WorldWideScience

Sample records for ir flare emission

  1. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Solar flares; X-ray detectors; X-ray line emission and continuum; break energy; microflares. Abstract. Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS), the first space-borne solar astronomy experiment of India was designed to improve our current understanding of X-ray emission from the Sun in general and solar flares in ...

  2. Modelling emissions from natural gas flaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ezaina Umukoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The world today recognizes the significance of environmental sustainability to the development of nations. Hence, the role oil and gas industry plays in environmental degrading activities such as gas flaring is of global concern. This study presents material balance equations and predicts results for non-hydrocarbon emissions such as CO2, CO, NO, NO2, and SO2 etc. from flaring (combustion of 12 natural gas samples representing composition of natural gas of global origin. Gaseous emission estimates and pattern were modelled by coding material balance equations for six reaction types and combustion conditions with a computer program. On the average, anticipated gaseous emissions from flaring natural gas with an average annual global flaring rate 126 bcm per year (between 2000 and 2011 in million metric tonnes (mmt are 560 mmt, 48 mmt, 91 mmt, 93 mmt and 50 mmt for CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 respectively. This model predicted gaseous emissions based on the possible individual combustion types and conditions anticipated in gas flaring operation. It will assist in the effort by environmental agencies and all concerned to track and measure the extent of environmental pollution caused by gas flaring operations in the oil and gas industry.

  3. Far-IR and Radio Thermal Continua in Solar Flares

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašparová, Jana; Heinzel, Petr; Karlický, Marian; Moravec, Z.; Varady, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2009), s. 309-315 ISSN 1845-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/04/0358; GA ČR GP205/06/P135; GA ČR GA205/07/1100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar flares * radiative hydrodynamics * continuum emission Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  4. Microwave emission from flaring magnetic loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.

    1980-01-01

    The microwave emission from a flaring loop is considered. In particular the author examines the question: What will be the characteristics of the radio emission at centimeter wavelengths from a small compact flaring loop when the mechanism which pumps magnetic energy into the plasma in the form of heating and/or electron acceleration satisfies the conditions: (a) the magnetic energy is released in a small volume compared to the volume of the loop, and the rate at which magnetic energy is transformed into plasma energy is faster than the energy losses from the same volume. This causes a local enhancement of the temperature by as much as one or two orders of magnitude above the coronal temperature; (b) The bulk of the energy released goes into heating the plasma and heats primarily the electrons. (Auth.)

  5. Radioluminescence dating: the IR emission of feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilles, Thomas.; Habermann, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A new luminescence reader for radioluminescence (RL) measurements is presented. The system allows detection of RL emissions in the near infrared region (IR). Basic bleaching properties of the IR-RL emission of feldspars are investigated. Sunlight-bleaching experiments as a test for sensitivity changes are presented. IR-bleaching experiments were carried out to obtain information about the underlying physical processes of the IR-RL emission

  6. Sources of uncertainty in characterizing health risks from flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudey, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of health risks associated with gas flaring was the focus of this paper. Health risk assessments for environmental decision-making includes the evaluation of scientific data to identify hazards and to determine dose-response assessments, exposure assessments and risk characterization. Gas flaring has been the cause for public health concerns in recent years, most notably since 1996 after a published report by the Alberta Research Council. Some of the major sources of uncertainty associated with identifying hazardous contaminants in flare emissions were discussed. Methods to predict human exposures to emitted contaminants were examined along with risk characterization of predicted exposures to several identified contaminants. One of the problems is that elemental uncertainties exist regarding flare emissions which places limitations of the degree of reassurance that risk assessment can provide, but risk assessment can nevertheless offer some guidance to those responsible for flare emissions

  7. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  8. Modelling blazar flaring using a time-dependent fluid jet emission model - an explanation for orphan flares and radio lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, William J.

    2018-01-01

    Blazar jets are renowned for their rapid violent variability and multiwavelength flares, however, the physical processes responsible for these flares are not well understood. In this paper, we develop a time-dependent inhomogeneous fluid jet emission model for blazars. We model optically thick radio flares for the first time and show that they are delayed with respect to the prompt optically thin emission by ∼months to decades, with a lag that increases with the jet power and observed wavelength. This lag is caused by a combination of the travel time of the flaring plasma to the optically thin radio emitting sections of the jet and the slow rise time of the radio flare. We predict two types of flares: symmetric flares - with the same rise and decay time, which occur for flares whose duration is shorter than both the radiative lifetime and the geometric path-length delay time-scale; extended flares - whose luminosity tracks the power of particle acceleration in the flare, which occur for flares with a duration longer than both the radiative lifetime and geometric delay. Our model naturally produces orphan X-ray and γ-ray flares. These are caused by flares that are only observable above the quiescent jet emission in a narrow band of frequencies. Our model is able to successfully fit to the observed multiwavelength flaring spectra and light curves of PKS1502+106 across all wavelengths, using a transient flaring front located within the broad-line region.

  9. Exergy analysis of waste emissions from gas flaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Saheed ISMAIL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas flaring produces a stream of waste gases at high temperature and pressure which contains carbon monoxide, Hydrogen Sulphide etc. The resultant effect of which is detrimental to our planet and, consequently, to the life of both the living and the non-living things. It’s well known that gas flaring contributes in no small measure to the global warming. Exergy analysis is applied in this work to analyze waste emissions from gas flaring so as to have a model through which impact of gas flaring can be measured. The study considers both the thermo-mechanical exergy and the chemical exergy of these gases. Relevant data on gas flaring activities in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria between the periods of fifteen (15 years was obtained from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC. A computer program (Exergy Calculator was developed based on the equations generated in the Model. Exergy associated with gas flaring activities in Nigeria between the periods of 1998 through 2012 was calculated. The results show that 1 mscf (in thousand cubic feet of flared gases generate 0.000041 MWh of energy leading to a value of 440158.607 MWh of energy for the period under review.The analysis provides important conclusions and recommendations for improving oil platforms operationsin in order to safeguard the environment, health of the populace, and maximize recovered exergy from gas flaring.

  10. Health and exposure assessment of flare gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Byrne-Lewis, C.; Probert, S.

    2000-01-01

    The incomplete combustion of flare gases produces pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are cause for concern for public health. Some of the concerns relate to potential long-term cumulative health effects from exposure to hazardous air pollutants including benzene, styrene, naphthalene, and benzopyrene. This study demonstrated that several factors should be taken into account when considering the importance of flaring and human exposure to flare gas emissions. Most flare stacks are located in rural areas, but most time-availability studies have been done on urban populations where the majority of people spend their time indoors. It was recommended that more time-activity studies are needed to emphasize the behaviour of rural populations which are most susceptible to exposure from pollutants from flaring. It was concluded that higher indoor air concentrations exist for many VOCs and PAHs compared to outdoors, but in these instances, indoor sources are the major contributors to indoor air concentrations. It was recommended that health assessments of hazardous air pollutants emitted from gas flaring has to take into account the indoor setting and other background exposures in order to provide useful information for decision makers. 49 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Observations of gamma-ray emission in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, D.J.; Chupp, E.L.; Suri, A.N.; Reppin, C.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews the observations of gamma-ray emission made from the OSO-7 satellite in connection with two solar flares in early August 1972. The details of the measurements and a preliminary interpretation of some of the observed features are given. (U.S.)

  12. Estimating soot emissions from an elevated flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Victor; Sosa, Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    Combustion aerosols are one of the major concerns in flaring operations, due to both health and environmental hazards. Preliminary results are presented for a 2D transient simulation of soot formation in a reacting jet with exit velocity of 130 m/s under a 5 m/s crossflow released from a 50 m high elevated flare and a 50 cm nozzle. Combustion dynamics was simulated with OpenFOAM. Gas-phase non-premixed combustion was modeled with the Chalmers PaSR approach and a κ-ɛ turbulence model. For soot formation, Moss model was used and the ISAT algorithm for solving the chemistry. Sulfur chemistry was considered to account for the sourness of the fuel. Gas composition is 10 % H2S and 90 % C2H4. A simplified Glassman reaction mechanism was used for this purpose. Results show that soot levels are sensitive to the sulfur present in the fuel, since it was observed a slight decrease in the soot volume fraction. NSC is the current oxidation model for soot formation. Predicted temperature is high (about 2390 K), perhaps due to soot-radiation interaction is not considered yet, but a radiation model implementation is on progress, as well as an oxidation mechanism that accounts for OH radical. Flame length is about 50 m.

  13. RADIO EMISSION FROM ACCELERATION SITES OF SOLAR FLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yixuan; Fleishman, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    This Letter takes up the question of what radio emission is produced by electrons at the very acceleration site of a solar flare. Specifically, we calculate incoherent radio emission produced within two competing acceleration models-stochastic acceleration by cascading MHD turbulence and regular acceleration in collapsing magnetic traps. Our analysis clearly demonstrates that radio emission from acceleration sites (1) has sufficiently strong intensity to be observed by currently available radio instruments, and (2) has spectra and light curves that are distinctly different in these two competing models, which makes them observationally distinguishable. In particular, we suggest that some of the narrowband microwave and decimeter continuum bursts may be a signature of the stochastic acceleration in solar flares.

  14. Studies of soft x-ray emission during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandaram, M.N.

    1973-01-01

    Solar flare soft x-ray emission from 0.5 A to 8.5 A was observed during 1967-68 by Bragg crystal (LiF and EDDT) spectrometers aboard the OSO-4 satellite and also by NRL broad-band ionization detectors aboard the OGO-4 satellite. In this work, instrumental parameters for the LiF crystal spectrometer based on experimental values have been determined and used in the data analysis. The total continuum emission in the 0.5 to 3 A and the 1 to 8 A broad band segments has been determined from OGO-4 data for 21 flares. In doing this, a simple and approximate method of converting the total emission based on the gray body approximation (in which the OGO-4 data are reported) to one based on the thermal continuum spectrum has been developed. (author)

  15. LONG DURATION FLARE EMISSION: IMPULSIVE HEATING OR GRADUAL HEATING?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    Flare emissions in X-ray and EUV wavelengths have previously been modeled as the plasma response to impulsive heating from magnetic reconnection. Some flares exhibit gradually evolving X-ray and EUV light curves, which are believed to result from superposition of an extended sequence of impulsive heating events occurring in different adjacent loops or even unresolved threads within each loop. In this paper, we apply this approach to a long duration two-ribbon flare SOL2011-09-13T22 observed by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly (AIA). We find that to reconcile with observed signatures of flare emission in multiple EUV wavelengths, each thread should be heated in two phases, an intense impulsive heating followed by a gradual, low-rate heating tail that is attenuated over 20–30 minutes. Each AIA resolved single loop may be composed of several such threads. The two-phase heating scenario is supported by modeling with both a zero-dimensional and a 1D hydrodynamic code. We discuss viable physical mechanisms for the two-phase heating in a post-reconnection thread.

  16. Contribution of Tula Refinery flaring emissions to the Mexico megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Victor; Molina, Luisa; Sosa, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Flaring is an important source of greenhouse gases, particulate matter and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in both upstream and downstream operations in the oil and gas industry. In 2010 Mexico was the eleventh emitting country with 2.5 billion cubic meters of gas flared (World Bank, 2012). Black carbon (a component of soot) emissions from flaring facilities are of particular interest because soot is considered a short-lived climate forcer (SLCF) (UNEP, 2011). In 2011 there were 23 megacities of at least 10 million inhabitants. It is expected that this number increase to 37 by 2025, which will include one more in Northern America (NA) and two more in Latin America (UN, 2012). International collaborative projects like MILAGRO in NA and MEGAPOLI/CityZen in Europe, have been conducted to assess the impact of megacities air pollution at several scales. The former focused on the air pollution plume of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), the largest megacity in NA. This work studies the contribution of flaring emissions from Tula Refinery to regional air quality. This is accomplished in two steps. First, the flame of a representative sour gas flare is modeled with a CFD combustion code in order to estimate emission rates of combustion by-products of interest for air quality. Mass flow rates of acetylene, ethylene, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, soot and sulfur dioxide are obtained. The emission rates of NO2 and SO2 are compared with measurements obtained at Tula as part of MILAGRO field campaign. The rates of soot, VOCs and CO emissions are compared with estimates obtained by Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP). The second stage takes the flaring emission rates of the aforementioned species as inputs to WRF-Chem in order to simulate the chemical transport of the plume from 22 March to 27 March of 2006. The air quality model presented reliable performance of the resolved meteorology, with respect to the Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE

  17. Observations of the 12.3 micron Mg I emission line during a major solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Drake; Jennings, Donald E.; Osherovich, Vladimir; Wiedemann, Gunter; Hewagama, Tilak

    1990-01-01

    The extremely Zeeman-sensitive 12.32 micron Mg I solar emission line was observed during a 3B/X5.7 solar flare on October 24, 1989. When compared to postflare values, Mg I emission-line intensity in the penumbral flare ribbon was 20 percent greater at the peak of the flare in soft X-rays, and the 12 micron continuum intensity was 7 percent greater. The flare also excited the emission line in the umbra where it is normally absent. The umbral flare emission exhibits a Zeeman splitting 200 G less than the adjacent penumbra, suggesting that it is excited at higher altitude. The absolute penumbral magnetic field strength did not change by more than 100 G between the flare peak and postflare period. However, a change in the inclination of the field lines, probably related to the formation and development of the flare loop system, was seen.

  18. Continuum emission in the 1980 July 1 solar flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.; Neidig, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Comparison of continuum measurements of the 1980 July 1 flare at Big Bear Solar Observatory and Sacramento Peak Observatory show strong blue emission kernels with the ratio of Balmer continuum (Bac):lambda3862 continuum:continuum above 4275 A to be about 10:5:1. The blue continuum at 3862 A is too strong to be explained by unresolved lines. The Bac intensity was 2.5 times the photosphere and the strongest lambda3862 continuum was 2 times the photosphere. The brightest continuum kernel occurred late in the flare, after the hard X-ray peak and related in time to an isolated peak in the 2.2 MeV line, suggesting that the continuum was excited by protons above 20 MeV

  19. Electron-cyclotron maser emission during solar and stellar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Radio bursts, with high brightness temperature 10 to the 10th power K and high degree of polarization, and the heating of the solar and stellar coronae during flares have been attributed to emission from the semirelativistic maser instability. In plasmas where the electron-plasma frequency, p, omega sub p, and the electron-cyclotron frequency, Omega sub e, are such that omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e 1, x-mode growth dominates while z-mode growth dominates if omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e is of order unity. The actual value of omega sup 2 sub p/Omega sup 2 sub e at which x-mode growth dominates is shown to be dependent on the plasma temperature with x-mode growth dominating at higher omega sub p/Omega sub e as the plasma temperature increases. Observations from a set of 20 impulsive flares indicate that the derived conditions for the dominance of x-mode growth are satisfied in about 75 percent of the flares

  20. Dispersion and exposure of sour gas flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation described the implications of flare research project findings with reference to reduced combustion efficiency, stack plume down wash and minor species. A plume model shows that reduced combustion efficiency decreases the energy available for plume rise. Reduced combustion may therefore decrease H 2 S to SO 2 conversion. Stack plume down wash can decrease plume rise under high wind speed conditions, and in extreme cases can also preclude any plume rise. Minor species include vapour phase emissions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes (BTEX), and aldehydes. They also include particulate phase emissions such as soot and PAH. Observed concentrations of minor species were presented along with predicted vapour phase concentrations and particulate phase emissions. The standard modelling approaches used in this study included the Gaussian plume model, flame height, plume rise and dispersion. figs

  1. New impressive capabilities of SE-workbench for EO/IR real-time rendering of animated scenarios including flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2015-10-01

    To provide technical assessments of EO/IR flares and self-protection systems for aircraft, DGA Information superiority resorts to synthetic image generation to model the operational battlefield of an aircraft, as viewed by EO/IR threats. For this purpose, it completed the SE-Workbench suite from OKTAL-SE with functionalities to predict a realistic aircraft IR signature and is yet integrating the real-time EO/IR rendering engine of SE-Workbench called SE-FAST-IR. This engine is a set of physics-based software and libraries that allows preparing and visualizing a 3D scene for the EO/IR domain. It takes advantage of recent advances in GPU computing techniques. The recent past evolutions that have been performed concern mainly the realistic and physical rendering of reflections, the rendering of both radiative and thermal shadows, the use of procedural techniques for the managing and the rendering of very large terrains, the implementation of Image- Based Rendering for dynamic interpolation of plume static signatures and lastly for aircraft the dynamic interpolation of thermal states. The next step is the representation of the spectral, directional, spatial and temporal signature of flares by Lacroix Defense using OKTAL-SE technology. This representation is prepared from experimental data acquired during windblast tests and high speed track tests. It is based on particle system mechanisms to model the different components of a flare. The validation of a flare model will comprise a simulation of real trials and a comparison of simulation outputs to experimental results concerning the flare signature and above all the behavior of the stimulated threat.

  2. A global gas flaring black carbon emission rate dataset from 1994 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.

    2016-11-01

    Global flaring of associated petroleum gas is a potential emission source of particulate matters (PM) and could be notable in some specific regions that are in urgent need of mitigation. PM emitted from gas flaring is mainly in the form of black carbon (BC), which is a strong short-lived climate forcer. However, BC from gas flaring has been neglected in most global/regional emission inventories and is rarely considered in climate modeling. Here we present a global gas flaring BC emission rate dataset for the period 1994-2012 in a machine-readable format. We develop a region-dependent gas flaring BC emission factor database based on the chemical compositions of associated petroleum gas at various oil fields. Gas flaring BC emission rates are estimated using this emission factor database and flaring volumes retrieved from satellite imagery. Evaluation using a chemical transport model suggests that consideration of gas flaring emissions can improve model performance. This dataset will benefit and inform a broad range of research topics, e.g., carbon budget, air quality/climate modeling, and environmental/human exposure.

  3. X-ray Emission Characteristics of Flares Associated with CMEs ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tics of solar flares and their relationship with the dynamics of CMEs have ... lation between X-ray peak intensity of the flares with linear speed as well ... shear angle (θ1, measured at the flare onset), the final shear angle (θ2, measured at the.

  4. Methane, Black Carbon, and Ethane Emissions from Natural Gas Flares in the Bakken Shale, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvakharia, Alexander; Kort, Eric A; Brandt, Adam; Peischl, Jeff; Ryerson, Thomas B; Schwarz, Joshua P; Smith, Mackenzie L; Sweeney, Colm

    2017-05-02

    Incomplete combustion during flaring can lead to production of black carbon (BC) and loss of methane and other pollutants to the atmosphere, impacting climate and air quality. However, few studies have measured flare efficiency in a real-world setting. We use airborne data of plume samples from 37 unique flares in the Bakken region of North Dakota in May 2014 to calculate emission factors for BC, methane, ethane, and combustion efficiency for methane and ethane. We find no clear relationship between emission factors and aircraft-level wind speed or between methane and BC emission factors. Observed median combustion efficiencies for methane and ethane are close to expected values for typical flares according to the US EPA (98%). However, we find that the efficiency distribution is skewed, exhibiting log-normal behavior. This suggests incomplete combustion from flares contributes almost 1/5 of the total field emissions of methane and ethane measured in the Bakken shale, more than double the expected value if 98% efficiency was representative. BC emission factors also have a skewed distribution, but we find lower emission values than previous studies. The direct observation for the first time of a heavy-tail emissions distribution from flares suggests the need to consider skewed distributions when assessing flare impacts globally.

  5. On the spectrum and polarization of magnetar flare emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, R.; Turolla, R.

    2017-08-01

    Bursts and flares are among the distinctive observational manifestations of magnetars, isolated neutron stars endowed with an ultrastrong magnetic field (B ≈ 1014-1015 G). It is believed that these events arise in a hot electron-positron plasma that remains trapped within the closed magnetic field lines. We developed a simple radiative transfer model to simulate magnetar flare emission in the case of a steady trapped fireball. After dividing the fireball surface in a number of plane-parallel slabs, the local spectral and polarization properties are obtained integrating the radiative transfer equations for the two normal modes. We assume that magnetic Thomson scattering is the dominant source of opacity, and neglect contributions from second-order radiative processes, although double-Compton scattering is accounted for in establishing local thermal equilibrium in the fireball atmospheric layers. The observed spectral and polarization properties as measured by a distant observer are obtained by summing the contributions from the patches that are visible for a given viewing geometry by means of a ray-tracing code. The spectra we obtained in the 1-100 keV energy range are thermal and can be described in terms of the superposition of two blackbodies. The blackbody temperature and the emitting area ratio are in broad agreement with the available observations. The predicted linear polarization degree is, in general, greater than 80 per cent over the entire energy range and should be easily detectable by new-generation X-ray polarimeters, such as IXPE, XIPE and eXTP.

  6. Variations of the Hβ-emission line during a large flare on UV Ceti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffett, T.J.; Evans, D.S.; Ferland, G.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous high-speed photometry and photoelectric scanner observations of the Hβ-line were obtained for five flare events, one a major flare, on UV Ceti on 1975 January 6. The relative increase in the intensity of the Hβ-line during the large flare was much greater than the relative continuum rise as measured both by the scanner and by broad-band photometric observations. In Hβ the flare lasted nearly 30 times as long as in the continuum. Peak intensity in the Hβ-line occurred later than the continuum maximum. The possibility of using emission line observations to detect flare activity on early spectral-type stars (dK - dG) is discussed. Some speculations on the mechanism of flare production are indulged. (author)

  7. Relation between gamma-ray emission, radio bursts, and proton fluxes from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomichev, V.V.; Chertok, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Data on solar gamma-ray flares, including 24 flares with gamma-ray lines, recorded up to June 1982, are analyzed. It is shown that from the point of view of radio emission the differences between flares with and without gamma-ray lines has a purely quantitative character: the former are accompanied by the most intense microwave bursts. Meter type II bursts are not a distinctive feature of flares with gamma-ray lines. Pulsed flares, regardless of the presence or absence of gamma-ray lines, are not accompanied by significant proton fluxes at the earth. On the whole, contrary to the popular opinion in the literature, flares with gamma-ray lines do not display a deficit of proton flux in interplanetary space in comparison with similar flares without gamma-ray lines. The results of quantitative diagnostics of proton flares based on radio bursts are not at variance with the presence of flares without detectable gamma-ray emission in lines but with a pronounced increase in the proton flux at the earth. 23 references

  8. Center-to-Limb Variability of Hot Coronal EUV Emissions During Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, E. M. B.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Eparvier, F. G.; Epp, L.

    2018-02-01

    It is generally accepted that densities of quiet-Sun and active region plasma are sufficiently low to justify the optically thin approximation, and this is commonly used in the analysis of line emissions from plasma in the solar corona. However, the densities of solar flare loops are substantially higher, compromising the optically thin approximation. This study begins with a radiative transfer model that uses typical solar flare densities and geometries to show that hot coronal emission lines are not generally optically thin. Furthermore, the model demonstrates that the observed line intensity should exhibit center-to-limb variability (CTLV), with flares observed near the limb being dimmer than those occurring near disk center. The model predictions are validated with an analysis of over 200 flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), which uses six lines, with peak formation temperatures between 8.9 and 15.8 MK, to show that limb flares are systematically dimmer than disk-center flares. The data are then used to show that the electron column density along the line of sight typically increases by 1.76 × 10^{19} cm^{-2} for limb flares over the disk-center flare value. It is shown that the CTLV of hot coronal emissions reduces the amount of ionizing radiation propagating into the solar system, and it changes the relative intensities of lines and bands commonly used for spectral analysis.

  9. FAST VARIABILITY AND MILLIMETER/IR FLARES IN GRMHD MODELS OF Sgr A* FROM STRONG-FIELD GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Marrone, Daniel [Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Medeiros, Lia [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sadowski, Aleksander [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Narayan, Ramesh, E-mail: chanc@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore the variability properties of long, high-cadence general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations across the electromagnetic spectrum using an efficient, GPU-based radiative transfer algorithm. We focus on both standard and normal evolution (SANE) and magnetically arrested disk (MAD) simulations with parameters that successfully reproduce the time-averaged spectral properties of Sgr A* and the size of its image at 1.3 mm. We find that the SANE models produce short-timescale variability with amplitudes and power spectra that closely resemble those inferred observationally. In contrast, MAD models generate only slow variability at lower flux levels. Neither set of models shows any X-ray flares, which most likely indicates that additional physics, such as particle acceleration mechanisms, need to be incorporated into the GRMHD simulations to account for them. The SANE models show strong, short-lived millimeter/infrared (IR) flares, with short (≲1 hr) time lags between the millimeter and IR wavelengths, that arise from the combination of short-lived magnetic flux tubes and strong-field gravitational lensing near the horizon. Such events provide a natural explanation for the observed IR flares with no X-ray counterparts.

  10. Plasma heating in solar flares and their soft and hard X-ray emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falewicz, R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the energy budgets of two single-loop-like flares observed in X-ray are analyzed under the assumption that nonthermal electrons (NTEs) are the only source of plasma heating during all phases of both events. The flares were observed by RHESSI and GOES on 2002 February 20 and June 2, respectively. Using a one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic code for both flares, the energy deposited in the chromosphere was derived applying RHESSI observational data. The use of the Fokker-Planck formalism permits the calculation of distributions of the NTEs in flaring loops and thus spatial distributions of the X-ray nonthermal emissions and integral fluxes for the selected energy ranges that were compared with the observed ones. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the spatial distributions of the signals in the RHESSI images was conducted for the footpoints and for all the flare loops in selected energy ranges with these quantities' fluxes obtained from the models. The best compatibility of the model and observations was obtained for the 2002 June 2 event in the 0.5-4 Å GOES range and total fluxes in the 6-12 keV, 12-25 keV, 20-25 keV, and 50-100 keV energy bands. Results of photometry of the individual flaring structures in a high energy range show that the best compliance occurred for the 2002 June 2 flare, where the synthesized emissions were at least 30% higher than the observed emissions. For the 2002 February 20 flare, synthesized emission is about four times lower than the observed one. However, in the low energy range the best conformity was obtained for the 2002 February 20 flare, where emission from the model is about 11% lower than the observed one. The larger inconsistency occurs for the 2002 June 2 solar flare, where synthesized emission is about 12 times greater or even more than the observed emission. Some part of these differences may be caused by inevitable flaws of the applied methodology, like by an assumption that the model of the flare is

  11. Plasma Heating in Solar Flares and their Soft and Hard X-Ray Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falewicz, R.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the energy budgets of two single-loop-like flares observed in X-ray are analyzed under the assumption that nonthermal electrons (NTEs) are the only source of plasma heating during all phases of both events. The flares were observed by RHESSI and GOES on 2002 February 20 and June 2, respectively. Using a one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic code for both flares, the energy deposited in the chromosphere was derived applying RHESSI observational data. The use of the Fokker-Planck formalism permits the calculation of distributions of the NTEs in flaring loops and thus spatial distributions of the X-ray nonthermal emissions and integral fluxes for the selected energy ranges that were compared with the observed ones. Additionally, a comparative analysis of the spatial distributions of the signals in the RHESSI images was conducted for the footpoints and for all the flare loops in selected energy ranges with these quantities' fluxes obtained from the models. The best compatibility of the model and observations was obtained for the 2002 June 2 event in the 0.5-4 Å GOES range and total fluxes in the 6-12 keV, 12-25 keV, 20-25 keV, and 50-100 keV energy bands. Results of photometry of the individual flaring structures in a high energy range show that the best compliance occurred for the 2002 June 2 flare, where the synthesized emissions were at least 30% higher than the observed emissions. For the 2002 February 20 flare, synthesized emission is about four times lower than the observed one. However, in the low energy range the best conformity was obtained for the 2002 February 20 flare, where emission from the model is about 11% lower than the observed one. The larger inconsistency occurs for the 2002 June 2 solar flare, where synthesized emission is about 12 times greater or even more than the observed emission. Some part of these differences may be caused by inevitable flaws of the applied methodology, like by an assumption that the model of the flare is

  12. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  13. Comparison of emission properties of two homologous flares in AR 11283

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Haimin, E-mail: yx2@njit.edu [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Large, complex, active regions may produce multiple flares within a certain period of one or two days. These flares could occur in the same location with similar morphologies, commonly referred to as 'homologous flares'. In 2011 September, active region NOAA 11283 produced a pair of homologous flares on the 6th and 7th, respectively. Both of them were white-light (WL) flares, as captured by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory in visible continuum at 6173 Å which is believed to originate from the deep solar atmosphere. We investigate the WL emission of these X-class flares with HMI's seeing-free imaging spectroscopy. The durations of impulsive peaks in the continuum are about 4 minutes. We compare the WL with hard X-ray (HXR) observations for the September 6 flare and find a good correlation between the continuum and HXR both spatially and temporally. In absence of RHESSI data during the second flare on September 7, the derivative of the GOES soft X-ray is used and also found to be well correlated temporally with the continuum. We measure the contrast enhancements, characteristic sizes, and HXR fluxes of the twin flares, which are similar for both flares, indicating analogous triggering and heating processes. However, the September 7 flare was associated with conspicuous sunquake signals whereas no seismic wave was detected during the flare on September 6. Therefore, this comparison suggests that the particle bombardment may not play a dominant role in producing the sunquake events studied in this paper.

  14. Transition Region Emission and the Energy Input to Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.; Haga, Leah; Raymond, John C.; Panasyuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the energetics of solar flares depends on obtaining reliable determinations of the energy input to flare plasma. X-ray observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung from hot flare plasma provide temperatures and emission measures which, along with estimates of the plasma volume, allow the energy content of this hot plasma to be computed. However, if thermal energy losses are significant or if significant energy goes directly into cooler plasma, this is only a lower limit on the total energy injected into thermal plasma during the flare. We use SOHO UVCS observations of O VI flare emission scattered by coronal O VI ions to deduce the flare emission at transition region temperatures between 100,000 K and 1 MK for the 2002 July 23 and other flares. We find that the radiated energy at these temperatures significantly increases the deduced energy input to the thermal plasma, but by an amount that is less than the uncertainty in the computed energies. Comparisons of computed thermal and nonthermal electron energies deduced from RHESSI, GOES, and UVCS are shown.

  15. PROBING THE FLARE ATMOSPHERES OF M DWARFS USING INFRARED EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Wisniewski, John P.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M., E-mail: sjschmidt@astro.washington.edu [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada (Canada)

    2012-01-20

    We present the results of a campaign to monitor active M dwarfs using infrared spectroscopy, supplemented with optical photometry and spectroscopy. We detected 16 flares during nearly 50 hr of observations on EV Lac, AD Leo, YZ CMi, and VB 8. The three most energetic flares also showed infrared emission, including the first reported detections of P{beta}, P{gamma}, He I {lambda}10830, and Br{gamma} during an M dwarf flare. The strongest flare ({Delta}u = 4.02 on EV Lac) showed emission from H{gamma}, H{delta}, He I {lambda}4471, and Ca II K in the UV/blue and P{beta}, P{gamma}, P{delta}, Br{gamma}, and He I {lambda}10830 in the infrared. The weaker flares ({Delta}u = 1.68 on EV Lac and {Delta}U = 1.38 on YZ CMi) were only observed with photometry and infrared spectroscopy; both showed emission from P{beta}, P{gamma}, and He I {lambda}10830. The strongest infrared emission line, P{beta}, occurred in the active mid-M dwarfs with a duty cycle of {approx}3%-4%. To examine the most energetic flare, we used the static NLTE radiative transfer code RH to produce model spectra based on a suite of one-dimensional model atmospheres. Using a hotter chromosphere than previous one-dimensional atmospheric models, we obtain line ratios that match most of the observed emission lines.

  16. Electron-cyclotron maser emission during flares: emission in various modes and temporal variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.; Dulk, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Absorption of radiation at the electron-cyclotron frequency, OMEGA sub e, generated by the electron-cyclotron maser instability was proposed as a possible mechanism for transporting energy and heating of the corona during flares. Radiation from the same instability but at harmonics of OMEGA sub e is believed to be the source of solar microwave spike bursts. The actual mode and frequency of the dominant emission from the maser instability is shown to be dependent on: (1) the plasma temperature, (2) the form of the energetic electron distribution, and (3) on the ratio of the plasma frequency omega sub p to OMEGA sub e. As a result, the emission along a flux tube can vary, with emission at harmonics being favored in regions where omega sub p/OMEGA sub e approx. equal to or greater than 1. Changes in the plasma density and temperature in the source region associated with the flare can also cause the characteristics of the emission to change in time

  17. The Dependence of Solar Flare Limb Darkening on Emission Peak Formation Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward; Epp, Luke; Eparvier, Francis; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2017-08-01

    Solar limb effects are local brightening or darkening of an emission that depend on where in the Sun's atmosphere it forms. Near the solar limb, optically thick (thin) emissions will darken (brighten) as the column of absorbers (emitters) along the line-of-sight increases. Note that in limb brightening, emission sources are re-arranged whereas in limb darkening they are obscured. Thus, only limb darkening is expected to occur in disk integrated observations. Limb darkening also results in center-to-limb variations of disk-integrated solar flare spectra, with important consequences for how planetary atmospheres are affected by flares. Flares are typically characterized by their flux in the optically thin 0.1-0.8 nm band measured by the X-ray Sensor (XRS) on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). On the other hand, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) line emissions can limb darken because they are sensitive to resonant scattering, resulting in a flare's location on the solar disk controlling the amount of ionizing radiation that reaches a planet. For example, an X-class flare originating from disk center may significantly heat a planet's thermosphere, whereas the same flare originating near the limb may have no effect because much of the effective emissions are scattered in the solar corona.To advance the relatively poor understanding of flare limb darkening, we use over 300 M-class or larger flares observed by the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to characterize limb darkening as a function of emission peak formation temperature, Tf. For hot coronal emissions (Tf>2 MK), these results show a linear relationship between the degree of limb darkening and Tf where lines with Tf=2 MK darken approximately 7 times more than lines with Tf=16 MK. Because the extent of limb darkening is dependent on the height of the source plasma, we use simple Beer-Lambert radiative transfer analysis to interpret these results

  18. Black carbon in the Arctic: the underestimated role of gas flaring and residential combustion emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Arctic haze is a seasonal phenomenon with high concentrations of accumulation-mode aerosols occurring in the Arctic in winter and early spring. Chemistry transport models and climate chemistry models struggle to reproduce this phenomenon, and this has recently prompted changes in aerosol removal schemes to remedy the modeling problems. In this paper, we show that shortcomings in current emission data sets are at least as important. We perform a 3 yr model simulation of black carbon (BC with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model is driven with a new emission data set ("ECLIPSE emissions" which includes emissions from gas flaring. While gas flaring is estimated to contribute less than 3% of global BC emissions in this data set, flaring dominates the estimated BC emissions in the Arctic (north of 66° N. Putting these emissions into our model, we find that flaring contributes 42% to the annual mean BC surface concentrations in the Arctic. In March, flaring even accounts for 52% of all Arctic BC near the surface. Most of the flaring BC remains close to the surface in the Arctic, so that the flaring contribution to BC in the middle and upper troposphere is small. Another important factor determining simulated BC concentrations is the seasonal variation of BC emissions from residential combustion (often also called domestic combustion, which is used synonymously in this paper. We have calculated daily residential combustion emissions using the heating degree day (HDD concept based on ambient air temperature and compare results from model simulations using emissions with daily, monthly and annual time resolution. In January, the Arctic-mean surface concentrations of BC due to residential combustion emissions are 150% higher when using daily emissions than when using annually constant emissions. While there are concentration reductions in summer, they are smaller than the winter increases, leading to a systematic increase of

  19. The High Energy Photons Emission from Solar Flares Observed by SZ2-XD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanyu; Li, Xinqiao; Ma, Yuqian; Zhang, Chengmo; Xu, Yupeng; Wang, Jingzhou; Chen, Guoming

    The spectra and light curve of near a hundred Solar X-ray Flare events, which were observed by SZ2/XD in the energy band of 10-800 keV during 2001, have been investigated. The events covered from C to X-class flares, which are shown different characters of high energy photons emission. The results will be presented in this paper. The discussions will be made especially for 3 of the brightest X-class solar flares SF010402(X20),SF010406(X5.6) and SF010415 (X14.4, a GLE event).

  20. Monthly carbon emissions from natural-gas flaring and cement manufacture in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasing, T.J.; Hand, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Annual data on carbon emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture have been used in studies of the carbon cycle for the last few decades. However, annual data do not specify carbon emissions on the seasonal time-scales relevant to biospheric uptake and other processes affecting the carbon cycle. Estimates of monthly emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in the US have shown that an increasing percentage of the annual emissions are occurring during the growing season; however, carbon emitted from flaring natural gas at well sites was not accounted for in those emissions estimates, nor was carbon emitted during cement manufacture. Here we show that emissions from flaring, which amount around 0.1 % of all fossil-fuel carbon emissions in the US, have no clear and persistent annual pattern that can be detected in the data. In contrast, carbon emissions from cement manufacture, which add about 0.7% to carbon emissions from fossil fuels in the US, have a clear and persistent annual pattern including low values in late winter and early spring. In this paper, we provide a few remarks on carbon emissions from natural-gas flaring before presenting monthly emissions estimates. We then focus on the methodology for calculating carbon emissions from cement manufacture before presenting and discussing the monthly emissions estimates

  1. Hard x ray imaging and the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal emission in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether the impulsive 25 to 100 keV x ray emission from solar flares is thermal or nonthermal has been a long-standing controversy. Both thermal and nonthermal (beam) models have been developed and applied to the hard x ray data. It now seems likely that both thermal and nonthermal emission have been observed at hard x ray energies. The Hinotori classification scheme, for example, is an attempt to associate the thermal-nonthermal characteristics of flare hard x ray emission with other flare properties. From a theoretical point of view, it is difficult to generate energetic, nonthermal electrons without dumping an equal or greater amount of energy into plasma heating. On the other hand, any impulsive heating process will invariably generate at least some nonthermal particles. Hence, strictly speaking, although thermal or nonthermal emission may dominate the hard x ray emission in a given energy range for a given flare, there is no such thing as a purely thermal or nonthermal flare mechanism

  2. Mitigation options : flare and vent mitigation undercuts CCS in trimming CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2010-11-15

    This article reported on a study aimed at reducing flaring and venting associated with conventional heavy oil production. In particular, the study analyzed parameters such as the variability in flare volumes, flare gas composition and statistical distribution of volumes flared. The objective was to determine the most viable economic solution to reducing flare and vent volumes. In particular, the study focused on various scenarios to tie-in currently flared and vented solution gas. Solution gas volume variability was found to be wide ranging, with 90 percent of sites handling less than 32 percent of the volume and 10 percent of the sites handling more than two-thirds of the volume. Composition also varied, and was difficult to measure. One scenario assumed that wells were unconnected and had to be tied in with their own compressors and pipe, while another scenario considered the wells to be individual wells. A first comprehensive analysis of flare and vent mitigation opportunities in Alberta revealed that tying in solution gas at battery sites could create emissions reductions at much lower cost than the province's carbon capture and storage (CCS) plan. The study of mitigation options primarily targeted the conventional heavy oil belt of eastern Alberta near Lloydminster. The most optimistic scenario included a $15 per tonne carbon credit, that up to 55 megatonnes could be trimmed over 10 years at no cost to the industry.1 fig.

  3. IR emission and UV extinction in two open clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackwell, J.A.; Hecht, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent models of interstellar extinction have shown the importance of understanding both the UV and IR properties of interstellar dust grains. IRAS data have shown variations in 60 and 100 micron emissions presumably due to the presence of IR cirrus, while recent observations in the UV by Fitzpatrick and Massa have identified components in the UV extinction curve which vary in different star regions. A Draine and Anderson model connects these results by proposing that different size variations in interstellar grains would cause distinct changes in both the IR emission and the UV extinction. In order to test this model it is necessary to make observations in well defined locations away from peculiar extinction regions. In the infrared this means looking away from the galactic plane so as to limit non-local sources of IR radiation. Two open clusters that are out of the galactic plane and which contain a number of late B and early A stars suitable for UV extinction studies, and whose IRAS data show variations in the 60/100 micron ratio were studied. Based on the Drain and Anderson model, variations were expected in their UV extinction curves that correlate with the IR cirrus emission

  4. CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY AND WHITE LIGHT EMISSION IN SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 Å summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 s around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ∼50 keV. At higher electron energies the correlation decreases gradually while a rapid decrease is seen if the energy provided by low-energy electrons is added. This suggests that flare-accelerated electrons of energy ∼50 keV are the main source for white light production.

  5. Hard X-Ray Emission from Partially Occulted Solar Flares: RHESSI Observations in Two Solar Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Frederic; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Oka, Mitsuo; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Krucker, Säm [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Glesener, Lindsay, E-mail: feffen@stanford.edu, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Flares close to the solar limb, where the footpoints are occulted, can reveal the spectrum and structure of the coronal looptop source in X-rays. We aim at studying the properties of the corresponding energetic electrons near their acceleration site, without footpoint contamination. To this end, a statistical study of partially occulted flares observed with Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager is presented here, covering a large part of solar cycles 23 and 24. We perform detailed spectra, imaging, and light curve analyses for 116 flares and include contextual observations from SDO and STEREO when available, providing further insights into flare emission that were previously not accessible. We find that most spectra are fitted well with a thermal component plus a broken power-law, non-thermal component. A thin-target kappa distribution model gives satisfactory fits after the addition of a thermal component. X-ray imaging reveals small spatial separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, except for a few flares with a richer coronal source structure. A comprehensive light curve analysis shows a very good correlation between the derivative of the soft X-ray flux (from GOES ) and the hard X-rays for a substantial number of flares, indicative of the Neupert effect. The results confirm that non-thermal particles are accelerated in the corona and estimated timescales support the validity of a thin-target scenario with similar magnitudes of thermal and non-thermal energy fluxes.

  6. A giant radio flare from Cygnus X-3 with associated γ-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Richards, J. L.; Pooley, G.; Trushkin, S.; Dubois, R.; Hill, A. B.; Kerr, M.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Bodaghee, A.; Tudose, V.; Parent, D.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.

    2012-04-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high-energy γ-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT) and AGILE. In 2011, Cyg X-3 was observed to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy γ-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (˜20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E≥ 100 MeV) reveal renewed γ-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the γ-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A three-week period of γ-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. No γ-rays are observed during the ˜1-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. Our results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio-quenched) state trigger γ-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the γ-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  7. On the expected γ-ray emission from nearby flaring stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, S.; Hoischen, C.

    2018-02-01

    Stellar flares have been extensively studied in soft X-rays (SXRs) by basically every X-ray mission. Hard X-ray (HXR) emission from stellar superflares, however, have only been detected from a handful of objects over the past years. One very extreme event was the superflare from the young M-dwarf DG CVn binary star system, which triggered Swift/BAT as if it was a γ-ray burst. In this work, we estimate the expected γ-ray emission from DG CVn and the most extreme stellar flares by extrapolating from solar flares based on measured solar energetic particles (SEPs), as well as thermal and non-thermal emission properties. We find that ions are plausibly accelerated in stellar superflares to 100 GeV energies, and possibly up to TeV energies in the associated coronal mass ejections. The corresponding π0-decay γ-ray emission could be detectable from stellar superflares with ground-based γ-ray telescopes. On the other hand, the detection of γ-ray emission implies particle densities high enough that ions suffer significant losses due to inelastic proton-proton scattering. The next-generation Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) should be able to probe superflares from M dwarfs in the solar neighbourhood and constrain the energy in interacting cosmic rays and/or their maximum energy. The detection of γ-ray emission from stellar flares would open a new window for the study of stellar physics, the underlying physical processes in flares and their impact on habitability of planetary systems.

  8. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.

    1974-01-01

    A review of the knowledge about solar flares which has been obtained through observations from the earth and from space by various methods is presented. High-resolution cinematography is best carried out at H-alpha wavelengths to reveal the structure, time history, and location of flares. The classification flares in H alpha according to either physical or morphological criteria is discussed. The study of flare morphology, which shows where, when, and how flares occur, is important for evaluating theories of flares. Consideration is given to studies of flares by optical spectroscopy, radio emissions, and at X-ray and XUV wavelengths. Research has shown where and possibly why flares occur, but the physics of the instability involved, of the particle acceleration, and of the heating are still not understood. (IAA)

  9. ULTRAVIOLET AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET EMISSIONS AT THE FLARE FOOTPOINTS OBSERVED BY ATMOSPHERE IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Jiong; Longcope, Dana W.; Liu Wenjuan [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Sturrock, Zoe [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of St. Andrews (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A solar flare is composed of impulsive energy release events by magnetic reconnection, which forms and heats flare loops. Recent studies have revealed a two-phase evolution pattern of UV 1600 A emission at the feet of these loops: a rapid pulse lasting for a few seconds to a few minutes, followed by a gradual decay on timescales of a few tens of minutes. Multiple band EUV observations by the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly further reveal very similar signatures. These two phases represent different but related signatures of an impulsive energy release in the corona. The rapid pulse is an immediate response of the lower atmosphere to an intense thermal conduction flux resulting from the sudden heating of the corona to high temperatures (we rule out energetic particles due to a lack of significant hard X-ray emission). The gradual phase is associated with the cooling of hot plasma that has been evaporated into the corona. The observed footpoint emission is again powered by thermal conduction (and enthalpy), but now during a period when approximate steady-state conditions are established in the loop. UV and EUV light curves of individual pixels may therefore be separated into contributions from two distinct physical mechanisms to shed light on the nature of energy transport in a flare. We demonstrate this technique using coordinated, spatially resolved observations of UV and EUV emissions from the footpoints of a C3.2 thermal flare.

  10. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.

    2011-05-01

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (˜1049erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.MNRAA40035-8711 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 1048-1049erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  11. Maximum gravitational-wave energy emissible in magnetar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsi, Alessandra; Owen, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent searches of gravitational-wave data raise the question of what maximum gravitational-wave energies could be emitted during gamma-ray flares of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars). The highest energies (∼10 49 erg) predicted so far come from a model [K. Ioka, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 327, 639 (2001), http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001MNRAS.327..639I] in which the internal magnetic field of a magnetar experiences a global reconfiguration, changing the hydromagnetic equilibrium structure of the star and tapping the gravitational potential energy without changing the magnetic potential energy. The largest energies in this model assume very special conditions, including a large change in moment of inertia (which was observed in at most one flare), a very high internal magnetic field, and a very soft equation of state. Here we show that energies of 10 48 -10 49 erg are possible under more generic conditions by tapping the magnetic energy, and we note that similar energies may also be available through cracking of exotic solid cores. Current observational limits on gravitational waves from magnetar fundamental modes are just reaching these energies and will beat them in the era of advanced interferometers.

  12. HARD X-RAY EMISSION DURING FLARES AND PHOTOSPHERIC FIELD CHANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtseva, O.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Martínez-Oliveros, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlation between abrupt permanent changes of magnetic field during X-class flares observed by the Global Oscillation Network Group and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instruments, and the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by RHESSI, to relate the photospheric field changes to the coronal restructuring and investigate the origin of the field changes. We find that spatially the early RHESSI emission corresponds well to locations of the strong field changes. The field changes occur predominantly in the regions of strong magnetic field near the polarity inversion line (PIL). The later RHESSI emission does not correspond to significant field changes as the flare footpoints are moving away from the PIL. Most of the field changes start before or around the start time of the detectable HXR signal, and they end at about the same time or later than the detectable HXR flare emission. Some of the field changes propagate with speed close to that of the HXR footpoint at a later phase of the flare. The propagation of the field changes often takes place after the strongest peak in the HXR signal when the footpoints start moving away from the PIL, i.e., the field changes follow the same trajectory as the HXR footpoint, but at an earlier time. Thus, the field changes and HXR emission are spatio-temporally related but not co-spatial nor simultaneous. We also find that in the strongest X-class flares the amplitudes of the field changes peak a few minutes earlier than the peak of the HXR signal. We briefly discuss this observed time delay in terms of the formation of current sheets during eruptions

  13. Modeling 13.3nm Fe XXIII Flare Emissions Using the GOES-R EXIS Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, H.; Thiemann, E.

    2017-12-01

    The solar EUV spectrum is dominated by atomic transitions in ionized atoms in the solar atmosphere. As solar flares evolve, plasma temperatures and densities change, influencing abundances of various ions, changing intensities of different EUV wavelengths observed from the sun. Quantifying solar flare spectral irradiance is important for constraining models of Earth's atmosphere, improving communications quality, and controlling satellite navigation. However, high time cadence measurements of flare irradiance across the entire EUV spectrum were not available prior to the launch of SDO. The EVE MEGS-A instrument aboard SDO collected 0.1nm EUV spectrum data from 2010 until 2014, when the instrument failed. No current or future instrument is capable of similar high resolution and time cadence EUV observation. This necessitates a full EUV spectrum model to study EUV phenomena at Earth. It has been recently demonstrated that one hot flare EUV line, such as the 13.3nm Fe XXIII line, can be used to model cooler flare EUV line emissions, filling the role of MEGS-A. Since unblended measurements of Fe XXIII are typically unavailable, a proxy for the Fe XXIII line must be found. In this study, we construct two models of this line, first using the GOES 0.1-0.8nm soft x-ray (SXR) channel as the Fe XXIII proxy, and second using a physics-based model dependent on GOES emission measure and temperature data. We determine that the more sophisticated physics-based model shows better agreement with Fe XXIII measurements, although the simple proxy model also performs well. We also conclude that the high correlation between Fe XXIII emissions and the GOES 0.1-0.8nm band is because both emissions tend to peak near the GOES emission measure peak despite large differences in their contribution functions.

  14. Thermal and Nonthermal Emissions of a Composite Flare Derived from NoRH and SDO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeongwoo; White, Stephen M.; Jing, Ju; Liu, Chang; Masuda, Satoshi; Chae, Jongchul

    2017-12-01

    Differential emission measure (DEM) derived from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lines of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory is used in the analysis of a solar flare observed by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH). The target was a composite event consisting of an impulsive flare, SOL2015-06-21T01:42 (GOES class M2.0), and a gradual flare, SOL2015-06-21T02:36 (M2.6), for which separation of thermal plasma heating from nonthermal particle acceleration was of major interest. We have calculated the thermal free-free intensity maps with the AIA-derived DEM and compared them against the observed NoRH maps to attribute the difference to the nonthermal component. In this way, we were able to locate three distinct sources: the major source with thermal and nonthermal components mixed, a nonthermal source devoid of thermal particles, and a thermal source lacking microwave emission. Both the first and the second nonthermal sources produced impulsively rising 17 GHz intensities and moved away from the local magnetic polarization inversion lines in correlation with the flare radiation. In contrast, the thermal sources stay in fixed locations and show temporal variations of the temperature and emission measure uncorrelated with the flare radiation. We interpret these distinct properties as indicating that nonthermal sources are powered by magnetic reconnection and thermal sources passively receive energy from the nonthermal donor. The finding of these distinct properties between thermal and nonthermal sources demonstrates the microwave and EUV emission measure combined diagnostics.

  15. Energetic electron propagation in the decay phase of non-thermal flare emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activities, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Tsap, Yuri T., E-mail: huangj@nao.cas.cn [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, 98409 Crimea, Nauchny (Ukraine)

    2014-06-01

    On the basis of the trap-plus-precipitation model, the peculiarities of non-thermal emission in the decay phase of solar flares have been considered. The calculation formulas for the escape rate of trapped electrons into the loss cone in terms of time profiles of hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission have been obtained. It has been found that the evolution of the spectral indices of non-thermal emission depend on the regimes of the pitch angle diffusion of trapped particles into the loss cone. The properties of non-thermal electrons related to the HXR and MW emission of the solar flare on 2004 November 3 are studied with Nobeyama Radioheliograph, Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters, RHESSI, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite observations. The spectral indices of non-thermal electrons related to MW and HXR emission remained constant or decreased, while the MW escape rate as distinguished from that of the HXRs increased. This may be associated with different diffusion regimes of trapped electrons into the loss cone. New arguments in favor of an important role of the superstrong diffusion for high-energy electrons in flare coronal loops have been obtained.

  16. A giant radio flare from Cygnus X-3 with associated γ-ray emission: The 2011 radio and γ-ray flare of Cyg X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbel, S.; Dubus, G.; Tomsick, J. A.; Szostek, A.

    2012-01-01

    With frequent flaring activity of its relativistic jets, Cygnus X-3 (Cyg X-3) is one of the most active microquasars and is the only Galactic black hole candidate with confirmed high-energy γ-ray emission, thanks to detections by Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT) and AGILE. In 2011, we observed Cyg X-3 in order to transit to a soft X-ray state, which is known to be associated with high-energy γ-ray emission. We present the results of a multiwavelength campaign covering a quenched state, when radio emission from Cyg X-3 is at its weakest and the X-ray spectrum is very soft. A giant (~20 Jy) optically thin radio flare marks the end of the quenched state, accompanied by rising non-thermal hard X-rays. Fermi/LAT observations (E≥ 100 MeV) reveal renewed γ-ray activity associated with this giant radio flare, suggesting a common origin for all non-thermal components. In addition, current observations unambiguously show that the γ-ray emission is not exclusively related to the rare giant radio flares. A three-week period of γ-ray emission is also detected when Cyg X-3 was weakly flaring in radio, right before transition to the radio quenched state. There were no γ-rays observed during the ~1-month long quenched state, when the radio flux is weakest. These results suggest transitions into and out of the ultrasoft X-ray (radio-quenched) state trigger γ-ray emission, implying a connection to the accretion process, and also that the γ-ray activity is related to the level of radio flux (and possibly shock formation), strengthening the connection to the relativistic jets.

  17. What can He II 304 Å tell us about transient seismic emission from solar flares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C.; Donea, A. C.

    2017-10-01

    After neary 20 years since their discovery by Kosovichev and Zharkova, the mechanics of the release of seismic transients into the solar interior from some flares remain a mystery. Seismically emissive flares invariably show the signatures of intense chromosphere heating consistent with pressure variations sufficient to drive seismic transients commensurate with helioseismic observations-under certain conditions. Magnetic observations show the signatures of apparent magnetic changes, suggesting Lorentz-force transients that could likewise drive seismic transients-similarly subject to certain conditions. But, the diagnostic signatures of both of these prospective drivers are apparent over vast regions from which no significant seismic emission emanates. What distinguishes the source regions of transient seismic emission from the much vaster regions that show the signatures of both transient heating and magnetic variations but are acoustically unproductive? Observations of acoustically active flares in He II 304 Å by the Atomospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) offer a promising new resource with which to address this question.

  18. Millimeter and X-Ray Emission from the 5 July 2012 Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsap, Y. T.; Smirnova, V. V.; Motorina, G. G.; Morgachev, A. S.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Nagnibeda, V. G.; Ryzhov, V. S.

    2018-03-01

    The 5 July 2012 solar flare SOL2012-07-05T11:44 (11:39 - 11:49 UT) with an increasing millimeter spectrum between 93 and 140 GHz is considered. We use space and ground-based observations in X-ray, extreme ultraviolet, microwave, and millimeter wave ranges obtained with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager, Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, Radio Solar Telescope Network, and Bauman Moscow State Technical University millimeter radio telescope RT-7.5. The main parameters of thermal and accelerated electrons were determined through X-ray spectral fitting assuming the homogeneous thermal source and thick-target model. From the data of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/SDO and differential-emission-measure calculations it is shown that the thermal coronal plasma gives a negligible contribution to the millimeter flare emission. Model calculations suggest that the observed increase of millimeter spectral flux with frequency is determined by gyrosynchrotron emission of high-energy (≳ 300 keV) electrons in the chromosphere. The consequences of the results are discussed in the light of the flare-energy-release mechanisms.

  19. A search for radio emission from flare stars in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, T. S.; Dulk, G. A.; Slee, O. B.

    1988-01-01

    The VLA has been used to search for radio emission from flare stars in the Pleiades. Two observational strategies were employed. First, about 1/2 sq deg of cluster, containing about 40 known flare stars, was mapped at 1.4 GHz at two epochs. More than 120 sources with flux densities greater than 0.3 mJy exist on the maps. Detailed analysis shows that all but two of these sources are probably extragalactic. The two sources identified as stellar are probably not Pleiades members as judged by their proper motions; rather, based on their colors and magnitudes, they seem to be foreground G stars. One is a known X-ray source. The second observational strategy, where five rapidly rotating flare stars were observed at three frequencies, yielded no detections. The 0.3 mJy flux-density limit of this survey is such that only the most intense outbursts of flare stars in the solar neighborhood could have been detected if those stars were at the distance of the Pleiades.

  20. Modeling Flare Hard X-ray Emission from Electrons in Contracting Magnetic Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, Silvina E.; Allred, Joel C.; Alaoui, Meriem; Holman, Gordon D.; DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed impulsive hard X-ray emission in solar flares is not well understood. It is generally accepted that this emission is produced by a non-thermal beam of electrons that collides with the ambient ions as the beam propagates from the top of a flare loop to its footpoints. Most current models that investigate this transport assume an injected beam with an initial energy spectrum inferred from observed hard X-ray spectra, usually a power law with a low-energy cutoff. In our previous work (Guidoni et al. 2016), we proposed an analytical method to estimate particle energy gain in contracting, large-scale, 2.5-dimensional magnetic islands, based on a kinetic model by Drake et al. (2010). We applied this method to sunward-moving islands formed high in the corona during fast reconnection in a simulated eruptive flare. The overarching purpose of the present work is to test this proposed acceleration model by estimating the hard X-ray flux resulting from its predicted accelerated-particle distribution functions. To do so, we have coupled our model to a unified computational framework that simulates the propagation of an injected beam as it deposits energy and momentum along its way (Allred et al. 2015). This framework includes the effects of radiative transfer and return currents, necessary to estimate flare emission that can be compared directly to observations. We will present preliminary results of the coupling between these models.

  1. A satellite-based analysis of the Val d'Agri (South of Italy) Oil Center gas flaring emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi - ENI - Val d'Agri Oil Center - COVA). For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a~large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring), being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented on thirteen years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated to the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, exploiting data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003-2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. Achieved results indicate that such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83), emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.

  2. A satellite-based analysis of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (southern Italy) gas flaring emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, the robust satellite techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was implemented to analyze the flaring activity of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (COVA), the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant, owned by Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI). For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e., waste flaring), as industrial processes are regulated by strict regional laws. While regarding the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the main aim of this work was to assess the performances of RST in terms of sensitivity and reliability in providing independent estimations of gas flaring volumes in such conditions. In detail, RST was implemented for 13 years of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium and thermal infrared data in order to identify the highly radiant records associated with the COVA flare emergency discharges. Then, using data provided by ENI about gas flaring volumes in the period 2003-2009, a MODIS-based regression model was developed and tested. The results achieved indicate that the such a model is able to estimate, with a good level of accuracy (R2 of 0.83), emitted gas flaring volumes at COVA.

  3. Solar Flare Termination Shock and Synthetic Emission Line Profiles of the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lijia [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Li, Gang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Reeves, Kathy; Raymond, John, E-mail: gang.li@uah.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Solar flares are among the most energetic phenomena that occur in the solar system. In the standard solar flare model, a fast mode shock, often referred to as the flare termination shock (TS), can exist above the loop-top source of hard X-ray emissions. The existence of the TS has been recently related to spectral hardening of a flare’s hard X-ray spectra at energies >300 keV. Observations of the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line during solar flares by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) spacecraft have found significant redshifts with >100 km s{sup −1}, which is consistent with a reconnection downflow. The ability to detect such a redshift with IRIS suggests that one may be able to use IRIS observations to identify flare TSs. Using a magnetohydrodynamic simulation to model magnetic reconnection of a solar flare and assuming the existence of a TS in the downflow of the reconnection plasma, we model the synthetic emission of the Fe xxi 1354.08 line in this work. We show that the existence of the TS in the solar flare may manifest itself in the Fe xxi 1354.08 Å line.

  4. Suppression of Hydrogen Emission in an X-class White-light Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procházka, Ondrej; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Allred, Joel C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kowalski, Adam F. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, 2000 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Kotrč, Pavel, E-mail: oprochazka01@qub.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    We present unique NUV observations of a well-observed X-class flare from NOAA 12087 obtained at the Ondřejov Observatory. The flare shows a strong white-light continuum but no detectable emission in the higher Balmer and Lyman lines. Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and Fermi observations indicate an extremely hard X-ray spectrum and γ -ray emission. We use the RADYN radiative hydrodynamic code to perform two types of simulations: one where an energy of 3 × 10{sup 11} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} is deposited by an electron beam with a spectral index of ≈3, and a second where the same energy is applied directly to the photosphere. The combination of observations and simulations allows us to conclude that the white-light emission and the suppression or complete lack of hydrogen emission lines is best explained by a model where the dominant energy deposition layer is located in the lower layers of the solar atmosphere, rather than the chromosphere.

  5. On the enhanced X-ray emission from SGR 1900+14 after the August 27th giant flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertan, Ue.; Alpar, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the giant flares of soft gamma ray repeaters (E∼10 44 erg) can push the inner regions of a fall-back disk out to larger radii by radiation pressure, while matter remains bound to the system for plausible parameters. The subsequent relaxation of this pushed-back matter can account for the observed enhanced X-ray emission after the August 27 th giant flare of SGR 1900+14

  6. On the Origin of the Flare Emission in IRIS ’ SJI 2832 Filter:Balmer Continuum or Spectral Lines?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleint, Lucia; Krucker, Säm [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Heinzel, Petr [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-10

    Continuum (“white-light,” WL) emission dominates the energetics of flares. Filter-based observations, such as the IRIS SJI 2832 filter, show WL-like brightenings during flares, but it is unclear whether the emission arises from real continuum emission or enhanced spectral lines, possibly turning into emission. The difficulty in filter-based observations, contrary to spectral observations, is to determine which processes contribute to the observed brightening during flares. Here we determine the contribution of the Balmer continuum and the spectral line emission to IRIS ’ SJI 2832 emission by analyzing the appropriate passband in simultaneous IRIS NUV spectra. We find that spectral line emission can contribute up to 100% to the observed slitjaw images (SJI) emission, that the relative contributions usually temporally vary, and that the highest SJI enhancements that are observed are most likely because of the Balmer continuum. We conclude that care should be taken when calling SJI 2832 a continuum filter during flares, because the influence of the lines on the emission can be significant.

  7. On the Origin of the Flare Emission in IRIS ’ SJI 2832 Filter:Balmer Continuum or Spectral Lines?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleint, Lucia; Krucker, Säm; Heinzel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Continuum (“white-light,” WL) emission dominates the energetics of flares. Filter-based observations, such as the IRIS SJI 2832 filter, show WL-like brightenings during flares, but it is unclear whether the emission arises from real continuum emission or enhanced spectral lines, possibly turning into emission. The difficulty in filter-based observations, contrary to spectral observations, is to determine which processes contribute to the observed brightening during flares. Here we determine the contribution of the Balmer continuum and the spectral line emission to IRIS ’ SJI 2832 emission by analyzing the appropriate passband in simultaneous IRIS NUV spectra. We find that spectral line emission can contribute up to 100% to the observed slitjaw images (SJI) emission, that the relative contributions usually temporally vary, and that the highest SJI enhancements that are observed are most likely because of the Balmer continuum. We conclude that care should be taken when calling SJI 2832 a continuum filter during flares, because the influence of the lines on the emission can be significant.

  8. CURRENT SHEET ENERGETICS, FLARE EMISSIONS, AND ENERGY PARTITION IN A SIMULATED SOLAR ERUPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, Katharine K.; Linker, Jon A.; Mikic, Zoran; Forbes, Terry G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate coronal energy flow during a simulated coronal mass ejection (CME). We model the CME in the context of the global corona using a 2.5D numerical MHD code in spherical coordinates that includes coronal heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling in the energy equation. The simulation domain extends from 1 to 20 R s . To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to apply detailed energy diagnostics in a flare/CME simulation when these important terms are considered in the context of the MHD equations. We find that the energy conservation properties of the code are quite good, conserving energy to within 4% for the entire simulation (more than 6 days of real time). We examine the energy release in the current sheet as the eruption takes place, and find, as expected, that the Poynting flux is the dominant carrier of energy into the current sheet. However, there is a significant flow of energy out of the sides of the current sheet into the upstream region due to thermal conduction along field lines and viscous drag. This energy outflow is spatially partitioned into three separate components, namely, the energy flux flowing out the sides of the current sheet, the energy flowing out the lower tip of the current sheet, and the energy flowing out the upper tip of the current sheet. The energy flow through the lower tip of the current sheet is the energy available for heating of the flare loops. We examine the simulated flare emissions and energetics due to the modeled CME and find reasonable agreement with flare loop morphologies and energy partitioning in observed solar eruptions. The simulation also provides an explanation for coronal dimming during eruptions and predicts that the structures surrounding the current sheet are visible in X-ray observations.

  9. Communication: IR spectroscopy of neutral transition metal clusters through thermionic emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.; Bakker, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The resonant multiple photon excitation of neutral niobium clusters using tunable infrared (IR) radiation leads to thermionic emission. By measuring the mass-resolved ionization yield as a function of IR wavenumber species selective IR spectra are obtained for Nb-n (n = 5-20) over the 200-350 cm(-1)

  10. A flare observed in coronal, transition region, and helium I 10830 Å emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Zhicheng; Cao, Wenda [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Boulevard, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Qiu, Jiong [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Judge, Philip G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    On 2012 June 17, we observed the evolution of a C-class flare associated with the eruption of a filament near a large sunspot in the active region NOAA 11504. We obtained high spatial resolution filtergrams using the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at the Big Bear Solar Observatory in broadband TiO at 706 nm (bandpass: 10 Å) and He I 10830 Å narrow band (bandpass: 0.5 Å, centered 0.25 Å to the blue). We analyze the spatio-temporal behavior of the He I 10830 Å data, which were obtained over a 90''×90'' field of view with a cadence of 10 s. We also analyze simultaneous data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft, and data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and GOES spacecrafts. Non-thermal effects are ignored in this analysis. Several quantitative aspects of the data, as well as models derived using the '0D' enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops model code, indicate that the triplet states of the 10830 Å multiplet are populated by photoionization of chromospheric plasma followed by radiative recombination. Surprisingly, the He II 304 Å line is reasonably well matched by standard emission measure calculations, along with the C IV emission which dominates the Atmosphere Imaging Assembly 1600 Å channel during flares. This work lends support to some of our previous work combining X-ray, EUV, and UV data of flares to build models of energy transport from corona to chromosphere.

  11. Detection of 3-Minute Oscillations in Full-Disk Lyman-alpha Emission During A Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, R. O.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.; Hudson, H. S.; Fletcher, L.; Dennis, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    We report the detection of chromospheric 3-minute oscillations in disk-integrated EUV irradiance observations during a solar flare. A wavelet analysis of detrended Lyman-alpha (from GOES/EUVS) and Lyman continuum (from SDO/EVE) emission from the 2011 February 15 X-class flare revealed a 3-minute period present during the flare's main phase. The formation temperature of this emission locates this radiation to the flare's chromospheric footpoints, and similar behaviour is found in the SDO/AIA 1600A and 1700A channels, which are dominated by chromospheric continuum. The implication is that the chromosphere responds dynamically at its acoustic cutoff frequency to an impulsive injection of energy. Since the 3-minute period was not found at hard X-ray energies (50-100 keV) in RHESSI data we can state that this 3-minute oscillation does not depend on the rate of energization of, or energy deposition by, non-thermal electrons. However, a second period of 120 s found in both hard X-ray and chromospheric emission is consistent with episodic electron energization on 2-minute timescales. Our finding on the 3-minute oscillation suggests that chromospheric mechanical energy should be included in the flare energy budget, and the fluctuations in the Lyman-alpha line may influence the composition and dynamics of planetary atmospheres during periods of high activity.

  12. Investigations of Flare Gas Emissions in Taq Taq Oil Field on the Surrounding Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar A. Ali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution caused by oil takes many different forms; one of the most damaging sources is simply the combustion of oil products, such as a well flare burn-off. This paper presents the results of a survey of the agriculture lands around the Taq Taq Oil Production Company. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential contamination caused by the gas emissions from the well flares. Taq Taq field is located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, 60 km north of the giant Kirkuk oil field, 85 km south-east of Erbil and 120 km north-west of Suleimani. Samples of soil were collected from several locations around the site and analyzed to determine the content of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAH present. A gas chromatography linked to a mass spectrometry (GCMS machine was used for these measurements. The PAH contamination at each location of soil was determined and the 16-PAHs, as listed in the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA documentation were investigated. The average content of total PAH in all samples of the agricultural soil was 0.654 mg·kg-1 with the concentrations ranging from 0.310 to 0.869 mg·kg-1. It was found that the PAH concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the TTOPCO oil field, indicating that pollution was evident, the area close to the field being more affected by the gas pollution.

  13. Plasma upflows and microwave emission in hot supra-arcade structure associated with AN M1.6 limb flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Shibasaki, K.; Bain, H.-M.; Cho, K.-S.

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated a supra-arcade structure associated with an M1.6 flare, which occurred on the south-east limb on 2010 November 4. It is observed in EUV with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, microwaves at 17 and 34 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), and soft X-rays of 8-20 keV with RHESSI. Interestingly, we found exceptional properties of the supra-arcade thermal plasma from the AIA 131 Å and the NoRH: (1) plasma upflows along large coronal loops and (2) enhancing microwave emission. RHESSI detected two soft X-ray sources, a broad one in the middle of the supra-arcade structure and a bright one just above the flare-arcade. We estimated the number density and thermal energy for these two source regions during the decay phase of the flare. In the supra-arcade source, we found that there were increases of the thermal energy and the density at the early and last stages, respectively. On the contrary, the density and thermal energy of the source on the top of the flare-arcade decreases throughout. The observed upflows imply that there is continuous energy supply into the supra-arcade structure from below during the decay phase of the flare. It is hard to explain by the standard flare model in which the energy release site is located high in the corona. Thus, we suggest that a potential candidate of the energy source for the hot supra-arcade structure is the flare-arcade, which has exhibited a predominant emission throughout.

  14. NuSTAR detection of high-energy X-ray emission and rapid variability from sagittarius A* flares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    2014-01-01

    Sagittarius A* harbors the supermassive black hole that lies at the dynamical center of our Galaxy. Sagittarius A* spends most of its time in a low luminosity emission state but flares frequently in the infrared and X-ray, increasing up to a few hundred fold in brightness for up to a few hours at...

  15. Reconnection, Particle Acceleration, and Hard X-ray Emission in Eruptive Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.

    1998-11-01

    The frequent occurrence of Hard X-ray emission from the top of flaring loops was one of the discoveries by the Hard X-ray telescope on board the Japanese Yohkoh satellite. I will show how the combined effect of magnetic field convergence and pitch- angle scattering of non-thermal electrons injected at the top of the loop results in the generation of looptop sources with properties akin to those observed by Yohkoh. In addition it is shown that the injection of proton beams in the loop legs, expected from theory, reproduces the observed high temperature ``ridges" in the loop legs by mirroring and energy loss through collisions. I will interpret these numerical results as supporting the now widely accepted model of an erupting magnetic flux tube generating a reconnecting current sheet in its wake, where most of the energy release takes place. The strong similarity with the reconnection observed in the MRX experiment in Princeton will be analyzed in detail.

  16. DETECTION OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION DURING THE X-RAY FLARING ACTIVITY IN GRB 100728A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Bonnell, J.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of the bright GRB 100728A and its afterglow. The early X-ray emission is dominated by a vigorous flaring activity continuing until 1 ks after the burst. In the same time interval, high-energy emission is significantly detected by the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. Marginal evidence of GeV emission is observed up to later times. We discuss the broadband properties of this burst within both the internal and external shock scenarios, with a particular emphasis on the relation between X-ray flares, the GeV emission, and a continued long-duration central engine activity as their power source.

  17. The ir emission features: Emission from PAH (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    PAHs can have several forms in the interstellar medium. To assess the importance of each requires the availability of a collection of high quality, complete mid-ir interstellar emission spectra, a collection of laboratory spectra of PAH samples prepared under realistic conditions and a firm understanding of the microscopic emission mechanism. Given what we currently know about PAHs, the spectroscopic data suggests that there are at least two components which contribute to the interstellar emission spectrum: free molecule sized PAHs producing the narrow features and amorphous carbon particles (which are primarily made up of an irregular ''lattice'' of PAHs) contributing to the broad underlying components. An exact treatment of the ir fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules shows that species containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra match more closely with the spectra of amorphous carbon particles. Since little is known about the spectroscopic properties of free PAHs and PAH clusters, much laboratory work is called for in conjunction with an observational program which focuses on the spatial characteristics of the spectra. In this way the distribution and evolution of carbon from molecule to particle can be traced. 38 refs., 9 figs.

  18. The ir emission features: Emission from PAH [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons] molecules and amorphous carbon particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    PAHs can have several forms in the interstellar medium. To assess the importance of each requires the availability of a collection of high quality, complete mid-ir interstellar emission spectra, a collection of laboratory spectra of PAH samples prepared under realistic conditions and a firm understanding of the microscopic emission mechanism. Given what we currently know about PAHs, the spectroscopic data suggests that there are at least two components which contribute to the interstellar emission spectrum: free molecule sized PAHs producing the narrow features and amorphous carbon particles (which are primarily made up of an irregular ''lattice'' of PAHs) contributing to the broad underlying components. An exact treatment of the ir fluorescence from highly vibrationally excited large molecules shows that species containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the narrow features, although the spectra match more closely with the spectra of amorphous carbon particles. Since little is known about the spectroscopic properties of free PAHs and PAH clusters, much laboratory work is called for in conjunction with an observational program which focuses on the spatial characteristics of the spectra. In this way the distribution and evolution of carbon from molecule to particle can be traced. 38 refs., 9 figs

  19. STATISTICS OF FLARING LOOPS OBSERVED BY THE NOBEYAMA RADIOHELIOGRAPH. III. ASYMMETRY OF TWO FOOTPOINT EMISSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guangli; Song Qiwu; Huang Yu

    2010-01-01

    Two footpoint (FP) emissions are compared in a total of 24 events with loop-like structures imaged by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH), which are divided into two groups: when the optically thin radio spectrum in the looptop is harder than those in the two FPs (group 1) and when it is softer than those in at least one FP (group 2). There are always correlative variations of the brightness temperatures and polarization degrees, the spectral indices, the column densities of nonthermal electrons, and magnetic field strengths in the two FPs. The maximum differences of these parameters in the two FPs may reach one or two orders of magnitude (except the polarization degree). The logarithm of the ratio of the magnetic field strengths in the two FPs is always anti-correlated with the logarithms of the ratios of the brightness temperatures in the two FPs, but correlated with the differences of the spectral indices in the two FPs. Only two anti-correlations exist in group 1, between the difference of the absolute polarization degrees in the two FPs and the logarithm of the ratio of the brightness temperatures in the two FPs and between the difference of the spectral indices in the two FPs and the logarithm of the ratio of the column densities of nonthermal electrons in the two FPs. Only two positive correlations appear in group 1, between the difference of the absolute polarization degrees in the two FPs and the relative ratio of magnetic field strengths in the two FPs and between the logarithm of the ratio of the column densities of nonthermal electrons in the two FPs and the logarithm of the ratio of the brightness temperatures in the two FPs. These four statistics in group 2 are just opposite to those in group 1, which may be directly explained by gyrosynchrotron theory. Moreover, the asymmetry of the two FP emissions in group 2 is more evident than that in group 1, which may be explained by two kinds of flare models, respectively, in the two groups of events, i

  20. HYDRO2GEN: Non-thermal hydrogen Balmer and Paschen emission in solar flares generated by electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druett, M. K.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Aim. Sharp rises of hard X-ray (HXR) emission accompanied by Hα line profiles with strong red-shifts up to 4 Å from the central wavelength, often observed at the onset of flares with the Specola Solare Ticinese Telescope (STT) and the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST), are not fully explained by existing radiative models. Moreover, observations of white light (WL) and Balmer continuum emission with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRISH) reveal strong co-temporal enhancements and are often nearly co-spatial with HXR emission. These effects indicate a fast effective source of excitation and ionisation of hydrogen atoms in flaring atmospheres associated with HXR emission. In this paper, we investigate electron beams as the agents accounting for the observed hydrogen line and continuum emission. Methods: Flaring atmospheres are considered to be produced by a 1D hydrodynamic response to the injection of an electron beam defining their kinetic temperatures, densities, and macro velocities. We simulated a radiative response in these atmospheres using a fully non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) approach for a 5-level plus continuum hydrogen atom model, considering its excitation and ionisation by spontaneous, external, and internal diffusive radiation and by inelastic collisions with thermal and beam electrons. Simultaneous steady-state and integral radiative transfer equations in all optically thick transitions (Lyman and Balmer series) were solved iteratively for all the transitions to define their source functions with the relative accuracy of 10-5. The solutions of the radiative transfer equations were found using the L2 approximation. Resulting intensities of hydrogen line and continuum emission were also calculated for Balmer and Paschen series. Results: We find that inelastic collisions with beam electrons strongly increase excitation and ionisation of hydrogen atoms from the chromosphere to photosphere. This leads to an increase in Lyman continuum

  1. THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS AND THE DIFFERENTIAL EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION DURING A B8.3 FLARE ON 2009 JULY 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Sylwester, Barbara; Sylwester, Janusz [Solar Physics Division, Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw (Poland); Jain, Rajmal, E-mail: arun.awasthi.87@gmail.com, E-mail: awasthi@astro.uni.wroc.pl [Kadi Sarva Vishwavidyalaya, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the evolution of the differential emission measure distribution (DEM[ T ]) in various phases of a B8.3 flare which occurred on 2009 July 04. We analyze the soft X-ray (SXR) emission in the 1.6–8.0 keV range, recorded collectively by the Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX; Polish) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (Indian) instruments. We conduct a comparative investigation of the best-fit DEM[ T ] distributions derived by employing various inversion schemes, namely, single Gaussian, power-law functions and a Withbroe–Sylwester (W–S) maximum likelihood algorithm. In addition, the SXR spectrum in three different energy bands, that is, 1.6–5.0 keV (low), 5.0–8.0 keV (high), and 1.6–8.0 keV (combined), is analyzed to determine the dependence of the best-fit DEM[ T ] distribution on the selection of the energy interval. The evolution of the DEM[ T ] distribution, derived using a W–S algorithm, reveals multi-thermal plasma during the rise to the maximum phase of the flare, and isothermal plasma in the post-maximum phase of the flare. The thermal energy content is estimated by considering the flare plasma to be (1) isothermal and (2) multi-thermal in nature. We find that the energy content during the flare, estimated using the multi-thermal approach, is in good agreement with that derived using the isothermal assumption, except during the flare maximum. Furthermore, the (multi-) thermal energy estimated while employing the low-energy band of the SXR spectrum results in higher values than that derived from the combined energy band. On the contrary, the analysis of the high-energy band of the SXR spectrum leads to lower thermal energy than that estimated from the combined energy band.

  2. RADIO MONITORING OF THE PERIODICALLY VARIABLE IR SOURCE LRLL 54361: NO DIRECT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE RADIO AND IR EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbrich, Jan, E-mail: jan.forbrich@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star-forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 over roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of ∼100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of the order of a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27 ± 5 μJy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, 53 ± 11 μJy, suggesting that variability in the radio is present, but over larger timescales than in the IR. We discuss other sources in the field, in particular two infrared/X-ray stars that show rapidly varying gyrosynchrotron emission.

  3. Retrieval of Tropospheric Profiles from IR Emission Spectra: Field Experiment and Sensitivity Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theriault, J

    1993-01-01

    .... The goal of this project was the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles and possibly over relevant information on clouds and aerosol properties from high resolution IR emission...

  4. Flare Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benz Arnold O.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays at 100 MeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, and SOHO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections (CMEs, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting reconnection of magnetic field lines as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth’s lower ionosphere. While flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  5. Flare Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Arnold O.

    2017-12-01

    Solar flares are observed at all wavelengths from decameter radio waves to gamma-rays beyond 1 GeV. This review focuses on recent observations in EUV, soft and hard X-rays, white light, and radio waves. Space missions such as RHESSI, Yohkoh, TRACE, SOHO, and more recently Hinode and SDO have enlarged widely the observational base. They have revealed a number of surprises: Coronal sources appear before the hard X-ray emission in chromospheric footpoints, major flare acceleration sites appear to be independent of coronal mass ejections, electrons, and ions may be accelerated at different sites, there are at least 3 different magnetic topologies, and basic characteristics vary from small to large flares. Recent progress also includes improved insights into the flare energy partition, on the location(s) of energy release, tests of energy release scenarios and particle acceleration. The interplay of observations with theory is important to deduce the geometry and to disentangle the various processes involved. There is increasing evidence supporting magnetic reconnection as the basic cause. While this process has become generally accepted as the trigger, it is still controversial how it converts a considerable fraction of the energy into non-thermal particles. Flare-like processes may be responsible for large-scale restructuring of the magnetic field in the corona as well as for its heating. Large flares influence interplanetary space and substantially affect the Earth's ionosphere. Flare scenarios have slowly converged over the past decades, but every new observation still reveals major unexpected results, demonstrating that solar flares, after 150 years since their discovery, remain a complex problem of astrophysics including major unsolved questions.

  6. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  7. Numerical simulations of flares on M dwarf stars. I - Hydrodynamics and coronal X-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Pallavicini, Roberto

    1991-01-01

    Flare-loop models are utilized to simulate the time evolution and physical characteristics of stellar X-ray flares by varying the values of flare-energy input and loop parameters. The hydrodynamic evolution is studied in terms of changes in the parameters of the mass, energy, and momentum equations within an area bounded by the chromosphere and the corona. The zone supports a magnetically confined loop for which processes are described including the expansion of heated coronal gas, chromospheric evaporation, and plasma compression at loop footpoints. The intensities, time profiles, and average coronal temperatures of X-ray flares are derived from the simulations and compared to observational evidence. Because the amount of evaporated material does not vary linearly with flare-energy input, large loops are required to produce the energy measured from stellar flares.

  8. The EVE plus RHESSI DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission in the soft X-ray energy range. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to calculate the Differential Emission Measure (DEM) for solar flares. This improvement over the isothermal approximation helps to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. For this current project we are interested in breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. As in our earlier work, thermal emission is modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature. Non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner.For this study, we have examined the DEM and non-thermal resuidual emission for a sample of relatively large (GOES M class and above) solar flares observed from 2011 to 2014. The results for the DEM and non-thermal parameters found using the combined EVE-RHESSI data are compared with those found using only RHESSI data.

  9. Detection of Three-minute Oscillations in Full-disk Ly α Emission during a Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Fletcher, Lyndsay [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Fleck, Bernhard [ESA Directorate of Science, Operations Department, c/o NASA/GSFC Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20071 (United States); Ireland, Jack; Dennis, Brian R. [Solar Physics Laboratory (Code 671), Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    In this Letter we report the detection of chromospheric 3-minute oscillations in disk-integrated EUV irradiance observations during a solar flare. A wavelet analysis of detrended Ly α (from GOES /EUVS) and Lyman continuum (from Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/EVE) emission from the 2011 February 15 X-class flare (SOL2011-02-15T01:56) revealed a ∼3 minute period present during the flare’s main phase. The formation temperature of this emission locates this radiation at the flare’s chromospheric footpoints, and similar behavior is found in the SDO /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 1600 and 1700 Å channels, which are dominated by chromospheric continuum. The implication is that the chromosphere responds dynamically at its acoustic cutoff frequency to an impulsive injection of energy. Since the 3-minute period was not found at hard X-ray (HXR) energies (50–100 keV) in Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager data we can state that this 3-minute oscillation does not depend on the rate of energization of non-thermal electrons. However, a second period of 120 s found in both HXR and chromospheric lightcurves is consistent with episodic electron energization on 2-minute timescales. Our finding on the 3-minute oscillation suggests that chromospheric mechanical energy should be included in the flare energy budget, and the fluctuations in the Ly α line may influence the composition and dynamics of planetary atmospheres during periods of high activity.

  10. FARIMA MODELING OF SOLAR FLARE ACTIVITY FROM EMPIRICAL TIME SERIES OF SOFT X-RAY SOLAR EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislavsky, A. A.; Burnecki, K.; Magdziarz, M.; Weron, A.; Weron, K.

    2009-01-01

    A time series of soft X-ray emission observed by the Geostationary Operational Environment Satellites from 1974 to 2007 is analyzed. We show that in the solar-maximum periods the energy distribution of soft X-ray solar flares for C, M, and X classes is well described by a fractional autoregressive integrated moving average model with Pareto noise. The model incorporates two effects detected in our empirical studies. One effect is a long-term dependence (long-term memory), and another corresponds to heavy-tailed distributions. The parameters of the model: self-similarity exponent H, tail index α, and memory parameter d are statistically stable enough during the periods 1977-1981, 1988-1992, 1999-2003. However, when the solar activity tends to minimum, the parameters vary. We discuss the possible causes of this evolution and suggest a statistically justified model for predicting the solar flare activity.

  11. A Parameter Study for Modeling Mg ii h and k Emission during Solar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio da Costa, Fatima [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kleint, Lucia, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210, Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-06-20

    Solar flares show highly unusual spectra in which the thermodynamic conditions of the solar atmosphere are encoded. Current models are unable to fully reproduce the spectroscopic flare observations, especially the single-peaked spectral profiles of the Mg ii h and k lines. We aim to understand the formation of the chromospheric and optically thick Mg ii h and k lines in flares through radiative transfer calculations. We take a flare atmosphere obtained from a simulation with the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN as input for a radiative transfer modeling with the RH code. By iteratively changing this model atmosphere and varying thermodynamic parameters such as temperature, electron density, and velocity, we study their effects on the emergent intensity spectra. We reproduce the typical single-peaked Mg ii h and k flare spectral shape and approximate the intensity ratios to the subordinate Mg ii lines by increasing either densities, temperatures, or velocities at the line core formation height range. Additionally, by combining unresolved upflows and downflows up to ∼250 km s{sup −1} within one resolution element, we reproduce the widely broadened line wings. While we cannot unambiguously determine which mechanism dominates in flares, future modeling efforts should investigate unresolved components, additional heat dissipation, larger velocities, and higher densities and combine the analysis of multiple spectral lines.

  12. The contribution of microbunching instability to solar flare emission in the GHz to THz range of frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Klopf, J. [Department of Applied Science, College of William and Mary, McGlothlin-Street Hall, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Kaufmann, Pierre; Raulin, Jean-Pierre; Szpigel, Sérgio [Centro de Rádio-Astronomia e Astrofísica Mackenzie, Escola de Engenharia, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Rua Consolação 896, São Paulo, SP 01302-907 (Brazil)

    2014-08-10

    Recent solar flare observations in the sub-terahertz range have provided evidence of a new spectral component with fluxes increasing for larger frequencies, separated from the well-known microwave emission that maximizes in the gigahertz range. Suggested interpretations explain the terahertz spectral component but do not account for the simultaneous microwave component. We present a mechanism for producing the observed 'double spectra'. Based on coherent enhancement of synchrotron emission at long wavelengths in laboratory accelerators, we consider how similar processes may occur within a solar flare. The instability known as microbunching arises from perturbations that produce electron beam density modulations, giving rise to broadband coherent synchrotron emission at wavelengths comparable to the characteristic size of the microbunch structure. The spectral intensity of this coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) can far exceed that of the incoherent synchrotron radiation (ISR), which peaks at a higher frequency, thus producing a double-peaked spectrum. Successful CSR simulations are shown to fit actual burst spectral observations, using typical flaring physical parameters and power-law energy distributions for the accelerated electrons. The simulations consider an energy threshold below which microbunching is not possible because of Coulomb repulsion. Only a small fraction of the radiating charges accelerated to energies above the threshold is required to produce the microwave component observed for several events. The ISR/CSR mechanism can occur together with other emission processes producing the microwave component. It may bring an important contribution to microwaves, at least for certain events where physical conditions for the occurrence of the ISR/CSR microbunching mechanism are possible.

  13. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Crannell, C. J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard X-rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft X-ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard X-ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard X-rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 x 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard X-ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard X-ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again.

  14. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Crannell, C.J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard x rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft x ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard x ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard x rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 X 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard x ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard x ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again

  15. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Crannell, C.J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard X-rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft X-ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard X-ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard X-rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 x 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard X-ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard X-ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again. 29 references

  16. LONG-TERM MONITORING OF MRK 501 FOR ITS VERY HIGH ENERGY {gamma} EMISSION AND A FLARE IN 2011 OCTOBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B.; Catalanotti, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica ' E. De Giorgi' dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chen, S. Z.; Chen, Y. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A. K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare-CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cardarelli, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cattaneo, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Chen, T. L. [Tibet University, 850000 Lhasa, Xizang (China); Creti, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Cui, S. W. [Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Dai, B. Z. [Yunnan University, 2 North Cuihu Rd., 650091 Kunming, Yunnan (China); D' Ali Staiti, G., E-mail: chensz@ihep.ac.cn [Dipartimento di Fisica e Tecnologie Relative, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Edificio 18, I-90128 Palermo (Italy); Collaboration: ARGO-YBJ Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-10

    As one of the brightest active blazars in both X-ray and very high energy {gamma}-ray bands, Mrk 501, is very useful for physics associated with jets from active galactic nuclei. The ARGO-YBJ experiment has monitored Mrk 501 for {gamma}-rays above 0.3 TeV since 2007 November. The largest flare since 2005 was observed from 2011 October and lasted until about 2012 April. In this paper, a detailed analysis of this event is reported. During the brightest {gamma}-ray flaring episodes from 2011 October 17 to November 22, an excess of the event rate over 6{sigma} is detected by ARGO-YBJ in the direction of Mrk 501, corresponding to an increase of the {gamma}-ray flux above 1 TeV by a factor of 6.6 {+-} 2.2 from its steady emission. In particular, the {gamma}-ray flux above 8 TeV is detected with a significance better than 4{sigma}. Based on time-dependent synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) processes, the broadband energy spectrum is interpreted as the emission from an electron energy distribution parameterized with a single power-law function with an exponential cutoff at its high-energy end. The average spectral energy distribution for the steady emission is well described by this simple one-zone SSC model. However, the detection of {gamma}-rays above 8 TeV during the flare challenges this model due to the hardness of the spectra. Correlations between X-rays and {gamma}-rays are also investigated.

  17. Dust-deficient Palomar-Green Quasars and the Diversity of AGN Intrinsic IR Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, G. H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-02-01

    To elucidate the intrinsic broadband infrared (IR) emission properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 87 z ≲ 0.5 Palomar-Green (PG) quasars. While the Elvis AGN template with a moderate far-IR correction can reasonably match the SEDs of the AGN components in ∼60% of the sample (and is superior to alternatives such as that by Assef), it fails on two quasar populations: (1) hot-dust-deficient (HDD) quasars that show very weak emission thoroughly from the near-IR to the far-IR, and (2) warm-dust-deficient (WDD) quasars that have similar hot dust emission as normal quasars but are relatively faint in the mid- and far-IR. After building composite AGN templates for these dust-deficient quasars, we successfully fit the 0.3–500 μm SEDs of the PG sample with the appropriate AGN template, an infrared template of a star-forming galaxy, and a host galaxy stellar template. 20 HDD and 12 WDD quasars are identified from the SED decomposition, including seven ambiguous cases. Compared with normal quasars, the HDD quasars have AGNs with relatively low Eddington ratios and the fraction of WDD quasars increases with AGN luminosity. Moreover, both the HDD and WDD quasar populations show relatively stronger mid-IR silicate emission. Virtually identical SED properties are also found in some quasars from z = 0.5 to 6. We propose a conceptual model to demonstrate that the observed dust deficiency of quasars can result from a change of structures of the circumnuclear tori that can occur at any cosmic epoch.

  18. Flare Temperature and Nitrogen Oxide Emission Reduction and Heat Transfer in the TGMP-314I Steam Boiler Firebox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver’ State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Asolution is given to the problem of heat transfer in the firebox of a steam boiler, taking account of the radiation from all quadrillions of atoms constituting the flare. An innovative firebox for a steam boiler is proposed: the lower part of the firebox is a rectangular parallelepiped and the upper part a four-sided pyramid. The calculations show that in the proposed firebox the nonuniformity of the heat-flux distribution is diminished along the height and perimeter of the walls and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced.

  19. NuSTAR detection of high-energy X-ray emission and rapid variability from Sagittarius A{sup *} flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dexter, Jason [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian; Harrison, Fiona A.; Madsen, Kristin K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, Shuo [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W. [X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Sagittarius A{sup *} harbors the supermassive black hole that lies at the dynamical center of our Galaxy. Sagittarius A{sup *} spends most of its time in a low luminosity emission state but flares frequently in the infrared and X-ray, increasing up to a few hundred fold in brightness for up to a few hours at a time. The physical processes giving rise to the X-ray flares are uncertain. Here we report the detection with the NuSTAR observatory in Summer and Fall 2012 of four low to medium amplitude X-ray flares to energies up to 79 keV. For the first time, we clearly see that the power-law spectrum of Sagittarius A{sup *} X-ray flares extends to high energy, with no evidence for a cutoff. Although the photon index of the absorbed power-law fits are in agreement with past observations, we find a difference between the photon index of two of the flares (significant at the 95% confidence level). The spectra of the two brightest flares (∼55 times quiescence in the 2-10 keV band) are compared to simple physical models in an attempt to identify the main X-ray emission mechanism, but the data do not allow us to significantly discriminate between them. However, we confirm the previous finding that the parameters obtained with synchrotron models are, for the X-ray emission, physically more reasonable than those obtained with inverse Compton models. One flare exhibits large and rapid (<100 s) variability, which, considering the total energy radiated, constrains the location of the flaring region to be within ∼10 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole.

  20. Flare continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the metre-wave continuum radiation which is related to similar solar emissions observed in the decimetre and centimetre spectral regions. This type of emission, known as Flare Contiuum, is related to the radio bursts of types II and IV. After summarising the history of the phenomenon and reviewing the observational work, the author discusses the various possible radiation mechanisms and their relation to the solar corona, the interplanetary medium and related regions. The theoretical topics covered include the role of high-energy particles, the trapping of such particles, gyro-synchrotron radiation, polarization and plasma interactions. (U.K.)

  1. X-ray Emission from Solar Flares Rajmal Jain, Malini Aggarwal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of Fe line feature vary as a function of temperature of flare plasma. Further, they .... Through OSPEX, the user reads and displays the input data, selects and .... spectrum which is generated using the fitted model count spectrum. We do not use.

  2. Estimates of global, regional, and national annual CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring: 1950--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

    1995-12-01

    This document describes the compilation, content, and format of the most comprehensive C0{sub 2}-emissions database currently available. The database includes global, regional, and national annual estimates of C0{sub 2} emissions resulting from fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing, and gas flaring in oil fields for 1950--92 as well as the energy production, consumption, and trade data used for these estimates. The methods of Marland and Rotty (1983) are used to calculate these emission estimates. For the first time, the methods and data used to calculate CO, emissions from gas flaring are presented. This C0{sub 2}-emissions database is useful for carbon-cycle research, provides estimates of the rate at which fossil-fuel combustion has released C0{sub 2} to the atmosphere, and offers baseline estimates for those countries compiling 1990 C0{sub 2}-emissions inventories.

  3. Insight into regulation of emission color and photodeactivation process from heteroleptic to homoleptic Ir(III) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Danning; Feng, Songyan; Wang, Li, E-mail: chemwangl@henu.edu.cn; Li, Junfeng, E-mail: jfli@theochem.kth.se; Zhang, Jinglai, E-mail: zhangjinglai@henu.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    The phosphorescent process of two heteroleptic ((DMDPI){sub 2}Ir(tftap) and (tftap){sub 2}Ir(DMDPI)) and one homoleptic (Ir(DMDPI){sub 3}) Ir(III) complexes (See ) is theoretically investigated by density functional theory (DFT) and quadratic response (QR) time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Two or three triplet excited states are confirmed for three complexes, respectively. On the basis of the respective optimized triplet geometry, the emissive wavelength is determined by the ΔSCF-DFT method. Furthermore, the radiative rate constant (k{sub r}) is also calculated corresponding to each triplet state. Combination of k{sub r} and emissive energy, the emission rule is determined. It is found that complex (DMDPI){sub 2}Ir(tftap) follows the dual emission scenarios, while complexes (tftap){sub 2}Ir(DMDPI) and Ir(DMDPI){sub 3} obey the Kasha rule. The nonradiative rate constant (k{sub nr}) is qualitatively evaluated by the construction of triplet potential surface via metal centered ({sup 3}MC d-d) state. Finally, the sequence of quantum yield is compared by both k{sub r} and k{sub nr}. The quantum yield of homoleptic Ir(III) complex Ir(DMDPI){sub 3} is higher than that of heteroleptic Ir(III) complexes (DMDPI){sub 2}Ir(tftap) and (tftap){sub 2}Ir(DMDPI). However, the emissive wavelength of Ir(DMDPI){sub 3} is in the red color region rather than blue color.

  4. EMISSION HEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION OF WHITE-LIGHT EMISSION OBSERVED BY HINODE/SOT FROM THE 2012 JANUARY 27 X-CLASS SOLAR FLARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kyoko; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Masuda, Satoshi; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Ohno, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    White-light emissions were observed from an X1.7 class solar flare on 2012 January 27, using three continuum bands (red, green, and blue) of the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. This event occurred near the solar limb, and so differences in the locations of the various emissions are consistent with differences in heights above the photosphere of the various emission sources. Under this interpretation, our observations are consistent with the white-light emissions occurring at the lowest levels of where the Ca II H emission occurs. Moreover, the centers of the source regions of the red, green, and blue wavelengths of the white-light emissions are significantly displaced from each other, suggesting that those respective emissions are emanating from progressively lower heights in the solar atmosphere. The temperature distribution was also calculated from the white-light data, and we found the lower-layer emission to have a higher temperature. This indicates that high-energy particles penetrated down to near the photosphere, and deposited heat into the ambient lower layers of the atmosphere

  5. Suppression of Hydrogen Emission in an X-class White-light Solar Flare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, O.; Milligan, R.O.; Allred, J.C.; Kowalski, A.F.; Kotrč, Pavel; Mathioudakis, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 837, č. 1 (2017), 46/1-46/9 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18495S Grant - others:EC(XE) 606862 Program:FP7 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * atmosphere * flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  6. On a Flat-shape Emission in the Solar Flare on 7th June 2012

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotrč, Pavel; Kupryakov, Yu. A.; Kashapova, L. K.; Bárta, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 2 (2013), s. 555-562 ISSN 1845-8319. [Hvar Astrophysical Colloquium /12./. Hvar, 03.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/1652; GA ČR GA13-24782S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar flare * energy relase * energy transport Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  7. Mass loss from OH/IR stars - Models for the infrared emission of circumstellar dust shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justtanont, K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The IR emission of a sample of 24 OH/IR stars is modeled, and the properties of circumstellar dust and mass-loss rate of the central star are derived. It is shown that for some sources the observations of the far-IR emission is well fitted with a lambda exp -1 law, while some have a steeper index of 1.5. For a few sources, the presence of circumstellar ice grains is inferred from detailed studies of the observed 10-micron feature. Dust mass-loss rates are determined from detailed studies for all the stars in this sample. They range from 6.0 x 10 exp -10 solar mass/yr for an optically visible Mira to 2.2 x 10 exp -6 solar mass/yr for a heavily obscured OH/IR star. These dust mass-loss rates are compared to those calculated from IRAS photometry using 12-, 25-, and 60-micron fluxes. The dust mass-loss rates are also compared to gas mass-loss rates determined from OH and CO observations. For stars with tenuous shells, a dust-to-gas ratio of 0.001 is obtained.

  8. Amended Results for Hard X-Ray Emission by Non-thermal Thick Target Recombination in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, J. W.; Brown, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    Brown & Mallik and the corresponding corrigendum Brown et al. presented expressions for non-thermal recombination (NTR) in the collisionally thin- and thick-target regimes, claiming that the process could account for a substantial part of the hard X-ray continuum in solar flares usually attributed entirely to thermal and non-thermal bremsstrahlung (NTB). However, we have found the thick-target expression to become unphysical for low cut-offs in the injected electron energy spectrum. We trace this to an error in the derivation, derive a corrected version that is real-valued and continuous for all photon energies and cut-offs, and show that, for thick targets, Brown et al. overestimated NTR emission at small photon energies. The regime of small cut-offs and large spectral indices involve large (reducing) correction factors but in some other thick-target parameter regimes NTR/NTB can still be of the order of unity. We comment on the importance of these results to flare and microflare modeling and spectral fitting. An empirical fit to our results shows that the peak NTR contribution comprises over half of the hard X-ray signal if δ ≳ 6{≤ft(\\tfrac{{E}0c}{4{keV}}\\right)}0.4.

  9. A MODIS-based analysis of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (South of Italy) thermal emission: an independent gas flaring estimation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Nicola; Faruolo, Mariapia; Irina, Coviello; Carolina, Filizzola; Teodosio, Lacava; Valerio, Tramutoli

    2014-05-01

    Different kinds of atmospheric pollution affect human health and the environment at local and global scale. The petroleum industry represents one of the most important environmental pollution sources, accounting for about 18% of well-to-wheels greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main pollution source is represented by the flaring of gas, one of the most challenging energy and environmental problems facing the world today. The World Bank has estimated that 150 billion cubic meters of natural gas are being flared annually, that is equivalent to 30% of the European Union's gas consumption. Since 2002, satellite-based methodologies have shown their capability in providing independent and reliable estimation of gas flaring emissions, at both national and global scale. In this paper, for the first time, the potential of satellite data in estimating gas flaring volumes emitted from a single on-shore crude oil pre-treatment plant, i.e. the Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (ENI) Val d'Agri Oil Center (COVA), located in the Basilicata Region (South of Italy), was assessed. Specifically, thirteen years of night-time Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data acquired in the medium and thermal infrared (MIR and TIR, respectively) bands were processed. The Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach was implemented for identifying anomalous values of the signals under investigation (i.e. the MIR-TIR difference one), associated to the COVA flares emergency discharges. Then, the Fire Radiative Power (FRP), computed for the thermal anomalies previously identified, was correlated to the emitted gas flaring volumes, available for the COVA in the period 2003 - 2009, defining a satellite based regression model for estimating COVA gas flaring emitted volumes. The used strategy and the preliminary results of this analysis will be described in detail in this work.

  10. Fiber optic lasers with emission to the region 2-3 μm of IR medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzuelo Sanchez, G.; Osuna Galan, I.; Camas Anzueto, J.; Martinez Rios, A.; Selvas Aguilar, R.

    2009-01-01

    We present recent advances in laser emission in the 2-2-5 μm mid-IR, using a chalcogenide fiber with low loss and a high Raman gain in the region 2-10 μm. We present a review of fiber lasers operating in 2-3 μm of the mid IR. (Author)

  11. An assessment of surface emissivity variation effects on plasma uniformity analysis using IR cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Abigail; Showers, Melissa; Biewer, Theodore

    2017-10-01

    The Prototype-Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear plasma device operating at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Its purpose is to test plasma source and heating concepts for the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX), which has the mission to test the plasma-material interactions under fusion reactor conditions. In this device material targets will be exposed to high heat fluxes (>10 MW/m2). To characterize the heat fluxes to the target a IR thermography system is used taking up to 432 frames per second videos. The data is analyzed to determine the surface temperature on the target in specific regions of interest. The IR analysis has indicated a low level of plasma uniformity; the plasma often deposits more heat to the edge of the plate than the center. An essential parameter for IR temperature calculation is the surface emissivity of the plate (stainless steel). A study has been performed to characterize the variation in the surface emissivity of the plate as its temperature changes and its surface finish is modified by plasma exposure.

  12. Impulsive and long duration high-energy gamma-ray emission from the very bright 2012 March 7 solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica " M. Merlin" dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Caraveo, P. A., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu, E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2014-07-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) detected gamma-rays up to 4 GeV from two bright X-class solar flares on 2012 March 7, showing both an impulsive and temporally extended emission phases. The gamma-rays appear to originate from the same active region as the X-rays associated with these flares. The >100 MeV gamma-ray flux decreases monotonically during the first hour (impulsive phase) followed by a slower decrease for the next 20 hr. A power law with a high-energy exponential cutoff can adequately describe the photon spectrum. Assuming that the gamma rays result from the decay of pions produced by accelerated protons and ions with a power-law spectrum, we find that the index of that spectrum is ∼3, with minor variations during the impulsive phase. During the extended phase the photon spectrum softens monotonically, requiring the proton index varying from ∼4 to >5. The >30 MeV proton flux observed by the GOES satellites also shows a flux decrease and spectral softening, but with a harder spectrum (index ∼2-3). Based on these observations, we explore the relative merits of prompt or continuous acceleration scenarios, hadronic or leptonic emission processes, and acceleration at the solar corona or by the fast coronal mass ejections. We conclude that the most likely scenario is continuous acceleration of protons in the solar corona that penetrate the lower solar atmosphere and produce pions that decay into gamma rays. However, acceleration in the downstream of the shock cannot be definitely ruled out.

  13. Single photon infrared emission spectroscopy: a study of IR emission from UV laser excited PAHs between 3 and 15 micrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D. J.; Schlemmer, S.; Balucani, N.; Wagner, D. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Steiner, B.; Saykally, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    Single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy (SPIRES) has been used to measure emission spectra from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A supersonic free-jet expansion has been used to provide emission spectra of rotationally cold and vibrationally excited naphthalene and benzene. Under these conditions, the observed width of the 3.3-micrometers (C-H stretch) band resembles the bandwidths observed in experiments in which emission is observed from naphthalene with higher rotational energy. To obtain complete coverage of IR wavelengths relevant to the unidentified infrared bands (UIRs), UV laser-induced desorption was used to generate gas-phase highly excited PAHs. Lorentzian band shapes were convoluted with the monochromator-slit function in order to determine the widths of PAH emission bands under astrophysically relevant conditions. Bandwidths were also extracted from bands consisting of multiple normal modes blended together. These parameters are grouped according to the functional groups mostly involved in the vibration, and mean bandwidths are obtained. These bandwidths are larger than the widths of the corresponding UIR bands. However, when the comparison is limited to the largest PAHs studied, the bandwidths are slightly smaller than the corresponding UIR bands. These parameters can be used to model emission spectra from PAH cations and cations of larger PAHs, which are better candidate carriers of the UIRs.

  14. X-radiation /E greater than 10 keV/, H-alpha and microwave emission during the impulsive phase of solar flares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorpahl, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been made of the variation in hard (E greater than 10 keV) X-radiation, H-alpha and microwave emission during the impulsive phase of solar flares. Analysis shows that the rise-time in the 20-30-keV X-ray spike depends on the electron hardness. The impulsive phase is also marked by an abrupt, very intense increase in H-alpha emission in one or more knots of the flare. Properties of these H-alpha kernels include: (1) a luminosity several times greater than the surrounding flare, (2) an intensity rise starting about 20-30 sec before, peaking about 20-25 sec after, and lasting about twice as long as the hard spike, (3) a location lower in the chromosphere than the remaining flare, (4) essentially no expansion prior to the hard spike, and (5) a position within 6000 km of the boundary separating polarities, usually forming on both sides of the neutral line near both feet of the same tube of force. Correspondingly, impulsive microwave events are characterized by: (1) great similarity in burst structure with 20-32 keV X-rays but only above 5000 MHz, (2) typical low frequency burst cutoff between 1400-3800 MHz, and (3) maximum emission above 7500 MHz.

  15. THE ROLE OF THE ACCRETION DISK, DUST, AND JETS IN THE IR EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Nemmen, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Alonso-Herrero, A., E-mail: rmason@gemini.edu [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    We use recent high-resolution infrared (IR; 1-20 μm) photometry to examine the origin of the IR emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). The data are compared with published model fits that describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of LLAGN in terms of an advection-dominated accretion flow, truncated thin accretion disk, and jet. The truncated disk in these models is usually not luminous enough to explain the observed IR emission, and in all cases its spectral shape is much narrower than the broad IR peaks in the data. Synchrotron radiation from the jet appears to be important in very radio-loud nuclei, but the detection of strong silicate emission features in many objects indicates that dust must also contribute. We investigate this point by fitting the IR SED of NGC 3998 using dusty torus and optically thin (τ{sub mid-IR} ∼ 1) dust shell models. While more detailed modeling is necessary, these initial results suggest that dust may account for the nuclear mid-IR emission of many LLAGN.

  16. Mars atmosphere studies with the SPICAM IR emission phase function observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokhimovskiy, Alexander; Fedorova, Anna; Montmessin, Franck; Korablev, Oleg; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    Emission Phase Function (EPF) observations is a powerful tool for characterization of atmosphere and surface. EPF sequence provides the extensive coverage of scattering angles above the targeted surface location which allow to separate the surface and aerosol scattering, study a vertical distribution of minor species and aerosol properties. SPICAM IR instrument on Mars Express mission provides continuous atmospheric observations in near IR (1-1.7 mu) in nadir and limb starting from 2004. For the first years of SPICAM operation only a very limited number of EPFs was performed. But from the mid 2013 (Ls=225, MY31) SPICAM EPF observations become rather regular. Based on the multiple-scattering radiative transfer model SHDOM, we analyze equivalent depths of carbon dioxide (1,43 mu) and water vapour (1,38 mu) absorption bands and their dependence on airmass during observation sequence to get aerosol optical depths and properties. The derived seasonal dust opacities from near IR can be used to retrieve the size distribution from comparison with simultaneous results of other instruments in different spectral ranges. Moreover, the EPF observations of water vapour band allow to access poorly known H2O vertical distribution for different season and locations.

  17. Improved flare tip design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogolek, P. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the testing procedures and development of an improved flare tip design. Design objectives included performance equal to or better than utility flares at low wind speed; conversion efficiency; fuel slip; smoking; significant improvement at high wind speed; and no increase in trace emissions. A description of the testing facility of the flare tip was provided, with reference to the fact that the facility allowed for realistic near full scale gas flares in a single-pass flare test facility. Other details of the facility included: an adjustable ceiling; high capacity variable speed fan; sampling ports along working section in stack; windows along working section; and air cooled walls, floor, and ceiling. The fuels used in the flare tip included natural gas, propane, gasoline and inert gases. Details of wind speed, appurtenances and turbulence generating grids were presented, with reference to continuous gas emission measurements. A list of design constraints was provided. Flare performance included wind speed, turbulence and fuel composition. A chart of conversion inefficiencies with a correlation of wind speed and turbulence, fuel flow and pipe size was also presented. Several new tip designs were fabricated for testing, with screening tests for comparison to basic pipe and ranking designs. Significant improvements were found in one of the new designs, including results with 30 per cent propane in fuel. Emissions reduction from 10 to 35 per cent were noted. It was concluded that future work should focus on evaluating improved tip for stability at low wind speeds. Fuel slips are the primary source of emissions, and it was recommended that further research is necessary to improve existing flare tips. tabs, figs.

  18. Study of s-component of the solar radio emission and short-term quantitative prediction of powerful solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseynov, Sh; Gakhramanov, I.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : All living and non-living things on Earth is dependent on the processes occurring in the Sun. Therefore the study of the Sun with the aim to predict powerful solar flares is of great scientific and practical importance. It is known that the main drawback of modern forecasting of solar flares and the low reliability of forecasts is the lack of use of the physical concepts of the mechanism of flares

  19. FT-IR emissivity measurements of Nb melt using an electrostatic levitation furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Okada, J.T.; Kumar, M.V.; Paradis, P.-F.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Since molten Nb has a high melting point, its thermal properties were measured using FT-IR combined with an electrostatic levitator. • The measured ε_T of molten Nb at the melting temperature in this study was 0.29, and the C_p was calculated as 41.9 J ⋅ mol"−"1 ⋅ K"−"1. - Abstract: Total hemispherical emissivity (ε_T) and constant pressure heat capacity (C_p) of molten Nb, which has a high melting point, was measured using FT-IR combined with an electrostatic levitator. In order to heat the sample to temperatures higher than 2000 °C and avoid chemical reactions between the sample and a crucible, a containerless method was needed. By applying these methods, the measured ε_T of molten Nb at the melting temperature was 0.29, and the C_p was calculated as 41.9 J ⋅ mol"−"1 ⋅ K"−"1. Both data showed good agreement with the literature values. In addition, the result was compared with the Drude model and the difference of emissivity between Zr and Nb was discussed.

  20. An Atomically Precise Au10 Ag2 Nanocluster with Red-Near-IR Dual Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Guan, Zong-Jie; Pei, Xiao-Li; Yuan, Shang-Fu; Wan, Xian-Kai; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Quan-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A red-near-IR dual-emissive nanocluster with the composition [Au10 Ag2 (2-py-C≡C)3 (dppy)6 ](BF4 )5 (1; 2-py-C≡C is 2-pyridylethynyl, dppy=2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine) has been synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that 1 has a trigonal bipyramidal Au10 Ag2 core that contains a planar Au4 (2-py-C≡C)3 unit sandwiched by two Au3 Ag(dppy)3 motifs. Cluster 1 shows intense red-NIR dual emission in solution. The visible emission originates from metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) from silver atoms to phosphine ligands in the Au3 Ag(dppy)3 motifs, and the intense NIR emission is associated with the participation of 2-pyridylethynyl in the frontier orbitals of the cluster, which is confirmed by a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The analysis and the three-dimensional, forward-fit modeling of the X-ray and the microwave emissions of major solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Natsuha; Wang, Haimin; Gary, Dale E.

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that the time profiles of the hard X-ray (HXR) emission and the microwave (MW) emission during the impulsive phase of the solar flare are well correlated, and that their analysis can lead to the understandings of the flare-accelerated electrons. In this work, we first studied the source locations of seven distinct temporal peaks observed in HXR and MW lightcurves of the 2011-02-15 X2.2 flare using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Nobeyama Radioheliograph. We found that the seven emission peaks did not come from seven spatially distinct sites in HXR and MW, but rather in HXR we observed a sudden change in location only between the second and the third peak, with the same pattern occurring, but evolving more slowly in MW, which is consistent with the tether-cutting model of solar flares. Next, we closely examine the widely-used notion of a "common population" of the accelerated electrons producing the HXR and the MW, which has been challenged by some studies suggesting the differences in the inferred energy spectral index and emitting energies of the HXR- and MW- producing electrons. We use the Non-linear Force Free Field model extrapolated from the observed photospheric magnetogram in the three-dimensional, multi-wavelength modeling platform GX Simulator, and attempt to create a unified electron population model that can simultaneously reproduce the observed X-ray and MW observations of the 2015-06-22 M6.5 flare. We constrain the model parameters by the observations made by the highest-resolving instruments currently available in two wavelengths, the RHESSI for X-ray and the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array for MW. The results suggest that the X-ray emitting electron population model fits to the standard flare model with the broken, hardening power-law spectrum at ~300 keV that simultaneously produces the HXR footpoint emission and the MW high frequency emission, and also reveals that there could be a

  2. The importance of plasma effects on electron-cyclotron maser-emission from flaring loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. R.; Vlahos, L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    Electron cyclotron maser instability has been suggested as the cause of the observed short (10-20 msec), intense (an approximate brightness temperature of 10 to the 15th K) and up to 100% polarized microwave solar emission. It is shown that plasma effects and thermal cyclotron damping, ignored in previous theories, play an important role in controlling the frequency range of the emission. The radio emission is suppressed for ratios of the plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency smaller than 0.4. An examination of the cyclotron damping, reveals that the maser action is suppressed unless a large fraction (i.e., over 10%) of the accelerated electrons participates in the emission process.

  3. ISLSCP II Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels, Cement, and Gas Flaring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains decadal (1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1995) estimates of gridded fossil-fuel emissions, expressed in 1,000 metric tons C per...

  4. ISLSCP II Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuels, Cement, and Gas Flaring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains decadal (1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990 and 1995) estimates of gridded fossil-fuel emissions, expressed in 1,000 metric tons C per year per one...

  5. Three-dimensional Forward-fit Modeling of the Hard X-Ray and Microwave Emissions of the 2015 June 22 M6.5 Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Natsuha; Gary, Dale E.; Wang, Haimin; Fleishman, Gregory D.; Nita, Gelu M.; Jing, Ju

    2018-01-01

    The well-established notion of a “common population” of the accelerated electrons simultaneously producing the hard X-ray (HXR) and microwave (MW) emission during the flare impulsive phase has been challenged by some studies reporting the discrepancies between the HXR-inferred and MW-inferred electron energy spectra. The traditional methods of spectral inversion have some problems that can be mainly attributed to the unrealistic and oversimplified treatment of the flare emission. To properly address this problem, we use a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model extrapolated from an observed photospheric magnetogram as input to the three-dimensional, multiwavelength modeling platform GX Simulator and create a unified electron population model that can simultaneously reproduce the observed HXR and MW observations. We model the end of the impulsive phase of the 2015 June 22 M6.5 flare and constrain the modeled electron spatial and energy parameters using observations made by the highest-resolving instruments currently available in two wavelengths, the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager for HXR and the Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array for MW. Our results suggest that the HXR-emitting electron population model fits the standard flare model with a broken power-law spectrum ({E}{break}∼ 200 keV) that simultaneously produces the HXR footpoint emission and the MW high-frequency emission. The model also includes an “HXR-invisible” population of nonthermal electrons that are trapped in a large volume of magnetic field above the HXR-emitting loops, which is observable by its gyrosynchrotron radiation emitting mainly in the MW low-frequency range.

  6. On the Spatially Resolved Star Formation History in M51. I. Hybrid UV+IR Star Formation Laws and IR Emission from Dust Heated by Old Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eufrasio, R. T.; Lehmer, B. D.; Zezas, A.; Dwek, E.; Arendt, R. G.; Basu-Zych, A.; Wiklind, T.; Yukita, M.; Fragos, T.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Markwardt, L.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.

    2017-12-01

    We present LIGHTNING, a new spectral energy distribution fitting procedure, capable of quickly and reliably recovering star formation history (SFH) and extinction parameters. The SFH is modeled as discrete steps in time. In this work, we assumed lookback times of 0-10 Myr, 10-100 Myr, 0.1-1 Gyr, 1-5 Gyr, and 5-13.6 Gyr. LIGHTNING consists of a fully vectorized inversion algorithm to determine SFH step intensities and combines this with a grid-based approach to determine three extinction parameters. We apply our procedure to the extensive far-UV-to-far-IR photometric data of M51, convolved to a common spatial resolution and pixel scale, and make the resulting maps publicly available. We recover, for M51a, a peak star formation rate (SFR) between 0.1 and 5 Gyr ago, with much lower star formation activity over the past 100 Myr. For M51b, we find a declining SFR toward the present day. In the outskirt regions of M51a, which includes regions between M51a and M51b, we recover an SFR peak between 0.1 and 1 Gyr ago, which corresponds to the effects of the interaction between M51a and M51b. We utilize our results to (1) illustrate how UV+IR hybrid SFR laws vary across M51 and (2) provide first-order estimates for how the IR luminosity per unit stellar mass varies as a function of the stellar age. From the latter result, we find that IR emission from dust heated by stars is not always associated with young stars and that the IR emission from M51b is primarily powered by stars older than 5 Gyr.

  7. Flare stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicastro, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The least massive, but possibly most numerous, stars in a galaxy are the dwarf M stars. It has been observed that some of these dwarfs are characterized by a short increase in brightness. These stars are called flare stars. These flare stars release a lot of energy in a short amount of time. The process producing the eruption must be energetic. The increase in light intensity can be explained by a small area rising to a much higher temperature. Solar flares are looked at to help understand the phenomenon of stellar flares. Dwarfs that flare are observed to have strong magnetic fields. Those dwarf without the strong magnetic field do not seem to flare. It is believed that these regions of strong magnetic fields are associated with star spots. Theories on the energy that power the flares are given. Astrophysicists theorize that the driving force of a stellar flare is the detachment and collapse of a loop of magnetic flux. The mass loss due to stellar flares is discussed. It is believed that stellar flares are a significant contributor to the mass of interstellar medium in the Milky Way

  8. Ultraviolet radiation from stellar flares and the coronal X-ray emission for dwarf-Me stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, J.G.; Butler, C.J. (Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1985-01-31

    The authors correlate Einstein observations of the X-ray flux of quiescent dMe stars with the time-averaged energy emitted by flares in the Johnson-U band, showing that the X-ray energy emitted by the coronae of these stars is about an order of magnitude greater than the U-band flare energy. From the estimate of the ratio of the total radiation emitted to the U-band flux, it is possible that, if a similar amount of energy were dissipated in the stellar atmosphere, then the observed flare events could heat the coronae of these stars.

  9. Development of solar flares and features of the fine structure of solar radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, G. P.; Fomichev, V. V.; Yan, Y.; Tan, B.; Tan, Ch.; Fu, Q.

    2017-11-01

    The reason for the occurrence of different elements of the fine structure of solar radio bursts in the decimeter and centimeter wavelength ranges has been determined based on all available data from terrestrial and satellite observations. In some phenomena, fast pulsations, a zebra structre, fiber bursts, and spikes have been observed almost simultaneously. Two phenomena have been selected to show that the pulsations of radio emission are caused by particles accelerated in the magnetic reconnection region and that the zebra structure is excited in a source, such as a magnetic trap for fast particles. The complex combination of unusual fiber bursts, zebra structure, and spikes in the phenomenon on December 1, 2004, is associated with a single source, a magnetic island formed after a coronal mass ejection.

  10. How flares can be understood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severny, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Specific features of the flare phenomenon which are important for understanding of flares are the following: (1) Fine structure of visible emission of flares, especially at the very beginning and in the pre-flare active region. This structure can be seen also in later stages of development as bright points, some of which exist from the flare beginning (Babin's observations at Crimea, 1972-1976). (2) Turbulent motion with velocities up to 250-300 km s -1 as can be estimated from broadening of emission lines. (3) Predominantly red asymmetry of emission lines in the explosive phase and during further development of flares. (4) 'Supersonic' velocities and supergravitational accelerations of separate moving masses of the flare plasma. (5) The appearance of flares in areas with high grad H, exceeding 0.1 G km -1 which is equivalent to regions of electric currents > approximately 10 11 A. (6) Strong variations of net magnetic flux through the active region, as it follows from Meudon, Crimean, and Sacramento Peak (Rust's) observations. (Auth.)

  11. Design alternatives, components key to optimum flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-Leite, O.

    1992-01-01

    A properly designed flare works as an emissions control system with greater than 98% combustion efficiency. The appropriate use of steam, natural gas, and air-assisted flare tips can result in smokeless combustion. Ground flare, otherwise the elevated flare is commonly chosen because it handles larger flow releases more economically. Flaring has become more complicated than just lighting up waste gas. Companies are increasingly concerned about efficiency. In addition, U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have become more active, resulting in tighter regulations on both safety and emissions control. These regulations have resulted in higher levels of concern and involvement in safety and emissions matters, not to mention smoke, noise, glare, and odor. This first to two articles on flare design and components looks at elevated flares, flare tips, incinerator-type flares, flare pilots, and gas seals. Part 2 will examine knockout drums, liquid-seal drums, ignition systems, ground flares, vapor recovery systems, and flare noise

  12. Flare energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Dejager, C.; Dennis, B. R.; Hudson, H. S.; Simnett, G. M.; Strong, K. T.; Bentley, R. D.; Bornmann, P. L.; Bruner, M. E.; Cargill, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this investigation of flare energetics, researchers sought to establish a comprehensive and self-consistent picture of the sources and transport of energy within a flare. To achieve this goal, they chose five flares in 1980 that were well observed with instruments on the Solar Maximum Mission, and with other space-borne and ground-based instruments. The events were chosen to represent various types of flares. Details of the observations available for them and the corresponding physical parameters derived from these data are presented. The flares were studied from two perspectives, the impulsive and gradual phases, and then the results were compared to obtain the overall picture of the energics of these flares. The role that modeling can play in estimating the total energy of a flare when the observationally determined parameters are used as the input to a numerical model is discussed. Finally, a critique of the current understanding of flare energetics and the methods used to determine various energetics terms is outlined, and possible future directions of research in this area are suggested.

  13. Comet Grains: Their IR Emission and Their Relation to ISM Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Comets and the chodritic, porous interplanetary dust particles (CP IDPs) that they shed in their comae are reservoirs of primitive solar nebula materials. The high porosity and fragility of cometary grains and CP IDPs, and anomalously high deuterium contents of highly fragile, pyroxene-rich Cluster IDPs imply these aggregate particles contain significant abundances of grains from the interstellar medium (ISM). IR spectra of comets (3 - 40 micron) reveal the presence of a warm (nearIR) featureless emission modeled by amorphous carbon grains. Broad and narrow resonances near 10 and 20 microns are modeled by warm chondritic (50% Fe and 50% Mg) amorphous silicates and cooler Mg-rich crystalline silicate minerals, respectively. Cometary amorphous silicates resonances are well matched by IR spectra of CP IDPs dominated by GEMS (0.1 micron silicate spherules) that are thought to be the interstellar Fe-bearing amorphous silicates produced in AGB stars. Acid-etched ultramicrotomed CP IDP samples, however, show that both the carbon phase (amorphous and aliphatic) and the Mg-rich amorphous silicate phase in GEMS are not optically absorbing. Rather, it is Fe and FeS nanoparticles embedded in the GEMS that makes the CP IDPs dark. Therefore, CP IDPs suggest significant processing has occurred in the ISM. ISM processing probably includes in He' ion bombardment in supernovae shocks. Laboratory experiments show He+ ion bombardment amorphizes crystalline silicates, increases porosity, and reduces Fe into nanoparticles. Cometary crystalline silicate resonances are well matched by IR spectra of laboratory submicron Mg-rich olivine crystals and pyroxene crystals. Discovery of a Mg-pure olivine crystal in a Cluster IDP with isotopically anomalous oxygen indicates that a small fraction of crystalline silicates may have survived their journey from AGB stars through the ISM to the early solar nebula. The ISM does not have enough crystalline silicates (ISM Mg-rich crystals leads to the

  14. Black Hole Universe Model for Explaining GRBs, X-Ray Flares, and Quasars as Emissions of Dynamic Star-like, Massive, and Supermassive Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-01-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach’s principle, governed by Einstein’s general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, and acceleration of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates the emissions of dynamic black holes according to the black hole universe model and provides a self-consistent explanation for the observations of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flares, and quasars as emissions of dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes. It is shown that a black hole, when it accretes its ambient matter or merges with other black holes, becomes dynamic. Since the event horizon of a dynamic black hole is broken, the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation leaks out. The leakage of the inside hot blackbody radiation leads to a GRB if it is a star-like black hole, an X-ray flare if it is a massive black hole like the one at the center of the Milky Way, or a quasar if it is a supermassive black hole like an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The energy spectra and amount of emissions produced by the dynamic star-like, massive, and supermassive black holes can be consistent with the measurements of GRBs, X-ray flares, and quasars.

  15. Properties of the Variation of the Infrared Emission of OH/IR Stars I. The K Band Light Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To study properties of the variation of the infrared emission of OH/IR stars, we collect and analyze the infrared observational data in K band for nine OH/IR stars. We use the observational data obtained for about three decades including recent data from the two micron all sky survey (2MASS and the deep near infrared survey of the southern sky (DENIS. We use Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm to determine the pulsation period and amplitude for each star and compare them with previous results of infrared and radio investigations.

  16. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaastra, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis an electrodynamic model for solar flares is developed. The main theoretical achievements underlying the present study are treated briefly and the observable flare parameters are described within the framework of the flare model of this thesis. The flare model predicts large induced electric fields. Therefore, acceleration processes of charged particles by direct electric fields are treated. The spectrum of the accelerated particles in strong electric fields is calculated, 3 with the electric field and the magnetic field perpendicular and in the vicinity of an X-type magnetic neutral line. An electromagnetic field configuration arises in the case of a solar flare. A rising current filament in a quiescent background bipolar magnetic field causes naturally an X-type magnetic field configuration below the filament with a strong induced electric field perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. This field configuration drives particles and magnetic energy towards the neutral line, where a current sheet is generated. The global evolution of the fields in the flare is determined by force balance of the Lorentz forces on the filament and the force balance on the current sheet. The X-ray, optical and radio observations of a large solar flare on May 16, 1981 are analyzed. It is found that these data fit the model very well. (Auth.)

  17. Flaring research update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynen, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Several studies regarding waste gas flaring have been conducted in an effort to determine the potential health and environmental impacts associated with flaring. Energy source conservation and greenhouse gas emissions reduction are other reasons for studying the issue. A brief outline for each of the following research priorities was given: (1) operating practices, (2) flare performance, focusing on improved combustion efficiency, (3) speciation, addressing the potential effects of incomplete combustion, (4) alternative technologies such as membrane technology, cryogenics and power generation to reduce flare gas volume, (5) improved liquid separation, concentrating on the removal of entrained liquids to improve performance and reduce emissions and (6) fate and transport, including plume modeling, ambient air monitoring, tracking of known toxins, primarily to address concerns of environmental groups.The expectation is that this broad and comprehensive research effort will yield substantive and credible scientific data, lead to cooperation in the research community, reduce emissions, beneficially impact on regulations and standards and gain the support of environmental organizations

  18. The Multi-Instrument (EVE-RHESSI) DEM for Solar Flares, and Implications for Residual Non-Thermal Soft X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, James M.; Caspi, Amir; Warren, Harry

    2015-04-01

    In the soft X-ray energy range, solar flare spectra are typically dominated by thermal emission. The low energy extent of non-thermal emission can only be loosely quantified using currently available X-ray data. To address this issue, we combine observations from the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) with X-ray data from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The improvement over the isothermal approximation is intended to resolve the ambiguity in the range where the thermal and non-thermal components may have similar photon fluxes. This "crossover" range can extend up to 30 keV for medium to large solar flares.Previous work (Caspi et.al. 2014ApJ...788L..31C) has concentrated on obtaining DEM models that fit both instruments' observations well. Now we are interested in any breaks and cutoffs in the "residual" non-thermal spectrum; i.e., the RHESSI spectrum that is left over after the DEM has accounted for the bulk of the soft X-ray emission. Thermal emission is again modeled using a DEM that is parametrized as multiple gaussians in temperature; the non-thermal emission is modeled as a photon spectrum obtained using a thin-target emission model ('thin2' from the SolarSoft Xray IDL package). Spectra for both instruments are fit simultaneously in a self-consistent manner. The results for non-thermal parameters then are compared with those found using RHESSI data alone, with isothermal and double-thermal models.

  19. Lower atmosphere of solar flares; Proceedings of the Solar Maximum Mission Symposium, Sunspot, NM, Aug. 20-24, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidig, D.F.

    1986-01-01

    The topics discussed by the present conference encompass the chromospheric flare phenomenon, white light flares, UV emission and the flare transition region, the flare corona and high energy emissions, stellar flares, and flare energy release and transport. Attention is given to radiative shocks and condensation in flares, impulsive brightening of H-alpha flare points, the structure and response of the chromosphere to radiation backwarming during solar flares, the interpretation of continuum emissions in white light flares, and the radiation properties of solar plasmas. Also discussed are EUV images of a solar flare and C III intensity, an active region survey in H-alpha and X-rays, dynamic thermal plasma conditions in large flares, the evolution of the flare mechanism in dwarf stars, the evidence concerning electron beams in solar flares, the energetics of the nonlinear tearing mode, macroscopic electric fields during two-ribbon flares, and the low temperature signatures of energetic particles

  20. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. 1; Emission-Line Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Muhotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth. E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    \\Ve compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 microns, [Ne II] 12.81 microns, [Ne III] 15.56 microns and [Ne V] 14.32 microns, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, although six newly discovered BAT AGNs are shown to be under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compared the mid-IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that the BAT AGN fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. From this we found that sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGN have smaller emission line ratios than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGN represents the main contribution to the observed line emission. Overall, we present a different set of emission line diagnostics to distinguish between AGN and star forming galaxies that can be used as a tool to find new AGN.

  1. High-energy particle production in solar flares (SEP, gamma-ray and neutron emissions). [solar energetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1987-01-01

    Electrons and ions, over a wide range of energies, are produced in association with solar flares. Solar energetic particles (SEPs), observed in space and near earth, consist of electrons and ions that range in energy from 10 keV to about 100 MeV and from 1 MeV to 20 GeV, respectively. SEPs are directly recorded by charged particle detectors, while X-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron detectors indicate the properties of the accelerated particles (electrons and ions) which have interacted in the solar atmosphere. A major problem of solar physics is to understand the relationship between these two groups of charged particles; in particular whether they are accelerated by the same mechanism. The paper reviews the physics of gamma-rays and neutron production in the solar atmosphere and the method by which properties of the primary charged particles produced in the solar flare can be deduced. Recent observations of energetic photons and neutrons in space and at the earth are used to present a current picture of the properties of impulsively flare accelerated electrons and ions. Some important properties discussed are time scale of production, composition, energy spectra, accelerator geometry. Particular attention is given to energetic particle production in the large flare on June 3, 1982.

  2. On the Origin of the Flare Emission in IRIS' SJI 2832 Filter: Balmer Continuum or Spectral Lines?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kleint, L.; Heinzel, Petr; Krucker, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 837, č. 2 (2017), 160/1-160/7 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-18495S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * chromosphere * flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  3. Search for relation between flares and photometric variability outside of flares in EV Lac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojzman, G.Sh.

    1984-01-01

    The observations of the flare star EV Lac in July-September 1981 have confirmed the existence of photometric variability outside the flares during the night. It was found that, as a rule, a slow increase of brightness in U and B bands during 1-2 hours preceded the flares. It is suggested that the variability outside the flares is the result of the variability of chpomospheric emission lines and continuum that are emitted by the chromospheric preflare formations

  4. Luminescent sensitization and blue shift emission of Ir(ppy){sub 2}(VPHD) by copolymerization with MMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Baoli, E-mail: blan@staff.shu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Dai Fanzeng; Zhang Yanling; Song Jian; Huang, Xiao-Di [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Xu, Jia-Qiang, E-mail: xujiaqiang@shu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Ir(ppy){sub 2}(VPHD) (ppy=2-phenyl pyridine, VPHD=6-(4-vinylphenyl)-2,4-hexanedione) was copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA). The copolymer had high quantum yield of 52.3{+-}0.5% in dilute ethyl acetate solution, and the yield increased around 45% than that of the iridium monomer. The maximum emission peaks for the copolymers shifted from 515 to 489 nm while the iridium complex content was less than 0.005 mol% in the feed. The blue emission at 489 nm and the green emission at 520 nm were analyzed by Lorenz function. They are attributed to {sup 1}MLCT and {sup 3}MLCT emissions, respectively. - Highlights: > PMMA-Ir(ppy){sub 2}(VPHD) as luminescent material with high yield of 53%. > The blue color emission at 489 nm from {sup 1}MLCT in conformity with Lorenz function. > The quantum yield for the copolymer increases 45% than that of the iridium monomer. > The {sup 3}MLCT Ex. intensity versus the monomer concentration is in conformity with Boltzmann function.

  5. Regioselective aromatic substitution reactions of cyclometalated Ir(III) complexes: synthesis and photochemical properties of substituted Ir(III) complexes that exhibit blue, green, and red color luminescence emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Shin; Matsuo, Yasuki; Ogura, Shiori; Ohwada, Hiroki; Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Moromizato, Shinsuke; Shiro, Motoo; Kitamura, Masanori

    2011-02-07

    In this manuscript, the regioselective halogenation, nitration, formylation, and acylation of Ir(tpy)(3) and Ir(ppy)(3) (tpy = 2-(4'-tolyl)pyridine and ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and the subsequent conversions are described. During attempted bromination of the three methyl groups in fac-Ir(tpy)(3) using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO), three protons at the 5'-position (p-position with respect to the C-Ir bond) of phenyl rings in tpy units were substituted by Br, as confirmed by (1)H NMR spectra, mass spectra, and X-ray crystal structure analysis. It is suggested that such substitution reactions of Ir complexes proceed via an ionic mechanism rather than a radical mechanism. UV-vis and luminescence spectra of the substituted Ir(III) complexes are reported. The introduction of electron-withdrawing groups such as CN and CHO groups at the 5'-position of tpy induces a blue shift of luminescence emission to about 480 nm, and the introduction of electron-donating groups such as an amino group results in a red shift to about 600 nm. A reversible change of emission for the 5'-amino derivative of Ir(tpy)(3), Ir(atpy)(3), between red and green occurs upon protonation and deprotonation.

  6. CORONAS-F observation of gamma-ray emission from the solar flare on 2003 October 29

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurt, V. G.; Yushkov, B. Y.; Galkin, V. I.; Kudela, Karel; Kashapova, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, OCT (2017), s. 102-112 ISSN 1384-1076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000481 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : sun * flares - sun * X-rays * gamma rays - sun * magnetic fields - acceleration of particles Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2016

  7. A Catalog of Solar White-Light Flares (1859-1982), Including Their Statistical Properties and Associated Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-20

    comprehensively studied. Among those aspects in need of further observational descriptions are (1) morphology (a description of the various WLF forms in terms of...Sacramento Peak, we compiled the list O ourselves. To the best of our knowledge the final list of events is comprehensive , although we have recently...and Conway, M. (1950) The solar, flare of 1949 November 19, Observatory .70.77. 33. Porret, M. (1952) Communications Ecrites : Soelil, I’Astronomie

  8. Gas Flaring: Carbon dioxide Contribution to Global Warming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    emissions resulting from high consumption of fossil fuels. Flaring been a ... method of analysis showed that carbon dioxide from gas flaring constitute 1% of the total ... Although of these, methane is potentially the most .... in some gas plants.

  9. Hα and Hβ emission in a C3.3 solar flare: comparison between observations and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccarello, F.; Simoes, P. J. D. A.; Capparelli, V.; Fletcher, L.; Romano, P.; Mathioudakis, M.; Cauzzi, G.; Carlsson, M.; Kuridze, D.; Keys, P.

    2017-12-01

    This work is based on the analysis of an extremely rare set of simultaneous observations of a C3.3 solar flare in the Hα and Hβ lines at high spatial and temporal resolution, which were acquired at the Dunn Solar Telescope. Images of the C3.3 flare (SOL2014-04-22T15:22) made at various wavelengths along the Hα line profile by the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) and in the Hβ with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) broadband imager are analyzed to obtain the intensity evolution. The analysis shows that Hα and Hβ intensity excesses in three identified flare footpoints are well correlated in time. In the stronger footpoints, the typical value of the the Hα/Hβ intensity ratio observed is ˜ 0.4 - 0.5, in broad agreement with values obtained from a RADYN non-LTE simulation driven by an electron beam with parameters constrained by observations. The weaker footpoint has a larger Hα/Hβ ratio, again consistent with a RADYN simulation but with a smaller energy flux.

  10. Solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.C.; Smith, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    The current observational and theoretical status of solar flares as a typical astrophysical problem is reviewed with especial reference to the intense and complex energy release in large flares. Observations and their diagnostic applications are discussed in three broad areas: thermal radiation at temperatures T 5 K; thermal radiation at T > approximately 10 5 K; and non-thermal radiation and particles. Particular emphasis is given to the most recent observational discoveries such as flare γ-rays, interplanetary Langmuir waves, and the ubiquitous association of soft x-ray loops with flares, and also the progress in particle diagnostics of hard x-ray and radio bursts. The theoretical problems of primary energy release are considered in terms of both possible magnetic configuration and in plasma instabilities and the question of achieving the necessary flash power discussed. The credibility of models for the secondary redistribution through the atmosphere of the primary magnetic energy released in terms of conduction, convection, radiation and particle transport is examined. Progress made in the flare problem in the past decade is assessed and some possible reasons why no convincing solution has yet been found are considered. 296 references. (U.K.)

  11. FLARE-LIKE VARIABILITY OF THE Mg II {lambda}2800 EMISSION LINE IN THE {gamma}-RAY BLAZAR 3C 454.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon-Tavares, J. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Chavushyan, V.; Patino-Alvarez, V.; Carraminana, A.; Carrasco, L. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Valtaoja, E. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20100 Turku (Finland); Arshakian, T. G. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Popovic, L. C. [Astronomical Observatory, Volgina 7, 11160 Belgrade 74 (Serbia); Tornikoski, M.; Laehteenmaeki, A. [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, FI-02540 Kylmaelae (Finland); Lobanov, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    We report the detection of a statistically significant flare-like event in the Mg II {lambda}2800 emission line of 3C 454.3 during the outburst of autumn 2010. The highest levels of emission line flux recorded over the monitoring period (2008-2011) coincide with a superluminal jet component traversing through the radio core. This finding crucially links the broad emission line fluctuations to the non-thermal continuum emission produced by relativistically moving material in the jet and hence to the presence of broad-line region clouds surrounding the radio core. If the radio core were located at several parsecs from the central black hole, then our results would suggest the presence of broad-line region material outside the inner parsec where the canonical broad-line region is envisaged to be located. We briefly discuss the implications of broad emission line material ionized by non-thermal continuum in the context of virial black hole mass estimates and gamma-ray production mechanisms.

  12. EVIDENCE FOR NON-STELLAR REST-FRAME NEAR-IR EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Johannes U.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Brammer, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We explore the presence of non-stellar rest-frame near-IR (2–5 μm) emission in galaxies at z ∼ 1. Previous studies identified this excess in relatively small samples and suggested that such non-stellar emission, which could be linked to the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons feature or hot dust emission, is associated with an increased star formation rate (SFR). In this Letter, we confirm and quantify the presence of an IR excess in a significant fraction of galaxies in the 3D-HST GOODS catalogs. By constructing a matched sample of galaxies with and without strong non-stellar near-IR emission, we find that galaxies with such emission are predominantly star-forming galaxies. Moreover, star-forming galaxies with an excess show increased mid- and far-IR and Hα emission compared to other star-forming galaxies without. While galaxies with a near-IR excess show a larger fraction of individually detected X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), an X-ray stacking analysis, together with the IR-colors and Hα profiles, shows that AGNs are unlikely to be the dominant source of excess in the majority of galaxies. Our results suggest that non-stellar near-IR emission is linked to increased SFRs and is ubiquitous among star-forming galaxies. As such, the near-IR emission might be a powerful tool to measure SFRs in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope

  13. Measurement of the Shape of the Optical-IR Spectrum of Prompt Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossan, Bruce; Kistaubayev, M.; Smoot, G.; Scherr, L.

    2017-06-01

    While the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been extensively measured, detections of prompt emission (i.e. during bright X-gamma emission) are more limited. Some prompt optical measurements are regularly made, but these are typically in a single wide band, with limited time resolution, and no measurement of spectral shape. Some models predict a synchrotron self-absorption spectral break somewhere in the IR-optical region. Measurement of the absorption frequency would give extensive information on each burst, including the electron Lorentz factor, the radius of emission, and more (Shen & Zhang 2008). Thus far the best prompt observations have been explained invoking a variety of models, but often with a non-unique interpretation. To understand this apparently heterogeneous behavior, and to reduce the number of possible models, it is critical to add data on the optical - IR spectral shape.Long GRB prompt X-gamma emission typically lasts ~40-80 s. The Swift BAT instrument rapidly measures GRB positions to within a few arc minutes and communicates them via the internet within a few seconds. We have measured the time for a fast-moving D=700 mm telescope to point and settle to be less than 9 s anywhere on the observable sky. Therefore, the majority of prompt optical-IR emission can be measured responding to BAT positions with this telescope. In this presentation, we describe our observing and science programs, and give our design for the Burst Simultaneous Three-channel Instrument (BSTI), which uses dichroics to send eparate bands to 3 cameras. Two EMCCD cameras, give high-time resolution in B and V; a third camera with a HgCdTe sensor covers H band, allowing us to study extinguished bursts. For a total exposure time of 10 s, we find a 5 sigma sensitivity of 21.3 and 20.3 mag in B and R for 1" seeing and Kitt Peak sky brightness, much fainter than typical previous prompt detections. We estimate 5 sigma H-band sensitivity for an IR optimized telescope to be

  14. Flare Seismology from SDO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Charles; Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Hudson, Hugh

    2011-10-01

    Some flares release intense seismic transients into the solar interior. These transients are the sole instance we know of in which the Sun's corona exerts a conspicuous influence on the solar interior through flares. The desire to understand this phenomenon has led to ambitious efforts to model the mechanisms by which energy stored in coronal magnetic fields drives acoustic waves that penetrate deep into the Sun's interior. These mechanisms potentially involve the hydrodynamic response of the chromosphere to thick-target heating by high-energy particles, radiative exchange in the chromosphere and photosphere, and Lorentz-force transients to account for acoustic energies estimated up to at 5X10^27 erg and momenta of order 6X10^19 dyne sec. An understanding of these components of flare mechanics promises more than a powerful diagnostic for local helioseismology. It could give us fundamental new insight into flare mechanics themselves. The key is appropriate observations to match the models. Helioseismic observations have identified the compact sources of transient seismic emission at the foot points of flares. The Solar Dynamics Observatory is now giving us high quality continuum-brightness and Doppler observations of acoustically active flares from HMI concurrent with high-resolution EUV observations from AIA. Supported by HXR observations from RHESSI and a broad variety of other observational resources, the SDO promises a leading role in flare research in solar cycle 24.

  15. N-annulated perylene fused porphyrins with enhanced near-IR absorption and emission

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Guan, Zhenping; Xu, Qinghua; Wu, Jishan

    2010-01-01

    -IR absorption, as well as detectable photoluminescence quantum yields, all of which are comparable to or even exceed those of either meso-β doubly linked porphyrin dimer/trimer or bis/tri-N-annulated rylenes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. N-annulated perylene fused porphyrins with enhanced near-IR absorption and emission

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2010-09-17

    N-Annulated perylene fused porphyrins 1 and 2 were synthesized by oxidative dehydrogenation using a Sc(OTf)3/DDQ system. These newly synthesized hybrid molecules are highly soluble in organic solvents and exhibit remarkably intense near-IR absorption, as well as detectable photoluminescence quantum yields, all of which are comparable to or even exceed those of either meso-β doubly linked porphyrin dimer/trimer or bis/tri-N-annulated rylenes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Field Measurements of Black Carbon Yields from Gas Flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Bradley M; Johnson, Matthew R

    2017-02-07

    Black carbon (BC) emissions from gas flaring in the oil and gas industry are postulated to have critical impacts on climate and public health, but actual emission rates remain poorly characterized. This paper presents in situ field measurements of BC emission rates and flare gas volume-specific BC yields for a diverse range of flares. Measurements were performed during a series of field campaigns in Mexico and Ecuador using the sky-LOSA optical measurement technique, in concert with comprehensive Monte Carlo-based uncertainty analyses. Parallel on-site measurements of flare gas flow rate and composition were successfully performed at a subset of locations enabling direct measurements of fuel-specific BC yields from flares under field conditions. Quantified BC emission rates from individual flares spanned more than 4 orders of magnitude (up to 53.7 g/s). In addition, emissions during one notable ∼24-h flaring event (during which the plume transmissivity dropped to zero) would have been even larger than this maximum rate, which was measured as this event was ending. This highlights the likely importance of superemitters to global emission inventories. Flare gas volume-specific BC yields were shown to be strongly correlated with flare gas heating value. A newly derived correlation fitting current field data and previous lab data suggests that, in the context of recent studies investigating transport of flare-generated BC in the Arctic and globally, impacts of flaring in the energy industry may in fact be underestimated.

  18. Solar flares through electric current interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jager, C.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental hypothesis by Alfven and Carlqvist (1967) that solar flares are related to electrical currents in the solar chromosphere and low corona is investigated in the light of modern observations. The authors confirm the important role of currents in solar flares. There must be tens of such current loops (flux threads) in any flare, and this explains the hierarchy of bursts in flares. The authors summarize quantitative data on energies, numbers of particles involved and characteristic times. A special case is the high-energy flare: this one may originate in the same way as less energetic ones, but it occurs in regions with higher magnetic field strength. Because of the high particle energies involved their emission seats live only very briefly; hence the area of emission coincides virtually with the seat of the instability. These flares are therefore the best examples for studying the primary instability leading to the flare. Finally, the authors compare the merits of the original Alfven-Carlqvist idea (that flares originate by current interruption) with the one that they are due to interaction (reconnection) between two or more fluxthreads. The authors conclude that a final decision cannot yet by made, although the observed extremely short time constants of flare bursts seem to demand a reconnection-type instability rather than interruption of a circuit

  19. “Smart COPVs” - Continued Successful Development of JSC IR&D Acoustic Emissions (AE) SHM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Developed and applied promising quantitative pass/fail criteria to COPVs using acoustic emission (AE) and developed automated data analysis software. This lays the...

  20. Flare stars of the Orion Nebula - spectra of an outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, B.D.; O'Mara, B.J.; Ross, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    For the first time, detailed, time-resolved spectra of a flare event of an Orion cluster flare star are presented. These spectra, covering ∼ λλ3600-4600, were obtained by using the Anglo-Australian Telescope with a fibre coupler to simultaneously monitor 23 flare stars in the region of the Orion Nebula. The flare spectra reveal continuous emission which filled in the photospheric Ca I 4226 A absorption, and hydrogen Balmer, Ca II H and K, He I 4026 A and He I 4471 A line emission. Overall, the spectral behaviour indicates similarities to strong outbursts of the classical dMe flare stars. (author)

  1. Sportswear textiles emissivity measurement: comparison of IR thermography and emissometry techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bison, P.; Grinzato, E.; Libbra, A.; Muscio, A.

    2012-06-01

    Three sportswear textiles are compared, one normal and two 'special' with Ag+ ions and Carbon powder added, with different colors. The emissivity of the textiles has been measured to determine if it is increased in the 'special' textiles with respect to the normal one. The test implied some non-standard procedure due to the semitransparent nature of the textiles, in comparison with the normal procedure that is commonly used on opaque surfaces. The test is also carried out by a standard emissometry technique, based on a comparative approach with reference samples having known thermal emissivity. The results are compared and discussed.

  2. Chromosphere flare models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrett, E.H.; Kurucz, R.L.; Machado, M.E.; NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL)

    1985-01-01

    Further calculated results based on the F1 and F2 chromospheric models of Machado et al. (1980) are presented in addition to results from a model with enhanced temperatures relative to the weak-flare model F1 in the upper photosphere and low chromosphere, and from a model with enhanced temperatures relative to the strong flare model F2 in the upper chromosphere. The coupled equations of statistical equilibrium and radiative transfer for H, H(-), He I-II, C I-IV, Si I-II, Mg I-II, Fe, Al, O I-II, Na, and Ca II are solved, and the overall absorption and emission of radiation by lines throughout the spectrum are determined by means of a reduced set of opacities taken from a compilation of over 10 million lines. Semiempirical models show that the white light flare continuum may arise by extreme chromospheric overheating, as well as by an enhancement of the minimum temperature region. 34 references

  3. On the Search for Mid-IR and Pure Rotational H3+ Emission in Jupiter's Northern Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, Laurence M.; Miller, Steve; Lacy, John H.; Greathouse, Thomas K.

    2017-06-01

    The first identification of astronomical spectral emission from the H3+ ion was made in Jupiter’s southern auroral region in the first overtone band near 2 μm (Drossart et al. 1989; Nature 340, 539). Trafton et al. (1989; ApJ 343, L73) also detected H3+ emission from this band near each of Jupiter’s auroral poles, but without identifying it. Shortly thereafter, Maillard et al (1990; ApJ 363, L37) detected the fundamental band emission near 4 μm. In order to determine the non-LTE column abundance of H3+, which is Jupiter’s primary ionospheric coolant, we searched in 2001-2002, initially above 10 μm, for emission lines from the H3+ pure rotational and ν1 -> ν2 difference band. This was done near the northern auroral “hot spot” at System III longitude 180 deg based on predicted theoretical frequencies. The results were reported by Trafton et al. (2009; Icarus 203, 189). No pure rotational lines were detected but there were marginal detections of two metastable difference band lines. The IR-inactive ν1 levels are populated in thermal equilibrium so these difference band lines are proxies for the pure rotational lines in establishing the total H3+ column. These marginal results are consistent with a vibrational relaxation of the ν2 level by a factor of ~6, consistent with the non-LTE calculation of Melin et al. (2005; Icarus 178, 97).We report here results from subsequent observations of Jupiter’s H3+ hot spot spectrum below 10 μm, where better detectivity was expected from the lower thermal background. However, this was offset by the reduced availability of emission from known hydrocarbons, leading to acquisition and guiding difficulty, which was resolved by offsetting from a Galilean satellite. The observations were made with the TEXES high-resolution mid-IR spectrograph at the IRTF telescope on Oct 1, 6, and 8 of 2012. Of the 18 lines predicted for this wavelength regime, half avoided blending with lines apparent in Jupiter’s auroral spectrum or

  4. Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy using lanthanide centred near-IR emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Zhiyu; Tropiano, Manuel; Mantulnikovs, Konstantins

    2015-01-01

    The narrow, near infrared (NIR) emission from lanthanide ions has attracted great interest, particularly with regard to developing tools for bioimaging, where the long lifetimes of lanthanide excited states can be exploited to address problems arising from autofluorescence and sample transparency...

  5. Perylene-fused BODIPY dye with near-IR absorption/emission and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-02-18

    A N-annulated perylene unit was successfully fused to the meso-and β-positions of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core. The newly synthesized BODIPY dye 1b exhibits intensified near-infrared (NIR) absorption and the longest emission maximum ever observed for all BODIPY derivatives. In addition, this dye possesses excellent solubility and photostability, beneficial to practical applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  6. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN SPITZER/IRS MAPS. I. CATALOG AND SIMPLE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Choi, W. D.-Y.; Moya, L. G. V.; Otaguro, J. N.; Sorkhou, S.; Peeters, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Tielens, A. G. G. M., E-mail: dstock4@uwo.ca [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA (Netherlands)

    2016-03-01

    We present a sample of resolved galactic H ii regions and photodissociation regions (PDRs) observed with the Spitzer infrared spectrograph in spectral mapping mode between the wavelengths of 5–15 μm. For each object we have spectral maps at a spatial resolution of ∼4″ in which we have measured all of the mid-infrared emission and absorption features. These include the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission bands, primarily at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2, and 12.7 μm, as well as the spectral emission lines of neon and sulfur and the absorption band caused by silicate dust at around 9.8 μm. In this work we describe the data in detail, including the data reduction and measurement strategies, and subsequently present the PAH emission band intensity correlations for each of the objects and the sample as a whole. We find that there are distinct differences between the sources in the sample, with two main groups: the first comprising the H ii regions and the second the reflection nebulae (RNe). Three sources—the reflection nebula NGC 7023, the Horsehead nebula PDR (an interface between the H ii region IC 434 and the Orion B molecular cloud), and M17—resist this categorization, with the Horsehead PDR points mimicking the RNe and the NGC 7023 fluxes displaying a unique bifurcated appearance in our correlation plots. These discrepancies seem to be due to the very low radiation field experienced by the Horsehead PDR and the very clean separation between the PDR environment and a diffuse environment in the NGC 7023 observations.

  7. Perylene-fused BODIPY dye with near-IR absorption/emission and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Wu, Jishan

    2011-01-01

    A N-annulated perylene unit was successfully fused to the meso-and β-positions of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core. The newly synthesized BODIPY dye 1b exhibits intensified near-infrared (NIR) absorption and the longest emission maximum ever observed for all BODIPY derivatives. In addition, this dye possesses excellent solubility and photostability, beneficial to practical applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Infrared multiphoton dissociation of acrolein. Time-resolved observation of CO ( v = 1) IR emission at 4.7 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, P. K.; Rama Rao, K. V. S.; Mittal, J. P.

    1994-02-01

    In contrast to the photochemistry of electronically excited acrolein producing vinyl and formyl radicals via CC bond rupture, multiphoton vibrationally excited molecules undergo concerted dissociation generating CO and ethylene. Vibrational excitation in the CO product is detected immediately following the CO 2 laser pulse by observing IR emission at 4.7 μm. The decay of the IR emission was studied as a function of acrolein pressure. A vibrational-vibrational relaxation rate constant of CO ( v=1) by acrolein is found to be 1240 ± 200 Torr -1 s -1.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission in Spitzer /IRS Maps. II. A Direct Link between Band Profiles and the Radiation Field Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, D. J.; Peeters, E., E-mail: dstock84@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-03-10

    We decompose the observed 7.7 μ m polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission complexes in a large sample of over 7000 mid-infrared spectra of the interstellar medium using spectral cubes observed with the Spitzer /IRS-SL instrument. In order to fit the 7.7 μ m PAH emission complex we invoke four Gaussian components, which are found to be very stable in terms of their peak positions and widths across all of our spectra, and subsequently define a decomposition with fixed parameters, which gives an acceptable fit for all the spectra. We see a strong environmental dependence on the interrelationships between our band fluxes—in the H ii regions all four components are intercorrelated, while in the reflection nebulae (RNs) the inner and outer pairs of bands correlate in the same manner as previously seen for NGC 2023. We show that this effect arises because the maps of RNs are dominated by emission from strongly irradiated photodissociation regions, while the much larger maps of H ii regions are dominated by emission from regions much more distant from the exciting stars, leading to subtly different spectral behavior. Further investigation of this dichotomy reveals that the ratio of two of these components (centered at 7.6 and 7.8 μ m) is linearly related to the UV-field intensity (log G {sub 0}). We find that this relationship does not hold for sources consisting of circumstellar material, which are known to have variable 7.7 μ m spectral profiles.

  10. Fast electrons in small solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Because approximately 5-100 keV electrons are frequently accelerated and emitted by the Sun in small flares, it is possible to define a detailed characteristic physical picture of these events. The review summarizes both the direct spacecraft observations of non-relativistic solar electrons, and observations of the X-ray and radio emission generated by these particles at the Sun and in the interplanetary medium. These observations bear on the basic astrophysical process of particle acceleration in tenuous plasmas. It is found that in many small solar flares the approximately 5-100 keV electrons accelerated during flash phase constitute the bulk of the total flare energy. Thus the basic flare mechanism in these flares essentially converts the available flare energy into fast electrons. These electrons may produce the other flare electromagnetic emissions through their interactions with the solar atmosphere. In large proton flares these electrons may provide the energy to eject material from the Sun and to create a shock wave which could then accelerate nuclei and electrons to much higher energies. (Auth.)

  11. Implications of NRL/ATM solar flare observations on flare theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.C.; Spicer, D.S.

    1975-01-01

    During the Skylab mission, many solar flares were observed with the NRL XUV spectroheliogram in the wavelength region from 150 to 650 A. Because of its high spatial resolution (approximately 2ins.) the three-dimensional structures of the flare emission regions characterized by temperatures from 10 4 K to 20 x 10 6 K can be resolved. Thus the spatial relationship between the relatively cool plasma and the hot plasma components of a flare, and the associated magnetic field structure can be inferred. The implications for various flare models are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Flaring fix: better technologies green flaring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in reducing solution gas flaring and venting are discussed, highlighting the 2002 report of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) and its 39 recommendations targeting a 50 per cent reduction in flaring from a 1996 baseline. Much of the improvement to date (62 per cent at the end of 2002 on an annual basis) has come from collecting and sending gas down pipelines for processing, but improvements in technologies such as incineration, in combustion efficiency, and the use of micro-turbines, also helped to make a difference. Improvements in smokeless flares, through the addition of a special flare tip to flare stacks, has similarly contributed to higher combustion efficiency, and further improvements are expected from sonic flare technology currently under development. Expectations are also high for advances in incinerator technology, particularly enclosed burner systems, which almost completely burn flare gas while having no visible flame, smoke or odor

  13. What is the value of emission tomography studies in patients with a primary glioblastoma multiforme treated by 192Ir brachytherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koot, R.W.; Bosch, D.A.; Habraken, J.B.A.; Hulshof, M.C.C.M.; Paans, A.M.J.; Pruim, J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the use of 201 thallium SPECT and L-[1- 11 C]-tyrosine PET in patients with a primary glioblastoma multiforme treated with 192 Ir brachytherapy after surgery and external beam radiation therapy. We hypothesised that the patients most likely to benefit from further surgery after deterioration would be those with radiation necrosis and would be recognised by a negative emission tomography scan. Twenty-one patients underwent 201 thallium SPECT performed before brachytherapy, and this was repeated in 19 patients when recurrence was suspected. Nine patients also underwent a PET scan at the same time. Nine patients underwent a second operation. SPECT and PET were highly concordant concerning the prediction of radionecrosis and/or tumor recurrence. Repeat surgery did not lead to a significant increase in survival. There was no significant association between the duration of survival and tumor-to-background ratio but the number studied was small. Both SPECT and PET showed highly active lesions, which were proved to be recurrent tumor by clinical and histological follow-up. Although PET and SPECT are both highly sensitive in detecting active tumor tissue, emission tomography was not clinically valuable in the investigation of patients with a primary glioblastoma treated with brachytherapy. (author)

  14. A New Paradigm for Flare Particle Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, Silvina E.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed high-energy impulsive emission and its spectra in solar flares is not well understood. Here, we propose a first-principle-based model of particle acceleration that produces energy spectra that closely resemble those derived from hard X-ray observations. Our mechanism uses contracting magnetic islands formed during fast reconnection in solar flares to accelerate electrons, as first proposed by Drake et al. (2006) for kinetic-scale plasmoids. We apply these ideas to MHD-scale islands formed during fast reconnection in a simulated eruptive flare. A simple analytic model based on the particles’ adiabatic invariants is used to calculate the energy gain of particles orbiting field lines in our ultrahigh-resolution, 2.5D, MHD numerical simulation of a solar eruption (flare + coronal mass ejection). Then, we analytically model electrons visiting multiple contracting islands to account for the observed high-energy flare emission. Our acceleration mechanism inherently produces sporadic emission because island formation is intermittent. Moreover, a large number of particles could be accelerated in each macroscopic island, which may explain the inferred rates of energetic-electron production in flares. We conclude that island contraction in the flare current sheet is a promising candidate for electron acceleration in solar eruptions. This work was supported in part by the NASA LWS and H-SR programs..

  15. Energetic Particle Estimates for Stellar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; Chamberlin, Phil; Woods, Tom

    2018-01-01

    In the heliosphere, energetic particles are accelerated away from the Sun during solar flares and/or coronal mass ejections where they frequently impact the Earth and other solar system bodies. Solar (or stellar) energetic particles (SEPs) not only affect technological assets, but also influence mass loss and chemistry in planetary atmospheres (e.g., depletion of ozone). SEPs are increasingly recognized as an important factor in assessing exoplanet habitability, but we do not yet have constraints on SEP emission from any stars other than the Sun. Until indirect measurements are available, we must assume solar-like particle production and apply correlations between solar flares and SEPs detected near Earth to stellar flares. We present improved scaling relations between solar far-UV flare flux and >10 MeV proton flux near Earth. We apply these solar scaling relations to far-UV flares from exoplanet host stars and discuss the implications for modeling chemistry and mass loss in exoplanet atmospheres.

  16. Impulsive phase of solar flares: theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackinnon, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews the theoretical interpretation of impulsive phase phenomena in solar flares. The impulsive phase is defined to be that period of approx. 10 - 100s duration, during which the flare radiative output undergoes its most rapid, dramatic increase and decrease. The interpretation of the various impulsive phase radiation signatures are examined, including the i) hard x-ray emission, ii) radio emission, iii) UV, Hα and white light emissions and iv) gamma-ray emission. The acceleration mechanisms are discussed with respect to candidate acceleration mechanisms, and the synthesis of the theory and observations. (UK)

  17. FLARES AND THEIR UNDERLYING MAGNETIC COMPLEXITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engell, Alexander J.; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Siarkowski, Marek; Gryciuk, Magda; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Cirtain, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    SphinX (Solar PHotometer IN X-rays), a full-disk-integrated spectrometer, observed 137 flare-like/transient events with active region (AR) 11024 being the only AR on disk. The Hinode X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and Solar Optical Telescope observe 67 of these events and identified their location from 12:00 UT on July 3 through 24:00 UT 2009 July 7. We find that the predominant mechanisms for flares observed by XRT are (1) flux cancellation and (2) the shearing of underlying magnetic elements. Point- and cusp-like flare morphologies seen by XRT all occur in a magnetic environment where one polarity is impeded by the opposite polarity and vice versa, forcing the flux cancellation process. The shearing is either caused by flux emergence at the center of the AR and separation of polarities along a neutral line or by individual magnetic elements having a rotational motion. Both mechanisms are observed to contribute to single- and multiple-loop flares. We observe that most loop flares occur along a large portion of a polarity inversion line. Point- and cusp-like flares become more infrequent as the AR becomes organized with separation of the positive and negative polarities. SphinX, which allows us to identify when these flares occur, provides us with a statistically significant temperature and emission scaling law for A and B class flares: EM = 6.1 x 10 33 T 1.9±0.1 .

  18. The Crab Nebula flaring activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montani, G., E-mail: giovanni.montani@frascati.enea.it [ENEA – C.R, UTFUS-MAG, via Enrico Fermi 45, I-00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, p.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Bernardini, M.G. [INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy)

    2014-12-12

    The discovery made by AGILE and Fermi of a short time scale flaring activity in the gamma-ray energy emission of the Crab Nebula is a puzzling and unexpected feature, challenging particle acceleration theory. In the present work we propose the shock-induced magnetic reconnection as a viable mechanism to explain the Crab flares. We postulate that the emitting region is located at ∼10{sup 15} cm from the central pulsar, well inside the termination shock, which is exactly the emitting region size as estimated by the overall duration of the phenomenon ∼1 day. We find that this location corresponds to the radial distance at which the shock-induced magnetic reconnection process is able to accelerate the electrons up to a Lorentz factor ∼10{sup 9}, as required by the spectral fit of the observed Crab flare spectrum. The main merit of the present analysis is to highlight the relation between the observational constraints to the flare emission and the radius at which the reconnection can trigger the required Lorentz factor. We also discuss different scenarios that can induce the reconnection. We conclude that the existence of a plasma instability affecting the wind itself as the Weibel instability is the privileged scenario in our framework.

  19. Combined two-photon excitation and d → f energy-transfer in Ir/lanthanide dyads with time-gated selection from a two-component emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edkins, Robert M; Sykes, Daniel; Beeby, Andrew; Ward, Michael D

    2012-10-14

    In a pair of Ir/Eu and Ir/Tb dyads, two-photon excitation of the Ir-phenylpyridine chromophore at 780 nm is followed by partial d → f energy-transfer to give a combination of short-lived Ir-based (blue) and long-lived lanthanide-based (red or green) emission; these components can be selected separately by time-gated detection.

  20. Models for stellar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, L.E.; Woods, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    We study the response of certain spectral signatures of stellar flares (such as Balmer line profiles and the broad-band continuum) to changes in atmospheric structure which might result from physical processes akin to those thought to occur in solar flares. While each physical process does not have a unique signature, we can show that some of the observed properties of stellar flares can be explained by a model which involves increased pressures and temperatures in the flaring stellar chromosphere. We suggest that changes in stellar flare area, both with time and with depth in the atmosphere, may play an important role in producing the observed flare spectrum

  1. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hebb, Leslie, E-mail: slhawley@uw.edu [Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E{sub K{sub p}}> 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate.

  2. KEPLER FLARES. I. ACTIVE AND INACTIVE M DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Wisniewski, John P.; Deitrick, Russell; Hilton, Eric J.; Hebb, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed Kepler short-cadence M dwarf observations. Spectra from the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope identify magnetically active (Hα in emission) stars. The active stars are of mid-M spectral type, have numerous flares, and have well-defined rotational modulation due to starspots. The inactive stars are of early M type, exhibit less starspot signature, and have fewer flares. A Kepler to U-band energy scaling allows comparison of the Kepler flare frequency distributions with previous ground-based data. M dwarfs span a large range of flare frequency and energy, blurring the distinction between active and inactive stars designated solely by the presence of Hα. We analyzed classical and complex (multiple peak) flares on GJ 1243, finding strong correlations between flare energy, amplitude, duration, and decay time, with only a weak dependence on rise time. Complex flares last longer and have higher energy at the same amplitude, and higher energy flares are more likely to be complex. A power law fits the energy distribution for flares with log E K p > 31 erg, but the predicted number of low-energy flares far exceeds the number observed, at energies where flares are still easily detectable, indicating that the power-law distribution may flatten at low energy. There is no correlation of flare occurrence or energy with starspot phase, the flare waiting time distribution is consistent with flares occurring randomly in time, and the energies of consecutive flares are uncorrelated. These observations support a scenario where many independent active regions on the stellar surface are contributing to the observed flare rate

  3. A novel aggregation induced emission active cyclometalated Ir(III) complex as a luminescent probe for detection of copper(II) ion in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wei; Yan, Liqiang; Tian, Wenwen; Cui, Xia; Qi, Zhengjian, E-mail: qizhengjian@seu.edu.cn; Sun, Yueming, E-mail: sun@seu.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a novel aggregation induced emission (AIE) active cyclometalated Ir(III) complex, namely [Ir(dfppy){sub 2}(phen-DPA)]PF{sub 6}, where dfppy and phen-DPA represent 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine and 2-(bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)-N-(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-yl)acetamide, respectively. The complex showed remarkable selectivity for copper(II) in aqueous solution over other competitive ions. Furthermore, this sensor showed a rapid and reversible response to copper(II) in aqueous solution with a detection limit of 65 nM.

  4. Management of routine solution gas flaring in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Alberta's Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) shares decision-making responsibilities with the Government of Alberta for strategic aspects of air quality. In 1997, the Alliance established the Flaring Project Team to develop recommendations that address potential and observed impacts associated with flaring, with particular focus on 'upstream solution gas' flaring. The upstream industry explores for, acquires, develops, produces and markets crude oil and natural gas. Essentially, solution gas at upstream sites is 'co-produced' during crude oil production. The project team was established to collect and summarize information on flaring and its impacts and to develop recommendations for short-term actions to minimize the practice of routine flaring of solution gas. Another goal of the team is to develop a research strategy to better understand flaring emissions and their effects on human, animal and environmental health. The team is working on developing long-term strategies for actions to address the gas flaring issue. 5 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  5. The regulatory context of gas flaring in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, B.S.; Cook, C.

    1999-01-01

    The legislative and regulatory regime regarding gas flaring in Alberta was reviewed. The issue of gas flaring has received much attention from petroleum industry regulators in Alberta. Residents living in the vicinity of flares have identified them as sources of odour, smoke, noise and air quality-related health concerns. Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions from the flare stacks may contribute to acid rain and the greenhouse effect. The Strosher Report, released by the Alberta Research Council in 1996, has also identified about 250 different compounds in flare emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other products of incomplete combustion. The public opposition to solution gas flaring has caused regulators to consider new options designed to reduce the adverse economic and environmental impacts that may be associated with gas flaring. This paper discusses the roles of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection in administering legislation that impacts on gas flaring. In March 1999, the EUB released a guide containing the following five major points regarding gas flaring: (1) implementation of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance's (CASA's) recommendations to eventually eliminate flaring, by starting immediately to reduce flaring, and improve the efficiency of flares, (2) adoption of the CASA schedule of reduction targets for solution gas flaring, (3) conducting a review of the current approval process for small-scale electrical generation systems to encourage co-generation as a productive use of solution gas that is being flared, (4) creating better public notification requirements for new and existing facilities, and (5) discussing conflict resolution between operators and landowners. 26 refs

  6. Developing the Infrared PAH Emission Bands Into Calibrated Probes of Astrophysical Conditions with The NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Christiaan

    We propose to quantitatively calibrate the PAH band strength ratios that have been traditionally used as qualitative proxies of PAH properties and linking PAH observables with local astrophysical conditions, thus developing PAHs into quantitative probes of astronomical environments. This will culminate in a toolbox (calibration charts) that can be used by PAH experts and non-PAH experts alike to unlock the information hidden in PAH emission sources that are part of the Spitzer and ISO archives. Furthermore, the proposed work is critical to mine the treasure trove of information JWST will return as it will capture, for the first time, the complete mid-infrared (IR) PAH spectrum with fully resolved features, through a single aperture, and along single lines-of-sight; making it possible to fully extract the information contained in the PAH spectra. In short, the work proposed here represents a major step in enabling the astronomical PAH model to reach its full potential as a diagnostic of the physical and chemical conditions in objects spanning the Universe. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a common and important reservoir of accessible carbon across the Universe, play an intrinsic part in the formation of stars, planets and possibly even life itself. While most PAH spectra appear quite similar, they differ in detail and contain a wealth of untapped information. Thanks to recent advances in laboratory studies and computer-based calculations of PAH spectra, the majority of which have been made at NASA Ames, coupled with the astronomical modeling tools we have developed, we can interpret the spectral details at levels never before possible. This enables us to extract local physical conditions and track subtle changes in these conditions at levels previously impossible. Building upon the tools and paradigms developed as part of the publicly available NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database (PAHdb; www.astrochem.org/pahdb/), the purpose of our proposed research is

  7. Synchronous photoelectrical observations of flare stars in the visible and near infrared ranges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruevich, V.V.; Kilyachkov, N.N.; Shevchenko, V.S.; Burnashov, V.I.; Grinin, V.P.; Koryshev, V.V.; Shakhovskaya, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The results of synchronous photoelectrical observations of the AD Leo and EV Lac flare stars made in 1975 in the Crimea in B-filter and in the near infrared region (i-band, lambdasub(ef) approximately 0.85 μm) and the observations of the UV Cet and EV Lac stars made in 1976 in the Astronomical Institute Uzbek SSR in three passbands: U, isub(TiO)(lambdasub(ef)=0.71 μ) and isub(C)(lambdasub(ef)=0.80μm) are given. Practically all strong flares in the visible spectral range were followed by the IR-flares. In about 70% of the cases the predicted infrared negative preflares were observed. The amplitudes (in erg/s) of the negative flares are comparable with the amplitude of the optical flares. The analysis of the observed data shows that: a) the amplitudes and the energies of the positive IR flares are in average the larger the stronger is the optical flare; b) the amplitudes of the negative IR preflares are on the contrary the smaller the stronger is the optical flare; c) there are infrared flares the main energy out of which takes place in the infrared range of wavelengths; d) The U-i color shows a positive correlation with the amplitude of the flare in U: the stronger is the flare the bluer is its radiation

  8. Flare Characteristics from X-ray Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryciuk, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Podgorski, P.; Kepa, A.; Sylwester, B.; Mrozek, T.

    2017-06-01

    A new methodology is given to determine basic parameters of flares from their X-ray light curves. Algorithms are developed from the analysis of small X-ray flares occurring during the deep solar minimum of 2009, between Solar Cycles 23 and 24, observed by the Polish Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) on the Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun-Photon (CORONAS- Photon) spacecraft. One is a semi-automatic flare detection procedure that gives start, peak, and end times for single ("elementary") flare events under the assumption that the light curve is a simple convolution of a Gaussian and exponential decay functions. More complex flares with multiple peaks can generally be described by a sum of such elementary flares. Flare time profiles in the two energy ranges of SphinX (1.16 - 1.51 keV, 1.51 - 15 keV) are used to derive temperature and emission measure as a function of time during each flare. The result is a comprehensive catalogue - the SphinX Flare Catalogue - which contains 1600 flares or flare-like events and is made available for general use. The methods described here can be applied to observations made by Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and other broad-band spectrometers.

  9. Spots and White Light Flares in an L Dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Program GN-2012A-Q-37) GMOS spectrograph (Hook et al. 2004) when a series of flares occurred. A spectrum of the most powerful flare in its impulsive...10:14 Hα HeI HeI HeI OI Fig. 4. Gemini-North GMOS spectra of W1906+40 in quiescence (below) and in flare. Note the broad Hα, atomic emission lines

  10. Magnetic transients in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.; Tanaka, K.

    1981-01-01

    We present data on magnetic transients (mgtr's) observed in flares on 1980 July 1 and 5 with Big Bear videomagnetograph (VMG). The 1980 July 1 event was a white light flare in which a strong bipolar mgtr was observed, and a definite change in the sunspots occurred at the time of the flare. In the 1980 July 5 flare, a mgtr was observed in only one polarity, and, although no sunspot changes occurred simultaneous with the flare, major spot changes occurred in a period of hours

  11. Elongation of Flare Ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT (United States); Cassak, Paul A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown WV (United States); Priest, Eric R. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-20

    We present an analysis of the apparent elongation motion of flare ribbons along the polarity inversion line (PIL), as well as the shear of flare loops in several two-ribbon flares. Flare ribbons and loops spread along the PIL at a speed ranging from a few to a hundred km s{sup −1}. The shear measured from conjugate footpoints is consistent with the measurement from flare loops, and both show the decrease of shear toward a potential field as a flare evolves and ribbons and loops spread along the PIL. Flares exhibiting fast bidirectional elongation appear to have a strong shear, which may indicate a large magnetic guide field relative to the reconnection field in the coronal current sheet. We discuss how the analysis of ribbon motion could help infer properties in the corona where reconnection takes place.

  12. Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, A.L. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Andres, R.J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Fung, I. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Matthews, E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

    1997-03-01

    Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO{sub 2} emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional and national annual estimates for 1950 through 1992 were published previously. Those national, annual CO{sub 2} emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty. The national annual estimates were combined with gridded one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations to create the new gridded CO{sub 2} emission data sets. The same population distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in emissions over time are apparent for most areas.

  13. Progress report on recommendations of the Flaring Project Team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macken, C.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the mandate of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) is to share decision-making responsibility for air quality management with the government of Alberta, through the ministries of Environmental Protection, Energy, and Health, and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). CASA's vision for air quality in Alberta is that 'the air will be odourless, tasteless, look clear, and have no measurable short- or long-term adverse effects on people, animals, or the environment'. In 1997, CASA approved the establishment of the Flaring Project Team in response to public concern about potential and observed impacts associated with flaring of solution gas. Members of that team established a framework for the management of solution gas flaring. Their long-term goal is to eliminate routine flaring of solution gas. The Project Team assessed existing information on solution gas flaring, including technologies, efficiencies, emissions and impacts. Alternative technologies were also reviewed along with biological and health effects of solution gas flaring. A list of data gaps and research needs was compiled in order to help with the development of the Team's recommendations. The Team's final report was delivered in June 1998. It was recommended that the following policy objective hierarchy be used to guide decisions related to routine solution gas flaring: (1) eliminate routine solution gas flaring, (2) reduce volumes of gas flared, and (3) improve the efficiency of flares. By way of progress the Project Team was able to report that in March, 1999, the EUB issued a draft interim directive to address upstream petroleum industry flaring. The draft Directive incorporates the recommendations from the CASA Flaring Project Team with respect to management of solution gas flaring. In December 1998, changes to the royalty structure to encourage the productive use of flare gas have been announced by the Alberta Department of Energy and Alberta Environmental protection, thus

  14. THE SPECTACULAR RADIO-NEAR-IR-X-RAY JET OF 3C 111: THE X-RAY EMISSION MECHANISM AND JET KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland—Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lister, Matthew L.; Hogan, Brandon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tombesi, Francesco [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Cara, Mihai [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Marshall, Herman L. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kazanas, Demos [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Relativistic jets are the most energetic manifestation of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) phenomenon. AGN jets are observed from the radio through gamma-rays and carry copious amounts of matter and energy from the sub-parsec central regions out to the kiloparsec and often megaparsec scale galaxy and cluster environs. While most spatially resolved jets are seen in the radio, an increasing number have been discovered to emit in the optical/near-IR and/or X-ray bands. Here we discuss a spectacular example of this class, the 3C 111 jet, housed in one of the nearest, double-lobed FR II radio galaxies known. We discuss new, deep Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) observations that reveal both near-IR and X-ray emission from several components of the 3C 111 jet, as well as both the northern and southern hotspots. Important differences are seen between the morphologies in the radio, X-ray, and near-IR bands. The long (over 100 kpc on each side), straight nature of this jet makes it an excellent prototype for future, deep observations, as it is one of the longest such features seen in the radio, near-IR/optical, and X-ray bands. Several independent lines of evidence, including the X-ray and broadband spectral shape as well as the implied velocity of the approaching hotspot, lead us to strongly disfavor the EC/CMB model and instead favor a two-component synchrotron model to explain the observed X-ray emission for several jet components. Future observations with NuSTAR , HST , and Chandra will allow us to further constrain the emission mechanisms.

  15. Solar Flares: Magnetohydrodynamic Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Shibata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the current understanding of solar flares, mainly focused on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD processes responsible for producing a flare. Observations show that flares are one of the most explosive phenomena in the atmosphere of the Sun, releasing a huge amount of energy up to about 10^32 erg on the timescale of hours. Flares involve the heating of plasma, mass ejection, and particle acceleration that generates high-energy particles. The key physical processes for producing a flare are: the emergence of magnetic field from the solar interior to the solar atmosphere (flux emergence, local enhancement of electric current in the corona (formation of a current sheet, and rapid dissipation of electric current (magnetic reconnection that causes shock heating, mass ejection, and particle acceleration. The evolution toward the onset of a flare is rather quasi-static when free energy is accumulated in the form of coronal electric current (field-aligned current, more precisely, while the dissipation of coronal current proceeds rapidly, producing various dynamic events that affect lower atmospheres such as the chromosphere and photosphere. Flares manifest such rapid dissipation of coronal current, and their theoretical modeling has been developed in accordance with observations, in which numerical simulations proved to be a strong tool reproducing the time-dependent, nonlinear evolution of a flare. We review the models proposed to explain the physical mechanism of flares, giving an comprehensive explanation of the key processes mentioned above. We start with basic properties of flares, then go into the details of energy build-up, release and transport in flares where magnetic reconnection works as the central engine to produce a flare.

  16. Flaring red dwarf stars: news from Crimea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershberg, Roald E

    1998-01-01

    Important phenomena are briefly described which have recently been discovered in the Crimean studies of flaring red dwarf stars believed to be the most common type of variable stars in the Galaxy. These phenomena include (i) long-lived radiation from a blueshifted component in the ionized-helium λ 4686 A emission line in the active state of one such star, (ii) a long-lived absorption component in the stellar flare light curves with a lifetime exceeding that of the conventional flare emission, and (iii) solarcycle-like activity periodicity of the star EV Lac, whose mass is only 0.3 solar masses. In theoretical terms, a red dwarf star spot model is constructed which, in contrast to the commonly accepted model, agrees well with the solar spot picture. (physics of our days)

  17. Flaring red dwarf stars: news from Crimea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershberg, Roald E [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchnyi, Crimea (Ukraine)

    1998-08-31

    Important phenomena are briefly described which have recently been discovered in the Crimean studies of flaring red dwarf stars believed to be the most common type of variable stars in the Galaxy. These phenomena include (i) long-lived radiation from a blueshifted component in the ionized-helium {lambda} 4686 A emission line in the active state of one such star, (ii) a long-lived absorption component in the stellar flare light curves with a lifetime exceeding that of the conventional flare emission, and (iii) solarcycle-like activity periodicity of the star EV Lac, whose mass is only 0.3 solar masses. In theoretical terms, a red dwarf star spot model is constructed which, in contrast to the commonly accepted model, agrees well with the solar spot picture. (physics of our days)

  18. Solar flare loops observations and interpretations

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Guangli; Ji, Haisheng; Ning, Zongjun

    2018-01-01

    This book provides results of analysis of typical solar events, statistical analysis, the diagnostics of energetic electrons and magnetic field, as well as the global behavior of solar flaring loops such as their contraction and expansion. It pays particular attention to analyzing solar flare loops with microwave, hard X-ray, optical and EUV emissions, as well as the theories of their radiation, and electron acceleration/transport. The results concerning influence of the pitch-angle anisotropy of non-thermal electrons on their microwave and hard X-ray emissions, new spectral behaviors in X-ray and microwave bands, and results related to the contraction of flaring loops, are widely discussed in the literature of solar physics. The book is useful for graduate students and researchers in solar and space physics.

  19. RE-EVALUATION OF THE NEUTRON EMISSION FROM THE SOLAR FLARE OF 2005 SEPTEMBER 7, DETECTED BY THE SOLAR NEUTRON TELESCOPE AT SIERRA NEGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, L. X. [SCiESMEX, Instituto de Geofísica Unidad Michoacán, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58190, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Musalem, O.; Hurtado, A. [Instituto de Geofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, 04510, D. F. Mexico (Mexico); Sánchez, F. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección de Astropartículas, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, 1429, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Muraki, Y.; Sako, T.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Shibata, S. [College of Engineering, Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Sakai, T. [College of Industrial Technologies, Nihon University, Narashino 275-0005 (Japan)

    2015-12-01

    The X17.0 solar flare of 2005 September 7 released high-energy neutrons that were detected by the Solar Neutron Telescope (SNT) at Sierra Negra, Mexico. In three separate and independent studies of this solar neutron event, several of its unique characteristics were studied; in particular, a power-law energy spectra was estimated. In this paper, we present an alternative analysis, based on improved numerical simulations of the detector using GEANT4, and a different technique for processing the SNT data. The results indicate that the spectral index that best fits the neutron flux is around 3, in agreement with previous works. Based on the numerically calculated neutron energy deposition on the SNT, we confirm that the detected neutrons might have reached an energy of 1 GeV, which implies that 10 GeV protons were probably produced; these could not be observed at Earth, as their parent flare was an east limb event.

  20. Lyman continuum observations of solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. E.; Noyes, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of Lyman continuum observations of solar flares, using data obtained by the EUV spectroheliometer on the Apollo Telescope Mount. It is found that there are two main types of flare regions: an overall 'mean' flare coincident with the H-alpha flare region, and transient Lyman continuum kernels which can be identified with the H-alpha and X-ray kernels observed by other authors. It is found that the ground level hydrogen population in flares is closer to LTE than in the quiet sun and active regions, and that the level of Lyman continuum formation is lowered in the atmosphere from a mass column density .000005 g/sq cm in the quiet sun to .0003 g/sq cm in the mean flare, and to .001 g/sq cm in kernels. From these results the amount of chromospheric material 'evaporated' into the high temperature region is derived, which is found to be approximately 10 to the 15th g, in agreement with observations of X-ray emission measures.

  1. The puzzling case of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934: flaring optical emission during quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglio, M. C.; Campana, S.; D'Avanzo, P.; Papitto, A.; Burderi, L.; Di Salvo, T.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.

    2017-04-01

    We present an optical (gri) study during quiescence of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 performed with the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) in August 2014. Although the source was in quiescence at the time of our observations, it showed a strong optical flaring activity, more pronounced in bluer filters (I.e. the g-band). After subtracting the flares, we tentatively recovered a sinusoidal modulation at the system orbital period in all bands, even when a significant phase shift with respect to an irradiated star, typical of accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars, was detected. We conclude that the observed flaring could be a manifestation of the presence of an accretion disc in the system. The observed light curve variability could be explained by the presence of a superhump, which might be another proof of the formation of an accretion disc. In particular, the disc at the time of our observations was probably preparing the new outburst of the source, which occurred a few months later, in 2015. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, in the island of La Palma.

  2. A spatial study of the mid-IR emission features in four Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, C.; Peeters, E.; Martin-Hernandez, N. L.; van der Wolk, G.; Verhoeff, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Pel, J. W.

    Context. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging provide a prime tool to study the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and the mineralogy in regions of star formation. Herbig Ae/Be stars are known to have varying amounts of natal cloud material present in their

  3. The characteristics of the IR emission features in the spectra of Herbig Ae stars : evidence for chemical evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, C.; Bouwman, J.; Lahuis, F.; van Kerckhoven, C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Henning, T.

    Context. Infrared ( IR) spectra provide a prime tool to study the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ( PAH) molecules in regions of star formation. Herbig Ae/Be stars are a class of young pre-main sequence stellar objects of intermediate mass. They are known to have varying amounts

  4. Utilization of IR laser pumped anti-Stokes emission of Er-Yb doped systems for identification of securities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, A.N.; Ryabtsev, G.I.; Ketko, G.A.; Gorelenko, A.Yu.; Demidovich, A.A.; Strek, W.; Maruszewicz, K.; Deren, P.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present a utilization of anti-Stokes luminescence of Er-Yb systems for identification of securities. A simple method of detection of an up-conversion phenomenon in such system by means of IR laser operating in the region 960-1010 nm is proposed. (author)

  5. On the Importance of the Flare's Late Phase for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Hock, Rachel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Bailey, Scott; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have revealed a new class of solar flares that are referred to as late phase flares. These flares are characterized by the hot 2-5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) showing large secondary peaks that appear many minutes to hours after an eruptive flare event. In contrast, the cool 0.7-1.5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe IX 17.1 nm) usually dim immediately after the flare onset and do not recover until after the delayed second peak of the hot coronal emissions. We refer to this period of 1-5 hours after the fl amrea sin phase as the late phase, and this late phase is uniquely different than long duration flares associated with 2-ribbon flares or large filament eruptions. Our analysis of the late phase flare events indicates that the late phase involves hot coronal loops near the flaring region, not directly related to the original flaring loop system but rather with the higher post-eruption fields. Another finding is that space weather applications concerning Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere need to consider these late phase flares because they can enhance the total EUV irradiance flare variation by a factor of 2 when the late phase contribution is included.

  6. Midtreatment flare-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G W; Natkin, E

    1992-04-01

    It should be apparent that the prompt and effective treatment of midtreatment flare-ups of all types is an essential and integral part of the overall endodontic treatment procedure. The expeditious management of these flare-ups will do much to enhance a positive attitude among patients toward endodontic treatment and to ensure the well-being and comfort of these patients.

  7. Flare colours and luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristaldi, S.; Rodono, M.

    1975-01-01

    Flare colours determined from simultaneous UBV observations made at Catania Observatory and from sequential UBV observations made at McDonald Observatory are presented. They fit fairly well with the theoretical colours computed according to the Gurzadian's (1970) non-thermal model. Only part of the observed flare colours are consistent with the solar type models by Gershberg (1967) and Kunkel (1970). From a B-band patrol of UV Cet-type stars carried out from 1967 to 1972, some quantitative estimates of flare frequencies and luminosities and their average contributions to the stellar radiation are given. The corresponding parameters for the Sun, which were estimated from 'white light' flare activity, are also given for comparison. The Sun and V 1216 Sgr can be regarded as low-activity flare stars of the type found by Kunkel (1973). (Auth.)

  8. Solar flares as harbinger of new physics

    CERN Document Server

    Zioutas, K; Semertzidis, Y.; Papaevangelou, T.; Georgiopoulou, E.; Gardikiotis, A.; Dafni, T.; Tsagri, M.; Semertzidis, Y.; Papaevangelou, T.; Dafni, T.

    2011-01-01

    This work provides additional evidence on the involvement of exotic particles like axions and/or other WISPs, following recent measurements during the quietest Sun and flaring Sun. Thus, SPHINX mission observed a minimum basal soft X-rays emission in the extreme solar minimum in 2009. The same scenario (with ~17 meV axions) fits also the dynamical behaviour of white-light solar flares, like the measured spectral components in the visible and in soft X-rays, and, the timing between them. Solar chameleons remain a viable candidate, since they may preferentially convert to photons in outer space.

  9. Initial evaluation of 123I-5-I-R91150, a selective 5-HT2Aligand for single-photon emission tomography, in healthy human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busatto, G.F.; Pilowsky, L.S.; Costa, D.C.; Mertens, J.; Terriere, D.; Ell, P.J.; Mulligan, R.; Travis, M.J.; Leysen, J.E.; Lui, D.; Gacinovic, S.; Waddington, W.; Lingford-Hughes, A.; Kerwin, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    The mapping of 5-HT 2 receptors in the brain using functional imaging techniques has been limited by a relative lack of selective radioligands. Iodine-123 labelled 4-amino-N-[1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl]-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-5-iodo-2-methox ybenzamide ( 123 I-5-I-R91150 or 123 I-R93274) is a new ligand for single-photon emission tomography (SPET), with high affinity and selectivity for 5-HT 2A receptors. This study reports on preliminary 123 I-5-I-R91150 SPET, whole-body and blood distribution findings in five healthy human volunteers. Maximal brain uptake was approximately 2% of total body counts at 180 min post injection (p.i.). Dynamic SPET sequences were acquired with the brain-dedicated, single-slice multi-detector system SME-810 over 200 min p.i. Early peak uptake (at 5 min p.i.) was seen in the cerebellum, a region free from 5HT 2A receptors. In contrast, radioligand binding in the frontal cortex increased steadily over time, up to a peak at approximately 100-120 min p.i. Frontal cortex-cerebellum activity ratios reached values of 1.4, and remained stable from approximately 100 min p.i. onwards. Multi-slice SPET sequences showed a pattern of regional variation of binding compatible with the autoradiographic data on the distribution of 5-HT 2A receptors in humans (cerebral cortex >striatum >cerebellum). These findings suggest that 123 I-5-I-R91150 may be used for the imaging of 5-HT 2A receptors in the living human brain with SPET. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Recent big flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Fumio; Miyazawa, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Yoshisuke

    1978-01-01

    The features of three big solar flares observed at Tokyo Observatory are described in this paper. The active region, McMath 14943, caused a big flare on September 16, 1977. The flare appeared on both sides of a long dark line which runs along the boundary of the magnetic field. Two-ribbon structure was seen. The electron density of the flare observed at Norikura Corona Observatory was 3 x 10 12 /cc. Several arc lines which connect both bright regions of different magnetic polarity were seen in H-α monochrome image. The active region, McMath 15056, caused a big flare on December 10, 1977. At the beginning, several bright spots were observed in the region between two main solar spots. Then, the area and the brightness increased, and the bright spots became two ribbon-shaped bands. A solar flare was observed on April 8, 1978. At first, several bright spots were seen around the solar spot in the active region, McMath 15221. Then, these bright spots developed to a large bright region. On both sides of a dark line along the magnetic neutral line, bright regions were generated. These developed to a two-ribbon flare. The time required for growth was more than one hour. A bright arc which connects two ribbons was seen, and this arc may be a loop prominence system. (Kato, T.)

  11. M DWARF FLARES FROM TIME-RESOLVED SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Eric J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Kowalski, Adam F.; West, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    We have identified 63 flares on M dwarfs from the individual component spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) using a novel measurement of emission-line strength called the Flare Line Index. Each of the ∼38,000 M dwarfs in the SDSS low-mass star spectroscopic sample of West et al. was observed several times (usually 3-5) in exposures that were typically 9-25 minutes in duration. Our criteria allowed us to identify flares that exhibit very strong Hα and Hβ emission-line strength and/or significant variability in those lines throughout the course of the exposures. The flares we identified have characteristics consistent with flares observed by classical spectroscopic monitoring. The flare duty cycle for the objects in our sample is found to increase from 0.02% for early M dwarfs to 3% for late M dwarfs. We find that the flare duty cycle is larger in the population near the Galactic plane and that the flare stars are more spatially restricted than the magnetically active but non-flaring stars. This suggests that flare frequency may be related to stellar age (younger stars are more likely to flare) and that the flare stars are younger than the mean active population.

  12. Diagnostics of solar flare reconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karlický

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new diagnostics of the solar flare reconnection, mainly based on the plasma radio emission. We propose that the high-frequency (600-2000 MHz slowly drifting pulsating structures map the flare magnetic field reconnection. These structures correspond to the radio emission from plasmoids which are formed in the extended current sheet due to tearing and coalescence processes. An increase of the frequency drift of the drifting structures is interpreted as an increase of the reconnection rate. Using this model, time scales of slowly drifting pulsating structure observed during the 12 April 2001 flare by the Trieste radiopolarimeter with high time resolution (1 ms are interpreted as a radio manifestation of electron beams accelerated in the multi-scale reconnection process. For short periods Fourier spectra of the observed structure have a power-law form with power-law indices in the 1.3-1.6 range. For comparison the 2-D MHD numerical modeling of the multi-scale reconnection is made and it is shown that Fourier spectrum of the reconnection dissipation power has also a power-law form, but with power-law index 2. Furthermore, we compute a time evolution of plasma parameters (density, magnetic field etc in the 2-D MHD model of the reconnection. Then assuming a plasma radio emission from locations, where the 'double-resonance' instability generates the upper-hybrid waves due to unstable distribution function of suprathermal electrons, we model radio spectra. Effects of the MHD turbulence are included. The resulting spectra are compared with those observed. It is found, that depending on model parameters the lace bursts and the decimetric spikes can be reproduced. Thus, it is shown that the model can be used for diagnostics of the flare reconnection process. We also point out possible radio signatures of reconnection outflow termination shocks. They are detected as type II-like herringbone structures in the 200-700 MHz frequency range. Finally

  13. Flare stars in Pleiades. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.; Chavushyan, O.S.; Erastova, L.K.; Oganyan, G.B.; Melikyan, N.D.; Natsvlishvili, R.Sh.; Tsvetkov, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    The results of photographic observations of stellar flares in the Pleiades region made in the Byurakan and Abastumany astrophysical observatories in 1973-1974 are presented. The observations and revisions of the pictures taken earlier helped to detect 20 new flare stars and 62 repeated flares of flare stars known before. Two-colour photographic and UV observation of 21 flares were carried out. The observation data point to considerable differences in the mean frequency of flares of various flare stars in the Pleiades

  14. Solar flare impulsivity and its relationship with white-light flares and with CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Masuda, S.

    2017-12-01

    There are many types of classification in solar flares. One of them is a classification by flare duration in soft X-rays; so-called impulsive flare and long duration event (LDE). Typically, the duration of an impulsive flare is shorter than 1 hour, and that of an LDE is longer than 1 hour. These two types of flare show different characteristics. In soft X-rays, impulsive flares usually have a compact loop structure. On the other hand, LDEs show a large-scale loop, sometimes a large arcade structure. In hard X-rays (HXRs), the difference appears clear, too. The former shows a strong and short-time (10 minutes) emissions and show a large coronal source. These facts suggest that HXR observation becomes one of a good indicator to classify solar flares, especially for the study on the particle acceleration and the related phenomena. However, HXR data do not always exist due to the satellite orbit and the small sensitivity of HXR instruments. So, in this study, based on the concept of the Neupert effect (Neupert, 1968), we use soft X-ray derivative data as the proxy of HXR. From this data, we define impulsivity (IP) for each flare. Then we investigate solar flares using this new index. First we apply IP index to white-light flare (WLF) research. We investigate how WL enhancement depends on IP, then it is found that WLF tend to have large IP values. So the flare impulsivity (IP) is one of the important factors if WL enhancement appears or not in a solar flare. Next we investigate how CME itself and/or its physical parameters depend on IP index. It has been believed that most of CMEs are associated with LDEs, but we found that there is only a weak correlation between the existence of CME and IP index. Finally, we also search for the relationship between WLF and CME as a function of IP and discuss the physical condition of WLF.

  15. M DWARFS IN SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82: PHOTOMETRIC LIGHT CURVES AND FLARE RATE ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Becker, Andrew C.; Sesar, Branimir; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.

    2009-01-01

    We present a flare rate analysis of 50,130 M dwarf light curves in Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82. We identified 271 flares using a customized variability index to search ∼2.5 million photometric observations for flux increases in the u and g bands. Every image of a flaring observation was examined by eye and with a point-spread function-matching and image subtraction tool to guard against false positives. Flaring is found to be strongly correlated with the appearance of Hα in emission in the quiet spectrum. Of the 99 flare stars that have spectra, we classify eight as relatively inactive. The flaring fraction is found to increase strongly in stars with redder colors during quiescence, which can be attributed to the increasing flare visibility and increasing active fraction for redder stars. The flaring fraction is strongly correlated with |Z| distance such that most stars that flare are within 300 pc of the Galactic plane. We derive flare u-band luminosities and find that the most luminous flares occur on the earlier-type m dwarfs. Our best estimate of the lower limit on the flaring rate (averaged over Stripe 82) for flares with Δu ≥ 0.7 mag on stars with u -1 deg -2 but can vary significantly with the line of sight.

  16. Sun and solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S. (Saint Patrick' s Coll., Maynooth (Ireland))

    1982-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased /sup 14/C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind.

  17. University of Alberta Flare Research Project : interim report November 1996-Jun 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiuk, L.; Johnson, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Flare Research Project at the University of Alberta is an ongoing multi year study into the emissions, combustion process and fluid mechanics related to flaring, which is commonly used in the energy and petrochemical industries to dispose of unwanted combustible gases by burning them in an open flame. This report focused on the emissions and efficiency of flares under operating conditions typical of solution gas flares. While most solution gas produced in Alberta is conserved, it is estimated that 6 per cent of these gases are flared with significant changes in the volumes flared from site to site. The median volume of flared or vented gas was approximately 60,300 m 3 /year and 95 per cent of battery sites flare and vent less than 1,000,000 m 3 /year. The goal of this project is to experimentally study the scaled-down generic pipe flares under well-controlled conditions to better understand the performance of flares. Research was conducted in a closed-loop wind tunnel to determine the effects of wind on flaring. Other objectives of the research are to develop methods for measuring the overall combustion efficiency of flares with either gaseous flare streams or those containing liquid droplets. Models for the scaling of plumes that disperse the products of combustion from flares as a function of wind speed, exit velocity and flare stack diameter were also examined. And finally, this research project measured the emissions of selected toxic compounds in both their vapor and soot phases. 38 refs., 10 tabs., 56 figs

  18. Radio-flaring Ultracool Dwarf Population Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Route, Matthew, E-mail: mroute@purdue.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Over a dozen ultracool dwarfs (UCDs), low-mass objects of spectral types ≥M7, are known to be sources of radio flares. These typically several-minutes-long radio bursts can be up to 100% circularly polarized and have high brightness temperatures, consistent with coherent emission via the electron cyclotron maser operating in approximately kilogauss magnetic fields. Recently, the statistical properties of the bulk physical parameters that describe these UCDs have become described adequately enough to permit synthesis of the population of radio-flaring objects. For the first time, I construct a Monte Carlo simulator to model the population of these radio-flaring UCDs. This simulator is powered by Intel Secure Key (ISK), a new processor technology that uses a local entropy source to improve random number generation that has heretofore been used to improve cryptography. The results from this simulator indicate that only ∼5% of radio-flaring UCDs within the local interstellar neighborhood (<25 pc away) have been discovered. I discuss a number of scenarios that may explain this radio-flaring fraction and suggest that the observed behavior is likely a result of several factors. The performance of ISK as compared to other pseudorandom number generators is also evaluated, and its potential utility for other astrophysical codes is briefly described.

  19. Numerical simulation of a sour gas flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A. [Alberta Research Council, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the limited amount of information in the literature on sour gas flares and the cost of conducting wind tunnel and field experiments on sour flares, this presentation presented a modelling project that predicted the effect of operating conditions on flare performance and emissions. The objectives of the project were to adapt an existing numerical model suitable for flare simulation, incorporate sulfur chemistry, and run simulations for a range of conditions typical of sour flares in Alberta. The study involved the use of modelling expertise at the University of Utah, and employed large eddy simulation (LES) methods to model open flames. The existing model included the prediction of turbulent flow field; hydrocarbon reaction chemistry; soot formation; and radiation heat transfer. The presentation addressed the unique features of the model and discussed whether LES could predict the flow field. Other topics that were presented included the results from a University of Utah comparison; challenges of the LES model; an example of a run time issue; predicting the impact of operating conditions; and the results of simulations. Last, several next steps were identified and preliminary results were provided. Future work will focus on reducing computation time and increasing information reporting. figs.

  20. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Groves, B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kewley, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Petric, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 320-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rich, J. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Matsuhara, H., E-mail: inami@noao.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); and others

    2013-11-10

    , suggesting the possibility of a compact energy source and stratified interstellar medium in their nuclei. We confirm a strong correlation between the sum of the [Ne II]{sub 12.8{sub μm}} and [Ne III]{sub 15.5{sub μm}} emission, as well as [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, with both the infrared luminosity and the 24 μm warm dust emission measured from the spectra, consistent with all three lines tracing ongoing star formation. Finally, we find no correlation between the hardness of the radiation field or the emission-line width and the ratio of the total infrared to 8 μm emission (IR8), a measure of the strength of the starburst and the distance of the LIRGs from the star-forming main sequence. This may be a function of the fact that the infrared luminosity and the mid-infrared fine-structure lines are sensitive to different timescales over the starburst, or that IR8 is more sensitive to the geometry of the region emitting the warm dust than the radiation field producing the H II region emission.

  1. Diagnostics of red-shifted H-alpha line emission from a C-class flare with full non-LTE radiative and hydrodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druett, M. K.; Zharkova, V. V.; Scullion, E.; Zharkov, S.; Matthews, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse H-alpha line profiles with strong redshifts during the C1.8 flare on 1st July 2012 obtained from the Swedish Solar Telescope (SST) closely resembling the previous observations (Wuelser and Marti, 1989). The flare has a magnetic field configuration with two levels of loop structures. The kernels with red shifts are observed in one of the H-alpha ribbons in the south-west location formed after the main impulse recorded in the north-east. The locations of H-alpha kernels with red shifts reveal close temporal and spatial correlation with weaker HXR signatures and coincide with the locations of coronal jets observed with AIA/SDO. For interpretation we apply a revised 1D hydrodynamic and non-LTE (NLTE) radiative model for 5 level plus continuum model hydrogen atom (Druett & Zharkova, 2016) considering radiative, thermal and non-thermal excitation and ionisation by beam electrons with the updated beam densities (Zharkova & Dobranskis, 2016) and analytical excitation/ionisation rates (Zharkova& Kobylinskijj, 1993). We find the simultaneous solutions of steady state and radiative transfer equations in all optically-thick lines and continua. The electron and ion temperatures, ambient density and macrovelocity of the ambient plasma are derived from a 1D hydrodynamic model with initial condition of the pre-flaring photosphere for the two fluid ambient plasma heated by beam electrons (Zharkova & Zharkov, 2007). We simulate distributions over precipitation depth of ionisation and departure coefficients for all the hydrogen atom transitions including the deviation of ionisation from Saha equation affected by non-thermal electron beams. We show that in the very first seconds after the beam onset Balmer line profiles are sensitive to the effect of beam electrons. The combination of the additional ionisation caused by beam electrons leading to a very strong Stark effect in Balmer lines with the hydrodynamic heating and formation of a low temperature shock in the

  2. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  3. Proton solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaposhnikova, E.F.

    1979-01-01

    The observations of proton solar flares have been carried out in 1950-1958 using the extrablackout coronograph of the Crimea astrophysical observatory. The experiments permit to determine two characteristic features of flares: the directed motion of plasma injection flux from the solar depths and the appearance of a shock wave moving from the place of the injection along the solar surface. The appearance of the shock wave is accompanied by some phenomena occuring both in the sunspot zone and out of it. The consistent flash of proton flares in the other groups of spots, the disappearance of fibres and the appearance of eruptive prominences is accomplished in the sunspot zone. Beyond the sunspot zone the flares occur above spots, the fibres disintegrate partially or completely and the eruptive prominences appear in the regions close to the pole

  4. Fibromyalgia Flares: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Whipple, Mary O; Rhudy, Lori M

    2016-03-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia report periods of symptom exacerbation, colloquially referred to as "flares" and despite clinical observation of flares, no research has purposefully evaluated the presence and characteristics of flares in fibromyalgia. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe fibromyalgia flares in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia. Using seven open-ended questions, patients were asked to describe how they perceived fibromyalgia flares and triggers and alleviating factors associated with flares. Patients were also asked to describe how a flare differs from their typical fibromyalgia symptoms and how they cope with fibromyalgia flares. Content analysis was used to analyze the text. A total of 44 participants completed the survey. Responses to the seven open-ended questions revealed three main content areas: causes of flares, flare symptoms, and dealing with a flare. Participants identified stress, overdoing it, poor sleep, and weather changes as primary causes of flares. Symptoms characteristic of flares included flu-like body aches/exhaustion, pain, fatigue, and variety of other symptoms. Participants reported using medical treatments, rest, activity and stress avoidance, and waiting it out to cope with flares. Our results demonstrate that periods of symptom exacerbation (i.e., flares) are commonly experienced by patients with fibromyalgia and symptoms of flares can be differentiated from every day or typical symptoms of fibromyalgia. Our study is the first of its kind to qualitatively explore characteristics, causes, and management strategies of fibromyalgia flares. Future studies are needed to quantitatively characterize fibromyalgia flares and evaluate mechanisms of flares. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Acceleration of runaway electrons in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The dc electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the evolution of the runaway tail are studied numerically, using a relativistic quasi-linear code based on the Ritz-Galerkin method and finite elements. A small field-aligned electric field is turned on at a certain time. The resulting distribution function from the runaway process is used to calculate the synchrotron emission during the evolution of the runaway tail. It is found that, during the runaway tail formation, which lasts a few tens of seconds for typical solar flare conditions, the synchrotron emission level is low, almost ot the same order as the emission from the thermal plasma, at the high-frequency end of the spectrum. However, the emission is enhanced explosively in a few microseconds by several orders of magnitude at the time the runaway tail stops growing along the magnetic field and tends toward isotropy due to the pitch-angle scattering of the fast particles. Results indicate that, in order to account for the observed synchrotron emission spectrum of a typical solar flare, the electric field acceleration phase must be accompanied or preceded by a heating phase which yields an enhanced electron temperature of about 2-15 keV in the flare region if the electric field is 0.1-0.2 times the Dreicer field and cyclotron-to-plasma frequency ratios are of order 1-2.

  6. Solar flare pion and neutron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, D.J.; Vestrand, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    During cycle 21, the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on SMM observed three large flares with clear evidence for pion decay gamma rays and high energy neutrons. Two of these had an extended emission phase. The emission observed in these extended phases were clearly different from those observed in the impulsive phase. Compared to the impulsive phase, the extended phase emissions were strongly deficient in electron bremsstrahlung relative to the nuclear line emission in the 1.0-7.0 MeV band and appeared to have a reduced energetic neutron to pion gamma ray emission in the >10 MeV band. These changes can be produced either by a strong hardening of the accelerated ion spectrum together with a relative decrease in the energetic electron spectrum, or by a pronounced change in the geometry of the particle spectrum downwards towards the photosphere. The authors review the observational evidence in terms of these two possibilities. A dramatic change in the energetic particle geometry appears to offer the simplest explanation. If true these two flares represent the first clear evidence of strong particle geometry effects within individual flares

  7. IR emission and electrical conductivity of Nd/Nb-codoped TiO{sub x} (1.5 < x < 2) thin films grown by pulsed-laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchiffo-Tameko, C.; Cachoncinlle, C. [GREMI, UMR 7344 CNRS-Université Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Perriere, J. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 06, UMR 7588, INSP, 75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7588, INSP, 75005 Paris (France); Nistor, M. [NILPRP, L 22 P.O. Box MG-36, 77125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Petit, A.; Aubry, O. [GREMI, UMR 7344 CNRS-Université Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Pérez Casero, R. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Millon, E., E-mail: eric.millon@univ-orleans.fr [GREMI, UMR 7344 CNRS-Université Orléans, 45067 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Nd/Nb-codoped TiO{sub 2} PLD films are electrically insulating and transparent in the UV visible NIR spectral domain. • Nd/Nb-codoped oxygen deficient TiO{sub x} (x ≈ 1.5) films are conductive and absorbent. • IR emission of Nd{sup 3+} in codoped TiO{sub x} films is quenched due to oxygen deficiency. • High Nb-doping rate decreases the IR emission of Nd{sup 3+} in Nd/Nb-codoped TiO{sub 2} films. - Abstract: The effect of the co-doping with Nd and Nb on electrical and optical properties of TiO{sub x} films is reported. The role of oxygen vacancies on the physical properties is also evidenced. The films are grown by pulsed-laser deposition onto (001) sapphire and (100) silicon substrates. The substrate temperature was fixed at 700 °C. To obtain either stoichiometric (TiO{sub 2}) or highly oxygen deficient (TiO{sub x} with x < 1.6) thin films, the oxygen partial pressure was adjusted at 10{sup −1} and 10{sup −6} mbar, respectively. 1%Nd-1%Nb, 1%Nd-5%Nb and 5%Nd-1%Nb co-doped TiO{sub 2} were used as bulk ceramic target. Composition, structural and morphological properties of films determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, are correlated to their optical (UV–vis transmission and photoluminescence) and electrical properties (resistivity at room temperature). The most intense Nd{sup 3+} emission in the IR domain is obtained for stoichiometric films. Codoping Nd-TiO{sub x} films by Nb{sup 5+} ions is found to decrease the photoluminescence efficiency. The oxygen pressure during the growth allows to tune the optical and electrical properties: insulating and highly transparent (80% in the visible range) Nd/Nb codoped TiO{sub 2} films are obtained at high oxygen pressure, while conductive and absorbent films are grown under low oxygen pressure (10{sup −6} mbar).

  8. Generation Mechanisms of Quasi-parallel and Quasi-circular Flare Ribbons in a Confined Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Perez, Aaron; Thalmann, Julia K.; Veronig, Astrid M.; Dickson, Ewan C. [IGAM/Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Su, Yang [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, 210008 Nanjing (China); Gömöry, Peter, E-mail: aaron.hernandez-perez@uni-graz.at [Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 05960 Tatranská Lomnica (Slovakia)

    2017-10-01

    We analyze a confined multiple-ribbon M2.1 flare (SOL2015-01-29T11:42) that originated from a fan-spine coronal magnetic field configuration, within active region NOAA 12268. The observed ribbons form in two steps. First, two primary ribbons form at the main flare site, followed by the formation of secondary ribbons at remote locations. We observe a number of plasma flows at extreme-ultraviolet temperatures during the early phase of the flare (as early as 15 minutes before the onset) propagating toward the formation site of the secondary ribbons. The secondary ribbon formation is co-temporal with the arrival of the pre-flare generated plasma flows. The primary ribbons are co-spatial with Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI ) hard X-ray sources, whereas no enhanced X-ray emission is detected at the secondary ribbon sites. The (E)UV emission, associated with the secondary ribbons, peaks ∼1 minute after the last RHESSI hard X-ray enhancement. A nonlinear force-free model of the coronal magnetic field reveals that the secondary flare ribbons are not directly connected to the primary ribbons, but to regions nearby. Detailed analysis suggests that the secondary brightenings are produced due to dissipation of kinetic energy of the plasma flows (heating due to compression), and not due to non-thermal particles accelerated by magnetic reconnection, as is the case for the primary ribbons.

  9. An Interactive Multi-instrument Database of Solar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykov, Viacheslav M; Kosovichev, Alexander G; Oria, Vincent; Nita, Gelu M [Center for Computational Heliophysics, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Solar flares are complicated physical phenomena that are observable in a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to γ -rays. For a more comprehensive understanding of flares, it is necessary to perform a combined multi-wavelength analysis using observations from many satellites and ground-based observatories. For an efficient data search, integration of different flare lists, and representation of observational data, we have developed the Interactive Multi-Instrument Database of Solar Flares (IMIDSF, https://solarflare.njit.edu/). The web-accessible database is fully functional and allows the user to search for uniquely identified flare events based on their physical descriptors and the availability of observations by a particular set of instruments. Currently, the data from three primary flare lists ( Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites , RHESSI , and HEK) and a variety of other event catalogs ( Hinode , Fermi GBM, Konus- W IND, the OVSA flare catalogs, the CACTus CME catalog, the Filament eruption catalog) and observing logs ( IRIS and Nobeyama coverage) are integrated, and an additional set of physical descriptors (temperature and emission measure) is provided along with an observing summary, data links, and multi-wavelength light curves for each flare event since 2002 January. We envision that this new tool will allow researchers to significantly speed up the search of events of interest for statistical and case studies.

  10. Flare-related color effects in UV Ceti stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesch, T.R.

    1975-01-01

    The UV Ceti flare stars YZ CMi, BD+16 0 2708, EV Lac, and AD Leo were monitored photoelectrically for flare activity with the 76 centimeter reflecting telescope of the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. Observations were carried out from January, 1973 to April, 1975. The instrumentation allowed simultaneous readings to be taken at 3500, 4632, and 6496A with a time resolution of 2 seconds. A total of 15 major events were observed, with 14 of these being observed in all three colors. All events showed the classical fast rise and slower decline that is typical of this type of activity. One event showed peculiar behavior in the red bandpass that may indicate strong dependence of the flare light in some cases on line emission. The data were applied to the fast electron model of flare activity proposed by Gurzadyan. Several serious inconsistencies in the theory were found that would not have been evident in single-channel monitoring. No event could be fitted in all three colors using consistent values of the unknown parameters in the theory. The most serious deficiencies in the theory were the wavelength dependence of the optical depth of the electron cloud and the lack of treatment of line emission behavior. Differential color indices for flare light are calculated and are shown to be essentially constant throughout the entire event for the stronger flares. A color-color plot of the flare light at maximum reveals that 11 of the flares show a linear relation. This relation indicates that the smaller the u-b index, the larger is the b-r index. This is probably directly involved with line emission during flare events. Future research possibilities are discussed, with spectroscopic studies and simultaneous multicolor observations being stressed

  11. M DWARF FLARE CONTINUUM VARIATIONS ON ONE-SECOND TIMESCALES: CALIBRATING AND MODELING OF ULTRACAM FLARE COLOR INDICES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J.; Wisniewski, John P.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Marsh, Tom R.; Brown, Benjamin P.

    2016-01-01

    We present a large data set of high-cadence dMe flare light curves obtained with custom continuum filters on the triple-beam, high-speed camera system ULTRACAM. The measurements provide constraints for models of the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical continuum spectral evolution on timescales of ≈1 s. We provide a robust interpretation of the flare emission in the ULTRACAM filters using simultaneously obtained low-resolution spectra during two moderate-sized flares in the dM4.5e star YZ CMi. By avoiding the spectral complexity within the broadband Johnson filters, the ULTRACAM filters are shown to characterize bona fide continuum emission in the NUV, blue, and red wavelength regimes. The NUV/blue flux ratio in flares is equivalent to a Balmer jump ratio, and the blue/red flux ratio provides an estimate for the color temperature of the optical continuum emission. We present a new “color–color” relationship for these continuum flux ratios at the peaks of the flares. Using the RADYN and RH codes, we interpret the ULTRACAM filter emission using the dominant emission processes from a radiative-hydrodynamic flare model with a high nonthermal electron beam flux, which explains a hot, T ≈ 10 4 K, color temperature at blue-to-red optical wavelengths and a small Balmer jump ratio as observed in moderate-sized and large flares alike. We also discuss the high time resolution, high signal-to-noise continuum color variations observed in YZ CMi during a giant flare, which increased the NUV flux from this star by over a factor of 100

  12. M DWARF FLARE CONTINUUM VARIATIONS ON ONE-SECOND TIMESCALES: CALIBRATING AND MODELING OF ULTRACAM FLARE COLOR INDICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Adam F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mathioudakis, Mihalis [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hilton, Eric J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Dhillon, Vik S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Marsh, Tom R. [Department of Physics, Gibbet Hill Road, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Brown, Benjamin P., E-mail: adam.f.kowalski@nasa.gov [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a large data set of high-cadence dMe flare light curves obtained with custom continuum filters on the triple-beam, high-speed camera system ULTRACAM. The measurements provide constraints for models of the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical continuum spectral evolution on timescales of ≈1 s. We provide a robust interpretation of the flare emission in the ULTRACAM filters using simultaneously obtained low-resolution spectra during two moderate-sized flares in the dM4.5e star YZ CMi. By avoiding the spectral complexity within the broadband Johnson filters, the ULTRACAM filters are shown to characterize bona fide continuum emission in the NUV, blue, and red wavelength regimes. The NUV/blue flux ratio in flares is equivalent to a Balmer jump ratio, and the blue/red flux ratio provides an estimate for the color temperature of the optical continuum emission. We present a new “color–color” relationship for these continuum flux ratios at the peaks of the flares. Using the RADYN and RH codes, we interpret the ULTRACAM filter emission using the dominant emission processes from a radiative-hydrodynamic flare model with a high nonthermal electron beam flux, which explains a hot, T ≈ 10{sup 4} K, color temperature at blue-to-red optical wavelengths and a small Balmer jump ratio as observed in moderate-sized and large flares alike. We also discuss the high time resolution, high signal-to-noise continuum color variations observed in YZ CMi during a giant flare, which increased the NUV flux from this star by over a factor of 100.

  13. Identifying flares in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bykerk, Vivian P; Bingham, Clifton O; Choy, Ernest H

    2016-01-01

    to flare, with escalation planned in 61%. CONCLUSIONS: Flares are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are often preceded by treatment reductions. Patient/MD/DAS agreement of flare status is highest in patients worsening from R/LDA. OMERACT RA flare questions can discriminate between patients with...... Set. METHODS: Candidate flare questions and legacy measures were administered at consecutive visits to Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) patients between November 2011 and November 2014. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) core set indicators were recorded. Concordance to identify flares...

  14. Thermodynamic Spectrum of Solar Flares Based on SDO/EVE Observations: Techniques and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  15. Quasi-periodic Pulsations in the Most Powerful Solar Flare of Cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkov, Dmitrii Y.; Pugh, Chloe E.; Broomhall, Anne-Marie; Nakariakov, Valery M.

    2018-05-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) are common in solar flares and are now regularly observed in stellar flares. We present the detection of two different types of QPP signals in the thermal emission light curves of the X9.3-class solar flare SOL2017-09-06T12:02, which is the most powerful flare of Cycle 24. The period of the shorter-period QPP drifts from about 12 to 25 s during the flare. The observed properties of this QPP are consistent with a sausage oscillation of a plasma loop in the flaring active region. The period of the longer-period QPP is about 4 to 5 minutes. Its properties are compatible with standing slow magnetoacoustic oscillations, which are often detected in coronal loops. For both QPP signals, other mechanisms such as repetitive reconnection cannot be ruled out, however. The studied solar flare has an energy in the realm of observed stellar flares, and the fact that there is evidence of a short-period QPP signal typical of solar flares along with a long-period QPP signal more typical of stellar flares suggests that the different ranges of QPP periods typically observed in solar and stellar flares is likely due to observational constraints, and that similar physical processes may be occurring in solar and stellar flares.

  16. Statistical and observational research of solar flare for total spectra and geometrical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, S.; Watanabe, K.; Imada, S.; Kawate, T.; Lee, K. S.

    2017-12-01

    Impulsive energy release phenomena such as solar flares, sometimes affect to the solar-terrestrial environment. Usually, we use soft X-ray flux (GOES class) as the index of flare scale. However, the magnitude of effect to the solar-terrestrial environment is not proportional to that scale. To identify the relationship between solar flare phenomena and influence to the solar-terrestrial environment, we need to understand the full spectrum of solar flares. There is the solar flare irradiance model named the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) (Chamberlin et al., 2006, 2007, 2008). The FISM can estimate solar flare spectra with high wavelength resolution. However, this model can not express the time evolution of emitted plasma during the solar flare, and has low accuracy on short wavelength that strongly effects and/or controls the total flare spectra. For the purpose of obtaining the time evolution of total solar flare spectra, we are performing statistical analysis of the electromagnetic data of solar flares. In this study, we select solar flare events larger than M-class from the Hinode flare catalogue (Watanabe et al., 2012). First, we focus on the EUV emission observed by the SDO/EVE. We examined the intensities and time evolutions of five EUV lines of 55 flare events. As a result, we found positive correlation between the "soft X-ray flux" and the "EUV peak flux" for all EVU lines. Moreover, we found that hot lines peaked earlier than cool lines of the EUV light curves. We also examined the hard X-ray data obtained by RHESSI. When we analyzed 163 events, we found good correlation between the "hard X-ray intensity" and the "soft X-ray flux". Because it seems that the geometrical features of solar flares effect to those time evolutions, we also looked into flare ribbons observed by SDO/AIA. We examined 21 flare events, and found positive correlation between the "GOES duration" and the "ribbon length". We also found positive correlation between the "ribbon

  17. Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 During a TeV/X-Ray Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Bruhweiler, F.; Macomb, D. J.; Cheng, K.-P.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Buckley, J. H.; Cawley, M. F.

    1995-01-01

    A TeV flare from the BL Lac object Mrk 421 was detected in May of 1994 by the Whipple Observatory air Cherenkov experiment during which the flux above 250 GeV increased by nearly an order of magnitude over a 2-day period. Contemporaneous observations by ASCA showed the X-ray flux to be in a very high state. We present these results, combined with the first ever simultaneous or nearly simultaneous observations at GeV gamma-ray, UV, IR, mm, and radio energies for this nearest BL Lac object. While the GeV gamma-ray flux increased slightly, there is little evidence for variability comparable to that seen at TeV and X-ray energies. Other wavelengths show even less variability. This provides important constraints on the emission mechanisms at work. We present the multiwavelength spectrum of this gamma-ray blazar for both quiescent and flaring states and discuss the data in terms of current models of blazar emission.

  18. Contributions of gas flaring to a global air pollution hotspot : spatial and temporal variations, impacts and alleviation

    OpenAIRE

    Anejionu, Obinna; Whyatt, Duncan; Blackburn, George Alan; Price, Catheryn

    2015-01-01

    Studies of environmental impacts of gas flaring in the Niger Delta are hindered by limited access to official flaring emissions records and a paucity of reliable ambient monitoring data. This study uses a combination of geospatial technologies and dispersion modelling techniques to evaluate air pollution impacts of gas flaring on human health and natural ecosystems in the region. Results indicate that gas flaring is a major contributor to air pollution across the region, with concentrations e...

  19. Observations of Hsub(β) and He II lambda 4686 lines ;.n flare spectra of UV Cet type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, P.P.; Chugajnov, P.F.; Shcherbakov, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations with a 0.7-1.n A resolution and photoelectric B-system observations of flare stars AD Leo, DT Vir, YZ CMi and UV Cet are reported. Three flares of AD Leo and three flares of YZ CMi were recorded. In two flares of AD Leo and two flares of YZ CMi the increase of the central intensity of Hsub(β) was observed 10-20 minutes before the flare maxima. In three of them no difference was foUnd in the star brigthness during the preflare increase of Hsub(β) and during the quiet state. It was discovered, that in two flares wide (+-15 A, +-10 A) emission wings of Hsub(β) appear mainly near the flare maxima. The emission line He 2 lambda 4686 was found neither in the quiet state of stars nor during the flares. The following conlclusions are drawn: 1) preflares are characterized by a prevailing increase of the line emission; 2) the emission wings of Hsub(β) occur during the flare maxima owing to the Stark-effect (n sub (e) approximately 10 14 -10 15 cm -3 ) and mass motions; 3) only a very weak He 2 lamdda 4686 emission may appear during the flare maxima due to the cascade recombinations of He 3 caused by the increase of the X-ray flux

  20. Cavitation and shock waves emission on the rigid boundary of water under mid-IR nanosecond laser pulse excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkin, A. V.; Bychkov, A. S.; Karabutov, A. A.; Potemkin, F. V.

    2018-06-01

    The processes of conversion of light energy into mechanical energy under mid-IR nanosecond laser excitation on a rigid boundary of water are investigated. Strong water absorption of Q-switched Cr:Yb:Ho:YSGG (2.85 µm, 6 mJ, 45 ns) laser radiation provides rapid energy deposition of ~8 kJ cm‑3 accompanied with strong mechanical transients. The evolution of shock waves and cavitation bubbles is studied using the technique of shadowgraphy and acoustic measurements, and the conversion efficiency into these energy channels for various laser fluence (0.75–2.0 J cm‑2) is calculated. For 6 mJ laser pulse with fluence of 2.0 J cm‑2, the conversion into shock wave energy reaches 67%. The major part of the shock wave energy (92%) is dissipated when the shock front travels the first 250 µm, and the remaining 8% is transferred to the acoustic far field. The calculated pressure in the vicinity of water-silicon interface is 0.9 GPa. Cavitation efficiency is significantly less and reaches up to 5% of the light energy. The results of the current study could be used in laser parameters optimization for micromachining and biological tissue ablation.

  1. THE FLARE-ONA OF EK DRACONIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    EK Draconis (HD 129333: G1.5 V) is a well-known young (50 Myr) solar analog. In 2012, Hubble Space Telescope returned to EK Dra to follow up a far-ultraviolet (FUV) SNAPshot visit by Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) two years earlier. The brief SNAP pointing had found surprisingly redshifted, impulsively variable subcoronal “hot-line” emission of Si iv 1400 Å (T ∼ 8 × 10 4 K). Serendipitously, the 2012 follow-on program witnessed one of the largest FUV flares ever recorded on a sunlike star, which again displayed strong redshifts (downflows) of 30–40 km s −1 , even after compensating for small systematics in the COS velocity scales, uncovered through a cross-calibration by Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The (now reduced, but still substantial) ∼10 km s −1 hot-line redshifts outside the flaring interval did not vary with rotational phase, so cannot be caused by “Doppler imaging” (bright surface patches near a receding limb). Density diagnostic O iv] 1400 Å multiplet line ratios of EK Dra suggest n e ∼ 10 11 cm −3 , an order of magnitude larger than in low-activity solar twin α Centauri A, but typical of densities inferred in large stellar soft X-ray events. The self-similar FUV hot-line profiles between the flare decay and the subsequent more quiet periods, and the unchanging but high densities, reinforce a long-standing idea that the coronae of hyperactive dwarfs are flaring all the time, in a scale-free way; a flare-ona if you will. In this picture, the subsonic hot-line downflows probably are a byproduct of the post-flare cooling process, something like “coronal rain” on the Sun. All in all, the new STIS/COS program documents a complex, energetic, dynamic outer atmosphere of the young sunlike star

  2. ANATOMY OF A SOLAR FLARE: MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2006 DECEMBER 14 X-CLASS FLARE WITH GONG, HINODE, AND RHESSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S. A.; Zharkov, S.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most challenging observations to explain in the context of existing flare models are those related to the lower atmosphere and below the solar surface. Such observations, including changes in the photospheric magnetic field and seismic emission, indicate the poorly understood connections between energy release in the corona and its impact in the photosphere and the solar interior. Using data from Hinode, TRACE, RHESSI, and GONG we study the temporal and spatial evolution of the 2006 December 14 X-class flare in the chromosphere, photosphere, and the solar interior. We investigate the connections between the emission at various atmospheric depths, including acoustic signatures obtained by time-distance and holography methods from the GONG data. We report the horizontal displacements observed in the photosphere linked to the timing and locations of the acoustic signatures we believe to be associated with this flare, their vertical and horizontal displacement velocities, and their potential implications for current models of flare dynamics.

  3. NEW SOLAR EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIANCE OBSERVATIONS DURING FLARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Hock, Rachel; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Warren, Harry; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Webb, David F.; Bailey, Scott; Tobiska, W. Kent

    2011-01-01

    New solar extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) EUV Variability Experiment provide full coverage in the EUV range from 0.1 to 106 nm and continuously at a cadence of 10 s for spectra at 0.1 nm resolution and even faster, 0.25 s, for six EUV bands. These observations can be decomposed into four distinct characteristics during flares. First, the emissions that dominate during the flare's impulsive phase are the transition region emissions, such as the He II 30.4 nm. Second, the hot coronal emissions above 5 MK dominate during the gradual phase and are highly correlated with the GOES X-ray. A third flare characteristic in the EUV is coronal dimming, seen best in the cool corona, such as the Fe IX 17.1 nm. As the post-flare loops reconnect and cool, many of the EUV coronal emissions peak a few minutes after the GOES X-ray peak. One interesting variation of the post-eruptive loop reconnection is that warm coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) sometimes exhibit a second large peak separated from the primary flare event by many minutes to hours, with EUV emission originating not from the original flare site and its immediate vicinity, but rather from a volume of higher loops. We refer to this second peak as the EUV late phase. The characterization of many flares during the SDO mission is provided, including quantification of the spectral irradiance from the EUV late phase that cannot be inferred from GOES X-ray diagnostics.

  4. Search for muon-neutrino emission from GeV and TeV gamma-ray flaring blazars using five years of data of the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited for detecting astrophysical transient neutrino sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background due to atmospheric particles can be drastically reduced, and the point-source sensitivity improved, by selecting a narrow time window around possible neutrino production periods. Blazars, being radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources, since they are among the most likely sources of the very high-energy cosmic rays. Neutrinos and gamma rays may be produced in hadronic interactions with the surrounding medium. Moreover, blazars generally show high time variability in their light curves at different wavelengths and on various time scales. This paper presents a time-dependent analysis applied to a selection of flaring gamma-ray blazars observed by the FERMI/LAT experiment and by TeV Cherenkov telescopes using five years of ANTARES data taken from 2008 to 2012. The results are compatible with fluctuations of the background. Upper limits on the neutrino fluence have been produced and compared to the measured gamma-ray spectral energy distribution.

  5. What is the value of emission tomography studies in patients with a primary glioblastoma multiforme treated by {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koot, R W; Bosch, D A [Academic Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Habraken, J B.A. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, M C.C.M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiotherapy, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Paans, A M.J.; Pruim, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], e-mail: r.w.koot@lumc.nl

    2008-07-01

    We studied the use of {sup 201}thallium SPECT and L-[1-{sup 11}C]-tyrosine PET in patients with a primary glioblastoma multiforme treated with {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy after surgery and external beam radiation therapy. We hypothesised that the patients most likely to benefit from further surgery after deterioration would be those with radiation necrosis and would be recognised by a negative emission tomography scan. Twenty-one patients underwent {sup 201}thallium SPECT performed before brachytherapy, and this was repeated in 19 patients when recurrence was suspected. Nine patients also underwent a PET scan at the same time. Nine patients underwent a second operation. SPECT and PET were highly concordant concerning the prediction of radionecrosis and/or tumor recurrence. Repeat surgery did not lead to a significant increase in survival. There was no significant association between the duration of survival and tumor-to-background ratio but the number studied was small. Both SPECT and PET showed highly active lesions, which were proved to be recurrent tumor by clinical and histological follow-up. Although PET and SPECT are both highly sensitive in detecting active tumor tissue, emission tomography was not clinically valuable in the investigation of patients with a primary glioblastoma treated with brachytherapy. (author)

  6. Sensing Properties of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Grown in MW Plasma Torch: Electronic and Electrochemical Behavior, Gas Sensing, Field Emission, IR Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Majzlíková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-MWCNTs with an average diameter below 80 nm and a thickness of the uniform VA-MWCNT layer of about 16 µm were grown in microwave plasma torch and tested for selected functional properties. IR absorption important for a construction of bolometers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Basic electrochemical characterization was performed by cyclic voltammetry. Comparing the obtained results with the standard or MWCNT‑modified screen-printed electrodes, the prepared VA-MWCNT electrodes indicated their high potential for the construction of electrochemical sensors. Resistive CNT gas sensor revealed a good sensitivity to ammonia taking into account room temperature operation. Field emission detected from CNTs was suitable for the pressure sensing application based on the measurement of emission current in the diode structure with bending diaphragm. The advantages of microwave plasma torch growth of CNTs, i.e., fast processing and versatility of the process, can be therefore fully exploited for the integration of surface-bound grown CNTs into various sensing structures.

  7. The classification of flaring states of blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, E.; Franco, D.; Gross, A.; Costamante, L.; Flaccomio, E.

    2009-08-01

    Aims: The time evolution of the electromagnetic emission from blazars, in particular high-frequency peaked sources (HBLs), displays irregular activity that has not yet been understood. In this work we report a methodology capable of characterizing the time behavior of these variable objects. Methods: The maximum likelihood blocks (MLBs) is a model-independent estimator that subdivides the light curve into time blocks, whose length and amplitude are compatible with states of constant emission rate of the observed source. The MLBs yield the statistical significance in the rate variations and strongly suppresses the noise fluctuations in the light curves. We applied the MLBs for the first time on the long term X-ray light curves (RXTE/ASM) of Mkn 421, Mkn 501, 1ES 1959+650, and 1ES 2155-304, more than 10 years of observational data (1996-2007). Using the MLBs interpretation of RXTE/ASM data, the integrated time flux distribution is determined for each single source considered. We identify in these distributions the characteristic level, as well as the flaring states of the blazars. Results: All the distributions show a significant component at negative flux values, most probably caused by an uncertainty in the background subtraction and by intrinsic fluctuations of RXTE/ASM. This effect concerns in particular short time observations. To quantify the probability that the intrinsic fluctuations give rise to a false identification of a flare, we study a population of very faint sources and their integrated time-flux distribution. We determine duty cycle or fraction of time a source spent in the flaring state of the source Mkn 421, Mkn 501, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2155-304. Moreover, we study the random coincidences between flares and generic sporadic events such as high-energy neutrinos or flares in other wavelengths.

  8. DETERMINING HEATING RATES IN RECONNECTION FORMED FLARE LOOPS OF THE M8.0 FLARE ON 2005 MAY 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjuan; Qiu Jiong; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Caspi, Amir [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    We analyze and model an M8.0 flare on 2005 May 13 observed by the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) to determine the energy release rate from magnetic reconnection that forms and heats numerous flare loops. The flare exhibits two ribbons in UV 1600 A emission. Analysis shows that the UV light curve at each flaring pixel rises impulsively within a few minutes, and decays slowly with a timescale longer than 10 minutes. Since the lower atmosphere (the transition region and chromosphere) responds to energy deposit nearly instantaneously, the rapid UV brightening is thought to reflect the energy release process in the newly formed flare loop rooted at the footpoint. In this paper, we utilize the spatially resolved (down to 1'') UV light curves and the thick-target hard X-ray emission to construct heating functions of a few thousand flare loops anchored at the UV footpoints, and compute plasma evolution in these loops using the enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops model. The modeled coronal temperatures and densities of these flare loops are then used to calculate coronal radiation. The computed soft X-ray spectra and light curves compare favorably with those observed by RHESSI and by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite X-ray Sensor. The time-dependent transition region differential emission measure for each loop during its decay phase is also computed with a simplified model and used to calculate the optically thin C IV line emission, which dominates the UV 1600 A bandpass during the flare. The computed C IV line emission decays at the same rate as observed. This study presents a method to constrain heating of reconnection-formed flare loops using all available observables independently, and provides insight into the physics of energy release and plasma heating during the flare. With this method, the lower limit of the total energy used to heat the flare loops in

  9. Study of absorption and IR-emission of Er3+, Dy3+, Tm3+ doped high-purity tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motorin, S. E.; Dorofeev, V. V.; Galagan, B. I.; Sverchkov, S. E.; Koltashev, V. V.; Denker, B. I.

    2018-04-01

    A study of high-purity TeO2-ZnO based tellurite glasses doped with Er3+, Dy3+ or Tm3+ that could be used as laser media in the 2-3 μm spectral range is presented. The glasses are prepared by melting the oxides mixture inside a silica glass reactor in an atmosphere of purified oxygen. The low level of hydroxyl groups absorption allowed to measure correctly the luminescence decay characteristics of the dopants. The rare-earth ions absorption bands, the luminescence spectra and kinetic characteristics of emission from the levels 4I11/2, 4I13/2 of Er3+, 6H13/2 of Dy3+ and 3H4, 3H5, 3F4 of Tm3+ ions are investigated. The results confirm the high potential of tellurite glasses as an active media for bulk, planar waveguide and fiber lasers.

  10. Flare stars in Pleiades. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.; Chavushyan, O.S.; Oganyan, G.B.; Ambaryan, V.V.; Garibdzhanyan, A.T.; Melikyan, N.D.; Natsvlishvili, R.Sh.; AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Abastumani. Abastumanskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1981-01-01

    The results of photographic observations of stellar flares in the Pleiades region carried out at the Byurakan and Abastumani astrophysical observatories during 1976-1979 are given. On the basis of these observations 17 new flare stars have been found. Total number of all known flare stars in the Pleiades region on 1 June 1980 reached 524, and the number of all flares-1244. The observational data on distribution of flare stars according to the observed flares is satisfactorily represented by the average frequency function introduced by V.A.Ambartsumian. The total number of the flare stars in the Pleiades is of the order of 1100. Using three telescopes, synchronous photographic observations of stellar flares in Pleiades in U, B, V, system are carried out. The colour indices U-B and B-V of stellar flares in periods including the maximum of the flare slightly differ from that of photoelectrically defined for flares of UV Ceti type stars, which testifies the physical relationship of flare stars in Pleiades and in the vicinity of the Sun [ru

  11. Role of Al coordination in barium phosphate glasses on the emission features of Ho{sup 3+} ion in the visible and IR spectral ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satyanarayana, T.; Kalpana, T.; Ravi Kumar, V. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid-521 201, A.P. (India); Veeraiah, N., E-mail: nvr8@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University-Nuzvid Campus, Nuzvid-521 201, A.P. (India)

    2010-03-15

    The glasses of the composition (39-x)BaO-xAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}-60P{sub 2}O{sub 5}:1.0Ho{sub 2}O{sub 3} (in mol%) with x value ranging from 1.0 to 4.0 have been synthesized. The IR spectral studies of these glasses have indicated that there is a gradual transformation of Al{sup 3+} ions from tetrahedral to octahedral with increase in the concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} up to 3.0 mol%. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra (in the visible and NIR regions) of these glasses have been recorded at room temperature. The Judd-Ofelt theory could successfully be applied to characterize the absorption and luminescence spectra of Ho{sup 3+} ions in these glasses. From the luminescence spectra, various radiative properties like transition probability A, branching ratio beta{sub r}, the radiative lifetime tau{sub r} and emission cross-section sigma{sup E} for various emission levels of these glasses have been evaluated. The radiative lifetime of the {sup 5}S{sub 2}->{sup 5}I{sub 8} (green emission) transition has also been measured. The variations observed in these parameters have been discussed in the light of varying co-ordinations (tetrahedral and octahedral positions) of Al{sup 3+} ions in the glass network. The influence of hydroxyl groups on the luminescence efficiency of the transition {sup 5}S{sub 2}->{sup 5}I{sub 8} has also been discussed. Finally the optimum concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} for getting maximum luminescence output has also been identified and reported.

  12. Analysis of ultraviolet and X-ray observations of three homologous solar flares from SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Pallavicini, Roberto

    1987-01-01

    Three homologous flares observed in the UV lines of Fe XXI and O V and in X-rays from the SMM were studied. It was found that: (1) the homology of the flares was most noticeable in Fe XXI and soft X-ray emissions; (2) the three flares shared many of the same loop footprints which were located in O V bright kernals associated with hard X-ray bursts; and (3) in spite of the strong spatial homology, the temporal evolution in UV and X-ray emissions varied from flare to flare. A comparison between the UV observations and photospheric magnetograms revealed that the basic flare configuration was a complex loop system consisting of many loops or bundles of loops.

  13. MAGNETIC AND DYNAMICAL PHOTOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES OBSERVED DURING AN M3.2 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckein, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Collados, M.; Sainz, R. Manso, E-mail: ckuckein@aip.de [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    This Letter reports on a set of full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å spectral region covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare phases of an M3.2 class solar flare. The flare originated on 2013 May 17 and belonged to active region NOAA 11748. We detected strong He i 10830 Å emission in the flare. The red component of the He i triplet peaks at an intensity ratio to the continuum of about 1.86. During the flare, He i Stokes V is substantially larger and appears reversed compared to the usually larger Si i Stokes V profile. The photospheric Si i inversions of the four Stokes profiles reveal the following: (1) the magnetic field strength in the photosphere decreases or is even absent during the flare phase, as compared to the pre-flare phase. However, this decrease is not permanent. After the flare, the magnetic field recovers its pre-flare configuration in a short time (i.e., 30 minutes after the flare). (2) In the photosphere, the line of sight velocities show a regular granular up- and downflow pattern before the flare erupts. During the flare, upflows (blueshifts) dominate the area where the flare is produced. Evaporation rates of ∼10{sup −3} and ∼10{sup −4} g cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been derived in the deep and high photosphere, respectively, capable of increasing the chromospheric density by a factor of two in about 400 s.

  14. Thermal Structure of Supra-Arcade Plasma in Two Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Katharine K.; Savage, Sabrina; McKenzie, David E.; Weber, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we use Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA data to determine the thermal structure of supra-arcade plasma in two solar flares. The first flare is a Ml.2 flare that occurred on November 5, 2010 on the east limb. This flare was one of a series of flares from AR 11121, published in Reeves & Golub (2011). The second flare is an XI.7 flare that occurred on January 27, 2012 on the west limb. This flare exhibits visible supra-arcade downflows (SADs), where the November 2010 flare does not. For these two flares we combine XRT and AlA data to calculate DEMs of each pixel in the supra-arcade plasma, giving insight into the temperature and density structures in the fan of plasma above the post-flare arcade. We find in each case that the supra-arcade plasma is around 10 MK, and there is a marked decrease in the emission measure in the SADs. We also compare the DEMs calculated with the combined AIA/XRT dataset to those calculated using AIA alone.

  15. Flare activity, sunspot motions, and the evolution of vector magnetic fields in Hale region 17244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Machado, Marcos E.; Smith, Jesse B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic and dynamical circumstances leading to the 1B/M4 flare of November 5, 1980 are studied, and a strong association is found between the buildup of magnetic shear and the onset of flare activity within the active region. The development of shear, as observed directly in vector magnetograms, is consistent in detail with the dynamical history of the active region and identifies the precise location of the optical and hard-X-ray kernels of the flare emission.

  16. Future flare compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingen, J.L.N. van; Meuken, D.; Hackspik, M.M.; Mäkeläinen, T.; Weiser, V.; Poulson, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    This poster describes the work done within the Category B joint research project under the European Defence Agency (EDA) on Future Flare Compositions [1]. Contributing members were Finland, Germany, United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The program was aimed to identify the technology gaps that apply

  17. A COLD FLARE WITH DELAYED HEATING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Pal'shin, Valentin D.; Lysenko, Alexandra L.; Meshalkina, Natalia; Kashapova, Larisa K.; Altyntsev, Alexander T.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a number of peculiar flares have been reported that demonstrate significant nonthermal particle signatures with low, if any, thermal emission, which implies a close association of the observed emission with the primary energy release/electron acceleration region. This paper presents a flare that appears “cold” at the impulsive phase, while displaying delayed heating later on. Using hard X-ray data from Konus- Wind , microwave observations by SSRT, RSTN, NoRH, and NoRP, context observations, and three-dimensional modeling, we study the energy release, particle acceleration, and transport, and the relationships between the nonthermal and thermal signatures. The flaring process is found to involve the interaction between a small loop and a big loop with the accelerated particles divided roughly equally between them. Precipitation of the electrons from the small loop produced only a weak thermal response because the loop volume was small, while the electrons trapped in the big loop lost most of their energy in the coronal part of the loop, which resulted in coronal plasma heating but no or only weak chromospheric evaporation, and thus unusually weak soft X-ray emission. The energy losses of the fast electrons in the big tenuous loop were slow, which resulted in the observed delay of the plasma heating. We determined that the impulsively accelerated electron population had a beamed angular distribution in the direction of the electric force along the magnetic field of the small loop. The accelerated particle transport in the big loop was primarily mediated by turbulent waves, which is similar to other reported cold flares.

  18. Solar and Stellar Flares and Their Effects on Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-08-01

    Recent space observations of the Sun revealed that the solar atmosphere is full of explosions, such as flares and flare-like phenomena. These flares generate not only strong electromagnetic emissions but also nonthermal particles and bulk plasma ejections, which sometimes lead to geomagnetic storms and affect terrestrial environment and our civilization, damaging satellite, power-grids, radio communication etc. Solar flares are prototype of various explosions in our universe, and hence are important not only for geophysics and environmental science but also for astrophysics. The energy source of solar flares is now established to be magnetic energy stored near sunspots. There is now increasing observational evidence that solar flares are caused by magnetic reconnection, merging of anti-parallel magnetic field lines and associated magneto-plasma dynamics (Shibata and Magara 2011, Living Review). It has also been known that many stars show flares similar to solar flares, and often such stellar flares are much more energetic than solar flares. The total energy of a solar flare is typically 10^29 - 10^32 erg. On the other hand, there are much more energetic flares (10^33 - 10^38 erg) in stars, especially in young stars. These are called superflares. We argue that these superflares on stars can also be understood in a unified way based on the reconnection mechanism. Finally we show evidence of occurrence of superflares on Sun-like stars according to recent stellar observations (Maehara et al. 2012, Nature, Shibayama et al. 2013), which revealed that superflares with energy of 10^34 - 10^35 erg (100 - 1000 times of the largest solar flares) occur with frequency of once in 800 - 5000 years on Sun-like stars which are very similar to our Sun. Against the previous belief, these new observations as well as theory (Shibata et al. 2013) suggest that we cannot deny the possibility of superflares on the present Sun. Finally, we shall discuss possible impacts of these superflares

  19. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  20. Development of methods for activity determination for radionuclides with double decay emission β- β+ / electron capture - application to the standardization of 192Ir, 152Eu and 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilario, Katia Aparecida Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    In the present work alternative procedures have been developed for standardization of radionuclides with double decay, β - β + / electron capture using the 4πβ-γ coincidence technique, applying different systems. Two 4πβ-γ coincidence systems were used: one with a 4π gas-flow proportional counter coupled to a pair of NaI(Tl) scintillators and the other one with the same type of proportional counter coupled to HPGe detector. The radionuclides selected for this standardization, due to great interest in nuclear medicine, detector calibration and industrial radiography, were 192 Ir, 152 Eu and 186 Re. The first and the second were part of international comparisons sponsored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), France, who supplied the radioactive solution. For 186 Re, the gamma-ray emission probability per decay was measured by means REGe spectrometer system, previously calibrated with standard ampoules. All the uncertainties involved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  1. Slipping magnetic reconnection during an X-class solar flare observed by SDO/AIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudík, J.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E. [DAMTP, CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Janvier, M. [Department of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Aulanier, G.; Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Karlický, M., E-mail: J.Dudik@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: mjanvier@maths.dundee.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2014-04-01

    We present SDO/AIA observations of an eruptive X-class flare of 2012 July 12, and compare its evolution with the predictions of a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation. We focus on the dynamics of flare loops that are seen to undergo slipping reconnection during the flare. In the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 131 Å observations, lower parts of 10 MK flare loops exhibit an apparent motion with velocities of several tens of km s{sup –1} along the developing flare ribbons. In the early stages of the flare, flare ribbons consist of compact, localized bright transition-region emission from the footpoints of the flare loops. A differential emission measure analysis shows that the flare loops have temperatures up to the formation of Fe XXIV. A series of very long, S-shaped loops erupt, leading to a coronal mass ejection observed by STEREO. The observed dynamics are compared with the evolution of magnetic structures in the 'standard solar flare model in 3D.' This model matches the observations well, reproducing the apparently slipping flare loops, S-shaped erupting loops, and the evolution of flare ribbons. All of these processes are explained via 3D reconnection mechanisms resulting from the expansion of a torus-unstable flux rope. The AIA observations and the numerical model are complemented by radio observations showing a noise storm in the metric range. Dm-drifting pulsation structures occurring during the eruption indicate plasmoid ejection and enhancement of the reconnection rate. The bursty nature of radio emission shows that the slipping reconnection is still intermittent, although it is observed to persist for more than an hour.

  2. The coalescence instability in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Brunel, F.; Sakai, J.-I.; Vlahos, L.; Kundu, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The nonlinear coalescence instability of current carrying solar loops can explain many of the characteristics of the solar flares such as their impulsive nature, heating and high energy particle acceleration, amplitude oscillations of electromagnetic and emission as well as the characteristics of two-dimensional microwave images obtained during a flare. The plasma compressibility leads to the explosive phase of loop coalescence and its overshoot results in amplitude oscillations in temperatures by adiabatic compression and decompression. It is noted that the presence of strong electric fields and super-Alfvenic flows during the course of the instability play an important role in the production of nonthermal particles. A qualitative explanation on the physical processes taking place during the nonlinear stages of the instability is given.

  3. The coalescence instability in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Brunel, F.; Sakai, J.I.; Vlahos, L.; Kundu, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The non-linear coalescence instability of current carrying solar loops can explain many of the characteristics of the solar flares such as their impulsive nature, heating and high energy particle acceleration, amplitude oscillations of electromagnetic emission as well as the characteristics of 2-D microwave images obtained during a flare. The plasma compressibility leads to the explosive phase of loop coalescence and its overshoot results in amplitude oscillations in temperatures by adiabatic compression and decompression. We note that the presence of strong electric fields and super-Alfvenic flows during the course of the instabilty paly an important role in the production of non-thermal particles. A qualitative explanation on the physical processes taking place during the non-linear stages of the instability is given. (author)

  4. Discovery of flare activity on the dwarf M stars, GI 375 and GI 431

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, J.G.; Mathioudakis, M.; Panagi, P.M.; Butler, C.J. (Armagh Observatory, (IE))

    1990-12-01

    Optical and infrared photometry plus spectroscopic data is present for two new flare stars, GI 375 and GI 431. Both of these stars have the hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission. Several flares were detected on GI 375 implying a high level of flare activity. The H{alpha} surface flux of 1.0 x 10{sup 6} erg cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} for both stars is similar to that of other active flare stars. Fluxes are given for several of the higher Balmer lines.

  5. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  6. THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SOLAR FLARES OVER THREE SOLAR CYCLES USING GOES X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Daniel F.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R.; Kim Tolbert, A.; Schwartz, Richard A.; Alex Young, C.

    2012-01-01

    Solar flare X-ray emission results from rapidly increasing temperatures and emission measures in flaring active region loops. To date, observations from the X-Ray Sensor (XRS) on board the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) have been used to derive these properties, but have been limited by a number of factors, including the lack of a consistent background subtraction method capable of being automatically applied to large numbers of flares. In this paper, we describe an automated Temperature and Emission measure-Based Background Subtraction method (TEBBS), that builds on the methods of Bornmann. Our algorithm ensures that the derived temperature is always greater than the instrumental limit and the pre-flare background temperature, and that the temperature and emission measure are increasing during the flare rise phase. Additionally, TEBBS utilizes the improved estimates of GOES temperatures and emission measures from White et al. TEBBS was successfully applied to over 50,000 solar flares occurring over nearly three solar cycles (1980-2007), and used to create an extensive catalog of the solar flare thermal properties. We confirm that the peak emission measure and total radiative losses scale with background subtracted GOES X-ray flux as power laws, while the peak temperature scales logarithmically. As expected, the peak emission measure shows an increasing trend with peak temperature, although the total radiative losses do not. While these results are comparable to previous studies, we find that flares of a given GOES class have lower peak temperatures and higher peak emission measures than previously reported. The TEBBS database of flare thermal plasma properties is publicly available at http://www.SolarMonitor.org/TEBBS/.

  7. A Fifteen Year Record of Global Natural Gas Flaring Derived from Satellite Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvidge, Ch. D.; Erwin, E. H.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B. T.; Ghosh, T.; Tuttle, B. T.; Ghosh, T.; Pack, D. W.; Zhizhin, M.

    2009-01-01

    We have produced annual estimates of national and global gas flaring and gas flaring efficiency from 1994 through 2008 using low light imaging data acquired by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Gas flaring is a widely used practice for the disposal of associated gas in oil production and processing facilities where there is insufficient infrastructure for utilization of the gas (primarily methane). Improved utilization of the gas is key to reducing global carbon emissions to the atmosphere. The DMSP estimates of flared gas volume are based on a calibration developed with a pooled set of reported national gas flaring volumes and data from individual flares. Flaring efficiency was calculated as the volume of flared gas per barrel of crude oil produced. Global gas flaring has remained largely stable over the past fifteen years, in the range of 140 to 170 billion cubic meters (BCM). Global flaring efficiency was in the seven to eight cubic meters per barrel from 1994 to 2005 and declined to 5.6 m 3 per barrel by 2008. The 2008 gas flaring estimate of 139 BCM represents 21% of the natural gas consumption of the USA with a potential retail market value of 68 billions USD. The 2008 flaring added more than 278 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO 2e ) into the atmosphere. The DMSP estimated gas flaring volumes indicate that global gas flaring has declined by 19% since 2005, led by gas flaring reductions in Russia and Nigeria, the two countries with the highest gas flaring levels. The flaring efficiency of both Russia and Nigeria improved from 2005 to 2008, suggesting that the reductions in gas flaring are likely the result of either improved utilization of the gas, reinjection, or direct venting of gas into the atmosphere, although the effect of uncertainties in the satellite data cannot be ruled out. It is anticipated that the capability to estimate gas flaring volumes based on satellite data will spur improved utilization of gas that

  8. Flares on a Bp Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    Two large X-ray flares have been reported from the direction of a magnetic B2p star (σ Ori E). Sanz-Forcada et al. have suggested that the flares did not occur on the B2p star but on a companion of late spectral type. A star which is a candidate for a late-type flare star near σ Ori E has recently been identified by Bouy et al. However, based on the properties of the flares, and based on a recent model of rotating magnetospheres, we argue that, rather than attributing the two flares to a late-type dwarf, it is a viable hypothesis that the flares were magnetic phenomena associated with the rotating magnetosphere of the B2p star itself.

  9. FLARES ON A Bp STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Two large X-ray flares have been reported from the direction of a magnetic B2p star (σ Ori E). Sanz-Forcada et al. have suggested that the flares did not occur on the B2p star but on a companion of late spectral type. A star which is a candidate for a late-type flare star near σ Ori E has recently been identified by Bouy et al. However, based on the properties of the flares, and based on a recent model of rotating magnetospheres, we argue that, rather than attributing the two flares to a late-type dwarf, it is a viable hypothesis that the flares were magnetic phenomena associated with the rotating magnetosphere of the B2p star itself.

  10. FLARE STARS—A FAVORABLE OBJECT FOR STUDYING MECHANISMS OF NONTHERMAL ASTROPHYSICAL PHENOMENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oks, E. [Physics Department, 206 Allison Lab., Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gershberg, R. E. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Bakhchisaray region, Crimea, 298409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic method for diagnosing a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence (LEPT) in plasmas of flare stars. This method had been previously developed by one of us and successfully applied to diagnosing the LEPT in solar flares. In distinction to our previous applications of the method, here we use the latest advances in the theory of the Stark broadening of hydrogen spectral lines. By analyzing observed emission Balmer lines, we show that it is very likely that the LEPT was developed in several flares of AD Leo, as well as in one flare of EV Lac. We found the LEPT (though of different field strengths) both in the explosive/impulsive phase and at the phase of the maximum, as well as at the gradual phase of the stellar flares. While for solar flares our method allows diagnosing the LEPT only in the most powerful flares, for the flare stars it seems that the method allows revealing the LEPT practically in every flare. It should be important to obtain new and better spectrograms of stellar flares, allowing their analysis by the method outlined in the present paper. This can be the most favorable way to the detailed understanding of the nature of nonthermal astrophysical phenomena.

  11. A ``perfect'' Late Phase Flare Loop: X-ray And Radio Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Hazel; Fletcher, L.

    2009-05-01

    We present observations of a GOES X3.1 class flare which occurred on the 24th August 2002. The event was observed by a number of instruments including RHESSI, TRACE and NoRH. This flare is particularly interesting due to its position and orientation on the west limb of the Sun. The flare appears to be perpendicular to the line of sight making it possible to ascertain the geometrical parameters of the post flare arcade loops. We investigate the decay phase of the flare by comparing X-ray and radio observations of the post flare arcade loops with models of soft x-ray and thermal gyrosynchrotron emission to characterise the electron distribution present within the loop. HMB gratefully acknowledges the support of an SPD and STFC studentship. LF gratefully acknowledges the support of an STFC Rolling Grant, and financial support by the European Commission through the SOLAIRE Network (MTRN-CT_2006-035484)

  12. The evolution of flaring and non-flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Sahin, S.; Sarp, V.; Obridko, V.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2018-06-01

    According to the modified Zurich classification, sunspot groups are classified into seven different classes (A, B, C, D, E, F and H) based on their morphology and evolution. In this classification, classes A and B, which are small groups, describe the beginning of sunspot evolution, while classes D, E and F describe the large and evolved groups. Class C describes the middle phase of sunspot evolution and the class H describes the end of sunspot evolution. Here, we compare the lifetime and temporal evolution of flaring and non-flaring active regions (ARs), and the flaring effect on ARs in these groups in detail for the last two solar cycles (1996 through 2016). Our main findings are as follows: (i) Flaring sunspot groups have longer lifetimes than non-flaring ones. (ii) Most of the class A, B and C flaring ARs rapidly evolve to higher classes, while this is not applicable for non-flaring ARs. More than 50 per cent of the flaring A, B and C groups changed morphologically, while the remaining D, E, F and H groups did not change remarkably after the flare activity. (iii) 75 per cent of all flaring sunspot groups are large and complex. (iv) There is a significant increase in the sunspot group area in classes A, B, C, D and H after flaring activity. In contrast, the sunspot group area of classes E and F decreased. The sunspot counts of classes D, E and F decreased as well, while classes A, B, C and H showed an increase.

  13. Narrow-band radio flares from red dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Jackson, P.D.

    1986-12-01

    VLA observations of narrow-band behavior in 20 cm flares from two red dwarf stars, L726 - 8A and AD Leo, are reported. The flare on L726 - 8A was observed at 1415 and 1515 MHz; the flux and the evolution differed significantly at the two frequencies. The flare on AD Leo lasted for 2 hr at 1415 MHz but did not appear at 1515 MHz. The AD Leo flare appears to rule out a source drifting through the stellar corona and is unlikely to be due to plasma emission. In the cyclotron maser model the narrow-band behavior reflects the range of magnetic fields present within the source. The apparent constancy of this field for 2 hr is difficult to understand if magnetic reconnection is the source of energy for the flare. The consistent polarization exhibited by red dwarf flares at 20 cm may be related to stellar activity cycles, and changes in this polarization will permit measuring the length of these cycles. 22 references.

  14. Narrow-band radio flares from red dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen M.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Jackson, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of narrow-band behavior in 20 cm flares from two red dwarf stars, L726 - 8A and AD Leo, are reported. The flare on L726 - 8A was observed at 1415 and 1515 MHz; the flux and the evolution differed significantly at the two frequencies. The flare on AD Leo lasted for 2 hr at 1415 MHz but did not appear at 1515 MHz. The AD Leo flare appears to rule out a source drifting through the stellar corona and is unlikely to be due to plasma emission. In the cyclotron maser model the narrow-band behavior reflects the range of magnetic fields present within the source. The apparent constancy of this field for 2 hr is difficult to understand if magnetic reconnection is the source of energy for the flare. The consistent polarization exhibited by red dwarf flares at 20 cm may be related to stellar activity cycles, and changes in this polarization will permit measuring the length of these cycles.

  15. OH/IR stars in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, B.

    1978-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations leading to the discovery of 71 OH/IR sources are described in this thesis. These OH/IR sources are characterized by their double peaked OH emission profile at a wavelength of 18 cm and by their strong IR infrared emission. An analysis of the distribution and radial velocities of a number of previously known and new OH/IR sources was performed. The parameter ΔV (the velocity separation between two emission peaks of the 18 cm line profile) was found to be a good criterion for a population classification with respect to stellar age

  16. The Atmospheric Response to High Nonthermal Electron Beam Fluxes in Solar Flares. I. Modeling the Brightest NUV Footpoints in the X1 Solar Flare of 2014 March 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Adam F. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Allred, Joel C.; Daw, Adrian [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cauzzi, Gianna [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: Adam.Kowalski@lasp.colorado.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2017-02-10

    The 2014 March 29 X1 solar flare (SOL20140329T17:48) produced bright continuum emission in the far- and near-ultraviolet (NUV) and highly asymmetric chromospheric emission lines, providing long-sought constraints on the heating mechanisms of the lower atmosphere in solar flares. We analyze the continuum and emission line data from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) of the brightest flaring magnetic footpoints in this flare. We compare the NUV spectra of the brightest pixels to new radiative-hydrodynamic predictions calculated with the RADYN code using constraints on a nonthermal electron beam inferred from the collisional thick-target modeling of hard X-ray data from Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager . We show that the atmospheric response to a high beam flux density satisfactorily achieves the observed continuum brightness in the NUV. The NUV continuum emission in this flare is consistent with hydrogen (Balmer) recombination radiation that originates from low optical depth in a dense chromospheric condensation and from the stationary beam-heated layers just below the condensation. A model producing two flaring regions (a condensation and stationary layers) in the lower atmosphere is also consistent with the asymmetric Fe ii chromospheric emission line profiles observed in the impulsive phase.

  17. FLARE RIBBON ENERGETICS IN THE EARLY PHASE OF AN SDO FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, L.; Hannah, I. G.; Hudson, H. S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Innes, D. E. [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    The sites of chromospheric excitation during solar flares are marked by extended extreme ultraviolet ribbons and hard X-ray (HXR) footpoints. The standard interpretation is that these are the result of heating and bremsstrahlung emission from non-thermal electrons precipitating from the corona. We examine this picture using multi-wavelength observations of the early phase of an M-class flare SOL2010-08-07T18:24. We aim to determine the properties of the heated plasma in the flare ribbons, and to understand the partition of the power input into radiative and conductive losses. Using GOES, SDO/EVE, SDO/AIA, and RHESSI, we measure the temperature, emission measure (EM), and differential emission measure of the flare ribbons, and deduce approximate density values. The non-thermal EM, and the collisional thick target energy input to the ribbons are obtained from RHESSI using standard methods. We deduce the existence of a substantial amount of plasma at 10 MK in the flare ribbons, during the pre-impulsive and early-impulsive phase of the flare. The average column EM of this hot component is a few times 10{sup 28} cm{sup -5}, and we can calculate that its predicted conductive losses dominate its measured radiative losses. If the power input to the hot ribbon plasma is due to collisional energy deposition by an electron beam from the corona then a low-energy cutoff of {approx}5 keV is necessary to balance the conductive losses, implying a very large electron energy content. Independent of the standard collisional thick-target electron beam interpretation, the observed non-thermal X-rays can be provided if one electron in 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} in the 10 MK (1 keV) ribbon plasma has an energy above 10 keV. We speculate that this could arise if a non-thermal tail is generated in the ribbon plasma which is being heated by other means, for example, by waves or turbulence.

  18. Solar Flares and Their Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.

    1999-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejection's (CMES) can strongly affect the local environment at the Earth. A major challenge for solar physics is to understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the onset of solar flares. Flares, characterized by a sudden release of energy (approx. 10(exp 32) ergs for the largest events) within the solar atmosphere, result in the acceleration of electrons, protons, and heavier ions as well as the production of electromagnetic radiation from hard X-rays to km radio waves (wavelengths approx. = 10(exp -9) cm to 10(exp 6) cm). Observations suggest that solar flares and sunspots are strongly linked. For example, a study of data from 1956-1969, reveals that approx. 93 percent of major flares originate in active regions with spots. Furthermore, the global structure of the sunspot magnetic field can be correlated with flare activity. This talk will review what we know about flare causes and effects and will discuss techniques for quantifying parameters, which may lead to a prediction of solar flares.

  19. Theoretical and observational assessments of flare efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahey, D.M.; Preston, K.; Strosher, M.

    2000-01-01

    During the processing of hydrocarbon materials, gaseous wastes are flared in an effort to completely burn the waste material and therefore leave behind very little by-products. Complete combustion, however is rarely successful because entrainment of air into the region of combusting gases restricts flame sizes to less than optimum values. The resulting flames are often too small to dissipate the amount of heat associated with complete (100 per cent) combustion efficiency. Flaring, therefore, often results in emissions of gases with more complex molecular structures than just carbon dioxide and water. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds which are indicative of incomplete combustion are often associated with flaring. This theoretical study of flame efficiencies was based on the knowledge of the full range of chemical reactions and associated kinetics. In this study, equations developed by Leahey and Schroeder were used to estimate flame lengths, areas and volumes as functions of flare stack exit velocity, stoichiometric mixing ratio and wind speed. This was followed by an estimate of heats released as part of the combustion process. This was derived from the knowledge of the flame dimensions together with an assumed flame temperature of 1200 K. Combustion efficiencies were then obtained by taking the ratio of estimated actual heat release values to those associated with complete combustion. It was concluded that combustion efficiency decreases significantly with wind speed increases from 1 to 6 m/s. After that initial increase, combustion efficiencies level off at values between 10 to 15 per cent. Propane and ethane were found to burn more efficiently than methane or hydrogen sulfide. 24 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig., 1 append

  20. Comparison of high-temperature flare models with observations and implications for the low-temperature flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, M.E.; Emslie, A.G.

    1979-01-01

    We analyze EUV data from the Harvard College Observatory and Naval Research Laboratory instruments on board the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount, together with SOLRAD 9 X-ray data, in order to empirically deduce the variation of emission measure with temperature in the atmosphere of a number of solar flares. From these data we construct a ''mean'' differential emission measure profile Q (T) for a flare, which we find to be characterized by a low-lying plateau at temperatures of a few hundred thousand K, representative of a thin transition zone at these temperatures.We then compare this empirical profile with that predicted by a number of theoretical models, each of which represents a solution of the energy equation for the flare under various simplifying assumptions. In this way we not only deduce estimates of various flare parameters, such as gas pressure, but also gain insight into the validity of the various modeling assumptions employed.We find that realistic flare models must include both conductive and radiative terms in the energy equation, and that hydrodynamic terms may be important at low temperatures. Considering only models which neglect this hydrodynamic term, we compute conductive fluxes at various levels in the high-temperature plasma and compare them to the observed radiated power throughout the atmosphere, with particular reference to the 1973 September 5 event, which is rich in observations throughout most of the electromagnetic spectrum. This comparison yields results which reinforce our belief in the dominance of the conduction and radiation terms in the flare energy balance.The implications of this result for flare models in general is discussed; in particular, it is shown that the inclusion of the conductive term into models which have hitherto neglected it can perhaps resolve some of the observational difficulties with such models

  1. Parameterization of solar flare dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarche, A.H.; Poston, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    A critical aspect of missions to the moon or Mars will be the safety and health of the crew. Radiation in space is a hazard for astronauts, especially high-energy radiation following certain types of solar flares. A solar flare event can be very dangerous if astronauts are not adequately shielded because flares can deliver a very high dose in a short period of time. The goal of this research was to parameterize solar flare dose as a function of time to see if it was possible to predict solar flare occurrence, thus providing a warning time. This would allow astronauts to take corrective action and avoid receiving a dose greater than the recommended limit set by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP)

  2. THE IMPLICATIONS OF M DWARF FLARES ON THE DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXOPLANETS AT INFRARED WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Kundurthy, Praveen; Hilton, Eric J.; Hawley, Suzanne L. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A., E-mail: tofflb@u.washington.edu, E-mail: jwisnie@u.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 880033 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We present the results of an observational campaign which obtained high-cadence, high-precision, simultaneous optical and IR photometric observations of three M dwarf flare stars for 47 hr. The campaign was designed to characterize the behavior of energetic flare events, which routinely occur on M dwarfs, at IR wavelengths to millimagnitude precision, and quantify to what extent such events might influence current and future efforts to detect and characterize extrasolar planets surrounding these stars. We detected and characterized four highly energetic optical flares having U-band total energies of {approx}7.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} to {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg, and found no corresponding response in the J, H, or Ks bandpasses at the precision of our data. For active dM3e stars, we find that a {approx}1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg U-band flare ({Delta}U{sub max} {approx} 1.5 mag) will induce <8.3 (J), <8.5 (H), and <11.7 (Ks) mmag of a response. A flare of this energy or greater should occur less than once per 18 hr. For active dM4.5e stars, we find that a {approx}5.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg U-band flare ({Delta}U{sub max} {approx} 1.6 mag) will induce <7.8 (J), <8.8 (H), and <5.1 (Ks) mmag of a response. A flare of this energy or greater should occur less than once per 10 hr. No evidence of stellar variability not associated with discrete flare events was observed at the level of {approx}3.9 mmag over 1 hr timescales and at the level of {approx}5.6 mmag over 7.5 hr timescales. We therefore demonstrate that most M dwarf stellar activity and flares will not influence IR detection and characterization studies of M dwarf exoplanets above the level of {approx}5-11 mmag, depending on the filter and spectral type. We speculate that the most energetic megaflares on M dwarfs, which occur at rates of once per month, are likely to be easily detected in IR observations with sensitivity of tens of millimagnitudes. We also

  3. M Dwarf Flare Continuum Variations on One-second Timescales: Calibrating and Modeling of ULTRACAM Flare Color Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Wisniewski, John P.; Dhillon, Vik S.; Marsh, Tom R.; Hilton, Eric J.; Brown, Benjamin P.

    2016-04-01

    We present a large data set of high-cadence dMe flare light curves obtained with custom continuum filters on the triple-beam, high-speed camera system ULTRACAM. The measurements provide constraints for models of the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical continuum spectral evolution on timescales of ≈1 s. We provide a robust interpretation of the flare emission in the ULTRACAM filters using simultaneously obtained low-resolution spectra during two moderate-sized flares in the dM4.5e star YZ CMi. By avoiding the spectral complexity within the broadband Johnson filters, the ULTRACAM filters are shown to characterize bona fide continuum emission in the NUV, blue, and red wavelength regimes. The NUV/blue flux ratio in flares is equivalent to a Balmer jump ratio, and the blue/red flux ratio provides an estimate for the color temperature of the optical continuum emission. We present a new “color-color” relationship for these continuum flux ratios at the peaks of the flares. Using the RADYN and RH codes, we interpret the ULTRACAM filter emission using the dominant emission processes from a radiative-hydrodynamic flare model with a high nonthermal electron beam flux, which explains a hot, T ≈ 104 K, color temperature at blue-to-red optical wavelengths and a small Balmer jump ratio as observed in moderate-sized and large flares alike. We also discuss the high time resolution, high signal-to-noise continuum color variations observed in YZ CMi during a giant flare, which increased the NUV flux from this star by over a factor of 100. Based on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, and observations, and based on observations made with the ESO Telescopes

  4. University of Alberta Flare Research Project : characterization of gases and liquids flared at battery sites in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiuk, L.W.; Thomas, G. P.

    2004-01-01

    Flaring is commonly used in the energy and petrochemical industries to dispose of unwanted combustible gases by burning them in an open flame. The Flare Research Project at the University of Alberta is an ongoing multiyear study into the emissions, combustion process and fluid mechanics related to flaring. This report presents the results of one phase of the study which characterizes the nature and relative quantities of gases and liquids being flared at seven battery sites in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A sampling system was specially developed to collect and analyze both the gas and liquid component of the flare stream. The analysis was performed by an independent chemical analysis company. Results indicate that no liquids were collected or observed at any of the sites, dispelling the assumption that liquids are commonly found in flare streams. Analysis of the gas phase showed a wide variation in the volume fraction of fuel and inert components. No correlation was made to link the appearance of smoke at a flare site to the composition of the flare gases. The preliminary tests provide the foundation for recommendations for future work regarding sampling programs and issues of combustion efficiency. 1 tab., 4 figs., 1 appendix

  5. H2O maser flare in Orion A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveenko, L.I.; Moran, J.M.; Genzel, R.

    1982-01-01

    The flare of H 2 O maser emission in Orion A was observed with the Crimea--Effelsberg and Haystack--Green Bank interferometers in November 1979. Its position is α = 5/sup h/32/sup m/46/sup s/.6 +- 0/sup s/.06, delta = -5 0 24'.28''.7 +- 1'' (1950.0); its radial velocity, 8 km/sec. The asymmetric line profile has a 28-kHz halfwidth. The flare source comprises a 0''.0005 core (T/sub b/ = 5 x 10 16 0 K) embedded in a 0''.005 halo (T/sub b/ = 3 x 10 14 0 K)

  6. Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    The electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating timescales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions upon the acceleration process. The role of the plasma resistivity in these processes is examined, and possible sources of anomalous resistivity are summarized. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined.

  7. A far-ultraviolet flare on a Pleiades G dwarf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.; Stauffer, J. R.; Simon, Theodore; Stern, R. A.; Antiochos, S. K.; Basri, G. S.; Bookbinder, J. A.; Brown, A.; Doschek, G. A.; Linsky, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope/Faint Object Spectrograph (HST/FOS) recorded a remarkable transient brightening in the C IV lambda lambda 1548,50 emissions of the rapidly rotating Pleiades G dwarf H II 314. On the one hand the 'flare' might be a rare event luckily observed; on the other hand it might be a bellwether of the coronal heating in very young solar-mass stars. If the latter, flaring provides a natural spin-down mechanism through associated sporadic magnetospheric mass loss.

  8. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins, e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed

  9. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed.

  10. HERSCHEL-PACS OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-IR CO LINE EMISSION IN NGC 1068: HIGHLY EXCITED MOLECULAR GAS IN THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Sturm, E.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Davies, R.; Poglitsch, A.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Lutz, D.; Tacconi, L.; De Jong, J. A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Sternberg, A.; Mark, D. [Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gonzalez-Alfonso, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Alcala de Henares, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Veilleux, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Verma, A., E-mail: shd@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astrophysics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-10

    We report the detection of far-IR CO rotational emission from the prototypical Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. Using Herschel-PACS, we have detected 11 transitions in the J{sub upper} = 14-30 (E{sub upper}/k{sub B} = 580-2565 K) range, all of which are consistent with arising from within the central 10'' (700 pc). The detected transitions are modeled as arising from two different components: a moderate-excitation (ME) component close to the galaxy systemic velocity and a high-excitation (HE) component that is blueshifted by {approx}80 km s{sup -1}. We employ a large velocity gradient model and derive n{sub H2} {approx} 10{sup 5.6} cm{sup -3}, T{sub kin} {approx} 170 K, and M{sub H2} {approx} 10{sup 6.7} M{sub Sun} for the ME component and n{sub H2} {approx} 10{sup 6.4} cm{sup -3}, T{sub kin} {approx} 570 K, and M{sub H2} {approx} 10{sup 5.6} M{sub Sun} for the HE component, although for both components the uncertainties in the density and mass are {+-}(0.6-0.9) dex. Both components arise from denser and possibly warmer gas than traced by low-J CO transitions, and the ME component likely makes a significant contribution to the mass budget in the nuclear region. We compare the CO line profiles with those of other molecular tracers observed at higher spatial and spectral resolution and find that the ME transitions are consistent with these lines arising in the {approx}200 pc diameter ring of material traced by H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) observations. The blueshift of the HE lines may also be consistent with the bluest regions of this H{sub 2} ring, but a better kinematic match is found with a clump of infalling gas {approx}40 pc north of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). We consider potential heating mechanisms and conclude that X-ray- or shock heating of both components is viable, while far-UV heating is unlikely. We discuss the prospects of placing the HE component near the AGN and conclude that while the moderate thermal pressure precludes an association with the

  11. Solar neighbourhood flare stars - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkel, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    The review concentrates on 'astronomical' aspects of flare activity, such as where, and under what circumstances flare activity is found in the solar vicinity. Non-classical activity is briefly described (without regard for completeness) and the influence of detection effects on flare observations is treated. Flare stars discovered during the last four years are described and flare activity of local dMe stars is compared. The BY Draconis syndrome is discussed followed by some remarks about rotation. Pleiades flare activity is compared to that of the solar neighbourhood and evidence for the evolution of flare activity in stars is examined. (Auth.)

  12. An unorthodox X-Class Long-Duration Confined Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Wang, Haimin, E-mail: rliu@ustc.edu.cn [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, NJIT, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We report the observation of an X-class long-duration flare which is clearly confined. It appears as a compact-loop flare in the traditional EUV passbands (171 and 195 Å), but in the passbands sensitive to flare plasmas (94 and 131 Å), it exhibits a cusp-shaped structure above an arcade of loops like other long-duration events. Inspecting images in a running difference approach, we find that the seemingly diffuse, quasi-static cusp-shaped structure consists of multiple nested loops that repeatedly rise upward and disappear approaching the cusp edge. Over the gradual phase, we detect numerous episodes of loop rising, each lasting minutes. A differential emission measure analysis reveals that the temperature is highest at the top of the arcade and becomes cooler at higher altitudes within the cusp-shaped structure, contrary to typical long-duration flares. With a nonlinear force-free model, our analysis shows that the event mainly involves two adjacent sheared arcades separated by a T-type hyperbolic flux tube (HFT). One of the arcades harbors a magnetic flux rope, which is identified with a filament that survives the flare owing to the strong confining field. We conclude that a new emergence of magnetic flux in the other arcade triggers the flare, while the preexisting HFT and flux rope dictate the structure and dynamics of the flare loops and ribbons during the long-lasting decay phase, and that a quasi-separatrix layer high above the HFT could account for the cusp-shaped structure.

  13. The sun and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: the sun's core (thermonuclear reactions, energy transfer from core through radiation zone, convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere and corona); the photosphere (convection, granulation, sunspots, magnetic fields, solar cycle, rotation of the sun); solar variability and paleoclimatic records (correlation of low solar activity with increased 14 C production in atmosphere); the chromosphere and corona (turbulence, temperature, coronal streamers, energy transfer); solar flares (cosmic rays, aurorae, spectra, velocity of flares, prominences, mechanisms of flares); the solar wind. (U.K.)

  14. Are All Flare Ribbons Simply Connected to the Corona?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Philip G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Paraschiv, Alin; Lacatus, Daniela; Donea, Alina [Monash Center for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Lindsey, Charlie, E-mail: judge@ucar.edu, E-mail: alina.donea@monash.edu, E-mail: alin.paraschiv@monash.edu, E-mail: daniela.lacatus@monash.edu, E-mail: indsey@cora.nwra.com [Northwest Research Associates, 3380 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We consider the observational basis for the belief that flare ribbons in the chromosphere result from energy transport from the overlying corona. We study ribbons of small flares using magnetic and intensity data from the Hinode , Solar Dynamics Observatory , and IRIS missions. While most ribbons appear connected to the corona and overlie regions of significant vertical magnetic field, we examine one ribbon with no clear evidence for such connections. Evolving horizontal magnetic fields seen with Hinode suggest that reconnection with preexisting fields below the corona can explain the data. The identification of just one, albeit small, ribbon, with no apparent connection to the corona, leads us to conclude that at least two mechanisms are responsible for the heating that leads to flare ribbon emission.

  15. Transient magnetic field changes in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, A.; Zirin, H.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic changes have been detected with the videomagnetograph (VMG) at Big Bear during two large flares on 1979 November 5. Two kinds of changes were detected in both flares: a decrease in satellite field strength near the locus of the flare and the appearance of strong transient fields during the peak of the flare. We explain why we believe that the observed effects are real and not instrumental and discuss their significance for flare studies

  16. THERMODYNAMIC SPECTRUM OF SOLAR FLARES BASED ON SDO/EVE OBSERVATIONS: TECHNIQUES AND FIRST RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhou, Zhenjun; Liu, Kai; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Jie [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 6A2, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); Chamberlin, Phillip C., E-mail: ymwang@ustc.edu.cn [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) provides rich information on the thermodynamic processes of solar activities, particularly on solar flares. Here, we develop a method to construct thermodynamic spectrum (TDS) charts based on the EVE spectral lines. This tool could potentially be useful for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy to learn about the eruptive activities on distant astronomical objects. Through several cases, we illustrate what we can learn from the TDS charts. Furthermore, we apply the TDS method to 74 flares equal to or greater than the M5.0 class, and reach the following statistical results. First, EUV peaks are always behind the soft X-ray (SXR) peaks and stronger flares tend to have faster cooling rates. There is a power-law correlation between the peak delay times and the cooling rates, suggesting a coherent cooling process of flares from SXR to EUV emissions. Second, there are two distinct temperature drift patterns, called Type I and Type II. For Type I flares, the enhanced emission drifts from high to low temperature like a quadrilateral, whereas for Type II flares the drift pattern looks like a triangle. Statistical analysis suggests that Type II flares are more impulsive than Type I flares. Third, for late-phase flares, the peak intensity ratio of the late phase to the main phase is roughly correlated with the flare class, and the flares with a strong late phase are all confined. We believe that the re-deposition of the energy carried by a flux rope, which unsuccessfully erupts out, into thermal emissions is responsible for the strong late phase found in a confined flare. Furthermore, we show the signatures of the flare thermodynamic process in the chromosphere and transition region in the TDS charts. These results provide new clues to advance our understanding of the thermodynamic processes of solar flares and associated solar eruptions, e.g., coronal mass ejections.

  17. PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND THE ORIGIN OF X-RAY FLARES IN GRMHD SIMULATIONS OF SGR A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, David; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Chan, Chi-kwan [Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Significant X-ray variability and flaring has been observed from Sgr A* but is poorly understood from a theoretical standpoint. We perform general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations that take into account a population of non-thermal electrons with energy distributions and injection rates that are motivated by PIC simulations of magnetic reconnection. We explore the effects of including these non-thermal electrons on the predicted broadband variability of Sgr A* and find that X-ray variability is a generic result of localizing non-thermal electrons to highly magnetized regions, where particles are likely to be accelerated via magnetic reconnection. The proximity of these high-field regions to the event horizon forms a natural connection between IR and X-ray variability and accounts for the rapid timescales associated with the X-ray flares. The qualitative nature of this variability is consistent with observations, producing X-ray flares that are always coincident with IR flares, but not vice versa, i.e., there are a number of IR flares without X-ray counterparts.

  18. Modelling Quasi-Periodic Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J. A.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Dominique, M.; Jelínek, P.; Takasao, S.

    2018-02-01

    Solar flare emission is detected in all EM bands and variations in flux density of solar energetic particles. Often the EM radiation generated in solar and stellar flares shows a pronounced oscillatory pattern, with characteristic periods ranging from a fraction of a second to several minutes. These oscillations are referred to as quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs), to emphasise that they often contain apparent amplitude and period modulation. We review the current understanding of quasi-periodic pulsations in solar and stellar flares. In particular, we focus on the possible physical mechanisms, with an emphasis on the underlying physics that generates the resultant range of periodicities. These physical mechanisms include MHD oscillations, self-oscillatory mechanisms, oscillatory reconnection/reconnection reversal, wave-driven reconnection, two loop coalescence, MHD flow over-stability, the equivalent LCR-contour mechanism, and thermal-dynamical cycles. We also provide a histogram of all QPP events published in the literature at this time. The occurrence of QPPs puts additional constraints on the interpretation and understanding of the fundamental processes operating in flares, e.g. magnetic energy liberation and particle acceleration. Therefore, a full understanding of QPPs is essential in order to work towards an integrated model of solar and stellar flares.

  19. Thermodynamics of supra-arcade downflows in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Liu, Rui; Deng, Na; Wang, Haimin

    2017-10-01

    Context. Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) have been frequently observed during the gradual phase of solar flares near the limb. In coronal emission lines sensitive to flaring plasmas, they appear as tadpole-like dark voids against the diffuse fan-shaped "haze" above, flowing toward the well-defined flare arcade. Aims: We aim to investigate the evolution of SADs' thermal properties, and to shed light on the formation mechanism and physical processes of SADs. Methods: We carefully studied several selected SADs from two flare events and calculated their differential emission measures (DEMs) as well as DEM-weighted temperatures using data obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. Results: Our analysis shows that SADs are associated with a substantial decrease in DEM above 4 MK, which is 1-3 orders of magnitude smaller than the surrounding haze as well as the region before or after the passage of SADs, but comparable to the quiet corona. There is no evidence for the presence of the SAD-associated hot plasma (>20 MK) in the AIA data, and this decrease in DEM does not cause any significant change in the DEM distribution as well as the DEM-weighted temperature, which supports this idea that SADs are density depletion. This depression in DEM rapidly recovers in the wake of the SADs studied, generally within a few minutes, suggesting that they are discrete features. In addition, we found that SADs in one event are spatio-temporally associated with the successive formation of post-flare loops along the flare arcade. Movies associated to Figs. A.1 and A.2 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  20. THE IMPLICATIONS OF M DWARF FLARES ON THE DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXOPLANETS AT INFRARED WAVELENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Wisniewski, John P.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Kundurthy, Praveen; Hilton, Eric J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Holtzman, Jon A.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an observational campaign which obtained high-cadence, high-precision, simultaneous optical and IR photometric observations of three M dwarf flare stars for 47 hr. The campaign was designed to characterize the behavior of energetic flare events, which routinely occur on M dwarfs, at IR wavelengths to millimagnitude precision, and quantify to what extent such events might influence current and future efforts to detect and characterize extrasolar planets surrounding these stars. We detected and characterized four highly energetic optical flares having U-band total energies of ∼7.8 × 10 30 to ∼1.3 × 10 32 erg, and found no corresponding response in the J, H, or Ks bandpasses at the precision of our data. For active dM3e stars, we find that a ∼1.3 × 10 32 erg U-band flare (ΔU max ∼ 1.5 mag) will induce 31 erg U-band flare (ΔU max ∼ 1.6 mag) will induce <7.8 (J), <8.8 (H), and <5.1 (Ks) mmag of a response. A flare of this energy or greater should occur less than once per 10 hr. No evidence of stellar variability not associated with discrete flare events was observed at the level of ∼3.9 mmag over 1 hr timescales and at the level of ∼5.6 mmag over 7.5 hr timescales. We therefore demonstrate that most M dwarf stellar activity and flares will not influence IR detection and characterization studies of M dwarf exoplanets above the level of ∼5-11 mmag, depending on the filter and spectral type. We speculate that the most energetic megaflares on M dwarfs, which occur at rates of once per month, are likely to be easily detected in IR observations with sensitivity of tens of millimagnitudes. We also discuss how recent detections of line flux enhancements during M dwarf flares could influence IR transmission spectroscopic observations of M dwarf exoplanets.

  1. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, G. A.; Wolfson, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density.

  2. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references

  3. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-08-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references.

  4. Natural gas domestic market development for total elimination of routine flares in Nigeria's upstream petroleum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonibare, J.A.; Akeredolu, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several research findings confirmed that gaseous emissions and thermal radiation emanate from flaring activities during separation of oil from gas in the petroleum upstream operations. This, coupled with identified degradation potential of flares, makes flaring of about 71 million m 3 /day of associated gas a great concern. In this paper, several efforts hitherto made by government and organized private sectors at monetizing associated natural gas being flared on daily basis in Nigeria were reviewed. Domestic market development, if adopted, could eliminate routine gas flaring by 2008, meeting a goal set by Nigerian Government. Various scenarios considered showed that relatively minor amounts of natural gas could be consumed domestically for cooking; the balance would be absorbed by thermal electricity generation. It could lead to total consumption of between 92 and 140 million m 3 /day of natural gas in the country, representing a fraction of the domestic energy market

  5. A Model of Solar Flares Based on Arcade Field Reconnection and Merging of Magnetic Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, G.S.; Cheng, C.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Solar flares are intense, abrupt releases of energy in the solar corona. In the impulsive phase of a flare, the intensity of hard X-ray emission reaches a sharp peak indicating the highest reconnection rate. It is often observed that an X-ray emitting plasma ejecta (plasmoid) is launched before the impulsive phase and accelerated throughout the phase. Thus, the plasmoid ejection may not be an effect of fast magnetic reconnection as conventionally assumed, but a cause of fast reconnection. Based on resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations, a solar flare model is presented, which can explain these observational characteristics of flares. In the model, merging of a newly generated magnetic island and a pre-existing island results in stretching and thinning of a current sheet, in which fast magnetic reconnection is induced. Recurrence of homologous flares naturally arises in this model. Mechanisms of magnetic island formation are also discussed

  6. Solar Features - Solar Flares - Patrol

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The H-alpha Flare Patrol identifies time periods each day when the sun is being continuously monitored by select ground-based solar observatories.

  7. Flare stars and Pascal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muradian, R.

    1994-07-01

    Observed statistics of stellar flares are described by Pascal or Negative Binomial Distribution. The analogy with other classes of chaotic production mechanisms such as hadronic particle multiplicity distributions and photoelectron counts from thermal sources is noticed. (author). 12 refs

  8. Solar flares at submillimeter wavelengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krucker, S.; Gimenez de Castro, C.G.; Hudson, H. S.; Trottet, G.; Bastian, T.S.; Hales, A.S.; Kašparová, Jana; Klein, K. L.; Kretzschmar, M.; Luethi, T.; Mackinnon, A.; Pohjolainen, S.; White, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2013), 58/1-58/45 ISSN 0935-4956 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * flares * radio observations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 13.312, year: 2013

  9. Electron Acceleration In Impulsive Solar Flares : extract of a thesis

    CERN Document Server

    Lenters, G T

    1999-01-01

    Impulsive solar flares generate a wide range of photon and particle emissions and hence provide an excellent backyard laboratory for studying particle acceleration processes in astrophysical plasmas. The source of the acceleration remains unidentified, but the basic observations are clear: (1) Hard X-ray and gamma-ray line emission occur simultaneously, indicating that electron and ion acceleration must occur simultaneously; (2) the electron and ion precipitation rates at the foot-points of the flare must be extremely large to account for the photon emission (∼1037 electrons s −1 and ∼1035 protons s−1, respectively), which means that replenishment of the acceleration region (which contains ≈1037 fully ionized hydrogen atoms) is a crucial issue; and (3) there are enhancements of the heavy ion abundances relative to normal coronal values. The basic model proposed assumes the generation of extremely low levels of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turb...

  10. On the possible cyclic recurrence of flare activity of flare stars in the pleiades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.; Oganyan, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    The flare activity of flare stars in Pleiades is investigated. It is shown that according to flare statistics only one half of the probable Pleiades members with low luminosities have flare activity throughout the observation period. Two assumptions are suggested to explain this contradiction with the concept on the evolutionary importance of the flare star phase which all the dwarf stars go through: cyclic nature of the flare activity and large dispersion in flare activity phase durations for equally luminous stars. Certain evidences to support cyclic flare activity assumption are adduced

  11. Spectrophotometry of the Hα region in the spectrum of HR 1099 during the February 1978 radio flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraquelli, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Spectrophotometry of the Hα emission line in the spectrum of HR 1099 (=HD 22468=V711 Tauri) was obtained during the radio flare of February 1978. The profiles observed during the flare have higher peak intensities and larger equivalent widths than profiles obtained outside of the flare at approximately the same orbital phases. Both the general shapes of the profiles and the equivalent widths appear to correlate with the radio flux. A preflare profile exhibits a flare-type profile, suggesting that radio outbursts in RS CVn systems may be preceded by Hα enhancement

  12. Solar Flares Observed with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2004-01-01

    Solar flares are impressive examples of explosive energy release in unconfined, magnetized plasma. It is generally believed that the flare energy is derived from the coronal magnetic field. However, we have not been able to establish the specific energy release mechanism(s) or the relative partitioning of the released energy between heating, particle acceleration (electrons and ions), and mass motions. NASA's RHESSI Mission was designed to study the acceleration and evolution of electrons and ions in flares by observing the X-ray and gamma-ray emissions these energetic particles produce. This is accomplished through the combination of high-resolution spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging, including the first images of flares in gamma rays. RHESSI has observed over 12,000 solar flares since its launch on February 5, 2002. I will demonstrate how we use the RHESSI spectra to deduce physical properties of accelerated electrons and hot plasma in flares. Using images to estimate volumes, w e typically find that the total energy in accelerated electrons is comparable to that in the thermal plasma. I will also present flare observations that provide strong support for the presence of magnetic reconnection in a large-scale, vertical current sheet in the solar corona. RHESSI observations such as these are allowing us to probe more deeply into the physics of solar flares.

  13. Detection of the Acceleration Site in a Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kontar, E. P.; Nita, G. M.; Gary, D. E.

    2011-05-01

    We report the observation of an unusual cold, tenuous solar flare (ApJL, v. 731, p. L19, 2011), which reveals itself via numerous and prominent non-thermal manifestations, while lacking any noticeable thermal emission signature. RHESSI hard X-rays and 0.1-18 GHz radio data from OVSA and Phoenix-2 show copious electron acceleration (1035 electrons per second above 10 keV) typical for GOES M-class flares with electrons energies up to 100 keV, but GOES temperatures not exceeding 6.1 MK. The HXR footpoints and coronal radio sources belong, supposedly, to a single magnetic loop, which departs strongly from the corresponding potential loop (obtained from a photospheric extrapolation) in agreement with the apparent need of a non-potential magnetic field structure to produce a flare. The imaging, temporal, and spectral characteristics of the flare have led us to a firm conclusion that the bulk of the microwave continuum emission from this flare was produced directly in the acceleration region. We found that the electron acceleration efficiency is very high in the flare, so almost all available thermal electrons are eventually accelerated. However, given a relatively small flaring volume and rather low thermal density at the flaring loop, the total energy release turned out to be insufficient for a significant heating of the coronal plasma or for a prominent chromospheric response giving rise to chromospheric evaporation. Some sort of stochastic acceleration process is needed to account for an approximately energy-independent lifetime of about 3 s for the electrons in the acceleration region. This work was supported in part by NSF grants AGS-0961867, AST-0908344, and NASA grants NNX10AF27G and NNX11AB49G to New Jersey Institute of Technology. This work was supported by a UK STFC rolling grant, STFC/PPARC Advanced Fellowship, and the Leverhulme Trust, UK. Financial support by the European Commission through the SOLAIRE and HESPE Networks is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. A comparative study between clinical grading of anterior chamber flare and flare reading using the Kowa laser flare meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulou, Kallirroi; Del'Omo, Roberto; Morley, Anne M; Karagiannis, Dimitris; Bunce, Catey; Pavesio, Carlos

    2015-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of standard clinical grading of aqueous flare in uveitis according to the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature consensus, and compare the results with the readings of the laser flare meter, Kowa 500. Two examiners clinically graded the flare in 110 eyes. The flare was then measured using the Kowa laser flare meter. Twenty-nine eyes were graded as anterior chamber flare +2; for 18 of these, the clinicians were in agreement, the rest differed by the order of one grade. The range of the laser flare meter for these eyes was 5.2-899.1 photons/ms. The median value was 41.4. Seventy-four eyes were graded with flare +1. Agreement was established in 51 of these eyes. Disagreement for the rest was again by the order of 1, and the flare meter range was 1.1-169.9 photons/ms, median value 18.4. For the clinical measure of flare 0, the clinicians disagreed on three out of five eyes. The flare meter readings ranged from 2.5 to 14.1 photons/ms, median value 9.9. Only two eyes were graded with flare +3 and there was one step disagreement on both of them. We found little evidence of association between the flare readings and intraocular pressure or age. Our findings suggest that clinical evaluation of aqueous flare is subjective. Compared with the Kowa laser flare meter's numeric readings, the discrepancies observed indicate that clinical grading is an approximate science. The laser flare meter provides an accurate, reproducible, non-invasive assessment of aqueous flare that can prove valuable in research and clinical decisions.

  15. University of Alberta Flare Research Project : characterization of gases and liquids flared at battery sites in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Flare Research Project at the University of Alberta is an ongoing multi year study into the emissions, combustion process and fluid mechanics related to flaring, which is commonly used in the energy and petrochemical industries to dispose of unwanted combustible gases by burning them in an open flame. This report presents the results of one phase of the study which characterizes the nature and relative quantities of gases and liquids being flared at seven battery sites in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. A sampling system was specially developed to collect and analyze both the gas and liquid component of the flare stream. The analysis was performed by an independent chemical analysis company. Results indicate that no liquids were collected or observed at any of the sites, dispelling the assumption that liquids are commonly found in flare streams. Analysis of the gas phase showed a wide variation in the volume fraction of fuel and inert components. No correlation was made to link the appearance of smoke at a flare site to the composition of the flare gases. The preliminary tests provide the foundation for recommendations for future work regarding sampling programs and issues of combustion efficiency tab., 4 figs., 1 appendix

  16. Solar flare effects on the zodiacal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misconi, N.Y.

    1975-01-01

    An observational and theoretical study was carried out of possible solar flare effects on the zodiacal light. A total of 38 nights (February, March and April 1966, March 1967, and March 1968) of ground based observations, which were taken from Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii by Weinberg, were searched for solar flare effects. No changes were found in the shape of the main cone of the zodiacal light at elongations greater than 23 degrees from the sun to a limit of approximately 20 S 10 (V) units, and none were found in the level of brightness from night to night to a limit of approximately 100 S 10 (V) units. The earlier reported enhancement in the zodiacal light due to a large solar flare by Blackwell and Ingham (1961) is considered doubtful for two reasons: probable contamination of their observations by enhanced atmospheric emission, and detailed geometry of that event shows that it is unlikely that the plasma/dust interaction could have caused a 40 percent enhancement in the zodiacal light. Whether or not the plasma/dust interaction can be effective in causing a brightness change, a knowledge of the brightness contribution along the lines of sight and as a function of heliocentric distance is needed. For this purpose models of dielectric and metallic particles with spatial distribution of the form r/sup -ν/, ν = 0,1,2, and size distribution of the form a/sup -p/, p = 2.5,4, were computed using the Mie scattering theory. Dynamical processes affecting the dust particle's heliocentric orbit were considered in relation to brightness changes

  17. Evidence for solar flare directivity from the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer aboard the SMM satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W. T.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.; Rieger, E.; Share, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    A number of observations from the SMM Gamma-Ray Spectrometer are presented that altogether strongly indicate that the high-energy emission from flares is anisotropic. They are: (1) the fraction of events detected at energies above 300 keV near the limb is significantly higher than is expected for isotropically emitting flares; (2) there is a statistically significant center-to-limb variation in the 300-1000-keV spectra of flares; and (3) nearly all of the events detected at above 10 MeV are located near the limb.

  18. Bright x-ray flares in gamma-ray burst afterglows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, D N; Romano, P; Falcone, A; Kobayashi, S; Zhang, B; Moretti, A; O'brien, P T; Goad, M R; Campana, S; Page, K L; Angelini, L; Barthelmy, S; Beardmore, A P; Capalbi, M; Chincarini, G; Cummings, J; Cusumano, G; Fox, D; Giommi, P; Hill, J E; Kennea, J A; Krimm, H; Mangano, V; Marshall, F; Mészáros, P; Morris, D C; Nousek, J A; Osborne, J P; Pagani, C; Perri, M; Tagliaferri, G; Wells, A A; Woosley, S; Gehrels, N

    2005-09-16

    Gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows have provided important clues to the nature of these massive explosive events, providing direct information on the nearby environment and indirect information on the central engine that powers the burst. We report the discovery of two bright x-ray flares in GRB afterglows, including a giant flare comparable in total energy to the burst itself, each peaking minutes after the burst. These strong, rapid x-ray flares imply that the central engines of the bursts have long periods of activity, with strong internal shocks continuing for hundreds of seconds after the gamma-ray emission has ended.

  19. Early warning for VHE gamma-ray flares with the ARGO-YBJ detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartoli, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bi, X.J. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); Bleve, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bolognino, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica dell' Universita di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Branchini, P.; Budano, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Calabrese Melcarne, A.K. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - CNAF, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Camarri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cao, Z. [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918, 100049 Beijing (China); and others

    2011-12-11

    Detecting and monitoring emissions from flaring gamma-ray sources in the very-high-energy (VHE, > 100 GeV) band is a very important topic in gamma-ray astronomy. The ARGO-YBJ detector is characterized by a high duty cycle and a wide field of view. Therefore, it is particularly capable of detecting flares from extragalactic objects. Based on fast reconstruction and analysis, real-time monitoring of 33 selected VHE extragalactic sources is implemented. Flares exceeding a specific threshold are reported timely, hence enabling the follow-up observation of these objects using more sensitive detectors, such as Cherenkov telescopes.

  20. Observations of a post-flare radio burst in X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svestka, Z.; Hoyng, P.; Van Tend, W.; Boelee, A.; De Jager, C.; Stewart, R. T.; Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C.; Gabriel, A. H.; Rapley, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    More than six hours after the two-ribbon flare of May 21, 1980, the hard X-ray spectrometer aboard the SMM imaged an extensive arch above the flare region which was found to be the lowest part of a stationary post-flare noise storm recorded at the same time at Culgoora. The bent crystal spectrometer aboard the SMM confirms that the arch emission was basically thermal. Variations in brightness and energy spectrum at one of the supposed footpoints of the arch are seen as correlation in time with radio brightness, suggesting that suprathermal particles from the radio noise regions dumped in variable quantities onto the low corona and transition layer.

  1. Complementary online aerosol mass spectrometry and offline FT-IR spectroscopy measurements: Prospects and challenges for the analysis of anthropogenic aerosol particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Peter; Drewnick, Frank; Bierl, Reinhard; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is well established in investigating highly time-resolved dynamics of submicron aerosol chemical composition including organic aerosol (OA). However, interpretation of mass spectra on molecular level is limited due to strong fragmentation of organic substances and potential reactions inside the AMS ion chamber. Results from complementary filter-based FT-IR absorption measurements were used to explain features in high-resolution AMS mass spectra of different types of OA (e.g. cooking OA, cigarette smoking OA, wood burning OA). Using this approach some AMS fragment ions were validated in this study as appropriate and rather specific markers for a certain class of organic compounds for all particle types under investigation. These markers can therefore be used to get deeper insights in the chemical composition of OA based on AMS mass spectra in upcoming studies. However, the specificity of other fragment ions such as C2H4O2+ (m/z 60.02114) remains ambiguous. In such cases, complementary FT-IR measurements allow the interpretation of highly time-resolved AMS mass spectra at the level of molecular functional groups. Furthermore, this study discusses the challenges in reducing inorganic interferences (e.g. from water and ammonium salts) in FT-IR spectra of atmospheric aerosols to decrease spectral uncertainties for better comparisons and, thus, to get more robust results.

  2. Upstream petroleum industry flaring guide : review draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The Alberta requirements and expectations for upstream petroleum flaring are presented. Flaring is associated with a wide range of energy activities including oil and gas well drilling and well completion operations. The guide incorporates the recommendations made to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) in June 1998 by the multi-stakeholder Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) on associated or solution gas flaring. Additional requirements which address flaring issues not covered in the CASA report are also included in this guide. The Guide requires a 15 per cent reduction in solution gas flare volume by the end of year 2000 from the 1996 baseline, and a 25 per cent reduction by the end of 2001. The Guide prescribes new flare performance requirements for all flares, within three years for existing solution gas flares, five years for flares at other existing permanent facilities. It sets personal consultation and public notification requirements for new and existing solution gas batteries, and new sulphur recovery requirements for facilities not covered by existing EUB regulations. The Guide also addresses the question of conflict resolution to deal with flaring concerns, the release of flaring and venting data, the proposed reduction of flare limits, progress towards minimizing requirements for electricity generators using otherwise flared gas, annual reporting to the EUB, and management framework review in 2001

  3. Giant Rapid X-ray Flares in Extragalactic Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jimmy

    2018-01-01

    There is only one known class of non-destructive, highly energetic astrophysical object in the Universe whose energy emission varies by more than a factor of 100 on time scales of less than a minute -- soft gamma repeaters/anomalous X-ray pulsars, whose flares are believed to be caused by the energy release from the cracking of a neutron star's surface by very strong magnetic fields. All other known violent, rapid explosions, including gamma-ray bursts and supernovae, are believed to destroy the object in the process. Here, we report the discovery of a second class of non-destructive, highly energetic rapidly flaring X-ray object located within two nearby galaxies with fundamentally different properties than soft gamma repeaters/anomalous X-ray pulsars. One source is located within a suspected globular cluster of the host galaxy and flared one time, while the other source is located in either a globular cluster of the host galaxy or the core of a stripped dwarf companion galaxy that flared on six occasions over a seven year time span. When not flaring, the sources appear as normal accreting neutron star or black hole X-ray binaries, indicating that the flare event does not significantly disrupt the host system. While the nature of these sources is still unclear, the discovery of these sources in decade-old archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data illustrates the under-utilization of X-ray timing as a means to discover new classes of explosive events in the Universe.

  4. Fermi -LAT Observations of High-energy Behind-the-limb Solar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Allafort, A.; Bottacini, E.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Università di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bissaldi, E.; Caragiulo, M.; Costanza, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bonino, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E.; Ciprini, S. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Cecchi, C., E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: vahep@stanford.edu, E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); and others

    2017-02-01

    We report on the Fermi -LAT detection of high-energy emission from the behind-the-limb (BTL) solar flares that occurred on 2013 October 11, and 2014 January 6 and September 1. The Fermi -LAT observations are associated with flares from active regions originating behind both the eastern and western limbs, as determined by STEREO . All three flares are associated with very fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and strong solar energetic particle events. We present updated localizations of the >100 MeV photon emission, hard X-ray (HXR) and EUV images, and broadband spectra from 10 keV to 10 GeV, as well as microwave spectra. We also provide a comparison of the BTL flares detected by Fermi -LAT with three on-disk flares and present a study of some of the significant quantities of these flares as an attempt to better understand the acceleration mechanisms at work during these occulted flares. We interpret the HXR emission to be due to electron bremsstrahlung from a coronal thin-target loop top with the accelerated electron spectra steepening at semirelativistic energies. The >100 MeV gamma-rays are best described by a pion-decay model resulting from the interaction of protons (and other ions) in a thick-target photospheric source. The protons are believed to have been accelerated (to energies >10 GeV) in the CME environment and precipitate down to the photosphere from the downstream side of the CME shock and landed on the front side of the Sun, away from the original flare site and the HXR emission.

  5. 123I-5-I-R91150, a new single-photon emission tomography ligand for 5-HT2A receptors: influence of age and gender in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeken, C.; D'haenen, H.; Flamen, P.; Bossuyt, A.; Mertens, J.; Terriere, D.; Chavatte, K.; Boumon, R.

    1998-01-01

    5-HT 2A receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in the therapeutic effect of the so-called atypical antipsychotics. Recently, a new radioiodinated ligand with high affinity and selectivity for serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors, 123 iodinated 4-amino-N-1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl] 5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide ( 123 I-5-I-R91150), has been developed and has been shown to be suitable for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. In this study the influence of age and gender on the ligand binding was investigated in normal volunteers. One hundred and fifty MBq of 123 I-5-I-R91150 was administered to 26 normal volunteers (13 females and 13 males) with an age range of 23-60 years. SPET imaging was performed with a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative analysis, ratios of ligand binding in different regions of interest to the binding in the cerebellum were calculated. Mean ratios of 1.7 were obtained. No gender difference was demonstrated. 5-HT 2A binding was shown to decline with age. Over an age range of 40 years a reduction in ligand binding of 42%±7% was found. These results are in agreement with in vitro and positron emission tomography findings of a decline in 5-HT 2A receptor binding with age. The findings confirm the suitability of 123 I-5-I-R91150 for SPET imaging of 5-HT 2A receptors, and highlight the necessity for age-matched controls in clinical studies. (orig.)

  6. Magnetic-Island Contraction and Particle Acceleration in Simulated Eruptive Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, S. E.; Devore, C. R.; Karpen, J. T.; Lynch, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed high-energy impulsive emission in solar flares is not well understood. Drake et al. proposed a mechanism for accelerating electrons in contracting magnetic islands formed by kinetic reconnection in multi-layered current sheets (CSs). We apply these ideas to sunward-moving flux ropes (2.5D magnetic islands) formed during fast reconnection in a simulated eruptive flare. A simple analytic model is used to calculate the energy gain of particles orbiting the field lines of the contracting magnetic islands in our ultrahigh-resolution 2.5D numerical simulation. We find that the estimated energy gains in a single island range up to a factor of five. This is higher than that found by Drake et al. for islands in the terrestrial magnetosphere and at the heliopause, due to strong plasma compression that occurs at the flare CS. In order to increase their energy by two orders of magnitude and plausibly account for the observed high-energy flare emission, the electrons must visit multiple contracting islands. This mechanism should produce sporadic emission because island formation is intermittent. Moreover, a large number of particles could be accelerated in each magneto hydro dynamic-scale island, which may explain the inferred rates of energetic-electron production in flares. We conclude that island contraction in the flare CS is a promising candidate for electron acceleration in solar eruptions.

  7. Optical characterization, 1.5 μm emission and IR-to-visible energy upconversion in Er3+-doped fluorotellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Mendoza, U.R.; Lalla, E.A.; Caceres, J.M.; Rivera-Lopez, F.; Leon-Luis, S.F.; Lavin, V.

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties of Er 3+ ions in a novel glass based on TeO 2 -PbF 2 -AlF 3 oxyfluoride tellurites have been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopies as a function of the rare-earth doping concentration. Basic optical characterizations have been performed measuring and calculating the absorption and emission spectra and the cross-sections, the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, the radiative probabilities and the fluorescence decays and lifetimes. Special attention has been devoted to the broad 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 emission transition at around 1.53 μm since, with a wide broadening of around 70 nm and a relative long lifetime of around 3 ms compared to others glass hosts, it shows potential applications in the design of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers. The absorption, the stimulated emission and the gain cross-sections of this transition have been obtained and compared with that obtained in different hosts. Finally, infrared-to-visible upconversion processes exciting at around 800 nm have been analyzed and different mechanisms involved in the energy conversion have been proposed. - Research highlights: → Broadened emission bands and high absorption and emission cross-sections for the transition 4 I 15/2 → 4 I 13/2 suitable for EDFAs. → Efficient green upconverted emission. → High value of C DA (6) energy transfer parameter.

  8. Improving the technology of purification of gas emissions petrochemical industries

    OpenAIRE

    USMANOVA R.R.; ZAIKOV G.E.

    2014-01-01

    The technology of cleaning of gas emissions flares in the production of synthetic rubber. Developed dynamic scrubber for scrubbing gas emissions. Complex studies served as the basis for the design of an air purification system of industrial premises. Purification of gas emissions before combustion in flares has significantly reduced air pollution by toxic substances.

  9. What's an Asthma Flare-Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Asthma Flare-Ups KidsHealth / For Parents / Asthma Flare-Ups ... español ¿Qué es una crisis asmática? What Are Asthma Flare-Ups? Keeping asthma under control helps kids ...

  10. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  11. DUST ATTENUATION OF THE NEBULAR REGIONS OF z ∼ 2 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: INSIGHT FROM UV, IR, AND EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Barros, S.; Reddy, N.; Shivaei, I., E-mail: stephane.debarros@oabo.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We use a sample of 149 spectroscopically confirmed UV-selected galaxies at z ∼ 2 to investigate the relative dust attenuation of the stellar continuum and the nebular emission lines. For each galaxy in the sample, at least one rest-frame optical emission line (Hα/[N ii] λ6583 or [O iii] λ5007) measurement has been taken from the litterature, and 41 galaxies have additional Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm observations that are used to infer infrared luminosities. We use a spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code that predicts nebular line strengths when fitting the stellar populations of galaxies in our sample, and we perform comparisons between the predictions of our models and the observed/derived physical quantities. We find that on average our code is able to reproduce all the physical quantities (e.g., UV β slopes, infrared luminosities, emission line fluxes), but we need to apply a higher dust correction to the nebular emission compared to the stellar emission for the largest star formation rate (SFR) (log SFR/M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} > 1.82, Salpeter initial mass function). We find a correlation between SFR and the difference in nebular and stellar color excesses, which could resolve the discrepant results regarding nebular dust correction at z ∼ 2 from previous studies.

  12. X-ray line coincidence photopumping in a solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F. P.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Mathioudakis, M.; Rose, S. J.; Flowerdew, J.; Hynes, D.; Christian, D. J.; Nilsen, J.; Johnson, W. R.

    2018-03-01

    Line coincidence photopumping is a process where the electrons of an atomic or molecular species are radiatively excited through the absorption of line emission from another species at a coincident wavelength. There are many instances of line coincidence photopumping in astrophysical sources at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths, with the most famous example being Bowen fluorescence (pumping of O III 303.80 Å by He II), but none to our knowledge in X-rays. However, here we report on a scheme where a He-like line of Ne IX at 11.000 Å is photopumped by He-like Na X at 11.003 Å, which predicts significant intensity enhancement in the Ne IX 82.76 Å transition under physical conditions found in solar flare plasmas. A comparison of our theoretical models with published X-ray observations of a solar flare obtained during a rocket flight provides evidence for line enhancement, with the measured degree of enhancement being consistent with that expected from theory, a truly surprising result. Observations of this enhancement during flares on stars other than the Sun would provide a powerful new diagnostic tool for determining the sizes of flare loops in these distant, spatially unresolved, astronomical sources.

  13. Very fast optical flaring from a possible new Galactic magnetar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, A; Kanbach, G; Słowikowska, A; Greiner, J; McBreen, S; Sala, G

    2008-09-25

    Highly luminous rapid flares are characteristic of processes around compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. In the high-energy regime of X-rays and gamma-rays, outbursts with variabilities on timescales of seconds or less are routinely observed, for example in gamma-ray bursts or soft gamma-ray repeaters. At optical wavelengths, flaring activity on such timescales has not been observed, other than from the prompt phase of one exceptional gamma-ray burst. This is mostly due to the fact that outbursts with strong, fast flaring are usually discovered in the high-energy regime; most optical follow-up observations of such transients use instruments with integration times exceeding tens of seconds, which are therefore unable to resolve fast variability. Here we show the observation of extremely bright and rapid optical flaring in the Galactic transient SWIFT J195509.6+261406. Our optical light curves are phenomenologically similar to high-energy light curves of soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars, which are thought to be neutron stars with extremely high magnetic fields (magnetars). This suggests that similar processes are in operation, but with strong emission in the optical, unlike in the case of other known magnetars.

  14. Expanding CME-flare relations to other stellar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschou, Sofia P.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer

    2017-05-01

    Stellar activity is one of the main parameters in exoplanet habitability studies. While the effects of UV to X-ray emission from extreme flares on exoplanets are beginning to be investigated, the impact of coronal mass ejections is currently highly speculative because CMEs and their properties cannot yet be directly observed on other stars. An extreme superflare was observed in X-rays on the Algol binary system on August 30 1997, emitting a total of energy 1.4x 10^{37} erg and making it a great candidate for studying the upper energy limits of stellar superflares in solar-type (GK) stars. A simultaneous increase and subsequent decline in absorption during the flare was also observed and interpretted as being caused by a CME. Here we investigate the dynamic properties of a CME that could explain such time-dependent absorption and appeal to trends revealed from solar flare and CME statistics as a guide. Using the ice-cream cone model that is extensively used in solar physics to describe the three-dimensional CME structure, in combination with the temporal profile of the hydrogen column density evolution, we are able to characterize the CME and estimate its kinetic energy and mass. We examine the mass, kinetic and flare X-ray fluence in the context of solar relations to examine the extent to which such relations can be extrapolated to much more extreme stellar events.

  15. THE NATURE OF CME-FLARE-ASSOCIATED CORONAL DIMMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J. X. [Key Laboratory of Planetary Sciences, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai 200030 (China); Qiu, J., E-mail: chengjx@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by coronal dimming that is evident in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray observations. The locations of dimming are sometimes considered to map footpoints of the erupting flux rope. As the emitting material expands in the corona, the decreased plasma density leads to reduced emission observed in spectral and irradiance measurements. Therefore, signatures of dimming may reflect the properties of CMEs in the early phase of their eruption. In this study, we analyze the event of flare, CME, and coronal dimming on 2011 December 26. We use the data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory for disk observations of the dimming, and analyze images taken by EUVI, COR1, and COR2 on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory to obtain the height and velocity of the associated CMEs observed at the limb. We also measure the magnetic reconnection rate from flare observations. Dimming occurs in a few locations next to the flare ribbons, and it is observed in multiple EUV passbands. Rapid dimming starts after the onset of fast reconnection and CME acceleration, and its evolution tracks the CME height and flare reconnection. The spatial distribution of dimming exhibits cores of deep dimming with a rapid growth, and their light curves are approximately linearly scaled with the CME height profile. From the dimming analysis we infer the process of the CME expansion, and estimate properties of the CME.

  16. THE NATURE OF CME-FLARE-ASSOCIATED CORONAL DIMMING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J. X.; Qiu, J.

    2016-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are often accompanied by coronal dimming that is evident in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray observations. The locations of dimming are sometimes considered to map footpoints of the erupting flux rope. As the emitting material expands in the corona, the decreased plasma density leads to reduced emission observed in spectral and irradiance measurements. Therefore, signatures of dimming may reflect the properties of CMEs in the early phase of their eruption. In this study, we analyze the event of flare, CME, and coronal dimming on 2011 December 26. We use the data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on the Solar Dynamics Observatory for disk observations of the dimming, and analyze images taken by EUVI, COR1, and COR2 on board the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory to obtain the height and velocity of the associated CMEs observed at the limb. We also measure the magnetic reconnection rate from flare observations. Dimming occurs in a few locations next to the flare ribbons, and it is observed in multiple EUV passbands. Rapid dimming starts after the onset of fast reconnection and CME acceleration, and its evolution tracks the CME height and flare reconnection. The spatial distribution of dimming exhibits cores of deep dimming with a rapid growth, and their light curves are approximately linearly scaled with the CME height profile. From the dimming analysis we infer the process of the CME expansion, and estimate properties of the CME.

  17. IMPLOSION OF CORONAL LOOPS DURING THE IMPULSIVE PHASE OF A SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.; Hudson, H. S.; Russell, A. J. B., E-mail: paulo.simoes@glasgow.ac.uk, E-mail: lyndsay.fletcher@glasgow.ac.uk, E-mail: arussell@maths.dundee.ac.uk, E-mail: hhudson@ssl.berkeley.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-10

    We study the relationship between implosive motions in a solar flare, and the energy redistribution in the form of oscillatory structures and particle acceleration. The flare SOL2012-03-09T03:53 (M6.4) shows clear evidence for an irreversible (stepwise) coronal implosion. Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images show at least four groups of coronal loops at different heights overlying the flaring core undergoing fast contraction during the impulsive phase of the flare. These contractions start around a minute after the flare onset, and the rate of contraction is closely associated with the intensity of the hard X-ray and microwave emissions. They also seem to have a close relationship with the dimming associated with the formation of the coronal mass ejection and a global EUV wave. Several studies now have detected contracting motions in the corona during solar flares that can be interpreted as the implosion necessary to release energy. Our results confirm this, and tighten the association with the flare impulsive phase. We add to the phenomenology by noting the presence of oscillatory variations revealed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite soft X-rays (SXR) and spatially integrated EUV emission at 94 and 335 Å. We identify pulsations of ≈60 s in SXR and EUV data, which we interpret as persistent, semi-regular compressions of the flaring core region which modulate the plasma temperature and emission measure. The loop oscillations, observed over a large region, also allow us to provide rough estimates of the energy temporarily stored in the eigenmodes of the active-region structure as it approaches its new equilibrium.

  18. Explosive Chromospheric Evaporation Driven by Nonthermal Electrons around One Footpoint of a Solar Flare Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Ning, Z. J.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, Q. M., E-mail: lidong@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-05-20

    We explore the temporal relationship between microwave/hard X-ray (HXR) emission and Doppler velocity during the impulsive phase of a solar flare on 2014 October 27 (SOL2014-10-27) that displays a pulse on the light curves in the microwave (34 GHz) and HXR (25–50 keV) bands before the flare maximum. Imaging observation shows that this pulse mainly comes from one footpoint of a solar flare loop. The slit of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) stays at this footpoint during this solar flare. The Doppler velocities of Fe xxi 1354.09 Å and Si iv 1402.77 Å are extracted from the Gaussian fitting method. We find that the hot line of Fe xxi 1354.09 Å (log T ∼ 7.05) in the corona exhibits blueshift, while the cool line of Si iv 1402.77 Å (log T ∼ 4.8) in the transition region exhibits redshift, indicating explosive chromospheric evaporation. Evaporative upflows along the flare loop are also observed in the AIA 131 Å image. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chromospheric evaporation evidence from both spectral and imaging observations in the same flare. Both microwave and HXR pulses are well correlated with the Doppler velocities, suggesting that the chromospheric evaporation is driven by nonthermal electrons around this footpoint of a solar flare loop.

  19. Diagnostics of electron-heated solar flare models. III - Effects of tapered loop geometry and preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Li, Peng; Mariska, John T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of hydrodynamic numerical simulations of nonthermal electron-heated solar flare atmospheres and their corresponding soft X-ray Ca XIX emission-line profiles, under the conditions of tapered flare loop geometry and/or a preheated atmosphere, is presented. The degree of tapering is parameterized by the magnetic mirror ratio, while the preheated atmosphere is parameterized by the initial upper chromospheric pressure. In a tapered flare loop, it is found that the upward motion of evaporated material is faster compared with the case where the flare loop is uniform. This is due to the diverging nozzle seen by the upflowing material. In the case where the flare atmosphere is preheated and the flare geometry is uniform, the response of the atmosphere to the electron collisional heating is slow. The upward velocity of the hydrodynamic gas is reduced due not only to the large coronal column depth, but also to the increased inertia of the overlying material. It is concluded that the only possible electron-heated scenario in which the predicted Ca XIX line profiles agree with the BCS observations is when the impulsive flare starts in a preheated dense corona.

  20. Efficient conversion from UV light to near-IR emission in Yb{sup 3+}-doped triple-layered perovskite CaLaNb{sub 3}O{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuting; Li, Yuze; Qin, Lin; Huang, Yanlin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Qin, Chuanxiang, E-mail: qinchuanxiang@suda.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Tsuboi, Taiju [Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio-Electronics & Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Huang, Wei, E-mail: wei-huang@njtech.edu.cn [Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio-Electronics & Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: CaRNb{sub 3}O{sub 10} is a self-activated oxide due to charge transfer transition in octahedral NbO{sub 6} groups. CaLaNb{sub 3}O{sub 10}:Yb{sup 3+} presents intense IR emission due to the cooperative energy transfer from host (NbO{sub 6}) to Yb{sup 3+} is responsible. It could be expected to be potentially applicable for enhancing photovoltaic conversion efficiency of Si-based solar cells. - Abstract: Yb{sup 3+}-doped triple-layered perovskite CaLaNb{sub 3}O{sub 10} micro-particles were synthesized via the solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure and morphology of the polycrystalline samples were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, respectively. The reflectance spectra, photoluminescence (PL) excitation and emission spectra, the decay curves, and the absolute quantum efficiency (QE) of the near-infrared (NIR) emission (910–1100 nm) were measured. Under excitation of UV light, Yb{sup 3+}-doped perovskite shows an intense NIR emission attributed to the {sup 2}F{sub 5/2} → {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} transitions of Yb{sup 3+} ions, which could match maximum spectral response of a Si-based solar cell. This is beneficial for its possible application in an enhancement of the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of solar energy utilization. The efficient energy transfer in Yb{sup 3+}-doped CaLaNb{sub 3}O{sub 10} from NbO{sub 6} groups into Yb{sup 3+} ions was confirmed by the spectra and fluorescent decay measurements. Cooperative energy transfer (CET) was supposed to be the NIR emission mechanism.

  1. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  2. Thermal Fronts in Solar Flares

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 814, č. 2 (2015), 153/1-153/7 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : plasmas * Sun flares * radio radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  3. Solar Flare Aimed at Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    At the height of the solar cycle, the Sun is finally displaying some fireworks. This image from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) shows a large solar flare from June 6, 2000 at 1424 Universal Time (10:24 AM Eastern Daylight Savings Time). Associated with the flare was a coronal mass ejection that sent a wave of fast moving charged particles straight towards Earth. (The image was acquired by the Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT), one of 12 instruments aboard SOHO) Solar activity affects the Earth in several ways. The particles generated by flares can disrupt satellite communications and interfere with power transmission on the Earth's surface. Earth's climate is tied to the total energy emitted by the sun, cooling when the sun radiates less energy and warming when solar output increases. Solar radiation also produces ozone in the stratosphere, so total ozone levels tend to increase during the solar maximum. For more information about these solar flares and the SOHO mission, see NASA Science News or the SOHO home page. For more about the links between the sun and climate change, see Sunspots and the Solar Max. Image courtesy SOHO Extreme ultaviolet Imaging Telescope, ESA/NASA

  4. FLARING BEHAVIOR OF THE QUASAR 3C 454.3 ACROSS THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Chatterjee, Ritaban; D'Arcangelo, Francesca D.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Blinov, Dmitry A.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Konstantinova, Tatiana S.; Kopatskaya, Evgenia N.; Agudo, Ivan; Gomez, Jose L.; Smith, Paul S.; Gurwell, Mark; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Tornikoski, Merja; Markowitz, Alex; Arkharov, Arkadi A.; Falcone, Abe D.; Jordan, Brendan; Kimeridze, Givi N.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of the parsec-scale jet of the quasar 3C 454.3 during pronounced flaring in 2005-2008. Three major disturbances propagated down the jet along different trajectories with Lorentz factors Γ > 10. The disturbances show a clear connection with millimeter-wave outbursts, in 2005 May/June, 2007 July, and 2007 December. High-amplitude optical events in the R-band light curve precede peaks of the millimeter-wave outbursts by 15-50 days. Each optical outburst is accompanied by an increase in X-ray activity. We associate the optical outbursts with propagation of the superluminal knots and derive the location of sites of energy dissipation in the form of radiation. The most prominent and long lasting of these, in 2005 May, occurred closer to the black hole, while the outbursts with a shorter duration in 2005 autumn and in 2007 might be connected with the passage of a disturbance through the millimeter-wave core of the jet. The optical outbursts, which coincide with the passage of superluminal radio knots through the core, are accompanied by systematic rotation of the position angle of optical linear polarization. Such rotation appears to be a common feature during the early stages of flares in blazars. We find correlations between optical variations and those at X-ray and γ-ray energies. We conclude that the emergence of a superluminal knot from the core yields a series of optical and high-energy outbursts, and that the millimeter-wave core lies at the end of the jet's acceleration and collimation zone. We infer that the X-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton scattering by relativistic electrons of photons both from within the jet (synchrotron self-Compton) and external to the jet (external Compton, or EC); which one dominates depends on the physical parameters of the jet. A broken power-law model of the γ-ray spectrum reflects a steepening of the synchrotron emission spectrum from near-IR to soft UV wavelengths. We propose that the

  5. Emission from water vapor and absorption from other gases at 5-7.5 μm in Spitzer-IRS Spectra Of Protoplanetary Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, B. A. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Forrest, W.; Watson, Dan M.; Kim, K. H.; Richter, I.; Tayrien, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); D' Alessio, P.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Furlan, E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Green, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Pontoppidan, K., E-mail: baspci@rit.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present spectra of 13 T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region showing emission in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph 5-7.5 μm spectra from water vapor and absorption from other gases in these stars' protoplanetary disks. Seven stars' spectra show an emission feature at 6.6 μm due to the ν{sub 2} = 1-0 bending mode of water vapor, with the shape of the spectrum suggesting water vapor temperatures >500 K, though some of these spectra also show indications of an absorption band, likely from another molecule. This water vapor emission contrasts with the absorption from warm water vapor seen in the spectrum of the FU Orionis star V1057 Cyg. The other 6 of the 13 stars have spectra showing a strong absorption band, peaking in strength at 5.6-5.7 μm, which for some is consistent with gaseous formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and for others is consistent with gaseous formic acid (HCOOH). There are indications that some of these six stars may also have weak water vapor emission. Modeling of these stars' spectra suggests these gases are present in the inner few AU of their host disks, consistent with recent studies of infrared spectra showing gas in protoplanetary disks.

  6. Flare observation by the satellite 'Hinotori'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    The satellite ''Hinotori'' makes 5 rounds a day and is doing flare observation. The total observation days amounted to 94 days. Among the observed flares, the quiet mode flares were picked up from the reproduced data. The plot of the time variation of flares was obtained for four energy bands, HXM-1 (17 to 40 keV), HXM2 - 7 (over 40 keV), FLM-L (1 to 5 keV) and FLM-H (5 to 12 keV). At present, the judge of flares is made by using hard X-ray of the HXM-1 plot. False signals were completely removed. A large percentage of big flares was collected by Hinotori, eleven X-class flares were recorded. The operation status of ''Hinotori'' has been in good condition. The spin frequency has increased with a constant rate. (Kato, T.)

  7. Assessment of respiratory disorders in relation to solution gas flaring activities in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    A study was conducted by Alberta Health to address the issue of whether or not flaring of solution gas has a negative impact on human health. The Flaring Working Group of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance initiated this study which focused on the assessment of the relationship between human health disorders (such as asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia and upper respiratory infections) and solution gas flaring activities in rural, urban and aboriginal populations. The personal exposure to flaring emissions was estimated by physical proximity to the source of emissions. A small area was studied in which geographical variations in human health disorders were compared to geographical variations of socioeconomic and environmental factors. Data was gathered from 1989 to 1996 to evaluate long term average conditions and changes over the time period investigated. Notwithstanding physicians' claims for increased rates of respiratory infections and hospitalization attributed to solution gas flaring, the study found no evidence linking respiratory infections and solution gas flaring. This was the conclusion regardless of the measure of health outcomes, the rural-urban status, ethnicity, or age. Nevertheless, the study recommended identification of bio-markers of exposure and effect reflective of the compounds of interest, and the development of a responsive and comprehensive geographic information database that would allow data linkage at all geographic levels for different periods of time. refs., 10 tabs., 15 figs., 1 appendix

  8. A very small and super strong zebra pattern burst at the beginning of a solar flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yihua [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Mészárosová, Hana; Karlický, Marian, E-mail: bltan@nao.cas.cn [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ondřejov 15165 (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-01

    Microwave emission with spectral zebra pattern structures (ZPs) is frequently observed in solar flares and the Crab pulsar. The previous observations show that ZP is a structure only overlapped on the underlying broadband continuum with slight increments and decrements. This work reports an unusually strong ZP burst occurring at the beginning of a solar flare observed simultaneously by two radio telescopes located in China and the Czech Republic and by the EUV telescope on board NASA's satellite Solar Dynamics Observatory on 2013 April 11. It is a very short and super strong explosion whose intensity exceeds several times that of the underlying flaring broadband continuum emission, lasting for just 18 s. EUV images show that the flare starts from several small flare bursting points (FBPs). There is a sudden EUV flash with extra enhancement in one of these FBPs during the ZP burst. Analysis indicates that the ZP burst accompanying an EUV flash is an unusual explosion revealing a strong coherent process with rapid particle acceleration, violent energy release, and fast plasma heating simultaneously in a small region with a short duration just at the beginning of the flare.

  9. Statistical study of spatio-temporal distribution of precursor solar flares associated with major flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Ballai, I.; Baranyi, T.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the spatio-temporal distribution of precursor flares during the 24 h interval preceding M- and X-class major flares and the evolution of follower flares. Information on associated (precursor and follower) flares is provided by Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Flare list, while the major flares are observed by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system satellites between 2002 and 2014. There are distinct evolutionary differences between the spatio-temporal distributions of associated flares in about one-day period depending on the type of the main flare. The spatial distribution was characterized by the normalized frequency distribution of the quantity δ (the distance between the major flare and its precursor flare normalized by the sunspot group diameter) in four 6 h time intervals before the major event. The precursors of X-class flares have a double-peaked spatial distribution for more than half a day prior to the major flare, but it changes to a lognormal-like distribution roughly 6 h prior to the event. The precursors of M-class flares show lognormal-like distribution in each 6 h subinterval. The most frequent sites of the precursors in the active region are within a distance of about 0.1 diameter of sunspot group from the site of the major flare in each case. Our investigation shows that the build-up of energy is more effective than the release of energy because of precursors.

  10. KEPLER FLARES. II. THE TEMPORAL MORPHOLOGY OF WHITE-LIGHT FLARES ON GJ 1243

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Johnson, Emily C.; Peraza, Jesus; Jansen, Tiffany C.; Larsen, Daniel M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hebb, Leslie [Department of Physics, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, 300 Pulteney Street, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States); Wisniewski, John P.; Malatesta, Michael; Keil, Marcus; Silverberg, Steven M.; Scheffler, Matthew S.; Berdis, Jodi R. [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Kowalski, Adam F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hilton, Eric J., E-mail: jrad@astro.washington.edu [Universe Sandbox, 911 E. Pike Street #333, Seattle, WA 98122 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    We present the largest sample of flares ever compiled for a single M dwarf, the active M4 star GJ 1243. Over 6100 individual flare events, with energies ranging from 10{sup 29} to 10{sup 33} erg, are found in 11 months of 1 minute cadence data from Kepler. This sample is unique for its completeness and dynamic range. We have developed automated tools for finding flares in short-cadence Kepler light curves, and performed extensive validation and classification of the sample by eye. From this pristine sample of flares we generate a median flare template. This template shows that two exponential cooling phases are present during the white-light flare decay, providing fundamental constraints for models of flare physics. The template is also used as a basis function to decompose complex multi-peaked flares, allowing us to study the energy distribution of these events. Only a small number of flare events are not well fit by our template. We find that complex, multi-peaked flares occur in over 80% of flares with a duration of 50 minutes or greater. The underlying distribution of flare durations for events 10 minutes and longer appears to follow a broken power law. Our results support the idea that sympathetic flaring may be responsible for some complex flare events.

  11. KEPLER FLARES. II. THE TEMPORAL MORPHOLOGY OF WHITE-LIGHT FLARES ON GJ 1243

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, James R. A.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Johnson, Emily C.; Peraza, Jesus; Jansen, Tiffany C.; Larsen, Daniel M.; Hebb, Leslie; Wisniewski, John P.; Malatesta, Michael; Keil, Marcus; Silverberg, Steven M.; Scheffler, Matthew S.; Berdis, Jodi R.; Kowalski, Adam F.; Hilton, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    We present the largest sample of flares ever compiled for a single M dwarf, the active M4 star GJ 1243. Over 6100 individual flare events, with energies ranging from 10 29 to 10 33 erg, are found in 11 months of 1 minute cadence data from Kepler. This sample is unique for its completeness and dynamic range. We have developed automated tools for finding flares in short-cadence Kepler light curves, and performed extensive validation and classification of the sample by eye. From this pristine sample of flares we generate a median flare template. This template shows that two exponential cooling phases are present during the white-light flare decay, providing fundamental constraints for models of flare physics. The template is also used as a basis function to decompose complex multi-peaked flares, allowing us to study the energy distribution of these events. Only a small number of flare events are not well fit by our template. We find that complex, multi-peaked flares occur in over 80% of flares with a duration of 50 minutes or greater. The underlying distribution of flare durations for events 10 minutes and longer appears to follow a broken power law. Our results support the idea that sympathetic flaring may be responsible for some complex flare events

  12. The Great Bear Flare Pit Project : review of work to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridal, J.; Lean, D.; Findlay, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Published information regarding potential toxic agents associated with flare emissions and a study to determine the risk posed to Treaty 8 First Nations (T8FN) peoples and wildlife was reviewed as part of the Great Bear Flare Pit Project (GBFPP). The project is concerned with the study of water and soil contamination in the immediate vicinity of flare pits in the Del Rio, Doig basin, Blueberry River, and Halfway River regions of T8FN lands in Alberta. The GBFPP has established good baseline data on metal contamination, and other contaminants such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the immediate vicinity of selected flare pits. Based on a critical assessment of reports published to date a series of prioritized recommendations for further research are made. 18 refs., 2 tabs

  13. A search for X-rays from UV Ceti flare stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crannell, C.J.; Spangler, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    A search of the MIT/OSO-7 data has been made for evidence of X-ray emission from flares of UV Ceti flare stars. Observations from McDonald Observatory have been used to identify the times of optical flares. The only instance of coincident coverage occurred on 1974 January 21 UT at 03:43:26 GMT for a Δm = 0.86 flare of YZ CMi. No radio coverage of this particular event was obtained. Upper limits of 0.8, 1.0, and 0.7 photons/cm 2 s on the observed X-ray flux have been set for the energy ranges >= 15, >= 3, and 1-10 keV, respectively. (orig.) [de

  14. FAST CONTRACTION OF CORONAL LOOPS AT THE FLARE PEAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui; Wang Haimin

    2010-01-01

    On 2005 September 8, a coronal loop overlying the active region NOAA 10808 was observed in TRACE 171 A to contract at ∼100 km s -1 at the peak of an X5.4-2B flare at 21:05 UT. Prior to the fast contraction, the loop underwent a much slower contraction at ∼6 km s -1 for about 8 minutes, initiating during the flare preheating phase. The sudden switch to fast contraction is presumably corresponding to the onset of the impulsive phase. The contraction resulted in the oscillation of a group of loops located below, with the period of about 10 minutes. Meanwhile, the contracting loop exhibited a similar oscillatory pattern superimposed on the dominant downward motion. We suggest that the fast contraction reflects a suddenly reduced magnetic pressure underneath due either to (1) the eruption of magnetic structures located at lower altitudes or to (2) the rapid conversion of magnetic free energy in the flare core region. Electrons accelerated in the shrinking trap formed by the contracting loop can theoretically contribute to a late-phase hard X-ray burst, which is associated with Type IV radio emission. To complement the X5.4 flare which was probably confined, a similar event observed in SOHO/EIT 195 A on 2004 July 20 in an eruptive, M8.6 flare is briefly described, in which the contraction was followed by the expansion of the same loop leading up to a halo coronal mass ejection. These observations further substantiate the conjecture of coronal implosion and suggest coronal implosion as a new exciter mechanism for coronal loop oscillations.

  15. Parameterizations of Chromospheric Condensations in dG and dMe Model Flare Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Allred, Joel C.

    2018-01-01

    The origin of the near-ultraviolet and optical continuum radiation in flares is critical for understanding particle acceleration and impulsive heating in stellar atmospheres. Radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations in 1D have shown that high energy deposition rates from electron beams produce two flaring layers at T ∼ 104 K that develop in the chromosphere: a cooling condensation (downflowing compression) and heated non-moving (stationary) flare layers just below the condensation. These atmospheres reproduce several observed phenomena in flare spectra, such as the red-wing asymmetry of the emission lines in solar flares and a small Balmer jump ratio in M dwarf flares. The high beam flux simulations are computationally expensive in 1D, and the (human) timescales for completing NLTE models with adaptive grids in 3D will likely be unwieldy for some time to come. We have developed a prescription for predicting the approximate evolved states, continuum optical depth, and emergent continuum flux spectra of RHD model flare atmospheres. These approximate prescriptions are based on an important atmospheric parameter: the column mass ({m}{ref}) at which hydrogen becomes nearly completely ionized at the depths that are approximately in steady state with the electron beam heating. Using this new modeling approach, we find that high energy flux density (>F11) electron beams are needed to reproduce the brightest observed continuum intensity in IRIS data of the 2014 March 29 X1 solar flare, and that variation in {m}{ref} from 0.001 to 0.02 g cm‑2 reproduces most of the observed range of the optical continuum flux ratios at the peak of M dwarf flares.

  16. On the Nature of Off-limb Flare Continuum Sources Detected by SDO /HMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, P.; Kašparová, J. [Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Kleint, L.; Krucker, S., E-mail: pheinzel@asu.cas.cz [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2017-09-20

    The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory has provided unique observations of off-limb flare emission. White-light continuum enhancements were detected in the “continuum” channel of the Fe 6173 Å line during the impulsive phase of the observed flares. In this paper we aim to determine which radiation mechanism is responsible for such enhancement being seen above the limb, at chromospheric heights around or below 1000 km. Using a simple analytical approach, we compare two candidate mechanisms, the hydrogen recombination continuum (Paschen) and the Thomson continuum due to scattering of disk radiation on flare electrons. Both mechanisms depend on the electron density, which is typically enhanced during the impulsive phase of a flare as the result of collisional ionization (both thermal and also non-thermal due to electron beams). We conclude that for electron densities higher than 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}, the Paschen recombination continuum significantly dominates the Thomson scattering continuum and there is some contribution from the hydrogen free–free emission. This is further supported by detailed radiation-hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations of the flare chromosphere heated by the electron beams. We use the RHD code FLARIX to compute the temporal evolution of the flare-heating in a semi-circular loop. The synthesized continuum structure above the limb resembles the off-limb flare structures detected by HMI, namely their height above the limb, as well as the radiation intensity. These results are consistent with recent findings related to hydrogen Balmer continuum enhancements, which were clearly detected in disk flares by the IRIS near-ultraviolet spectrometer.

  17. Statistics of “Cold” Early Impulsive Solar Flares in X-Ray and Microwave Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Alexandra L.; Altyntsev, Alexander T.; Meshalkina, Natalia S.; Zhdanov, Dmitriy; Fleishman, Gregory D.

    2018-04-01

    Solar flares often happen after a preflare/preheating phase, which is almost or entirely thermal. In contrast, there are the so-called early impulsive flares that do not show a (significant) preflare heating, but instead often show the Neupert effect—a relationship where the impulsive phase is followed by a gradual, cumulative-like, thermal response. This has been interpreted as a dominance of nonthermal energy release at the impulsive phase, even though a similar phenomenology is expected if the thermal and nonthermal energies are released in comparable amounts at the impulsive phase. Nevertheless, some flares do show a good quantitative correspondence between the nonthermal electron energy input and plasma heating; in such cases, the thermal response was weak, which results in them being called “cold” flares. We undertook a systematic search for such events among early impulsive flares registered by the Konus-Wind instrument in the triggered mode from 11/1994 to 4/2017, and selected 27 cold flares based on relationships between hard X-ray (HXR) (Konus-Wind) and soft X-ray (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) emission. For these events, we put together all available microwave data from different instruments. We obtained temporal and spectral parameters of HXR and microwave emissions of the events and examined correlations between them. We found that, compared to a “mean” flare, the cold flares: (i) are weaker, shorter, and harder in the X-ray domain; (ii) are harder and shorter, but not weaker in the microwaves; (iii) have a significantly higher spectral peak frequencies in the microwaves. We discuss the possible physical reasons for these distinctions and implication of the finding.

  18. GLOBAL ENERGETICS OF SOLAR FLARES. IV. CORONAL MASS EJECTION ENERGETICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2016-01-01

    This study entails the fourth part of a global flare energetics project, in which the mass m cme , kinetic energy E kin , and the gravitational potential energy E grav of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is measured in 399 M and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, using a new method based on the EUV dimming effect. EUV dimming is modeled in terms of a radial adiabatic expansion process, which is fitted to the observed evolution of the total emission measure of the CME source region. The model derives the evolution of the mean electron density, the emission measure, the bulk plasma expansion velocity, the mass, and the energy in the CME source region. The EUV dimming method is truly complementary to the Thomson scattering method in white light, which probes the CME evolution in the heliosphere at r ≳ 2 R ⊙ , while the EUV dimming method tracks the CME launch in the corona. We compare the CME parameters obtained in white light with the LASCO/C2 coronagraph with those obtained from EUV dimming with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the SDO for all identical events in both data sets. We investigate correlations between CME parameters, the relative timing with flare parameters, frequency occurrence distributions, and the energy partition between magnetic, thermal, nonthermal, and CME energies. CME energies are found to be systematically lower than the dissipated magnetic energies, which is consistent with a magnetic origin of CMEs.

  19. Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in a solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The hard and soft x ray and microwave emissions from a solar flare (May 14, 1980) were analyzed and interpreted in terms of Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft x ray emitting plasma can only be heated by a single current sheet if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity of 10(exp 7) K, 10(exp 11)/cu cm plasma. If the hard x ray emission is from thermal electrons, anomalous resistivity or densities exceeding 3 x 10(exp 12)/cu cm are required. If the hard x ray emission is from nonthermal electrons, the emissions can be produced with classical resistivity in the current sheets if the heating rate is approximately 4 times greater than that deduced from the soft x ray data (with a density of 10(exp 10)/cu cm in the soft x ray emitting region), if there are at least 10(exp 4) current sheets, and if the plasma properties in the sheets are characteristic of the superhot plasma observed in some flares by Lin et al., and with Hinotori. Most of the released energy goes directly into bulk heating, rather than accelerated particles.

  20. Pion-decay radiation and two-phase acceleration in the June 3, 1982 solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.; Dermer, C. D.; Murphy, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    The June 3, 1982 flare is unique in the wealth of observed neutron, gamma-ray and energetic-particle emission that it produced. Using calculations of high-energy emissions to fit the various time-dependent gamma-ray fluxes, a self-consistent interaction model for the June 3 flare is constructed in which the observed fluxes are produced by two distinct particle populations with different acceleration and interaction time histories as well as different but time-independent energy spectra. The two populations are associated with first- and second-phase particle acceleration, respectively.

  1. The Effects of Flare Definitions on the Statistics of Derived Flare Distrubtions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Dominique, Marie; Seaton, Daniel B.; Stegen, Koen; White, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    The statistical examination of solar flares is crucial to revealing their global characteristics and behaviour. However, statistical flare studies are often performed using standard but basic flare detection algorithms relying on arbitrary thresholds which may affect the derived flare distributions. We explore the effect of the arbitrary thresholds used in the GOES event list and LYRA Flare Finder algorithms. We find that there is a small but significant relationship between the power law exponent of the GOES flare peak flux frequency distribution and the algorithms’ flare start thresholds. We also find that the power law exponents of these distributions are not stable but appear to steepen with increasing peak flux. This implies that the observed flare size distribution may not be a power law at all. We show that depending on the true value of the exponent of the flare size distribution, this deviation from a power law may be due to flares missed by the flare detection algorithms. However, it is not possible determine the true exponent from GOES/XRS observations. Additionally we find that the PROBA2/LYRA flare size distributions are clearly non-power law. We show that this is consistent with an insufficient degradation correction which causes LYRA absolute irradiance values to be unreliable. This means that they should not be used for flare statistics or energetics unless degradation is adequately accounted for. However they can be used to study time variations over shorter timescales and for space weather monitoring.

  2. Core Emergence in a Massive Infrared Dark Cloud: A Comparison between Mid-IR Extinction and 1.3 mm Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shuo; Tan, Jonathan C.; Arce, Héctor G.; Caselli, Paola; Fontani, Francesco; Butler, Michael J.

    2018-03-01

    Stars are born from dense cores in molecular clouds. Observationally, it is crucial to capture the formation of cores in order to understand the necessary conditions and rate of the star formation process. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is extremely powerful for identifying dense gas structures, including cores, at millimeter wavelengths via their dust continuum emission. Here, we use ALMA to carry out a survey of dense gas and cores in the central region of the massive (∼105 M ⊙) infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G28.37+0.07. The observation consists of a mosaic of 86 pointings of the 12 m array and produces an unprecedented view of the densest structures of this IRDC. In this first Letter about this data set, we focus on a comparison between the 1.3 mm continuum emission and a mid-infrared (MIR) extinction map of the IRDC. This allows estimation of the “dense gas” detection probability function (DPF), i.e., as a function of the local mass surface density, Σ, for various choices of thresholds of millimeter continuum emission to define “dense gas.” We then estimate the dense gas mass fraction, f dg, in the central region of the IRDC and, via extrapolation with the DPF and the known Σ probability distribution function, to the larger-scale surrounding regions, finding values of about 5% to 15% for the fiducial choice of threshold. We argue that this observed dense gas is a good tracer of the protostellar core population and, in this context, estimate a star formation efficiency per free-fall time in the central IRDC region of ɛ ff ∼ 10%, with approximately a factor of two systematic uncertainties.

  3. TIME-RESOLVED PROPERTIES AND GLOBAL TRENDS IN dMe FLARES FROM SIMULTANEOUS PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W. Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hilton, Eric J. [Universe Sandbox, Seattle, WA (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Schmidt, Sarah J., E-mail: adam.f.kowalski@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We present a homogeneous analysis of line and continuum emission from simultaneous high-cadence spectra and photometry covering near-ultraviolet and optical wavelengths for 20 M dwarf flares. These data were obtained to study the white-light continuum components at bluer and redder wavelengths than the Balmer jump. Our goals were to break the degeneracy between emission mechanisms that have been fit to broadband colors of flares and to provide constraints for radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) flare models that seek to reproduce the white-light flare emission. The main results from the analysis are the following: (1) the detection of Balmer continuum (in emission) that is present during all flares and with a wide range of relative contributions to the continuum flux at bluer wavelengths than the Balmer jump; (2) a blue continuum at flare maximum that is linearly decreasing with wavelength from {lambda} = 4000-4800 A, indicative of hot, blackbody emission with typical temperatures of T{sub BB} {approx} 9000-14, 000 K; (3) a redder continuum apparent at wavelengths longer than H{beta} ({lambda} {approx}> 4900 A) which becomes relatively more important to the energy budget during the late gradual phase. The hot blackbody component and redder continuum component have been detected in previous studies of flares. However, we have found that although the hot blackbody emission component is relatively well-represented by a featureless, single-temperature Planck function, this component includes absorption features and has a continuum shape strikingly similar to the spectrum of an A-type star as directly observed in our flare spectra. New model constraints are presented for the time evolution among the hydrogen Balmer lines and between Ca II K and the blackbody continuum emission. We calculate Balmer jump flux ratios and compare to the solar-type flare heating predictions from RHD models. The model ratios are too large and the blue-optical ({lambda} = 4000-4800 A) slopes are too

  4. TIME-RESOLVED PROPERTIES AND GLOBAL TRENDS IN dMe FLARES FROM SIMULTANEOUS PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Davenport, James R. A.; Wisniewski, John P.; Osten, Rachel A.; Hilton, Eric J.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Schmidt, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a homogeneous analysis of line and continuum emission from simultaneous high-cadence spectra and photometry covering near-ultraviolet and optical wavelengths for 20 M dwarf flares. These data were obtained to study the white-light continuum components at bluer and redder wavelengths than the Balmer jump. Our goals were to break the degeneracy between emission mechanisms that have been fit to broadband colors of flares and to provide constraints for radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) flare models that seek to reproduce the white-light flare emission. The main results from the analysis are the following: (1) the detection of Balmer continuum (in emission) that is present during all flares and with a wide range of relative contributions to the continuum flux at bluer wavelengths than the Balmer jump; (2) a blue continuum at flare maximum that is linearly decreasing with wavelength from λ = 4000-4800 Å, indicative of hot, blackbody emission with typical temperatures of T BB ∼ 9000-14, 000 K; (3) a redder continuum apparent at wavelengths longer than Hβ (λ ∼> 4900 Å) which becomes relatively more important to the energy budget during the late gradual phase. The hot blackbody component and redder continuum component have been detected in previous studies of flares. However, we have found that although the hot blackbody emission component is relatively well-represented by a featureless, single-temperature Planck function, this component includes absorption features and has a continuum shape strikingly similar to the spectrum of an A-type star as directly observed in our flare spectra. New model constraints are presented for the time evolution among the hydrogen Balmer lines and between Ca II K and the blackbody continuum emission. We calculate Balmer jump flux ratios and compare to the solar-type flare heating predictions from RHD models. The model ratios are too large and the blue-optical (λ = 4000-4800 Å) slopes are too red in both the impulsive and

  5. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF NEAR-IR WATER (H2O) EMISSION IN COMET C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) WITH THE GIANO/TNG SPECTROGRAPH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggi, S.; Brucato, J. R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1–2.5 μ m region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H 2 O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [ Q (H 2 O), (3.11 ± 0.14) × 10 29 s −1 ] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H 2 O. The production rates of ortho-water [ Q (H 2 O) ORTHO , (2.33 ± 0.11) × 10 29 s −1 ] and para-water [ Q (H 2 O) PARA , (0.87 ± 0.21) × 1029 s −1 ] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70 ± 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  6. Detailed Analysis of Near-IR Water (H2O) Emission in Comet C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) with the GIANO/TNG Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, S.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Brucato, J.R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1-2.5 micron region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H2O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [Q(H2O), (3.11+/- 0.14) x 10(exp 29)/s] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H2O. The production rates of ortho-water [Q(H2O)ORTHO, (2.33+/- 0.11) x 10(exp 29)/s] and para-water [Q(H2O)PARA, (0.87+/-0.21) x 10(exp 29)/s] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70+/- 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  7. Using SDO's AIA to investigate energy transport from a flare's energy release site to the chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G. D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Coordinated observations of a GOES B4.8 microflare with SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 2010 July 31 show that emission in all seven of AIA's EUV channels brightened simultaneously nearly 6 min before RHESSI or GOES detected emission from plasma at temperatures around 10 MK. Aims: To help interpret these and AIA flare observations in general, we characterized the expected temporal responses of AIA's 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 Å channels to solar flare brightenings by combining (1) AIA's nominal temperature response functions available through SSWIDL with (2) EUV spectral line data observed in a flare loop footpoint on 2001 April 24 with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on timescales comparable to AIA's image cadence. Methods: The nine emission lines observed by CDS cover a wide range of formation temperature from about 0.05 to 8 MK. Line brightenings observed early during the CDS flare occurred at temperatures less than about 0.7 MK, with the largest values around 0.1 MK. These brightenings were consistent with the flare's energy transport being dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Because all of AIA's EUV channels are sensitive to emission from plasma in the 0.1 to 0.7 MK temperature range, we show that all of AIA's EUV channels will brighten simultaneously during flares like this, in which energy transport is dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Results: The 2010 July 31 flare observed by AIA and RHESSI displays this behavior, so we conclude that such beams likely dominated the flare's energy transport early during the event. When thermal conduction from a reconnection-heated, hot (~10 MK) plasma dominates the energy transport, the AIA channels that are sensitive to emission from such temperatures (particularly the 94 and 131 Å channels) will brighten earlier than the channels that are not sensitive to such temperatures (171 and 211 Å). Conclusions: Thus

  8. Deep Flare Net (DeFN) Model for Solar Flare Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizuka, N.; Sugiura, K.; Kubo, Y.; Den, M.; Ishii, M.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a solar flare prediction model using a deep neural network (DNN) named Deep Flare Net (DeFN). This model can calculate the probability of flares occurring in the following 24 hr in each active region, which is used to determine the most likely maximum classes of flares via a binary classification (e.g., ≥M class versus statistically predict flares, the DeFN model was trained to optimize the skill score, i.e., the true skill statistic (TSS). As a result, we succeeded in predicting flares with TSS = 0.80 for ≥M-class flares and TSS = 0.63 for ≥C-class flares. Note that in usual DNN models, the prediction process is a black box. However, in the DeFN model, the features are manually selected, and it is possible to analyze which features are effective for prediction after evaluation.

  9. SLIPPING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION, CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION, IMPLOSION, AND PRECURSORS IN THE 2014 SEPTEMBER 10 X1.6-CLASS SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Karlický, Marian; Dzifčáková, Elena [Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Polito, Vanessa; Mulay, Sargam M.; Zanna, Giulio Del; Mason, Helen E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, CMS, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Janvier, Miho [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Centre Universitaire d’Orsay, Bt 120121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Aulanier, Guillaume; Schmieder, Brigitte, E-mail: dudik@asu.cas.cz [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2016-05-20

    We investigate the occurrence of slipping magnetic reconnection, chromospheric evaporation, and coronal loop dynamics in the 2014 September 10 X-class flare. Slipping reconnection is found to be present throughout the flare from its early phase. Flare loops are seen to slip in opposite directions toward both ends of the ribbons. Velocities of 20–40 km s{sup −1} are found within time windows where the slipping is well resolved. The warm coronal loops exhibit expanding and contracting motions that are interpreted as displacements due to the growing flux rope that subsequently erupts. This flux rope existed and erupted before the onset of apparent coronal implosion. This indicates that the energy release proceeds by slipping reconnection and not via coronal implosion. The slipping reconnection leads to changes in the geometry of the observed structures at the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph slit position, from flare loop top to the footpoints in the ribbons. This results in variations of the observed velocities of chromospheric evaporation in the early flare phase. Finally, it is found that the precursor signatures, including localized EUV brightenings as well as nonthermal X-ray emission, are signatures of the flare itself, progressing from the early phase toward the impulsive phase, with the tether-cutting being provided by the slipping reconnection. The dynamics of both the flare and outlying coronal loops is found to be consistent with the predictions of the standard solar flare model in three dimensions.

  10. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF NEAR-IR WATER (H{sub 2}O) EMISSION IN COMET C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) WITH THE GIANO/TNG SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faggi, S.; Brucato, J. R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J., E-mail: sfaggi@arcetri.astro.it [NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1–2.5 μ m region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H{sub 2}O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [ Q (H{sub 2}O), (3.11 ± 0.14) × 10{sup 29} s{sup −1}] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H{sub 2}O. The production rates of ortho-water [ Q (H{sub 2}O){sup ORTHO}, (2.33 ± 0.11) × 10{sup 29} s{sup −1}] and para-water [ Q (H{sub 2}O){sup PARA}, (0.87 ± 0.21) × 1029 s{sup −1}] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70 ± 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  11. Dwarf Star Erupts in Giant Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This movie taken by NASA'S Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows one of the largest flares, or star eruptions, ever recorded at ultraviolet wavelengths. The star, called GJ 3685A, just happened to be in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's field of view while the telescope was busy observing galaxies. As the movie demonstrates, the seemingly serene star suddenly exploded once, then even more intensely a second time, pouring out in total about one million times more energy than a typical flare from our Sun. The second blast of light constituted an increase in brightness by a factor of at least 10,000. Flares are huge explosions of energy stemming from a single location on a star's surface. They are caused by the brief destruction of a star's magnetic fields. Many types of stars experience them, though old, small, rapidly rotating 'red dwarfs' like GJ 3685A tend to flare more frequently and dramatically. These stars, called flare stars, can experience powerful eruptions as often as every few hours. Younger stars, in general, also erupt more often. One of the reasons astronomers study flare stars is to gain a better picture and history of flare events taking place on the Sun. A preliminary analysis of the GJ 3685A flare shows that the mechanisms underlying stellar eruptions may be more complex than previously believed. Evidence for the two most popular flare theories was found. Though this movie has been sped up (the actual flare lasted about 20 minutes), time-resolved data exist for each one-hundredth of a second. These observations were taken at 2 p.m. Pacific time, April 24, 2004. In the still image, the time sequence starts in the upper left panel, continues in the upper right, then moves to the lower left and ends in the lower right. The circular and linear features that appear below and to the right of GJ 3685A during the flare event are detector artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the flare.

  12. The microwave and H-alpha sources of the 1992 January 13 flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Gary, D. E.; Zirin, H.; Kosugi, T.; Schwartz, R. A.; Linford, G.

    1995-01-01

    We compare X-ray, microwave and H-alpha observations for the 1992 January 13 limb flare. The soft and hard X-ray images of the flare have been studied thoroughly by Masuda et al. (1994) with Yohkoh SXT and HXT images. We find that during the hard X-ray emission peak there is no H-alpha brightening on the disk nor at the limb, so the main ribbons of this flare must be beyond the limb. The microwave source maintains a fixed distance about 10 arcsecs from the optical limb in the frequency range 2.8-14.0 GHz. We interpret this limit in source position as due to the presence of a microwave limb that extends higher than the white-light limb -- to a height of 7300 +/- 1500 km. We believe that the high-frequency microwave emissions are occulted by this extended limb, while the soft and hard X-ray emissions are able to pass through largely unaffected. We also believe, however, that the hard X-ray footpoints are also partially occulted by the photospheric limb, despite the appearance of 'footpoint sources' in HXT data shown by Masuda et al. The smooth X-ray and microwave time profiles, microwave-rich emission relative to hard X-rays, and progressive hard X-ray spectral hardening through the flare peak are all characteristics that we interpret as being a direct result of the occultation of footpoint emission.

  13. Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson; Robert Fickes

    2007-12-31

    The Oilfield Flare Gas Electricity Systems (OFFGASES) project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Preferred Upstream Management Projects (PUMP III). Project partners included the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) as lead agency working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the California Oil Producers Electric Cooperative (COPE). The project was designed to demonstrate that the entire range of oilfield 'stranded gases' (gas production that can not be delivered to a commercial market because it is poor quality, or the quantity is too small to be economically sold, or there are no pipeline facilities to transport it to market) can be cost-effectively harnessed to make electricity. The utilization of existing, proven distribution generation (DG) technologies to generate electricity was field-tested successfully at four marginal well sites, selected to cover a variety of potential scenarios: high Btu, medium Btu, ultra-low Btu gas, as well as a 'harsh', or high contaminant, gas. Two of the four sites for the OFFGASES project were idle wells that were shut in because of a lack of viable solutions for the stranded noncommercial gas that they produced. Converting stranded gas to useable electrical energy eliminates a waste stream that has potential negative environmental impacts to the oil production operation. The electricity produced will offset that which normally would be purchased from an electric utility, potentially lowering operating costs and extending the economic life of the oil wells. Of the piloted sites, the most promising technologies to handle the range were microturbines that have very low emissions. One recently developed product, the Flex-Microturbine, has the potential to handle the entire range of oilfield gases. It is deployed at an oilfield near Santa Barbara to run on waste gas

  14. 8-12 GHz Radio Observations of Flare Activity On M dwarf CN Leo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, Alia; Villadsen, Jackie; Quintana, Elisa; Barclay, Thomas; Thackeray, Beverly

    2018-01-01

    Red dwarfs are cool stars that make up 70% of all stars. Red dwarfs can be utilized to detect potentially habitable planets but they have particularly strong magnetic activity that can be detrimental to orbiting planets’ atmospheres and habitability. A coronal mass ejection (CME) is an eruption of magnetized plasma from the star that is ejected into the interplanetary medium which can erode a planet’s atmosphere daily. Based on the sun CMEs are expected to produce very bright radio bursts along with optical flares. We are using M dwarf CN Leo, a well studied flare star that was in the K2 campaign field in summer 2017, as a template to understand the relationship between radio and optical flares and the space weather conditions impacting M dwarf planets. Using radio frequencies ranging from 0.22 GHz-12 GHz we search for simultaneous radio bursts and optical flares to infer if CMEs, flares or aurorae are occurring on the star. I will present the 8-12 GHz radio data from eight 1.5-hour observations with simultaneous optical data. CN Leo produced a bright non-thermal radio flare that lasted approximately for a day during two consecutive observations, with a gyrosynchrotron emission mechanism.

  15. Particle propagation, wave growth and energy dissipation in a flaring flux tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Melrose, D. B.; Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Wave amplification by downgoing particles in a common flare model is investigated. The flare is assumed to occur at the top of a coronal magnetic flux loop, and results in the heating of plasma in the flaring region. The hot electrons propagate down the legs of the flux tube towards increasing magnetic field. It is simple to demonstrate that the velocity distributions which result in this model are unstable to both beam instabilities and cyclotron maser action. An explanation is presented for the propagation effects on the distribution, and the properties of the resulting amplified waves are explored, concentrating on cyclotron maser action, which has properties (emission in the z mode below the local gyrofrequency) quite different from maser action by other distributions considered in the context of solar flares. The z mode waves will be damped in the coronal plasma surrounding the flaring flux tube and lead to heating there. This process may be important in the overall energy budget of the flare. The downgoing maser is compared with the loss cone maser, which is more likely to produce observable bursts.

  16. Dealing with the gas flaring problem in the petroleum industry : proceedings of an Insight conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 12 presentations at this conference focused on the environmental issues related to the flaring of waste gas in the petroleum industry, including the combustion efficiency of the process. Health issues associated with waste gas flaring were also discussed. Studies have identified about 250 different compounds in flare emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other products of incomplete combustion. In recent years, public opposition to the oil companies in Alberta has become increasingly aggressive, with violence, bombings and other vandalism. Much of this hostile reaction was the result of the perceived harmful effects of flaring. The level of hostility generated by this phenomenon has caused regulators to consider new options designed to reduce the adverse economic and environmental impacts that may be associated with gas flaring. The papers presented at this Insight Conference review the background of the controversy, report on progress developing alternative combustion and incineration technologies for open flare systems, examine the economic and health issues involved, and outline current and proposed regulations. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Spectra calculations in central and wing regions of CO2 IR bands between 10 and 20 μm. III: atmospheric emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niro, F.; Clarmann, T. von; Jucks, K.; Hartmann, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical model for the prediction of CO 2 absorption in both central and wing regions of infrared absorption bands was presented in the companion paper I. It correctly accounts for line-mixing effects and was validated by comparisons with laboratory spectra in the 600-1000 cm -1 region. This quality was confirmed using atmospheric transmissions measured by solar occultation experiments in the second paper. The present work completes these studies by now considering atmospheric emission in the 10-20 μm range. Comparisons are made between computed atmospheric radiances and measurements obtained using four different Fourier transform experiments collecting spectra for nadir, up-looking, as well as limb (from balloon and satellite) geometries. Our results confirm that using a Voigt model can lead to very large errors that affect the spectrum more than 300 cm -1 away from the center of the CO 2 ν 2 band. They also demonstrate the capability of our model to represent accurately the radiances in the entire region for a variety of atmospheric paths. This success opens interesting perspectives for the sounding of pressure and temperature profiles, particularly at low altitudes. Another benefit of the quality of the model should be an increased accuracy in the retrieval of atmospheric state parameters from broad features in the measured spectra (clouds, aerosols, heavy trace gases)

  18. Observations of vector magnetic fields in flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1994-01-01

    We present vector magnetograph data of 6 active regions, all of which produced major flares. Of the 20 M-class (or above) flares, 7 satisfy the flare conditions prescribed by Hagyard (high shear and strong transverse fields). Strong photospheric shear, however, is not necessarily a condition for a flare. We find an increase in the shear for two flares, a 6-deg shear increase along the neutral line after a X-2 flare and a 13-deg increase after a M-1.9 flare. For other flares, we did not detect substantial shear changes.

  19. The thermal phase of solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi

    1979-01-01

    This paper is described on the observation of the flares, and then the numerical simulation on the structural change in the corona and the chromosphere during the flare is briefly discussed. Most of the flares occur on the active region where the density and the electron temperature are higher than those in the quiet region. The temperature and density increase after the flare started. The temperature of the pre-flare chromosphere is about 6000 K, and it rises during the flare. The temperature of the transition region is about 10 5 K, and the gas pressure increases more than one order of magnitude during the flare. Sometimes, the flaring in the photosphere is observed. Large amount of mass ejected at the time of the flare is observed. Most probable energy source of the flare is the magnetic energy contained in the form of electric current. Liberation of this energy into the corona is discussed in this paper. It is assumed that a column of unit area is standing vertically in the corona, the top being closed. A hydrostatic model of the corona-chromosphere is constructed, in which the heat source is assumed to be in the corona. As the results of calculation, it can be said that the temperature of the flaring corona does not depend upon the liberated energy, the density in the corona increases proportionally to the energy, and particles are supplied from the chromosphere with the upward velocity of about 100 km/s. The gas pressure of the transition region can become up to three orders of magnitude larger. All these are consistent with the observation. Extension of this calculation is also performed. (Kato, T.)

  20. Single-dish and VLBI observations of Cygnus X-3 during the 2016 giant flare episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egron, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Giroletti, M.; Righini, S.; Stagni, M.; Orlati, A.; Migoni, C.; Melis, A.; Concu, R.; Barbas, L.; Buttaccio, S.; Cassaro, P.; De Vicente, P.; Gawroński, M. P.; Lindqvist, M.; Maccaferri, G.; Stanghellini, C.; Wolak, P.; Yang, J.; Navarrini, A.; Loru, S.; Pilia, M.; Bachetti, M.; Iacolina, M. N.; Buttu, M.; Corbel, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Markoff, S.; Wilms, J.; Pottschmidt, K.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Kalemci, E.; Belloni, T.; Grinberg, V.; Marongiu, M.; Vargiu, G. P.; Trois, A.

    2017-11-01

    In 2016 September, the microquasar Cygnus X-3 underwent a giant radio flare, which was monitored for 6 d with the Medicina Radio Astronomical Station and the Sardinia Radio Telescope. Long observations were performed in order to follow the evolution of the flare on an hourly scale, covering six frequency ranges from 1.5 to 25.6 GHz. The radio emission reached a maximum of 13.2 ± 0.7 Jy at 7.2 GHz and 10 ± 1 Jy at 18.6 GHz. Rapid flux variations were observed at high radio frequencies at the peak of the flare, together with rapid evolution of the spectral index: α steepened from 0.3 to 0.6 (with Sν ∝ ν-α) within 5 h. This is the first time that such fast variations are observed, giving support to the evolution from optically thick to optically thin plasmons in expansion moving outward from the core. Based on the Italian network (Noto, Medicina and SRT) and extended to the European antennas (Torun, Yebes, Onsala), very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations were triggered at 22 GHz on five different occasions, four times prior to the giant flare, and once during its decay phase. Flux variations of 2 h duration were recorded during the first session. They correspond to a mini-flare that occurred close to the core 10 d before the onset of the giant flare. From the latest VLBI observation we infer that 4 d after the flare peak the jet emission was extended over 30 mas.

  1. Reconnection Mediated by Magnetic Fractures and the Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2018-03-01

    Reconnection of sheared magnetic fields is commonly treated by regarding the component perpendicular to the antiparallel components as a largely inert guide field. In this paper an alternative is proposed in which the free energy residing in the shear field is being converted prior to reconnection. This happens in high-density, dissipative current sheets bordering the reconnection site. A global scenario is presented in which low-intensity currents out of the photosphere are converging into the narrow, high-intensity currents at high altitude. This is enabled by the obliqueness of the latter. The very short timescale of the energy conversion causes a lateral propagation of the current sheets. In a quasi-stationary situation, it balances the reconnection rate, which turns out to be much lower than in guide-field approaches. Another important consequence of the obliqueness is the field-parallel emission of runaway electrons. Accelerated up to tens of keV, they are possibly important contributors to the production of hard X-rays during the impulsive phase of a flare, but only in areas of upward-directed currents. Quantitative evaluation of the model predicts various potentially observable properties, such as width and propagation speed of the generated flare ribbons, spatial dependences of the electron spectrum, size of the area of energy deposition, and successive decrease of the shear angle between conjugate footpoints. The presented theoretical model can account for the observed brightness asymmetry of flare ribbons with respect to the direction of the vertical currents.

  2. Non-Local Diffusion of Energetic Electrons during Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, N. H.; Emslie, G.; Kontar, E.

    2017-12-01

    The transport of the energy contained in suprathermal electrons in solar flares plays a key role in our understanding of many aspects of flare physics, from the spatial distributions of hard X-ray emission and energy deposition in the ambient atmosphere to global energetics. Historically the transport of these particles has been largely treated through a deterministic approach, in which first-order secular energy loss to electrons in the ambient target is treated as the dominant effect, with second-order diffusive terms (in both energy and angle) generally being either treated as a small correction or even neglected. Here, we critically analyze this approach, and we show that spatial diffusion through pitch-angle scattering necessarily plays a very significant role in the transport of electrons. We further show that a satisfactory treatment of the diffusion process requires consideration of non-local effects, so that the electron flux depends not just on the local gradient of the electron distribution function but on the value of this gradient within an extended region encompassing a significant fraction of a mean free path. Our analysis applies generally to pitch-angle scattering by a variety of mechanisms, from Coulomb collisions to turbulent scattering. We further show that the spatial transport of electrons along the magnetic field of a flaring loop can be modeled as a Continuous Time Random Walk with velocity-dependent probability distribution functions of jump sizes and occurrences, both of which can be expressed in terms of the scattering mean free path.

  3. Oscillations in the wake of a flare blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothova, D.; Innes, D. E.; Stenborg, G.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Oscillations of coronal loops in the Sun have been reported in both imaging and spectral observations at the onset of flares. Images reveal transverse oscillations, whereas spectra detect line-of-sight velocity or Doppler-shift oscillations. The Doppler-shift oscillations are commonly interpreted as longitudinal modes. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the relationship between loop dynamics and flows seen in TRACE 195 Å images and Doppler shifts observed by SUMER in Si iii 1113.2 Å and FeXIX 1118.1 Å at the time of a C.8-class limb flare and an associated CME. Methods: We carefully co-aligned the sequence of TRACE 195 Å images to structures seen in the SUMER Si iii, CaX, and FeXIX emission lines. Additionally, Hα observations of a lifting prominence associated with the flare and the coronal mass ejection (CME) are available in three bands around 6563.3 Å. They give constraints on the timing and geometry. Results: Large-scale Doppler-shift oscillations in FeXIX and transverse oscillations in intensity images were observed over a large region of the corona after the passage of a wide bright extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) disturbance, which suggests ionization, heating, and acceleration of hot plasma in the wake of a blast wave. The online movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org and at http://www.mps.mpg.de/data/outgoing/tothova/movie.gif

  4. Spatially inhomogeneous acceleration of electrons in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Duncan J.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2018-04-01

    The imaging spectroscopy capabilities of the Reuven Ramaty high energy solar spectroscopic imager (RHESSI) enable the examination of the accelerated electron distribution throughout a solar flare region. In particular, it has been revealed that the energisation of these particles takes place over a region of finite size, sometimes resolved by RHESSI observations. In this paper, we present, for the first time, a spatially distributed acceleration model and investigate the role of inhomogeneous acceleration on the observed X-ray emission properties. We have modelled transport explicitly examining scatter-free and diffusive transport within the acceleration region and compare with the analytic leaky-box solution. The results show the importance of including this spatial variation when modelling electron acceleration in solar flares. The presence of an inhomogeneous, extended acceleration region produces a spectral index that is, in most cases, different from the simple leaky-box prediction. In particular, it results in a generally softer spectral index than predicted by the leaky-box solution, for both scatter-free and diffusive transport, and thus should be taken into account when modelling stochastic acceleration in solar flares.

  5. Time Variations of Observed H α Line Profiles and Precipitation Depths of Nonthermal Electrons in a Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falewicz, Robert; Radziszewski, Krzysztof; Rudawy, Paweł; Berlicki, Arkadiusz, E-mail: falewicz@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: radziszewski@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: rudawy@astro.uni.wroc.pl, E-mail: berlicki@astro.uni.wroc.pl [Astronomical Institute, University of Wrocław, 51-622 Wrocław, ul. Kopernika 11 (Poland)

    2017-10-01

    We compare time variations of the H α and X-ray emissions observed during the pre-impulsive and impulsive phases of the C1.1-class solar flare on 2013 June 21 with those of plasma parameters and synthesized X-ray emission from a 1D hydrodynamic numerical model of the flare. The numerical model was calculated assuming that the external energy is delivered to the flaring loop by nonthermal electrons (NTEs). The H α spectra and images were obtained using the Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph with a time resolution of 50 ms. The X-ray fluxes and spectra were recorded by RHESSI . Pre-flare geometric and thermodynamic parameters of the model and the delivered energy were estimated using RHESSI data. The time variations of the X-ray light curves in various energy bands and those of the H α intensities and line profiles were well correlated. The timescales of the observed variations agree with the calculated variations of the plasma parameters in the flaring loop footpoints, reflecting the time variations of the vertical extent of the energy deposition layer. Our result shows that the fast time variations of the H α emission of the flaring kernels can be explained by momentary changes of the deposited energy flux and the variations of the penetration depths of the NTEs.

  6. Discovery of 1-5 Hz flaring at high luminosity in SAX J1808.4-3658

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bult, Peter; Van der Klis, Michiel, E-mail: p.m.bult@uva.nl [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-07-10

    We report the discovery of a 1-5 Hz X-ray flaring phenomenon observed at >30 mCrab near peak luminosity in the 2008 and 2011 outbursts of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 in observations with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. In each of the two outbursts this high luminosity flaring is seen for ∼3 continuous days and switches on and off on a timescale of 1-2 hr. The flaring can be seen directly in the light curve, where it shows sharp spikes of emission at quasi-regular separation. In the power spectrum it produces a broad noise component, which peaks at 1-5 Hz. The total 0.05-10 Hz variability has a fractional rms amplitude of 20%-45%, well in excess of the 8%-12% rms broadband noise usually seen in power spectra of SAX J1808.4-3658. We perform a detailed timing analysis of the flaring and study its relation to the 401 Hz pulsations. We find that the pulse amplitude varies proportionally with source flux through all phases of the flaring, indicating that the flaring is likely due to mass density variations created at or outside the magnetospheric boundary. We suggest that this 1-5 Hz flaring is a high mass accretion rate version of the 0.5-2 Hz flaring which is known to occur at low luminosity (<13 mCrab), late in the tail of outbursts of SAX J1808.4-3658. We propose the dead-disk instability, previously suggested as the mechanism for the 0.5-2 Hz flaring, as a likely mechanism for the high luminosity flaring reported here.

  7. A VERY BRIGHT, VERY HOT, AND VERY LONG FLARING EVENT FROM THE M DWARF BINARY SYSTEM DG CVn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute (United States); Kowalski, Adam [U. Md/GSFC (United States); Drake, Stephen A. [USRA/CRESST and NASA/GSFC (United States); Krimm, Hans [USRA/CRESST (United States); Page, Kim [X-ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Gazeas, Kosmas [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, University of Athens, GR-15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Kennea, Jamie [Penn State (United States); Oates, Samantha [Instituto de Astrofsica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Page, Mathew [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De Miguel, Enrique [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Novák, Rudolf [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Apeltauer, Tomas [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Veveri 331/95, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: osten@stsci.edu [NASA/GSFC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    On 2014 April 23, the Swift satellite responded to a hard X-ray transient detected by its Burst Alert Telescope, which turned out to be a stellar flare from a nearby, young M dwarf binary DG CVn. We utilize observations at X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelengths to infer the properties of two large flares. The X-ray spectrum of the primary outburst can be described over the 0.3–100 keV bandpass by either a single very high-temperature plasma or a nonthermal thick-target bremsstrahlung model, and we rule out the nonthermal model based on energetic grounds. The temperatures were the highest seen spectroscopically in a stellar flare, at T{sub X} of 290 MK. The first event was followed by a comparably energetic event almost a day later. We constrain the photospheric area involved in each of the two flares to be >10{sup 20} cm{sup 2}, and find evidence from flux ratios in the second event of contributions to the white light flare emission in addition to the usual hot, T  ∼ 10{sup 4} K blackbody emission seen in the impulsive phase of flares. The radiated energy in X-rays and white light reveal these events to be the two most energetic X-ray flares observed from an M dwarf, with X-ray radiated energies in the 0.3–10 keV bandpass of 4 × 10{sup 35} and 9 × 10{sup 35} erg, and optical flare energies at E{sub V} of 2.8 × 10{sup 34} and 5.2 × 10{sup 34} erg, respectively. The results presented here should be integrated into updated modeling of the astrophysical impact of large stellar flares on close-in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  8. A Very Bright, Very Hot, and Very Long Flaring Event from the M Dwarf Binary System DG CVn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, Rachel A.; Kowalski, Adam; Drake, Stephen; Krimm, Hans; Page, Kim; Gazeas, Kosmas; Page, Mathew; Miguel, Enrique De; Novak, Rudolf; Gehrels, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    On 2014 April 23, the Swift satellite responded to a hard X-ray transient detected by its Burst Alert Telescope, which turned out to be a stellar flare from a nearby, young M dwarf binary DG CVn. We utilize observations at X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelengths to infer the properties of two large flares. The X-ray spectrum of the primary outburst can be described over the 0.3100 kiloelectron volts bandpass by either a single very high-temperature plasma or a nonthermal thick-target bremsstrahlung model, and we rule out the nonthermal model based on energetic grounds. The temperatures were the highest seen spectroscopically in a stellar flare, at T(sub x) of 290 megakelvin. The first event was followed by a comparably energetic event almost a day later. We constrain the photospheric area involved in each of the two flares to be greater than 10(exp 20) sq cm, and find evidence from flux ratios in the second event of contributions to the white light flare emission in addition to the usual hot, T approximately 10(exp 4) K blackbody emission seen in the impulsive phase of flares. The radiated energy in X-rays and white light reveal these events to be the two most energetic X-ray flares observed from an M dwarf, with X-ray radiated energies in the 0.3-10 kiloelectron volts bandpass of 4 x 10(exp 35) and 9 x 10(exp 35) erg, and optical flare energies at E(sub V) of 2.8 x 10(exp 34) and 5.2 x 10(exp 34) erg, respectively. The results presented here should be integrated into updated modeling of the astrophysical impact of large stellar flares on close-in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  9. Active Longitude and Solar Flare Occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyenge, N.; Ludmány, A.; Baranyi, T.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to specify the spatio-temporal characteristics of flare activity observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) in connection with the behavior of the longitudinal domain of enhanced sunspot activity known as active longitude (AL). By using our method developed for this purpose, we identified the AL in every Carrington Rotation provided by the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data. The spatial probability of flare occurrence has been estimated depending on the longitudinal distance from AL in the northern and southern hemispheres separately. We have found that more than 60% of the RHESSI and GOES flares is located within +/- 36^\\circ from the AL. Hence, the most flare-productive active regions tend to be located in or close to the active longitudinal belt. This observed feature may allow for the prediction of the geo-effective position of the domain of enhanced flaring probability. Furthermore, we studied the temporal properties of flare occurrence near the AL and several significant fluctuations were found. More precisely, the results of the method are the following fluctuations: 0.8, 1.3, and 1.8 years. These temporal and spatial properties of the solar flare occurrence within the active longitudinal belts could provide us with an enhanced solar flare forecasting opportunity.

  10. A Bayesian method for detecting stellar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkin, M.; Williams, D.; Fletcher, L.; Grant, S. D. T.

    2014-12-01

    We present a Bayesian-odds-ratio-based algorithm for detecting stellar flares in light-curve data. We assume flares are described by a model in which there is a rapid rise with a half-Gaussian profile, followed by an exponential decay. Our signal model also contains a polynomial background model required to fit underlying light-curve variations in the data, which could otherwise partially mimic a flare. We characterize the false alarm probability and efficiency of this method under the assumption that any unmodelled noise in the data is Gaussian, and compare it with a simpler thresholding method based on that used in Walkowicz et al. We find our method has a significant increase in detection efficiency for low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) flares. For a conservative false alarm probability our method can detect 95 per cent of flares with S/N less than 20, as compared to S/N of 25 for the simpler method. We also test how well the assumption of Gaussian noise holds by applying the method to a selection of `quiet' Kepler stars. As an example we have applied our method to a selection of stars in Kepler Quarter 1 data. The method finds 687 flaring stars with a total of 1873 flares after vetos have been applied. For these flares we have made preliminary characterizations of their durations and and S/N.

  11. Offshore production flares: a PETROBRAS review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagot, Paulo R.; Burmann, Clovis P.; Araujo, Paulo Bento de; Motomura, Tsukasa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the present work is to briefly present the offshore flare system technological evolution and the main design criteria for flare and its supporting structure. In order to perform the aimed task, this work was divided into two parts: the first part presents the technological evolution of the offshore production flares and the second one discusses the flare system designing criteria. The evolution of the technology associated to the offshore production flares is organized by the authors just dividing the history in four chronological phases. Each phase is defined by the predominant use of the, by the time, most up-to-date technological alternative and it will be described with the help of sketches, drawings, photographs, data and information about the platforms where such technologies were applied. The second part of the present work discusses the dimensional criteria, interesting aspects and flaws of the offshore flare systems in two different fields, which are: definition of the flare system capacity; and flow and thermal design of the flare system. (author)

  12. 40 CFR 63.987 - Flare requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in paragraphs (b)(3)(i) through (iv) of this section. (i) Method 22 of appendix A of part 60 shall...) cross sectional area of the flare tip. (iv) Flare flame or pilot monitors, as applicable, shall be..., ultra-violet beam sensor, or infrared sensor) capable of continuously detecting that at least one pilot...

  13. New flare stars in the Pleiade. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsamyan, Eh.S.

    1976-01-01

    The flare stars in the Pleiads were investigated. The observations were carried out from the second part of 1972 to the beginning of 1973. Data on 9 new and 9 repeat flares are given. The new data are compared with those obtained previously

  14. Solar flare irradiation records in Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of solar flare heavy nuclei tracks in eight Antartic meteorite samples are reported. Two of these were interior specimens from an L-3 chondrite which contained track-rich grains (olivine) indicating their exposure to solar flare irradiation before compaction of the meteorite. Preliminary noble gas data also indicate the presence of solar-type gases. (U.K.)

  15. A Very Small and Super Strong Zebra Pattern Burst at the Beginning of a Solar Flare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tan, B.-L.; Tan, C.M.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, J.; Mészárosová, Hana; Karlický, Marian; Yan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 790, č. 2 (2014), 151/1-151/6 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun: activity * Sun: flares * Sun: particle emission Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014

  16. Hydrogen Balmer Line Broadening in Solar and Stellar Flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, Adam F. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, 2000 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Allred, Joel C. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Uitenbroek, Han [National Solar Observatory, University of Colorado Boulder, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV47AL (United Kingdom); Brown, Stephen [School of Physics and Astronomy, Kelvin Building, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Carlsson, Mats [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wisniewski, John P. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Hawley, Suzanne L., E-mail: Adam.Kowalski@lasp.colorado.edu [University of Washington Department of Astronomy, 3910 15th Avenue NE, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The broadening of the hydrogen lines during flares is thought to result from increased charge (electron, proton) density in the flare chromosphere. However, disagreements between theory and modeling prescriptions have precluded an accurate diagnostic of the degree of ionization and compression resulting from flare heating in the chromosphere. To resolve this issue, we have incorporated the unified theory of electric pressure broadening of the hydrogen lines into the non-LTE radiative-transfer code RH. This broadening prescription produces a much more realistic spectrum of the quiescent, A0 star Vega compared to the analytic approximations used as a damping parameter in the Voigt profiles. We test recent radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the atmospheric response to high nonthermal electron beam fluxes with the new broadening prescription and find that the Balmer lines are overbroadened at the densest times in the simulations. Adding many simultaneously heated and cooling model loops as a “multithread” model improves the agreement with the observations. We revisit the three-component phenomenological flare model of the YZ CMi Megaflare using recent and new RHD models. The evolution of the broadening, line flux ratios, and continuum flux ratios are well-reproduced by a multithread model with high-flux nonthermal electron beam heating, an extended decay phase model, and a “hot spot” atmosphere heated by an ultrarelativistic electron beam with reasonable filling factors: ∼0.1%, 1%, and 0.1% of the visible stellar hemisphere, respectively. The new modeling motivates future work to understand the origin of the extended gradual phase emission.

  17. Hydrogen Balmer Line Broadening in Solar and Stellar Flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, Adam F.; Allred, Joel C.; Uitenbroek, Han; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Brown, Stephen; Carlsson, Mats; Osten, Rachel A.; Wisniewski, John P.; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2017-01-01

    The broadening of the hydrogen lines during flares is thought to result from increased charge (electron, proton) density in the flare chromosphere. However, disagreements between theory and modeling prescriptions have precluded an accurate diagnostic of the degree of ionization and compression resulting from flare heating in the chromosphere. To resolve this issue, we have incorporated the unified theory of electric pressure broadening of the hydrogen lines into the non-LTE radiative-transfer code RH. This broadening prescription produces a much more realistic spectrum of the quiescent, A0 star Vega compared to the analytic approximations used as a damping parameter in the Voigt profiles. We test recent radiative-hydrodynamic (RHD) simulations of the atmospheric response to high nonthermal electron beam fluxes with the new broadening prescription and find that the Balmer lines are overbroadened at the densest times in the simulations. Adding many simultaneously heated and cooling model loops as a “multithread” model improves the agreement with the observations. We revisit the three-component phenomenological flare model of the YZ CMi Megaflare using recent and new RHD models. The evolution of the broadening, line flux ratios, and continuum flux ratios are well-reproduced by a multithread model with high-flux nonthermal electron beam heating, an extended decay phase model, and a “hot spot” atmosphere heated by an ultrarelativistic electron beam with reasonable filling factors: ∼0.1%, 1%, and 0.1% of the visible stellar hemisphere, respectively. The new modeling motivates future work to understand the origin of the extended gradual phase emission.

  18. SphinX catalogue of small flares and brightenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryciuk, Magdalena; Sylwester, Janusz; Gburek, Szymon; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Kepa, Anna

    The Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was designed to measure soft X-ray solar emission in the energy range between 1 keV and 15 keV. The instrument operated from February until November 2009 aboard CORONAS-Photon satellite, during the phase of extraordinary low minimum of solar activity. Thanks to its very high sensitivity SphinX was able to record large number of tiny flares and brightenings. A catalogue of events observed by SphinX will be presented. Results of statistical analysis of events’ characteristics will be discussed.

  19. Stochastic three-wave interaction in flaring solar loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, L.; Sharma, R. R.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for the dynamic structure of high-frequency microwave bursts. The dynamic component is attributed to beams of precipitating electrons which generate electrostatic waves in the upper hybrid branch. Coherent upconversion of the electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves produces an intrinsically stochastic emission component which is superposed on the gyrosynchrotron continuum generated by stably trapped electron fluxes. The role of the density and temperature of the ambient plasma in the wave growth and the transition of the three wave upconversion to stochastic, despite the stationarity of the energy source, are discussed in detail. The model appears to reproduce the observational features for reasonable parameters of the solar flare plasma.

  20. Stochastic three-wave interaction in flaring solar loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Sharma, R.R.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1983-01-01

    We propose a model for the dynamic structure of high-frequency microwave bursts. The dynamic component is attributed to beams of precipitating electrons which generate electrostatic waves in the upper hybrid branch. Coherent upconversion of the electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves produces an intrinsically stochastic emission component which is superposed on the gyrosynchrotron continuum generated by stably trapped electron fluxes. The role of the density and temperature of the ambient plasma in the wave growth and the transition of the three wave upconversion to stochastic, despite the stationarity of the energy source are discussed in detail. The model appears to reproduce the observational features for reasonable parameters of the solar flare plasma

  1. Models of spots and flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments in recent years have shown that there are many more ways to drive a plasma out of equilibrium than to preserve equilibrium. In that sense, it is perhaps easier to understand why flares should occur in a stellar atmosphere than why a long-lived feature such as a dark spot should persist. The author summarizes work on the equilibrium structure of cool spots in the sun and stars. Since spots involve complex interactions between convective flows and magnetic fields, he needs to refer to observations for help in identifying the dominant processes which should enter into the modelling. His summary therefore begins by discussing certain relevant properties of spots in the solar atmosphere. The next sections deal with the magnetic fields in spots, the stability of spots, spot cooling and missing flux. The author concludes that spots should be viewed not simply as cool areas, but rather as engines which do the work of converting the energy of convective flows into flare-compatible form. (Auth.)

  2. Evidence for explosive chromospheric evaporation in a solar flare observed with SMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarro, D. M.; Saba, J. L. R.; Strong, K. T.; Canfield, R. C.; Metcalf, T.

    1986-01-01

    SMM soft X-ray data and Sacramento Peak Observatory H-alpha observations are combined in a study of the impulsive phase of a solar flare. A blue asymmetry, indicative of upflow motions, was observed in the coronal Ca XIX line during the soft X-ray rise phase. H-alpha redshifts, indicative of downward motions, were observed simultaneously in bright flare kernels during the period of hard X-ray emission. It is shown that, to within observational errors, the impulsive phase momentum transported by the upflowing soft X-ray plasma is equivalent to that of the downward moving chromospheric material.

  3. Broadband spectral observation of a dMe star radio flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedel, M.; Benz, A.O.; Fuerst, E.; Simett, G.M.; Davis, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A flare on the dMe star AD Leonis was simultaneously observed with the radio telescopes in Effelsberg, Jodrell Bank, and Arecibo using spectrometers at 1665, 166 and 1415 MHz with bandwidths of 25, 100 and 40 MHz respectively. The time coincidence confirms the stellar origin of the radiation. The flare emission was resolved into a multitude of broadband pulsations. The e-folding rise and decay times were of the order of the time resolution of the Effelsberg data (125 ms), or less. The circular polarization was ∼ 100%. Similar bursts, but 4 orders of magnitude less powerful, have been observed from the sun at lower frequencies

  4. A magnetic study of spotted UV Ceti flare stars and related late-type dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S. S.

    1980-09-01

    A multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer has been used to investigate the magnetic nature of the spotted UV Ceti flare stars. Magnetic observations were obtained on a sample of 19 program objects, of which 5 were currently spotted dKe-dMe stars, 7 were normal dK-dM stars, 7 were UV Ceti flare stars, and 1 was a possible post-T Tauri star. Contrary to most previously published observations and theoretical expectations, no magnetic fields were detected on any of these objects from either the absorption lines or the H-alpha emission line down to an observational uncertainty level of 100-160 gauss (standard deviation).

  5. Statistical aspects of the 1980 solar flares. 2: solar cycle activity relationships and additional remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.

    1982-02-01

    Based on 1349 hydrogen alpha flares with X-ray counterparts, an investigation into the relationship between the rise time, decay time, duration, latitude, hydrogen alpha importance, and X-ray class with 2800 MHz radio emission (F2800) was accomplished. An important finding is that during 1980 both the number of hydrogen alpha importance class 1 and number of X-ray class M (and M+X) flares appeared to be rather strongly related to F2800, in a positive sense i.e., number of class 1 and class M events increased as F2800 increased

  6. Blazar Sheath Illumination of the Outer Molecular Torus: A Resolution of the Seed Photon Problem for the Far-GeV Blazar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Peter; Georganopoulos, Markos; Meyer, Eileen T.

    2018-01-01

    Recent multiwavelength work led by the Boston University blazar group (e.g., Marscher et al.) strongly suggests that a fraction of the blazar flares seen by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) take place a few to several pc away from the central engine. However, at such distances from the central engine, there is no adequate external photon field to provide the seed photons required for producing the observed GeV emission under leptonic inverse Compton (IC) models. A possible solution is a spine-sheath geometry for the emitting region (MacDonald et al., but see Nalewajko et al.). Here we use the current view of the molecular torus (e.g., Elitzur; Netzer), in which the torus extends a few pc beyond the dust sublimation radius with dust clouds distributed with a declining density for decreasing polar angle. We show that for a spine-sheath blazar jet embedded in the torus, the wide beaming pattern of the synchrotron radiation of the relatively slow sheath will heat molecular clouds with subsequent IR radiation that will be highly boosted in the spine comoving frame, and that under reasonable conditions this photon field can dominate over the sheath photons directly entering the spine. If the sheath is sufficiently luminous it will sublimate the dust, and if the sheath synchrotron radiation extends to optical-UV energies (as may happen during flares), this will illuminate the sublimated dust clouds to produce emission lines that will vary in unison with the optical-UV continuum, as has been very recently reported for blazar CTA 102 (Jorstad et al.).

  7. Anomalous Temporal Behaviour of Broadband Ly Alpha Observations During Solar Flares from SDO/EVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly-alpha) emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Ly-alpha emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10 percent). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) now provides broadband, photometric Ly-alpha data at 10-second cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H-alpha, Ly-beta, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Ly-alpha lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Ly-alpha observations during flares from SORCE / SOLSTICE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment / Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines andor continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting

  8. Identifying core domains to assess flare in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartlett, Susan J; Hewlett, Sarah; Bingham, Clifton O

    2012-01-01

    For rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is no consensus on how to define and assess flare. Variability in flare definitions impairs understanding of findings across studies and limits ability to pool results. The OMERACT RA Flare Group sought to identify domains to define RA flares from patient...

  9. Solar flare leaves sun quaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Dr. Alexander G. Kosovichev, a senior research scientist from Stanford University, and Dr. Valentina V. Zharkova from Glasgow (United Kingdom) University found the tell-tale seismic signature in data on the Sun's surface collected by the Michelson Doppler Imager onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft immediately following a moderate-sized flare on July 9, 1996. "Although the flare was a moderate one, it still released an immense amount of energy," said Dr. Craig Deforest, a researcher with the SOHO project. "The energy released is equal to completely covering the Earth's continents with a yard of dynamite and detonating it all at once." SOHO is a joint project of the European Space Agency and NASA. The finding is reported in the May 28 issue of the journal Nature, and is the subject of a press conference at the spring meeting of the American Geophysical Union in Boston, Mass., May 27. The solar quake that the science team recorded looks much like ripples spreading from a rock dropped into a pool of water. But over the course of an hour, the solar waves traveled for a distance equal to 10 Earth diameters before fading into the fiery background of the Sun's photosphere. Unlike water ripples that travel outward at a constant velocity, the solar waves accelerated from an initial speed of 22,000 miles per hour to a maximum of 250,000 miles per hour before disappearing. "People have looked for evidence of seismic waves from flares before, but they didn't have a theory so they didn't know where to look," says Kosovichev. Several years ago Kosovichev and Zharkova developed a theory that can explain how a flare, which explodes in space above the Sun's surface, can generate a major seismic wave in the Sun's interior. According to the currently accepted model of solar flares, the primary explosion creates high-energy electrons (electrically charged subatomic particles). These are funneled down into a magnetic flux tube, an invisible tube of magnetic

  10. A new MODIS based approach for gas flared volumes estimation: the case of the Val d'Agri Oil Center (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacava, T.; Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2014-12-01

    Gas flaring is one of the most controversial energetic and environmental issues the Earth is facing, moreover contributing to the global warming and climate change. According to the World Bank, each year about 150 Billion Cubic Meter of gas are being flared globally, that is equivalent to the annual gas use of Italy and France combined. Besides, about 400 million tons of CO2 (representing about 1.2% of global CO2 emissions) are added annually into the atmosphere. Efforts to evaluate the impact of flaring on the surrounding environment are hampered by lack of official information on flare locations and volumes. Suitable satellite based techniques could offers a potential solution to this problem through the detection and subsequent mapping of flare locations as well as gas emissions estimation. In this paper a new methodological approach, based on the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), a multi-temporal scheme of satellite data analysis, was developed to analyze and characterize the flaring activity of the largest Italian gas and oil pre-treatment plant (ENI-COVA) located in Val d'Agri (Basilicata) For this site, located in an anthropized area characterized by a large environmental complexity, flaring emissions are mainly related to emergency conditions (i.e. waste flaring), being the industrial process regulated by strict regional laws. With reference to the peculiar characteristics of COVA flaring, the RST approach was implemented on 13 years of EOS-MODIS (Earth Observing System - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data to detect COVA-related thermal anomalies and to develop a regression model for gas flared volume estimation. The methodological approach, the whole processing chain and the preliminarily achieved results will be shown and discussed in this paper. In addition, the possible implementation of the proposed approach on the data acquired by the SUOMI NPP - VIIRS (National Polar-orbiting Partnership - Visible Infrared Imaging

  11. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  12. Temporal and Periodic Variations of Sunspot Counts in Flaring and Non-Flaring Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Donmez, B.; Obridko, V. N.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed temporal and periodic variations of sunspot counts (SSCs) in flaring (C-, M-, or X-class flares), and non-flaring active regions (ARs) for nearly three solar cycles (1986 through 2016). Our main findings are as follows: i) temporal variations of monthly means of the daily total SSCs in flaring and non-flaring ARs behave differently during a solar cycle and the behavior varies from one cycle to another; during Solar Cycle 23 temporal SSC profiles of non-flaring ARs are wider than those of flaring ARs, while they are almost the same during Solar Cycle 22 and the current Cycle 24. The SSC profiles show a multi-peak structure and the second peak of flaring ARs dominates the current Cycle 24, while the difference between peaks is less pronounced during Solar Cycles 22 and 23. The first and second SSC peaks of non-flaring ARs have comparable magnitude in the current solar cycle, while the first peak is nearly absent in the case of the flaring ARs of the same cycle. ii) Periodic variations observed in the SSCs profiles of flaring and non-flaring ARs derived from the multi-taper method (MTM) spectrum and wavelet scalograms are quite different as well, and they vary from one solar cycle to another. The largest detected period in flaring ARs is 113± 1.6 days while we detected much longer periodicities (327± 13, 312 ± 11, and 256± 8 days) in the non-flaring AR profiles. No meaningful periodicities were detected in the MTM spectrum of flaring ARs exceeding 55± 0.7 days during Solar Cycles 22 and 24, while a 113± 1.3 days period was detected in flaring ARs of Solar Cycle 23. For the non-flaring ARs the largest detected period was only 31± 0.2 days for Cycle 22 and 72± 1.3 days for the current Cycle 24, while the largest measured period was 327± 13 days during Solar Cycle 23.

  13. CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR FLARES WITH THE HELIOSEISMIC AND MAGNETIC IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Bain, Hazel [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lindsey, Charles [North West Research Associates, CORA Division, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Bogart, Rick; Couvidat, Sebastien; Scherrer, Phil [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Schou, Jesper [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    We report observations of white-light ejecta in the low corona, for two X-class flares on 2013 May 13, using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) of the Solar Dynamics Observatory. At least two distinct kinds of sources appeared (chromospheric and coronal), in the early and later phases of flare development, in addition to the white-light footpoint sources commonly observed in the lower atmosphere. The gradual emissions have a clear identification with the classical loop-prominence system, but are brighter than expected and possibly seen here in the continuum rather than line emission. We find the HMI flux exceeds the radio/X-ray interpolation of the bremsstrahlung produced in the flare soft X-ray sources by at least one order of magnitude. This implies the participation of cooler sources that can produce free-bound continua and possibly line emission detectable by HMI. One of the early sources dynamically resembles {sup c}oronal rain{sup ,} appearing at a maximum apparent height and moving toward the photosphere at an apparent constant projected speed of 134 ± 8 km s{sup –1}. Not much literature exists on the detection of optical continuum sources above the limb of the Sun by non-coronagraphic instruments and these observations have potential implications for our basic understanding of flare development, since visible observations can in principle provide high spatial and temporal resolution.

  14. A New Relationship Between Soft X-Rays and EUV Flare Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Edward

    2016-05-01

    Solar flares are the result of magnetic reconnection in the solar corona which converts magnetic energy into kinetic energy resulting in the rapid heating of solar plasma. As this plasma cools, it emits radiation at different EUV wavelengths when the dropping temperature passes a line’s temperature of formation. This results in a delay in the emissions from cooler EUV lines relative to hotter EUV lines. Therefore, characterizing how this hot plasma cools is important for understanding how the corresponding geo-effective extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance evolves in time. I present a simple new framework in which to study flare cooling by using a Lumped Element Thermal Model (LETM). LETM is frequently used in science and engineering to simplify a complex multi-dimensional thermal system by reducing it to a 0-D thermal circuit. For example, a structure that conducts heat out of a system is simplified with a resistive element and a structure that allows a system to store heat is simplified with a capacitive element. A major advantage of LETM is that the specific geometry of a system can be ignored, allowing for an intuitive analysis of the major thermal processes. I show that LETM is able to accurately reproduce the temporal evolution of cooler flare emission lines based on hotter emission line evolution. In particular, it can be used to predict the evolution of EUV flare light curves using the NOAA X-Ray Sensor (XRS).

  15. THE 5 GHz ARECIBO SEARCH FOR RADIO FLARES FROM ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Route, Matthew; Wolszczan, Alexander, E-mail: mroute@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: alex@astro.psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-08-10

    We present the results of a 4.75 GHz survey of 33 brown dwarfs and one young exoplanetary system for flaring radio emission, conducted with the 305 m Arecibo radio telescope. The goal of this program was to detect and characterize the magnetic fields of objects cooler than spectral type L3.5, the coolest brown dwarf detected prior to our survey. We have also attempted to detect flaring radio emission from the HR 8799 planetary system, guided by theoretical work indicating that hot, massive exoplanets may have strong magnetic fields capable of generating radio emission at GHz frequencies. We have detected and confirmed radio flares from the T6.5 dwarf 2MASS J10475385+2124234. This detection dramatically extends the temperature range over which brown dwarfs appear to be at least sporadic radio-emitters, from 1900 K (L3.5) down to 900 K (T6.5). It also demonstrates that the utility of radio detection as a unique tool to study the magnetic fields of substellar objects extends to the coolest dwarfs, and, plausibly to hot, massive exoplanets. We have also identified a single, 3.6{sigma} flare from the L1 dwarf, 2MASS J1439284+192915. This detection is tentative and requires confirmation by additional monitoring observations.

  16. CHARACTERISTIC SIZE OF FLARE KERNELS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED CONTINUA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin; Cao, Wenda

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a new approach to estimate the formation height of visible and near-infrared emission of an X10 flare. The sizes of flare emission cores in three wavelengths are accurately measured during the peak of the flare. The source size is the largest in the G band at 4308 Å and shrinks toward longer wavelengths, namely the green continuum at 5200 Å and NIR at 15600 Å, where the emission is believed to originate from the deeper atmosphere. This size-wavelength variation is likely explained by the direct heating model as electrons need to move along converging field lines from the corona to the photosphere. Therefore, one can observe the smallest source, which in our case is 0.''65 ± 0.''02 in the bottom layer (represented by NIR), and observe relatively larger kernels in upper layers of 1.''03 ± 0.''14 and 1.''96 ± 0.''27, using the green continuum and G band, respectively. We then compare the source sizes with a simple magnetic geometry to derive the formation height of the white-light sources and magnetic pressure in different layers inside the flare loop.

  17. CHARACTERISTIC SIZE OF FLARE KERNELS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED CONTINUA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yan; Jing, Ju; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Lab, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: yx2@njit.edu [Big Bear Solar Observatory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 323 Martin Luther King Blvd, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States)

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we present a new approach to estimate the formation height of visible and near-infrared emission of an X10 flare. The sizes of flare emission cores in three wavelengths are accurately measured during the peak of the flare. The source size is the largest in the G band at 4308 A and shrinks toward longer wavelengths, namely the green continuum at 5200 A and NIR at 15600 A, where the emission is believed to originate from the deeper atmosphere. This size-wavelength variation is likely explained by the direct heating model as electrons need to move along converging field lines from the corona to the photosphere. Therefore, one can observe the smallest source, which in our case is 0.''65 {+-} 0.''02 in the bottom layer (represented by NIR), and observe relatively larger kernels in upper layers of 1.''03 {+-} 0.''14 and 1.''96 {+-} 0.''27, using the green continuum and G band, respectively. We then compare the source sizes with a simple magnetic geometry to derive the formation height of the white-light sources and magnetic pressure in different layers inside the flare loop.

  18. Super-Acceleration in the Flaring Crab Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, Marco, E-mail: marco.tavani@inaf.it

    2013-10-15

    The Crab Nebula continues to surprise us. The Crab system (energized by a very powerful pulsar at the center of the Supernova Remnant SN1054) is known to be a very efficient particle “accelerator” which can reach PeV energies. Today, new surprising data concerning the gamma-ray flares produced by the Crab Nebula challenge models of particle acceleration. The total energy flux from the Crab has been considered for many decades substantially stable at X-ray and gamma-ray energies. However, this paradigm was shattered by the AGILE discovery and Fermi confirmation in September 2010 of transient gamma-ray emission from the Crab. Indeed, we can state that four major flaring gamma-ray episodes have been detected by AGILE and Fermi during the period mid-2007/2012. During these events, transient particle acceleration occurs in a regime which apparently violates the MHD conditions and synchrotron cooling constraints. This fact justifies calling “super-acceleration” the mechanism which produces the “flaring Crab phenomenon”. Radiation between 50 MeV and a few GeV is emitted with a quite hard spectrum within a short timescale (hours-days), with no obvious relation with simultaneous optical and X-ray emissions in the inner Nebula. “Super-acceleration” implies overcoming synchrotron cooling by strong (and “parallel”) electric fields most likely produced by magnetic field reconnection within the pulsar wind outflow. This acceleration appears to be very efficient and, remarkably, limited by radiation reaction. It is not clear at the moment where in the Nebula this phenomenon occurs. An intense observational program is now focused on the Crab Nebula to resolve its most challenging mystery.

  19. Solar flare hard and soft x ray relationship determined from SMM HXRBS and BCS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toot, G. David

    1989-01-01

    The exact nature of the solar flare process is still somewhat a mystery. A key element to understanding flares if the relationship between the hard x rays emitted by the most energetic portions of the flare and the soft x rays from other areas and times. This relationship was studied by comparing hard x ray light curved from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with the soft x ray light curve and its derivation from the Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) which is part of the X-Ray Polychrometer (XRP), these instruments being on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (SMM). Data sample was taken from flares observed with the above instruments during 1980, the peak of the previous maximum of solar activity. Flares were chosen based on complete coverage of the event by several instruments. The HXRBS data covers the x ray spectrum from about 25 keV to about 440 keV in 15 spectral channels, while the BCS data used covers a region of the Spectrum around 3 angstroms including emission from the Ca XIX ion. Both sets of data were summed over their spectral ranges and plotted against time at a maximum time resolution of around 3 seconds. The most popular theory of flares holds that a beam of electrons produces the hard x rays by bremsstrahlung while the soft x rays are the thermal response to this energy deposition. The question is whether the rate of change of soft x ray emission might reflect the variability of the electron beam and hence the variability of the hard x rays. To address this, we took the time derivative of the soft x ray light curve and compared it to the hard flares, 12 of them showed very closed agreement between the soft x ray derivative and the hard x ray light curve. The other five did not show this behavior but were similar to each other in general soft x ray behavior. Efforts to determine basic differences between the two kinds of flares continue. In addition the behavior of soft x ray temperature of flares was examined.

  20. Study on IR Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyue; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Yuxiang; Zeng, Yurun

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the reduced graphene oxide was prepared by modified hummer method and characterized. Then, the complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide in IR band was tested and its IR absorption and radiation properties were researched by correlated calculation. The results show that reduced graphene oxide prepared by hummer method are multilayered graphene with defects and functional groups on its surface. Its absorption in near and far IR bands is strong, but it’s weaker in middle IR band. At the IR atmosphere Window, its normal spectral emissivity decreases with wavelength increasing, and its total normal spectral emissivity in 3 ∼ 5μm and 8 ∼ 14μm are 0.75 and 0.625, respectively. Therefore, reduced graphene oxide can be used as IR absorption and coating materials and have a great potential in microwave and infrared compatible materials.

  1. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidoni, S. E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center/CUA, Code 674, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Yoshimura, K. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Plowman, J. E., E-mail: silvina.e.guidoni@nasa.gov [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  2. Radio imaging of solar flares using the very large array - New insights into flare process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, M. R.; Schmahl, E. J.; Vlahos, L.; Velusamy, T.

    1982-01-01

    An interpretation of VLA observations of microwave bursts is presented in an attempt to distinguish between certain models of flares. The VLA observations provide information about the pre-flare magnetic field topology and the existence of mildly relativistic electrons accelerated during flares. Examples are shown of changes in magnetic field topology in the hour before flares. In one case, new bipolar loops appear to emerge, which is an essential component of the model developed by Heyvaerts et al. (1977). In another case, a quadrupole structure, suggestive of two juxtaposed bipolar loops, appears to trigger the flare. Because of the observed diversity of magnetic field topologies in microwave bursts, it is believed that the magnetic energy must be dissipated in more than one way. The VLA observations are clearly providing means for sorting out the diverse flare models.

  3. CHANDRA, KECK, AND VLA OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB NEBULA DURING THE 2011-APRIL GAMMA-RAY FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tennant, Allyn F.; O' Dell, Stephen L. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Office (ZP12), Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Arons, Jonathan [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blandford, Roger; Funk, Stefan; Romani, Roger W. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Buehler, Rolf [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Caraveo, Patrizia; De Luca, Andrea [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cheung, Chi C. [National Research Council Research Associate, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Costa, Enrico [INFN Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Ferrigno, Carlo [ISDC, Data Center for Astrophysics of the University of Geneva, chemin d' cogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Habermehl, Moritz; Horns, Dieter [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Linford, Justin D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Lobanov, Andrei [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Max, Claire [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mignani, Roberto [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-03-01

    We present results from our analysis of Chandra X-Ray Observatory, W. M. Keck Observatory, and Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) images of the Crab Nebula that were contemporaneous with the {gamma}-ray flare of 2011 April. Despite hints in the X-ray data, we find no evidence for statistically significant variations that pinpoint the specific location of the flares within the Nebula. The Keck observations extend this conclusion to the 'inner knot', i.e., the feature within an arcsecond of the pulsar. The VLA observations support this conclusion. We also discuss theoretical implications of the {gamma}-ray flares and suggest that the most dramatic {gamma}-ray flares are due to radiation-reaction-limited synchrotron emission associated with sudden, dissipative changes in the current system sustained by the central pulsar.

  4. Localization of the solar flare SF900610 in X-rays with the WATCH instrument of the GRANAT observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terekhov, O.V.; Kuzmin, A.G.; Shevchenko, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    -ray source do not coincide with the coordinates of the Ha-line flare. The X-ray source moved over the solar disk during the flare. This probably implies that, as the X-ray emission was generated, different parts of one loop or a system of magnetic loops dominated at different flare times.......During the solar flare of June 10, 1990, the WATCH instrument of the GRANAT space observatory obtained 110 localizations of the X-ray source in the X-ray range 8-20 keV. Its coordinates were measured with an accuracy of similar to2 arcmin at a 3sigma confidence level. The coordinates of the X...

  5. Relative astrometry of compact flaring structures in Sgr A* with polarimetric very long baseline interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fish, Vincent L.; Broderick, Avery E.; Wardle, John F. C.; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that polarimetric interferometry can be used to extract precise spatial information about compact polarized flares of Sgr A*. We show that, for a faint dynamical component, a single interferometric baseline suffices to determine both its polarization and projected displacement from the quiescent intensity centroid. A second baseline enables two-dimensional reconstruction of the displacement, and additional baselines can self-calibrate using the flare, enhancing synthesis imaging of the quiescent emission. We apply this technique to simulated 1.3 mm wavelength observations of a 'hot spot' embedded in a radiatively inefficient accretion disk around Sgr A*. Our results indicate that, even with current sensitivities, polarimetric interferometry with the Event Horizon Telescope can achieve ∼5 μas relative astrometry of compact flaring structures near Sgr A* on timescales of minutes.

  6. The size of coronal hard X-ray sources in solar flares: How big are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, F.; Krucker, S.; Rubio da Costa, F.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal hard X-ray sources are considered to be one of the key signatures of non-thermal particle acceleration and heating during the energy release in solar flares. In some cases, X-ray observations reveal multiple components spatially located near and above the loop top and even further up in the corona. Here, we combine a detailed RHESSI imaging analysis of near-limb solar flares with occulted footpoints and a multi-wavelength study of the flare loop evolution in SDO/AIA. We connect our findings to different current sheet formation and magnetic break-out scenarios and relate it to particle acceleration theory. We find that the upper and usually fainter emission regions can be underestimated in their size due to the majority of flux originating from the lower loops.

  7. Fermi-LAT View of Bright Flaring Gamma-Ray Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastieri, D.; Ciprini, S.; Gasparrini, D.

    2011-06-01

    The Fermi LAT provides a continuous and uniform monitoring of the Universe in the gamma-ray band. During the first year many gamma-ray blazar flares, some unidentified transients and emission by the Sun while in a quiet state were promptly detected. This is mainly due to the design of the mission, featuring a detector, the LAT with a wide field of view, and to the operation of the spacecraft itself, that can cover every region of the sky every 3 hours. Nevertheless, the scientific exploitation of this monitoring is more fruitful when early information about transients reaches a broader community. In this respect, the indefatigable activity of flare advocates, who worked on weekly shifts to validate the results and quickly broadcast information about flares and new detections, was the key to most scientific results.

  8. GAMMA-RAY ACTIVITY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: THE EXCEPTIONAL FLARE OF 2011 APRIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehler, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Funk, S.; Kerr, M.; Massaro, F.; Romani, R. W.; Scargle, J. D.; Baldini, L.; Baring, M. G.; Belfiore, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; D'Ammando, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Grove, J. E.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Tennant, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi satellite observed a gamma-ray flare in the Crab Nebula lasting for approximately nine days in April of 2011. The source, which at optical wavelengths has a size of ≈11 lt-yr across, doubled its gamma-ray flux within eight hours. The peak photon flux was (186 ± 6) × 10 –7 cm –2 s –1 above 100 MeV, which corresponds to a 30-fold increase compared to the average value. During the flare, a new component emerged in the spectral energy distribution, which peaked at an energy of (375 ± 26) MeV at flare maximum. The observations imply that the emission region was likely relativistically beamed toward us and that variations in its motion are responsible for the observed spectral variability.

  9. CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN AN X1.0 FLARE ON 2014 MARCH 29 OBSERVED WITH IRIS AND EIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Ding, M. D. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiu, J. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Cheng, J. X., E-mail: yingli@nju.edu.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-09-20

    Chromospheric evaporation refers to dynamic mass motions in flare loops as a result of rapid energy deposition in the chromosphere. These motions have been observed as blueshifts in X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectral lines corresponding to upward motions at a few tens to a few hundreds of km s{sup −1}. Past spectroscopic observations have also revealed a dominant stationary component, in addition to the blueshifted component, in emission lines formed at high temperatures (∼10 MK). This is contradictory to evaporation models predicting predominant blueshifts in hot lines. The recently launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provides high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic observations that focus on the chromosphere and transition region in the UV passband. Using the new IRIS observations, combined with coordinated observations from the EUV Imaging Spectrometer, we study the chromospheric evaporation process from the upper chromosphere to the corona during an X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29. We find evident evaporation signatures, characterized by Doppler shifts and line broadening, at two flare ribbons that are separating from each other, suggesting that chromospheric evaporation takes place in successively formed flaring loops throughout the flare. More importantly, we detect dominant blueshifts in the high-temperature Fe xxi line (∼10 MK), in agreement with theoretical predictions. We also find that, in this flare, gentle evaporation occurs at some locations in the rise phase of the flare, while explosive evaporation is detected at some other locations near the peak of the flare. There is a conversion from gentle to explosive evaporation as the flare evolves.

  10. Spatial Offsets in Flare-CME Current Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giordano, Silvio [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Ciaravella, Angela, E-mail: jraymond@cfa.harvard.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, P.za Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo (Italy)

    2017-07-10

    Magnetic reconnection plays an integral part in nearly all models of solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The reconnection heats and accelerates the plasma, produces energetic electrons and ions, and changes the magnetic topology to form magnetic flux ropes and to allow CMEs to escape. Structures that appear between flare loops and CME cores in optical, UV, EUV, and X-ray observations have been identified as current sheets and have been interpreted in terms of the nature of the reconnection process and the energetics of the events. Many of these studies have used UV spectral observations of high temperature emission features in the [Fe xviii] and Si xii lines. In this paper, we discuss several surprising cases in which the [Fe xviii] and Si xii emission peaks are spatially offset from each other. We discuss interpretations based on asymmetric reconnection, on a thin reconnection region within a broader streamer-like structure, and on projection effects. Some events seem to be easily interpreted as the projection of a sheet that is extended along the line of sight that is viewed an angle, but a physical interpretation in terms of asymmetric reconnection is also plausible. Other events favor an interpretation as a thin current sheet embedded in a streamer-like structure.

  11. Multiwavelength analysis of a well observed flare from SMM. [Solar Maximum Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneice, P.; Pallavicini, R.; Mason, H. E.; Simnett, G. M.; Antonucci, E.; Shine, R. A.; Dennis, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of an M 1.4 flare which began at 17:00 UT on November 12, 1980, are presented and analyzed. Ground based H-alpha and magnetogram data have been combined with EUV, soft and hard X-ray observations made with instruments on-board the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. The preflare phase was marked by a gradual brightening of the flare site in O v and the disappearance of an H-alpha filament. Filament ejecta were seen in O v moving southward at a speed of about 60 km/s, before the impulsive phase. The flare loop footpoints brightened in H-alpha and the Ca XIX resonance line broadened dramatically 2 min before the impulsive phase. Nonthermal hard X-ray emission was detected from the loop footpoints during the impulsive phase, while during the same period blue-shifts corresponding to upflows of 200-250 km/s were seen in Ca XIX. Evidence was found for energy deposition in both the chromosphere and corona at a number of stages during the flare. Two widely studied mechanisms for the production of the high temperature soft X-ray flare plasma in the corona are considered, i.e. chromospheric evaporation, and a model in which the heating and transfer of material occurs between flux tubes during reconnection.

  12. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of a Sub-A Class Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesener, Lindsay [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States); Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley (United States); Hannah, Iain G. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Grefenstette, Brian W. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States); White, Stephen M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque (United States); Smith, David M.; Marsh, Andrew J. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We report a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) observation of a solar microflare, SOL2015-09-01T04. Although it was too faint to be observed by the GOES X-ray Sensor, we estimate the event to be an A0.1 class flare in brightness. This microflare, with only ∼5 counts s{sup −1} detector{sup −1} observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI ), is fainter than any hard X-ray (HXR) flare in the existing literature. The microflare occurred during a solar pointing by the highly sensitive NuSTAR astrophysical observatory, which used its direct focusing optics to produce detailed HXR microflare spectra and images. The microflare exhibits HXR properties commonly observed in larger flares, including a fast rise and more gradual decay, earlier peak time with higher energy, spatial dimensions similar to the RHESSI microflares, and a high-energy excess beyond an isothermal spectral component during the impulsive phase. The microflare is small in emission measure, temperature, and energy, though not in physical size; observations are consistent with an origin via the interaction of at least two magnetic loops. We estimate the increase in thermal energy at the time of the microflare to be 2.4 × 10{sup 27} erg. The observation suggests that flares do indeed scale down to extremely small energies and retain what we customarily think of as “flare-like” properties.

  13. ASASSN-16ae: A POWERFUL WHITE-LIGHT FLARE ON AN EARLY-L DWARF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Sarah J. [Leibniz-Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Shappee, Benjamin J.; Seibert, Mark [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gagné, Jonathan [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, Thomas W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, José L. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingenierá, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Chomiuk, Laura; Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Dong, Subo, E-mail: sjschmidt@aip.de [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Road 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-09-10

    We report the discovery and classification of SDSS J053341.43+001434.1 (SDSS0533), an early-L dwarf first discovered during a powerful Δ V< −11 magnitude flare observed as part of the ASAS-SN survey. Optical and infrared spectroscopy indicate a spectral type of L0 with strong H α emission and a blue NIR spectral slope. Combining the photometric distance, proper motion, and radial velocity of SDSS0533 yields three-dimensional velocities of ( U , V , W ) = (14 ± 13, −35 ± 14, −94 ± 22) km s{sup −1}, indicating that it is most likely part of the thick disk population and probably old. The three detections of SDSS0533 obtained during the flare are consistent with a total V -band flare energy of at least 4.9 × 10{sup 33} erg (corresponding to a total thermal energy of at least E {sub tot} > 3.7 × 10{sup 34} erg), placing it among the strongest detected M dwarf flares. The presence of this powerful flare on an old L0 dwarf may indicate that stellar-type magnetic activity persists down to the end of the main sequence and on older ML transition dwarfs.

  14. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event reported by Mewaldt et al. (2009). The observations were made during the 5 December 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV particles arriving from the Sun. The derived solar emission profile, arrival directions, and energy spectrum all show that the atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. CME-driven shock acceleration is also considered. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances .2 solar radii.

  15. Gamma-ray Burst X-ray Flares Light Curve Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubain, Jonisha

    2018-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the Universe. These electromagnetic explosions produce jets demonstrated by a short burst of prompt gamma-ray emission followed by a broadband afterglow. There are sharp increases of flux in the X-ray light curves known as flares that occurs in about 50% of the afterglows. In this study, we characterized all of the X-ray afterglows that were detected by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT), whether with flares or without. We fit flares to the Norris function (Norris et al. 2005) and power laws with breaks where necessary (Racusin et al. 2009). After fitting the Norris function and power laws, we search for the residual pattern detected in prompt GRB pulses (Hakkila et al. 2014, 2015, 2017), that may indicate a common signature of shock physics. If we find the same signature in flares and prompt pulses, it provides insight into what causes them, as well as, how these flares are produced.

  16. He I D3 OBSERVATIONS OF THE 1984 MAY 22 M6.3 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chang; Xu Yan; Deng Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Zhang Jifeng; Wang Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Prasad Choudhary, Debi, E-mail: chang.liu@njit.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, California State University Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff Street, Northridge, CA 91330-0001 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The He I D3 line has a unique response to a flare impact on the low solar atmosphere and can be a powerful diagnostic tool for energy transport processes. Using images obtained from the recently digitized films of the Big Bear Solar Observatory, we report D3 observations of the M6.3 flare on 1984 May 22, which occurred in an active region with a circular magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL). The impulsive phase of the flare starts with a main elongated source that darkens in D3, inside of which bright emission kernels appear at the time of the initial small peak in hard X-rays (HXRs). These flare cores subsequently evolve into a sharp emission strand lying within the dark halo; this evolution occurs at the same time as the main peak in HXRs, reversing the overall source contrast from -5% to 5%. The radiated energy in D3 during the main peak is estimated to be about 10{sup 30} erg, which is comparable to that carried by nonthermal electrons above 20 keV. Afterward, the flare proceeds along the circular PIL in the counterclockwise direction to form a dark circular ribbon in D3, which apparently mirrors the bright ribbons in H{alpha} and He I 10830 A. All of these ribbons last for over one hour in the late gradual phase. We suggest that the present event resembles the so-called black-light flare that was proposed based on continuum images, and that D3 darkening and brightening features herein may be due to thermal conduction heating and the direct precipitation of high-energy electrons, respectively.

  17. Influences of misprediction costs on solar flare prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Wang, HuaNing; Dai, XingHua

    2012-10-01

    The mispredictive costs of flaring and non-flaring samples are different for different applications of solar flare prediction. Hence, solar flare prediction is considered a cost sensitive problem. A cost sensitive solar flare prediction model is built by modifying the basic decision tree algorithm. Inconsistency rate with the exhaustive search strategy is used to determine the optimal combination of magnetic field parameters in an active region. These selected parameters are applied as the inputs of the solar flare prediction model. The performance of the cost sensitive solar flare prediction model is evaluated for the different thresholds of solar flares. It is found that more flaring samples are correctly predicted and more non-flaring samples are wrongly predicted with the increase of the cost for wrongly predicting flaring samples as non-flaring samples, and the larger cost of wrongly predicting flaring samples as non-flaring samples is required for the higher threshold of solar flares. This can be considered as the guide line for choosing proper cost to meet the requirements in different applications.

  18. Explosive Chromospheric Evaporation and Warm Rain in a GOES C3 Flare Observed by IRIS, Hinode/EIS, and RHESSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Inglis, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    IRIS and Hinode/EIS observed a C3.1 flare in AR 12002 in stare mode on 2014 March 15.GOES observed the flare to start at 00:21:35 UT and peak at 00:26:30 UT. The IRIS slitwas pointed near the center of the flare while the EIS slit was pointed 35 arcsec westof the IRIS slit. About 4 minutes before the GOES flare start, the C II and Si IV lineintensities observed by IRIS became (and remained) significantly greater than theirpre-flare average values; this indicates that the flare had begun and that thechromosphere and transition region were involved. IRIS first detected significant,blueshifted Fe XXI emission at 00:22:42 UT, by which time the C II and Si IV lineintensities had increased by factors around 100 and their profiles were significantlyredshifted. This combination of simultaneous, cospatial blueshifted Fe XXI emissionwith redshifted C II and Si IV emission indicates explosive chromospheric evaporation.SDO's HMI observed a localized area of enhanced magnetic field strength toward thesouthernmost portion of the EIS slit's position that appears to be connected to theflare site by faint loops evident in AIA 131 A emission. EIS spectra at this locationreveal intensity enhancements by factors up to about 1.7 in the Fe XIV and Fe XVI lineemission, and the emergence of faint Fe XXIII emission that is too weak to measurevelocities. Emission lines from the two coronal ions show redshifts of about 9 km/saround 00:24:00 UT. The density sensitive line intensity ratio of Fe XIV 264.7/274.2observed by EIS reveals an increase of electron density from (1.03+/-0.20)X10^9 /cm^3before the flare to (3.58+/-0.68)X10^9 /cm^3 during the flare. This combination ofredshifted coronal line emission and increased coronal electron density is consistentwith explosively evaporated flare material observed by IRIS falling as warm rain andaccumulating in the remote area observed by EIS. A thermal/nonthermal fit to the hardX-ray spectrum observed by RHESSI yields a nonthermal energy injection

  19. DATA-DRIVEN RADIATIVE HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE 2014 MARCH 29 X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kleint, Lucia [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952-5159 (United States); Allred, Joel C., E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Spectroscopic observations of solar flares provide critical diagnostics of the physical conditions in the flaring atmosphere. Some key features in observed spectra have not yet been accounted for in existing flare models. Here we report a data-driven simulation of the well-observed X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 that can reconcile some well-known spectral discrepancies. We analyzed spectra of the flaring region from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) in Mg ii h and k, the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectropolarimeter at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST/IBIS) in H α 6563 Å and Ca ii 8542 Å, and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager ( RHESSI ) in hard X-rays. We constructed a multithreaded flare loop model and used the electron flux inferred from RHESSI data as the input to the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN to simulate the atmospheric response. We then synthesized various chromospheric emission lines and compared them with the IRIS and IBIS observations. In general, the synthetic intensities agree with the observed ones, especially near the northern footpoint of the flare. The simulated Mg ii line profile has narrower wings than the observed one. This discrepancy can be reduced by using a higher microturbulent velocity (27 km s{sup −1}) in a narrow chromospheric layer. In addition, we found that an increase of electron density in the upper chromosphere within a narrow height range of ≈800 km below the transition region can turn the simulated Mg ii line core into emission and thus reproduce the single peaked profile, which is a common feature in all IRIS flares.

  20. Can we explain atypical solar flares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasse, K.; Chandra, R.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.

    2015-02-01

    Context. We used multiwavelength high-resolution data from ARIES, THEMIS, and SDO instruments to analyze a non-standard, C3.3 class flare produced within the active region NOAA 11589 on 2012 October 16. Magnetic flux emergence and cancellation were continuously detected within the active region, the latter leading to the formation of two filaments. Aims: Our aim is to identify the origins of the flare taking the complex dynamics of its close surroundings into account. Methods: We analyzed the magnetic topology of the active region using a linear force-free field extrapolation to derive its 3D magnetic configuration and the location of quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs), which are preferred sites for flaring activity. Because the active region's magnetic field was nonlinear force-free, we completed a parametric study using different linear force-free field extrapolations to demonstrate the robustness of the derived QSLs. Results: The topological analysis shows that the active region presented a complex magnetic configuration comprising several QSLs. The considered data set suggests that an emerging flux episode played a key role in triggering the flare. The emerging flux probably activated the complex system of QSLs, leading to multiple coronal magnetic reconnections within the QSLs. This scenario accounts for the observed signatures: the two extended flare ribbons developed at locations matched by the photospheric footprints of the QSLs and were accompanied with flare loops that formed above the two filaments, which played no important role in the flare dynamics. Conclusions: This is a typical example of a complex flare that can a priori show standard flare signatures that are nevertheless impossible to interpret with any standard model of eruptive or confined flare. We find that a topological analysis, however, permitted us to unveil the development of such complex sets of flare signatures. Movies associated to Figs. 1, 3, and 9 are only available at the CDS via

  1. Laser flare photometry in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury S Astakhov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Laser flare photometry (LFP is the only quantitative and objective method for the evaluation of aqueous flare. There are numerous opportunities to use LFP in clinical practice, and they are discussed in the paper. It is especially helpful in management of uveitis patients, because it allows estimating the correct diagnosis, managing the patient during the treatment with noninvasive method and predicting relapses and complications.

  2. Physics of Coupled CME and Flare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0162 TR-2016-0162 PHYSICS OF COUPLED CME AND FLARE SYSTEMS K. S. Balasubramaniam, et al. 21 December 2016 Final...30 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Physics of Coupled CME and Flare Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F...objectives for this task were: (i) derive measureable physical properties and discernible structural circumstances in solar active regions that

  3. Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 [Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the FSRQ 3C 273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rani, B.; Lott, B.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a γ-ray photon flux and spectral variability study of the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 over a rapid flaring activity period between September 2009 to April 2010. Five major flares were observed in the source during this period. The most rapid flare observed in the source has a flux doubling time of 1.1 hr. The rapid γ-ray flares allow us to constrain the location and size of the γ-ray emission region in the source. The γγ-opacity constrains the Doppler factor δ_γ ≥ 10 for the highest energy (15 GeV) photon observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). Causality arguments constrain the size of the emission region to 1.6 × 10"1"5 cm. The γ-ray spectra measured over this period show clear deviations from a simple power law with a break in the 1–2 GeV energy range. We discuss possible explanations for the origin of the γ-ray spectral breaks. Our study suggests that the γ-ray emission region in 3C 273 is located within the broad line region (< 1.6 pc). As a result, the spectral behavior and temporal characteristics of the individual flares indicate the presence of multiple shock scenarios at the base of the jet.

  4. Long Duration Gamma-Ray Flares & Solar Energetic Particles — Is there a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nolfo, G. A.; Boezio, M.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Ryan, J. M.; Share, G.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    Little is known still about the origin of the high-energy and sustained emission from Long Duration Gamma-Ray Flares (LDGRFs), identified with Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO), the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM), and now Fermi. Though Fermi/LAT has identified dozens of flares with LDGRF emission, the nature of this emission has been a challenge to explain both due to the extreme energies and long durations. The highest energy emission has generally been attributed to pion production from the interaction of high-energy protons with the ambient matter, suggesting that particle acceleration occurs over large volumes extending high in the corona, either from stochastic acceleration within large coronal loops or from back precipitation from CME-driven shocks. It is possible to test these models by making direct comparisons between the accelerated ion population at the flare derived from the observations of Fermi/LAT with PAMELA measurements of solar energetic particles in the energy range corresponding to the pion-related emission observed with Fermi. For nearly a dozen SEP events, we compare the two populations (SEPs in space and the interacting population at the Sun) and discuss the implications in terms of particle acceleration and transport models.

  5. New Results from the Flare Genesis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.; Eaton, H. A.; Keller, C.; Murphy, G. A.; Schmieder, B.

    2000-05-01

    From January 10 to 27, 2000, the Flare Genesis solar telescope observed the Sun while suspended from a balloon in the stratosphere above Antarctica. The goal of the mission was to acquire long time series of high-resolution images and vector magnetograms of the solar photosphere and chromosphere. Images were obtained in the magnetically sensitive Ca I line at 6122 Angstroms and at H-alpha (6563 Angstroms). The FGE data were obtained in the context of Max Millennium Observing Campaign #004, the objective of which was to study the ``Genesis of Solar Flares and Active Filaments/Sigmoids." Flare Genesis obtained about 26,000 usable images on the 8 targeted active regions. A preliminary examination reveals a good sequence on an emerging flux region and data on the M1 flare on January 22, as well as a number of sequences on active filaments. We will present the results of our first analysis efforts. Flare Genesis was supported by NASA grants NAG5-4955, NAG5-5139, and NAG5-8331 and by NSF grant OPP-9615073. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization supported early development of the Flare Genesis Experiment.

  6. Solar and stellar flares and their impact on planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kazunari

    Recent observations of the Sun revealed that the solar atmosphere is full of flares and flare-like phenomena, which affect terrestrial environment and our civilization. It has been established that flares are caused by the release of magnetic energy through magnetic reconnection. Many stars show flares similar to solar flares, and such stellar flares especially in stars with fast rotation are much more energetic than solar flares. These are called superflares. The total energy of a solar flare is 1029 - 1032 erg, while that of a superflare is 1033 - 1038 erg. Recently, it was found that superflares (with 1034 - 1035 erg) occur on Sun-like stars with slow rotation with frequency once in 800 - 5000 years. This suggests the possibility of superflares on the Sun. We review recent development of solar and stellar flare research, and briefly discuss possible impacts of superflares on the Earth and exoplanets.

  7. Reduced combustion mechanism for C1-C4 hydrocarbons and its application in computational fluid dynamics flare modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodara, Vijaya; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Rasel, Kader M A; Richmond, Peyton; Wang, Anan; Li, Xianchang

    2017-05-01

    Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators/regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed. LU 3.0.1 is capable of handling C 4 hydrocarbons and soot precursor species (C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 6 H 6 ). The new reduced mechanism LU 3.0.1 was first validated against experimental performance indicators: laminar flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature, and ignition delay. Further, CFD simulations using LU 3.0.1 were run to predict soot emission and CE of air-assisted flare tests conducted in 2010 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, using ANSYS Fluent software. Results of non-premixed probability density function (PDF) model and eddy dissipation concept (EDC) model are discussed. It is also noteworthy that when used in conjunction with the EDC turbulence-chemistry model, LU 3.0.1 can reasonably predict volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well. A reduced combustion mechanism containing 50 C 1 -C 4 species and soot precursors has been developed and validated against experimental data. The combustion mechanism is then employed in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of modeling of soot emission and combustion efficiency (CE) of controlled flares for which experimental soot and CE data are available. The validated CFD modeling tools are useful for oil, gas, and chemical industries to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) mandate to achieve smokeless flaring with a high CE.

  8. Effect of flow parameters on flare stack generator noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinn, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The SoundPLAN Computer Noise Model was used to determine the general effect of flare noise in a community adjacent to a petrochemical plant. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of process flow conditions and the pulsating flame on the flare stack generator noise from both a refinery flare and process flare. Flaring under normal plant operations, the flaring of fuel gas and the flaring of hydrogen were the three conditions that were tested. It was shown that the steam flow rate was the determining factor in the flare stack generated noise. Variations in the water seal level in the flare line surge tank increased or decreased the gas flowrate, which resulted in a pulsating flame. The period and amplitude of the pulsating noise from the flare stacks was determined by measuring several parameters. Flare stack noise oscillations were found to be greater for the process flare than for the refinery flare stack. It was suggested that minimizing the amount of steam fed to the flare and improving the burner design would minimize noise. 2 tabs., 6 figs

  9. The origin of two X-class flares in active region NOAA 12673. Shear flows and head-on collision of new and preexisting flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Meetu

    2018-05-01

    Flare-prolific active region NOAA 12673 produced consecutive X2.2 and X9.3 flares on the 6 September 2017. To scrutinize the morphological, magnetic, and horizontal flow properties associated with these flares, a seven-hour time series was used consisting of continuum images, line-of-sight and vector magnetograms, and 1600 Å UV images. These data were acquired with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). The white-light flare emission differed for both flares, while the X2.2 flare displayed localized, confined flare kernels, the X9.3 flare exhibited a two-ribbon structure. In contrast, the excess UV emission exhibited a similar structure for both flares, but with larger areal extent for the X9.3 flare. These two flares represented a scenario in which the first confined flare acted as precursor, setting up the stage for the more extended flare. Difference maps for continuum and magnetograms revealed locations of significant changes, that is, penumbral decay and umbral strengthening. The curved magnetic polarity inversion line in the δ-spot was the fulcrum of most changes. Horizontal proper motions were computed using the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM). Persistent flow features included (1) strong shear flows along the polarity inversion line, where the negative, parasitic polarity tried to bypass the majority, positive-polarity part of the δ-spot in the north, (2) a group of positive-polarity spots, which moved around the δ-spot in the south, moving away from the δ-spot with significant horizontal flow speeds, and (3) intense moat flows partially surrounding the penumbra of several sunspots, which became weaker in regions with penumbral decay. The enhanced flare activity has its origin in the head-on collision of newly emerging flux with an already existing regular, α-spot. Umbral cores of emerging bipoles were incorporated in its penumbra, creating a δ-configuration with

  10. Transient rotation of photospheric vector magnetic fields associated with a solar flare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Cao, Wenda; Ahn, Kwangsu; Jing, Ju; Liu, Chang; Chae, Jongchul; Huang, Nengyi; Deng, Na; Gary, Dale E; Wang, Haimin

    2018-01-03

    As one of the most violent eruptions on the Sun, flares are believed to be powered by magnetic reconnection. The fundamental physics involving the release, transfer, and deposition of energy have been studied extensively. Taking advantage of the unprecedented resolution provided by the 1.6 m Goode Solar Telescope, here, we show a sudden rotation of vector magnetic fields, about 12-20° counterclockwise, associated with a flare. Unlike the permanent changes reported previously, the azimuth-angle change is transient and cospatial/temporal with Hα emission. The measured azimuth angle becomes closer to that in potential fields suggesting untwist of flare loops. The magnetograms were obtained in the near infrared at 1.56 μm, which is minimally affected by flare emission and no intensity profile change was detected. We believe that these transient changes are real and discuss the possible explanations in which the high-energy electron beams or Alfve'n waves play a crucial role.

  11. Feasibility of flare gas reformation to practical energy in Farashband gas refinery: no gas flaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Mohammad Reaza; Jokar, Seyyed Mohammad

    2012-03-30

    A suggested method for controlling the level of hazardous materials in the atmosphere is prevention of combustion in flare. In this work, three methods are proposed to recover flare gas instead of conventional gas-burning in flare at the Farashband gas refinery. These methods aim to minimize environmental and economical disadvantages of burning flare gas. The proposed methods are: (1) gas to liquid (GTL) production, (2) electricity generation with a gas turbine and, (3) compression and injection into the refinery pipelines. To find the most suitable method, the refinery units that send gas to the flare as well as the required equipment for the three aforementioned methods are simulated. These simulations determine the amount of flare gas, the number of GTL barrels, the power generated by the gas turbine and the required compression horsepower. The results of simulation show that 563 barrels/day of valuable GTL products is produced by the first method. The second method provides 25 MW electricity and the third method provides a compressed natural gas with 129 bar pressure for injection to the refinery pipelines. In addition, the economics of flare gas recovery methods are studied and compared. The results show that for the 4.176MMSCFD of gas flared from the Farashband gas refinery, the electricity production gives the highest rate of return (ROR), the lowest payback period, the highest annual profit and mild capital investment. Therefore, the electricity production is the superior method economically. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. BOOTES-IR: near IR follow-up GRB observations by a robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Postrigo, A. de Ugarte; Jelinek, M.

    2005-01-01

    BOOTES-IR is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which operates in Southern Spain since 1998, to the near IR (NIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission in the NIR, alike BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like INTEGRAL, SWIFT and GLAST. Given that the afterglow emission in both, the NIR and the optical, in the instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible to detect this prompt emission at NIR wavelengths too. The combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1 and BOOTES-2 will allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a high redshift (z > 5). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the IR magnitudes be H ∼ 7-10, hence very high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by larger instruments

  13. On the origin of a sunquake during the 2014 March 29 X1 flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judge, Philip G. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Kleint, Lucia [Institute of 4D Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Donea, Alina [Center for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Dalda, Alberto Sainz [Stanford-Lockheed Institute for Space Research, Stanford University, HEPL, 466 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Fletcher, Lyndsay, E-mail: judge@ucar.edu, E-mail: lucia.kleint@fhnw.ch, E-mail: alina.donea@monash.edu, E-mail: asdalda@stanford.edu, E-mail: lyndsay.fletcher@glasgow.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    Helioseismic data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instrument have revealed a sunquake associated with the X1 flare SOL2014-03-29T17:48 in active region NOAA 12017. We try to discover if acoustic-like impulses or actions of the Lorentz force caused the sunquake. We analyze spectropolarimetric data obtained with the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Fortunately, the FIRS slit crossed the flare kernel close to the acoustic source during the impulsive phase. The infrared FIRS data remain unsaturated throughout the flare. Stokes profiles of lines of Si I 1082.7 nm and He I 1083.0 nm are analyzed. At the flare footpoint, the Si I 1082.7 nm core intensity increases by a factor of several, and the IR continuum increases by 4% ± 1%. Remarkably, the Si I core resembles the classical Ca II K line's self-reversed profile. With nLTE radiative models of H, C, Si, and Fe, these properties set the penetration depth of flare heating to 100 ± 100 km (i.e., photospheric layers). Estimates of the non-magnetic energy flux are at least a factor of two less than the sunquake energy flux. Milne-Eddington inversions of the Si I line show that the local magnetic energy changes are also too small to drive the acoustic pulse. Our work raises several questions. Have we missed the signature of downward energy propagation? Is it intermittent in time and/or non-local? Does the 1-2 s photospheric radiative damping time discount compressive modes?.

  14. QUASI-PERIODIC ACCELERATION OF ELECTRONS IN THE FLARE ON 2012 JULY 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing [Key Laboratory of Solar Activities, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Kontar, Eduard P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Nakariakov, Valery M. [Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gao, Guannan, E-mail: huangj@bao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan 650011 (China)

    2016-11-10

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) of nonthermal emission in an M7.7 class flare on 2012 July 19 are investigated with spatially resolved observations at microwave and HXR bands and with spectral observations at decimetric, metric waves. Microwave emission at 17 GHz of two footpoints, HXR emission at 20–50 keV of the north footpoint and loop top, and type III bursts at 0.7–3 GHz show prominent in-phase oscillations at 270 s. The microwave emission of the loop leg has less pulsation but stronger emission. Through the estimation of plasma density around the loop top from EUV observations, we find that the local plasma frequency would be 1.5 GHz or even higher. Thus, type III bursts at 700 MHz originate above the loop top. Quasi-periodic acceleration or injection of energetic electrons is proposed to dominate these in-phase QPPs of nonthermal emission from footpoints, loop top, and above. In the overlying region, drifting pulsations (DPS) at 200–600 MHz oscillate at a distinct period (200 s). Its global structure drifts toward lower frequency, which is closely related to upward plasmoids observed simultaneously from EUV emission. Hence, nonthermal emission from overlying plasmoids and underlying flaring loops show different oscillating periods. Two individual systems of quasi-periodic acceleration of electrons are proposed to coincide in the bi-direction outflows from the reconnection region.

  15. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP OF FLARE SIGNATURES AND THE FORCE-FREE CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thalmann, J. K.; Veronig, A.; Su, Y., E-mail: julia.thalmann@uni-graz.at [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the plasma and magnetic environment of active region NOAA 11261 on 2011 August 2 around a GOES M1.4 flare/CME (SOL2011-08-02T06:19). We compare coronal emission at the (extreme) ultraviolet and X-ray wavelengths, using SDO AIA and RHESSI images, in order to identify the relative timing and locations of reconnection-related sources. We trace flare ribbon signatures at ultraviolet wavelengths in order to pin down the intersection of previously reconnected flaring loops in the lower solar atmosphere. These locations are used to calculate field lines from three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear force-free magnetic field models, established on the basis of SDO HMI photospheric vector magnetic field maps. Using this procedure, we analyze the quasi-static time evolution of the coronal model magnetic field previously involved in magnetic reconnection. This allows us, for the first time, to estimate the elevation speed of the current sheet’s lower tip during an on-disk observed flare as a few kilometers per second. A comparison to post-flare loops observed later above the limb in STEREO EUVI images supports this velocity estimate. Furthermore, we provide evidence for an implosion of parts of the flaring coronal model magnetic field, and identify the corresponding coronal sub-volumes associated with the loss of magnetic energy. Finally, we spatially relate the build up of magnetic energy in the 3D models to highly sheared fields, established due to the dynamic relative motions of polarity patches within the active region.

  16. A Masing Event in NGC 6334I: Contemporaneous Flaring of Hydroxyl, Methanol and Water Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, G. C.; Smits, D. P.; Goedhart, S.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Chibueze, J. O.; van den Heever, S. P.; Thesner, C. J.; Banda, P. J.; Paulsen, J. D.

    2018-04-01

    As a product of the maser monitoring program with the 26 m telescope of the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO), we present an unprecedented, contemporaneous flaring event of 10 maser transitions in hydroxyl, methanol, and water that began in 2015 January in the massive star-forming region NGC 6334I in the velocity range -10 to -2 km s-1. The 6.7 GHz methanol and 22.2 GHz water masers began flaring within 22 days of each other, while the 12.2 GHz methanol and 1665 MHz hydroxyl masers flared 80 and 113 days later respectively. The 1665 MHz, 6.7 GHz, and 22.2 GHz masers have all remained in their flared state for nearly 3 years. The brightest flaring components increased by factors of 66, 21, 26, and 20 in the 12.2 and 6.7 GHz methanol, 1665 MHz hydroxyl and 22.2 GHz water maser transitions respectively; some weaker components increased by up to a factor of 145. We also report new maser emission in the 1720, 6031, and 6035 MHz OH lines and the 23.1 GHz methanol line, along with the detection of only the fifth 4660 MHz OH maser. We note the correlation of this event with the extraordinary (sub)millimeter continuum outburst from the massive protostellar system NGC 6334I-MM1 and discuss the implications of the observed time lags between different maser velocity components on the nature of the outburst. Finally, we identify two earlier epoch maser flaring events likely associated with this object, which suggest a recurring accretive phenomenon that generates powerful radiative outbursts.

  17. Multiwavelength Observations of the Blazar BL Lacertae: A New Fast TeV Gamma-Ray Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Brantseg, T.; Brose, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Gunawardhana, I.; Hütten, M.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lin, T. T. Y.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Petrashyk, A.; Pohl, M.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, R. M.; Wilcox, P.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; The VERITAS Collaboration; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Lister, M. L.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Savolainen, T.; Agudo, I.; Molina, S. N.; Gómez, J. L.; Larionov, V. M.; Borman, G. A.; Mokrushina, A. A.; Tornikoski, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Chamani, W.; Enestam, S.; Kiehlmann, S.; Hovatta, T.; Smith, P. S.; Pontrelli, P.

    2018-04-01

    Combined with measurements made by very-long-baseline interferometry, the observations of fast TeV gamma-ray flares probe the structure and emission mechanism of blazar jets. However, only a handful of such flares have been detected to date, and only within the last few years have these flares been observed from lower-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects and flat-spectrum radio quasars. We report on a fast TeV gamma-ray flare from the blazar BL Lacertae observed by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). with a rise time of ∼2.3 hr and a decay time of ∼36 min. The peak flux above 200 GeV is (4.2 ± 0.6) × 10‑6 photon m‑2 s‑1 measured with a 4-minute-binned light curve, corresponding to ∼180% of the flux that is observed from the Crab Nebula above the same energy threshold. Variability contemporaneous with the TeV gamma-ray flare was observed in GeV gamma-ray, X-ray, and optical flux, as well as in optical and radio polarization. Additionally, a possible moving emission feature with superluminal apparent velocity was identified in Very Long Baseline Array observations at 43 GHz, potentially passing the radio core of the jet around the time of the gamma-ray flare. We discuss the constraints on the size, Lorentz factor, and location of the emitting region of the flare, and the interpretations with several theoretical models that invoke relativistic plasma passing stationary shocks.

  18. A study of flare stars in the taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results are given of a search for flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus together with the results of photometric, H /sub alpha/ -spectroscopic, and statistical investigations of them. Photographic observations during 1980-1984 revealed 92 new flare stars, 13 of which were found to be known Orion variables with 16 repeated flares of 13 previously known flare stars. Their apparent distribution is considered. The question of whether the flare stars belong to a dark cloud is discussed. A comparative analysis of the flare stars in the Taurus region and other aggregates is made. The Hertzsprung-Russell (V, B - V) and two-color (U - B, B - V) diagrams for the flare stars are similar to the corresponding diagrams constructed for star clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion, etc.). The total number of flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus is estimated at ≥ 500

  19. Frequency distribution function of stellar flares in the Orion association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsamian, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The temporal distributions of flare stars in the Orion association and the numbers of stars with different flare frequencies are determined by means of Ambartsumian's (1978) method, which uses the chronology of discovery of 'first' flares and the chronology of confirmations, i.e., the temporal distributions of 'repeated' flares. It is shown that flare stars with high flare frequency (not greater than 1000 hours) in the Pleiades are basically stars of low luminosity with M(U) not less than 13m. Two independent methods of determining the number of flare stars in the aggregates confirm that there are about 1.5 times more flare stars in the Orion association than in the Pleiades

  20. Time-resolved UVES observations of a stellar flare on the planet host HD 189733 during primary transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocová, T.; Czesla, S.; Khalafinejad, S.; Wolter, U.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Context. HD 189733 is an exoplanetary system consisting of a transiting hot Jupiter and an active K2V-type main sequence star. Rich manifestations of a stellar activity, like photometric spots or chromospheric flares were repeatedly observed in this system in optical, UV and X-rays. Aims: We aim to use VLT/UVES high resolution (R = 60 000) echelle spectra to study a stellar flare. Methods: We have performed simultaneous analyses of the temporal evolution in several chromospheric stellar lines, namely, the Ca II H & K lines (3933, 3968 Å), H α (6563 Å), H β (4861 Å), H γ (4341 Å), H δ (4102 Å), H ɛ (3970 Å), the Ca II infrared triplet lines (8498, 8542 and 8662 Å), and He I D3 (5875.6 Å). Observations were carried out with a time resolution of approximately 1 min for a duration of four hours, including a complete planetary transit. Results: We determine the energy released during the flare in all studied chromospheric lines combined to be about 8.7 × 1031 erg, which puts this event at the upper end of flare energies observed on the Sun. Our analysis does not reveal any significant delay of the flare peak observed in the Balmer and Ca II H & K lines, although we find a clear difference in the temporal evolution of these lines. The He I D3 shows additional absorption possibly related to the flare event. Based on the flux released in Ca II H & K lines during the flare, we estimate the soft X-ray flux emission to be 7 × 1030 erg. Conclusions: The observed flare can be ranked as a moderate flare on a K-type star and confirms a rather high activity level of HD 189733 host star. The cores of the studied chromospheric lines demonstrate the same behavior and let us study the flare evolution. We demonstrate that the activity of an exoplanet host star can play an important role in the detection of exoplanet atmospheres, since these are frequently discovered as an additional absorption in the line cores. A possible star-planet interaction responsible for a flare

  1. Non-LTE Calculations of the Fe I 6173 Å Line in a Flaring Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; Ding, M. D.; Li, Ying; Carlsson, Mats

    2018-04-01

    The Fe I 6173 Å line is widely used in the measurements of vector magnetic fields by instruments including the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). We perform non-local thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of this line based on radiative hydrodynamic simulations in a flaring atmosphere. We employ both a quiet-Sun atmosphere and a penumbral atmosphere as the initial one in our simulations. We find that, in the quiet-Sun atmosphere, the line center is obviously enhanced during an intermediate flare. The enhanced emission is contributed from both radiative backwarming in the photosphere and particle beam heating in the lower chromosphere. A blue asymmetry of the line profile also appears due to an upward mass motion in the lower chromosphere. If we take a penumbral atmosphere as the initial atmosphere, the line has a more significant response to the flare heating, showing a central emission and an obvious asymmetry. The low spectral resolution of HMI would indicate some loss of information, but the enhancement and line asymmetry are still kept. By calculating polarized line profiles, we find that the Stokes I and V profiles can be altered as a result of flare heating. Thus the distortion of this line has a crucial influence on the magnetic field measured from this line, and one should be cautious in interpreting the magnetic transients observed frequently in solar flares.

  2. Dynamic Spectral Imaging of Decimetric Fiber Bursts in an Eruptive Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhitao; Chen, Bin; Gary, Dale E., E-mail: zw56@njit.edu [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Fiber bursts are a type of fine structure that is often superposed on type IV radio continuum emission during solar flares. Although studied for many decades, its physical exciter, emission mechanism, and association with the flare energy release remain unclear, partly due to the lack of simultaneous imaging observations. We report the first dynamic spectroscopic imaging observations of decimetric fiber bursts, which occurred during the rise phase of a long-duration eruptive flare on 2012 March 3, as obtained by the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in 1–2 GHz. Our results show that the fiber sources are located near and above one footpoint of the flare loops. The fiber source and the background continuum source are found to be co-spatial and share the same morphology. It is likely that they are associated with nonthermal electrons trapped in the converging magnetic fields near the footpoint, as supported by a persistent coronal hard X-ray source present during the flare rise phase. We analyze three groups of fiber bursts in detail with dynamic imaging spectroscopy and obtain their mean frequency-dependent centroid trajectories in projection. By using a barometric density model and magnetic field based on a potential field extrapolation, we further reconstruct the 3D source trajectories of fiber bursts, for comparison with expectations from the whistler wave model and two MHD-based models. We conclude that the observed fiber burst properties are consistent with an exciter moving at the propagation velocity expected for whistler waves, or models that posit similar exciter velocities.

  3. Solar Flare Prediction Model with Three Machine-learning Algorithms using Ultraviolet Brightening and Vector Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizuka, N.; Sugiura, K.; Kubo, Y.; Den, M.; Watari, S.; Ishii, M.

    2017-02-01

    We developed a flare prediction model using machine learning, which is optimized to predict the maximum class of flares occurring in the following 24 hr. Machine learning is used to devise algorithms that can learn from and make decisions on a huge amount of data. We used solar observation data during the period 2010-2015, such as vector magnetograms, ultraviolet (UV) emission, and soft X-ray emission taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. We detected active regions (ARs) from the full-disk magnetogram, from which ˜60 features were extracted with their time differentials, including magnetic neutral lines, the current helicity, the UV brightening, and the flare history. After standardizing the feature database, we fully shuffled and randomly separated it into two for training and testing. To investigate which algorithm is best for flare prediction, we compared three machine-learning algorithms: the support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and extremely randomized trees. The prediction score, the true skill statistic, was higher than 0.9 with a fully shuffled data set, which is higher than that for human forecasts. It was found that k-NN has the highest performance among the three algorithms. The ranking of the feature importance showed that previous flare activity is most effective, followed by the length of magnetic neutral lines, the unsigned magnetic flux, the area of UV brightening, and the time differentials of features over 24 hr, all of which are strongly correlated with the flux emergence dynamics in an AR.

  4. Solar Flare Prediction Model with Three Machine-learning Algorithms using Ultraviolet Brightening and Vector Magnetograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizuka, N.; Kubo, Y.; Den, M.; Watari, S.; Ishii, M. [Applied Electromagnetic Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Sugiura, K., E-mail: nishizuka.naoto@nict.go.jp [Advanced Speech Translation Research and Development Promotion Center, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (Japan)

    2017-02-01

    We developed a flare prediction model using machine learning, which is optimized to predict the maximum class of flares occurring in the following 24 hr. Machine learning is used to devise algorithms that can learn from and make decisions on a huge amount of data. We used solar observation data during the period 2010–2015, such as vector magnetograms, ultraviolet (UV) emission, and soft X-ray emission taken by the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite . We detected active regions (ARs) from the full-disk magnetogram, from which ∼60 features were extracted with their time differentials, including magnetic neutral lines, the current helicity, the UV brightening, and the flare history. After standardizing the feature database, we fully shuffled and randomly separated it into two for training and testing. To investigate which algorithm is best for flare prediction, we compared three machine-learning algorithms: the support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and extremely randomized trees. The prediction score, the true skill statistic, was higher than 0.9 with a fully shuffled data set, which is higher than that for human forecasts. It was found that k-NN has the highest performance among the three algorithms. The ranking of the feature importance showed that previous flare activity is most effective, followed by the length of magnetic neutral lines, the unsigned magnetic flux, the area of UV brightening, and the time differentials of features over 24 hr, all of which are strongly correlated with the flux emergence dynamics in an AR.