdS Alteration in Paintings by Edvard Munch and Henri Matisse in Oslo, Copenhagen, and San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vila, Anna; Wadum, Jørgen; Mass, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    -induced visible fluorescence; ultraviolet-induced infrared fluorescence; multispectral imaging; and x-ray fluorescence. Questions addressed included: is the imaging method being tested comprehensive? Is it efficient at surveying an entire painting? Does it reveal the state of preservation of the pigment? Does...... for Kunst, Copenhagen. They were also tested on Edvard Munch’s The Scream (c. 1910, Munch Museum, Oslo). It was found that ultraviolet-induced visible fluorescence has the best ability to discriminate between altered and unaltered cadmium yellow paints (even before alteration is visible to the unaided eye......), while multispectral imaging allows for the most efficient and comprehensive localization of the cadmium pigments in a work....

  13. NOAA Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) orthorectified mosaic true color (RGB) and infrared (IR) image tiles, Kachemak Bay, Alaska, 2008 (NODC Accession 0074379)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a NOAA National Ocean Service National Geodetic Survey (NOS/NGS) Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping (IOCM) Product. The images were acquired from a...

  14. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as

  15. Evaluation of combined near-IR spectroscopic (NIRS)-IVUS imaging as a means to detect lipid-rich plaque burden in human coronary autopsy specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jimmy L.; Grainger, Stephanie J.; Greiner, Cherry A.; Hendricks, Michael J.; Goode, Meghan M.; Saybolt, Matthew D.; Wilensky, Robert L.; Madden, Sean P.; Muller, James E.

    2016-02-01

    Intracoronary near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can identify lipid in the coronary arteries, but lacks depth resolution. A novel catheter is currently in clinical use that combines NIRS with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), which provides depth-resolved structural information via the IVUS modality. A measure designated as lipid-rich plaque burden (LRPB) has been proposed as a means to interpret the combined acoustic and optical information of NIRS-IVUS. LRPB is defined as the area created by the intersection of the NIRS lipid-rich arc with the corresponding IVUS-measured plaque burden. We determined the correlation in human coronary autopsy specimens between LRPB, a measure of lipid presence and extent available via intravascular imaging in patients, and the area of lipid-rich plaque as determined by the gold-standard of histology. Fifteen artery segments from 8 human autopsy hearts were imaged with the NIRS-IVUS system (TVC Imaging System, Infraredx Inc., Burlington, MA). Arteries were imaged in a specialty fixture that assured accurate co-registration between imaging and histology. The arteries were then fixed and divided into 2 mm blocks for histological staining. Pathological contouring of lipid-rich areas was performed on the stained thin sections for 54 lipid-rich blocks. Computation of LRPB was performed on transverse NIRS-IVUS frames corresponding to the histologic sections. The quantified LRPB was frequently higher than the lipid-rich plaque area determined by histology, because the region denoted by the EEL and lumen within the NIRS lipid-rich arc is not entirely comprised of lipid. Overall, a moderate to strong correlation (R = 0.73) was found between LRPB determined by NIRS-IVUS imaging and the lipid-rich plaque area determined by histology. LRPB, which can be measured in patients with NIRS-IVUS imaging, corresponds to the amount of lipid-rich plaque in a coronary artery. LRPB should be evaluated in prospective clinical trials for its ability to

  16. Design and use of the IR gas-cloud scanner for measurement and imaging of the spatial distribution of gases at workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, Willem M.; van Veen, J. J.; Knoll, Bas

    1995-02-01

    Usual sampling methods and instruments for checking compliance with `threshold limit values' (TLV) of gaseous components do not provide much information on the mechanism which caused the measured workday average concentration. In the case of noncompliance this information is indispensable for the design of cost effective measures. The infrared gas cloud (IGC) scanner visualizes the spatial distribution of specific gases at a workplace in a quantitative image with a calibrated grayvalue scale. This helps to find the cause of an over- exposure, and so it permits effective abatement of high exposures in the working environment. This paper deals with the technical design of the IGC scanner. Its use is illustrated by some real-world problems. The measuring principle and the technical operation of the IGC-scanner are described. Special attention is given to the pros and cons of retro-reflector screens, the noise reduction methods and image presentation and interpretation. The latter is illustrated by the images produced by the measurements. Essentially the IGC scanner can be used for selective open-path measurement of all gases with a concentration in the ppm range and sufficiently strong distinct absorption lines in the infrared region between 2.5 micrometers and 14.0 micrometers . Further it could be useful for testing the efficiency of ventilation systems and the remote detection of gas leaks. We conclude that a new powerful technique has been added to the industrial hygiene facilities for controlling and improving the work environment.

  17. Future development of IR thermovision weather satellite equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listratov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The self radiation of the surface being viewed is used for image synthesis in IR thermovision equipment. The installation of such equipment aboard weather satellites makes it possible to obtain cloud cover pictures of the earth's surface in a complete orbit, regardless of the illumination conditions, and also provides quantitative information on the underlying surface temperature and cloud top height. Such equipment is used successfully aboard the Soviet satellites of the Meteor system, and experimentally on the American satellites of the Nimbus series. With regard to surface resolution, the present-day IR weather satellite equipment is inferior to the television equipment. This is due primarily to the comparatively low detectivity of the IR detectors used. While IR equipment has several fundamental advantages in comparison with the conventional television equipment, the problem arises of determining the possibility for future development of weather satellite IR thermovision equipment. Criteria are examined for evaluating the quality of IR.

  18. An Object-Based Image Analysis Method for Monitoring Land Conversion by Artificial Sprawl Use of RapidEye and IRS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Balestrat

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In France, in the peri-urban context, urban sprawl dynamics are particularly strong with huge population growth as well as a land crisis. The increase and spreading of built-up areas from the city centre towards the periphery takes place to the detriment of natural and agricultural spaces. The conversion of land with agricultural potential is all the more worrying as it is usually irreversible. The French Ministry of Agriculture therefore needs reliable and repeatable spatial-temporal methods to locate and quantify loss of land at both local and national scales. The main objective of this study was to design a repeatable method to monitor land conversion characterized by artificial sprawl: (i We used an object-based image analysis to extract artificial areas from satellite images; (ii We built an artificial patch that consists of aggregating all the peripheral areas that characterize artificial areas. The “artificialized” patch concept is an innovative extension of the urban patch concept, but differs in the nature of its components and in the continuity distance applied; (iii The diachronic analysis of artificial patch maps enables characterization of artificial sprawl. The method was applied at the scale of four departments (similar to provinces along the coast of Languedoc-Roussillon, in the South of France, based on two satellite datasets, one acquired in 1996–1997 (Indian Remote Sensing and the other in 2009 (RapidEye. In the four departments, we measured an increase in artificial areas of from 113,000 ha in 1997 to 133,000 ha in 2009, i.e., an 18% increase in 12 years. The package comes in the form of a 1/15,000 valid cartography, usable at the scale of a commune (the smallest territorial division used for administrative purposes in France that can be adapted to departmental and regional scales. The method is reproducible in homogenous spatial-temporal terms, so that it could be used periodically to assess changes in land conversion

  19. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  20. Cross-sensor comparisons between Landsat 5 TM and IRS-P6 AWiFS and disturbance detection using integrated Landsat and AWiFS time-series images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Chander, Gyanesh; Ji, Lei; Tolk, Brian; Huang, Chengquan; Rollins, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Routine acquisition of Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data was discontinued recently and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has an ongoing problem with the scan line corrector (SLC), thereby creating spatial gaps when covering images obtained during the process. Since temporal and spatial discontinuities of Landsat data are now imminent, it is therefore important to investigate other potential satellite data that can be used to replace Landsat data. We thus cross-compared two near-simultaneous images obtained from Landsat 5 TM and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS), both captured on 29 May 2007 over Los Angeles, CA. TM and AWiFS reflectances were compared for the green, red, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, as well as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on manually selected polygons in homogeneous areas. All R2 values of linear regressions were found to be higher than 0.99. The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to calculate the NDVI correlation between the TM and AWiFS images. The NDVI regression line derived from selected polygons passed through several invariant cluster centres of the TIC density maps and demonstrated that both the scene-dependent polygon regression method and TIC method can generate accurate radiometric normalization. A scene-independent normalization method was also used to normalize the AWiFS data. Image agreement assessment demonstrated that the scene-dependent normalization using homogeneous polygons provided slightly higher accuracy values than those obtained by the scene-independent method. Finally, the non-normalized and relatively normalized ‘Landsat-like’ AWiFS 2007 images were integrated into 1984 to 2010 Landsat time-series stacks (LTSS) for disturbance detection using the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT) model. Both scene-dependent and scene-independent normalized AWiFS data sets could generate disturbance maps similar to

  1. Sakralaus ir demoniško miesto vaizdiniai lietuvių dramaturgijoje | The Images of a Sacral and Demonic City in Lithuanian Dramaturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Martišiūtė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the dramas where the city is depicted as a special place determining the dramatization of a piece of work. The city symbolism is analyzed according to the criteria of the archetypal city images formulated by M. Eliade, and J. Lotman. The first part of the article ”A sacral city – Vilnius” deals with historical dramas (“Gediminas’ Dream” by A. Fromas Gužutis, “Kęstutis’ Death” by Maironis, “Radvila the Thunder”, “The Fate of Twilight ”, and “Barbora Radvilaite” by B. Sruoga, “Živilė” by A. Škėma, “Barbora Radvilaitė” by J. Grušas, “The Cathedral” by J. Marcinkevičius, “The Crown and the Sand” by R. Samulevičius, and etc.. In Lithuanian dramaturgy, Vilnius meets all the criteria of an ideal, sacred city. In poetic dramas, Vilnius is described as a superb creation embodying the plenitude of human existence. The second part of the article “The Demonic City” deals with the dramas in which the city symbolism conveys the opposite of a sacred, ideal city – an eccentric and demonic city localized in the “outskirts” of cultural space. This aspect of the city symbolism is analyzed in separate subsections: “The Doomed City” (“The Sea Bells” by Vydūnas, and “The Shackles” by M. Pečkauskaitė, “The Profane City” (the comedy “Vain Attempts” by P. Vaičiūnas, “Julijana” by A. Škėma, “A Spring Song” by B. Sruoga, “The Mammoth Hunt” by K. Saja and etc., “The Reflections of Identity” (“Liučė is skating” by L. S. Černiauskaitė, “A Neighbour”, “Madagascar”, and “A Close City” by M. Ivaškevičius.

  2. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  3. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  4. A Lipophilic IR-780 Dye-Encapsulated Zwitterionic Polymer-Lipid Micellar Nanoparticle for Enhanced Photothermal Therapy and NIR-Based Fluorescence Imaging in a Cervical Tumor Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Kalash Rajendrakumar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To prolong blood circulation and avoid the triggering of immune responses, nanoparticles in the bloodstream require conjugation with polyethylene glycol (PEG. However, PEGylation hinders the interaction between the nanoparticles and the tumor cells and therefore limits the applications of PEGylated nanoparticles for therapeutic drug delivery. To overcome this limitation, zwitterionic materials can be used to enhance the systemic blood circulation and tumor-specific delivery of hydrophobic agents such as IR-780 iodide dye for photothermal therapy. Herein, we developed micellar nanoparticles using the amphiphilic homopolymer poly(12-(methacryloyloxydodecyl phosphorylcholine (PCB-lipid synthesized via reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization. The PCB-lipid can self-assemble into micelles and encapsulate IR-780 dye (PCB-lipid–IR-780. Our results demonstrated that PCB-lipid–IR-780 nanoparticle (NP exhibited low cytotoxicity and remarkable photothermal cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cells (TC-1 upon near-infrared (NIR laser irradiation. The biodistribution of PCB-lipid–IR-780 showed higher accumulation of PCB-lipid–IR-780 than that of free IR-780 in the TC-1 tumor. Furthermore, following NIR laser irradiation of the tumor region, the PCB-lipid–IR-780 accumulated in the tumor facilitated enhanced tumor ablation and subsequent tumor regression in the TC-1 xenograft model. Hence, these zwitterionic polymer-lipid hybrid micellar nanoparticles show great potential for cancer theranostics and might be beneficial for clinical applications.

  5. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  6. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  7. Growth and phase transformations of Ir on Ge(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, C. H.; Stenger, B. H.; Durand, A. M.; Morad, J. A.; Sato, Y.; Poppenheimer, E. C.; Chiang, S.

    2017-12-01

    The growth of Ir on Ge(111) as a function of temperature between 23 °C and 820 °C is characterized with low energy electron microscopy (LEEM), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). Deposition onto a substrate at 350 °C revealed a novel growth mode consisting of multilayer Ir islands with (√3 × √3)R30° (abbreviated as √3) structure interconnected by ;bridges; of single-layer Ir several atoms wide. For deposition onto substrates above 500 °C, the √3 Ir phase grows with dendritic morphology, and substrate step bunches act as barriers to √3 Ir growth. LEEM images showed Stranski-Krastanov growth for 650-820 °C: after the √3 phase covers the surface, corresponding to 2 monolayers (ML) Ir coverage, multilayer hexagonal-shaped Ir islands form, surrounded by regions of IrGe alloy. Hexagonal-shaped Ir islands also formed upon heating 1.2 ML of √3 Ir beyond 830 °C, which resulted in the elimination of √3 structure from the surface. The transformation from √3 to (1 × 1) structure upon heating to 830 °C was an irreversible surface phase transition. Annealing > 2.0 ML of Ir in the √3 phase above the 830 °C disorder temperature, followed by cooling, produced a (3 × 1) structure. Subsequent heating and cooling through 830 °C give evidence for a reversible (3 × 1) to (1 × 1) phase transition.

  8. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Damayanthi, Rathnayaka M. T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μm×45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES.

  9. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  10. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in MDCT imaging: a clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR) Part2: The chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, F G; Michael, L; Deak, Z; Scherr, M K; Maxien, D; Geyer, L L; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2013-07-01

    To compare the image quality in dose-reduced 64-row CT of the chest at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed solely with filtered back projection (FBP) in a realistic upgrade scenario. A waiver of consent was granted by the institutional review board (IRB). The noise index (NI) relates to the standard deviation of Hounsfield units in a water phantom. Baseline exams of the chest (NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE Healthcare) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with ASIR after system upgrade (NI = 45; Discovery HD750, GE Healthcare), n = 46. Images were calculated in slice and volume mode with ASIR levels of 0 - 100 % in the standard and lung kernel. Three radiologists independently compared the image quality to the corresponding full-dose baseline examinations (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, + 1: superior, + 2: diagnostically superior). Statistical analysis used Wilcoxon's test, Mann-Whitney U test and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased by 53 % from the FBP baseline to 8.0 ± 2.3 mGy for ASIR follow-ups; p ASIR 70 % in volume mode (-0.07 ± 0.29, p = 0.29). Concerning the lung kernel, every ASIR level outperformed the baseline image quality (p ASIR 30 % rated best (slice: 0.70 ± 0.6, volume: 0.74 ± 0.61). Vendors' recommendation of 50 % ASIR is fair. In detail, the ASIR 70 % in volume mode for the standard kernel and ASIR 30 % for the lung kernel performed best, allowing for a dose reduction of approximately 50 %. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Infrared Imaging for Inquiry-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Charles; Hazzard, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    Based on detecting long-wavelength infrared (IR) radiation emitted by the subject, IR imaging shows temperature distribution instantaneously and heat flow dynamically. As a picture is worth a thousand words, an IR camera has great potential in teaching heat transfer, which is otherwise invisible. The idea of using IR imaging in teaching was first…

  12. Improved Likelihood Function in Particle-based IR Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satria, R.; Sorensen, J.; Hammoud, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a log likelihood-ratio function of foreground and background models used in a particle filter to track the eye region in dark-bright pupil image sequences. This model fuses information from both dark and bright pupil images and their difference image into one model. Our...... enhanced tracker overcomes the issues of prior selection of static thresholds during the detection of feature observations in the bright-dark difference images. The auto-initialization process is performed using cascaded classifier trained using adaboost and adapted to IR eye images. Experiments show good...

  13. Validation of the thermal code of RadTherm-IR, IR-Workbench, and F-TOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Grossmann, Peter; Malaplate, Alain

    2009-05-01

    System assessment by image simulation requires synthetic scenarios that can be viewed by the device to be simulated. In addition to physical modeling of the camera, a reliable modeling of scene elements is necessary. Software products for modeling of target data in the IR should be capable of (i) predicting surface temperatures of scene elements over a long period of time and (ii) computing sensor views of the scenario. For such applications, FGAN-FOM acquired the software products RadTherm-IR (ThermoAnalytics Inc., Calumet, USA; IR-Workbench (OKTAL-SE, Toulouse, France). Inspection of the accuracy of simulation results by validation is necessary before using these products for applications. In the first step of validation, the performance of both "thermal solvers" was determined through comparison of the computed diurnal surface temperatures of a simple object with the corresponding values from measurements. CUBI is a rather simple geometric object with well known material parameters which makes it suitable for testing and validating object models in IR. It was used in this study as a test body. Comparison of calculated and measured surface temperature values will be presented, together with the results from the FGAN-FOM thermal object code F-TOM. In the second validation step, radiances of the simulated sensor views computed by RadTherm-IR and IR-Workbench will be compared with radiances retrieved from the recorded sensor images taken by the sensor that was simulated. Strengths and weaknesses of the models RadTherm-IR, IR-Workbench and F-TOM will be discussed.

  14. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  15. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS IMAGING OF THE GOALS SAMPLE: QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C., E-mail: dkim@nrao.edu, E-mail: aevans@virginia.edu, E-mail: gcp8y@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-05-10

    A Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys study of the structural properties of 85 luminous and ultraluminous (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun }) infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample is presented. Two-dimensional GALFIT analysis has been performed on F814W ''I-band'' images to decompose each galaxy, as appropriate, into bulge, disk, central point-spread function (PSF) and stellar bar components. The fraction of bulge-less disk systems is observed to be higher in LIRGs (35%) than in ULIRGs (20%), with the disk+bulge systems making up the dominant fraction of both LIRGs (55%) and ULIRGs (45%). Further, bulge+disk systems are the dominant late-stage merger galaxy type and are the dominant type for LIRGs and ULIRGs at almost every stage of galaxy-galaxy nuclear separation. The mean I-band host absolute magnitude of the GOALS galaxies is -22.64 {+-} 0.62 mag (1.8{sup +1.4}{sub -0.4} L{sup *}{sub I}), and the mean bulge absolute magnitude in GOALS galaxies is about 1.1 mag fainter than the mean host magnitude. Almost all ULIRGs have bulge magnitudes at the high end (-20.6 to -23.5 mag) of the GOALS bulge magnitude range. Mass ratios in the GOALS binary systems are consistent with most of the galaxies being the result of major mergers, and an examination of the residual-to-host intensity ratios in GOALS binary systems suggests that smaller companions suffer more tidal distortion than the larger companions. We find approximately twice as many bars in GOALS disk+bulge systems (32.8%) than in pure-disk mergers (15.9%) but most of the disk+bulge systems that contain bars are disk-dominated with small bulges. The bar-to-host intensity ratio, bar half-light radius, and bar ellipticity in GOALS galaxies are similar to those found in nearby spiral galaxies. The fraction of stellar bars decreases toward later merger stages and smaller nuclear separations, indicating that bars are

  16. Non-invasive thermal IR detection of breast tumor development in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jason R.; Young, Madison A.; Dréau, D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2015-03-01

    Lumpectomy coupled with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy comprises the treatment of breast cancer for many patients. We are developing an enhanced thermal IR imaging technique that can be used in real-time to guide tissue excision during a lumpectomy. This novel enhanced thermal imaging method is a combination of IR imaging (8- 10 μm) and selective heating of blood (~0.5 °C) relative to surrounding water-rich tissue using LED sources at low powers. Post-acquisition processing of these images highlights temporal changes in temperature and is sensitive to the presence of vascular structures. In this study, fluorescent and enhanced thermal imaging modalities were used to estimate breast cancer tumor volumes as a function of time in 19 murine subjects over a 30-day study period. Tumor volumes calculated from fluorescent imaging follow an exponential growth curve for the first 22 days of the study. Cell necrosis affected the tumor volume estimates based on the fluorescent images after Day 22. The tumor volumes estimated from enhanced thermal imaging show exponential growth over the entire study period. A strong correlation was found between tumor volumes estimated using fluorescent imaging and the enhanced IR images, indicating that enhanced thermal imaging is capable monitoring tumor growth. Further, the enhanced IR images reveal a corona of bright emission along the edges of the tumor masses. This novel IR technique could be used to estimate tumor margins in real-time during surgical procedures.

  17. Broadly tunable picosecond ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A completely grating tuned (1.9 to 2.4 μm) picosecond traveling wave IR generator capable of controlled spectral bandwidth operation down to the Fourier Transform limit is reported. Subsequent down conversion in CdSe extends tuning to 10 to 20 μm

  18. Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai

    OpenAIRE

    Mockevičius, Arminas

    2014-01-01

    Viešosios teisės magistro studijų programos studento Armino Mockevičiaus buvo parašytas magistro baigiamasis darbas „Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai“. Šis darbas parašytas Vilniuje, 2014 metais, Mykolo Romerio universiteto Teisės fakulteto Konstitucinės ir administracinės teisės institute, vadovaujant dr. Gintautui Vilkeliui, apimtis 98 p. Darbo tikslas yra atskleisti alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklau...

  19. Studies of IR-screening smoke clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudzilo, S. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-02-01

    This paper contains some results of research on the IR-screening capability of smoke clouds generated during the combustion process of varied pyrotechnic formulations. The smoke compositions were made from some oxygen or oxygen-free mixtures containing metal and chloroorganic compounds or mixtures based on red phosphorus. The camouflage effectiveness of clouds generated by these formulations was investigated under laboratory conditions with an infrared camera. The technique employed enables determination of radiant temperature distributions in a smoke cloud treated as an energy equivalent of a grey body emission. The results of the analysis of thermographs from the camera were the basis on which the mixtures producing screens of the highest countermeasure for thermal imaging systems have been chosen. (orig.)

  20. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ežerskytė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  1. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  2. Radioluminescence dating: the IR emission of feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilles, Thomas.; Habermann, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A new luminescence reader for radioluminescence (RL) measurements is presented. The system allows detection of RL emissions in the near infrared region (IR). Basic bleaching properties of the IR-RL emission of feldspars are investigated. Sunlight-bleaching experiments as a test for sensitivity changes are presented. IR-bleaching experiments were carried out to obtain information about the underlying physical processes of the IR-RL emission

  3. Near diffraction limited mid-IR spectromicroscopy using frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    morphological and spectral imaging. Recent developments in nonlinear frequency upconversion, have demonstrated the potential to perform both imaging and spectroscopy in the mid-IR range at unparalleled low levels of illumination, the low upconversion detector noise being orders of magnitude below competing...... technologies. With these applications in mind, we have incorporated microscopy optics into an image upconversion system, achieving near diffraction limited spatial resolution in the 3 μm range. Spectroscopic information is further acquired by appropriate control of the phase match condition of the upconversion...

  4. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabelac, M.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, P.; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report double-resonant IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy of neutral gramicidin peptides in the gas phase. The IR spectra of gramicidin A and C, recorded in both the 1000 cm(-1) to 1800 cm(-1) and the 2700 to 3750 cm(-1) region, allow structural analysis. By studying this broad IR range, various local

  5. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  6. Industrial radiography with Ir-192 using computed radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngernvijit, Narippawaj; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Chankow, Nares; Sukbumperng, Ampai; Thong-Aram, Decho

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the utilization of a low activity Ir-192 gamma source for industrial radiographic testing using the Computed Radiography (CR) system. Due to a photo-salbutamol Imaging Plate (I P) using in CR is much more radiation sensitive than a type II film with lead foil intensifying screen, the exposure time with CR can be significantly reduced. For short-lived gamma-ray source like Ir-192 source, the exposure time must be proportionally increased until it is not practical particularly for thick specimens. Generally, when the source decays to an activity of about 5 Ci or less, it will be returned to the manufacturer as a radioactive waste. In this research, the optimum conditions for radiography of a 20 mm thick welded steel sample with 2.4 Ci Ir-192 was investigated using the CR system with high resolution image plate, i.e. type Bas-SR of the Fuji Film Co. Ltd. The I P was sandwiched by a pair of 0.25 mm thick Pb intensifying sere en. Low energy scattered radiations was filtered by placing another Pb sheet with a thickness of 3 mm under the cassette. It was found that the CR image could give a contrast sensitivity of 2.5 % using only 3-minute exposure time which was comparable to the image taken by the type II film with Pb intensifying screen using the exposure time of 45 minutes

  7. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  8. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  9. Imaging infrared: Scene simulation, modeling, and real image tracking; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Milton J.; Wolverton, James R.; Hubert, August J.

    1989-09-01

    Various papers on scene simulation, modeling, and real image tracking using IR imaging are presented. Individual topics addressed include: tactical IR scene generator, dynamic FLIR simulation in flight training research, high-speed dynamic scene simulation in UV to IR spectra, development of an IR sensor calibration facility, IR celestial background scene description, transmission measurement of optical components at cryogenic temperatures, diffraction model for a point-source generator, silhouette-based tracking for tactical IR systems, use of knowledge in electrooptical trackers, detection and classification of target formations in IR image sequences, SMPRAD: simplified three-dimensional cloud radiance model, IR target generator, recent advances in testing of thermal imagers, generic IR system models with dynamic image generation, modeling realistic target acquisition using IR sensors in multiple-observer scenarios, and novel concept of scene generation and comprehensive dynamic sensor test.

  10. Looking at Art in the IR and UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles

    2013-03-01

    Starting with the very earliest cave paintings art has been created to be viewed by the unaided eye and, until very recently, it wasn't even possible to see it at wavelengths outside the visible spectrum. However, it is now possible to view paintings, sculptures, manuscripts, and other cultural artifacts at wavelengths from the x-ray, through the ultraviolet (UV), to well into the infrared (IR). Further, thanks to recent advances in technology, this is becoming possible with hand-held instruments that can be used in locations that were previously inaccessible to anything but laboratory-scale image capture equipment. But, what can be learned from such ``non-visible'' images? In this talk I will briefly describe the characteristics of high resolution UV and IR imaging systems I developed for this purpose by modifying high resolution digital cameras. The sensitivity of the IR camera makes it possible to obtain images of art ``in situ'' with standard museum lighting, resolving features finer than 0.35 mm on a 1.0x0.67 m painting. I also have used both it and the UV camera in remote locations with battery-powered illumination sources. I will illustrate their capabilities with images of various examples of Western, Asian, and Islamic art in museums on three continents, describing how these images have revealed important new information about the working practices of artists as famous as Jan van Eyck. I also will describe what will be possible for this type of work with new capabilities that could be developed within the next few years. This work is based on a collaboration with David Hockney, and benefitted from image analys research supported by ARO grant W911NF-06-1-0359-P00001.

  11. Contributions to the Data Warehouse 2 and Prospects of the IRS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Frithjof; Venkataraman, V. Raghu; Makiola, Jens

    2016-08-01

    During 2015 and 2016, the IRS program has significantly contributed to the CSC-DA Data Warehouse. From its suite of optical EO satellites which operate in the visible, near IR and shortwave IR domain, data from the HR LISS-III and MR AWiFS sensors on board of Resourcesat-2 have been provided. Resourcesat-2 so far acquired cloud-free images of a vast majority of the first and second coverage of HR_IMAGE_2015 and several monthly MR coverages for MR_IMAGE_2015 over the EEA-39. The results regarding the above mentioned data sets will be discussed including an appraisal of the possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data requirements.

  12. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  13. Mid-IR Observations of Mira Circumstellar Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Marengo, Massimo; Karovska, Margarita; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hora, Joseph L.; Hoffmann, William F.; Dayal, Aditya; Deutsch, Lynne K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents results from high-angular resolution mid-IR imaging of the Mira AB circumbinary environment using the MIRAC3 camera at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We resolved the dusty circumstellar envelope at 9.8, 11.7 and 18 micron around Mira A (o Ceti), and measured the size of the extended emission. Strong deviations from spherical symmetry are detected in the images of Mira AB system, including possible dust clumps in the direction of the companion (Mira B). These ...

  14. STATYBINIŲ MEDŽIAGŲ KONKURENCINGUMAS IR TENDENCIJOS

    OpenAIRE

    Kontrimas, Robertas

    2010-01-01

    Darbe analizuojamas statybinių medžiagų konkurencingumas, nustatyti statybinių medžiagų konkurencingumą įtakojantys veiksniai ir pateikti pasiūlymai rinkos gerinimui. Pasitvirtino hipotezė, kad statybinių medžiagų paklausą ir kainas įtakoja klientų poreikiai ir jų finansinės galimybės, tačiau pasaulinės krizės įtaka yra labai ženkli,. Atlikta darbuotojų ir pirkėjų apklausa padėjo nustatyti, kokios statybinės medžiagos dažniausiai yra perkamos, kaip klientai ir darbuotojai vertina įmonę ir jos...

  15. PERIODIC ACCRETION INSTABILITIES IN THE PROTOSTAR L1634 IRS 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: rolf.chini@astro.ruhr-uni-bochum.de [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-11-10

    The small molecular cloud Lynds 1634 contains at least three outflow sources. We found one of these, IRS 7, to be variable with a period of 37.14 ± 0.04 days and an amplitude of approximately 2 mag in the K{sub s} band. The light curve consists of a quiescent phase with little or no variation, and a rapid outburst phase. During the outburst phase, the rapid variation in brightness generates light echoes that propagate into the surrounding molecular cloud, allowing a measurement of the distance to IRS 7 of 404 pc ± 35 pc. We observed only a marginally significant change in the H − K color during the outburst phase. The K-band spectrum of IRS 7 shows CO bandhead emission but its equivalent width does not change significantly with the phase of the light curve. The H{sub 2} 1–0 S(1) line emission does not follow the variability of the continuum flux. We also used the imaging data for a proper motion study of the outflows originating from the IRS 7 and the far-infrared source IRAS 05173-0555, and confirm that these are indeed distinct outflows.

  16. IR characteristic simulation of city scenes based on radiosity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xixian; Zhou, Fugen; Bai, Xiangzhi; Yu, Xiyu

    2013-09-01

    Reliable modeling for thermal infrared (IR) signatures of real-world city scenes is required for signature management of civil and military platforms. Traditional modeling methods generally assume that scene objects are individual entities during the physical processes occurring in infrared range. However, in reality, the physical scene involves convective and conductive interactions between objects as well as the radiations interactions between objects. A method based on radiosity model describes these complex effects. It has been developed to enable an accurate simulation for the radiance distribution of the city scenes. Firstly, the physical processes affecting the IR characteristic of city scenes were described. Secondly, heat balance equations were formed on the basis of combining the atmospheric conditions, shadow maps and the geometry of scene. Finally, finite difference method was used to calculate the kinetic temperature of object surface. A radiosity model was introduced to describe the scattering effect of radiation between surface elements in the scene. By the synthesis of objects radiance distribution in infrared range, we could obtain the IR characteristic of scene. Real infrared images and model predictions were shown and compared. The results demonstrate that this method can realistically simulate the IR characteristic of city scenes. It effectively displays the infrared shadow effects and the radiation interactions between objects in city scenes.

  17. Hermann agreement updates IRS guidelines for incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccolo, B M; Peregrine, M W

    1995-01-01

    The October 1994 agreement between the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Hermann Hospital of Houston, Texas, elucidates current IRS policy on physician recruitment incentives. The IRS distinguishes between the recruiting and the retention of physicians and perimts incentives beyond reasonable compensation in the former but not the latter circumstance. This new agreement, while not legally precedential, nevertheless provides guidance for healthcare organizations seeking safe harbor protection.

  18. OH/IR stars in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, B.

    1978-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations leading to the discovery of 71 OH/IR sources are described in this thesis. These OH/IR sources are characterized by their double peaked OH emission profile at a wavelength of 18 cm and by their strong IR infrared emission. An analysis of the distribution and radial velocities of a number of previously known and new OH/IR sources was performed. The parameter ΔV (the velocity separation between two emission peaks of the 18 cm line profile) was found to be a good criterion for a population classification with respect to stellar age

  19. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  20. Teaching IR to Medical Students: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aoife M; Lee, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has grown rapidly over the last 20 years and is now an essential component of modern medicine. Despite IR's increasing penetration and reputation in healthcare systems, IR is poorly taught, if taught at all, in most medical schools. Medical students are the referrers of tomorrow and potential IR recruits and deserve to be taught IR by expert IRs. The lack of formal IR teaching curricula in many medical schools needs to be addressed urgently for the continued development and dissemination of, particularly acute, IR services throughout Europe. We call on IRs to take up the baton to teach IR to the next generation of doctors.

  1. IR-based spot weld NDT in automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2015-05-01

    Today's auto industry primarily relies on destructive teardown evaluation to ensure the quality of the resistance spot welds (RSWs) due to their criticality in crash resistance and performance of vehicles. The destructive teardown evaluation is labor intensive and costly. The very nature of the destructive test means only a few selected welds will be sampled for quality. Most of the welds in a car are never checked. There are significant costs and risks associated with reworking and scrapping the defective welded parts made between the teardown tests. IR thermography as a non-destructive testing (NDT) tool has its distinct advantage — its non-intrusive and non-contact nature. This makes the IR based NDT especially attractive for the highly automated assembly lines. IR for weld quality inspection has been explored in the past, mostly limited to the offline post-processing manner in a laboratory environment. No online real-time RSW inspection using IR thermography has been reported. Typically for postprocessing inspection, a short-pulse heating via xenon flash lamp light (in a few milliseconds) is applied to the surface of a spot weld. However, applications in the auto industry have been unsuccessful, largely due to a critical drawback that cannot be implemented in the high-volume production line - the prerequisite of painting the weld surface to eliminate surface reflection and other environmental interference. This is due to the low signal-to-noise ratio resulting from the low/unknown surface emissivity and the very small temperature changes (typically on the order of 0.1°C) induced by the flash lamp method. An integrated approach consisting of innovations in both data analysis algorithms and hardware apparatus that effectively solved the key technical barriers for IR NDT. The system can be used for both real-time (during welding) and post-processing inspections (after welds have been made). First, we developed a special IR thermal image processing method that

  2. The recent and prospective developments of cooled IR FPAs for double application at Electron NRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutunov, V. A.; Vasilyev, I. S.; Ivanov, V. G.; Prokofyev, A. E.

    2003-09-01

    The recent and prospective developments of monolithic silicon IR-Schottky-barrier staring focal plane arrays (IR SB FPAs), photodetector assembly, and digital thermal imaging cameras (TICs) at Electron National Research Institute (Electron NRI) are considered. Basic parameters for IR SB FPAs with 256x256 and 512x512 pixels, and TICs based on these arrays are presented. The problems emerged while proceeding from the developments of IR SB FPAs for the wavelength range from 3 μm to 5 μm to the developments of those ones for xLWIR range are indicated (an abrupt increase in the level of background architecture). Possibility for further improvement in basic parameters of IR SB FPAs are discussed (a decrease in threshold signal power down to 0.5-1.0"1013 W/element with an increase in quantum efficiency, a decrease in output noise and proceeding to Schottky barriers of degenerated semiconductor/silicon heterojunction, and implementation of these array parameters in photodetector assembly with improved thermal background shielding taking into consideration an optical structure of TIC for concrete application). It is concluded that relative simplicity of the technology and expected low cost of monolithic silicon IR SB FPAs with basic parameters compared with hybrid IR FPAs for the wavelength ranges from 3 μm to 5 μm and from 8 μm to 12 μm maintain large monolithic IR SB FPAs as a basis for developments of double application digital TICs in the Russian Federation.

  3. Strong-Field Physics with Mid-IR Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wolter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Strong-field physics is currently experiencing a shift towards the use of mid-IR driving wavelengths. This is because they permit conducting experiments unambiguously in the quasistatic regime and enable exploiting the effects related to ponderomotive scaling of electron recollisions. Initial measurements taken in the mid-IR immediately led to a deeper understanding of photoionization and allowed a discrimination among different theoretical models. Ponderomotive scaling of rescattering has enabled new avenues towards time-resolved probing of molecular structure. Essential for this paradigm shift was the convergence of two experimental tools: (1 intense mid-IR sources that can create high-energy photons and electrons while operating within the quasistatic regime and (2 detection systems that can detect the generated high-energy particles and image the entire momentum space of the interaction in full coincidence. Here, we present a unique combination of these two essential ingredients, namely, a 160-kHz mid-IR source and a reaction microscope detection system, to present an experimental methodology that provides an unprecedented three-dimensional view of strong-field interactions. The system is capable of generating and detecting electron energies that span a 6 order of magnitude dynamic range. We demonstrate the versatility of the system by investigating electron recollisions, the core process that drives strong-field phenomena, at both low (meV and high (hundreds of eV energies. The low-energy region is used to investigate recently discovered low-energy structures, while the high-energy electrons are used to probe atomic structure via laser-induced electron diffraction. Moreover, we present, for the first time, the correlated momentum distribution of electrons from nonsequential double ionization driven by mid-IR pulses.

  4. Mid-IR laser ultrasonic testing for fiber reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Masahiro; Hatano, Hideki; Oguchi, Kanae; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Enoki, Manabu

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic testing is the most common method to detect defects in materials and evaluate their sizes and locations. Since piezo-electric transducers are manually handled from point to point, it takes more costs for huge products such as airplanes. Laser ultrasonic testing (LUT) is a breakthrough technique. A pulsed laser generates ultrasonic waves on a material surface due to thermoelastic effect or ablation. The ultrasonic waves can be detected by another laser with an interferometer. Thus, LUT can realize instantaneous inspection without contacting a sample. A pulse laser with around 3.2 μm wavelength (in the mid-IR range) is more suitable to generate ultrasonic waves for fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) because the light is well absorbed by the polymeric matrix. On the other hand, such a laser is not available in the market. In order to emit the mid-IR laser pulse, we came up with the application of an optical parametric oscillator and developed an efficient wavelength conversion device by pumping a compact Nd:YAG solid-state laser. Our mid-IR LUT system is most suitable for inspection of FRPs. The signal-to-noise ratio of ultrasonic waves generated by the mid-IR laser is higher than that by the Nd:YAG laser. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the performance of the mid-IR LUT system in reflection mode. We investigated the effects of the material properties and the laser properties on the generated ultrasonic waves. In addition, C-scan images by the system were also presented.

  5. Atom condensation on an atomically smooth surface: Ir, Re, W, and Pd on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Ehrlich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of condensing metal atoms over the two types of sites present on an atomically smooth Ir(111) has been measured in a field ion microscope. For Ir, Re, W, and Pd from a thermal source, condensing on Ir(111) at ∼20 K, the atoms are randomly distributed, as expected if they condense at the first site struck

  6. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  7. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myth...

  8. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  9. Benzene adsorption and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Ludwig, W.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption, decompn. and oxidn. of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) was studied by high resoln. (synchrotron) XPS, temp. programmed desorption and LEED. Mol. adsorption of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) is obsd. between 170 K and 350 K. Above this temp. both desorption and decompn. of benzene take place. An ordered

  10. Traceable calibration of hospital 192Ir HDR sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govinda Rajan, K.N.; Sharma, S.D.; Palaniselvam, T.; Vandana, S.; Bhatt, B.C.; Vinatha, S.; Patki, V.S.; Pendse, A.M.; Kannan, V.

    2004-01-01

    A HDR 1000 PLUS well type ionization chamber, procured from Standard Imaging, USA, and maintained by medical Physics and Safety Section (MPSS), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India, as a reference well chamber 1 (RWCH1), was traceably calibrated against the primary standard established by Radiological Standards Laboratory (RSL), BARC for 192 Ir HDR source, in terms of air kerma strength (AKS). An indigenously developed well-type ionization chamber, reference well chamber 2 (RWCH2) and electrometer system, fabricated by CD High Tech (CDHT) Instruments Private Ltd., Bangalore, India, was in turn calibrated against RWCH1. The CDHT system (i.e. RWCH2 and CDHT electrometer system) was taken to several hospitals, in different regions of the country, to check the calibration status of 192 Ir HDR sources. The result of this calibration audit work is reported here. (author)

  11. Smulkaus ir vidutinio verslo konkurencingumas Lietuvoje

    OpenAIRE

    Vijeikis, Juozas; Makštutis, Antanas

    2009-01-01

    Straipsnio mokslinė problema, naujumas ir aktualumas. Konkurencingumas kaip įmonių efektyvios veiklos reiškinys yra aktualus šalies verslo gyvenime vykdant darnios ekonominės plėtros politiką. Ši politika kaip problema smulkaus ir vidutinio verslo (SVV) plėtrai ir konkurencingumui didinti nėra sistemiškai ištirta ir aprašyta Lietuvos sąlygomis mokslinėje ir praktinėje literatūroje. Vienas svarbiausių veiksnių, siekiant spartaus ekonominio augimo, yra darnios verslininkystės plėtra Lietuvoje n...

  12. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing. PMID:24992094

  13. Tarptautinio turizmo raida ir vystymo prognozės Lietuvoje ir Lenkijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Veličkaitė, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    Išanalizuota ir įvertinta Lietuvos ir Lenkijos atvykstamojo turizmo raida 2000- 2007m., užsienio turistų srautai, apgyvendinimo paslaugų paklausa, turistų tikslai ir kelionių transporto pasirinkimas, turistų išlaidos ir šalių turizmo pajamos, iškeltos atvykstamojo turizmo problemos bei pateikti jų sprendimo siūlymai.paskutinėje darbo dalyje buvo atliktos 2008- 2015metų Lietuvos ir Lenkijos turizmo raidos prognozės. In the final master work Lithuanian and Poland arriving tourism development...

  14. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  15. Tidal Distortion of the Envelope of an AGB Star IRS 3 near Sgr A{sup *}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Royster, M. J.; Roberts, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Wardle, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Research Center for Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrophotonics, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cotton, W.; Kunneriath, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Schödel, R. [Instituto de Astfisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    We present radio and millimeter continuum observations of the Galactic center taken with the Very Large Array (VLA) and ALMA at 44 and 226 GHz, respectively. We detect radio and millimeter emission from IRS 3, lying ∼4.″5 NW of Sgr A*, with a spectrum that is consistent with the photospheric emission from an AGB star at the Galactic center. Millimeter images reveal that the envelope of IRS 3, the brightest and most extended 3.8 μ m Galactic center stellar source, consists of two semicircular dust shells facing the direction of Sgr A*. The outer circumstellar shell, at a distance of 1.6 × 10{sup 4} au, appears to break up into “fingers” of dust directed toward Sgr A*. These features coincide with molecular CS (5–4) emission and a near-IR extinction cloud distributed between IRS 3 and Sgr A*. The NE–SW asymmetric shapes of the IRS 3 shells seen at 3.8 μ m and radio are interpreted as structures that are tidally distorted by Sgr A*. Using the kinematics of CS emission and the proper motion of IRS 3, the tidally distorted outflowing material from the envelope after 5000 yr constrains the distance of IRS 3 to ∼0.7 pc in front of or ∼0.5 pc behind Sgr A*. This suggests that the mass loss by stars near Sgr A* can supply a reservoir of molecular material near Sgr A*. We also present dark features in radio continuum images coincident with the envelope of IRS 3. These dusty stars provide examples in which high-resolution radio continuum images can identify dust-enshrouded stellar sources embedded in an ionized medium.

  16. A first principle study for the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom and the CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikat, I. A.; Hamad, B. A.

    2013-11-01

    We employ density functional theory to examine the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom as well as the dissociation of carbon monoxide on Ir(100) surface. We find that carbon atoms bind strongly with Ir(100) surface and prefer the high coordination hollow site for all coverages. In the case of 0.75 ML coverage of carbon, we obtain a bridging metal structure due to the balance between Ir-C and Ir-Ir interactions. In the subsurface region, the carbon atom prefers the octahedral site of Ir(100) surface. We find large diffusion barrier for carbon atom into Ir(100) surface (2.70 eV) due to the strong bonding between carbon atom and Ir(100) surface, whereas we find a very small segregation barrier (0.22 eV) from subsurface to the surface. The minimum energy path and energy barrier for the dissociation of CO on Ir(100) surface are obtained by using climbing image nudge elastic band. The energy barrier of CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface is found to be 3.01 eV, which is appreciably larger than the association energy (1.61 eV) of this molecule.

  17. A Molecular and Cellular Context-Dependent Role for Ir76b in Detection of Amino Acid Taste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anindya Ganguly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid taste is expected to be a universal property among animals. Although sweet, bitter, salt, and water tastes have been well characterized in insects, the mechanisms underlying amino acid taste remain elusive. From a Drosophila RNAi screen, we identify an ionotropic receptor, Ir76b, as necessary for yeast preference. Using calcium imaging, we identify Ir76b+ amino acid taste neurons in legs, overlapping partially with sweet neurons but not those that sense other tastants. Ir76b mutants have reduced responses to amino acids, which are rescued by transgenic expression of Ir76b and a mosquito ortholog AgIr76b. Co-expression of Ir20a with Ir76b is sufficient for conferring amino acid responses in sweet-taste neurons. Notably, Ir20a also serves to block salt response of Ir76b. Our study establishes the role of a highly conserved receptor in amino acid taste and suggests a mechanism for mutually exclusive roles of Ir76b in salt- and amino-acid-sensing neurons.

  18. Vartotojų lojalumas : formavimas ir valdymas

    OpenAIRE

    Zikienė, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Vienas iš esminių daugelio organizacijų tikslų, garantuojančių tolesnį sėkmingą konkuravimą nuolat besikeičiančiame verslo pasaulyje, yra vartotojų lojalumo įgijimas ir išlaikymas. Įvairios lojalumo formavimo ir valdymo problemos plačiai ir detaliai analizuojamos šioje mokomojoje knygoje. Knyga pradedama vartotojų lojalumo analize marketingo mokslo raidos kontekste. Tolesnis dėmesys skiriamas vartotojų lojalumo vadybinio aspekto analizei, atskleidžiant vartotojų lojalumo koncepcijos teorines ...

  19. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues; Das TApIR Experiment IR-Absorptionsspektren fluessiger Wasserstoffisotopologe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-11-27

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  20. Automatic temperature computation for realistic IR simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Kersaudy, Philippe; Latger, Jean; Cathala, Thierry; Stolte, Nilo; Barillot, Philippe

    2000-07-01

    Polygon temperature computation in 3D virtual scenes is fundamental for IR image simulation. This article describes in detail the temperature calculation software and its current extensions, briefly presented in [1]. This software, called MURET, is used by the simulation workshop CHORALE of the French DGA. MURET is a one-dimensional thermal software, which accurately takes into account the material thermal attributes of three-dimensional scene and the variation of the environment characteristics (atmosphere) as a function of the time. Concerning the environment, absorbed incident fluxes are computed wavelength by wavelength, for each half an hour, druing 24 hours before the time of the simulation. For each polygon, incident fluxes are compsed of: direct solar fluxes, sky illumination (including diffuse solar fluxes). Concerning the materials, classical thermal attributes are associated to several layers, such as conductivity, absorption, spectral emissivity, density, specific heat, thickness and convection coefficients are taken into account. In the future, MURET will be able to simulate permeable natural materials (water influence) and vegetation natural materials (woods). This model of thermal attributes induces a very accurate polygon temperature computation for the complex 3D databases often found in CHORALE simulations. The kernel of MUET consists of an efficient ray tracer allowing to compute the history (over 24 hours) of the shadowed parts of the 3D scene and a library, responsible for the thermal computations. The great originality concerns the way the heating fluxes are computed. Using ray tracing, the flux received in each 3D point of the scene accurately takes into account the masking (hidden surfaces) between objects. By the way, this library supplies other thermal modules such as a thermal shows computation tool.

  1. Research on simulated infrared image utility evaluation using deep representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiheng; Mu, Chengpo; Yang, Yu; Xu, Lixin

    2018-01-01

    Infrared (IR) image simulation is an important data source for various target recognition systems. However, whether simulated IR images could be used as training data for classifiers depends on the features of fidelity and authenticity of simulated IR images. For evaluation of IR image features, a deep-representation-based algorithm is proposed. Being different from conventional methods, which usually adopt a priori knowledge or manually designed feature, the proposed method can extract essential features and quantitatively evaluate the utility of simulated IR images. First, for data preparation, we employ our IR image simulation system to generate large amounts of IR images. Then, we present the evaluation model of simulated IR image, for which an end-to-end IR feature extraction and target detection model based on deep convolutional neural network is designed. At last, the experiments illustrate that our proposed method outperforms other verification algorithms in evaluating simulated IR images. Cross-validation, variable proportion mixed data validation, and simulation process contrast experiments are carried out to evaluate the utility and objectivity of the images generated by our simulation system. The optimum mixing ratio between simulated and real data is 0.2≤γ≤0.3, which is an effective data augmentation method for real IR images.

  2. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Michael W.; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKCδ on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKCδ catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1

  3. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  4. Implementing GPS into Pave-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    To further enhance the capabilities of the Pave-IR thermal segregation detection system developed at the Texas Transportation Institute, researchers incorporated global positioning system (GPS) data collection into the thermal profiles. This GPS capa...

  5. Joint IAEA/NEA IRS guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants

  6. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  7. Multi-Sensor Fusion of Infrared and Electro-Optic Signals for High Resolution Night Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Lawrence

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic (EO image sensors exhibit the properties of high resolution and low noise level at daytime, but they do not work in dark environments. Infrared (IR image sensors exhibit poor resolution and cannot separate objects with similar temperature. Therefore, we propose a novel framework of IR image enhancement based on the information (e.g., edge from EO images, which improves the resolution of IR images and helps us distinguish objects at night. Our framework superimposing/blending the edges of the EO image onto the corresponding transformed IR image improves their resolution. In this framework, we adopt the theoretical point spread function (PSF proposed by Hardie et al. for the IR image, which has the modulation transfer function (MTF of a uniform detector array and the incoherent optical transfer function (OTF of diffraction-limited optics. In addition, we design an inverse filter for the proposed PSF and use it for the IR image transformation. The framework requires four main steps: (1 inverse filter-based IR image transformation; (2 EO image edge detection; (3 registration; and (4 blending/superimposing of the obtained image pair. Simulation results show both blended and superimposed IR images, and demonstrate that blended IR images have better quality over the superimposed images. Additionally, based on the same steps, simulation result shows a blended IR image of better quality when only the original IR image is available.

  8. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  9. Simple fabrication of closed-packed IR microlens arrays on silicon by femtosecond laser wet etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangwei; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate a simple route to fabricate closed-packed infrared (IR) silicon microlens arrays (MLAs) based on femtosecond laser irradiation assisted by wet etching method. The fabricated MLAs show high fill factor, smooth surface and good uniformity. They can be used as optical devices for IR applications. The exposure and etching parameters are optimized to obtain reproducible microlens with hexagonal and rectangular arrangements. The surface roughness of the concave MLAs is only 56 nm. This presented method is a maskless process and can flexibly change the size, shape and the fill factor of the MLAs by controlling the experimental parameters. The concave MLAs on silicon can work in IR region and can be used for IR sensors and imaging applications.

  10. Contribution To The Data Warehouse And Prospects Of The IRS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Frithjof; Haydn, Rupert; Parmar, Manish; Makiola, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Over the past two years, the IRS program has again significantly contributed to the GSC-DA Data Warehouse. From its suite of optical EO satellites which operate in the visible, near IR and shortwave IR domain, multispectral data from the HR LISS-III and MR AWiFS sensors have been provided. Both cameras are implemented on board of Resourcesat-1 and Resourcesat-2 respectively. Despite reduced capacities, the Resourcesat constellation of satellites so far acquired cloud-free images of a vast majority of the first HR coverage of CORE_001 and several monthly MR coverages for CORE_008 over the EEA-39. The results regarding the above mentioned data sets will be discussed including an appraisal of the possible future role of upcoming IRS EO satellites for European data requirements.

  11. Accurate eye center location and tracking using isophote curvature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valenti, R.; Gevers, T.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous application of eye tracking is precluded by the requirement of dedicated and expensive hardware, such as infrared high definition cameras. Therefore, systems based solely on appearance (i.e. not involving active infrared illumination) are being proposed in literature. However,

  12. Infrared imaging systems: Design, analysis, modeling, and testing; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 16-18, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Gerald C.

    1990-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical investigations in IR system design, analysis, and modeling are examined in reports and reviews. Topics discussed are modeling second-generation thermal imaging systems, performance improvement of an IR imaging system using subsystem MTF analysis, human recognition of IR images, spatial frequency performance of SPRITE detectors, and optimization of Schottky-barrier IR detectors for solar blindness. IR system testing is also considered, focusing on such problems as tolerancing methodology for an IR optical telescope, system response function approach to minimize IR testing errors, and portable MRTD collimator system for fast in situ testing of FLIRs and other thermal imagers.

  13. IR 820 dye encapsulated in polycaprolactone glycol chitosan: Poloxamer blend nanoparticles for photo immunotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Piyush; Srivastava, Rohit, E-mail: rsrivasta@iitb.ac.in

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we have fabricated biocompatible and biodegradable monodisperse IR 820 encapsulated polycaprolactone (PCL) glycol chitosan (GC): Poloxamer blend nanoparticles (PP-IR NPs) for imaging and effective photo-immunotherapy. IR 820 has been used as an imaging and photothermal agent whereas glycol chitosan (GC) as an immunostimulatory agent. The combination of IR 820, poloxamer, and GC can be used effectively for photoimmunotherapy for cancer, drug-resistant and TNF-α resistant estrogen positive breast cancer. PP-IR NPs are stable in aqueous solution. The uniform size of 100–220 nm with a high zeta value of + 38 ± 2 mV led them to accumulate in cancer cells. Laser treatment did not affect the morphology of PP-IR NPs as observed under the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In vitro cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 cells showed enhanced toxicity upon laser treatment. Further, we validated the cell death by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Our studies thus showed that PP-IR NPs are effective in suppressing metastatic cancer as the combinational therapy leads to the formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • PPIR nanoparticles for photoimmunotherapy for cancer • IR 820/GC serves as theranostic and immunostimulatory. • Photoimmunotherapy enhances cytotoxicity by reactive oxygen species production.

  14. IR 820 dye encapsulated in polycaprolactone glycol chitosan: Poloxamer blend nanoparticles for photo immunotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Piyush; Srivastava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we have fabricated biocompatible and biodegradable monodisperse IR 820 encapsulated polycaprolactone (PCL) glycol chitosan (GC): Poloxamer blend nanoparticles (PP-IR NPs) for imaging and effective photo-immunotherapy. IR 820 has been used as an imaging and photothermal agent whereas glycol chitosan (GC) as an immunostimulatory agent. The combination of IR 820, poloxamer, and GC can be used effectively for photoimmunotherapy for cancer, drug-resistant and TNF-α resistant estrogen positive breast cancer. PP-IR NPs are stable in aqueous solution. The uniform size of 100–220 nm with a high zeta value of + 38 ± 2 mV led them to accumulate in cancer cells. Laser treatment did not affect the morphology of PP-IR NPs as observed under the transmission electron microscope (TEM). In vitro cytotoxicity studies on MCF-7 cells showed enhanced toxicity upon laser treatment. Further, we validated the cell death by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Our studies thus showed that PP-IR NPs are effective in suppressing metastatic cancer as the combinational therapy leads to the formation of apoptotic bodies in MCF-7 cells. - Highlights: • PPIR nanoparticles for photoimmunotherapy for cancer • IR 820/GC serves as theranostic and immunostimulatory. • Photoimmunotherapy enhances cytotoxicity by reactive oxygen species production

  15. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  16. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  17. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.; Yang, Y. M.; Guo, Z. B.; Wu, Y. H.; Qiu, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb

  18. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-02

    Mar 2, 2017 ... Abstract. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and a complex female endocrine disorder, and is one of the leading cause of female infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR,. IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 gene in the ...

  19. Wireless IR Image Transfer System for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    the camera can operate between 0 and 500 C; this uniquely suites it for employment on autonomous vehicles in rugged environments. The camera is...system is suitable for used on autonomous vehicles under varying antenna orientations. • The third is the use of MDS transceivers allows the received

  20. Kas netilpo tarp politikos ir diplomatijos?

    OpenAIRE

    Streikus, Arūnas

    2008-01-01

    The review analyzes A. Kasparavičius’s monograph “Tarp Politikos ir Diplomatijos: Šventasis Sostas ir Lietuvos Respublika” (Vilnius, 2008). The historiographic value of the study is undisputed. A. Kasperavičius had an opportunity to use a broad spectrum of sources, among which two sets of archive documents stand out: the funds of the archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Embassy under the Holy See in Rome. A. Kasparavičius managed to avoid the arid scientific...

  1. Elecciones Legislativas en Irán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sainz de la Peña

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Las elecciones legislativas en Irán, una vez eliminados los reformistas se han celebrado en un clima de rivalidad. Las elecciones tenían que dejar claro quién mandaba en Irán, si los clérigos y el Guía el ayatolá Seyed Ali Jamenei o, el Presidente de la República, el laico Mahmud Ahmadineyad, apoyado en el Cuerpo de Guardias Revolucionarios. La realidad ha sido que las facciones conservadoras encabezadas por el Frente Unido Principalista, apoyados por el Guía Supremo, han obtenido el triunfo.

  2. Far-IR Observations of Gas and Dust in the Unusual 49 Ceti Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberge, Aki; Kamp, I.; Augereau, J.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Olofsson, J.; Donaldson, J.; Howard, C. D.; Eiroa, C.; Dent, B.

    We present Herschel Space Observatory far-IR imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Cet, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. Photometry was obtained at

  3. Efficacy of a radiation safety education initiative in reducing radiation exposure in the pediatric IR suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheyn, David D.; Racadio, John M.; Patel, Manish N.; Racadio, Judy M.; Johnson, Neil D.; Ying, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic imaging in the interventional radiology (IR) suite. As the complexity of procedures increases, radiation exposure risk increases. We believed that reinforcing staff education and awareness would help optimize radiation safety. To evaluate the effect of a radiation safety education initiative on IR staff radiation safety practices and patient radiation exposure. After each fluoroscopic procedure performed in the IR suite during a 4-month period, dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, and use of shielding equipment (leaded eyeglasses and hanging lead shield) by IR physicians were recorded. A lecture and article were then given to IR physicians and technologists that reviewed ALARA principles for optimizing radiation dose. During the following 4 months, those same parameters were recorded after each procedure. Before education 432 procedures were performed and after education 616 procedures were performed. Physician use of leaded eyeglasses and hanging shield increased significantly after education. DAP and fluoroscopy time decreased significantly for uncomplicated peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) procedures and non-PICC procedures after education, but did not change for complicated PICC procedures. Staff radiation safety education can improve IR radiation safety practices and thus decrease exposure to radiation of both staff and patients. (orig.)

  4. TIJAH: Embracing IR Methods in XML Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    List, Johan; Mihajlovic, V.; Ramirez, Georgina; de Vries, A.P.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blok, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses our participation in INEX (the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval) using the TIJAH XML-IR system. TIJAH's system design follows a `standard' layered database architecture, carefully separating the conceptual, logical and physical levels. At the conceptual level, we

  5. IR and OLAP in XML document warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose to combine IR and OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies to exploit a warehouse of text-rich XML documents. In the system we plan to develop, a multidimensional implementation of a relevance modeling document model will be used for interactively querying...

  6. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabeláč, Martin; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, Pavel; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2011), s. 1816-1821 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : density functional calculations * gramicidin * IR spectroscopy * protein folding Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.412, year: 2011

  7. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  8. Near IR spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports on recent observations from the near IR spectra of symbiotic stars. The helium and oxygen lines useful for the construction of theoretical models are identified. Observations for cool stars and novae (nebular phase) are outlined and the spectra of specific symbiotic stars between lambdalambda 8000-11000 are presented and discussed. (Auth./C.F.)

  9. Methanol decomposition and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Ludwig, W.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption, decompn., and oxidn. of methanol (CH3OH) has been studied on Ir(111) using temp.-programmed desorption and high-energy resoln. fast XPS. Mol. methanol desorption from a methanol-satd. surface at low temp. shows three desorption peaks, around 150 K (alpha ), around 170 K (beta 1), and

  10. Column Stores as an IR Prototyping Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T. Samar (Thaer); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract. We make the suggestion that instead of implementing custom index structures and query evaluation algorithms, IR researchers should simply store document representations in a column-oriented relational database and write ranking models using SQL. For rapid prototyping, this is

  11. Persistence in the WFC3 IR Detector: Intrinsic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Knox S.; Baggett, Sylvia M.

    2018-03-01

    When the WFC3 IR detector is exposed to a bright source or sources, the sources can appear as afterimages in subsequent exposures, a phenomenon known as persistence. This can affect the science obtained with the IR channel. We have been involved in an effort to predict the brightness of the afterimages so that users can (at a minimum) flag the affected pixels and remove them from their analysis or (even better) subtract the afterimages from their science images to salvage the data. The ability of any model to remove afterimages depends on the degree to which persistence is the same for identical sets of exposures. We investigate possible time variability of persistence in the WFC3 detector using sets of (almost) identical visits comprised of single exposures of Omega Cen followed by a series of darks in which persistence is measured. We analyze 8 data sets, each consisting of two or three identical visits, with stimulus exposures between 49 and 1199 s, and find clear evidence of variability in several of the datasets in darks taken within 1000 s of the stimulus exposure. In most of the datasets, the difference in persistence for saturated pixels in the stimulus exposure is a power law decay; the visit with higher persistence has a higher power law amplitude. There was nothing unusual about the observing conditions preceding and during each of these visits that can explain the discrepancy in persistence levels. Variation in persistence implies that: (1) Unless and until the source of the variability is understood, any persistence model for the WFC3 array will be limited in its ability to predict persistence in a single observation, and, (2) as a consequence, users should always carefully inspect the results of any attempt to subtract persistence from WFC3 IR data based on a model prediction.

  12. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  13. About possibility of temperature trace observing on the human skin using commercially available IR camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Shestakov, Ivan L.; Blednov, Roman G.

    2016-09-01

    One of urgent security problems is a detection of objects placed inside the human body. Obviously, for safety reasons one cannot use X-rays for such object detection widely and often. Three years ago, we have demonstrated principal possibility to see a temperature trace, induced by food eating or water drinking, on the human body skin by using a passive THz camera. However, this camera is very expensive. Therefore, for practice it will be very convenient if one can use the IR camera for this purpose. In contrast to passive THz camera using, the IR camera does not allow to see the object under clothing, if an image, produced by this camera, is used directly. Of course, this is a big disadvantage for a security problem solution based on the IR camera using. To overcome this disadvantage we develop novel approach for computer processing of IR camera images. It allows us to increase a temperature resolution of IR camera as well as increasing of human year effective susceptibility. As a consequence of this, a possibility for seeing of a human body temperature changing through clothing appears. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water and eats chocolate. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments were made with measurements of a body temperature covered by T-shirt. Shown results are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, cancelled inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  14. A first principle study for the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom and the CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erikat, I. A., E-mail: ihsanas@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Jerash University, Jerash-26150 (Jordan); Hamad, B. A. [Department of Physics, The University of Jordan, Amman-11942 (Jordan)

    2013-11-07

    We employ density functional theory to examine the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom as well as the dissociation of carbon monoxide on Ir(100) surface. We find that carbon atoms bind strongly with Ir(100) surface and prefer the high coordination hollow site for all coverages. In the case of 0.75 ML coverage of carbon, we obtain a bridging metal structure due to the balance between Ir–C and Ir–Ir interactions. In the subsurface region, the carbon atom prefers the octahedral site of Ir(100) surface. We find large diffusion barrier for carbon atom into Ir(100) surface (2.70 eV) due to the strong bonding between carbon atom and Ir(100) surface, whereas we find a very small segregation barrier (0.22 eV) from subsurface to the surface. The minimum energy path and energy barrier for the dissociation of CO on Ir(100) surface are obtained by using climbing image nudge elastic band. The energy barrier of CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface is found to be 3.01 eV, which is appreciably larger than the association energy (1.61 eV) of this molecule.

  15. A first principle study for the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom and the CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikat, I. A.; Hamad, B. A.

    2013-01-01

    We employ density functional theory to examine the adsorption and absorption of carbon atom as well as the dissociation of carbon monoxide on Ir(100) surface. We find that carbon atoms bind strongly with Ir(100) surface and prefer the high coordination hollow site for all coverages. In the case of 0.75 ML coverage of carbon, we obtain a bridging metal structure due to the balance between Ir–C and Ir–Ir interactions. In the subsurface region, the carbon atom prefers the octahedral site of Ir(100) surface. We find large diffusion barrier for carbon atom into Ir(100) surface (2.70 eV) due to the strong bonding between carbon atom and Ir(100) surface, whereas we find a very small segregation barrier (0.22 eV) from subsurface to the surface. The minimum energy path and energy barrier for the dissociation of CO on Ir(100) surface are obtained by using climbing image nudge elastic band. The energy barrier of CO dissociation on Ir(100) surface is found to be 3.01 eV, which is appreciably larger than the association energy (1.61 eV) of this molecule

  16. Infrared imaging of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Laura M.; Mansfield, James R.; Jackson, Michael; Crowson, A. Neil; Mantsch, Henry H.

    2002-02-01

    IR spectroscopy produces spectra in which detailed information concerning chemical structure is inherent. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the most useful IR methods for analysis of biological tissues are microscopic image-based techniques in which fine-scaled spatial and high-quality spectral information is integrated. Unlike traditional visible microscopic methods, the contrast in IR imaging is gained by differences in spectra and the spatial heterogeneity of biochemical components, not by the addition of stains. In order for IR imaging to be more broadly accepted, non-subjective data processing methods are being developed to extract the most out of the large spectral images that are acquired. This paper demonstrates data processing techniques that have been extremely useful in the analysis of normal and abnormal skin. Analysis of skin specimens is of particular clinical importance due to the difficulty in rendering a differential diagnosis. Unstained frozen skin sections were mapped using an IR microscope. Functional group mapping, clustering routines and linear discriminant analysis were used to process the data. Functional group mapping and clustering routines were useful in the initial interpretation of images and to research for trends in uncharacterized spectral images. LDA was useful for differentiating normal from abnormal tissue once a well- defined training spectral set was established. Representative spectroscopic images are shown that demonstrate the power of IR imaging.

  17. General review of multispectral cooled IR development at CEA-Leti, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, F.; Marmonier, F.; Grangier, C.; Adelmini, L.; Gravrand, O.; Ballet, P.; Baudry, X.; Baylet, J.; Badano, G.; Espiau de Lamaestre, R.; Bisotto, S.

    2017-02-01

    Multicolor detection capabilities, which bring information on the thermal and chemical composition of the scene, are desirable for advanced infrared (IR) imaging systems. This communication reviews intra and multiband solutions developed at CEA-Leti, from dual-band molecular beam epitaxy grown Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) photodiodes to plasmon-enhanced multicolor IR detectors and backside pixelated filters. Spectral responses, quantum efficiency and detector noise performances, pros and cons regarding global system are discussed in regards to technology maturity, pixel pitch reduction, and affordability. From MWIR-LWIR large band to intra MWIR or LWIR bands peaked detection, results underline the full possibility developed at CEA-Leti.

  18. Multiplexing of spatial modes in the mid-IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailele, Lucas; Maweza, Loyiso; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Rosales-Guzman, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Traditional optical communication systems optimize multiplexing in polarization and wavelength both trans- mitted in fiber and free-space to attain high bandwidth data communication. Yet despite these technologies, we are expected to reach a bandwidth ceiling in the near future. Communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying modes offers infinite dimensional states, providing means to increase link capacity by multiplexing spatially overlapping modes in both the azimuthal and radial degrees of freedom. OAM modes are multiplexed and de-multiplexed by the use of spatial light modulators (SLM). Implementation of complex amplitude modulation is employed on laser beams phase and amplitude to generate Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. Modal decomposition is employed to detect these modes due to their orthogonality as they propagate in space. We demonstrate data transfer by sending images as a proof-of concept in a lab-based scheme. We demonstrate the creation and detection of OAM modes in the mid-IR region as a precursor to a mid-IR free-space communication link.

  19. Numerical method for IR background and clutter simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Carlo; Daniele, Gina; Balzarotti, Giorgio

    1997-06-01

    The paper describes a fast and accurate algorithm of IR background noise and clutter generation for application in scene simulations. The process is based on the hypothesis that background might be modeled as a statistical process where amplitude of signal obeys to the Gaussian distribution rule and zones of the same scene meet a correlation function with exponential form. The algorithm allows to provide an accurate mathematical approximation of the model and also an excellent fidelity with reality, that appears from a comparison with images from IR sensors. The proposed method shows advantages with respect to methods based on the filtering of white noise in time or frequency domain as it requires a limited number of computation and, furthermore, it is more accurate than the quasi random processes. The background generation starts from a reticule of few points and by means of growing rules the process is extended to the whole scene of required dimension and resolution. The statistical property of the model are properly maintained in the simulation process. The paper gives specific attention to the mathematical aspects of the algorithm and provides a number of simulations and comparisons with real scenes.

  20. Modeling and Compensating Temperature-Dependent Non-Uniformity Noise in IR Microbolometer Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Wolf

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Images rendered by uncooled microbolometer-based infrared (IR cameras are severely degraded by the spatial non-uniformity (NU noise. The NU noise imposes a fixed-pattern over the true images, and the intensity of the pattern changes with time due to the temperature instability of such cameras. In this paper, we present a novel model and a compensation algorithm for the spatial NU noise and its temperature-dependent variations. The model separates the NU noise into two components: a constant term, which corresponds to a set of NU parameters determining the spatial structure of the noise, and a dynamic term, which scales linearly with the fluctuations of the temperature surrounding the array of microbolometers. We use a black-body radiator and samples of the temperature surrounding the IR array to offline characterize both the constant and the temperature-dependent NU noise parameters. Next, the temperature-dependent variations are estimated online using both a spatially uniform Hammerstein-Wiener estimator and a pixelwise least mean squares (LMS estimator. We compensate for the NU noise in IR images from two long-wave IR cameras. Results show an excellent NU correction performance and a root mean square error of less than 0.25 ∘ C, when the array’s temperature varies by approximately 15 ∘ C.

  1. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  2. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na+(Glucose) Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    We report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na+(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na+(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctive Na+ coordination. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  4. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  5. High dose rate 192Ir calibration: Indonesia experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasukha; Tjiptanto, D.; Darmasyah, R.; Kurniawan, B.

    2002-01-01

    . A correction was also calculated for the ambient temperature and pressure. Second, 245 cc of Standard Imaging Well Type lonization Chamber HDR-1000 plus was used in this experiment with Atomlab 44E electrometer. Chamber was placed at the center of the room and about 1 meter from the floor. Charged readings were applied and corrected for ambient temperature and pressure. Eleven dwell positions from 90.5 to 99.5 cm have been taken for these measurements. It is shown that for a combination of HDR 192 Ir source with Farmer type chamber, the optimum distance was 16 cm as it has been stated by DeWERD. It found the differences of 0.12% to decay calculation and shows a typical axial response with distance from the bottom of the Well Type Chamber that it found on our measurement. The result of activity determination is 2.4% higher than Cavity Chamber measurement. However, this experience on HDR 192 Ir calibration by using two methods be able to solve the calibration problem on the use of HDR 192 Ir brachytherapy at several radiotherapy centers in Indonesia

  6. First-principles study of molecular NO dissociation on Ir(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikat, I. A.; Hamad, B. A.; Khalifeh, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The dissociation of NO on Ir(100) surface is investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The pathway and transition state (TS) of the dissociation of NO molecule are determined using climbing image nudge elastic band (CI-NEB). The prerequisite state of NO dissociation is determining the most stable sites of the reactant and products. We found that the most energetically stable sites are the hollow for N atom and the bridge for NO molecule as well as O atom. We found that the bending of NO is the first step of the dissociation reaction due to the increase of the back-donation from the d-band of Ir to 2 π ∗ orbital of NO, which causes the weakening of NO bond. The dissociation energy barrier of NO molecule on Ir(100) surface is 0.49 eV.

  7. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong In Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superior to those of glass liquid crystal lenses. Microcontroller unit and drivers were developed as part of a reception module with power supply for the IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses with the flexible liquid crystal lens prototypes. IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for 3D HDTV with flexible liquid crystal lenses produced excellent 3D images viewing characteristics.

  8. Development of Ir/Au-TES microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Manabu; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors (TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Microcalorimeters are thermal detectors which measure the energy of an incident x-ray photon using a TES thermometer operated at a sharp transition edge between normal and superconducting states. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). We developed a bilayer TES where a normal metal Au was deposited on a superconductor Ir in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the Ir-TES. We investigated resistance-temperature characteristics. As a result, it showed a very sharp transition within 1 mK at the temperature of 110 mK. The energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. (author)

  9. IR sensor design insight from missile-plume prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John L.; Gilbert, Bruno; Richer, Guy; Stowe, Robert

    2002-08-01

    Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment have significantly reduced the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. An analysis of missile propellants suggests that missile detection based on plume characteristics alone may be more difficult than anticipated. Currently, the passive detection of missiles depends on signatures with a significant ultraviolet component. This approach is effective in detecting anti-aircraft missiles that rely on powerful motors to pursue high-speed aircraft. The high temperature exhaust from these missiles contains significant levels of carbon dioxide, water and, often, metal oxides such as alumina. The plumes emits strongest in the infrared, 1 to 5micrometers , regions with a significant component of the signature extending into the ultraviolet domain. Many anti-tank missiles do not need the same level of propulsion and radiate significantly less. These low velocity missiles, relying on the destructive force of shaped-charge warhead, are more difficult to detect. There is virtually no ultraviolet component and detection based on UV sensors is impractical. The transition in missile detection from UV to IR is reasonable, based on trends in imaging technology, but from the analysis presented in this paper even IR imagers may have difficulty in detecting missile plumes. This suggests that the emphasis should be placed in the detection of the missile hard body in the longer wavelengths of 8 to 12micrometers . The analysis described in this paper is based on solution of the governing equations of plume physics and chemistry. These models will be used to develop better sensors and threat detection algorithms.

  10. Combined MW-IR Precipitation Evolving Technique (PET of convective rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Di Paola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new multi-sensor approach for convective rain cell continuous monitoring based on rainfall derived from Passive Microwave (PM remote sensing from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO satellite coupled with Infrared (IR remote sensing Brightness Temperature (TB from the Geosynchronous (GEO orbit satellite. The proposed technique, which we call Precipitation Evolving Technique (PET, propagates forward in time and space the last available rain-rate (RR maps derived from Advanced Microwave Sounding Units (AMSU and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS observations by using IR TB maps of water vapor (6.2 μm and thermal-IR (10.8 μm channels from a Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI radiometer. PET is based on two different modules, the first for morphing and tracking rain cells and the second for dynamic calibration IR-RR. The Morphing module uses two consecutive IR data to identify the motion vector to be applied to the rain field so as to propagate it in time and space, whilst the Calibration module computes the dynamic relationship between IR and RR in order to take into account genesis, extinction or size variation of rain cells. Finally, a combination of the Morphing and Calibration output provides a rainfall map at IR space and time scale, and the whole procedure is reiterated by using the last RR map output until a new MW-based rainfall is available. The PET results have been analyzed with respect to two different PM-RR retrieval algorithms for seven case studies referring to different rainfall convective events. The qualitative, dichotomous and continuous assessments show an overall ability of this technique to propagate rain field at least for 2–3 h propagation time.

  11. Subarcsecond observations of NGC 7538 IRS 1: Continuum distribution and dynamics of molecular gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lei; Shi, Hui [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhao, Jun-Hui [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wright, M. C. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sandell, Göran [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232-12, Building N232, Rm. 146, P.O. Box 1, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Wu, Yue-Fang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Brogan, Crystal; Corder, Stuartt, E-mail: lzhu@nao.cas.cn [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We report new results based on the analysis of the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) observations of NGC 7538 IRS 1 at 1.3 and 3.4 mm with subarcsecond resolutions. With angular resolutions ∼0.''7, the SMA and CARMA observations show that the continuum emission at 1.3 and 3.4 mm from the hyper-compact H II region IRS 1 is dominated by a compact source with a tail-like extended structure to the southwest of IRS 1. With a CARMA B-array image at 1.3 mm convolved to 0.''1, we resolve the hyper-compact H II region into two components: an unresolved hyper-compact core, and a north-south extension with linear sizes of <270 AU and ∼2000 AU, respectively. The fine structure observed with CARMA is in good agreement with the previous Very Large Array results at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the hyper-compact H II region at the center of IRS 1 is associated with an ionized bipolar outflow. We image the molecular lines OCS(19-18) and CH{sub 3}CN(12-11) as well as {sup 13}CO(2-1) surrounding IRS 1, showing a velocity gradient along the southwest-northeast direction. The spectral line profiles in {sup 13}CO(2-1), CO(2-1), and HCN(1-0) observed toward IRS 1 show broad redshifted absorption, providing evidence for gas infall with rates in the range of 3-10 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} inferred from our observations.

  12. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) / Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 1099

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A finder file from SSA's Title XVI database is provided to the IRS. The IRS discloses 1099 information to SSA for use in verifying eligibility, amount, and benefits...

  13. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  14. IGF-IR targeted therapy: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A.J. Varewijck (Aimee)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) has been studied as an anti-cancer target. However, monotherapy trials with IGF-IR targeted antibodies or with IGF-IR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have, overall, been very disappointing in the clinical setting. This review discusses potential reasons

  15. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  16. BOOTES-IR: near IR follow-up GRB observations by a robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Postrigo, A. de Ugarte; Jelinek, M.

    2005-01-01

    BOOTES-IR is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which operates in Southern Spain since 1998, to the near IR (NIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission in the NIR, alike BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like INTEGRAL, SWIFT and GLAST. Given that the afterglow emission in both, the NIR and the optical, in the instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible to detect this prompt emission at NIR wavelengths too. The combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1 and BOOTES-2 will allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a high redshift (z > 5). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the IR magnitudes be H ∼ 7-10, hence very high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by larger instruments

  17. Infrared upconversion hyperspectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin

    2015-01-01

    In this Letter, hyperspectral imaging in the mid-IR spectral region is demonstrated based on nonlinear frequency upconversion and subsequent imaging using a standard Si-based CCD camera. A series of upconverted images are acquired with different phase match conditions for the nonlinear frequency...... conversion process. From this, a sequence of monochromatic images in the 3.2-3.4 mu m range is generated. The imaged object consists of a standard United States Air Force resolution target combined with a polystyrene film, resulting in the presence of both spatial and spectral information in the infrared...... image. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America...

  18. Limb darkening in Venus night-side disk as viewed from Akatsuki IR2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Takehiko; Nakakushi, Takashi; Sato, Takao M.; Hashimoto, George L.

    2017-10-01

    Night-side hemisphere of Venus exhibits dark and bright regions as a result of spatially inhomogeneous cloud opacity which is illuminated by infrared radiation from deeper atmosphere. The 2-μm camera (IR2) onboard Akatsuki, Japan's Venus Climate Orbiter, is equipped with three narrow-band filters (1.735, 2.26, and 2.32 μm) to image Venus night-side disk in well-known transparency windows of CO2 atmosphere (Allen and Crawford 1984). In general, a cloud feature appears brightest when it is in the disk center and becomes darker as the zenith angle of emergent light increases. Such limb darkening was observed with Galileo/NIMS and mathematically approximated (Carlson et al., 1993). Limb-darkening correction helps to identify branches, in a 1.74-μm vs. 2.3-μm radiances scatter plot, each of which corresponds to a group of aerosols with similar properties. We analyzed Akatsuki/IR2 images to characterize the limb darkening for three night-side filters.There is, however, contamination from the intense day-side disk blurred by IR2's point spread function (PSF). It is found that infrared light can be multiplly reflected within the Si substrate of IR2 detector (1024x1024 pixels PtSi array), causing elongated tail in the actual PSF. We treated this in two different ways. One is to mathematically approximate the PSF (with a combination of modified Lorentz functions) and another is to differentiate 2.26-μm image from 2.32-μm image so that the blurred light pattern can directly be obtained. By comparing results from these two methods, we are able to reasonablly clean up the night-side images and limb darkening is extracted. Physical interpretation of limb darkening, as well as "true" time variations of cloud brightness will be presented/discussed.

  19. Test and evaluation of IR detectors and arrays II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 22, 23, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Forney M.

    The present conference discusses a radiometric calibration system for IR cameras, a methodology for testing IR focal-plane arrays in simulated nuclear radiation environments, process optimization for Si:As In-bumped focal-plane arrays, precise MTF measurements for focal-plane arrays, and IR focal-plane array crosstalk measurement. Also discussed are an imaging metric for IR focal-plane arrays, optical stimuli for high-volume automated testing of 2D HgCdTe focal-plane arrays, the evaluation of a solid-state photomultiplier focal-plane array for SDI, spectral effects on bulk photoconductors operated at cryogenic temperatures, and a novel technique for measuring the ionizing radiation effects in MOS transistors.

  20. Characteristics of Ir/Au transition edge sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    A new type of microcalorimeter has been developed using a transition edge sensor (TES) and an electro-thermal feedback (ETF) method to achieve higher energy resolution and higher count rate. We are developing a superconducting Ir-based transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters. To improve thermal conductivity and achieve higher energy resolution with an Ir-TES, we fabricated an Ir/Au bilayer TES by depositing gold on Ir and investigated the influence of intermediate between superconducting and normal states at the transition edge for signal responses by microscopic observation in the Ir/Au-TES. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Du, Li [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liao, Shijun, E-mail: chsjliao@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir. - Highlights: • Mesoporous nanoparticles were synthesized and used as support for metal catalyst. • PdIr bimetallic catalyst exhibited significantly improved hydrogenation activity. • The strong promotion of Ir was recognized firstly and investigated intensively. • PdIr exhibits 18 times higher activity than Pd to the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. - Abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction

  2. Controlling Hydrogenation of Graphene on Ir(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Richard; Andersen, Mie; Jørgensen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Combined fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of two types of hydrogen adsorbate structures at the graphene/ Ir(111) interface, namely, graphane-like islands and hydrogen dimer structures. While the former give rise to a periodic...... pattern, dimers tend to destroy the periodicity. Our data reveal distinctive growth rates and stability of both types of structures, thereby allowing one to obtain well-defined patterns of hydrogen clusters. The ability to control and manipulate the formation and size of hydrogen structures on graphene...

  3. PEP-II IR-2 Alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first results and preliminary analysis obtained with several alignment monitoring systems recently installed in the PEP-II interaction region. The hydrostatic level system, stretched wire system, and laser tracker have been installed in addition to the existing tiltmeters and LVDT sensors. These systems detected motion of the left raft, which correlated primarily with the low energy ring (LER) current. The motion is of the order of 120 micrometers. The cause was identified as synchrotron radiation heating the beampipe, causing its expansion which then results in its deformation and offset of the IR quadrupoles. We also discuss further plans on measurements, analysis and means to counteract this motion

  4. Computer dosimetry of 192Ir wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, R.W.; Gillin, M.T.; Grimm, D.F.; Niroomand-Rad, A.

    1985-01-01

    The dosimetry of 192 Ir linear sources with a commercial treatment planning computer system has been evaluated. Reference dose rate data were selected from the literature and normalized in a manner consistent with our clinical and dosimetric terminology. The results of the computer calculations are compared to the reference data and good agreement is shown at distances within about 7 cm from a linear source. The methodology of translating source calibration in terms of exposure rate for use in the treatment planning computer is developed. This may be useful as a practical guideline for users of similar computer calculation programs for iridium as well as other sources

  5. Stringy horizons and UV/IR mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2015-11-24

    The target-space interpretation of the exact (in α{sup ′}) reflection coefficient for scattering from Euclidean black-hole horizons in classical string theory is studied. For concreteness, we focus on the solvable SL(2,ℝ){sub k}/U(1) black hole. It is shown that it exhibits a fascinating UV/IR mixing, dramatically modifying the late-time behavior of general relativity. We speculate that this might play an important role in the black-hole information puzzle, as well as in clarifying features related with the non-locality of Little String Theory.

  6. Atsiskaitymai e. versle: ypatumai ir naujos tendencijos

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšniauskas, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Alternatyvių atsiskaitymų e. versle sistemos pradeda kelti rimtą grėsmę tradiciniams atsiskaitymams elektronine bankininkyste, mokėjimo kortelėmis ar grynaisiais pinigais. Todėl būtina detaliau išsiaiškinti kokie yra alternatyvių atsiskaitymų ypatumai, kurie veiksniai vartotojams yra svarbiausi ir kokie yra alternatyvūs atsiskaitymo būdai. Tai siekiama padaryti išanalizuojant mokslinę literatūrą, pateikiant pagrindines alternatyvių atsiskaitymų sistemas, atliekant alternatyvių atsiskaitymų pa...

  7. Fast IR diodes thermometer for tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangbo

    2001-01-01

    A 30 channel fast IR pyrometry array has been constructed for tokamak, which has 0.5 μs time response, 10 mm diameter spatial resolution and 5 degree C temperature resolution. The temperature measuring range is from 250 degree C to 1200 degree C. The two dimensional temperature profiles of the first wall during both major and minor disruptions can be measured with an accuracy of about 1% measuring temperature, which is adequate for tokamak experiments. This gives a very useful tool for the disruption study, especially for the divertor physics and edge heat flux research on tokamak and other magnetic confinement devices

  8. Image reconstruction of dynamic infrared single-pixel imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Qi; Jiang, Yilin; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Limin

    2018-03-01

    Single-pixel imaging technique has recently received much attention. Most of the current single-pixel imaging is aimed at relatively static targets or the imaging system is fixed, which is limited by the number of measurements received through the single detector. In this paper, we proposed a novel dynamic compressive imaging method to solve the imaging problem, where exists imaging system motion behavior, for the infrared (IR) rosette scanning system. The relationship between adjacent target images and scene is analyzed under different system movement scenarios. These relationships are used to build dynamic compressive imaging models. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the reconstruction quality of IR image and enhance the contrast between the target and the background in the presence of system movement.

  9. Design and Development of transducer for IR radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattarachindanuwong, Surat; Poopat, Bovornchoke; Meethong, Wachira

    2003-06-01

    Recently, IR radiation has many important roles such as for plastics industry, food industry and medical instrumentation. The consequence of exposed irradiation objects from IR can be greatly affected by the quantity of IR radiation. Therefore the objectively this research is to design and develop a transducer for IR radiation measurement. By using a quartz halogen lamp as a IR heat source of IR radiation and a thermopile sensor as a transducer. The thermal conductivity of transducer and air flow, were also considered for design and development of transducer. The study shows that the designed transducer can be used and applied in high temperature process, for example, the quality control of welding, the non-contact temperature measurement of drying oven and the testing of IR source in medical therapy device

  10. Transition-edge sensor arrays for UV-optical-IR astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, J.; Bay, T.J.; Barral, J.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Castle, J.P.; Miller, A.J.; Nam, S.; Rosenberg, D.; Romani, R.W.; Tomada, A.

    2006-01-01

    Our research group has developed and characterized transition-edge sensor (TES) arrays for near IR-optical-near UV astrophysical observations. These detectors have a time-stamp accuracy of 0.3μs and an energy resolution of 0.16eV for 2.33eV photons at very high rates (30kHz). We have installed a 6x6 array of these TESs in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator equipped with windows for direct imaging. We discuss new instrumentation progress and current data in all aspects related to successful operation of this camera system, including: detector and array performance, position dependence and cross-talk, low-temperature and readout electronics, quantum and system efficiency, IR filtering, and focus and imaging

  11. Evolution of the vertebrate insulin receptor substrate (Irs) gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salam, Ahmad; Irwin, David M

    2017-06-23

    Insulin receptor substrate (Irs) proteins are essential for insulin signaling as they allow downstream effectors to dock with, and be activated by, the insulin receptor. A family of four Irs proteins have been identified in mice, however the gene for one of these, IRS3, has been pseudogenized in humans. While it is known that the Irs gene family originated in vertebrates, it is not known when it originated and which members are most closely related to each other. A better understanding of the evolution of Irs genes and proteins should provide insight into the regulation of metabolism by insulin. Multiple genes for Irs proteins were identified in a wide variety of vertebrate species. Phylogenetic and genomic neighborhood analyses indicate that this gene family originated very early in vertebrae evolution. Most Irs genes were duplicated and retained in fish after the fish-specific genome duplication. Irs genes have been lost of various lineages, including Irs3 in primates and birds and Irs1 in most fish. Irs3 and Irs4 experienced an episode of more rapid protein sequence evolution on the ancestral mammalian lineage. Comparisons of the conservation of the proteins sequences among Irs paralogs show that domains involved in binding to the plasma membrane and insulin receptors are most strongly conserved, while divergence has occurred in sequences involved in interacting with downstream effector proteins. The Irs gene family originated very early in vertebrate evolution, likely through genome duplications, and in parallel with duplications of other components of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin and the insulin receptor. While the N-terminal sequences of these proteins are conserved among the paralogs, changes in the C-terminal sequences likely allowed changes in biological function.

  12. 640 X 480 MOS PtSi IR sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Donald J.; Shallcross, Frank V.; Hseuh, Fu-Lung; Meray, Grazyna M.; Levine, Peter A.; Gilmartin, Harvey R.; Villani, Thomas S.; Esposito, Benjamin J.; Tower, John R.

    1991-12-01

    The design of a 1st and 2nd generation 640(H) X 480(V) element PtSi Schottky-barrier infrared image sensor employing a low-noise MOS X-Y addressable readout multiplexer and on-chip low-noise output amplifier is described. Measured performance characteristics for Gen 1 devices are presented along with calculated performance for the Gen 2 design. A multiplexed horizontal/vertical input address port and on-chip decoding is used to load scan data into CMOS horizontal and vertical scanning registers. This allows random access to any sub-frame in the 640 X 480 element focal plane array. By changing the digital pattern applied to the vertical scan register, the FPA can be operated in either an interlaced or non- interlaced format, and the integration time may be varied over a wide range (60 microsecond(s) to > 30 ms, for RS170 operation) resulting in a form of 'electronic shutter,' or variable exposure control. The pixel size of 24-micrometers X 24-micrometers results in a fill factor of 38% for 1.5-micrometers process design rules. The overall die size for the IR imager is 13.7 mm X 17.2 mm. All digital inputs to the chip are TTL compatible and include ESD protection.

  13. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir(4+) ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory, and Madelung potential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elijah E; Xiang, Hongjun; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2016-03-21

    The spins of the low-spin Ir(4+) (S = 1/2, d(5)) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3, both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir(4+) spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axis directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir(4+) ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir(4+) ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. The spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir(4+) is not as strong as has been assumed.

  14. The detectability of cracks using sonic IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidini, Marco; Cawley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to study the detectability of fatigue cracks in metals using sonic IR (also known as thermosonics). The method relies on the validation of simple finite-element thermal models of the cracks and specimens in which the thermal loads have been defined by means of a priori measurement of the additional damping introduced in the specimens by each crack. This estimate of crack damping is used in conjunction with a local measurement of the vibration strain during ultrasonic excitation to retrieve the power released at the crack; these functions are then input to the thermal model of the specimens to find the resulting temperature rises (sonic IR signals). The method was validated on mild steel beams with two-dimensional cracks obtained in the low-cycle fatigue regime as well as nickel-based superalloy beams with three-dimensional "thumbnail" cracks generated in the high-cycle fatigue regime. The equivalent 40kHz strain necessary to obtain a desired temperature rise was calculated for cracks in the nickel superalloy set, and the detectability of cracks as a function of length in the range of 1-5mm was discussed.

  15. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  16. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  17. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Krüger, Marcus; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling...... properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type......, IRS-1-/-and IRS-2-/-mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1...

  18. Selective C--C coupling of ir-ethene and ir-carbenoid radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzik, W.I.; Reek, J.N.H.; de Bruin, B.

    2008-01-01

    The reactivity of the paramagnetic iridium(II) complex [IrII(ethene)(Me3tpa)]2+ (1) (Me3tpa=N,N,N-tris(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl) amine) towards the diazo compounds ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) and trimethylsilyldiazomethane (TMSDM) was investigated. The reaction with EDA gave rise to selective CC bond

  19. Improvenments in environmental trace analysis by GC-IR and LC-IR.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; Vredenbregt, M.J.; Jong, A.P.J.M.; Somsen, G.W.; Hankemeier, T.; Velthorst, N.H.; Gooijer, C.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been carried out to enlarge the potential of infrared (IR) spectrometry as a detector in gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC). The study has been directed to applications in environmental analysis. Examples of recently obtained results are presented. The analyte detectability of

  20. Deep Keck u-Band Imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A Catalog of z ~ 3 Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Cooke, Jeff; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Armandroff, Taft E.; Wirth, Gregory D.

    2009-10-01

    We present a sample of 407 z ~ 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to a limiting isophotal u-band magnitude of 27.6 mag in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The LBGs are selected using a combination of photometric redshifts and the u-band drop-out technique enabled by the introduction of an extremely deep u-band image obtained with the Keck I telescope and the blue channel of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The Keck u-band image, totaling 9 hr of integration time, has a 1σ depth of 30.7 mag arcsec-2, making it one of the most sensitive u-band images ever obtained. The u-band image also substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of ~50% of the z ~ 3 LBGs, significantly reducing the traditional degeneracy of colors between z ~ 3 and z ~ 0.2 galaxies. This sample provides the most sensitive, high-resolution multi-filter imaging of reliably identified z ~ 3 LBGs for morphological studies of galaxy formation and evolution and the star formation efficiency of gas at high redshift.

  1. Modeling and performance assessment in QinetiQ of EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John W.; Potter, Gary E.

    2002-11-01

    QinetiQ are the technical authority responsible for specifying the performance requirements for the procurement of airborne reconnaissance systems, on behalf of the UK MoD. They are also responsible for acceptance of delivered systems, overseeing and verifying the installed system performance as predicted and then assessed by the contractor. Measures of functional capability are central to these activities. The conduct of these activities utilises the broad technical insight and wide range of analysis tools and models available within QinetiQ. This paper focuses on the tools, methods and models that are applicable to systems based on EO and IR sensors. The tools, methods and models are described, and representative output for systems that QinetiQ has been responsible for is presented. The principle capability applicable to EO and IR airborne reconnaissance systems is the STAR (Simulation Tools for Airborne Reconnaissance) suite of models. STAR generates predictions of performance measures such as GRD (Ground Resolved Distance) and GIQE (General Image Quality) NIIRS (National Imagery Interpretation Rating Scales). It also generates images representing sensor output, using the scene generation software CAMEO-SIM and the imaging sensor model EMERALD. The simulated image 'quality' is fully correlated with the predicted non-imaging performance measures. STAR also generates image and table data that is compliant with STANAG 7023, which may be used to test ground station functionality.

  2. Electronic structure, local magnetism, and spin-orbit effects of Ir(IV)-, Ir(V)-, and Ir(VI)-based compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Kayser, P.; Alonso, J. A.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Choi, Y.; Haskel, D.

    2015-06-01

    Element- and orbital-selective x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Ir 5d electronic states in double perovskite Sr2MIrO6 (M = Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, In) and La2NiIrO6 compounds. All the studied systems present a significant influence of spin-orbit interactions in the electronic ground state. In addition, we find that the Ir 5d local magnetic moment shows different character depending on the oxidation state despite the net magnetization being similar for all the compounds. Ir carries an orbital contribution comparable to the spin contribution for Ir4+ (5d(5)) and Ir5+ (5d(4)) oxides, whereas the orbital contribution is quenched for Ir6+ (5d(3)) samples. Incorporation of a magnetic 3d atom allows getting insight into the magnetic coupling between 5d and 3d transition metals. Together with previous susceptibility and neutron diffractionmeasurements, the results indicate that Ir carries a significant local magnetic moment even in samples without a 3d metal. The size of the (small) net magnetization of these compounds is a result of predominant antiferromagnetic interactions between local moments coupled with structural details of each perovskite structure

  3. Ngc7538 Irs1 - A Highly Collimated Ionized Wind Source Powered By Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, Goran H. L.; Wright, M.; Goss, W.; Corder, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent images show that NGC7538 IRS1 is not a conventional Ultracompact or Hypercompact HII region, but is completely wind-excited (other broad recombination line hypercompact HII regions may be similar to IRS1). NGC 7538 IRS1 is a well studied young high-mass star (L 2 10^5 L_Sun).VLA images at 6 and 2 cm (Cambell 1984; ApJ, 282, L27) showed a compact bipolar core (lobe separation 0.2") with more extended faint lobes. Recombination line observations (Gaume et al. 1995, ApJ, 438, 776) show extremely wide line profiles indicating substantial mass motion of the ionized gas. We re-analyzed high angular resolution VLA archive data from 6 cm to 7 mm, and measured the flux from the compact core and the extended (1.5 - 2") bipolar lobes. We find that the compact core has a spectral index, alpha 0.6, which could be explained by an optically thick hypercompact core with a density gradient. However, the size of the core shrinks with increasing frequency; from 0.24" at 6 cm to 0.1" at 7 mm, consistent with that expected for a collimated jet (Reynolds 1986, ApJ, 304, 713). If we do a crude size correction so that we compare emission from the optically thick inner part of the jet for a set of 2 cm and 7 mm observations we get alpha 1.6, i.e. close to the optically thick value. BIMA and CARMA continuum observations at 3 mm show some dust excess, while. HCO+ J=1-0 observations combined with FCRAO single dish data show a clear inverse P Cygni profile towards IRS1. These observations confirm that IRS1 is heavily accreting with an accretion rate 2 10^-4 M_Sun/year, sufficient to quench the formation of an HII region.

  4. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.; Shaygi, B.; Asadi, H.; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M.

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  5. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, M. [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Bradford Teaching Hospital Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Shaygi, B. [Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Asadi, H., E-mail: asadi.hamed@gmail.com; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  6. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefpour, F., E-mail: fyousefpour@snira.co [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, F.; Soltani, H. [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  7. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefpour, F.; Shokri, F.; Soltani, H.

    2010-01-01

    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  8. Complex magnetism of the Fe monolayer on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Kirsten von; Heinze, Stefan; Bode, Matthias; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Bluegel, Stefan; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2007-01-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Fe on Ir(111) have been investigated experimentally by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) and theoretically by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. While the growth of an Fe monolayer is in-plane commensurate, deposition of a double-layer shows a rearrangement of atoms due to strain relief accompanied by local variations of the electronic structure. Both stackings of the monolayer, i.e. face centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal closed packed (hcp), are observed experimentally. The magnetic structure of both types is imaged with SP-STM. From these experiments, we propose a nanoscale magnetic mosaic structure for the fcc-stacking with 15 atoms in the unit cell. For hcp-stacking, the tunneling spectra are similar to the fcc case, however, the magnetic contrast in the SP-STM images is not as obvious. In our first-principles calculations, a collinear antiferromagnetic (AFM) state with a 15 atom in-plane unit cell (AFM 7 : 8 state) is found to be more favorable than the ferromagnetic state for both fcc- and hcp-stacking. Calculated SP-STM images and spectra are also in good agreement with the experimental data for the fcc case. We performed spin spiral calculations which are mapped to a classical Heisenberg model to obtain the exchange-interaction constants. From these calculations, it is found that the AFM 7 : 8 state is energetically more favorable than all solutions of the classical Heisenberg model. While the obtained magnetic exchange constants are rather similar for the fcc and hcp stacking, a comparison with the experiments indicates that competing interactions could be responsible for the differences observed in the magnetically sensitive measurements

  9. Reading handprinted addresses on IRS tax forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanaprasad, Vemulapati; Shin, Yong-Chul; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1996-03-01

    The hand-printed address recognition system described in this paper is a part of the Name and Address Block Reader (NABR) system developed by the Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition (CEDAR). NABR is currently being used by the IRS to read address blocks (hand-print as well as machine-print) on fifteen different tax forms. Although machine- print address reading was relatively straightforward, hand-print address recognition has posed some special challenges due to demands on processing speed (with an expected throughput of 8450 forms/hour) and recognition accuracy. We discuss various subsystems involved in hand- printed address recognition, including word segmentation, word recognition, digit segmentation, and digit recognition. We also describe control strategies used to make effective use of these subsystems to maximize recognition accuracy. We present system performance on 931 address blocks in recognizing various fields, such as city, state, ZIP Code, street number and name, and personal names.

  10. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  11. Camouflage in thermal IR: spectral design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Anna; Fagerström, Jan; Kariis, Hans; Lindell, Roland; Hallberg, Tomas; Högström, Herman

    2016-10-01

    In this work a spectral designed coating from SPECTROGON is evaluated. Spectral design in this case means that the coating has a reflectivity equal to one at 3-5 and 8-12 microns were sensors operate and a much lower reflectivity in the other wave length regions. Three boxes are evaluated: one metallic, one black-body and one with a spectral designed surface, all with a 15 W radiator inside the box. It is shown that the box with the spectral designed surface can combine the two good characteristics of the other boxes: low signature from the metallic box and reasonable inside temperature from the black-body box. The measurements were verified with calculations using RadThermIR.

  12. Development of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile IR24 and IR64 Using CW-CMS/Rf17 System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriyama, Kinya; Kazama, Tomohiko

    2016-12-01

    A wild-abortive-type (WA) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) has been almost exclusively used for breeding three-line hybrid rice. Many indica cultivars are known to carry restorer genes for WA-CMS lines and cannot be used as maintainer lines. Especially elite indica cultivars IR24 and IR64 are known to be restorer lines for WA-CMS lines, and are used as male parents for hybrid seed production. If we develop CMS IR24 and CMS IR64, the combination of F1 pairs in hybrid rice breeding programs will be greatly broadened. For production of CMS lines and restorer lines of IR24 and IR64, we employed Chinese wild rice (CW)-type CMS/Restorer of fertility 17 (Rf17) system, in which fertility is restored by a single nuclear gene, Rf17. Successive backcrossing and marker-assisted selection of Rf17 succeeded to produce completely male sterile CMS lines and fully restored restorer lines of IR24 and IR64. CW-cytoplasm did not affect agronomic characteristics. Since IR64 is one of the most popular mega-varieties and used for breeding of many modern varieties, the CW-CMS line of IR64 will be useful for hybrid rice breeding.

  13. Novel cross-talk between IGF-IR and DDR1 regulates IGF-IR trafficking, signaling and biological responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Antonella; Morcavallo, Alaide; Vella, Veronica; Voci, Concetta; Spatuzza, Michela; Xu, Shi-Qiong; Iozzo, Renato V.; Vigneri, Riccardo; Morrione, Andrea; Belfiore, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR), plays a key role in regulating mammalian development and growth, and is frequently deregulated in cancer contributing to tumor initiation and progression. Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen receptor tyrosine-kinase, is as well frequently overexpressed in cancer and implicated in cancer progression. Thus, we investigated whether a functional cross-talk between the IGF-IR and DDR1 exists and plays any role in cancer progression. Using human breast cancer cells we found that DDR1 constitutively associated with the IGF-IR. However, this interaction was enhanced by IGF-I stimulation, which promoted rapid DDR1 tyrosine-phosphorylation and co-internalization with the IGF-IR. Significantly, DDR1 was critical for IGF-IR endocytosis and trafficking into early endosomes, IGF-IR protein expression and IGF-I intracellular signaling and biological effects, including cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. These biological responses were inhibited by DDR1 silencing and enhanced by DDR1 overexpression. Experiments in mouse fibroblasts co-transfected with the human IGF-IR and DDR1 gave similar results and indicated that, in the absence of IGF-IR, collagen-dependent phosphorylation of DDR1 is impaired. These results demonstrate a critical role of DDR1 in the regulation of IGF-IR action, and identify DDR1 as a novel important target for breast cancers that overexpress IGF-IR. PMID:25840417

  14. Optical design for a breadboard high-resolution spectrometer for SIRTF/IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert J.; Houck, James R.; van Cleve, Jeffrey E.

    1996-11-01

    The optical design of a breadboard high resolution infrared spectrometer for the IRS instrument on the SIRTF mission is discussed. The spectrometer uses a crossed echelle grating configuration to cover the spectral region from 10 to 20 micrometer with a resolving power of approximately equals 600. The all reflective spectrometer forms a nearly diffraction limited image of the two dimensional spectrum on a 128 multiplied by 128 arsenic doped silicon area array with 75 micrometer pixels. The design aspects discussed include, grating numerology, image quality, packaging and alignment philosophy.

  15. Inhibition of PTP1B Restores IRS1-Mediated Hepatic Insulin Signaling in IRS2-Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Gutierrez, Jose A. Mas; Sanz-González, Silvia; Ros, Manuel; Burks, Deborah J.; Valverde, Ángela M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mice with complete deletion of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) develop hyperglycemia, impaired hepatic insulin signaling, and elevated gluconeogenesis, whereas mice deficient for protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)1B display an opposing hepatic phenotype characterized by increased sensitivity to insulin. To define the relationship between these two signaling pathways in the regulation of liver metabolism, we used genetic and pharmacological approaches to study the effects of inhibiting PTP1B on hepatic insulin signaling and expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in IRS2−/− mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling in liver and isolated hepatocytes from IRS2−/− and IRS2−/−/PTP1B−/− mice. Additionally, hepatic insulin signaling was assessed in control and IRS2−/− mice treated with resveratrol, an antioxidant present in red wine. RESULTS In livers of hyperglycemic IRS2−/− mice, the expression levels of PTP1B and its association with the insulin receptor (IR) were increased. The absence of PTP1B in the double-mutant mice restored hepatic IRS1-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase/Akt/Foxo1 signaling. Moreover, resveratrol treatment of hyperglycemic IRS2−/− mice decreased hepatic PTP1B mRNA and inhibited PTP1B activity, thereby restoring IRS1-mediated PI 3-kinase/Akt/Foxo1 signaling and peripheral insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS By regulating the phosphorylation state of IR, PTB1B determines sensitivity to insulin in liver and exerts a unique role in the interplay between IRS1 and IRS2 in the modulation of hepatic insulin action. PMID:20028942

  16. Study on IR Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyue; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Yuxiang; Zeng, Yurun

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummer method and characterized. Then, the complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide in IR band was tested and its IR absorption and radiation properties were researched by correlated calculation. The results show that reduced graphene oxide prepared by hummer method are multilayered graphene with defects and functional groups on its surface. Its absorption in near and far IR bands is strong, but it’s weaker in middle IR band. At the IR atmosphere Window, its normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength increasing, and its total normal spectral emissivity in 3 ∼ 5μm and 8 ∼ 14μm are 0.75 and 0.625, respectively. Therefore, reduced graphene oxide can be used as IR absorption and coating materials and have a great potential in microwave and infrared compatible materials.

  17. Endurance test on IR rig for RI production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heung June; Youn, Y. J.; Han, H. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ryu, J. S.

    2000-12-01

    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for IR rig for RI production which were desigened and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate through the IR rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 3.12 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the IR rig ranges from 13 to 17 Hz. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the IR rig is less than 30 μm, and the maximum displacement is less than 110μm. These experimental results show that the design criteria of IR rig meet the HANARO limit conditions. Endurance test results show that the appreciable fretting wear for the IR rig does not occur, however tiny trace of wear between contact points is observed

  18. IV-VI mid-IR tunable lasers and detectors with external resonant cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zogg, H.; Rahim, M.; Khiar, A.; Fill, M.; Felder, F.; Quack, N.; Blunier, S.; Dual, J.

    2009-08-01

    Wavelength tunable emitters and detectors in the mid-IR wavelength region allow applications including thermal imaging and spectroscopy. Such devices may be realized using a resonant cavity. By mechanically changing the cavity length with MEMS mirror techniques, the wavelengths may be tuned over a considerable range. Vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSEL) may be applied for gas spectroscopy. Resonant cavity enhanced detectors (RCED) are sensitive at the cavity resonance only. They may be applied for low resolution spectroscopy, and, when arrays of such detectors are realized, as multicolor IR-FPA or IR-AFPA (IR-adaptive focal plane arrays). We review mid-infrared RCEDs and VECSELs using narrow gap IV-VI (lead chalcogenide) materials like PbTe and PbSe as the active medium. IV-VIs are fault tolerant and allow easy wavelength tuning. The VECSELs operate up to above room temperature and emit in the 4 - 5 μm range with a PbSe active layer. RCEDs with PbTe absorbing layers above 200 K operating temperature have higher sensitivities than the theoretical limit for a similar broad-band detector coupled with a passive tunable band-filter.

  19. IR sensor for monitoring of burner flame; IR sensor foer oevervakning av braennarflamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanberg, Marcus; Funkquist, Jonas; Clausen, Soennik; Wetterstroem, Jonas

    2007-12-15

    To obtain a smooth operation of the coal-fired power plants many power plant managers have installed online mass flow measurement of coal to all burners. This signal is used to monitor the coal mass flow to the individual burner and match it with appropriate amount of air and also to monitor the distribution of coal between the burners. The online mass flow measurement system is very expensive (approximately 150 kEUR for ten burners) and is not beneficial for smaller plants. The accuracy of the measurement and the sample frequency are also questionable. The idea in this project has been to evaluate a cheaper system that can present the same information and may also provide better accuracy and faster sample frequency. The infrared sensor is a cheap narrow banded light emission sensor that can be placed in a water cooed probe. The sensor was directed at the burner flame and the emitted light was monitored. Through calibration the mass flow of coal can be presented. Two measurement campaigns were performed. Both campaigns were carried out in Nordjyllandsverket in Denmark even though the second campaign was planned to be in Uppsala. Due to severe problems in the Uppsala plant the campaign was moved to Nordjyllandsverket. The pre-requisites for the test plant were that online measurement of coal flow was installed. In Nordjyllandsverket 4 out of 16 burners have the mass flow measurement installed. Risoe Laboratories has vast experiences in the IR technology and they provided the IR sensing equipment. One IR sensor was placed in the flame guard position just behind the flame directed towards the ignition zone. A second sensor was placed at the boiler wall directed towards the flame. The boiler wall position did not give any results and the location was not used during the second campaign. The flame-guard-positioned-sensor- signal was thoroughly evaluated and the results show that there is a clear correlation between the coal mass flow and the IR sensor signal. Tests were

  20. A spatial study of the mid-IR emission features in four Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, C.; Peeters, E.; Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; van der Wolk, G.; Verhoeff, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Pel, J. W.

    Context. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging provide a prime tool to study the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and the mineralogy in regions of star formation. Herbig Ae/Be stars are known to have varying amounts of natal cloud material present in their

  1. Sediment dispersal during ne monsoon over northern Bay of Bengal: Preliminary results using IRS-P4 OCM data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anuradha, T.; Suneethi, J.; Dash, S.K.; Pradhan, Y.; Prasad, J.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    False Color Composite (FCC) from the sequential satellite images of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-P4 OCM (bands around 443, 555, and 845 nm) together with sea truth data acquisition at 42 stations along the Orissa coast have been used...

  2. Change detection by the IR-MAD and kernel MAF methods in Landsat TM data covering a Swedish forest region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Olsson, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    Change over time between two 512 by 512 (25 m by 25 m pixels) multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper images dated 6 June 1986 and 27 June 1988 respectively covering a forested region in northern Sweden, is here detected by means of the iteratively reweighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-M...

  3. New Ir Bis-Carbonyl Precursor for Water Oxidation Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Daria L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Beltrán-Suito, Rodrigo [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Thomsen, Julianne M. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Hashmi, Sara M. [Department of Chemical and Environmental; Materna, Kelly L. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Sheehan, Stafford W. [Catalytic Innovations LLC, 70 Crandall; Mercado, Brandon Q. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Brudvig, Gary W. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225; Crabtree, Robert H. [Department of Chemistry, Yale University, 225

    2016-02-05

    This paper introduces IrI(CO)2(pyalc) (pyalc = (2-pyridyl)-2-propanoate) as an atom-efficient precursor for Ir-based homogeneous oxidation catalysis. This compound was chosen to simplify analysis of the water oxidation catalyst species formed by the previously reported Cp*IrIII(pyalc)OH water oxidation precatalyst. Here, we present a comparative study on the chemical and catalytic properties of these two precursors. Previous studies show that oxidative activation of Cp*Ir-based precursors with NaIO4 results in formation of a blue IrIV species. This activation is concomitant with the loss of the placeholder Cp* ligand which oxidatively degrades to form acetic acid, iodate, and other obligatory byproducts. The activation process requires substantial amounts of primary oxidant, and the degradation products complicate analysis of the resulting IrIV species. The species formed from oxidation of the Ir(CO)2(pyalc) precursor, on the other hand, lacks these degradation products (the CO ligands are easily lost upon oxidation) which allows for more detailed examination of the resulting Ir(pyalc) active species both catalytically and spectroscopically, although complete structural analysis is still elusive. Once Ir(CO)2(pyalc) is activated, the system requires acetic acid or acetate to prevent the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of the activated bis-carbonyl complex also suggests several Ir(pyalc) isomers may exist in solution. By 1H NMR, activated Ir(CO)2(pyalc) has fewer isomers than activated Cp*Ir complexes, allowing for advanced characterization. Future research in this direction is expected to contribute to a better structural understanding of the active species. A diol crystallization agent was needed for the structure determination of 3.

  4. Įvairialyčiai lantano ir mangano oksido ir multiferoinio bismuto ferito heterodariniai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifacas VENGALIS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastaruoju metu naujų elektronikos prietaisų gamyboje buvo pasiekta didelė pažanga auginant, tyrinėjant ir pritaikant plonasluoksnes struktūras, sudarytas iš įvairių daugiakomponenčių funkcinių oksidų. Šiai oksidų grupei priklauso superlaidieji kupratai, mangano oksidai (manganitai, pasižymintys magnetovaržos reiškiniu, taip pat kiti feromagnetiniai, feroelektriniai, multiferoiniai oksidai. Manganitams (jų bendra formulė Ln1-xAxMnO3, kur Ln = La, Nd,..., o A - dvivalentis katijonas, toks kaip Ba, Sr ar Ca skiriama daug dėmesio dėl jų įdomių elektrinių savybių bei tinkamumo įvairiems spintronikos prietaisams kurti. Multiferoikai  (feroelektriniai feromagnetai pasižymi magnetoelektriniu efektu, duodančiu unikalią galimybę elektrinėms ir magnetinėms medžiagos savybėms valdyti panaudoti elektrinius ir magnetinius laukus. Bismuto feritas BiFeO3 (BFO, turintis romboedriškai deformuotą perovskito struktūrą, šiuo metu yra vienas labiausiai tyrinėjamų šios klasės junginių. Organiniai puslaidininkiai (OP taip pat atveria daug naujų galimybių elektronikai. Jų pranašumas yra didelė organinių junginių įvairovė ir palyginti paprasta ir pigi plonų sluoksnių gamybos technologija. Be to, OP pasižymi neįprastai didelėmis sukinių relaksacijos laiko vertėmis, todėl ateityje jie gali būti naudojami naujiems spintronikos prietaisams gaminti. Šiame straipsnyje apžvelgiami pastarųjų metų darbo autorių ir jų kolegų atlikti anksčiau minėtų medžiagų tyrimai. Daugiausia dėmesio skiriama magnetovaržinėmis savybėmis pasižyminčių lantano ir mangano oksidų (manganitų bei multiferoinio  BiFeO3 (BFO junginio plonųjų sluoksnių ir heterodarinių auginimui, tarpfazinių ribų tarp minėtų oksidų, laidžiojo SrTiO3 ir organinio puslaidininkio (Alq3 sudarymui, taip pat elektrinėms heterodarinių savybėms. Plonieji La2/3A1/3MnO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Ce sluoksniai, kurių storis d

  5. Role of IRS-2 in insulin and cytokine signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X J; Wang, L M; Zhang, Y; Yenush, L; Myers, M G; Glasheen, E; Lane, W S; Pierce, J H; White, M F

    1995-09-14

    The protein IRS-1 acts as an interface between signalling proteins with Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) and the receptors for insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL-4, IL-9, IL-13) and other cytokines. It regulates gene expression and stimulates mitogenesis, and appears to mediate insulin/IGF-1-stimulated glucose transport. Thus, survival of the IRS-1-/- mouse with only mild resistance to insulin was surprising. This dilemma is provisionally resolved with our discovery of a second IRS-signalling protein. We purified and cloned a likely candidate called 4PS from myeloid progenitor cells and, because of its resemblance to IRS-1, we designate it IRS-2. Alignment of the sequences of IRS-2 and IRS-1 revealed a highly conserved amino terminus containing a pleckstrin-homology domain and a phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and a poorly conserved carboxy terminus containing several tyrosine phosphorylation motifs. IRS-2 is expressed in many cells, including tissues from IRS-1-/- mice, and may be essential for signalling by several receptor systems.

  6. Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) IRS Medicare Part D

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA uses the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) information in determing the eligibility of Medicare recipients to receive subsidy payments for Medicare premiums. SSA...

  7. Thermal particle image velocity estimation of fire plume flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyang Zhou; Lulu Sun; Shankar Mahalingam; David R. Weise

    2003-01-01

    For the purpose of studying wildfire spread in living vegetation such as chaparral in California, a thermal particle image velocity (TPIV) algorithm for nonintrusively measuring flame gas velocities through thermal infrared (IR) imagery was developed. By tracing thermal particles in successive digital IR images, the TPIV algorithm can estimate the velocity field in a...

  8. Distinct signalling properties of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 and IRS-2 in mediating insulin/IGF-1 action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee, Atefeh; Krüger, Marcus; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jacob; Kahn, C Ronald; Emanuelli, Brice

    2018-07-01

    Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type, IRS-1 -/- and IRS-2 -/- mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states. We applied stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) for the accurate quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation. We found ~10% of the 6262 unique phosphorylation sites detected to be regulated by IGF-1. These regulated sites included previously reported substrates of the insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway, as well as novel substrates including Nuclear Factor I X and Semaphorin-4B. In silico prediction suggests the protein kinase B (PKB), protein kinase C (PKC), and cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) as the main mediators of these phosphorylation events. Importantly, we found preferential phosphorylation patterns depending on the presence of either IRS-1 or IRS-2, which was associated with specific sets of kinases involved in signal transduction downstream of these substrates such as PDHK1, MAPK3, and PKD1 for IRS-1, and PIN1 and PKC beta for IRS-2. Overall, by generating a comprehensive phosphoproteomic profile from brown preadipocyte cells in response to IGF-1 stimulation, we reveal both common and distinct insulin/IGF-1 signalling events mediated by specific IRS proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  10. Liquid Crystals, PIV and IR-Photography in Selected Technical and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiek, Jan; Jewartowski, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC), Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), Infrared Imaging Themography (IR) and True-Colour Digital Image Processing (TDIP) have been successfully used in non-intrusive technical, industrial and biomedical studies and applications. These four tools (based on the desktop computers) have come together during the past two decades to produce a powerful advanced experimental technique as a judgment of quality of information that cannot be obtained from any other imaging procedure. The brief summary of the history of this technique is reviewed, principal methods and tools are described and some examples are presented. With this objective, a new experimental technique have been developed and applied to the study of heat and mass transfer and for biomedical diagnosis. Automated evaluation allows determining the heat and flow visualisation and locate the area of suspicious tissue of human body.

  11. Optimization of three-dimensional triple IR fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (FSPGR) to decrease vascular artifact at 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Fukuya, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Isao; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Ishimori, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Hirohiko; Miyati, Tosiaki

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to decrease vascular artifacts caused by the in-flow effect in three-dimensional inversion recovery prepared fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D IR FSPGR) at 3.0 Tesla. We developed 3D triple IR (3IR) FSPGR and examined the signal characteristics of the new sequence. We have optimized scan parameters based on simulation, phantom, and in-vivo studies. As a result, optimized parameters (1st TI=600 ms, 3rd TI=500 ms) successfully have produced the vessel signal at more than 40% reduction, while gray-white matter contrast was preserved. Moreover, the reduced artifact was also confirmed by visual inspection of the in-vivo images for which this condition was used. Thus, 3D 3IR FSPGR was a useful sequence for the acquisition of T1-weighted images at 3.0 Tesla. (author)

  12. 4D MR imaging using robust internal respiratory signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, CheukKai; Wen, Zhifei; Beddar, Sam; Stemkens, Bjorn; Tijssen, R H N; Van den Berg, C A T; Hwang, Ken-Pin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using internal respiratory (IR) surrogates to sort four-dimensional (4D) magnetic resonance (MR) images. The 4D MR images were constructed by acquiring fast 2D cine MR images sequentially, with each slice scanned for more than one breathing cycle. The 4D volume was then sorted retrospectively using the IR signal. In this study, we propose to use multiple low-frequency components in the Fourier space as well as the anterior body boundary as potential IR surrogates. From these potential IR surrogates, we used a clustering algorithm to identify those that best represented the respiratory pattern to derive the IR signal. A study with healthy volunteers was performed to assess the feasibility of the proposed IR signal. We compared this proposed IR signal with the respiratory signal obtained using respiratory bellows. Overall, 99% of the IR signals matched the bellows signals. The average difference between the end inspiration times in the IR signal and bellows signal was 0.18 s in this cohort of matching signals. For the acquired images corresponding to the other 1% of non-matching signal pairs, the respiratory motion shown in the images was coherent with the respiratory phases determined by the IR signal, but not the bellows signal. This suggested that the IR signal determined by the proposed method could potentially correct the faulty bellows signal. The sorted 4D images showed minimal mismatched artefacts and potential clinical applicability. The proposed IR signal therefore provides a feasible alternative to effectively sort MR images in 4D. (paper)

  13. Residual stress in silicon wafer using IR polariscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhijia; Wang, Pin; Asundi, Anand

    2008-09-01

    The infrared phase shift polariscope (IR-PSP) is a full-field optical technique for stress analysis in Silicon wafers. Phase shift polariscope is preferred to a conventional polariscope, as it can provide quantitative information of the normal stress difference and the shear stress in the specimen. The method is based on the principles of photoelasticity, in which stresses induces temporary birefringence in materials which can be quantitatively analyzed using a phase shift polariscope. Compared to other stress analysis techniques such as x-ray diffraction or laser scanning, infrared photoelastic stress analysis provides full-field information with high resolution and in near real time. As the semiconductor fabrication is advancing, larger wafers, thinner films and more compact packages are being manufactured. This results in a growing demand of process control. Residual stress exist in silicon during semiconductor fabrication and these stresses may make cell processing difficult or even cause the failure of the silicon. Reducing these stresses would improve manufacturability and reliability. Therefore stress analysis is essential to trace the root cause of the stresses. The polariscope images are processed using MATLAB and four-step phase shifting method to provide quantitative as well as qualitative information regarding the residual stress of the sample. The system is calibrated using four-point bend specimen and then the residual stress distribution in a MEMS sample is shown.

  14. Structural, phase stability, electronic, elastic properties and hardness of IrN{sub 2} and zinc blende IrN: First-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhaobo [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Yunnan Province & Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Non-Ferrous and Precious Rare Metals Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhou, Xiaolong, E-mail: kmzxlong@163.com [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Yunnan Province & Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Non-Ferrous and Precious Rare Metals Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhang, Kunhua [State Key Laboratory of Rare Precious Metals Comprehensive Utilization of New Technologies, Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China)

    2016-12-15

    First-principle calculations were performed to investigate the structural, phase stability, electronic, elastic properties and hardness of monoclinic structure IrN{sub 2} (m-IrN{sub 2}), orthorhombic structure IrN{sub 2} (o-IrN{sub 2}) and zinc blende structure IrN (ZB IrN). The results show us that only m-IrN{sub 2} is both thermodynamic and dynamic stability. The calculated band structure and density of states (DOS) curves indicate that o-IrN{sub 2} and ZB Ir-N compounds we calculated have metallic behavior while m-IrN{sub 2} has a small band gap of ~0.3 eV, and exist a common hybridization between Ir-5d and N-2p states, which forming covalent bonding between Ir and N atoms. The difference charge density reveals the electron transfer from Ir atom to N atom for three Ir-N compounds, which forming strong directional covalent bonds. Notable, a strong N-N bond appeared in m-IrN{sub 2} and o-IrN{sub 2}. The ratio of bulk to shear modulus (B/G) indicate that three Ir-N compounds we calculated are ductile, and ZB IrN possesses a better ductility than two types IrN{sub 2}. m-IrN{sub 2} has highest Debye temperature (736 K), illustrating it possesses strongest covalent bonding. The hardness of three Ir-N compounds were also calculated, and the results reveal that m-IrN{sub 2} (18.23 GPa) and o-IrN{sub 2} (18.02 GPa) are ultraincompressible while ZB IrN has a negative value, which may be attributed to phase transition at ca. 1.98 GPa.

  15. Remote thermal IR surveying to detect abandoned mineshafts in former mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, D.A.; Marsh, S.H.; Gibson, A.; Ager, G.J.; McManus, K.B.; Caunt, S.; Culshaw, M.G. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    In former mining areas it is critical to locate unknown, abandoned mineshafts prior to the development of a site. Abandoned mineshafts are ground disturbances that have very localized effects on the morphology and the physical, chemical, drainage and moisture properties of the surface geological materials and thus thermo-physical properties. Remotely sensed thermal IR surveys provide the potential for a rapid, inexpensive and non-intrusive technique for mineshaft detection. The key parameters of thermal IR radiation and the application of remote thermal IR surveys to planning are described, using case histories from former mining areas in Lancashire, Yorkshire and Nottinghamshire. Field-measured IR temperature differences correlated well with different ground conditions caused by changes in vegetation, disturbance, compaction and moisture-drainage regimes. A thermal anomaly over an area of c. 6 m{sup 2} above a known mineshaft was characterized by traces of methane and temperatures higher by 0.5-1{sup o}C than those of the adjacent ground surface. Using thermal IR images, collected with the Daedalus 1260 Airborne Thematic Mapper, a scheme was developed to classify and map mineshafts with and without any observed visual characteristics. When applied using thermal imagery obtained from commercial flights the scheme identified several potential sites of abandoned mineshafts in an area designated for the redevelopment of the Nottingham Business Park, East Midlands. The thermal anomalies were associated with minor topographic features such as mounds, depressions and dereliction, as well as compositional features caused by coal enrichment and Coal Measures mudstone infill. These features had very little surface expression and were confirmed only using soil stripping.

  16. Technical specification for IR rig manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Hyon Soo; Cho, W. K.; Kim, S. D.; Park, U. J.; Hong, S. B.; Yoo, K. M

    2000-10-01

    IR Rig is one of the equipments are required in HANARO core for a radioisotope target. The various conditions like high radiation, high heat, rapid flow and vibration may cause swelling, Brittleness and acceleration of corrosion in HANARO core. These specific problems can be prevented and the safety of such equipment are prerequisite as well as durableness and surveillance. Therefore, the selection of material has to be made on the basis of small cross-section area, low energy emission by the gamma ray due to the absorption of neutron and short half life. The body is consist of aluminum and Inconel-750 was used for the internal spring(coil) which is known to be durable. The whole production process including the purchase of accessory, mechanical processing, welding and assembly was carried out according to the standard procedure to meet the requirement. A design, manufacture, utilization of reactor core and the other relevant uses were fit to class ''T'' to certify the whole process as general. And design, fabrication, analytical test, materials and accessory were carried out based on the ASME, ASTM, ANSI, AWS, JIS and KS standard.

  17. Characterization of Hydrogen Bonds by IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojta, D.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the identification and quantification of hydrogen bond, as one of the most abundant non-covalent interactions in phenomena like self-assembly and molecular recognition, IR spectrosopy has been employed as the most sensitive method. The performance of the high dilution method enables determination of the stability constant of hydrogen-bonded complex as one of the most important thermodynamic quantities used in their characterization. However, the alleged experimental simplicity of the mentioned method is loaded with errors originating not only from researcher intervention but also independent from it. The second source of error is particularly emphasized and elaborated in this paper, which is designed as the recipe for the successful characterization of hydrogen bonds. Besides the enumeration of all steps in the determination of hydrogen-bonded stability constants, the reader can be acquainted with the most important ex perimental conditions that should be fulfilled in order to minimize the naturally occurring errors in this type of investigation. In the spectral analysis, the application of both uni- and multivariate approach has been discussed. Some computer packages, considering the latter, are mentioned, described, and recommended. KUI -10/2012Received August 1, 2011Accepted October 24, 2011

  18. The nature of OH/IR stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, J.

    1983-01-01

    In this work masers in evolved stars are studied, in particular the emission from the OH radical. The time variability of the OH masers was measured over a period of five years with the Dwingeloo Radio Telescope. These single-dish observations proved that most of the underlying stars are very long period variables, apparently a kind of extension of the well-known long period Mira variables. The mean OH fluxes and epochs were obtained as well as a confirmation of the radiative coupling between the maser and the star (by comparison with infrared data provided by other observers), the degree of saturation, and, most important of all, a determination of the linear dimensions of the circumstellar shells. Multi-element interferometer observations were made in order to study the spatial structure of OH masers. By combining the phase lag measurements and the spatial extent distances to individual stars could be determined with a high, unprecedented accuracy. Infrared broad-band photometry was done in the wavelength region from 3 μm to 20 μm, where most of the energy of these objects is radiated. The space density and galactic distribution of OH/IR stars are discussed and compared with the appearance of OH masers in the solar neighbourhood. (Auth.)

  19. Operational experience - Lessons learned from IRS-reports in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, N.; Maqua, M.

    2005-01-01

    The international Incident Reporting System (IRS), jointly operated by IAEA and OECD-NEA, is a main source of safety significant findings and lessons learned of nuclear operating experience. GRS (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH) is a scientific-technical expert and research organisation. On Behalf of the Federal Minister of Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU), GRS provides the IRS officer. The evaluation of IRS-Reports and the dissemination of the main findings including the assessment of the relevance for German NPPs is task of GRS. The value of IRS is among experts undoubted. But nevertheless, the reporting to IRS decreases since some years. This presentation is aimed to show the support of IRS in strengthening the safety of German NPPs. The evaluation of IRS-Reports at GRS is three-fold. It comprises initial screening, quarterly and yearly reporting and the development of specific German Information Notices on safety significant events with direct applicability to German NPPs. Some examples of lessons learned from recent international events are discussed below. These examples shall demonstrate that the use of the IRS enhances significantly the knowledge on operational events. (author)

  20. NaIrO3-A pentavalent post-perovskite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremholm, M.; Dutton, S.E.; Stephens, P.W.; Cava, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium iridium (V) oxide, NaIrO 3, was synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions. It is found to be isostructural with CaIrO 3 , the much-studied structural analog of the high-pressure post-perovskite phase of MgSiO 3 . Among the oxide post-perovskites, NaIrO 3 is the first example with a pentavalent cation. The structure consists of layers of corner- and edge-sharing IrO 6 octahedra separated by layers of NaO 8 bicapped trigonal prisms. NaIrO 3 shows no magnetic ordering and resistivity measurements show non-metallic behavior. The crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties are discussed and compared to known post-perovskites and pentavalent perovskite metal oxides. -- Graphical abstract: Sodium iridium(V) oxide, NaIrO 3 , synthesized by a high pressure solid state method and recovered to ambient conditions is found to crystallize as the post-perovskite structure and is the first example of a pentavalent ABO 3 post-perovskite. Research highlights: → NaIrO 3 post-perovskite stabilized by pressure. → First example of a pentavalent oxide post-perovskite. → Non-metallic and non-magnetic behavior of NaIrO 3 .

  1. Digital Signal Processing Based on a Clustering Algorithm for Ir/Au TES Microcalorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, N.; Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Hiramoto, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ukibe, M.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, cryogenic microcalorimeters using their superconducting transition edge have been under development for possible application to the research for astronomical X-ray observations. To improve the energy resolution of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES), several correction methods have been developed. Among them, a clustering method based on digital signal processing has recently been proposed. In this paper, we applied the clustering method to Ir/Au bilayer TES. This method resulted in almost a 10% improvement in the energy resolution. Conversely, from the point of view of imaging X-ray spectroscopy, we applied the clustering method to pixellated Ir/Au-TES devices. We will thus show how a clustering method which sorts signals by their shapes is also useful for position identification

  2. Plume characteristics and dynamics of UV and IR laser-desorbed oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, Tony L; Timson, David J; Hunniford, C Adam; Catney, Martin; McCullough, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Laser desorption of dye-tagged oligonucleotides was studied using laser-induced fluorescence imaging. Desorption with ultra violet (UV) and infra-red (IR) lasers resulted in forward directed plumes of molecules. In the case of UV desorption, the initial shot desorbed approximately seven-fold more material than subsequent shots. In contrast, the initial shot in IR desorption resulted in the ejection of less material compared to subsequent shots and these plumes had a component directed along the path of the laser. Thermal equilibrium of the molecules in the plume was achieved after approximately 25 μs with a spread in molecular temperature which was described by a modified Maxwell-Boltzmann equation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DEEP KECK u-BAND IMAGING OF THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: A CATALOG OF z ∼ 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Cooke, Jeff; Chen, H.-W.; Armandroff, Taft E.; Wirth, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a sample of 407 z ∼ 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to a limiting isophotal u-band magnitude of 27.6 mag in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The LBGs are selected using a combination of photometric redshifts and the u-band drop-out technique enabled by the introduction of an extremely deep u-band image obtained with the Keck I telescope and the blue channel of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The Keck u-band image, totaling 9 hr of integration time, has a 1σ depth of 30.7 mag arcsec -2 , making it one of the most sensitive u-band images ever obtained. The u-band image also substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of ∼50% of the z ∼ 3 LBGs, significantly reducing the traditional degeneracy of colors between z ∼ 3 and z ∼ 0.2 galaxies. This sample provides the most sensitive, high-resolution multi-filter imaging of reliably identified z ∼ 3 LBGs for morphological studies of galaxy formation and evolution and the star formation efficiency of gas at high redshift.

  4. Defense Strategy of Aircraft Confronted with IR Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesong Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface-type infrared (IR decoy can simulate the IR characteristics of the target aircraft, which is one of the most effective equipment to confront IR guided missile. In the air combat, the IR guided missile poses a serious threat to the aircraft when it comes from the front of target aircraft. In this paper, firstly, the model of aircraft and surface-type IR decoy is established. To ensure their authenticity, the aircraft maneuver and radiation models based on real data of flight and exhaust system radiation in the state of different heights and different speeds are established. Secondly, the most effective avoidance maneuver is simulated when the missile comes from the front of the target aircraft. Lastly, combining maneuver with decoys, the best defense strategy is analysed when the missile comes from the front of aircraft. The result of simulation, which is authentic, is propitious to avoid the missile and improve the survivability of aircraft.

  5. General report IRS-literature 1965-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.

    1976-12-01

    The Institut fuer Reaktorsicherheit der TUeV e.V. (IRS) is of central importance in matters of licensing. It was jointly founded in 1965 by the eleven TUeVs of the Federal Republic of Germany and West-Berlin, by the Germanischer Lloyd and the then Federal Ministry for Scientific Research. After 12 sucsessful years the IRS will terminate its activities on December 31st, 1976, and together with the Laboratorium fuer Reaktorregelung und Anlagensicherung (LRA) at the TU Munich, Garching, it will be from January 1st, 1977 onwards part of the Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, a newly founded corporation. The activities of IRS and LRA will be continued by the GRS starting from January 1st, 1977. All IRS' report series and information services listed in this report are thus running out. The new corporation will build up its publications on the basis of the experience gained by IRS and LRA. (orig.) [de

  6. Crystal growth and characterization of Ir-Te compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzhals, Philipp; Weber, Frank; Zocco, Diego; Adelmann, Peter; Merz, Michael; Wolf, Thomas; Kuntz, Sebastian; Grube, Kai [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    IrTe{sub 2} is distinguished by a structural phase transition whose origin is not understood up to the present day. We grew crystals using the self-flux method starting from the reagents iridium and tellurium and got specimen with varying amounts of IrTe{sub 2} and Ir{sub 3}Te{sub 8}, analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction. We studied the transition near T = 280 K in magnetization measurements down to T = 1.8 K probing also for superconductivity, which was reported for intercalated samples. Results indicate that the structural transition happens over an extended range in temperature and superconductivity is absent in our samples. Ir{sub 3}Te{sub 8} is not studied to such an extent as IrTe{sub 2}. In previous publications a structural phase transition is reported. We characterized the transition by performing magnetization measurements and X-ray diffraction.

  7. The effect of test dose and first IR stimulation temperature on post-IR IRSL measurements of rock slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Murray, Andrew; Sohbati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    lies close to the laboratory saturation levels only for higher first IR stimulation temperatures e.g. 200°C or 250°C. Our data confirm earlier suggestions based on sand-grain measurements that, for older sam-ples, accurate measurements close to saturation require that a higher first IR temperature...

  8. β-Isocyanoalanine as an IR probe: comparison of vibrational dynamics between isonitrile and nitrile-derivatized IR probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Michał; Ahn, Changwoo; Kossowska, Dorota; Park, Kwanghee; Kwak, Kyungwon; Han, Hogyu; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-05-07

    An infrared (IR) probe based on isonitrile (NC)-derivatized alanine 1 was synthesized and the vibrational properties of its NC stretching mode were investigated using FTIR and femtosecond IR pump-probe spectroscopy. It is found that the NC stretching mode is very sensitive to the hydrogen-bonding ability of solvent molecules. Moreover, its transition dipole strength is larger than that of nitrile (CN) in nitrile-derivatized IR probe 2. The vibrational lifetime of the NC stretching mode is found to be 5.5 ± 0.2 ps in both D2O and DMF solvents, which is several times longer than that of the azido (N3) stretching mode in azido-derivatized IR probe 3. Altogether these properties suggest that the NC group can be a very promising sensing moiety of IR probes for studying the solvation structure and dynamics of biomolecules.

  9. Image, Image, Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    With all the talk today about accountability, budget cuts, and the closing of programs in public education, teachers cannot overlook the importance of image in the field of industrial technology. It is very easy for administrators to cut ITE (industrial technology education) programs to save school money--money they might shift to teaching the…

  10. Covalent IR820-PEG-diamine nanoconjugates for theranostic applications in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Fernandez A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Fernandez-Fernandez,1,2 Romila Manchanda,1,3 Denny Carvajal,1,4 Tingjun Lei,1,5 Supriya Srinivasan,1 Anthony J McGoron11Biomedical Engineering Department, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 2Physical Therapy Department, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA; 3Chemistry Department, Galgotias University, Greater Noida, UP, India; 4Mount Sinai Medical Center, 5Cirle, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Near-infrared dyes can be used as theranostic agents in cancer management, based on their optical imaging and localized hyperthermia capabilities. However, their clinical translatability is limited by issues such as photobleaching, short circulation times, and nonspecific biodistribution. Nanoconjugate formulations of cyanine dyes, such as IR820, may be able to overcome some of these limitations. We covalently conjugated IR820 with 6 kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG-diamine to create a nanoconjugate (IRPDcov with potential for in vivo applications. The conjugation process resulted in nearly spherical, uniformly distributed nanoparticles of approximately 150 nm diameter and zeta potential -0.4±0.3 mV. The IRPDcov formulation retained the ability to fluoresce and to cause hyperthermia-mediated cell-growth inhibition, with enhanced internalization and significantly enhanced cytotoxic hyperthermia effects in cancer cells compared with free dye. Additionally, IRPDcov demonstrated a significantly longer (P<0.05 plasma half-life, elimination half-life, and area under the curve (AUC value compared with IR820, indicating larger overall exposure to the theranostic agent in mice. The IRPDcov conjugate had different organ localization than did free IR820, with potential reduced accumulation in the kidneys and significantly lower (P<0.05 accumulation in the lungs. Some potential advantages of IR820-PEG-diamine nanoconjugates may include passive targeting of tumor tissue through the enhanced permeability and retention effect, prolonged

  11. New impressive capabilities of SE-workbench for EO/IR real-time rendering of animated scenarios including flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2015-10-01

    To provide technical assessments of EO/IR flares and self-protection systems for aircraft, DGA Information superiority resorts to synthetic image generation to model the operational battlefield of an aircraft, as viewed by EO/IR threats. For this purpose, it completed the SE-Workbench suite from OKTAL-SE with functionalities to predict a realistic aircraft IR signature and is yet integrating the real-time EO/IR rendering engine of SE-Workbench called SE-FAST-IR. This engine is a set of physics-based software and libraries that allows preparing and visualizing a 3D scene for the EO/IR domain. It takes advantage of recent advances in GPU computing techniques. The recent past evolutions that have been performed concern mainly the realistic and physical rendering of reflections, the rendering of both radiative and thermal shadows, the use of procedural techniques for the managing and the rendering of very large terrains, the implementation of Image- Based Rendering for dynamic interpolation of plume static signatures and lastly for aircraft the dynamic interpolation of thermal states. The next step is the representation of the spectral, directional, spatial and temporal signature of flares by Lacroix Defense using OKTAL-SE technology. This representation is prepared from experimental data acquired during windblast tests and high speed track tests. It is based on particle system mechanisms to model the different components of a flare. The validation of a flare model will comprise a simulation of real trials and a comparison of simulation outputs to experimental results concerning the flare signature and above all the behavior of the stimulated threat.

  12. Patient Safety in Interventional Radiology: A CIRSE IR Checklist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) is an invasive speciality with the potential for complications as with other invasive specialities. The World Health Organization (WHO) produced a surgical safety checklist to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery. The Cardiovascular and Interventional Society of Europe (CIRSE) set up a task force to produce a checklist for IR. Use of the checklist will, we hope, reduce the incidence of complications after IR procedures. It has been modified from the WHO surgical safety checklist and the RAD PASS from Holland.

  13. Solubility and IR studies of gamma-irradiated arabinoxylan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebringerova, A.; Kacurakova, M.; Hromadkova, Z.; Pruzinec, J.

    1989-01-01

    The structural and solubility changes of a water-insoluble arabinoxylan with a low degree of branching was studied after γ-irradiation by IR spectroscopy and chemical analysis of the polysaccharide and its polymeric fractions. New functional groups like hydroperoxidic, carbonylic and endiolic ones were found after irradiation. The IR spectra shows that the structural changes involved by radiolytic treatment are reflected in the shape of the IR spectra of both polymeric fractions. The ratio of absorbance of the peaks at 1725 and 2920 cm -1 increased with radiation dose. (author) 17 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Chlorination of (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc by Thionyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pincer (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc (2 (Phebox = 3,5-dimethylphenyl-2,6-bis(oxazolinyl complex, formed by benzylic C-H activation of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene using (PheboxIr(OAc2OH2 (1, was treated with thionyl chloride to rapidly form 1-(chloromethyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene in 50% yield at 23 °C. A green species was obtained at the end of reaction, which decomposed during flash column chromatography to form (PheboxIrCl2OH2 in 87% yield.

  15. Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Tsonko

    2011-01-01

    A technique that is useful in the study of pharmaceutical products and biological molecules, polarization IR spectroscopy has undergone continuous development since it first emerged almost 100 years ago. Capturing the state of the science as it exists today, "Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis" demonstrates how the technique can be properly utilized to obtain important information about the structure and spectral properties of oriented compounds. The book starts with the theoretical basis of linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscop

  16. Ion beam synthesis of IrSi3 by implantation of 2 MeV Ir ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.; Chisholm, M.F.; Hinneberg, H.J.

    1992-11-01

    Formation of a buried IrSi 3 layer in (111) oriented Si by ion implantation and annealing has been studied at an implantation energy of 2 MeV for substrate temperatures of 450--550C. Rutherford backscattering (RBS), ion channeling and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that a buried epitaxial IrSi 3 layer is produced at 550C by implanting ≥ 3.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 and subsequently annealing for 1 h at 1000C plus 5 h at 1100C. At a dose of 3.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 , the thickness of the layer varied between 120 and 190 nm and many large IrSi 3 precipitates were present above and below the film. Increasing the dose to 4.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 improved the layer uniformity at the expense of increased lattice damage in the overlying Si. RBS analysis of layer formation as a function of substrate temperature revealed the competition between the mechanisms for optimizing surface crystallinity vs. IrSi 3 layer formation. Little apparent substrate temperature dependence was evident in the as-implanted state but after annealing the crystallinity of the top Si layer was observed to deteriorate with increasing substrate temperature while the precipitate coarsening and coalescence improved

  17. Automated recognition and tracking of aerosol threat plumes with an IR camera pod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth, Ryan; Powell, Christopher; Gruber, Thomas; Clapp, Dan

    2012-06-01

    Protection of fixed sites from chemical, biological, or radiological aerosol plume attacks depends on early warning so that there is time to take mitigating actions. Early warning requires continuous, autonomous, and rapid coverage of large surrounding areas; however, this must be done at an affordable cost. Once a potential threat plume is detected though, a different type of sensor (e.g., a more expensive, slower sensor) may be cued for identification purposes, but the problem is to quickly identify all of the potential threats around the fixed site of interest. To address this problem of low cost, persistent, wide area surveillance, an IR camera pod and multi-image stitching and processing algorithms have been developed for automatic recognition and tracking of aerosol plumes. A rugged, modular, static pod design, which accommodates as many as four micro-bolometer IR cameras for 45deg to 180deg of azimuth coverage, is presented. Various OpenCV1 based image-processing algorithms, including stitching of multiple adjacent FOVs, recognition of aerosol plume objects, and the tracking of aerosol plumes, are presented using process block diagrams and sample field test results, including chemical and biological simulant plumes. Methods for dealing with the background removal, brightness equalization between images, and focus quality for optimal plume tracking are also discussed.

  18. High-resolution focal plane array IR detection modules and digital signal processing technologies at AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Eberhardt, Kurt; Oelmaier, Reinhard; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2000-07-01

    Full video format focal plane array (FPA) modules with up to 640 X 512 pixels have been developed for high resolution imaging applications in either mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) mid wave (MWIR) infrared (IR) or platinum silicide (PtSi) and quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology as low cost alternatives to MCT for high performance IR imaging in the MWIR or long wave spectral band (LWIR). For the QWIP's, a new photovoltaic technology was introduced for improved NETD performance and higher dynamic range. MCT units provide fast frame rates > 100 Hz together with state of the art thermal resolution NETD hardware platforms and software for image visualization and nonuniformity correction including scene based self learning algorithms had to be developed to accomplish for the high data rates of up to 18 M pixels/s with 14-bit deep data, allowing to take into account nonlinear effects to access the full NETD by accurate reduction of residual fixed pattern noise. The main features of these modules are summarized together with measured performance data for long range detection systems with moderately fast to slow F-numbers like F/2.0 - F/3.5. An outlook shows most recent activities at AIM, heading for multicolor and faster frame rate detector modules based on MCT devices.

  19. Motorcycle detection and counting using stereo camera, IR camera, and microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bo; Gibson, David R. P.; Middleton, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Detection, classification, and characterization are the key to enhancing motorcycle safety, motorcycle operations and motorcycle travel estimation. Average motorcycle fatalities per Vehicle Mile Traveled (VMT) are currently estimated at 30 times those of auto fatalities. Although it has been an active research area for many years, motorcycle detection still remains a challenging task. Working with FHWA, we have developed a hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system using a suite of sensors including stereo camera, thermal IR camera and unidirectional microphone array. The IR thermal camera can capture the unique thermal signatures associated with the motorcycle's exhaust pipes that often show bright elongated blobs in IR images. The stereo camera in the system is used to detect the motorcyclist who can be easily windowed out in the stereo disparity map. If the motorcyclist is detected through his or her 3D body recognition, motorcycle is detected. Microphones are used to detect motorcycles that often produce low frequency acoustic signals. All three microphones in the microphone array are placed in strategic locations on the sensor platform to minimize the interferences of background noises from sources such as rain and wind. Field test results show that this hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system has an excellent performance.

  20. Reprocessing WFC3/IR Exposures Affected by Time-Variable Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, G.

    2016-11-01

    The background seen in WFC3/IR observations frequently shows strong time-dependent behavior above the constant flux expected for zodiacal continuum light. This is often caused by an emission line of helium at 1.083 μm excited in the sun-illuminated upper atmosphere, when seen in the filters (F105W, F110W) and grisms (G102, G141) sensitive to the feature. The default behavior of the calwf3 pipeline assumes constant source-plus-background fluxes when it performs up-the-ramp fitting to identify cosmic rays and determine the average count rate within a MULTIACCUM IR exposure. calwf3 provides undesirable results in the presence of strongly variable backgrounds, primarily in the form of elevated and non-Gaussian noise in the FLT products. Here we describe methods to improve the noise properties of the reduced products. In the first, we simply turn off the calwf3 crcorr step, treating the IR detector as if it were a CCD, i.e., accumulating flux and reading it out at the end of the exposure. Next, we artificially flatten the ramps in the IMA products and then allow calwf3 to proceed as normal fitting the ramp and identifying CRs. Either of these procedures enable recovery of datasets otherwise corrupted beyond repair and have no discernible effects on photometry of sources in deep combined images.

  1. Design of visible and IR infrared dual-band common-path telescope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, YuLin; Yu, Xun; Tao, Yu; Jiang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    The use of visible and IR infrared dual-band combination can effectively improve the performance of photoelectric detection system,TV and IR system were designed with the common path by the common reflection optical system.A TV/IR infrared common-caliber and common-path system is designed,which can realize the Remote and all-day information.For the 640×512 cooled focal plane array,an infrared middle wave system was presented with a focal length of 600mm F number of 4 field of view(FOV) of 0.38°×0.43°, the system uses optical passive thermal design, has o compact structure and can meet 100% cold shield efficiency,meanwhile it meets the design requirements of lightweight and athermalization. For the 1920×1080 pixels CCD,a visible (TV) system ,which had 500mm focal length, 4F number,was completed.The final optical design along with their modulation transfer function is presented,showing excellent imaging performance in dual-band at the temperature range between -40° and 60°.

  2. Toward endobronchial Ir-192 high-dose-rate brachytherapy therapeutic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, H A; Allison, R R; Downie, G H; Mota, H C; Austerlitz, C; Jenkins, T; Sibata, C H

    2007-01-01

    A number of patients with lung cancer receive either palliative or curative high-dose-rate (HDR) endobronchial brachytherapy. Up to a third of patients treated with endobronchial HDR die from hemoptysis. Rather than accept hemoptysis as an expected potential consequence of HDR, we have calculated the radial dose distribution for an Ir-192 HDR source, rigorously examined the dose and prescription points recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS), and performed a radiobiological-based analysis. The radial dose rate of a commercially available Ir-192 source was calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the linear quadratic model, the estimated palliative, curative and blood vessel rupture radii from the center of an Ir-192 source were obtained for the ABS recommendations and a series of customized HDR prescriptions. The estimated radius at risk for blood vessel perforation for the ABS recommendations ranges from 7 to 9 mm. An optimized prescription may in some situations reduce this radius to 4 mm. The estimated blood perforation radius is generally smaller than the palliative radius. Optimized and individualized endobronchial HDR prescriptions are currently feasible based on our current understanding of tumor and normal tissue radiobiology. Individualized prescriptions could minimize complications such as fatal hemoptysis without sacrificing efficacy. Fiducial stents, HDR catheter centering or spacers and the use of CT imaging to better assess the relationship between the catheter and blood vessels promise to be useful strategies for increasing the therapeutic index of this treatment modality. Prospective trials employing treatment optimization algorithms are needed

  3. A Controlled-Environment Chamber for Atmospheric Chemistry Studies Using FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    necessary and identify by block number) FELD GROUP SUB-GROUP i >Chamber, controlled environment; long-path cell ; 07 04 FT-IR; Hydrazine decay...modification doubles the useable path length of the original multipass cell described by White (Reference 8). The pattern of images formed on the nesting...system is shown in Figure 13. 24 z C C02, Ibm, El4 944 C3 ta) caC E-4- 252 14 $4 41) 41) 0. 0 04 04 4 41) ~0 to 0.0 V-4 (A q14 0~ 1% 4-r4 $4 0 u P416 4 4

  4. Time resolved IR-LIGS experiments for gas-phase trace detection and temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, R.; Giorgi, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Snels, M. [CNR, Tito Scalo, Potenza (Italy). Istituto per i Materiali Speciali; Latzel, H.

    1997-01-01

    Time resolved Laser Induced Grating Spectroscopy (LIGS) has been performed to detect different gases in mixtures at atmospheric pressure or higher. The possibility of trace detection of minor species and of temperature measurements has been demonstrated for various molecular species either of environmental interest or involved in combustion processes. In view of the application of tracing unburned hydrocarbons in combustion chambers, the coupling of the IR-LIGS technique with imaging detection has been considered and preliminary results obtained in small size ethylene/air flames are shown.

  5. IR wireless cluster synapses of HYDRA very large neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    RF/IR wireless (virtual) synapses are critical components of HYDRA (Hyper-Distributed Robotic Autonomy) neural networks, already discussed in two earlier papers. The HYDRA network has the potential to be very large, up to 10 11-neurons and 10 18-synapses, based on already established technologies (cellular RF telephony and IR-wireless LANs). It is organized into almost fully connected IR-wireless clusters. The HYDRA neurons and synapses are very flexible, simple, and low-cost. They can be modified into a broad variety of biologically-inspired brain-like computing capabilities. In this third paper, we focus on neural hardware in general, and on IR-wireless synapses in particular. Such synapses, based on LED/LD-connections, dominate the HYDRA neural cluster.

  6. Broilerienos paklausa ir pasiūla Lietuvoje

    OpenAIRE

    Paškauskienė, Kristina

    2008-01-01

    Labai svarbu ir savalaikiškai ištirti vartotojų poreikį broilerienai, aktualu nustatyti vartotojų požiūrį į Lietuvoje užauginamą produkciją bei importuotą. ir kokia yra priklausomybė vyrų bei moterų tarpe, ir nuo gaunamo atlyginimo. Vartotojų tyrimai rodo, kad auga paklausa lengvai virškinamiems, greitai paruošiamiems, aukštos maistinės kokybės gyvulininkystės produktams. Darbo tikslas - Išsiaiškinti broilerienos paklausą ir pasiūlą Lietuvoje, įvertinti broilerienos suvartojimo tendencija...

  7. Transparent Yttria for IR Windows and Domes - Past and Present

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hogan, Patrick; Stefanik, Todd; Willingham, Charles; Gentilman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    ...) atmospheric transmission band at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Current state-of-the-art yttria's thermomechanical properties are adequate for a number of IR window and dome applications, but only marginal for the most demanding missions...

  8. Analysis of effect of cable degradation on SPND IR calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamboli, P.K.; Sharma, A.; Prasad, A.D.; Singh, Nita; Antony, J.; Kelkar, M.G.; Kaurav, Reetesh; Pramanik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Neutron flux is the most vital parameter in the nuclear reactor safety against Neutronic over power. The modern days Indian PHWRs with large core size are loosely coupled reactors and hence In-core Self Power Neutron Detectors (SPNDs) are most suitable for monitoring local neutron power for generating Regional Overpower Trip. However the SPNDs and its Mineral Insulation Cable are prone to IR loss due to use of ceramic insulation which are highly hygroscopic. The present paper covers the online analysis of IR f degraded cable as per the surveillance requirement of monitoring the IR to assess the healthiness of SPNDs which are part of SSC/SSE for Reactor Protection Systems. The paper also proposes an alternative method for monitoring IR for startup//low power range when SPND signals are yet to pick up and Reactor Control and Protection are based on out of core Ionization Chambers. (author)

  9. US-LHC IR magnet error analysis and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Ptitsin, V.; Pilat, F.; Tepikian, S.; Gelfand, N.; Wan, W.; Holt, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of the insertion-region (IR) magnet field errors on LHC collision performance. Compensation schemes including magnet orientation optimization, body-end compensation, tuning shims, and local nonlinear correction are shown to be highly effective

  10. IR fixed points in SU(3 gauge theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-I. Ishikawa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel RG method to specify the location of the IR fixed point in lattice gauge theories and apply it to the SU(3 gauge theories with Nf fundamental fermions. It is based on the scaling behavior of the propagator through the RG analysis with a finite IR cutoff, which we cannot remove in the conformal field theories in sharp contrast to the confining theories. The method also enables us to estimate the anomalous mass dimension in the continuum limit at the IR fixed point. We perform the program for Nf=16,12,8 and Nf=7 and indeed identify the location of the IR fixed points in all cases.

  11. Ammonia IR Absorbance Measurements with an Equilibrium Vapor Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) absorbance spectra were acquired for 18 ammonia vapor pressures. The vapor pressures were generated with 15 gravimetrically prepared aqueous solutions and three commercial aqueous solutions using a dynamic method I.E...

  12. Fleet Protection Using a Small UAV Based IR Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buss, James R; Ax, Jr, George R

    2005-01-01

    A study was performed to define candidate electro-optical and infrared (EO/IR) sensor configurations and assess their potential utility as small UAV-based sensors surveilling a perimeter around surface fleet assets...

  13. Patient Safety in Interventional Radiology: A CIRSE IR Checklist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M. J.; Fanelli, F.; Haage, P.; Hausegger, K.; van Lienden, K. P.

    2012-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) is an invasive speciality with the potential for complications as with other invasive specialities. The World Health Organization (WHO) produced a surgical safety checklist to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery. The Cardiovascular and

  14. Calibration of {sup 192}Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marechal, M H [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dozimetria, Rio de Jainero (Brazil); Almeida, C.E. de [Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas, UERL, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sibata, C H [Roswell Park Cancer Inst., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A method for calibration of high dose rate sources used in afterloading brachytherapy systems is described. The calibration for {sup 192}Ir is determined by interpolating {sup 60}Co gamma-rays and 250 kV x-rays calibration factors. All measurements were done using the same build up caps as described by Goetsch et al and recommended by AAPM. The attenuation correction factors were determined to be 0.9903, 0.9928 and 0.9993 for {sup 192}Ir, {sup 60}Co and 250 kV x-ray, respectively. A wall + cap thickness of 0.421 g.cm{sup -2} is recommended for all measurements to ensure electronic equilibrium for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir gamma-ray beams. A mathematical formalism is described for determination of (N{sub x}){sub Ir}. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig.

  15. FT-IR, RAMAN AND DFT STUDIES ON THE VIBRATIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Anadolu University, Eskişehir, Turkey ... IR spectrum was recorded using Bruker Optics IFS66v/s FTIR spectrometer at a ... spectrum was obtained using a Bruker Senterra Dispersive Raman microscope.

  16. Characterization of Momordica charantia Ussing FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Keseru

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, because earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout, the present investigation was carried to characterized a principal components of plant using FT-IR technique

  17. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  18. Perspective of Australian uncooled IR sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2000-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the development in Australia of resistance bolometer technology and associated uncooled infrared sensors. A summary is given of research achievements, with the aim of placing in historic perspective Australian work in comparison with overseas research and development. Extensive research in this field was carried out at the Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), Salisbury, South Australia, in collaboration with the Australian microelectronic and electro-optic industries, with supporting research in Australian universities. The DSTO research has a history covering five decades, commencing with simple thin film bolometers employed in radiometric sensors, followed by protracted R&D culminating in development of micromachined focal plane detector arrays for non-imaging sensors and lightweight thermal imagers. DSTO currently maintains a microbolometer processing capability for the purposes of research collaboration and support for commercial initiatives based on patented technology. Expertise in microbolometer design, performance and processing technology has transferred to Electro-optic Sensor Design (EOSD) through a licensing agreement. Contemporary development will be described.

  19. Low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yosuke; Dokiya, Takushi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Suzuki, Takayuki; Saito, Shiro; Monma, Tetsuo; Ohki, Takahiro [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan); Murai, Masaru; Kubo, Atsushi

    2000-04-01

    From December 1997 through January 1999, fifteen prostatic cancer patients were treated with low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy using TRUS and perineal template guidance without external radiotherapy. Up to now, as no apparent side effects were found, the safety of this treatment is suggested. In the future, in order to treat prostatic cancer patients with interstitial brachytherapy using I-125 or Pd-103, more investigation for this low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy is needed. (author)

  20. Fibre-Optic IR-Spectroscopy for Biomedical Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Bindig, Uwe; Gersonde, Ingo; Meinke, Martina; Becker, Yukiyo; Müller, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The use of microscopy is a valuable means of gaining vital information for medical diagnostics. Due to a number of recent technological developments advances have been made in IR microscopy and in particular, rapid detection methods. Microscopic examination methods usually involve sampling followed by a method of sample purification or preparation. The advantages of the IR analytical method are that it is based on a direct, non‒destructive measurement of sample material and that the resulting...

  1. Optical and IR light curves of VV Puppis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkody, P.; Bailey, J.A.; Hough, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We present optical (0.36 to 0.6 μm) light curves with time resolutions of seconds and infrared (IR) (1.25 to 2.2 μm) light curves with time resolutions of minutes for VV Puppis during a high state. The optical light curves show a single hump with largest amplitude in the V filter, while the IR light curves show a double hump sinusoidal variation. Flickering is evident in both the optical and IR light curves, with the largest amplitude in optical B light. Through subtraction of the low state fluxes from our high state values, we obtain a flux distribution of the accretion column which peaks at 0.55 μm and becomes #betta# 2 in the IR, consistent with current cyclotron models. Comparison of the observed IR variations throughout the orbit with the expected variations due to an M4 star heated by an accretion column at an inclination of 66 0 suggests that the IR light is a combination of the secondary star plus contributions from two emitting poles. (author)

  2. Use of HOMA-IR in hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam, M; Kawaguchi, T; Del Campo, J A; Sata, M; Khattab, M Abo-Elneen; Romero-Gomez, M

    2011-10-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) can induce insulin resistance (IR) in a genotype-dependent manner and contributes to steatosis, progression of fibrosis and resistance to interferon plus ribavirin therapy. Our understanding of HCV-induced IR has improved considerably over the years, but certain aspects concerning its evaluation still remain elusive to clinical researchers. One of the most important issues is elucidating the ideal method for assessment of IR in the setting of hepatitis C. The hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp is the gold standard method for determining insulin sensitivity, but is impractical as it is labour intensive and time-consuming. To date, all human studies except for four where IR was evaluated in the HCV setting, an estimation of IR has been used rather than direct measurements of insulin-mediated glucose uptake. The most commonly used estimation in the HCV population is the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) which is calculated from a single measurement of fasting insulin and glucose. In this article, we review the use and reporting of HOMA in the literature and provide guidance on its appropriate as well as inappropriate use in the hepatitis setting. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. IR spectroscopy at the ITO-organic interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Milan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Shazada, Ahmad [Max-Planck Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Tamanai, Akemi; Trollmann, Jens; Glaser, Tobias; Beck, Sebastian; Tengeler, Sven; Pucci, Annemarie [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Thin films of P3HT have been prepared by spin coating and electrooxidative polymerization on platinum- and ITO-coated substrates. Additionally, P3HT-films on silicon substrates have been prepared by spin coating only. The measured IR spectra of the spin coated films allowed for an elaboration of a detailed optical model for P3HT, which has been used to simulate IR reflection-absorption spectra on ITO and Pt substrates. Comparison of simulated spectra with measurements revealed no substrate influence on the IR spectra for the spincoated films. In case of spincoated P3HT-films on ITO-substrate, the obtained IR spectra correspond to simulation data very well up to 6000 wavenumbers. In the electropolymerized P3HT films we have identified residuals of the electrolyte ionic liquid, acting as dopand for P3HT. While IR spectra of the electropolymerized P3HT films on Pt substrate could be explained reasonably well as a superposition of chemically doped P3HT and the ionic electrolyte, the IR spectra of electropolymerized P3HT films on ITO substrates showed strongly deposition-time dependent deviations. These were most likely related to varying properties of the ITO surface between reference and sample measurement due to an interaction of ITO and the electrolyte at the film-substrate interface.

  4. Ar ir CO2 plazma modifikuota aktyvintoji anglis acetono ir cikloheksano adsorbcijai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr PIETROWSKI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Žemos temperatūros plazmos poveikis, leidžiantis valdyti daugelio rūšių medžiagų, pvz., polimerų, metalų, anglies, paviršiaus savybes, šiuo metu yra tiriamas daugelyje mokslo sričių. Aktyvintoji  anglis (AC dėl savo fizikinių ir cheminių savybių naudojama kaip struktūrinis elementas dujų filtruose, kurie adsorbuodami daugelį skirtingų garų iš užteršto oro apsaugo kvėpavimo takus. Gerai žinoma, kad įvairios AC paviršiaus funkcinės grupės lemia jų hidrofobinę / hidrofilinę elgseną. Šame straipsnyje pristatomi pirminiai tyrimai, susiję su žemos temperatūros plazmos poveikiu komercinei aktyvintajai angliai. Aktyvintoji anglis buvo granuliuojama ir dedama į žemos temperatūros plazmos  rotacinę bandymų kamerą. Kamera buvo užpildoma atitinkamomis reaktyviosiomis dujomis. Plazmos poveikis buvo tiriamas nustatant aktyvintosios anglies paviršiaus dviejų pasirinktų rūšių organinių garų adsorbcijos izotermas, taip pat stebint šių garų adsorbcijos dinamiką ant dujų filtro, pagaminto iš plazma aktyvintos anglies. Remiantis gautais rezultatais, galima daryti išvadą, kad žemos temperatūros plazmos technologija gali būti taikoma aktyvintosios anglies savybėms pagerinti užtikrinant geresnę žemos temperatūros organinių garų adsorbciją.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.2.1919

  5. Investigation of conspicuous infrared star cluster and star-forming region RCW 38 IR Cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A.L.; May, J.

    2008-01-01

    An infrared star cluster RCW 38 IR Cluster, which is also a massive star-forming region, is investigated. The results of observations with SEST (Cerro is Silla, Chile) telescope on 2.6-mm 12 CO spectral line and with SIMBA on 1.2-mm continuum are given. The 12 CO observations revealed the existence of several molecular clouds, two of which (clouds I and 2) are connected with the object RCW 38 IR Cluster. Cloud 1 is a massive cloud, which has a depression in which the investigated object is embedded. It is not excluded that the depression was formed by the wind and/or emission from the young bright stars belonging to the star cluster. Rotation of cloud 2, around the axis having SE-NW direction, with an angular velocity ω 4.6 · 10 -14 s -1 is also found. A red-shifted outflow with velocity ∼+5.6 km/s, in the SE direction and perpendicular to the elongation of cloud 2 has been also found. The investigated cluster is associated with an IR point source IRAS 08573-4718, which has IR colours typical for a, non-evolved embedded (in the cloud) stellar object. The cluster is also connected with a water maser. The SIMBA image shoves the existence of a central bright condensation, coinciding with the cluster itself, and two extensions. One of these extensions (the one with SW-NE direction) coincides, both in place and shape, with cloud 2, so that it is not excluded the possibility that this extension might be also rotating like cloud 2. In the vicinity of these extensions there are condensations resembling HH objects

  6. IR Observations of a Complete Unbiased Sample of Bright Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew; Bendo, George; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Smith, Howard; Spinoglio, Luigi; Tommasin, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    IR spectra will measure the 2 main energy-generating processes by which galactic nuclei shine: black hole accretion and star formation. Both of these play roles in galaxy evolution, and they appear connected. To obtain a complete sample of AGN, covering the range of luminosities and column-densities, we will combine 2 complete all-sky samples with complementary selections, minimally biased by dust obscuration: the 116 IRAS 12um AGN and the 41 Swift/BAT hard Xray AGN. These galaxies have been extensively studied across the entire EM spectrum. Herschel observations have been requested and will be synergistic with the Spitzer database. IRAC and MIPS imaging will allow us to separate the nuclear and galactic continua. We are completing full IR observations of the local AGN population, most of which have already been done. The only remaining observations we request are 10 IRS/HIRES, 57 MIPS-24 and 30 IRAC pointings. These high-quality observations of bright AGN in the bolometric-flux-limited samples should be completed, for the high legacy value of complete uniform datasets. We will measure quantitatively the emission at each wavelength arising from stars and from accretion in each galactic center. Since our complete samples come from flux-limited all-sky surveys in the IR and HX, we will calculate the bi-variate AGN and star formation Luminosity Functions for the local population of active galaxies, for comparison with higher redshifts.Our second aim is to understand the physical differences between AGN classes. This requires statistical comparisons of full multiwavelength observations of complete representative samples. If the difference between Sy1s and Sy2s is caused by orientation, their isotropic properties, including those of the surrounding galactic centers, should be similar. In contrast, if they are different evolutionary stages following a galaxy encounter, then we may find observational evidence that the circumnuclear ISM of Sy2s is relatively younger.

  7. Density functional study of the L10-αIrV transition in IrV and RhV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, Michael J.; Hart, Gus L.W.; Curtarolo, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The computational determination of the ground state of a material can be a difficult task, particularly if the ground state is uncommon and so not found in usual databases. In this paper we consider the alpha-IrV structure, a low temperature structure found only in two compounds, IrV and RhV. In both cases this structure can be considered as a distorted tetragonal structure, and the tetragonal 'L1 0 ' structure is the high temperature structure for both compounds. We show, however, that the logical path for the transition from the L1 0 to the alpha-IrV structure is energetically forbidden, and find a series of unstable and metastable structures which have a lower energy than the L1 0 phase, but are higher in energy than the alpha-IrV phase. We also consider the possibility of the alpha-IrV structure appearing in neighboring compounds. We find that both IrTi and RhTi are candidates. - Abstract: Both IrV and RhV crystallize in the αIrV structure, with a transition to the higher symmetry L1 0 structure at high temperature, or with the addition of excess Ir or Rh. Here we present evidence that this transition is driven by the lowering of the electronic density of states at the Fermi level of the αIrV structure. The transition has long been thought to be second order, with a simple doubling of the L1 0 unit cell due to an unstable phonon at the R point (0 1/2 1/2). We use first-principles calculations to show that all phonons at the R point are, in fact, stable, but do find a region of reciprocal space where the L1 0 structure has unstable (imaginary frequency) phonons. We use the frozen phonon method to examine two of these modes, relaxing the structures associated with the unstable phonon modes to obtain new structures which are lower in energy than L1 0 but still above αIrV. We examine the phonon spectra of these structures as well, looking for instabilities, and find further instabilities, and more relaxed structures, all of which have

  8. Pamokslo ir eseistikos sąveika Juliaus Sasnausko ir Giedrės Kazlauskaitės eseistikoje

    OpenAIRE

    Skirmantienė, Daiva

    2010-01-01

    Jaunosios kartos rašytojų kunigo pamokslininko Juliaus Sasnausko ir pasaulietės Giedrės Kazlauskaitės kūrybos semantinį ir įdėjinį lauką padeda suprasti teologinės literatūros ir literatūrinės teologijos sąveika. Teologinių prasmių paieška jų tekstuose atliepia šiuolaikinio žmogaus pastangas per literatūrą, skelbiančią gyvenamojo laikotarpio aktualijas, rasti kelią į tam tikras krikščioniškąsias tiesas ir bandyti reflektuoti savo tikėjimą bei analizuoti išganymo istoriją. Autorių kūryo...

  9. Protection of p+-n-Si Photoanodes by Sputter-Deposited Ir/IrOxThin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Bastian Timo; Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Sputter deposition of Ir/IrOx on p+-n-Si without interfacial corrosion protection layers yielded photoanodes capable of efficient water oxidation (OER) in acidic media (1 M H2SO4). Stability of at least 18 h was shown by chronoamperomety at 1.23 V versus RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) under 38...... density of 1 mA/cm2 at 1.05 V vs. RHE. Further improvement by heat treatment resulted in a cathodic shift of 40 mV and enabled a current density of 10 mA/cm2 (requirements for a 10% efficient tandem device) at 1.12 V vs. RHS under irradiation. Thus, the simple IrOx/Ir/p+-n-Si structures not only provide...

  10. Successful synthesis and thermal stability of immiscible metal Au-Rh, Au-Ir andAu-Ir-Rh nanoalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Yury; Plyusnin, Pavel; Sharafutdinov, Marat; Makotchenko, Evgenia; Korenev, Sergey

    2017-05-01

    We successfully prepared face-centred cubic nanoalloys in systems of Au-Ir, Au-Rh and Au-Ir-Rh, with large bulk miscibility gaps, in one-run reactions under thermal decomposition of specially synthesised single-source precursors, namely, [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6], [AuEn2][Ir(NO2)6] х [Rh(NO2)6]1-х and [AuEn2][Rh(NO2)6]. The precursors employed contain all desired metals ‘mixed’ at the atomic level, thus providing significant advantages for obtaining alloys. The observations using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the nanoalloy structures are composed of well-dispersed aggregates of crystalline domains with a mean size of 5 ± 3 nm. Еnergy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) measurements confirm the formation of AuIr, AuRh, AuIr0.75Rh0.25, AuIr0.50Rh0.50 and AuIr0.25Rh0.75 metastable solid solutions. In situ high-temperature synchrotron XRD (HTXRD) was used to study the formation mechanism of nanoalloys. The observed transformations are described by the ‘conversion chemistry’ mechanism characterised by the primary development of particles comprising atoms of only one type, followed by a chemical reaction resulting in the final formation of a nanoalloy. The obtained metastable nanoalloys exhibit essential thermal stability. Exposure to 180 °C for 30 h does not cause any dealloying process.

  11. The phase system Fe-Ir-S at 1100, 1000 and 800 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Karup-Møller, Sven

    1999-01-01

    Phase relations in the dry condensed Fe-Ir-S system were determined at 1100, 1000 and 800 degrees C. Orientational runs were performed at 500 degrees C. Between 1100 and 800 degrees C, the system comprises five sulphides and an uninterrupted field of gamma(Fe, Ir). Fe1-xS dissolves 5.8 at.% Ir...... at 1100 degrees C, 3.4 at.% Ir at 1000 degrees C and 1.0 at.% Ir at 800 degrees C. The solubility of Fe in Ir2S3, IrS2 and IrSsimilar to 3 increases with decreasing temperature, reaching 2.5 at.% in the latter two sulphides at 800 degrees C. Thiospinel 'FeIr2S4' is nonstoichiometric, from Fe22.3Ir19.8S58...

  12. Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence: improvement of the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Higashino, Takanori; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Cauteren, Marc van; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study presented here was to determine the improvement in image quality of oxygen-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) subtraction imaging obtained with a centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence compared with that obtained with a conventional sequentially reordered inversion recovery single-shot HASTE (s-IR-HASTE) sequence for pulmonary imaging. Materials and methods: Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5 T whole body scanner was performed on 12 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Oxygen-enhanced MR images were obtained with the coronal two-dimensional (2D) c-IR-HASTE sequence and 2D s-IR-HASTE sequence combined with respiratory triggering. For a 256x256 matrix, 132 phase-encoding steps were acquired including four steps for phase correction. Inter-echo spacing for each sequence was 4.0 ms. The effective echo time (TE) for c-IR-HASTE was 4.0 ms, and 16 ms for s-IR-HASTE. The inversion time (TI) was 900 ms. To determine the improvement in oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging by c-IR-HASTE, CNRs of subtraction image, overall image quality, and image degradation of the c-IR-HASTE and s-IR-HASTE techniques were statistically compared. Results: CNR, overall image quality, and image degradation of c-IR-HASTE images showed significant improvement compared to those s-IR-HASTE images (P<0.05). Conclusion: Centrically reordered inversion recovery half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo (c-IR-HASTE) sequence enhanced the signal from the lung and improved the image quality of oxygen-enhanced MR subtraction imaging

  13. Mid-IR and far-IR investigation of AgI-doped silver diborate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgens, J.J.; Martin, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of xAgI+(1-x)Ag 2 O·2B 2 O 3 glasses, where 0.2≤x≤0.6, have been investigated using mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy. The mid-IR spectra revealed that in those glasses prepared using AgNO 3 as the starting material for Ag 2 O, the BO 4 - /BO 3 ratio is constant with increasing amounts of AgI as would be expected form the proposed behavior of AgI in these glasses. However, a survey of the literature revealed those glasses prepared from pure Ag 2 O show a strong linear dependence of the BO 4 - /BO 3 ratio on AgI content. Most probably, in those glasses prepared with Ag 2 O the Ag 2 O/B 2 O 3 ratio changes with AgI content due to the decomposition of Ag 2 O during melting. This different behavior is associated with AgNO 3 decomposing to Ag 2 O with heating followed by incorporation into the glassy network. For Ag 2 O used directly, it is proposed that it decomposes to Ag metal and O 2 (gas) with heating before it can be incorporated into the borate network. This latter behavior decreases with increasing AgI in the batch composition because AgI lowers the liquidus temperature of the melt considerably. The far-IR analysis of the AgI-doped silver diborate glasses suggests that there are three coordination environments for the Ag + ions; one with iodide anions and the other two with oxygen ions. It is proposed that the separate oxygen coordination environments for the Ag + ions arise from one with bridging oxygens of BO 4 - units, and the other with nonbridging oxygens on BO 3 - units. Furthermore, it is proposed that the Ag + ions in the iodide-ion environments progressively agglomerate into disordered regions of AgI, but do not form structures similar to α-AgI. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. A subset of sweet-sensing neurons identified by IR56d are necessary and sufficient for fatty acid taste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Tauber

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs, one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding. Previously, we showed that a broad population of sugar-sensing taste neurons expressing Gustatory Receptor 64f (Gr64f is required for reflexive feeding responses to both FAs and sugars. Here, we report a genetic silencing screen to identify specific populations of taste neurons that mediate fatty acid (FA taste. We find neurons identified by expression of Ionotropic Receptor 56d (IR56d are necessary and sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Functional imaging reveals that IR56d-expressing neurons are responsive to short- and medium-chain FAs. Silencing IR56d neurons selectively abolishes FA taste, and their activation is sufficient to drive feeding responses. Analysis of co-expression with Gr64f identifies two subpopulations of IR56d-expressing neurons. While physiological imaging reveals that both populations are responsive to FAs, IR56d/Gr64f neurons are activated by medium-chain FAs and are sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Moreover, flies can discriminate between sugar and FAs in an aversive taste memory assay, indicating that FA taste is a unique modality in Drosophila. Taken together, these findings localize FA taste within the Drosophila gustatory center and provide an opportunity to investigate discrimination between different categories of appetitive tastants.

  15. A subset of sweet-sensing neurons identified by IR56d are necessary and sufficient for fatty acid taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, John M; Brown, Elizabeth B; Li, Yuanyuan; Yurgel, Maria E; Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2017-11-01

    Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding. Previously, we showed that a broad population of sugar-sensing taste neurons expressing Gustatory Receptor 64f (Gr64f) is required for reflexive feeding responses to both FAs and sugars. Here, we report a genetic silencing screen to identify specific populations of taste neurons that mediate fatty acid (FA) taste. We find neurons identified by expression of Ionotropic Receptor 56d (IR56d) are necessary and sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Functional imaging reveals that IR56d-expressing neurons are responsive to short- and medium-chain FAs. Silencing IR56d neurons selectively abolishes FA taste, and their activation is sufficient to drive feeding responses. Analysis of co-expression with Gr64f identifies two subpopulations of IR56d-expressing neurons. While physiological imaging reveals that both populations are responsive to FAs, IR56d/Gr64f neurons are activated by medium-chain FAs and are sufficient for reflexive feeding response to FAs. Moreover, flies can discriminate between sugar and FAs in an aversive taste memory assay, indicating that FA taste is a unique modality in Drosophila. Taken together, these findings localize FA taste within the Drosophila gustatory center and provide an opportunity to investigate discrimination between different categories of appetitive tastants.

  16. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-01-01

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components

  17. PENDIDIKAN AKHLAK MUSLIMAT MELALUISYA’IR : ANALISIS GENDER ATAS AJARAN SYI’IR MUSLIMAT KARYA NYAI WANIFAH KUDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Said

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini difokuskan pada tiga hal: (1 Apakah karakteristik lingkup isi Syi’ir Muslimat?, (2 Bagai-manakah kondisi sosial budaya pada saat naskah ditulis oleh penulis?, (3 Apa nilai-nilai pendidikan moral bagi perempuan Muslim di isi Syi’ir Muslimat dalam perspektif gender?. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan filologi dengan meningkatkan penggunaan analisis gender. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, Syi’ir Muslimat ditulis oleh Nyai Wanifah, seorang wanita yang hidup pada zaman kolonial Belanda dipesantren tradisi di Kudus, Jawa Tengah. Kedua, beberapa nilai pendidikan moral di Syi’ir Muslimatantara lain: (1 Pentingnya pendidikan moral, (2 Bahaya perempuan bodoh; (3 Pentingnya belajar bagi perempuan di usia dini, (4 Etika menghias diri; (5 Bahaya materialisme, (6 Etika hubungan keluarga; (7 Dari rumah untuk mencapai surga; (8 Berhati-hatilah dengan tipu iblis; (9 Hindari perzinahan; (10 yang penting dari penutupan aurot; (11 yang ditujukan kepada orang tua. Ketiga, meskipun ada beberapa senyawa yang bias gender dalam Syi’ir Muslimat misalnya: (a Ada penjelasan yang menunjukkan bahwa perempuan lebih rendah dibandingkan laki-laki dalam derajat, (2 Pernyataan bahwa wanita bicara dibandingkan laki-laki, (3 wanita hanya cocok di wilayah domestik; Namun secara umum nasihat di syi’ir masih sangat relafen dalam konteks sekarang, terutama untuk memberikan solusi alternatif dalam merespon krisis moral bangsa terutama pada wanita generasi muda. Kata kunci: Syi’ir Muslimat, Pendidikan Karakter, Analisis Gender. This study focused on three things: (1 What is the characteristics of the scope of contents of Syi’ir Muslimat?, (2 What is the socio-cultural conditions at the time the manuscript was written by the author?, (3 What are the moral education values for Muslim women in the content of Syi’ir Muslimat in the perspective of gender?. This research uses a philological approach with enhanced use of gender analysis. The

  18. Characterization and identification of microorganisms by FT-IR microspectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Thi, N. A.; Kirschner, C.; Naumann, D.

    2003-12-01

    We report on a novel FT-IR approach for microbial characterization/identification based on a light microscope coupled to an infrared spectrometer which offers the possibility to acquire IR-spectra of microcolonies containing only few hundred cells. Microcolony samples suitable for FT-IR microspectroscopic measurements were obtained by a replica technique with a stamping device that transfers spatially accurate cells of microcolonies growing on solid culture plates to a special, IR-transparent or reflecting stamping plate. High quality spectra could be recorded either by applying the transmission/absorbance or the reflectance/absorbance mode of the infrared microscope. Signal to noise ratios higher than 1000 were obtained for microcolonies as small as 40 μm in diameter. Reproducibility levels were established that allowed species and strain identification. The differentiation and classification capacity of the FT-IR microscopic technique was tested for different selected microorganisms. Cluster and factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the complex spectral data. Excellent discrimination between bacteria and yeasts, and at the same time Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains was obtained. Twenty-two selected strains of different species within the genus Staphylococcus were repetitively measured and could be grouped into correct species cluster. Moreover, the results indicated that the method allows also identifications at the subspecies level. Additionally, the new approach allowed spectral mapping analysis of single colonies which provided spatially resolved characterization of growth heterogeneity within complex microbial populations such as colonies.

  19. [HOMA-IR in patients with chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botshorishvili, T; Vashakidze, E

    2012-02-01

    The aim of investigation was to study the frequency of IR in type of viral hepatitis C, correlation with the degree of hepatic lesion and liver cirrhosis. 130 patients were investigated: 20 with acute hepatitis C; 38 with chronic hepatitis C; 72 with cirrhosis: among them 10 with Stage A, 14 with Stage B and 48 with Stage C. Also we used 30 healthy people as the controls. The study demonstrates significant changes of insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR type of viral hepatitis C, correlation with the degree of hepatic lesion and liver cirrhosis. In patients with liver cirrhosis levels of HOMA-IR is higher than in patients with chronic hepatitis C. In patients with acute hepatitis C levels of HOMA-IR was normal as in the control group. The results showed that various types of chronic viral hepatitis C and stages of cirrhosis set to increase HOMA-IR versus the controls., which were the most prominent in cases of severe hepatic lesion, which indicates that insulin resistance is a frequent companion of CHC.

  20. IR emission and UV extinction in two open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackwell, J.A.; Hecht, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent models of interstellar extinction have shown the importance of understanding both the UV and IR properties of interstellar dust grains. IRAS data have shown variations in 60 and 100 micron emissions presumably due to the presence of IR cirrus, while recent observations in the UV by Fitzpatrick and Massa have identified components in the UV extinction curve which vary in different star regions. A Draine and Anderson model connects these results by proposing that different size variations in interstellar grains would cause distinct changes in both the IR emission and the UV extinction. In order to test this model it is necessary to make observations in well defined locations away from peculiar extinction regions. In the infrared this means looking away from the galactic plane so as to limit non-local sources of IR radiation. Two open clusters that are out of the galactic plane and which contain a number of late B and early A stars suitable for UV extinction studies, and whose IRAS data show variations in the 60/100 micron ratio were studied. Based on the Drain and Anderson model, variations were expected in their UV extinction curves that correlate with the IR cirrus emission

  1. Mid-Infrared Spectral Properties of IR QSOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, X. Y.; Cao, C.; Mao, S.; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic properties for 19 ultra-luminous infrared quasars (IR QSOs) in the local universe based on the spectra from the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The MIR properties of IR QSOs are compared with those of optically-selected Palomar-Green QSOs (PG QSOs) and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). The average MIR spectral features from ∼5 to 30 μm, including the spectral slopes, 6.2 μm PAH emission strengths and [NeII] 12.81 μm luminosities of IR QSOs, differ from those of PG QSOs. In contrast, IR QSOs and ULIRGs have comparable PAH and [NeII] luminosities. These results are consistent with IR QSOs being at a transitional stage from ULIRGs to classical QSOs. We also find the correlation between the EW (PAH 6.2 μm) and outflow velocities suggests that star formation activities are suppressed by feedback from AGNs and/or supernovae.

  2. Crystal structure of the Al2CuIr phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshi, L.; Ezersky, V.; Kapush, D.; Grushko, B.

    2010-01-01

    A new ternary Al 2 CuIr phase was revealed in the Al-Cu-Ir system. It is formed below 1063 o C from the β-phase (CsCl-type structure) extending at elevated temperatures from AlIr. The crystal structure of the Al 2 CuIr phase was determined using a combination of precession electron diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The phase has an orthorhombic C-centered unit cell with lattice parameters a = 8.1196(7) A, b = 5.0646(2) A and c = 5.18513(3) A; its crystal symmetry can be described by the Cmme (no. 67) space group (Pearson symbol oC16). The unit cell of the new phase contains 8 Al, 4 Cu and 4 Ir atoms and exhibits a new structure type. The reliability factors characterizing the Rietveld refinement procedure are: R p = 4.45%, R wp = 6.45%, R B = 3.69% and R f = 2.41%.

  3. Multi-spectral imager

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stolper, R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available channel are boresighted with two beamsplitter windows; and • The IR system is boresighted. APPLICATION High-voltage environment • Detecting loose strands, bolts and nuts; • Detecting Corona discharges on insulator discs; • Detecting... and locating spark gaps; • Detecting and locating RIV sources; • Audit sub-stations and transmission lines for audio noise and Corona activities. RECORDINGS / APPLICATIONS REPORTING TOOL: MultiSOFT • Image handling software for grabbing, processing...

  4. SH2-B promotes insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1)- and IRS2-mediated activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in response to leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chaojun; Li, Minghua; Rui, Liangyou

    2004-10-15

    Leptin regulates energy homeostasis primarily by binding and activating its long form receptor (LRb). Deficiency of either leptin or LRb causes morbid obesity. Leptin stimulates LRb-associated JAK2, thus initiating multiple pathways including the Stat3 and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase pathways that mediate leptin biological actions. Here we report that SH2-B, a JAK2-interacting protein, promotes activation of the PI 3-kinase pathway by recruiting insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 in response to leptin. SH2-B directly bound, via its PH and SH2 domain, to both IRS1 and IRS2 both in vitro and in intact cells and mediated formation of a JAK2/SH2-B/IRS1 or IRS2 tertiary complex. Consequently, SH2-B dramatically enhanced leptin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 and IRS2 in HEK293 cells stably expressing LRb, thus promoting association of IRS1 and IRS2 with the p85 regulatory subunit of PI 3-kinase and phosphorylation and activation of Akt. SH2-B mutants with lower affinity for IRS1 and IRS2 exhibited reduced ability to promote association of JAK2 with IRS1, tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1, and association of IRS1 with p85 in response to leptin. Moreover, deletion of the SH2-B gene impaired leptin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous IRS1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), which was reversed by reintroduction of SH2-B. Similarly, SH2-B promoted growth hormone-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS1 in both HEK293 and MEF cells. Our data suggest that SH2-B is a novel mediator of the PI 3-kinase pathway in response to leptin or other hormones and cytokines that activate JAK2.

  5. Third-generation intelligent IR focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John; Jack, Michael D.; Pettijohn, Kevin L.; Schlesselmann, John D.; Norworth, Joe

    1998-03-01

    SBRC is at the forefront of industry in developing IR focal plane arrays including multi-spectral technology and '3rd generation' functions that mimic the human eye. 3rd generation devices conduct advanced processing on or near the FPA that serve to reduce bandwidth while performing needed functions such as automatic target recognition, uniformity correction and dynamic range enhancement. These devices represent a solution for processing the exorbitantly high bandwidth coming off large area FPAs without sacrificing systems sensitivity. SBRC's two-color approach leverages the company's HgCdTe technology to provide simultaneous multiband coverage, from short through long wave IR, with near theoretical performance. IR systems that are sensitive to different spectral bands achieve enhanced capabilities for target identification and advanced discrimination. This paper will provide a summary of the issues, the technology and the benefits of SBRC's third generation smart and two-color FPAs.

  6. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Umarkhodgaev

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Some possible physical processes are analysed that cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electric field, emissions in the infrared (IR interval. The atmospheric transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7–15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analyzed. For daytime conditions, modifications of the adsorption spectra of the scattered solar emissions are studied; for nighttime, variations of emission spectra may be used for the analysis.

  7. RADIO MONITORING OF THE PERIODICALLY VARIABLE IR SOURCE LRLL 54361: NO DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE RADIO AND IR EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbrich, Jan, E-mail: jan.forbrich@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star-forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 over roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of ∼100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of the order of a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27 ± 5 μJy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, 53 ± 11 μJy, suggesting that variability in the radio is present, but over larger timescales than in the IR. We discuss other sources in the field, in particular two infrared/X-ray stars that show rapidly varying gyrosynchrotron emission.

  8. Teledetección de Gases mediante Sensores Infrarrojo (IR)

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    El LIR- UC3M, Laboratorio de Sensores IR de la Universidad Carlos III, ha desarrollado técnicas de análisis multi e hiperespectral IR para la teledetección de gases. Ofrece el diseño de sensores específicos para determinar la presencia de gases y su concentración. La práctica totalidad de los gases (CO2, CO, NO2, O3, HC o NH, etc.) implicados en la seguridad industrial, ambiental o militar pueden ser detectados. Se busca empresas o centros interesados en el uso de sensores de aplicación e...

  9. High field Moessbauer study of dilute Ir-(Fe) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabatake, Toshiro; Mazaki, Hiromasa; Shinjo, Teruya.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of very dilute Fe impurities in Ir has been studied by means of Moessbauer measurement in external fields up to 80 kOe at 4.2 K. The saturation hyperfine field increases in proportion to the external field up to the maximum magnetic field available. This means that for a localized spin fluctuation system IrFe, the effective magnetic moment associated with Fe impurities is induced in proportion to the external field. No anomalous spectrum was observed with a very dilute sample (--10 ppm 57 Co), indicating that the interaction between impurities is responsible for the anomalous spectrum previously observed with a less homogeneous sample. (author)

  10. UV, visible and IR laser interaction with gelatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oujja, M; Rebollar, E; Abrusci, C; Amo, A Del; Catalina, F; Castillejo, M

    2007-01-01

    In this work we investigate the effects on gelatine films of nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation at different laser wavelengths from the UV to the IR at 248, 266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm. We compared gelatines differing in gel strength values (Bloom 75 and 225) and in crosslinking degree. Formation of bubbles at the wavelengths in the UV (248 and 266 nm), melting and resolidification at 355 nm, and formation of craters by ablation in the VIS and IR (532 and 1064 nm) are the observed morphological changes. On the other hand, changes of the fluorescence behaviour of the films upon UV irradiation reveal chemical modifications of photolabile chromophores

  11. SAPhIR: a fission-fragment detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theisen, Ch.; Gautherin, C.; Houry, M.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Lucas, R.; Barreau, G.; Doan, T. P.; Belier, G.; Meot, V.; Ethvignot, Th.; Cahan, B.; Le Coguie, A.; Coppolani, X.; Delaitre, B.; Le Bourlout, P.; Legou, Ph.; Maillard, O.; Durand, G.; Bouillac, A.

    1998-01-01

    SAPhIR is the acronym for S a clay A q uitaine P ho tovoltaic cells for I s omer R e search. It consists of solar cells, used for fission-fragment detection. It is a collaboration between 3 laboratories: CEA Saclay, CENBG Bordeaux and CEA Bruyeres le Chatel. The coupling of a highly efficient fission-fragment detector like SAPhIR with EUROBALL will provide new insights in the study of very deformed nuclear matter and in the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei

  12. Perceptual evaluation of different image fusion schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; IJspeert, J.K.

    2001-01-01

    Human perceptual performance was tested with images of nighttime outdoor scenes. The scenes were registered both with a dual band (visual and near infrared) image intensified low-light CCD camera (DII) and with a thermal middle wavelength band (3-5 μm) infrared (IR) camera. Fused imagery was

  13. Perceptual evaluation of different image fusion schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Franken, E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Human scene recognition performance was tested with images of night-time outdoor scenes. The scenes were registered both with a dual band (visual and near infrared) image intensified low-light CCD camera (DII) and with a thermal middle wavelength band (3–5 mm) infrared (IR) camera. Fused imagery was

  14. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  15. Fluorescent microthermographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    In the early days of microelectronics, design rules and feature sizes were large enough that sub-micron spatial resolution was not needed. Infrared or IR thermal techniques were available that calculated the object`s temperature from infrared emission. There is a fundamental spatial resolution limitation dependent on the wavelengths of light being used in the image formation process. As the integrated circuit feature sizes began to shrink toward the one micron level, the limitations imposed on IR thermal systems became more pronounced. Something else was needed to overcome this limitation. Liquid crystals have been used with great success, but they lack the temperature measurement capabilities of other techniques. The fluorescent microthermographic imaging technique (FMI) was developed to meet this need. This technique offers better than 0.01{degrees}C temperature resolution and is diffraction limited to 0.3 {mu}m spatial resolution. While the temperature resolution is comparable to that available on IR systems, the spatial resolution is much better. The FMI technique provides better spatial resolution by using a temperature dependent fluorescent film that emits light at 612 nm instead of the 1.5 {mu}m to 12 {mu}m range used by IR techniques. This tutorial starts with a review of blackbody radiation physics, the process by which all heated objects emit radiation to their surroundings, in order to understand the sources of information that are available to characterize an object`s surface temperature. The processes used in infrared thermal imaging are then detailed to point out the limitations of the technique but also to contrast it with the FMI process. The FMI technique is then described in detail, starting with the fluorescent film physics and ending with a series of examples of past applications of FMI.

  16. Highly Dispersed PVP Supported Ir-Ni Bimetallic Nanoparticles as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    comparison to Ir-Ni (1:2) due to their small size and high stability for the oxidation of ... reason, but also because many dyes and their breakdown products are toxic to ..... which may be due to the involvement of same type of interaction amongst ...

  17. Vibrational microspectroscopy of food. Raman vs. FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Løkke, Mette Marie; Micklander, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    . The high spatial resolution makes it possible to study areas down to approximately 10x10 mum with FT-IR microspectroscopy and approximately 1 x 1 mum with Raman microspectroscopy. This presentation highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the two microspectroscopic techniques when applied...

  18. Historical Materialism and the Postcolonial Challenge to IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    This paper addresses one of the “exemplary questions” listed by the panel conveners, namely: “How does the postcolonial perspective enable/disable the rethinking of theories and concepts considered central to critical IR?” This requires an explication of how I see the several parts of the exempla...

  19. IR study of Pb–Sr titanate borosilicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    IR study of Pb–Sr titanate borosilicate glasses. C R GAUTAM*, DEVENDRA KUMAR. † and OM PARKASH. †. Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007, India. †. Department of Ceramic Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. MS received 3 January ...

  20. Acquisition of Infrared Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (IR-VASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-22

    biomaterials , and nanocomposites. Based on this base user group it is estimated that...Engineering; and Barbara Calcagno, Department of General Engineering) 5. The Role of Mechanical Stimulus on Collagen Expression During Bone Repair (Paul...Polymeric Biomaterials Laboratory Principal Investigator: Jorge Almodóvar, PhD - The IR spectra

  1. The IR-4 Program - how it can benefit nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Ray Frank

    2002-01-01

    The Interregional Research Project 4 (IR-4) was initiated in 1963 to obtain national pesticide label regsitrations for use on food and fiber. This program has an emphasis on minor uses or specialty crops. In this arena in the United States today it includes 600 crops.

  2. 78 FR 913 - IRS Truncated Taxpayer Identification Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background This document contains proposed amendments to the Income Tax Regulations... returns might hamper state income tax processing. Treasury and the IRS gave serious consideration to the... 301 are proposed to be amended as follows: PART 1--INCOME TAXES 0 Paragraph 1. The general authority...

  3. Iridium Sulfide and Ir Promoted Mo Based Catalysts.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 322, - (2007), s. 142-151 ISSN 0926-860X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/06/0870 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : iridium sulfide * IrMo catalyst * hydrodesulfurization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2007

  4. The Community College IR Shop and Accreditation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, George

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of a study the author recently conducted on the role of traditional institutional research (IR) offices in support of accreditation activities and institutional effectiveness. The purpose of the study was to confirm or disconfirm the utility of a theoretical model developed by Brittingham, O'Brien, and Alig (2008) of…

  5. Compressibility of Ir-Os alloys under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusenko, Kirill V.; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Kurnosov, Alexander V.; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Hanfland, Michael; Smaalen, Sander van; Margadonna, Serena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • fcc- and hcp-Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors. • Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence. • Compressibility of alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature in diamond anvil cells. • Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content. - Abstract: Several fcc- and hcp-structured Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors in hydrogen atmosphere at 873 K. Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence as a function of composition. Alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature by means of synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells. Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content and show a deviation from linearity. Bulk modulus of hcp-Ir 0.20 Os 0.80 is identical to that of pure Os (411 GPa) within experimental errors. Peculiarities on fcc-Ir 0.80 Os 0.20 compressibility curve indicate possible changes of its electronic properties at ∼20 GPa

  6. Least-mean-square spatial filter for IR sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takken, E H; Friedman, D; Milton, A F; Nitzberg, R

    1979-12-15

    A new least-mean-square filter is defined for signal-detection problems. The technique is proposed for scanning IR surveillance systems operating in poorly characterized but primarily low-frequency clutter interference. Near-optimal detection of point-source targets is predicted both for continuous-time and sampled-data systems.

  7. Isothermal anisotropic magnetoresistance in antiferromagnetic metallic IrMn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, R; Fina, I; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Frontera, C; López-Mir, L; Deniz, H; Park, K-W; Park, B-G; Balcells, Ll; Martí, X; Jungwirth, T; Martínez, B

    2016-10-20

    Antiferromagnetic spintronics is an emerging field; antiferromagnets can improve the functionalities of ferromagnets with higher response times, and having the information shielded against external magnetic field. Moreover, a large list of aniferromagnetic semiconductors and metals with Néel temperatures above room temperature exists. In the present manuscript, we persevere in the quest for the limits of how large can anisotropic magnetoresistance be in antiferromagnetic materials with very large spin-orbit coupling. We selected IrMn as a prime example of first-class moment (Mn) and spin-orbit (Ir) combination. Isothermal magnetotransport measurements in an antiferromagnetic-metal(IrMn)/ferromagnetic-insulator thin film bilayer have been performed. The metal/insulator structure with magnetic coupling between both layers allows the measurement of the modulation of the transport properties exclusively in the antiferromagnetic layer. Anisotropic magnetoresistance as large as 0.15% has been found, which is much larger than that for a bare IrMn layer. Interestingly, it has been observed that anisotropic magnetoresistance is strongly influenced by the field cooling conditions, signaling the dependence of the found response on the formation of domains at the magnetic ordering temperature.

  8. Mock Target Window OTR and IR Design and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wass, Alexander Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-19

    In order to fully verify temperature measurements made on the target window using infrared (IR) optical non-contact methods, actual comparative measurements are made with a real beam distribution as the heat source using Argonne National Laboratory’s (ANL) 35 MeV electron accelerator. Using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) simulations and thermal Finite Element Analysis (FEA), a cooled mock target window with thermocouple implants is designed to be used in such a test to achieve window temperatures up to 700°C. An uncoated and blackcoated mock window is designed to enhance the IR temperature measurements and verify optical transmitted radiation (OTR) imagery. This allows us to fully verify and characterize our temperature accuracy with our current IR camera method and any future method we may wish to explore using actual production conditions. This test also provides us with valuable conclusions/concerns regarding the calibration method we developed using our IR test stand at TA-53 in MPF-14.

  9. IR, Raman and SERS studies of methyl salicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Hema Tresa; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Philip, Daizy; Mannekutla, James R.; Inamdar, S. R.

    2007-04-01

    The IR and Raman spectra of methyl salicylate (MS) were recorded and analysed. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum was recorded in silver colloid. The vibrational wave numbers of the compound have been computed using the Hartree-Fock/6-31G * basis and compared with the experimental values. SERS studies suggest a flat orientation of the molecule at the metal surface.

  10. Mord studies in IR region by new dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, V.R.; Kumar, R. Jeevan

    1994-01-01

    This is the continuation of the series reporting MORD studies to typical problem in Chemistry and Polymer Science. In our earlier papers the MORDsup1.2 studied only in visible region. In this present investigation we extended the application of the New Dispersion Relation in IR region to determine the MORD and tested to some simple systems

  11. Massive Young Stellar Objects in the Galactic Center. 1; Spectroscopic Identification from Spitzer/IRS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Deokkeun; Ramirez, Solange V.; Sellgren, Kris; Arendt, Richard G.; Boogert, A. C. Adwin; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Schultheis, Mathias; Cotera, Angela S.; Smith, Howard A.; Stolovy, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from our spectroscopic study, using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope, designed to identify massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Galactic Center (GC). Our sample of 107 YSO candidates was selected based on IRAC colors from the high spatial resolution, high sensitivity Spitzer/IRAC images in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), which spans the central approximately 300 pc region of the Milky Way Galaxy. We obtained IRS spectra over 5 micron to 35 micron using both high- and low-resolution IRS modules. We spectroscopically identify massive YSOs by the presence of a 15.4 micron shoulder on the absorption profile of 15 micron CO2 ice, suggestive of CO2 ice mixed with CH30H ice on grains. This 15.4 micron shoulder is clearly observed in 16 sources and possibly observed in an additional 19 sources. We show that 9 massive YSOs also reveal molecular gas-phase absorption from C02, C2H2, and/or HCN, which traces warm and dense gas in YSOs. Our results provide the first spectroscopic census of the massive YSO population in the GC. We fit YSO models to the observed spectral energy distributions and find YSO masses of 8 - 23 solar Mass, which generally agree with the masses derived from observed radio continuum emission. We find that about 50% of photometrically identified YSOs are confirmed with our spectroscopic study. This implies a preliminary star formation rate of approximately 0.07 solar mass/yr at the GC.

  12. Biochemical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Injury by FT-IR Spectroscopy—Effects of Therapeutic Alginate Implant in Rat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckermann, Ortrud; Sitoci-Ficici, Kerim H.; Later, Robert; Beiermeister, Rudolf; Doberenz, Falko; Gelinsky, Michael; Leipnitz, Elke; Schackert, Gabriele; Koch, Edmund; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces complex biochemical changes, which result in inhibition of nervous tissue regeneration abilities. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to assess the outcomes of implants made of a novel type of non-functionalized soft calcium alginate hydrogel in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection (n = 28). Using FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, we evaluated the stability of the implants and the effects on morphology and biochemistry of the injured tissue one and six months after injury. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the distribution of lipids and collagen showed that alginate significantly reduced injury-induced demyelination of the contralateral white matter and fibrotic scarring in the chronic state after SCI. The spectral information enabled to detect and localize the alginate hydrogel at the lesion site and proved its long-term persistence in vivo. These findings demonstrate a positive impact of alginate hydrogel on recovery after SCI and prove FT-IR spectroscopic imaging as alternative method to evaluate and optimize future SCI repair strategies. PMID:26559822

  13. Biochemical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Injury by FT-IR Spectroscopy--Effects of Therapeutic Alginate Implant in Rat Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tamosaityte

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI induces complex biochemical changes, which result in inhibition of nervous tissue regeneration abilities. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy was applied to assess the outcomes of implants made of a novel type of non-functionalized soft calcium alginate hydrogel in a rat model of spinal cord hemisection (n = 28. Using FT-IR spectroscopic imaging, we evaluated the stability of the implants and the effects on morphology and biochemistry of the injured tissue one and six months after injury. A semi-quantitative evaluation of the distribution of lipids and collagen showed that alginate significantly reduced injury-induced demyelination of the contralateral white matter and fibrotic scarring in the chronic state after SCI. The spectral information enabled to detect and localize the alginate hydrogel at the lesion site and proved its long-term persistence in vivo. These findings demonstrate a positive impact of alginate hydrogel on recovery after SCI and prove FT-IR spectroscopic imaging as alternative method to evaluate and optimize future SCI repair strategies.

  14. Readability of Online Patient Education Materials Related to IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnteggart, Gregory E; Naeem, Muhammad; Skierkowski, Dorothy; Baird, Grayson L; Ahn, Sun H; Soares, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    To assess the readability of online patient education materials (OPEM) related to common diseases treated by and procedures performed by interventional radiology (IR). The following websites were chosen based on their average Google search return for each IR OPEM content area examined in this study: Society of Interventional Radiology (SIR), Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE), National Library of Medicine, RadiologyInfo, Mayo Clinic, WebMD, and Wikipedia. IR OPEM content area was assessed for the following: peripheral arterial disease, central venous catheter, varicocele, uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and deep vein thrombosis. The following algorithms were used to estimate and compare readability levels: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Formula, Flesch Reading Ease Score, Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Coleman-Liau Index. Data were analyzed using general mixed modeling. On average, online sources that required beyond high school grade-level readability were Wikipedia (15.0), SIR (14.2), and RadiologyInfo (12.4); sources that required high school grade-level readability were CIRSE (11.3), Mayo Clinic (11.0), WebMD (10.6), and National Library of Medicine (9.0). On average, OPEM on uterine artery embolization, vertebroplasty, varicocele, and peripheral arterial disease required the highest level of readability (12.5, 12.3, 12.3, and 12.2, respectively). The IR OPEM assessed in this study were written above the recommended sixth-grade reading level and the health literacy level of the average American adult. Many patients in the general public may not have the ability to read and understand health information in IR OPEM. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between {sup 99m}Tc and HDR {sup 192}Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de; Lima, Carla Flavia de; Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with {sup 99m}Tc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and methods: simulations of implants with {sup 99m}Tc-filled and HDR {sup 192}Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results: the {sup 99m}Tc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h{sup -1}.mCi{sup -1} and 0.190 cGyh{sup -1} at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh{sup -1}.mCi{sup -1}, respectively, for the HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the {sup 99m}Tc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion: temporary {sup 99m}Tc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR {sup 192}Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice. (author)

  16. Balloon-based adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer: comparison between 99mTc and HDR 192Ir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Passos Ribeiro de Campos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To perform a comparative dosimetric analysis, based on computer simulations, of temporary balloon implants with 99mTc and balloon brachytherapy with high-dose-rate (HDR 192Ir, as boosts to radiotherapy. We hypothesized that the two techniques would produce equivalent doses under pre-established conditions of activity and exposure time. Materials and Methods: Simulations of implants with 99mTc-filled and HDR 192Ir-filled balloons were performed with the Siscodes/MCNP5, modeling in voxels a magnetic resonance imaging set related to a young female. Spatial dose rate distributions were determined. In the dosimetric analysis of the protocols, the exposure time and the level of activity required were specified. Results: The 99mTc balloon presented a weighted dose rate in the tumor bed of 0.428 cGy.h-1.mCi-1 and 0.190 cGyh-1.mCi-1 at the balloon surface and at 8-10 mm from the surface, respectively, compared with 0.499 and 0.150 cGyh-1.mCi-1, respectively, for the HDR 192Ir balloon. An exposure time of 24 hours was required for the 99mTc balloon to produce a boost of 10.14 Gy with 1.0 Ci, whereas only 24 minutes with 10.0 Ci segments were required for the HDR 192Ir balloon to produce a boost of 5.14 Gy at the same reference point, or 10.28 Gy in two 24-minutes fractions. Conclusion: Temporary 99mTc balloon implantation is an attractive option for adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer, because of its availability, economic viability, and similar dosimetry in comparison with the use of HDR 192Ir balloon implantation, which is the current standard in clinical practice.

  17. Iterative model reconstruction: Improved image quality of low-tube-voltage prospective ECG-gated coronary CT angiography images at 256-slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Seitaro, E-mail: seisei0430@nifty.com [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556 (Japan); Weissman, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.Weissman@medstar.net [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Vembar, Mani, E-mail: mani.vembar@philips.com [CT Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare, c595 Miner Road, Cleveland, OH 44143 (United States); Weigold, Wm. Guy, E-mail: Guy.Weigold@MedStar.net [Department of Cardiology, MedStar Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of a new model-based type of iterative reconstruction (M-IR) technique, the iterative model reconstruction, on image quality of prospectively gated coronary CT angiography (CTA) acquired at low-tube-voltage. Methods: Thirty patients (16 men, 14 women; mean age 52.2 ± 13.2 years) underwent coronary CTA at 100-kVp on a 256-slice CT. Paired image sets were created using 3 types of reconstruction, i.e. filtered back projection (FBP), a hybrid type of iterative reconstruction (H-IR), and M-IR. Quantitative parameters including CT-attenuation, image noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured. The visual image quality, i.e. graininess, beam-hardening, vessel sharpness, and overall image quality, was scored on a 5-point scale. Lastly, coronary artery segments were evaluated using a 4-point scale to investigate the assessability of each segment. Results: There was no significant difference in coronary arterial CT attenuation among the 3 reconstruction methods. The mean image noise of FBP, H-IR, and M-IR images was 29.3 ± 9.6, 19.3 ± 6.9, and 12.9 ± 3.3 HU, respectively, there were significant differences for all comparison combinations among the 3 methods (p < 0.01). The CNR of M-IR was significantly better than of FBP and H-IR images (13.5 ± 5.0 [FBP], 20.9 ± 8.9 [H-IR] and 39.3 ± 13.9 [M-IR]; p < 0.01). The visual scores were significantly higher for M-IR than the other images (p < 0.01), and 95.3% of the coronary segments imaged with M-IR were of assessable quality compared with 76.7% of FBP- and 86.9% of H-IR images. Conclusions: M-IR can provide significantly improved qualitative and quantitative image quality in prospectively gated coronary CTA using a low-tube-voltage.

  18. Exchange bias and perpendicular anisotropy study of ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn multilayers sputtered on float glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, M.; Lüders, U.; Bobo, J. F.

    2007-09-01

    We have prepared ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn polycrystalline multilayers on float-glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We have determined the optimal set of thickness for both Pt layers, the Co layer and the IrMn biasing layer so that these samples exhibit at the same time out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and exchange bias. Kerr microscopy domain structure imaging evidences an increase of nucleation rate accompanied with inhomogeneous magnetic behavior in the case of exchange-biased films compared to Pt-Co-Pt trilayers. Polar hysteresis loops are measured in obliquely applied magnetic field conditions, allowing us to determine both perpendicular anisotropy effective constant Keff and exchange-bias coupling JE, which are significantly different from the ones determined by standard switching field measurements.

  19. Exchange bias and perpendicular anisotropy study of ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn multilayers sputtered on float glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, M.; Lueders, U.; Bobo, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    We have prepared ultrathin Pt-Co-Pt-IrMn polycrystalline multilayers on float-glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We have determined the optimal set of thickness for both Pt layers, the Co layer and the IrMn biasing layer so that these samples exhibit at the same time out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and exchange bias. Kerr microscopy domain structure imaging evidences an increase of nucleation rate accompanied with inhomogeneous magnetic behavior in the case of exchange-biased films compared to Pt-Co-Pt trilayers. Polar hysteresis loops are measured in obliquely applied magnetic field conditions, allowing us to determine both perpendicular anisotropy effective constant K eff and exchange-bias coupling J E , which are significantly different from the ones determined by standard switching field measurements

  20. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE SCORPIUS–CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang-Condell, Hannah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Chen, Christine H.; Mittal, Tushar; Lisse, Carey M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Rd., Mumbai 400005 (India); Watson, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Nesvold, Erika; Kuchner, Marc [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2015-08-01

    We analyze spectra obtained with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of 110 B-, A-, F-, and G-type stars with optically thin infrared excess in the Scorpius–Centaurus OB association. The ages of these stars range from 11 to 17 Myr. We fit the infrared excesses observed in these sources by Spitzer IRS and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) to simple dust models according to Mie theory. We find that nearly all of the objects in our study can be fit by one or two belts of dust. Dust around lower mass stars appears to be closer in than around higher mass stars, particularly for the warm dust component in the two-belt systems, suggesting a mass-dependent evolution of debris disks around young stars. For those objects with stellar companions, all dust distances are consistent with truncation of the debris disk by the binary companion. The gaps between several of the two-belt systems can place limits on the planets that might lie between the belts, potentially constraining the mass and locations of planets that may be forming around these stars.

  1. Archival Investigation of Outburst Sites and Progenitors of Extragalactic Intermediate-Luminosity Mid-IR Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Howard

    2017-08-01

    Our team is using Spitzer in a long-term search for extragalactic mid-infrared (MIR) variable stars and transients-the SPIRITS project (SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey). In this first exploration of luminous astrophysical transients in the infrared, we have discovered a puzzling new class. We call them SPRITEs: eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events. They have maximum MIR luminosities between supernovae and classical novae, but are not detected in the optical to deep limits. To date, we have discovered more than 50 SPRITEs in galaxies out to 17 Mpc. In this Archival Research proposal, we request support in order to investigate the pre-eruption sites in HST images of some 3 dozen SPRITEs discovered to date, and an additional 2 dozen that we are likely to find until the end of Spitzer observing in late 2018. Our aims are (1) characterize the pre-outburst environments at HST resolution in the visible and near-IR, to understand the stellar populations, stellar ages and masses, and interstellar medium at the outburst sites; (2) search for progenitors; (3) help prepare the way for a better understanding of the nature of extragalactic IR transients that will be investigated by JWST.

  2. Large-format platinum silicide microwave kinetic inductance detectors for optical to near-IR astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szypryt, P; Meeker, S R; Coiffard, G; Fruitwala, N; Bumble, B; Ulbricht, G; Walter, A B; Daal, M; Bockstiegel, C; Collura, G; Zobrist, N; Lipartito, I; Mazin, B A

    2017-10-16

    We have fabricated and characterized 10,000 and 20,440 pixel Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) arrays for the Dark-speckle Near-IR Energy-resolved Superconducting Spectrophotometer (DARKNESS) and the MKID Exoplanet Camera (MEC). These instruments are designed to sit behind adaptive optics systems with the goal of directly imaging exoplanets in a 800-1400 nm band. Previous large optical and near-IR MKID arrays were fabricated using substoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) on a silicon substrate. These arrays, however, suffered from severe non-uniformities in the TiN critical temperature, causing resonances to shift away from their designed values and lowering usable detector yield. We have begun fabricating DARKNESS and MEC arrays using platinum silicide (PtSi) on sapphire instead of TiN. Not only do these arrays have much higher uniformity than the TiN arrays, resulting in higher pixel yields, they have demonstrated better spectral resolution than TiN MKIDs of similar design. PtSi MKIDs also do not display the hot pixel effects seen when illuminating TiN on silicon MKIDs with photons with wavelengths shorter than 1 µm.

  3. A Mid-IR Census of Dusty Supernovae From the Past Decade In Preparation for JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ori; Andrews, Jennifer; Arendt, Rick; Clayton, Geoff; Dwek, Eli; Filippenko, Alex; Johansson, Joel; Kelly, Patrick; Krafton, Kelsie; Marston, Tony; Mauerhan, Jon; Szalai, Tamas; Van Dyk, Schuyler

    2018-05-01

    Over the past decade, our team has shown that a surprising number of different supernova (SN) subclasses have members that exhibit mid-infrared (mid-IR) emission from warm dust at late times (>100 days post-explosion). This work has used Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 micron imaging to constrain the dust origin and heating mechanisms, but a number of questions still remain. How much dust can SNe IIP produce in their ejecta? What progenitor can produce such extreme mass-loss events required to form the large, dense, pre-existing dust shells observed in so many cases? Many of these SNe remain bright today, in some cases more than a decade after discovery. Continued mid-IR monitoring is necessary to answer these questions by measuring the full extent of either the newly formed dust mass or pre-existing dust shell. Furthermore, Spitzer observations of both old and new SNe will provide up to date flux estimates as we prepare for continued observations with JWST. This proposal will cap off nearly a decade of work and bridge the gap to the first few cycles of JWST.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Sarit; Pellach, Michal [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Kam, Yossi [Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Grinberg, Igor; Corem-Salkmon, Enav [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Rubinstein, Abraham [Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Margel, Shlomo, E-mail: shlomo.margel@mail.biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2013-03-01

    Near IR (NIR) fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. HSA nanoparticles are considered to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. In addition, NIR fluorescence properties of these nanoparticles are important for in vivo tumor diagnostics, with low autofluorescence and relatively deep penetration of NIR irradiation due to low absorption of biomatrices. The present study describes the synthesis of new NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, by entrapment of a NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles, which also significantly increases the photostability of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) were covalently conjugated to the NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles, increasing the potential fluorescent signal in tumors with upregulated corresponding receptors. Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and a rat model. In future work we also plan to encapsulate cancer drugs such as doxorubicin within the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles for both colon cancer imaging and therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Near IR human serum albumin nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles were shown to be physically and chemically stable and photostable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor-targeting ligands were covalently conjugated to the nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific colon cancer tumor detection was demonstrated in chicken-embryo and rat models.

  5. Dual emitter IrQ(ppy)2 for OLED applications: Synthesis and spectroscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobotaru, I.C.; Polosan, S.; Ciobotaru, C.C.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of organometallic compound with iridium and two types of ligands, quinoline and phenylpyridine, was done successfully. The absorption spectra of this compound have shown broad peaks in a visible region assigned to metal-to-ligands charge transfer and in UV region assigned to intraligand absorptions. The photoluminescence spectra exhibit dual character in which the red emission is more intense than the green one. In cathodoluminescence measurements, under electron beam, the powder obtained after recrystallization from dichloromethane, shows similar behaviors with photoluminescence spectra. The cathodoluminescence images have shown a luminescent crystalline powder with triclinic structure. This compound exhibits combined vibrational modes, which proves the presence in the same molecule of both ligands. Density Functional Theory calculation was involved in order to identify the main vibrations of this compound. Highlights: • Mixed-ligand of IrQ(ppy) 2 synthesis which gives green and red phosphorescence due to the MCLT processes coming from two types of ligands. • Absorption, photoluminescence, infrared spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence measurements for characterization of IrQ(ppy) 2 organometallic compound. • Experimental results have been compared with the output files obtained from Density Functional Theory by using the Gaussian 03W software

  6. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Sarit; Pellach, Michal; Kam, Yossi; Grinberg, Igor; Corem-Salkmon, Enav; Rubinstein, Abraham; Margel, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Near IR (NIR) fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. HSA nanoparticles are considered to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. In addition, NIR fluorescence properties of these nanoparticles are important for in vivo tumor diagnostics, with low autofluorescence and relatively deep penetration of NIR irradiation due to low absorption of biomatrices. The present study describes the synthesis of new NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, by entrapment of a NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles, which also significantly increases the photostability of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) were covalently conjugated to the NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles, increasing the potential fluorescent signal in tumors with upregulated corresponding receptors. Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and a rat model. In future work we also plan to encapsulate cancer drugs such as doxorubicin within the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles for both colon cancer imaging and therapy. - Highlights: ► Near IR human serum albumin nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. ► Nanoparticles were shown to be physically and chemically stable and photostable. ► Tumor-targeting ligands were covalently conjugated to the nanoparticles. ► Specific colon cancer tumor detection was demonstrated in chicken-embryo and rat models.

  7. Compensatory insulin receptor (IR) activation on inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R): rationale for cotargeting IGF-1R and IR in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Elizabeth; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Koujak, Susan; Brown, Eric; Eyzaguirre, Alexandra; Tao, Nianjun; Rosenfeld-Franklin, Maryland; Lerner, Lorena; Chiu, M Isabel; Wild, Robert; Epstein, David; Pachter, Jonathan A; Miglarese, Mark R

    2010-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and critical activator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway. IGF-1R is required for oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. These observations have spurred anticancer drug discovery and development efforts for both biological and small-molecule IGF-1R inhibitors. The ability for one RTK to compensate for another to maintain tumor cell viability is emerging as a common resistance mechanism to antitumor agents targeting individual RTKs. As IGF-1R is structurally and functionally related to the insulin receptor (IR), we asked whether IR is tumorigenic and whether IR-AKT signaling contributes to resistance to IGF-1R inhibition. Both IGF-1R and IR(A) are tumorigenic in a mouse mammary tumor model. In human tumor cells coexpressing IGF-1R and IR, bidirectional cross talk was observed following either knockdown of IR expression or treatment with a selective anti-IGF-1R antibody, MAB391. MAB391 treatment resulted in a compensatory increase in phospho-IR, which was associated with resistance to inhibition of IRS1 and AKT. In contrast, treatment with OSI-906, a small-molecule dual inhibitor of IGF-1R/IR, resulted in enhanced reduction in phospho-IRS1/phospho-AKT relative to MAB391. Insulin or IGF-2 activated the IR-AKT pathway and decreased sensitivity to MAB391 but not to OSI-906. In tumor cells with an autocrine IGF-2 loop, both OSI-906 and an anti-IGF-2 antibody reduced phospho-IR/phospho-AKT, whereas MAB391 was ineffective. Finally, OSI-906 showed superior efficacy compared with MAB391 in human tumor xenograft models in which both IGF-1R and IR were phosphorylated. Collectively, these data indicate that cotargeting IGF-1R and IR may provide superior antitumor efficacy compared with targeting IGF-1R alone.

  8. Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing protein 4 (Asb-4 colocalizes with insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4 in the hypothalamic neurons and mediates IRS4 degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zefeng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus regulates food intake. Ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing protein 4 (Asb-4 is expressed in neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus, target neurons in the regulation of food intake and metabolism by insulin and leptin. However, the target protein(s of Asb-4 in these neurons remains unknown. Insulin receptor substrate 4 (IRS4 is an adaptor molecule involved in the signal transduction by both insulin and leptin. In the present study we examined the colocalization and interaction of Asb-4 with IRS4 and the involvement of Asb-4 in insulin signaling. Results In situ hybridization showed that the expression pattern of Asb-4 was consistent with that of IRS4 in the rat brain. Double in situ hybridization showed that IRS4 colocalized with Asb-4, and both Asb-4 and IRS4 mRNA were expressed in proopiomelanocortin (POMC and neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. In HEK293 cells co-transfected with Myc-tagged Asb-4 and Flag-tagged IRS4, Asb-4 co-immunoprecipitated with IRS4; In these cells endogenous IRS4 also co-immunoprecipitated with transfected Myc-Asb-4; Furthermore, Asb-4 co-immunoprecipitated with IRS4 in rat hypothalamic extracts. In HEK293 cells over expression of Asb-4 decreased IRS4 protein levels and deletion of the SOCS box abolished this effect. Asb-4 increased the ubiquitination of IRS4; Deletion of SOCS box abolished this effect. Expression of Asb-4 decreased both basal and insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT at Thr308. Conclusions These data demonstrated that Asb-4 co-localizes and interacts with IRS4 in hypothalamic neurons. The interaction of Asb-4 with IRS4 in cell lines mediates the degradation of IRS4 and decreases insulin signaling.

  9. Hybrid nanomaterial and its applications: IR sensing and energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yi-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, a hybrid nanomaterial, single-wall carbon nanotubes-copper sulfide nanoparticles (SWNTs-CuS NPs), was synthesized and its properties were analyzed. Due to its unique optical and thermal properties, the hybrid nanomaterial exhibited great potential for infrared (IR) sensing and energy harvesting. The hybrid nanomaterial was synthesized with the non-covalent bond technique to functionalize the surface of the SWNTs and bind the CuS nanoparticles on the surface of the SWNTs. For testing and analyzing the hybrid nanomaterial, SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles were formed as a thin film structure using the vacuum filtration method. Two conductive wires were bound on the ends of the thin film to build a thin film device for measurements and analyses. Measurements found that the hybrid nanomaterial had a significantly increased light absorption (up to 80%) compared to the pure SWNTs. Moreover, the hybrid nanomaterial thin film devices exhibited a clear optical and thermal switching effect, which could be further enhanced up to ten times with asymmetric illumination of light and thermal radiation on the thin film devices instead of symmetric illumination. A simple prototype thermoelectric generator enabled by the hybrid nanomaterials was demonstrated, indicating a new route for achieving thermoelectricity. In addition, CuS nanoparticles have great optical absorption especially in the near-infrared region. Therefore, the hybrid nanomaterial thin films also have the potential for IR sensing applications. The first application to be covered in this dissertation is the IR sensing application. IR thin film sensors based on the SWNTs-CuS nanoparticles hybrid nanomaterials were fabricated. The IR response in the photocurrent of the hybrid thin film sensor was significantly enhanced, increasing the photocurrent by 300% when the IR light illuminates the thin film device asymmetrically. The detection limit could be as low as 48mW mm-2. The dramatically enhanced

  10. Flushing-free film test of "1"9"2Ir accuracy of position and step distance for afterloading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Chen Rui; Shang Yunying; Chen Yue; Min Nan; Chen Yingmin; Deng Daping

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the method of measuring the position accuracy and the step distance accuracy of afterloading system with "1"9"2Ir source by using flushing-free film. Methods: The position accuracy and the step distance accuracy of a China-made afterloading system with "1"9"2Ir source was measured by using GAFCHROMIC"® EBT"3 flushing-free film. The film was scanned to proper image format, required by dose analysis software, by EPSON PREFACTION V700 PHOTO scanner. Then images are analyzed by using film dose analysis software in SNC Patient 5.2. Results: With focus on the center of active section of source, the position accuracy of this afterloading system with "1"9"2Ir source was -0.75 mm. Using film analysis could make the step point to tell apart if the step distance was 5 mm away by the method of film analysis, but couldnot make it to tell apart if the step distance was 2.5 mm away. The 2.5 mm step distance accuracy could be judged if the distance between the 1"s"t point and the 3"r"d point was 5 mm, then the 2.5 mm step distance could be deemed to no deviation. The 5 mm step distance of this afterloading system had no deviation in continuous 9 step points measured by flushing-free film. The indirect measuring results of the 2.5 mm step distance had no deviation as well. The position accuracy of this afterloading system measured with the flushing-free film accorded with the national standards. Conclusions: The method of measuring the position accuracy and the step distance accuracy of the afterloading system with "1"9"2Ir source by using flushing-free film is technically feasible. (authors)

  11. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju

    2012-04-01

    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  12. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  13. Dosimetric advancement of high-dose-rate after-loading 192Ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shuxu; Li Wenhua; Xu Hairong

    2004-01-01

    High-dose-rate (HDR) 192 Ir source is a nuclide commonly used in the brachytherapy system. The basic dosimetry data of the near source area is usually measured by pin ion chambers or TLD techniques, but these methods have a lower spatial resolution than Electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry which has a spatial resolution of 156 μm, and the Monte Carlo photon transport simulations are taken as the golden standard of those measures. The precision in two-dimensional dose distribution measured by GafChromic film is reported to be 1.0%. In vivo dosimetry using TLD during HDR intracavitary after-loading brachytherapy is a good predictor of late rectal complications. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Fricke-gel dosimetry for three-dimensional dose distribution is about 2.5% with a spatial resolution of 1.56 mm. The optical computed tomography polymer gel dosimetry has a unique advance than MRI gel dosimetry

  14. HST/WFC3 Characteristics: gain, post-flash stability, UVIS low-sensitivity pixels, persistence, IR flats and bad pixel table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Heather C.; Baggett, Sylvia; Gosmeyer, Catherine M.; Long, Knox S.; Ryan, Russell E.; MacKenty, John W.; Durbin, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is a fourth-generation imaging instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Installed in May 2009, WFC3 is comprised of two observational channels covering wavelengths from UV/Visible (UVIS) to infrared (IR); both have been performing well on-orbit. We discuss the gain stability of both WFC3 channel detectors from ground testing through present day. For UVIS, we detail a low-sensitivity pixel population that evolves during the time between anneals, but is largely reset by the annealing procedure. We characterize the post-flash LED lamp stability, used and recommended to mitigate CTE effects for observations with less than 12e-/pixel backgrounds. We present mitigation options for IR persistence during and after observations. Finally, we give an overview on the construction of the IR flats and provide updates on the bad pixel table.

  15. Polarised IR-microscope spectra of guanidinium hydrogensulphate single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, M; Baran, J

    2006-07-01

    Polarised IR-microscope spectra of C(NH(2))(3)*HSO(4) small single crystal samples were measured at room temperature. The spectra are discussed on the basis of oriented gas model approximation and group theory. The stretching nuOH vibration of the hydrogen bond with the Ocdots, three dots, centeredO distance of 2.603A gives characteristic broad AB-type absorption in the IR spectra. The changes of intensity of the AB bands in function of polariser angle are described. Detailed assignments for bands derived from stretching and bending modes of sulphate anions and guanidinium cations were performed. The observed intensities of these bands in polarised infrared spectra were correlated with theoretical calculation of directional cosines of selected transition dipole moments for investigated crystal. The vibrational studies seem to be helpful in understanding of physical and chemical properties of described compound and also in design of new complexes with exactly defined behaviors.

  16. Polarized IR-microscope spectra of guanidinium hydrogenselenate single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, M; Baran, J

    2005-10-01

    The polarized IR-microscope spectra of C(NH2)3.HSeO4 small single crystal samples were measured at room temperature. The spectra are discussed with the framework of oriented gas model approximation and group theory. The stretching nuOH vibration of the hydrogen bond with the O...O distance of 2.616 A gives characteristic broad AB-type absorption in the IR spectra. The changes of intensity of the AB bands in function of polarizer angle are described. Detailed assignment for bands derived from stretching and bending modes of selenate anions and guanidinium cations were performed. The observed intensities of these bands in polarized infrared spectra were correlated with theoretical calculation of directional cosines of selected transition dipole moments for investigated crystal. The vibrational studies seem to be helpful in understanding of physical and chemical properties of described compound and also in design of new complexes with exactly defined behaviors.

  17. IR and UV spectroscopic analysis of TBP complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzouz, A.; Berrak, A.; Seridi, L.; Attou, M.

    1985-06-01

    The complexity of TBP molecule and the limited number of references stimulated the elaboration of this report. The spectroscopic of TBP and its complexes in the IR and UV fields permitted to elucidate or to confirm certain aspects concerning the solvation phenomenum. In IR spectroscopy, the stretching band of the P→O bond only is characteristic of the complex formed. The position of this band gives sufficient information about the kind and the stability of a complex. The TBP electronic spectra are characterized by two bands (200-220 nm) 1 and (268-290 nm) 2 whose intensity ratio (2/1) is about 0,13. The solvent nature seems to influence the positions of these bands and that of the inflexion point. The band 2 disappears when the TBP is complexed and the position and the intensity of the band 1 depend upon the complex nature

  18. (Ir)reconcilable differences? The debate concerning nursing and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, M

    1997-01-01

    To review and critique the debate concerning nursing and technology. Technology has been considered both at one and at odds with nursing. Mitcham's (1994) concepts of technological optimism and romanticism. Nursing literature since 1960. Historical analysis. Technological optimists in nursing have viewed technology as an extension of and as readily assimilable into humanistic nursing practice, and nursing as socially advantaged by technology. Technological romantics have viewed technology as irreconcilable with nursing culture, as an expression of masculine culture, and as recirculating existing gender and social inequalities. Both optimists and romantics essentialize technology and nursing, treating the two as singular and fixed entities. The (ir)reconcilability of nursing and technology may be a function of how devices are used by people in different contexts, or of the (ir)reconcilability of views of technology in nursing.

  19. IR OPTICS MEASUREMENT WITH LINEAR COUPLING'S ACTION-ANGLE PARAMETERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUO, Y.; BAI, M.; PILAT, R.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2005-01-01

    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics

  20. IR-laser assisted additive freeform optics manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zhihan; Liang, Rongguang

    2017-08-02

    Computer-controlled additive manufacturing (AM) processes, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, create 3D objects by the successive adding of a material or materials. While there have been tremendous developments in AM, the 3D printing of optics is lagging due to the limits in materials and tight requirements for optical applicaitons. We propose a new precision additive freeform optics manufacturing (AFOM) method using an pulsed infrared (IR) laser. Compared to ultraviolet (UV) curable materials, thermally curable optical silicones have a number of advantages, such as strong UV stability, non-yellowing, and high transmission, making it particularly suitable for optical applications. Pulsed IR laser radiation offers a distinct advantage in processing optical silicones, as the high peak intensity achieved in the focal region allows for curing the material quickly, while the brief duration of the laser-material interaction creates a negligible heat-affected zone.

  1. Clusterin: an IR-inducible protein determining life and death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVID A. BOOTHMAN

    2006-01-01

    The roles of ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible genes/proteins are now being elucidated and the research team will focus on the functions of the clusterin (CLU) proteins after low dose IR exposures. With funding from the DOE, we discovered that x-ray-inducible transcript/protein No.8 (xip8) bound to the Ku70 DNA double strand break repair protein using various molecular biology techniques. We showed that translation of the CLU/xip8 transcript was complicated, leading to two classes of proteins separated by their intracellular processing. One set of CLU proteins (a secreted and precursor protein, sCLU and psCLU, respectively) were induced by very low doses of IR (>2.0 cGy) and subsequently secreted from the cell. The functions of sCLU, particularly in bystander effects, are not known; sCLU does not bind Ku70, but can interact with the TGF-? II receptor. Another intracellular class of CLU proteins was targeted to the cytoplasm and existed in a dormant precursor nuclear form (pnCLU). After higher IR doses (>1.0 Gy), pnCLU was activated via post-translational modification, and translocated to the nucleus, where nuclear CLU (nCLU) interacted with Ku70/Ku80, and signaled cell death. The mechanism(s) of how cells die following nCLU accumulation are unknown. Recent data from our lab indicate that CLU gene transcription is also complicated. Thus far, the data suggest that: (a) p53 is a negative regulator of CLU transcription, however, the mechanisms by which it exerts this negative pressure are not known; and (b) IR induces transcription of the CLU promoter, independent of p53, at regulatory elements that lie between -1403 and -325 bps 5'-from the TATAA box. In this renewal, the research team will investigate three separate, but interrelated hypotheses: (1) p53 negatively regulates the CLU promoter via distinct head to tail p53 half sites, and induction is mediated by the combination of retinoblatoma control elements (RCEs) and NF-?B sites; (2) sCLU is cytoprotective and

  2. From UV/IR mixing to closed strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Esperanza

    2003-01-01

    It was shown in [1] that the leading UV/IR mixing effects in noncommutative gauge theories on D-branes are able to capture information about the closed string spectrum of the parent string theory. The analysis was carried out for D-branes on nonsupersymmetric C 3 /Z N orbifolds of Type IIB. In this paper we consider D-branes on twisted circles compactifications of Type II string theory. We find that the signs of the leading UV/IR mixing effects know about the (mass) 2 gap between the lowest modes in NSNS and RR closed string towers. Moreover, the relevant piece of the field theory effective action can be reproduced purely in the language of closed strings. Remarkably, this approach unifies in a single structure, that of a closed string exchange between D-branes, both the leading planar and nonplanar effects associated to the absence of supersymmetry. (author)

  3. Applications of FT-IR spectrophotometry in cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Hoang, Vu Dang; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    This review provides a brief background to the application of infrared spectroscopy, including Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, in biological fluids. It is not meant to be complete or exhaustive but to provide the reader with sufficient background for selected applications in cancer diagnostics. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a fast and nondestructive analytical method. The infrared spectrum of a mixture serves as the basis to quantitate its constituents, and a number of common clinical chemistry tests have proven to be feasible using this approach. This review focuses on biomedical FT-IR applications, published in the period 2009-2013, used for early detection of cancer through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  4. Clusterin: an IR-inducible protein determining life and death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVID A. BOOTHMAN, Ph.D.

    2006-07-11

    The roles of ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible genes/proteins are now being elucidated and the research team will focus on the functions of the clusterin (CLU) proteins after low dose IR exposures. With funding from the DOE, we discovered that x-ray-inducible transcript/protein #8 (xip8) bound to the Ku70 DNA double strand break repair protein using various molecular biology techniques. We showed that translation of the CLU/xip8 transcript was complicated, leading to two classes of proteins separated by their intracellular processing. One set of CLU proteins (a secreted and precursor protein, sCLU and psCLU, respectively) were induced by very low doses of IR (>2.0 cGy) and subsequently secreted from the cell. The functions of sCLU, particularly in bystander effects, are not known; sCLU does not bind Ku70, but can interact with the TGF-ß II receptor. Another intracellular class of CLU proteins was targeted to the cytoplasm and existed in a dormant precursor nuclear form (pnCLU). After higher IR doses (>1.0 Gy), pnCLU was activated via post-translational modification, and translocated to the nucleus, where nuclear CLU (nCLU) interacted with Ku70/Ku80, and signaled cell death. The mechanism(s) of how cells die following nCLU accumulation are unknown. Recent data from our lab indicate that CLU gene transcription is also complicated. Thus far, the data suggest that: (a) p53 is a negative regulator of CLU transcription, however, the mechanisms by which it exerts this negative pressure are not known; and (b) IR induces transcription of the CLU promoter, independent of p53, at regulatory elements that lie between -1403 and -325 bps 5'-from the TATAA box. In this renewal, the research team will investigate three separate, but interrelated hypotheses: (1) p53 negatively regulates the CLU promoter via distinct head to tail p53 half sites, and induction is mediated by the combination of retinoblatoma control elements (RCEs) and NF-∫B sites; (2) sCLU is cytoprotective

  5. Ir catalysts: Preventing CH3COOH formation in ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Bei; Wu, Zhipeng; Xu, Han; Zhang, Minhua; Chen, Yifei; Wang, Lichang

    2017-11-01

    Current catalysts used for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) cannot effectively prevent CH3COOH formation, and thus become a major hindrance for direct ethanol fuel cell applications. We report an Ir catalyst that shows great promise for a complete EOR based on density functional theory calculations using PBE functional. The reaction barrier on Ir(1 0 0) was found to be 2.10 eV for CH3COOH formation, which is much higher than currently used Pd and Pt, and 0.57 eV for Csbnd C bond cleavage in CHCO species, which are comparable to Pd and Pt. The result suggests future directions for studying optimal complete EOR catalysts.

  6. Mid-IR laser system for advanced neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosner, M.; Wu, C.; Heller, D. F.

    2014-03-01

    We present work on a laser system operating in the near- and mid-IR spectral regions, having output characteristics designed to be optimal for cutting various tissue types. We provide a brief overview of laser-tissue interactions and the importance of controlling certain properties of the light beam. We describe the principle of operation of the laser system, which is generally based on a wavelength-tunable alexandrite laser oscillator/amplifier, and multiple Raman conversion stages. This configuration provides robust access to the mid-IR spectral region at wavelengths, pulse energies, pulse durations, and repetition rates that are attractive for neurosurgical applications. We summarize results for ultra-precise selective cutting of nerve sheaths and retinas with little collateral damage; this has applications in procedures such as optic-nerve-sheath fenestration and possible spinal repair. We also report results for cutting cornea, and dermal tissues.

  7. Thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Smith, J. A.; Link, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    A thermal IR exitance model of a plant canopy based on a mathematical abstraction of three horizontal layers of vegetation was developed. Canopy geometry within each layer is quantitatively described by the foliage and branch orientation distributions and number density. Given this geometric information for each layer and the driving meteorological variables, a system of energy budget equations was determined and solved for average layer temperatures. These estimated layer temperatures, together with the angular distributions of radiating elements, were used to calculate the emitted thermal IR radiation as a function of view angle above the canopy. The model was applied to a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) canopy over a diurnal cycle. Simulated vs measured radiometric average temperatures of the midcanopy layer corresponded with 2 C. Simulation results suggested that canopy geometry can significantly influence the effective radiant temperature recorded at varying sensor view angles.

  8. Laser welding parameters for manufacturing iridium-192 (Ir-192) source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anung Pujiyanto; Moch Subechi; Hotman Lubis; Diandono KY

    2013-01-01

    Number of cervical cancer patients in Indonesia is growing every year. One of cervical cancer treatment was fairly effective use brachytherapy treatment with radioisotope sources of iridium-192. Manufacturing of iridium sources for brachytherapy can be done by incorporating the iridium-192 into stainless steel microcapsules then welding using laser welder which the quality of the welding of iridium source (Ir-192) was determined by the welding parameters such as full power, energy frequency, average power and speed. Based on the result of leakage test using pressure -20 inch Hg and tensile test 2.5 bar showed the welding parameters III and IV did not have leakage and damaged. So that parameters III and IV are recommended to be applied to Ir-192 HDR's source. (author)

  9. Obstacle-avoiding robot with IR and PIR motion sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Omar, Z.; Suaibun, S.

    2016-10-01

    Obstacle avoiding robot was designed, constructed and programmed which may be potentially used for educational and research purposes. The developed robot will move in a particular direction once the infrared (IR) and the PIR passive infrared (PIR) sensors sense a signal while avoiding the obstacles in its path. The robot can also perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. The hardware was integrated in one application board as embedded system design. The software was developed using C++ and compiled by Arduino IDE 1.6.5. The main objective of this project is to provide simple guidelines to the polytechnic students and beginners who are interested in this type of research. It is hoped that this robot could benefit students who wish to carry out research on IR and PIR sensors.

  10. FT-IR spectroscopy of lipoproteins—A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Balarin, Maja; Kosović, Marin; Gamulin, Ozren; Brnjas-Kraljević, Jasminka

    2009-08-01

    FT-IR spectra, in the frequency region 4000-600 cm -1, of four major lipoprotein classes: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and two subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDL 2 and HDL 3) were analyzed to obtain their detailed spectral characterization. Information about the protein domain of particle was obtained from the analysis of amide I band. The procedure of decomposition and curve fitting of this band confirms the data already known about the secondary structure of two different apolipoproteins: apo A-I in HDL 2 and HDL 3 and apo B-100 in LDL and VLDL. For information about the lipid composition and packing of the particular lipoprotein the well expressed lipid bands in the spectra were analyzed. Characterization of spectral details in the FT-IR spectrum of natural lipoprotein is necessary to study the influence of external compounds on its structure.

  11. Divertor IR thermography on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J. L.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Payne, J.; Wurden, G. A.

    2010-10-01

    Alcator C-Mod is a particularly challenging environment for thermography. It presents issues that will similarly face ITER, including low-emissivity metal targets, low-Z surface films, and closed divertor geometry. In order to make measurements of the incident divertor heat flux using IR thermography, the C-Mod divertor has been modified and instrumented. A 6° toroidal sector has been given a 2° toroidal ramp in order to eliminate magnetic field-line shadowing by imperfectly aligned divertor tiles. This sector is viewed from above by a toroidally displaced IR camera and is instrumented with thermocouples and calorimeters. The camera provides time histories of surface temperatures that are used to compute incident heat-flux profiles. The camera sensitivity is calibrated in situ using the embedded thermocouples, thus correcting for changes and nonuniformities in surface emissivity due to surface coatings.

  12. First-principles study on cubic pyrochlore iridates Y2Ir2O7 and Pr2Ir2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Fumiyuki; Mizuta, Yo Pierre; Kato, Takehiro; Ozaki, Taisuke; Weng Hongming; Onoda, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    Fully relativistic first-principles electronic structure calculations based on a noncollinear local spin density approximation (LSDA) are performed for pyrochlore iridates Y 2 Ir 2 O 7 and Pr 2 Ir 2 O 7 . The all-in, all-out antiferromagnetic (AF) order is stablized by the on-site Coulomb repulsion U > U c in the LSDA+U scheme, with U c ∼ 1.1 eV and 1.3 eV for Y 2 Ir 2 O 7 and Pr 2 Ir 2 O 7 , respectively. AF semimetals with and without Weyl points and then a topologically trivial AF insulator successively appear with further increasing U. For U = 1.3 eV, Y 2 Ir 2 O 7 is a topologically trivial narrow-gap AF insulator having an ordered local magnetic moment ∼0.5μ B /Ir, while Pr 2 Ir 2 O 7 is barely a paramagnetic semimetal with electron and hole concentrations of 0.016/Ir, in overall agreements with experiments. With decreasing oxygen position parameter x describing the trigonal compression of IrO 6 octahedra, Pr 2 Ir 2 O 7 is driven through a non-Fermi-liquid semimetal having only an isolated Fermi point of Γ 8 + , showing a quadratic band touching, to a Z 2 topological insulator. (author)

  13. Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Li, Zhiguo; Ahmad, Nihal; Liu, Xiaoqi

    2016-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins play important roles by acting as a platform in transducing signals from transmembrane receptors upon growth factor stimulation. Although tyrosine phosphorylation on IRS proteins plays critical roles in signal transduction, phosphorylation of IRS proteins on serine/threonine residues are believed to play various regulatory roles on IRS protein function. However, studies on serine/threonine phosphorylation of IRS proteins are very limited, especially for insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), one member of the IRS protein family. In this study, we identify Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as the responsible kinase for phosphorylation of IRS2 on two serine residues, Ser 556 and Ser 1098. Phosphorylation of IRS2 on these two serine residues by Plk1 prevents the activation of the PI3K pathway upon growth factor stimulation by inhibiting the binding between IRS2 and the PI3K pathway components and increasing IRS2 protein degradation. Of significance, we show that IRS2 phosphorylation is cell cycle regulated and that Plk1 phosphorylation of IRS2 prevents premature mitotic exit via AKT inactivation. PMID:25830382

  14. English-Chinese Cross-Language IR Using Bilingual Dictionaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    specialized dictionaries together contain about two million entries [6]. 4 Monolingual Experiment The Chinese documents and the Chinese translations of... monolingual performance. The main performance-limiting factor is the limited coverage of the dictionary used in query translation. Some of the key con...English-Chinese Cross-Language IR using Bilingual Dictionaries Aitao Chen , Hailing Jiang , and Fredric Gey School of Information Management

  15. Laser Spark Formamide Decomposition Studied by FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 44 (2011), s. 12132-12141 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705; GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA ČR GAP208/10/2302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : FT-IR spectroscopy * high-power laser * induced dielectric-breakdown Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.946, year: 2011

  16. MTF measurement of IR optics in different temperature ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Alexander; Duncker, Hannes; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    Infrared (IR) optical systems are at the core of many military, civilian and manufacturing applications and perform mission critical functions. To reliably fulfill the demanding requirements imposed on today's high performance IR optics, highly accurate, reproducible and fast lens testing is of crucial importance. Testing the optical performance within different temperature ranges becomes key in many military applications. Due to highly complex IR-Applications in the fields of aerospace, military and automotive industries, MTF Measurement under realistic environmental conditions become more and more relevant. A Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) test bench with an integrated thermal chamber allows measuring several sample sizes in a temperature range from -40 °C to +120°C. To reach reliable measurement results under these difficult conditions, a specially developed temperature stable design including an insulating vacuum are used. The main function of this instrument is the measurement of the MTF both on- and off-axis at up to +/-70° field angle, as well as measurement of effective focal length, flange focal length and distortion. The vertical configuration of the system guarantees a small overall footprint. By integrating a high-resolution IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) in the detection unit, time consuming measurement procedures such as scanning slit with liquid nitrogen cooled detectors can be avoided. The specified absolute accuracy of +/- 3% MTF is validated using internationally traceable reference optics. Together with a complete and intuitive software solution, this makes the instrument a turn-key device for today's state-of- the-art optical testing.

  17. Neo-Poulantzian Perspectives in IR and the Current Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Ougaard, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about Poulantzas, historical materialism, international relations, and the current crisis. My purpose is to discuss how some Poulantzian theoretical contributions can be applied to the study of subject matters that are the focus of academic fields such as International Relations (IR), International Political Economy (IPE), International Politics, World Politics and others. I deliberately abstain from singling out any of these disciplines or fields or labels and fr...

  18. Completely automated open-path FT-IR spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Peter R; Shao, Limin; Leytem, April B

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric analysis by open-path Fourier-transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) spectrometry has been possible for over two decades but has not been widely used because of the limitations of the software of commercial instruments. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of the hardware and software that constitutes a contemporary OP/FT-IR spectrometer. We then describe advances that have been made in our laboratory that have enabled many of the limitations of this type of instrument to be overcome. These include not having to acquire a single-beam background spectrum that compensates for absorption features in the spectra of atmospheric water vapor and carbon dioxide. Instead, an easily measured "short path-length" background spectrum is used for calculation of each absorbance spectrum that is measured over a long path-length. To accomplish this goal, the algorithm used to calculate the concentrations of trace atmospheric molecules was changed from classical least-squares regression (CLS) to partial least-squares regression (PLS). For calibration, OP/FT-IR spectra are measured in pristine air over a wide variety of path-lengths, temperatures, and humidities, ratioed against a short-path background, and converted to absorbance; the reference spectrum of each analyte is then multiplied by randomly selected coefficients and added to these background spectra. Automatic baseline correction for small molecules with resolved rotational fine structure, such as ammonia and methane, is effected using wavelet transforms. A novel method of correcting for the effect of the nonlinear response of mercury cadmium telluride detectors is also incorporated. Finally, target factor analysis may be used to detect the onset of a given pollutant when its concentration exceeds a certain threshold. In this way, the concentration of atmospheric species has been obtained from OP/FT-IR spectra measured at intervals of 1 min over a period of many hours with no operator intervention.

  19. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-22

    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  20. Espectroscopía Espacial en el IR-Lejano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Cernicharo, J.

    Debido a la opacidad atmosférica, el dominio IR--lejano del espectro electromagnético ha sido la última ventana en ser utilizada por la Astrofísica Molecular. El potencial que supone abrir este nuevo rango de frecuencias a través de la espectroscopía molecular ha comenzado a ser explotado con el Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). La sensibilidad de la instrumentación embarcada en dicho satélite no tiene comparación alguna con las escasas misiones espaciales, o a bordo de aviones, realizadas con anterioridad a su lanzamiento. En particular, casi todo el rango operativo de ISO en el IR--lejano no había sido explorado. El espectro IR--lejano de las fuentes más representativas de la galaxia era desconocido y los principales emisores de radiación, las moléculas, estaban por identificar. Las observaciones en el IR--lejano están especialmente indicadas para el estudio del gas caliente en las nubes moleculares del medio interestelar y en el interior de las envolturas circunestelares alrededor de estrellas evolucionadas. Algunas de estas fuentes; Sgr B2 en el Centro Galáctico y las Proto--Nebulosas Planetarias, constituyen uno de los objetos más paradigmáticos en nuestra comprensión de la complejidad química de La Galaxia. En esta contribución se presentan los resultados espectroscópicos más importantes de algunas de estas fuentes astronómicas.

  1. Optical design of a versatile FIRST high-resolution near-IR spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-01

    We report the update optical design of a versatile FIRST high resolution near IR spectrograph, which is called Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST). This spectrograph uses cross-dispersed echelle design with white pupils and also takes advantage of the image slicing to increase the spectra resolution, while maintaining the instrument throughput. It is an extremely high dispersion R1.4 (blazed angle of 54.74°) silicon immersion grating with a 49 mm diameter pupil is used as the main disperser at 1.4μm -1.8μm to produce R=72,000 while an R4 echelle with the same pupil diameter produces R=60,000 at 0.8μm -1.35μm. Two cryogenic Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings are used as cross-dispersers to allow simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.8μm -1.8μm. The butterfly mirrors and dichroic beamsplitters make a compact folding system to record these two wavelength bands with a 2kx2k H2RG array in a single exposure. By inserting a mirror before the grating disperser (the SIG and the echelle), this spectrograph becomes a very efficient integral field 3-D imaging spectrograph with R=2,000-4,000 at 0.8μm-1.8μm by coupling a 10x10 telescope fiber bundle with the spectrograph. Details about the optical design and performance are reported.

  2. THE HST EXTREME DEEP FIELD (XDF): COMBINING ALL ACS AND WFC3/IR DATA ON THE HUDF REGION INTO THE DEEPEST FIELD EVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; Oesch, P. A.; Bouwens, R. J.; Labbé, I.; Franx, M.; Stiavelli, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Trenti, M.; Carollo, C. M.; Gonzalez, V.

    2013-01-01

    The eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) combines data from 10 years of observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Wide-Field Camera 3 Infra-Red (WFC3/IR) into the deepest image of the sky ever in the optical/near-IR. Since the initial observations of the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) in 2003, numerous surveys and programs, including supernovae follow-up, HUDF09, CANDELS, and HUDF12, have contributed additional imaging data across this region. However, these images have never been combined and made available as one complete ultra-deep image dataset. We combine them now with the XDF program. Our new and improved processing techniques provide higher quality reductions of the total dataset. All WFC3/IR and optical ACS data sets have been fully combined and accurately matched, resulting in the deepest imaging ever taken at these wavelengths, ranging from 29.1 to 30.3 AB mag (5σ in a 0.''35 diameter aperture) in 9 filters. The combined image therefore reaches to 31.2 AB mag 5σ (32.9 at 1σ) for a flat f ν source. The gains in the optical for the four filters done in the original ACS HUDF correspond to a typical improvement of 0.15 mag, with gains of 0.25 mag in the deepest areas. Such gains are equivalent to adding ∼130 to ∼240 orbits of ACS data to the HUDF. Improved processing alone results in a typical gain of ∼0.1 mag. Our 5σ (optical+near-IR) SExtractor catalogs reveal about 14,140 sources in the full field and about 7121 galaxies in the deepest part of the XDF

  3. Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in the differentiation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Ana Lúcia Farias de Azevedo; Carvalho, Luciana de; Oliveira, Ana Claudia; Santos, Virgínia Nascimento dos; Vieira, Jose Gilberto; Parise, Edison Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Due to its good correlation to glycemic clamp, HOMA-IR has been widely utilized as insulin resistance index in clinical and epidemiological studies involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers. However, values used for this parameter have shown large variability. To identify the HOMA-IR cut value that best distinguishes non-diabetic non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients from a control group. One hundred sixteen non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients were studied, diagnosed by clinical, biochemical, and liver image or biopsy criteria, and 88 healthy individuals, without any liver disease and testing for oral glucose tolerance within normality. These groups did not differ in age and gender. All were submitted to oral glucose tolerance test and blood samples were collected for glucose and insulin measurements by immunofluorometric method. HOMA-IR was calculated according to the formula: fasting insulin (microU/L) x fasting glucose (nmol/L)/22.5. NAFLD patients showed higher insulin, glycemia, and HOMA-IR values than control group, even when excluding glucose intolerant and diabetes mellitus patients by their glycemic curves. HOMA-IR 75th percentile for control group was 1.78 and the best area under the curve index was obtained for HOMA-IR values of 2.0 [AUC= 0.840 (0.781-0.899 CI 95%), sensitivity (Se): 85%, specificity (Sp): 83%] while value 2.5 showed best specificity without important loss in sensitivity [AUC=0,831 (0.773-0.888) Se = 72%, Sp = 94%]. HOMA-IR values above or equal to 2.0 or 2.5 show enhanced diagnostic value in distinguishing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease carriers from control group individuals.

  4. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Antiferromagnetic Sr_{2}IrO_{4}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We report point-contact measurements of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR in a single crystal of antiferromagnetic Mott insulator Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. The point-contact technique is used here as a local probe of magnetotransport properties on the nanoscale. The measurements at liquid nitrogen temperature reveal negative magnetoresistances (up to 28% for modest magnetic fields (250 mT applied within the IrO_{2} a-b plane and electric currents flowing perpendicular to the plane. The angular dependence of magnetoresistance shows a crossover from fourfold to twofold symmetry in response to an increasing magnetic field with angular variations in resistance from 1% to 14%. We tentatively attribute the fourfold symmetry to the crystalline component of AMR and the field-induced transition to the effects of applied field on the canting of antiferromagnetic-coupled moments in Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. The observed AMR is very large compared to the crystalline AMRs in 3d transition metal alloys or oxides (0.1%–0.5% and can be associated with the large spin-orbit interactions in this 5d oxide while the transition provides evidence of correlations between electronic transport, magnetic order, and orbital states. The finding of this work opens an entirely new avenue to not only gain a new insight into physics associated with spin-orbit coupling but also to better harness the power of spintronics in a more technically favorable fashion.

  5. Compact erbium lasers in the IR photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baining; Eichler, Hans J.; Sperlich, O.; Holschbach, A.; Kayser, M.

    1996-09-01

    Erbium lasers deliver laser radiation near 3 micrometers and are a promising alternative to excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (UV-PRK). In addition to easier handling due to all solid state technology, especially when operated in the fundamental mode, IR-PRK eliminates the potential of mutagenic side effects associated with UV-PRK. However, a successful IR-PRK for the clinic treatment in the near future demands both technological development of erbium lasers in different operation modes and clinical investigation of interaction between 3 micrometers radiation and human corneas. The excellent cooperation between university, company and hospital makes this possible. Uncoated thin plates made from infrared materials were found to be effective etalon reflectors with high damage threshold as high as 1 GW/cm2 for erbium lasers. Four kinds of such reflectors were successfully tested in Q-switched Er:YAG-laser at 2.94 micrometers and Er:Cr:YSGG-laser at 2.80 micrometers. Very stable operation of our erbium lasers with high output energy both in free-running and Q-switched modes is realized. First infrared photorefractive keratectomy (IR-PRK) for myopic correction in human corneas by a free-running erbium laser based on our new construction concepts was achieved.

  6. The IR Sector – Opening new horizons for CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Last week saw the CERN family grow by one, as we welcomed Cyprus as an Associate Member in the pre-stage to Membership. This gives me a good opportunity, three months into the job, to share the vision for the new International Relations (IR) Sector. CERN is and always has been an incredible example of successful, inclusive international collaboration and exchange in the pursuit of common goals. The IR Sector continues and builds on that tradition and spirit.   In the 60-plus years of CERN’s existence, our world has been transformed at all levels. And over the last decade or so, the world of particle physics has evolved beyond recognition. CERN is now a global lab, with a European core, and particle physics is a field that is increasingly planned and coordinated around the world. It is for these reasons that CERN needs to develop its International Relations so we can respond to and navigate these changes. The establishment by the Director-General of the IR Sector is a sign of her commitm...

  7. Revenue Potential for Inpatient IR Consultation Services: A Financial Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misono, Alexander S; Mueller, Peter R; Hirsch, Joshua A; Sheridan, Robert M; Siddiqi, Assad U; Liu, Raymond W

    2016-05-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has historically failed to fully capture the value of evaluation and management services in the inpatient setting. Understanding financial benefits of a formally incorporated billing discipline may yield meaningful insights for interventional practices. A revenue modeling tool was created deploying standard financial modeling techniques, including sensitivity and scenario analyses. Sensitivity analysis calculates revenue fluctuation related to dynamic adjustment of discrete variables. In scenario analysis, possible future scenarios as well as revenue potential of different-size clinical practices are modeled. Assuming a hypothetical inpatient IR consultation service with a daily patient census of 35 patients and two new consults per day, the model estimates annual charges of $2.3 million and collected revenue of $390,000. Revenues are most sensitive to provider billing documentation rates and patient volume. A range of realistic scenarios-from cautious to optimistic-results in a range of annual charges of $1.8 million to $2.7 million and a collected revenue range of $241,000 to $601,000. Even a small practice with a daily patient census of 5 and 0.20 new consults per day may expect annual charges of $320,000 and collected revenue of $55,000. A financial revenue modeling tool is a powerful adjunct in understanding economics of an inpatient IR consultation service. Sensitivity and scenario analyses demonstrate a wide range of revenue potential and uncover levers for financial optimization. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Structure and linear spectroscopic properties of near IR polymethine dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Scott; Padilha, Lazaro A.; Hu Honghua; Przhonska, Olga V.; Hagan, David J.; Van Stryland, Eric W.; Bondar, Mikhail V.; Davydenko, Iryna G.; Slominsky, Yuriy L.; Kachkovski, Alexei D.

    2008-01-01

    We performed a detailed experimental investigation and quantum-chemical analysis of a new series of near IR polymethine dyes with 5-butyl-7,8-dihydrobenzo[cd]furo[2,3-f]indolium terminal groups. We also synthesized and studied two neutral dyes, squaraine and tetraone, with the same terminal groups and performed a comparison of the spectroscopic properties of this set of 'near IR' dyes (polymethine, squaraine, and tetraone) with an analogous set of 'visible' dyes with simpler benzo[e]indolium terminal groups. From these measurements, we find that the dyes with dihydrobenzo[cd]furo[2,3-f]indolium terminal groups are characterized by a remarkably large shift ∼300 nm (∼200 nm for tetraone) of their absorption bands towards the red region. We discuss the difference in electronic structure for these molecules and show that the 'near IR' dyes are characterized by an additional weak fluorescence band from the higher lying excited states connected with the terminal groups. Absorption spectra for the longest polymethines are solvent-dependent and are characterized by a broadening of the main band in polar solvents, which is explained by ground state symmetry breaking and reduced charge delocalization within the polymethine chromophore. The results of these experiments combined with the agreement of quantum chemical calculations moves us closer to a predictive capability for structure-property relations in cyanine-like molecules

  9. Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; hide

    2011-01-01

    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 clustered power over the range of angular scales and frequencies considered is well fit by a simple power law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  10. Innovative compact focal plane array for wide field vis and ir orbiting telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Vives, Sébastien; Ferrari, Marc; Gaeremynck, Yann; Jahn, Wilfried

    2017-11-01

    The future generation of high angular resolution space telescopes will require breakthrough technologies to combine large diameters and large focal plane arrays with compactness and lightweight mirrors and structures. Considering the allocated volume medium-size launchers, short focal lengths are mandatory, implying complex optical relays to obtain diffraction limited images on large focal planes. In this paper we present preliminary studies to obtain compact focal plane arrays (FPA) for earth observations on low earth orbits at high angular resolution. Based on the principle of image slicers, we present an optical concept to arrange a 1D FPA into a 2D FPA, allowing the use of 2D detector matrices. This solution is particularly attractive for IR imaging requiring a cryostat, which volume could be considerably reduced as well as the relay optics complexity. Enabling the use of 2D matrices for such an application offers new possibilities. Recent developments on curved FPA allows optimization without concerns on the field curvature. This innovative approach also reduces the complexity of the telescope optical combination, specifically for fast telescopes. This paper will describe the concept and optical design of an F/5 - 1.5m telescope equipped with such a FPA, the performances and the impact on the system with a comparison with an equivalent 1.5m wide field Korsch telescope.

  11. Water vapor retrieval from near-IR measurements of polarized scanning atmospheric corrector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qie, Lili; Ning, Yuanming; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Xingfeng; Ma, Yan; Li, Zhengqiang; Cui, Wenyu

    2018-02-01

    Water vapor and aerosol are two key atmospheric factors effecting the remote sensing image quality. As water vapor is responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption occurring in the cloudless atmosphere, accurate measurement of water content is important to not only atmospheric correction of remote sensing images, but also many other applications such as the study of energy balance and global climate change, land surface temperature retrieval in thermal remote sensing. A multi-spectral, single-angular, polarized radiometer called Polarized Scanning Atmospheric Corrector (PSAC) were developed in China, which are designed to mount on the same satellite platform with the principle payload and provide essential parameters for principle payload image atmospheric correction. PSAC detect water vapor content via measuring atmosphere reflectance at water vapor absorbing channels (i.e. 0.91 μm) and nearby atmospheric window channel (i.e. 0.865μm). A near-IR channel ratio method was implemented to retrieve column water vapor (CWV) amount from PSAC measurements. Field experiments were performed at Yantai, in Shandong province of China, PSAC aircraft observations were acquired. The comparison between PSAC retrievals and ground-based Sun-sky radiometer measurements of CWV during the experimental flights illustrates that this method retrieves CWV with relative deviations ranging from 4% 13%. This method retrieve CWV more accurate over land than over ocean, as the water reflectance is low.

  12. IR radiation characteristics of rocket exhaust plumes under varying motor operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin NIU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared (IR irradiance signature from rocket motor exhaust plumes is closely related to motor type, propellant composition, burn time, rocket geometry, chamber parameters and flight conditions. In this paper, an infrared signature analysis tool (IRSAT was developed to understand the spectral characteristics of exhaust plumes in detail. Through a finite volume technique, flow field properties were obtained through the solution of axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations with the Reynolds-averaged approach. A refined 13-species, 30-reaction chemistry scheme was used for combustion effects and a k-ε-Rt turbulence model for entrainment effects. Using flowfield properties as input data, the spectrum was integrated with a line of sight (LOS method based on a single line group (SLG model with Curtis-Godson approximation. The model correctly predicted spectral distribution in the wavelengths of 1.50–5.50 μm and had good agreement for its location with imaging spectrometer data. The IRSAT was then applied to discuss the effects of three operating conditions on IR signatures: (a afterburning; (b chamber pressure from ignition to cutoff; and (c minor changes in the ratio of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB binder to ammonium perchlorate (AP oxidizer in propellant. Results show that afterburning effects can increase the size and shape of radiance images with enhancement of radiation intensity up to 40%. Also, the total IR irradiance in different bands can be characterized by a non-dimensional chamber pressure trace in which the maximum discrepancy is less than 13% during ignition and engine cutoff. An increase of chamber pressure can lead to more distinct diamonds, whose distance intervals are extended, and the position of the first diamond moving backwards. In addition, an increase in HTPB/AP causes a significant jump in spectral intensity. The incremental rates of radiance intensity integrated in each band are linear with the increase of HTPB

  13. Ultra-high-speed inversion recovery echo planar MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehling, M.K.; Ordidge, R.J.; Coxon, R.; Chapman, B.; Houseman, A.M.; Guifoyle, D.; Blamire, A.; Gibbs, P.; Mansfield, P.

    1988-01-01

    Fast two-dimensional FT MR imaging techniques such as fast low-angle shot do not allow inversion recovery (IR). Rapid repetition of low-angle pulses is incompatible with a 180 0 inversion pulse. Echo planar imaging (EPI) can be applied in conjunction with IR, because after preparation of the spin system, a complete image is acquired. Data acquisition in less than 100 msec and real-time display allows interactive optimization of inversion time (4.0-9,000 msec) with little time penalty. The authors have applied IR EPI to the study of the brain, liver, and kidneys in normal volunteers and patients. Technical details are presented, and the applications of this first ultra-high-speed IR technique will be shown

  14. Scene recognition and colorization for vehicle infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Junjie; Sun, Shaoyuan; Shen, Zhenyi; Huang, Zhen; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    In order to make better use of infrared technology for driving assistance system, a scene recognition and colorization method is proposed in this paper. Various objects in a queried infrared image are detected and labelled with proper categories by a combination of SIFT-Flow and MRF model. The queried image is then colorized by assigning corresponding colors according to the categories of the objects appeared. The results show that the strategy here emphasizes important information of the IR images for human vision and could be used to broaden the application of IR images for vehicle driving.

  15. Tax Administration: Information on Selected IRS Tax Enforcement and Collection Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    ...) in enforcing the nation's tax laws. These two topics will be discussed: (1) the relationship between IRS audits of taxpayers and other programs IRS uses to ensure that taxpayers returns are accurate, and (2...

  16. Tax Administration: IRS's Innocent Spouse Program Performance Improved; Balanced Performance Measures Needed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... Under the Internal Revenue Services (IRS) Innocent Spouse Program, IRS can relieve taxpayers of tax debts on the basis of equity considerations, such as not knowing that their spouse failed to pay taxes due...

  17. The use of IAEA-IRS information in Russia's nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The use of IAEA-IRS information in Russia's nuclear power industry is described, including the following issues: organizational aspects; organization of the information process; assessment of information uses; examples of using IAEA-IRS information. Figs

  18. Evaluation of an industrial gas-fired IR dryer; Utvaerdering av en industriell gaseldad IR-straalare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, S; Hermodsson, S

    1994-11-01

    The IR dryer is used in a paper making machine to dry the paper web after it has been coated with a surface layer. In part 1 of the project a mathematical model have been developed, capable of calculating the radiation intensity and other energy flows in the dryer. In part 2 of the project, measurements have been made on the IR radiator mounted in the paper making machine. The calculation model shows the efficiency of the radiator to 39% at full power and 35% at half power. The direct measurements were made at half power and gave an efficiency of 31% for new radiators and 28% for old ones. The conclusion is that the calculation model values corresponds very well compared with direct measurements.

  19. Optimization of grate combustion by means of an IR camera. Final report; Optimering af risteforbraending IR-kamera. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didriksen, H.; Jensen, Joergen Peter; Hansen, Joergen (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Clausen, Soennik; Larsen, Henning (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-09-15

    The target of the project has been to improve the control and regulation of grate-fired straw boilers by involving measuring signals from a specially developed IR camera in a new regulation concept. The project was carried out with the straw boiler at the Avedoere power station. The conclusion has been that it is a very demanding task to develop an IR camera, including software, which must function as a process measuring device for continuous on-line measuring under very demanding conditions in a straw fired boiler. The result showed that this was not possible within the framework of this project. The developed camera has on the other hand proved to be very well suited for measuring campaigns, where the camera is ''manned''/continuously monitored. (Energy 11)

  20. New infrared observations of IRS 1, IRS 3, and the adjacent nebula in the OMC-2 cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelton, Y.; Werner, M.; Dinerstein, H.

    1984-01-01

    Recent reports show that near infrared reflection nebulae are often observed around embedded protostellar objects. New observations are here reported of the infrared cluster of low luminosity protostars in Orion Molecular Cloud 2 (OMC2). It has been determined that the asymmetric distribution of the extended emission seen about IRS1 is in fact another infrared reflection nebula. Observations of near infrared polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility October 1982 and January 1983. (author)

  1. Carrier-free 194Ir from an 194Os/194Ir generator - a new candidate for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Rice, D.E.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Iridium-194 (t 1/2 = 19.15 h) decays by beta-particle emission (E max = 2.236 MeV) and is a potential candidate for radioimmunotherapy. An important characteristic is availability of 194 Ir from decay of reactor-produced 194 Os (t 1/2 = 6y). We report the fabrication of the first 194 Os/ 194 Ir generator system using activated carbon. In addition, a novel gas thermochromatographic method was developed for the one step conversion of metallic Os to OsO 4 and subsequent separation and purification of OsO 4 . In this manner, the reactor irradiated enriched 192 Os target was converted to 194 OsO 4 , which was then converted to the K 2 OsCl 6 for generator loading. The yield and the elution profile of carrier-free 194 Ir, and 194 Os breakthrough were determined for a prototype generator which was evaluated over a 10-month period. (author)

  2. Effect of spin structure transition in IrMn on the CoPd/IrMn perpendicular exchange biased system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Muhammad Bilal; Guentherodt, Gernot [II. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The exchange bias (EB) phenomenon is studied in MBE grown Pd(10 nm)/CoPd(x=8,16,30 nm)/IrMn(15 nm)/Pd(4 nm) samples, which exhibit a perpendicular anisotropy of Co22Pd78. These samples are field cooled along the out-of-plane direction and hysteresis loops are measured along both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions. It is observed that there is a transition temperature where the out-of-plane EB becomes greater than the in-plane EB. This behavior of EB is an evidence of the change in the spin structure of the given system, which is also revealed by the magnetization versus temperature measurements of the exchange biased and of the sole IrMn samples. It is found that with increasing temperature there is a spin structure transition in Ir25Mn75 (15nm) related to the 2Q to 3Q transition in the bulk, which is responsible for the increase in out-of-plane EB. A vertical shift in the hysteresis loop is also observed in these exchange biased samples at low temperatures (T<50 K).

  3. Communication: IR spectroscopy of neutral transition metal clusters through thermionic emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.; Bakker, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The resonant multiple photon excitation of neutral niobium clusters using tunable infrared (IR) radiation leads to thermionic emission. By measuring the mass-resolved ionization yield as a function of IR wavenumber species selective IR spectra are obtained for Nb-n (n = 5-20) over the 200-350 cm(-1)

  4. “Contrapuntal Reading” as a Method, an Ethos, and a Metaphor for Global IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    How to approach Global International Relations (IR)? This is a question asked by students of IR who recognize the limits of our field while expressing their concern that those who strive for a Global IR have been less-than-clear about the “how to?” question. In this article, I point to Edward W. ...

  5. Manual for IRS Coding. Joint IAEA/NEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) is jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA). In early 2010, the IAEA and OECD/NEA jointly issued the IRS Guidelines, which described the reporting system and process and gave users the necessary elements to enable them to produce IRS reports to a high standard of quality while retaining the effectiveness of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants. The purpose of the present Manual for IRS Coding is to provide supplementary guidance specifically on the coding element of IRS reports to ensure uniform coding of events that are reported through IRS. This Coding Manual does not supersede the IRS Guidelines, but rather, supports users and preparers in achieving a consistent and high level of quality in their IRS reports. Consistency and high quality in the IRS reports allow stakeholders to search and retrieve specific event information with ease. In addition, well-structured reports also enhance the efficient management of the IRS database. This Coding Manual will give specific guidance on the application of each section of the IRS codes, with examples where necessary, of when and how these codes are to be applied. As this reporting system is owned by the Member States, this manual has been developed and approved by the IRS National Coordinators with the assistance of the IAEA and NEA secretariats

  6. Semiclassical relations and IR effects in de Sitter and slow-roll space-times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Giddings, Steven; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2010-01-01

    We calculate IR divergent graviton one-loop corrections to scalar correlators in de Sitter space, and show that the leading IR contribution may be reproduced via simple semiclassical consistency relations. One can likewise use such semiclassical relations to calculate leading IR corrections to co...... with a sharp perturbative calculation of "missing information" in Hawking radiation....

  7. A Prospective Cohort Study on IRS Gene Polymorphisms in Type 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insulin resistance status was determined using the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Results: IRS1 polymorphisms were associated with increased insulin resistance (X2 = 5.09, p = 0.023) in T2DM patients with severe/acute hyperglycemia. IRS2 polymorphisms were not associated with ...

  8. Advantages of using 192Ir γ-ray flaw detector for some products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xiqi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the advantages of 192 Ir γ-ray flaw detector made in China in welding seam testings. The authors made a comparison between 192 Ir γ-ray and X-ray machine. 192 Ir γ-ray machine showed many advantages, such as shorter working hours and less labour intensity

  9. Braškių 'Senga Sengana' prisitaikymas prie diferencijuoto ir kompleksinio UV-B spinduliuotės ir ozono poveikio

    OpenAIRE

    Brazaitytė, Aušra; Sakalauskaitė, Jurga; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Šikšnianienė, Jūratė Bronė; Samuolienė, Giedrė; Ulinskaitė, Raimonda; Baranauskis, Kęstutis; Urbonavičiūtė, Akvilė; Šabajevienė, Gintarė; Gelvonauskis, Bronislovas; Uselis, Nobertas; Vagusevičienė, Ilona

    2007-01-01

    2005 m. Lietuvos sodininkystės ir daržininkystės instituto fitotrono komplekse nustatytas diferencijuotas ir kompleksinis UV-B spinduliuotės bei ozono poveikis braškių augimui ir fotosintezės pigmentų pokyčiams bei jų prisitaikymo prie šių stresorių galimybės. Poveikis stresą sukeliančiais veiksniais buvo skirstomas į du laikotarpius: adaptacijos ir pagrindinį. Ozono koncentracija adaptacijos laikotarpiu buvo 80 µg m-3, o pagrindinio poveikio – 240 µg m-3. Tokia koncentracija buvo palaikoma 7...

  10. Jaunesnių ir vyresnių klasių mokinių konfliktų ir jų sprendimų ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Stočkutė, Jovita

    2012-01-01

    Tyrimo objektas – jaunesnių ir vyresnių klasių mokinių konfliktai ir jų sprendimų ypatumai. Tyrimo tikslas – išanalizuoti jaunesnių ir vyresnių klasių mokinių konfliktus ir jų sprendimų ypatumus. Hipotezės – keliame prielaidas, kad - vyresnių klasių mokiniai konfliktuoti pamokose linkę labiau, nei jaunesnių klasių mokiniai. - vyresnių klasių mokiniai naudoja įvairesnes konflikto sprendimo strategijas nei jaunesnių klasių mokiniai. Tyrimo uždaviniai: 1. Atskleisti jaune...

  11. On formation mechanism of Pd-Ir bimetallic nanoparticles through thermal decomposition of [Pd(NH3)4][IrCl6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanova, Tatyana I.; Asanov, Igor P.; Kim, Min-Gyu; Gerasimov, Evgeny Yu.; Zadesenets, Andrey V.; Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Korenev, Sergey V.

    2013-10-01

    The formation mechanism of Pd-Ir nanoparticles during thermal decomposition of double complex salt [Pd(NH3)4][IrCl6] has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption (XAFS) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The changes in the structure of the Pd and Ir closest to the surroundings and chemical states of Pd, Ir, Cl, and N atoms were traced in the range from room temperature to 420 °C in inert atmosphere. It was established that the thermal decomposition process is carried out in 5 steps. The Pd-Ir nanoparticles are formed in pyramidal/rounded Pd-rich (10-200 nm) and dendrite Ir-rich (10-50 nm) solid solutions. A d charge depletion at Ir site and a gain at Pd, as well as the intra-atomic charge redistribution between the outer d and s and p electrons of both Ir and Pd in Pd-Ir nanoparticles, were found to occur.

  12. On formation mechanism of Pd-Ir bimetallic nanoparticles through thermal decomposition of [Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}][IrCl{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asanova, Tatyana I., E-mail: nti@niic.nsc.ru; Asanov, Igor P. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS (Russian Federation); Kim, Min-Gyu [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Beamline Research Division (Korea, Republic of); Gerasimov, Evgeny Yu. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS (Russian Federation); Zadesenets, Andrey V.; Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Korenev, Sergey V. [Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry SB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    The formation mechanism of Pd-Ir nanoparticles during thermal decomposition of double complex salt [Pd(NH{sub 3}){sub 4}][IrCl{sub 6}] has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption (XAFS) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The changes in the structure of the Pd and Ir closest to the surroundings and chemical states of Pd, Ir, Cl, and N atoms were traced in the range from room temperature to 420 Degree-Sign C in inert atmosphere. It was established that the thermal decomposition process is carried out in 5 steps. The Pd-Ir nanoparticles are formed in pyramidal/rounded Pd-rich (10-200 nm) and dendrite Ir-rich (10-50 nm) solid solutions. A d charge depletion at Ir site and a gain at Pd, as well as the intra-atomic charge redistribution between the outer d and s and p electrons of both Ir and Pd in Pd-Ir nanoparticles, were found to occur.Graphical Abstract.

  13. On formation mechanism of Pd–Ir bimetallic nanoparticles through thermal decomposition of [Pd(NH3)4][IrCl6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanova, Tatyana I.; Asanov, Igor P.; Kim, Min-Gyu; Gerasimov, Evgeny Yu.; Zadesenets, Andrey V.; Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Korenev, Sergey V.

    2013-01-01

    The formation mechanism of Pd–Ir nanoparticles during thermal decomposition of double complex salt [Pd(NH 3 ) 4 ][IrCl 6 ] has been studied by in situ X-ray absorption (XAFS) and photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The changes in the structure of the Pd and Ir closest to the surroundings and chemical states of Pd, Ir, Cl, and N atoms were traced in the range from room temperature to 420 °C in inert atmosphere. It was established that the thermal decomposition process is carried out in 5 steps. The Pd–Ir nanoparticles are formed in pyramidal/rounded Pd-rich (10–200 nm) and dendrite Ir-rich (10–50 nm) solid solutions. A d charge depletion at Ir site and a gain at Pd, as well as the intra-atomic charge redistribution between the outer d and s and p electrons of both Ir and Pd in Pd–Ir nanoparticles, were found to occur.Graphical Abstract

  14. Data in support of FSH induction of IRS-2 in human granulosa cells: Mapping the transcription factor binding sites in human IRS-2 promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surleen Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2 plays critical role in the regulation of various metabolic processes by insulin and IGF-1. The defects in its expression and/or function are linked to diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, insulin resistance and cancer. To predict the transcription factors (TFs responsible for the regulation of human IRS-2 gene expression, the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS and the corresponding TFs were investigated by analysis of IRS-2 promoter sequence using MatInspector Genomatix software (Cartharius et al., 2005 [1]. The ibid data is part of author׳s publication (Anjali et al., 2015 [2] that explains Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH mediated IRS-2 promoter activation in human granulosa cells and its importance in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Further analysis was carried out for binary interactions of TF regulatory genes in IRS-2 network using Cytoscape software tool and R-code. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used for the identification of TFBSs in human IRS-2 promoter region and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis method, validation of data and also the raw files. The purpose of this article is to provide the data on all TFBSs in the promoter region of human IRS-2 gene as it has the potential for prediction of the regulation of IRS-2 gene in normal or diseased cells from patients with metabolic disorders and cancer. Keywords: IRS-2, TFBS, FSH, SP1, ChIP

  15. FAST VARIABILITY AND MILLIMETER/IR FLARES IN GRMHD MODELS OF Sgr A* FROM STRONG-FIELD GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Marrone, Daniel [Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Medeiros, Lia [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sadowski, Aleksander [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Narayan, Ramesh, E-mail: chanc@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore the variability properties of long, high-cadence general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations across the electromagnetic spectrum using an efficient, GPU-based radiative transfer algorithm. We focus on both standard and normal evolution (SANE) and magnetically arrested disk (MAD) simulations with parameters that successfully reproduce the time-averaged spectral properties of Sgr A* and the size of its image at 1.3 mm. We find that the SANE models produce short-timescale variability with amplitudes and power spectra that closely resemble those inferred observationally. In contrast, MAD models generate only slow variability at lower flux levels. Neither set of models shows any X-ray flares, which most likely indicates that additional physics, such as particle acceleration mechanisms, need to be incorporated into the GRMHD simulations to account for them. The SANE models show strong, short-lived millimeter/infrared (IR) flares, with short (≲1 hr) time lags between the millimeter and IR wavelengths, that arise from the combination of short-lived magnetic flux tubes and strong-field gravitational lensing near the horizon. Such events provide a natural explanation for the observed IR flares with no X-ray counterparts.

  16. Comparative study of potentially J{sub eff} = 0 ground state iridium(V) in SrLaNiIrO{sub 6}, SrLaMgIrO{sub 6}, and SrLaZnIrO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Klaus K.; Agrestini, Stefano; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Tanaka, Arata [Department of Quantum Matter, AdSM, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan); Jansen, Martin [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-12-13

    A series of polycrystalline double perovskites SrLaBIrO{sub 6} (B = Ni, Mg, Zn) containing Ir{sup 5+} (5d{sup 4}) was synthesized by solid state reactions, and structural, magnetic and electronic properties were investigated. The isotypic fully ordered double perovskites crystallize in space group P2{sub 1}/n and show semiconducting behavior with estimated bandgaps of approximately 0.2 eV for SrLaNiIrO{sub 6} and SrLaZnIrO{sub 6}, and 0.4 eV for SrLaMgIrO{sub 6}. SrLaNiIrO{sub 6} is an antiferromagnet with a Neel temperature of 74 K (μ{sub eff} = 3.3 μ{sub B}, θ{sub W} = -90 K), whereas SrLaMgIrO{sub 6} and SrLaZnIrO{sub 6} are weakly paramagnetic. All title compounds exhibit a temperature-independent contribution to the measured magnetic susceptibility, which supports the notion for a van-Vleck-type response originating from the Ir{sup 5+} (5d{sup 4}, J{sub eff} = 0) ions. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Stray field signatures of Néel textured skyrmions in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, A.; Almoalem, A.; Soumyanarayanan, Anjan; Tan, Anthony K. C.; Raju, M.; Panagopoulos, C.; Auslaender, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    Skyrmions are nanoscale spin configurations with topological properties that hold great promise for spintronic devices. Here, we establish their Néel texture, helicity, and size in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films by constructing a multipole expansion to model their stray field signatures and applying it to magnetic force microscopy images. Furthermore, the demonstrated sensitivity to inhomogeneity in skyrmion properties, coupled with a unique capability to estimate the pinning force governing dynamics, portend broad applicability in the burgeoning field of topological spin textures.

  18. NO Reactions Over Ir-Based Catalysts in the Presence of O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Guo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of a series of Ir-based catalysts supported on SiO2, ZSM-5 and γ-Al2O3 with various Ir loadings prepared by impregnation method was conducted by temperature programmed reaction (TPR technique. The result implies that NO is oxidized to NO2 while simultaneously being reduced to N2 or N2O in the NO reactions over iridium catalysts. The surface active phase over iridium catalysts that promote the NO reactions is IrO2. The catalytic activity increases with the increase of the Ir loading and support materials have a little effect on the catalytic activity. When the loading is less than 0.1%, the catalytic activity was found to be dependent on the nature of support materials and in order: Ir/ZSM-5>Ir/γ-Al2O3>Ir/SiO2. When the loading is higher than 0.1%, the catalytic activity for NO oxidation is in order: Ir/ZSM-5>Ir/SiO2>Ir/γ -Al2O3, which is correlated with Ir dispersion on the surface of support materials and the catalytic activity for NO reduction is in sequence: Ir/γ -Al2O3>Ir/SiO2>Ir/ZSM-5, which is attributed to the adsorbed-dissociation of NO2. Compared to Pt/γ-Al2O3, Ir/γ-Al2O3 catalyst is more benefit for the NO reduction.

  19. Study on seasonal IR signature change of a ship by considering seasonal marine environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Hwi; Han, Kuk-Il; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Kuk

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) signal emitted from objects over 0 degree Kelvin has been used to detect and recognize the characteristics of those objects. Recently more delicate IR sensors have been applied for various guided missiles and they affect a crucial influence on object's survivability. Especially, in marine environment it is more vulnerable to be attacked by IR guided missiles since there are nearly no objects for concealment. To increase the survivability of object, the IR signal of the object needs to be analyzed properly by considering various marine environments. IR signature of a naval ship consists of the emitted energy from ship surface and the reflected energy by external sources. Surface property such as the emissivity and the absorptivity on the naval ship varies with different paints applied on the surface and the reflected IR signal is also affected by the surface radiative property, the sensor's geometric position and various climatic conditions in marine environment. Since the direct measurement of IR signal using IR camera is costly and time consuming job, computer simulation methods are developing rapidly to replace those experimental tasks. In this study, we are demonstrate a way of analyzing the IR signal characteristics by using the measured background IR signals using an IR camera and the estimated target IR signals from the computer simulation to find the seasonal trends of IR threats of a naval ship. Through this process, measured weather data are used to analyze more accurate IR signal conditions for the naval ship. The seasonal change of IR signal contrast between the naval ship and the marine background shows that the highest contrast radiant intensity (CRI) value is appeared in early summer.

  20. ISOPHOT observations of R CrB: A star caught smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, H.J.; Heinrichsen, I.; Richards, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    with an unusual shape to the observed spectrum. The long wavelength photometry, when compared to IRAS data, shows the temperature of the warm dust shell is unaffected by the ejection of a new cloud of carbon from the central star. The dust cloud is probably composed of pure carbon, but other materials cannot......R CrB is a very unusual star, being extremely hydrogen deficient and undergoing irregular deep minima in its visible light. R CrB started to undergo a fading episode in October 1995. The infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observed the star after it had faded by 7 magnitudes. The inner, warm dust...