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Sample records for ir composite samples

  1. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in determination of microalgal compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yingying; Yao, Changhong; Xue, Song; Yang, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was applied in algal strain screening and monitoring cell composition dynamics in a marine microalga Isochrysis zhangjiangensis during algal cultivation. The content of lipid, carbohydrate and protein of samples determined by traditional methods had validated the accuracy of FT-IR method. For algal screening, the band absorption ratios of lipid/amide I and carbo/amide I from FT-IR measurements allowed for the selection of Isochrysis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis as the most potential lipid and carbohydrate producers, respectively. The cell composition dynamics of I. zhangjiangensis measured by FT-IR revealed the diversion of carbon allocation from protein to carbohydrate and neutral lipid when nitrogen-replete cells were subjected to nitrogen limitation. The carbo/amide I band absorption ratio had also been demonstrated to depict physiological status under nutrient stress in T. subcordiformis. FT-IR serves as a tool for the simultaneous measurement of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content in cell. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of FT-IR Classification Method in Silica-Plant Extracts Composites Quality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicu, A.; Drumea, V.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Purcareanu, B.; Florea, M. A.; Trică, B.; Vasilievici, G.; Draga, S.; Buse, E.; Olariu, L.

    2018-06-01

    Our present work is concerned with the validation and quality testing efforts of mesoporous silica - plant extracts composites, in order to sustain the standardization process of plant-based pharmaceutical products. The synthesis of the silica support were performed by using a TEOS based synthetic route and CTAB as a template, at room temperature and normal pressure. The silica support was analyzed by advanced characterization methods (SEM, TEM, BET, DLS and FT-IR), and loaded with Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis standardized extracts. Further desorption studies were performed in order to prove the sustained release properties of the final materials. Intermediate and final product identification was performed by a FT-IR classification method, using the MID-range of the IR spectra, and statistical representative samples from repetitive synthetic stages. The obtained results recommend this analytical method as a fast and cost effective alternative to the classic identification methods.

  3. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh-Sadat Jafarzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm. Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  4. Evaluation of Polymerization Efficacy in Composite Resins via FT-IR Spectroscopy and Vickers Microhardness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Tahereh-Sadat; Erfan, Mohammad; Behroozibakhsh, Marjan; Fatemi, Mostafa; Masaeli, Reza; Rezaei, Yashar; Bagheri, Hossein; Erfan, Yasaman

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Polymerization efficacy affects the properties and performance of composite resin restorations.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of polymerization of two micro-hybrid, two nano-hybrid and one nano-filled ormocer-based composite resins, cured by two different light-curing systems, using Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Vickers microhardness testing at two different depths (top surface, 2 mm). Materials and methods. For FT-IR spectrometry, five cylindrical specimens (5mm in diameter × 2 mm in length) were prepared from each composite resin using Teflon molds and polymerized for 20 seconds. Then, 70-μm wafers were sectioned at the top surface and at2mm from the top surface. The degree of conversion for each sample was calculated using FT-IR spectroscopy. For Vickers micro-hardness testing, three cylindrical specimens were prepared from each composite resin and polymerized for 20 seconds. The Vickers microhardness test (Shimadzu, Type M, Japan) was performed at the top and bottom (depth=2 mm) surfaces of each specimen. Three-way ANOVA with independent variables and Tukey tests were performed at 95% significance level. Results. No significant differences were detected in degree of conversion and microhardness between LED and QTH light-curing units except for the ormocer-based specimen, CeramX, which exhibited significantly higher DC by LED. All the composite resins showed a significantly higher degree of conversion at the surface. Microhardness was not significantly affected by depth, except for Herculite XRV Ultra and CeramX, which showed higher values at the surface. Conclusion. Composite resins containing nano-particles generally exhibited more variations in degree of conversion and microhardness.

  5. Detection of defects in multi-layered aramid composites by ultrasonic IR thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracht, Monika; Swiderski, Waldemar

    2017-10-01

    In military applications, laminates reinforced with aramid, carbon, and glass fibers are used for the construction of protection products against light ballistics. Material layers can be very different by their physical properties. Therefore, such materials represent a difficult inspection task for many traditional techniques of non-destructive testing (NDT). Defects which can appear in this type of many-layered composite materials usually are inaccuracies in gluing composite layers and stratifications or delaminations occurring under hits of fragments and bullets. IR thermographic NDT is considered as a candidate technique to detect such defects. One of the active IR thermography methods used in nondestructive testing is vibrothermography. The term vibrothermography was created in the 1990s to determine the thermal test procedures designed to assess the hidden heterogeneity of structural materials based on surface temperature fields at cyclical mechanical loads. A similar procedure can be done with sound and ultrasonic stimulation of the material, because the cause of an increase in temperature is internal friction between the wall defect and the stimulation mechanical waves. If the cyclic loading does not exceed the flexibility of the material and the rate of change is not large, the heat loss due to thermal conductivity is small, and the test object returns to its original shape and temperature. The most commonly used method is ultrasonic stimulation, and the testing technique is ultrasonic infrared thermography. Ultrasonic IR thermography is based on two basic phenomena. First, the elastic properties of defects differ from the surroundings, and acoustic damping and heating are always larger in the damaged regions than in the undamaged or homogeneous areas. Second, the heat transfer in the sample is dependent on its thermal properties. In this paper, both modelling and experimental results which illustrate the advantages and limitations of ultrasonic IR

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF SOME COMPOSITE MEDICINAL DRUGS CONTAINING PARACETAMOL, WITH IR-SPECTROMETRY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Saushkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A serious threat to the health of the population is falsified medicines. In a number of cases, they are identified in the process of incoming quality control for compliancewith the requirements of regulatory documents for indicators “Description”, “Packaging”, “Marking”. However, in order to identify sophisticated counterfeits, only a visual assessment of the drug is not enough. Purpose screening evaluation of potentiallycounterfeited or poor-quality drugs using the IR spectrometry along the total spectrum.Materials and methods. The objects of research were available in freely availablecommercially available tablets produced by domestic and foreign manufacturers“Paracetamol Extratab”, “Solpadein fast”, “Citrapac”, “Citramon P”, “Ascofen-P”,  corresponding to the requirements of the current regulatory documents. The studies were carried out on a Fourier-Spectrophotometer infrared “FSM 1201”. Results and discussion. On the example of the tablets “Citramon P”, “Ascophen-P”, “Citrapac”, “Paracetamol Extratab”, “Solpadein Fast” the possibility of using the total IR spectra as a primary screening index of authenticity is shown. It was established that the total IR spectra of medicines of similar composition reflect the similarity of serial samples of the products ofone manufacturer and the difference in serial samples of products of different manufacturers.

  7. Nanomechanical IR Spectroscopy for the fast analysis of picogram samples of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2014-01-01

    The proliferation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, demands for novel sensitive techniques allowing for the analysis of minute samples. We present nanoelectromechanical system-based IR spectroscopy (NEMS-IR) of picograms of polymeric micelles. The micelles are nebulized...

  8. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, L. F.; Burt, B. J.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.

    2011-01-01

    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-30 micrometers) have enabled us to resolve this ambiguity. The thermal-IR spectrum exhibits strong olivine reststrahlen features consistent with a composition of approximately equals Fo60-70. Laboratory spectra of R chondrites, brachinites, and chassignites are dominated by similar features.

  9. Composition dependence of phase transformation behavior and shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.; Hara, T.; Kitashima, T.; Miura, S.; Hosoda, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The partial isothemal section at 1523 K was determined in Ti–Pt–Ir. ► The high-temperature shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir) was investigated. ► The shape recovery ratio was 72% in Ti–10Pt–32Ir after deformation at 1123 K. ► Ir addition to TiPt is effective to improve shape memory effect of TiPt. -- Abstract: The phase transformation and high-temperature shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir) were investigated. First, the Ti-rich phase boundary of Ti(Pt, Ir) was investigated by phase composition analysis by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) using an electron probe X-ray micro analyzer (EPMA), X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then, the three alloys Ti–35Pt–10Ir, Ti–22Pt–22Ir, and Ti–10Pt–32Ir (at%) close to the phase boundary but in the single phase of Ti(Pt, Ir) were prepared by the arc melting method. The shape memory effect and crystal structure were investigated by compression loading–unloading tests and high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively

  10. Advanced sampling techniques for hand-held FT-IR instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnó, Josep; Frunzi, Michael; Weber, Chris; Levy, Dustin

    2013-05-01

    FT-IR spectroscopy is the technology of choice to identify solid and liquid phase unknown samples. The challenging ConOps in emergency response and military field applications require a significant redesign of the stationary FT-IR bench-top instruments typically used in laboratories. Specifically, field portable units require high levels of resistance against mechanical shock and chemical attack, ease of use in restrictive gear, extreme reliability, quick and easy interpretation of results, and reduced size. In the last 20 years, FT-IR instruments have been re-engineered to fit in small suitcases for field portable use and recently further miniaturized for handheld operation. This article introduces the HazMatID™ Elite, a FT-IR instrument designed to balance the portability advantages of a handheld device with the performance challenges associated with miniaturization. In this paper, special focus will be given to the HazMatID Elite's sampling interfaces optimized to collect and interrogate different types of samples: accumulated material using the on-board ATR press, dispersed powders using the ClearSampler™ tool, and the touch-to-sample sensor for direct liquid sampling. The application of the novel sample swipe accessory (ClearSampler) to collect material from surfaces will be discussed in some detail. The accessory was tested and evaluated for the detection of explosive residues before and after detonation. Experimental results derived from these investigations will be described in an effort to outline the advantages of this technology over existing sampling methods.

  11. Oxadiazole-carbazole polymer (POC)-Ir(ppy)3 tunable emitting composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Annalisa; Borriello, Carmela; Di Luccio, Tiziana; Sessa, Lucia; Concilio, Simona; Haque, Saif A.; Minarini, Carla

    2017-04-01

    POC polymer is an oxadiazole-carbazole copolymer we have previously synthetized and established as light emitting material in Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs), although POC quantum yield emission efficiency and color purity still need to be enhanced. On the other hand, tris[2-phenylpyridinato-C2,N]iridium(III) (Ir(ppy)3) complexes, namely Ir(ppy)3 are among the brightest luminophores employed in green light emitting devices. Our aim, in this work, is to take advantage of Ir(ppy)3 bright emission by combining the Ir complex with blue emitting POC to obtain tunable light emitting composites over a wide range of the visible spectrum. Here we have investigated the optical proprieties POC based nanocomposites with different concentrations of Ir(ppy)3, ranging from 1 to 10 wt%. Both spectral and time resolved fluorescence measurements show an efficient energy transfer from the polymer to the dopants, resulting in white-emitting composites. The most intense and stable emission has been found when POC was doped with about 5 wt% concentration of Ir(ppy)3.

  12. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonannavar, J.; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B.; Patil, Nikhil A.; Mulimani, B. G.

    2016-02-01

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400 cm- 1) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH.

  13. Identification of mineral compositions in some renal calculi by FT Raman and IR spectral analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonannavar, J; Deshpande, Gouri; Yenagi, Jayashree; Patil, Siddanagouda B; Patil, Nikhil A; Mulimani, B G

    2016-02-05

    We present in this paper accurate and reliable Raman and IR spectral identification of mineral constituents in nine samples of renal calculi (kidney stones) removed from patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. The identified mineral components include Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM, whewellite), Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (COD, weddellite), Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (MAPH, struvite), Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (CHPD, brushite), Pentacalcium Hydroxy Triphosphate (PCHT, hydroxyapatite) and Uric Acid (UA). The identification is based on a satisfactory assignment of all the observed IR and Raman bands (3500-400c m(-1)) to chemical functional groups of mineral components in the samples, aided by spectral analysis of pure materials of COM, MAPH, CHPD and UA. It is found that the eight samples are composed of COM as the common component, the other mineral species as common components are: MAPH in five samples, PCHT in three samples, COD in three samples, UA in three samples and CHPD in two samples. One sample is wholly composed of UA as a single component; this inference is supported by the good agreement between ab initio density functional theoretical spectra and experimental spectral measurements of both sample and pure material. A combined application of Raman and IR techniques has shown that, where the IR is ambiguous, the Raman analysis can differentiate COD from COM and PCHT from MAPH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sensitivity Range Analysis of Infrared (IR) Transmitter and Receiver Sensor to Detect Sample Position in Automatic Sample Changer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Nolida Yussup; Nur Aira Abdul Rahman; Maslina Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity range of IR Transmitter and Receiver Sensor influences the effectiveness of the sensor to detect position of a sample. Then the purpose of this analysis is to determine the suitable design and specification the electronic driver of the sensor to gain appropriate sensitivity range for required operation. The related activities to this analysis cover electronic design concept and specification, calibration of design specification and evaluation on design specification for required application. (author)

  15. IR Observations of a Complete Unbiased Sample of Bright Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew; Bendo, George; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Smith, Howard; Spinoglio, Luigi; Tommasin, Silvia

    2008-03-01

    IR spectra will measure the 2 main energy-generating processes by which galactic nuclei shine: black hole accretion and star formation. Both of these play roles in galaxy evolution, and they appear connected. To obtain a complete sample of AGN, covering the range of luminosities and column-densities, we will combine 2 complete all-sky samples with complementary selections, minimally biased by dust obscuration: the 116 IRAS 12um AGN and the 41 Swift/BAT hard Xray AGN. These galaxies have been extensively studied across the entire EM spectrum. Herschel observations have been requested and will be synergistic with the Spitzer database. IRAC and MIPS imaging will allow us to separate the nuclear and galactic continua. We are completing full IR observations of the local AGN population, most of which have already been done. The only remaining observations we request are 10 IRS/HIRES, 57 MIPS-24 and 30 IRAC pointings. These high-quality observations of bright AGN in the bolometric-flux-limited samples should be completed, for the high legacy value of complete uniform datasets. We will measure quantitatively the emission at each wavelength arising from stars and from accretion in each galactic center. Since our complete samples come from flux-limited all-sky surveys in the IR and HX, we will calculate the bi-variate AGN and star formation Luminosity Functions for the local population of active galaxies, for comparison with higher redshifts.Our second aim is to understand the physical differences between AGN classes. This requires statistical comparisons of full multiwavelength observations of complete representative samples. If the difference between Sy1s and Sy2s is caused by orientation, their isotropic properties, including those of the surrounding galactic centers, should be similar. In contrast, if they are different evolutionary stages following a galaxy encounter, then we may find observational evidence that the circumnuclear ISM of Sy2s is relatively younger.

  16. Optical properties of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 composites in the IR region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, De-yue; Li, Xiao-xia; Guo, Yu-xiang; Zeng, Yu-run

    2018-01-01

    The complex refractive index of reduced graphene oxide and CuFe2O4 composites prepared by hydrothermal method was calculated using infrared Micro-reflective spectra and K-K relation, and the calculation errors were analyzed according to its IR transmission and spectral reflectivity calculated by Fresnel formula. And then normal emissivity of the composite in IR atmospheric window was calculated by means of Fresnel formula and modified refraction angle formula. The calculation accuracy was verified by comparing measured normal total emissivity with the calculated one. The results show that complex refractive index and normal emissivity calculated by the formulas have a high accuracy. It has been found that the composite has a good absorption and radiation characteristics in IR atmospheric window and a strong scattering ability in middle IR region by analyzing its extinction, absorption and radiation properties in IR region. Therefore, it may be used as IR absorption, extinction and radiation materials in some special fields.

  17. Identification of herbarium whole-leaf samples of Epilobium species by ATR-IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strgulc Krajsek, Simona; Buh, Primoz; Zega, Anamarija; Kreft, Samo

    2008-02-01

    A simple, high-accuracy FT-IR method based on attenuated total reflection (ATR) was developed for the rapid determination of leaf samples of Epilobium species. The method is superior to other analytical techniques, since there is no need of laborious sample preparation such as grinding or extraction and solvent removal. A total of 70 herbarium specimens, belonging to all 13 Epilobium and to 2 Chamerion species growing in Slovenia, were analyzed. With the 100 most-informative wavenumbers in the range 700-1800 cm(-1), we obtained over 90% accuracy of species identification, with discriminant multivariate statistical analysis on the measurements made on whole dried leaves.

  18. Synthesis and electronic properties of LnRhAsO and LnIrAsO compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, Sean; Sleight, A.W.; Subramanian, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of the new compositions LnRhAsO (Ln=Ce, Nd) and LnIrAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Nd) are reported. These compounds crystallize in the ZrCuSiAs type structure, isostructural to iron pnictide LnFeAsO materials. Upon substitution of Rh for Fe, both a and c lattice parameters increase relative to 3d transition metal compounds; however, when Ir is substituted for Rh the a-parameter decreases slightly while the c-parameter expands. The decrease in a lattice parameter corresponds to a short metal-metal distance in Ir compounds. CeRhAsO and CeIrAsO compositions show abrupt decreases in resistivity at 7 and 10 K, respectively, coinciding with a small shift in magnetization at the transition temperature. - Graphical abstract: LnIrAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Nd) and LnRhAsO (Ln=Ce, Rh) have been synthesized. These new transition metal oxypnictide compositions are isostructural to LaFeAsO. The 5d Ir compositions demonstrate a shorter metal-metal interaction than the 4d Rh compositions. Highlights: → LnIrAsO (Ln=La, Ce, Nd) and LnRhAsO (Ln=Ce, Nd) have been synthesized. → Ir compositions show a decreased a-parameter and increased c-parameter relative to Rh compositions. → All LnIrAsO and LnRhAsO compositions are metallic while CeIrAsO and CeRhAsO show a sudden drop in resistivity at 10 and 7 K, respectively.

  19. 40 CFR 761.312 - Compositing of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to composite surface wipe test samples and to use the composite measurement to represent the PCB concentration of the entire surface. Composite samples consist of more than one sample gauze extracted and... arithmetic mean of the composited samples. (a) Compositing samples from surfaces to be used or reused. For...

  20. Lamb Wave Response of Fatigued Composite Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Michael; Smith, Barry T.; Prosser, William H.; Masters, John E.

    1994-01-01

    composite samples using strain gage measurements as well as Lamb wave velocity measurements. A description of the test samples is followed by the results of two different measurements of Lamb wave velocity. The first technique is a contact measurement done at a single frequency, while the second involves an immersion study of Lamb waves in which dispersion curves are obtained. The results of the Lamb wave monitoring of fatigue damage is compared to the damage progression measured by strain gages. The final section discusses the results and conclusions.

  1. IR spectroscopy of synthetic glasses with Mercury surface composition: Analogs for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlok, Andreas; Klemme, Stephan; Weber, Iris; Stojic, Aleksandra; Sohn, Martin; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-11-01

    In a study to provide ground-truth data for mid-infrared observations of the surface of Mercury with the MERTIS (Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer) instrument onboard the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo mission, we have studied 17 synthetic glasses. These samples have the chemical compositions of characteristic Hermean surface areas based on MESSENGER data. The samples have been characterized using optical microscopy, EMPA and Raman spectroscopy. Mid-infrared spectra have been obtained from polished thin sections using Micro-FTIR, and of powdered size fractions of bulk material (0-25, 25-63, 93-125 and 125-250 μm) in the 2.5-18 μm range. The synthetic glasses display mostly spectra typical for amorphous materials with a dominating, single Reststrahlen Band (RB) at 9.5-10.7 μm. RB Features of crystalline forsterite are found in some cases at 9.5-10.2 μm, 10.4-11.2 μm, and at 11.9 μm. Dendritic crystallization starts at a MgO content higher than 23 wt.% MgO. The Reststrahlen Bands, Christiansen Features (CF), and Transparency Features (TF) shift depending on the SiO2 and MgO contents. Also a shift of the Christiansen Feature of the glasses compared with the SCFM (SiO2/(SiO2+CaO+FeO+MgO)) index is observed. This shift could potentially help distinguish crystalline and amorphous material in remote sensing data. A comparison between the degree of polymerization of the glass and the width of the characteristic strong silicate feature shows a weak positive correlation. A comparison with a high-quality mid-IR spectrum of Mercury shows some moderate similarity to the results of this study, but does not explain all features.

  2. Modulation transfer function cascade model for a sampled IR imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, L; Cardone, G

    1991-05-01

    The performance of the infrared scanning radiometer (IRSR) is strongly stressed in convective heat transfer applications where high spatial frequencies in the signal that describes the thermal image are present. The need to characterize more deeply the system spatial resolution has led to the formulation of a cascade model for the evaluation of the actual modulation transfer function of a sampled IR imaging system. The model can yield both the aliasing band and the averaged modulation response for a general sampling subsystem. For a line scan imaging system, which is the case of a typical IRSR, a rule of thumb that states whether the combined sampling-imaging system is either imaging-dependent or sampling-dependent is proposed. The model is tested by comparing it with other noncascade models as well as by ad hoc measurements performed on a commercial digitized IRSR.

  3. Analysis of pure and malachite green doped polysulfone sample using FT-IR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Rashmi J.; Khare, P. K.; Nayak, J. G.

    2018-05-01

    The sample of pure and malachite green doped Polysulfone in the form of foil was prepared by isothermal immersion technique. For the preparation of pure sample 4 gm of Polysulfone was dissolved in 50 ml of Dimethyl farmamide (DMF) solvent, while for the preparation of doped sample 10 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg Malachite Green was mixed with 4 gm of Polysulfone respectively. For the study of structural characterization of these pure and doped sample, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) technique was used. This study shows that the intensity of transmittance decreases as the ratio of doping increases in pure polysulfone. The reduction in intensity of transmittance is clearly apparent in the present case more over the bands were broader which indicates towards charge transfer interaction between the donar and acceptor molecule.

  4. Lanthanum benzoyl acetonates: an IR and mass spectrometric study of the composition and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Tereshko, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were used to study the structure of lanthanum chelates of benzoyl acetone (1-phenyl-1,3-butadione, HBA) of the following compositions: La(BA) 3 · EtOH, La(BA) 2 , La(BA) 2 · CH 3 CN, and La(BA) 2 · HDA, where EtOH = ethanol, HDA = nonadecanoic acid. It is demonstrated that a quasi-aromatic metalloring is formed in lanthanum chelates studied. Stable metal-containing fragments of the molecular ions of lanthanum bis- and tris-benzoylacetonate were identified [ru

  5. Quantitative analysis of semivolatile organic compounds in selected fractions of air sample extracts by GC/MI-IR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childers, J.W.; Wilson, N.K.; Barbour, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors are currently investigating the capabilities of gas chromatography/matrix isolation infrared (GC/MI-IR) spectrometry for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in environmental air sample extracts. Their efforts are focused on the determination of SVOCs such as alkylbenzene positional isomers, which are difficult to separate chromatographically and to distinguish by conventional electron-impact ionization GC/mass spectrometry. They have performed a series of systematic experiments to identify sources of error in quantitative GC/MI-IR analyses. These experiments were designed to distinguish between errors due to instrument design or performance and errors that arise from some characteristic inherent to the GC/MI-IR technique, such as matrix effects. They have investigated repeatability as a function of several aspects of GC/MI IR spectrometry, including sample injection, spectral acquisition, cryogenic disk movement, and matrix deposition. The precision, linearity, dynamic range, and detection limits of a commercial GC/MI-IR system for target SVOCs were determined and compared to those obtained with the system's flame ionization detector. The use of deuterated internal standards in the quantitative GC/MI-IR analysis of selected fractions of ambient air sample extracts will be demonstrated. They will also discuss the current limitations of the technique in quantitative analyses and suggest improvements for future consideration

  6. Near-IR laser-based spectrophotometer for comparative analysis of isotope content of CO2 in exhale air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, E V; Glushko, A N; Kasoev, S G; Koval', A V; Lapshin, D A

    2011-01-01

    We present a laser spectrophotometer aimed at high-accuracy comparative analysis of content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 isotope modifications in the exhale air samples and based on a tunable near-IR diode laser (2.05 μm). The two-channel optical scheme of the spectrophotometer and the special digital system for its control are described. An algorithm of spectral data processing aimed at determining the difference in the isotope composition of gas mixtures is proposed. A few spectral regions (near 4880 cm -1 ) are determined to be optimal for analysis of relative content of 12 CO 2 and 13 CO 2 in the exhale air. The use of the proposed spectrophotometer scheme and the developed algorithm makes the results of the analysis less susceptible to the influence of the interference in optical elements, to the absorption in the open atmosphere, to the slow drift of the laser pulse envelope, and to the offset of optical channels. The sensitivity of the comparative analysis of the isotope content of CO 2 in exhale air samples, achieved using the proposed scheme, is estimated to be nearly 0.1‰.

  7. IR thermography methods for evaluation of internal defects in light composite armours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiderski, W.; Szabra, D.; Szudrowicz, M.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Light composite armour is a preferred solution against military and paramilitary sources of present threats as the reducing mass of battle vehicles provides a possibility of their quick air-transport. The light armours of these vehicles should be resistant against: common and rifle bullets, grenades, anti-personal mines, IED - improvised explosive devices. The range of military applications anticipated for composite armours covers a broad spectrum of materials and designs. Materials of composite armours include graphite epoxy, glass epoxy and aramid fiber composites. The composites that have been examined can include a variety of defects, such as ballistic impacts, embedded defects, manufacturing defects, thermal damage, moisture ingress and other induced defects. Methods for testing ballistic protection of light armours are known and used. First of all they consist of checking armours resistance against the bullets where the bullet velocity is known. Moreover the V50 velocity is defined during the test. In this method the V 50 velocity of a round or standard fragment is defined (according to STANAG 2920) as the velocity at which armour is penetrated at the probability 50%. The distribution of points hit by bullets or fragments on the surface of an armour is also important. In fact, only correct distribution of these points provides a guaranty for an impartial assessment of tested designs. After hitting by a bullet, shape and size of an area of damage in composite armours depends on the type and design of armour, and type of reinforcing material is particularly important. Knowledge of damage characteristics allows to arrange hitting points to avoid overlapping of damaged areas. Nondestructive testing by using IR thermography methods is very useful in evaluation of internal defects. In the paper we present the dependence between the energy of fragments/or bullets and the dimension of internal defects. (author)

  8. Detector Sampling of Optical/IR Spectra: How Many Pixels per FWHM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. Gordon

    2017-08-01

    Most optical and IR spectra are now acquired using detectors with finite-width pixels in a square array. Each pixel records the received intensity integrated over its own area, and pixels are separated by the array pitch. This paper examines the effects of such pixellation, using computed simulations to illustrate the effects which most concern the astronomer end-user. It is shown that coarse sampling increases the random noise errors in wavelength by typically 10-20 % at 2 pixels per Full Width at Half Maximum, but with wide variation depending on the functional form of the instrumental Line Spread Function (i.e. the instrumental response to a monochromatic input) and on the pixel phase. If line widths are determined, they are even more strongly affected at low sampling frequencies. However, the noise in fitted peak amplitudes is minimally affected by pixellation, with increases less than about 5%. Pixellation has a substantial but complex effect on the ability to see a relative minimum between two closely spaced peaks (or relative maximum between two absorption lines). The consistent scale of resolving power presented by Robertson to overcome the inadequacy of the Full Width at Half Maximum as a resolution measure is here extended to cover pixellated spectra. The systematic bias errors in wavelength introduced by pixellation, independent of signal/noise ratio, are examined. While they may be negligible for smooth well-sampled symmetric Line Spread Functions, they are very sensitive to asymmetry and high spatial frequency sub-structure. The Modulation Transfer Function for sampled data is shown to give a useful indication of the extent of improperly sampled signal in an Line Spread Function. The common maxim that 2 pixels per Full Width at Half Maximum is the Nyquist limit is incorrect and most Line Spread Functions will exhibit some aliasing at this sample frequency. While 2 pixels per Full Width at Half Maximum is nevertheless often an acceptable minimum for

  9. Quality control and enhancement of microwelds for Ir-192 sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Alcides; Medina, Max; Cavero, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the micro quality results of tungsten inert gas welds on stainless steel AISI 304 of 5 sample holders for 30 discs by 3 mm diameter and 0.5 mm thick of Ir-192 sources produced in the Radioisotope Production Plant (RPP) of IPEN, generally used in industrial gammagraphy. Macrographic and conventional metallographic analysis were performed to measure the amplitude, thickness and centering parameters of the weld bead, centered data have helped to determine the parameters for welds with good quality, showing defects due to the misaligned glass lens, low magnification image and high visual angle of incidence across the 200 mm security leaded glass giving a low quality weld image due to the low magnification, large chromatic aberration resulting in a weld outside the seam, this problem was solved by changing the old optical visualization system by an external telescope specially designed for this purpose and raising the workbench so that the optical telescope axis and the weld are horizontally, achieving more rapid processes, reliable and reproducible, this new system has proved more convenient, reliable and reproducible. (authors).

  10. The FUR to near-IR morphologies of luminous infrared galaxies in the goals sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, S. M.; Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Surace, J. A.; Charmandaris, V.; Psychogyios, A.; Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S.; Floc’h, E. Le; Bridge, C.; Inami, H.

    2014-01-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M 20 parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ∼80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M 20 (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M 20 parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z∼0.5–3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M 20 at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z⩾2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M 20 for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z∼0. The change in G-M 20 is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z∼0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  11. The FUV to Near-IR Morphologies of Luminous Infrared Galaxies in the Goals Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, S. M.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Evans, A. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Bridge, C.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Howell, J. H.; Inami, H.; Psychogyios, A.; Stierwalt, S.; Surace, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the morphologies of a sample of 20 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) in the FUV, B, I, and H bands, using the Gini (G) and M20 parameters to quantitatively estimate the distribution and concentration of flux as a function of wavelength. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images provide an average spatial resolution of ˜ 80 pc. While our LIRGs can be reliably classified as mergers across the entire range of wavelengths studied here, there is a clear shift toward more negative M20 (more bulge-dominated) and a less significant decrease in G values at longer wavelengths. We find no correlation between the derived FUV G-M20 parameters and the global measures of the IR to FUV flux ratio (IRX). Given the fine resolution in our HST data, this suggests either that the UV morphology and IRX are correlated on very small scales, or that the regions emitting the bulk of the IR emission emit almost no FUV light. We use our multi-wavelength data to simulate how merging LIRGs would appear from z˜ 0.5-3 in deep optical and near-infrared images such as the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, and use these simulations to measure the G-M20 at these redshifts. Our simulations indicate a noticeable decrease in G, which flattens at z≥slant 2 by as much as 40%, resulting in mis-classifying our LIRGs as disk-like, even in the rest-frame FUV. The higher redshift values of M20 for the GOALS sources do not appear to change more than about 10% from the values at z˜ 0. The change in G-M20 is caused by the surface brightness dimming of extended tidal features and asymmetries, and also the decreased spatial resolution which reduced the number of individual clumps identified. This effect, seen as early as z˜ 0.5, could easily lead to an underestimate of the number of merging galaxies at high-redshift in the rest-frame FUV.

  12. Iterative random vs. Kennard-Stone sampling for IR spectrum-based classification task using PLS2-DA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Loong Chuen; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2018-04-01

    External testing (ET) is preferred over auto-prediction (AP) or k-fold-cross-validation in estimating more realistic predictive ability of a statistical model. With IR spectra, Kennard-stone (KS) sampling algorithm is often used to split the data into training and test sets, i.e. respectively for model construction and for model testing. On the other hand, iterative random sampling (IRS) has not been the favored choice though it is theoretically more likely to produce reliable estimation. The aim of this preliminary work is to compare performances of KS and IRS in sampling a representative training set from an attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectral dataset (of four varieties of blue gel pen inks) for PLS2-DA modeling. The `best' performance achievable from the dataset is estimated with AP on the full dataset (APF, error). Both IRS (n = 200) and KS were used to split the dataset in the ratio of 7:3. The classic decision rule (i.e. maximum value-based) is employed for new sample prediction via partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS2-DA). Error rate of each model was estimated repeatedly via: (a) AP on full data (APF, error); (b) AP on training set (APS, error); and (c) ET on the respective test set (ETS, error). A good PLS2-DA model is expected to produce APS, error and EVS, error that is similar to the APF, error. Bearing that in mind, the similarities between (a) APS, error vs. APF, error; (b) ETS, error vs. APF, error and; (c) APS, error vs. ETS, error were evaluated using correlation tests (i.e. Pearson and Spearman's rank test), using series of PLS2-DA models computed from KS-set and IRS-set, respectively. Overall, models constructed from IRS-set exhibits more similarities between the internal and external error rates than the respective KS-set, i.e. less risk of overfitting. In conclusion, IRS is more reliable than KS in sampling representative training set.

  13. Combining FT-IR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the cell wall composition changes during apples development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanska-Chargot, M; Chylinska, M; Kruk, B; Zdunek, A

    2015-01-22

    The aim of this work was to quantitatively and qualitatively determine the composition of the cell wall material from apples during development by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The FT-IR region of 1500-800 cm(-1), containing characteristic bands for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose, was examined using principal component analysis (PCA), k-means clustering and partial least squares (PLS). The samples were differentiated by development stage and cultivar using PCA and k-means clustering. PLS calibration models for galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose content from FT-IR spectra were developed and validated with the reference data. PLS models were tested using the root-mean-square errors of cross-validation for contents of galacturonic acid, hemicellulose and cellulose which was 8.30 mg/g, 4.08% and 1.74%, respectively. It was proven that FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods has potential for fast and reliable determination of the main constituents of fruit cell walls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Midinfrared FT-IR as a Tool for Monitoring Herbaceous Biomass Composition and Its Conversion to Furfural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Raspolli Galletti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A semiquantitative analysis by means of midinfrared FT-IR spectroscopy was tuned for the simultaneous determination of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in industrial crops such as giant reed (Arundo donax L. and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.. Ternary mixtures of pure cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were prepared and a direct correlation area/concentration was achieved for cellulose and lignin, whereas indirect correlations were found for hemicellulose quantification. Good correspondences between the values derived from our model and those reported in the literature or obtained according to the official Van Soest method were ascertained. Average contents of 40–45% of cellulose, 20–25% of hemicellulose, and 20–25% of lignin were obtained for different samples of giant reed species. In the case of switchgrass, a content of 36% of cellulose, 28% of hemicellulose, and 26% of lignin was achieved. This analysis was also carried out on giant reed and switchgrass residues after a mild hydrolysis step carried out with dilute hydrochloric acid for the production of furfural with good yield. Reasonable compositional data were obtained, thus allowing an indirect monitoring which helps the optimization of the hydrothermal pretreatment for furfural production from hemicellulose fractions.

  15. Pulsed photothermal profiling of water-based samples using a spectrally composite reconstruction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majaron, B; Milanic, M

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed photothermal profiling involves reconstruction of temperature depth profile induced in a layered sample by single-pulse laser exposure, based on transient change in mid-infrared (IR) emission from its surface. Earlier studies have indicated that in watery tissues, featuring a pronounced spectral variation of mid-IR absorption coefficient, analysis of broadband radiometric signals within the customary monochromatic approximation adversely affects profiling accuracy. We present here an experimental comparison of pulsed photothermal profiling in layered agar gel samples utilizing a spectrally composite kernel matrix vs. the customary approach. By utilizing a custom reconstruction code, the augmented approach reduces broadening of individual temperature peaks to 14% of the absorber depth, in contrast to 21% obtained with the customary approach.

  16. TLC/IR (UATR off-line coupling for the characterization of additives in EPDM rubber compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Damazio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The knowledge of the components that constitutes a rubber composition is important to justify the properties of the final device, particularly when it comes to elastomeric compositions used in the aerospace industry. The development of methodologies that can detect components, specially the smallest proportion of the rubbers composition is a constant challenge and an important gap in the studies of this nature. Therefore, methodologies by using standard techniques and/or of last generation are important in rubber industry and research laboratories, aiming application in related research. In this context, this study shows the coupling/association techniques (off-line of thin layer chromatography and infrared spectroscopy (TLC/IR, being the IR spectra obtained by universal attenuated total reflection (UATR, applied to the analysis of additives in rubber compositions of ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM. Two EPDM compositions, a kind of eluent system and Gibbs' reagent, as developer, were used. Basically, all organic components were detected by this methodology, being possible to suggest that it can be applied for detecting additives of similar chemical structures, even though it's presents in small amounts in the composition.

  17. Investigations of the post-IR IRSL protocol applied to single K-feldspar grains from fluvial sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nian, Xiaomei; Bailey, Richard M.; Zhou, Liping

    2012-01-01

    The post-IR IRSL protocol with single K-feldspar grains was applied to three samples taken from a fluvial sedimentary sequence at the archaeological site of the Dali Man, Shaanxi Province, China. K-feldspar coarse grains were extracted for measurement. Approximately 30–40% of the grains were sufficiently bright to measure, and after application of rejection criteria based on signal strength, recuperation, recycling ratio and saturation dose, ∼10–15% of the grains were used for D e calculation. The relationship of signal decay rate and form of D e (t) with the recovery dose were investigated. The dose recovery ratios of the samples after initial bleaching with the four different light sources were within uncertainties of unity. No anomalous fading was observed. The over-dispersion of the recovered dose and D e values were similar, suggesting neither incomplete resetting of the post-IR IRSL signals nor spatially heterogeneous dose rates significantly affected the natural dose estimates. The values of D e obtained with the single K-feldspar grain post-IR IRSL protocol were in the range ∼400–490 Gy. Combining all of the measured single-grain signals for each of the individual samples (into a ‘synthetic single aliquot’) increased the D e estimates to the range ∼700–900 Gy, suggesting that the grains screened-out by the rejection criteria may have the potential to cause palaeodose over-estimation, although this finding requires a more extensive investigation. Thermally transferred signals were found in the single K-feldspar grains post-IR IRSL protocol, and the proportion of thermally transferred signal to test-dose OSL signal (stimulation at 290 °C) from the natural dose was higher than from regenerative doses, and the proportion was grain- and dose-dependent. As such, TT-post-IR IRSL signals at 290 °C have the potential to cause dose underestimation, although this may be reduced by using larger test-dose irradiations. Our study demonstrates

  18. Composite Sampling Approaches for Bacillus anthracis Surrogate Extracted from Soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian France

    Full Text Available Any release of anthrax spores in the U.S. would require action to decontaminate the site and restore its use and operations as rapidly as possible. The remediation activity would require environmental sampling, both initially to determine the extent of contamination (hazard mapping and post-decon to determine that the site is free of contamination (clearance sampling. Whether the spore contamination is within a building or outdoors, collecting and analyzing what could be thousands of samples can become the factor that limits the pace of restoring operations. To address this sampling and analysis bottleneck and decrease the time needed to recover from an anthrax contamination event, this study investigates the use of composite sampling. Pooling or compositing of samples is an established technique to reduce the number of analyses required, and its use for anthrax spore sampling has recently been investigated. However, use of composite sampling in an anthrax spore remediation event will require well-documented and accepted methods. In particular, previous composite sampling studies have focused on sampling from hard surfaces; data on soil sampling are required to extend the procedure to outdoor use. Further, we must consider whether combining liquid samples, thus increasing the volume, lowers the sensitivity of detection and produces false negatives. In this study, methods to composite bacterial spore samples from soil are demonstrated. B. subtilis spore suspensions were used as a surrogate for anthrax spores. Two soils (Arizona Test Dust and sterilized potting soil were contaminated and spore recovery with composites was shown to match individual sample performance. Results show that dilution can be overcome by concentrating bacterial spores using standard filtration methods. This study shows that composite sampling can be a viable method of pooling samples to reduce the number of analysis that must be performed during anthrax spore remediation.

  19. Mineral Composition of Selected Serbian Propolis Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosic Snezana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the content of 22 macro- and microelements in ten raw Serbian propolis samples which differ in geographical and botanical origin as well as in polluted agent contents by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES. The macroelements were more common and present Ca content was the highest while Na content the lowest. Among the studied essential trace elements Fe was the most common element. The levels of toxic elements (Pb, Cd, As and Hg were also analyzed, since they were possible environmental contaminants that could be transferred into propolis products for human consumption. As and Hg were not detected in any of the analyzed samples but a high level of Pb (2.0-9.7 mg/kg was detected and only selected portions of raw propolis could be used to produce natural medicines and dietary supplements for humans. Obtained results were statistically analyzed, and the examined samples showed a wide range of element content.

  20. Sampling efficiency for species composition assessments using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pilot survey to determine the sampling efficiency of the wheel-point method, using the nearest plant method, to assess species composition (using replicate similarity related to sampling intensity, and total sampling time) was conducted on three plot sizes (20 x 20m, 30 x 30m, 40 x 40m) at two sites in a semi-arid savanna.

  1. Investigating Asphaltenes Composition in Crude Oil Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-22

    Dec 22, 2015 ... composition of asphaltenes by Iatroscan TLC-FID method was compared with the weight% of asphaltenes precipitated. ... SARA in the crude oil samples were determined in this work ..... Fractionation and characterization of.

  2. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. 1; Emission-Line Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Muhotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth. E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    \\Ve compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 microns, [Ne II] 12.81 microns, [Ne III] 15.56 microns and [Ne V] 14.32 microns, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, although six newly discovered BAT AGNs are shown to be under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compared the mid-IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that the BAT AGN fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. From this we found that sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGN have smaller emission line ratios than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGN represents the main contribution to the observed line emission. Overall, we present a different set of emission line diagnostics to distinguish between AGN and star forming galaxies that can be used as a tool to find new AGN.

  3. Evaluation of a setting reaction pathway in the novel composite TiHA-CSD bone cement by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Czechowska, Joanna; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Paszkiewicz, Zofia

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a setting reaction pathway in a novel, surgically handy implant material, based on calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) and titanium doped hydroxyapatite (TiHA). The previous studies confirmed superior biological properties of TiHA in comparison to the undoped hydroxyapatite (HA) what makes it highly attractive for future medical applications. In this study the three types of titanium modified HA powders: untreated, calcined at 800 °C, sintered at 1250 °C and CSH were used to produce bone cements. The Fourier Transform-InfraRed (FT-IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were applied to evaluate processes taking place during the setting of the studied materials. Our results undoubtedly confirmed that the reaction pathways and the phase compositions differed significantly for set cements and were dependent on the initial heat treatment of TiHA powder. Final materials were multiphase composites consisting of calcium sulfate dihydrate, bassanite, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and calcium titanate (perovskite). The FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements performed after the incubation of the cement samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF), indicate on high bioactive potential of the obtained bone cements.

  4. Chemical composition and mixing-state of ice residuals sampled within mixed phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M.; Worringen, A.; Benker, N.; Mertes, S.; Weingartner, E.; Weinbruch, S.

    2010-10-01

    During an intensive campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, in February/March 2006 ice particle residuals within mixed-phase clouds were sampled using the Ice-counterflow virtual impactor (Ice-CVI). Size, morphology, chemical composition, mineralogy and mixing state of the ice residual and the interstitial (i.e., non-activated) aerosol particles were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ice nuclei (IN) were identified from the significant enrichment of particle groups in the ice residual (IR) samples relative to the interstitial aerosol. In terms of number lead-bearing particles are enriched by a factor of approximately 25, complex internal mixtures with silicates or metal oxides as major components by a factor of 11, and mixtures of secondary aerosol and soot (C-O-S particles) by a factor of 2. Other particle groups (sulfates, sea salt, Ca-rich particles, external silicates) observed in the ice-residual samples cannot be assigned unambiguously as IN. Between 9 and 24% of all IR are Pb-bearing particles. Pb was found as major component in around 10% of these particles (PbO, PbCl2). In the other particles, Pb was found as some 100 nm sized agglomerates consisting of 3-8 nm sized primary particles (PbS, elemental Pb). C-O-S particles are present in the IR at an abundance of 17-27%. The soot component within these particles is strongly aged. Complex internal mixtures occur in the IR at an abundance of 9-15%. Most IN identified at the Jungfraujoch station are internal mixtures containing anthropogenic components (either as main or minor constituent), and it is concluded that admixture of the anthropogenic component is responsible for the increased IN efficiency within mixed phase clouds. The mixing state appears to be a key parameter for the ice nucleation behaviour that cannot be predicted from the separate components contained within the individual particles.

  5. On the Traceability of Commercial Saffron Samples Using 1H-NMR and FT-IR Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Consonni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In previous works on authentic samples of saffron of known history (harvest and processing year, storage conditions, and length of time some biomarkers were proposed using both FT-IR and NMR metabolomics regarding the shelf life of the product. This work addresses the difficulties to trace back the “age” of commercial saffron samples of unknown history, sets a limit value above which these products can be considered substandard, and offers a useful tool to combat saffron mislabeling and fraud with low-quality saffron material. Investigations of authentic and commercial saffron samples of different origin and harvest year, which had been stored under controlled conditions for different lengths of time, allowed a clear-cut clustering of samples in two groups according to the storage period irrespectively of the provenience. In this respect, the four-year cut off point proposed in our previous work assisted to trace back the “age” of unknown samples and to check for possible mislabeling practices.

  6. Optimization of sample absorbance for quantitative analysis in the presence of pathlength error in the IR and NIR regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschfeld, T.; Honigs, D.; Hieftje, G.

    1985-01-01

    Optical absorbance levels for quantiative analysis in the presence of photometric error have been described in the past. In newer instrumentation, such as FT-IR and NIRA spectrometers, the photometric error is no longer limiting. In these instruments, pathlength error due to cell or sampling irreproducibility is often a major concern. One can derive optimal absorbance by taking both pathlength and photometric errors into account. This paper analyzes the cases of pathlength error >> photometric error (trivial) and various cases in which the pathlength errors and the photometric error are of the same order: adjustable concentration (trivial until dilution errors are considered), constant relative pathlength error (trivial), and constant absolute pathlength error. The latter, in particular, is analyzed in detail to give the behavior of the error, the behavior of the optimal absorbance in its presence, and the total error levels attainable

  7. Determining sample size for assessing species composition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species composition is measured in grasslands for a variety of reasons. Commonly, observations are made using the wheel-point apparatus, but the problem of determining optimum sample size has not yet been satisfactorily resolved. In this study the wheel-point apparatus was used to record 2 000 observations in each of ...

  8. the chentical composition and in vitro digestibility of forage samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oesophageal fistulated sheep, are presented in Table l. Table I. The average chemicol composition and in vitro digestibility offorage samples selectecl by oesophageal fistuhted sheep duing dffirent months of the yeor on noturol pasture. Month. Acid de- Lignin. Nitrogen tergent fibre. Cellulose In vitro digest- ibility of organ-.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND TOXICITY OF ENGINE EMISSION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    (1)Mauderly, J; Seagrave, J; McDonald; J (2)Eide,I (3)Zielinska, B (4)Lawson, D

    2003-08-24

    Differences in the lung toxicity and bacterial mutagenicity of seven samples from gasoline and diesel vehicle emissions were reported previously [1]. Filter and vapor-phase semivolatile organic samples were collected from normal and high-emitter gasoline and diesel vehicles operated on chassis dynamometers on the Unified Driving Cycle, and the compositions of the samples were measured in detail. The two fractions of each sample were combined in their original mass collection ratios, and the toxicity of the seven samples was compared by measuring inflammation and tissue damage in rat lungs and mutagenicity in bacteria. There was good agreement among the toxicity response variables in ranking the samples and demonstrating a five-fold range of toxicity. The relationship between chemical composition and toxicity was analyzed by a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares regression (PLS, also known as projection to latent surfaces). The PCA /PLS analysis revealed the chemical constituents co-varying most strongly with toxicity and produced models predicting the relative toxicity of the samples with good accuracy. The results demonstrated the utility of the PCA/PLS approach, which is now being applied to additional samples, and it also provided a starting point for confirming the compounds that actually cause the effects.

  10. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  11. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set—Effect of Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified. PMID:26927169

  12. Chemical composition and mixing-state of ice residuals sampled within mixed phase clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ebert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During an intensive campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, in February/March 2006 ice particle residuals within mixed-phase clouds were sampled using the Ice-counterflow virtual impactor (Ice-CVI. Size, morphology, chemical composition, mineralogy and mixing state of the ice residual and the interstitial (i.e., non-activated aerosol particles were analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Ice nuclei (IN were identified from the significant enrichment of particle groups in the ice residual (IR samples relative to the interstitial aerosol. In terms of number lead-bearing particles are enriched by a factor of approximately 25, complex internal mixtures with silicates or metal oxides as major components by a factor of 11, and mixtures of secondary aerosol and carbonaceous material (C-O-S particles by a factor of 2. Other particle groups (sulfates, sea salt, Ca-rich particles, external silicates observed in the ice-residual samples cannot be assigned unambiguously as IN. Between 9 and 24% of all IR are Pb-bearing particles. Pb was found as major component in around 10% of these particles (PbO, PbCl2. In the other particles, Pb was found as some 100 nm sized agglomerates consisting of 3–8 nm sized primary particles (PbS, elemental Pb. C-O-S particles are present in the IR at an abundance of 17–27%. The soot component within these particles is strongly aged. Complex internal mixtures occur in the IR at an abundance of 9–15%. Most IN identified at the Jungfraujoch station are internal mixtures containing anthropogenic components (either as main or minor constituent, and it is concluded that admixture of the anthropogenic component is responsible for the increased IN efficiency within mixed phase clouds. The mixing state appears to be a key parameter for the ice nucleation behaviour that cannot be predicted from the sole knowledge of the main component of an individual particle.

  13. Isotopic composition of steam samples from Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, V. (CSIC, Madrid); Panichi, C.

    1974-12-01

    The isotopic analysis of the steam samples collected in the geothermal area of Lanzarote show that the values of delta D are practically constant, and those of delta /sup 18/O range in a shift of 17 /sup 0///sub 00/ reaching a maximum of +14.7 /sup 0///sub 00/ versus SMOW, this last value being the highest found in steam samples. This composition can be explained as a consequence of the isotopic exchange at high temperature between limestones and a mixture of marine and local meteoric waters. This interpretation agrees with previous geological and geophysical studies which consider that a promising geothermal field could exist in Lanzarote. (auth)

  14. Composite multi-lobe descriptor for cross spectral face recognition: matching active IR to visible light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhicheng; Schmid, Natalia A.

    2015-05-01

    Matching facial images across electromagnetic spectrum presents a challenging problem in the field of biometrics and identity management. An example of this problem includes cross spectral matching of active infrared (IR) face images or thermal IR face images against a dataset of visible light images. This paper describes a new operator named Composite Multi-Lobe Descriptor (CMLD) for facial feature extraction in cross spectral matching of near-infrared (NIR) or short-wave infrared (SWIR) against visible light images. The new operator is inspired by the design of ordinal measures. The operator combines Gaussian-based multi-lobe kernel functions, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), generalized LBP (GLBP) and Weber Local Descriptor (WLD) and modifies them into multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods. The new operator encodes both the magnitude and phase responses of Gabor filters. The combining of LBP and WLD utilizes both the orientation and intensity information of edges. Introduction of multi-lobe functions with smoothed neighborhoods further makes the proposed operator robust against noise and poor image quality. Output templates are transformed into histograms and then compared by means of a symmetric Kullback-Leibler metric resulting in a matching score. The performance of the multi-lobe descriptor is compared with that of other operators such as LBP, Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG), ordinal measures, and their combinations. The experimental results show that in many cases the proposed method, CMLD, outperforms the other operators and their combinations. In addition to different infrared spectra, various standoff distances from close-up (1.5 m) to intermediate (50 m) and long (106 m) are also investigated in this paper. Performance of CMLD is evaluated for of each of the three cases of distances.

  15. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  16. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Cunningham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  17. Chemical Composition Measurements of LAWA44 Glass Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-11-15

    DOE is building the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in Washington to remediate 55 million gallons of radioactive waste that is temporarily stored in 177 underground tanks. Both low-activity and high-level wastes will then be vitrified into borosilicate glass using Joule-heated ceramic melters. Efforts are being made to increase the loading of Hanford tank wastes in the glass. One area of work is enhancing waste glass composition/property models and broadening the compositional regions over which those models are applicable. In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analysis results for several samples of a simulated low-activity waste glass, LAWA44, provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as part of an ongoing development task. The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component for each glass. A detailed review showed no indications of errors in the preparation or measurement of the study glasses. All of the measured sums of oxides for the study glasses fell within the interval of 97.9 to 102.6 wt %, indicating acceptable recovery of the glass components. Comparisons of the targeted and measured chemical compositions showed that the measured values for the glasses met the targeted concentrations within 10% for those components present at more than 5 wt %. It was noted that the measured B2O3 concentrations are somewhat above the targeted values for the study glasses. No obvious trends were observed with regard to the multiple melting steps used to prepare the study glasses, indicating that any potential effects of volatility were below measurable thresholds.

  18. PECASE: Multi-Spectral Photon Detection in Polymer/Nanoparticle Composites-Toward IR Photodectors and Solar Cells Applicable to Unmanned Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    on Organic Solar Cells The maximum amount of surfactant that can be included in the AIR-MAPLE target and still yield photovoltaic function was...in Polymer/Nanoparticle Composites-Toward IR Photodectors and Solar Cells Applicable to Sb. GRANT NUMBER Unmanned Vehicles N00014-1 0-1-0481 Sc...photodetectors and solar cells deposited by RIR-MAPLE, and developing a simulation tool for optoelectronic device performance that accounts for RIR

  19. Spatial variation of contaminant elements of roadside dust samples from Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea), including Pt, Pd and Ir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Manfred; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Marton, Laszlo

    2015-02-01

    Roadside dusts were studied to explain the spatial variation and present levels of contaminant elements including Pt, Pd and Ir in urban environment and around Budapest (Hungary) and Seoul (Republic of Korea). The samples were collected from six sites of high traffic volumes in Seoul metropolitan city and from two control sites within the suburbs of Seoul, for comparison. Similarly, road dust samples were obtained two times from traffic focal points in Budapest, from the large bridges across the River Danube, from Margitsziget (an island in the Danube in the northern part of Budapest, used for recreation) as well as from main roads (no highways) outside Budapest. The samples were analysed for contaminant elements by ICP-AES and for Pt, Pd and Ir by ICP-MS. The highest Pt, Pd and Ir levels in road dusts were found from major roads with high traffic volume, but correlations with other contaminant elements were low, however. This reflects automobile catalytic converter to be an important source. To interpret the obtained multi-element results in short, pollution index, contamination index and geo-accumulation index were calculated. Finally, the obtained data were compared with total concentrations encountered in dust samples from Madrid, Oslo, Tokyo and Muscat (Oman). Dust samples from Seoul reached top level concentrations for Cd-Zn-As-Co-Cr-Cu-Mo-Ni-Sn. Just Pb was rather low because unleaded gasoline was introduced as compulsory in 1993. Concentrations in Budapest dust samples were lower than from Seoul, except for Pb and Mg. Compared with Madrid as another continental site, Budapest was higher in Co-V-Zn. Dust from Oslo, which is not so large, contained more Mn-Na-Sr than dust from other towns, but less other metals.

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah Sd.

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from RCRA borehole bore samples and composite samples. Intact cores from two RCRA boreholes (299-W22-48 and 299-W22-50) near the SX Tank Farm and four, large-quantity grab samples from outcrop sediment on and off the Hanford Site were sampled to better understand the fate of contaminants in the vadose zone beneath underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Borehole and outcrop samples analyzed for this report are located outside the tank farms, and therefore may be considered standard or background samples from which to compare contaminated sediments within the tank farms themselves. This report presents our interpretation of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the uncontaminated vadose zone sediments, and variations in the vertical distribution of these properties. The information presented in this report is intended to support preparation of the S-SX Field Investigation Report to be prepared by CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. as well as future remediation actions at the S-SX Tank Farm

  1. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as a Forensic Method to Determine the Composition of Inks Used to Print the United States One-cent Blue Benjamin Franklin Postage Stamps of the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    Through the combined use of infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling, the composition of inks used to print the many different types of one-cent Benjamin Franklin stamps of the 19th century has been established. This information permits a historical evaluation of the formulations used at various times, and also facilitates the differentiation of the various stamps from each other. In two instances, the ink composition permits the unambiguous identification of stamps whose appearance is identical, and which (until now) have only been differentiated through estimates of the degree of hardness or softness of the stamp paper, or through the presence or absence of a watermark in the paper. In these instances, the use of ATR Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectroscopy effectively renders irrelevant two 100-year-old practices of stamp identification. Furthermore, since the use of ATR sampling makes it possible to obtain the spectrum of a stamp still attached to its cover, it is no longer necessary to identify these blue Franklin stamps using their cancellation dates. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. A cost-effective nanoporous ultrathin film electrode based on nanoporous gold/IrO2 composite for proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yachao; Guo, Xiaoqian; Shao, Zhigang; Yu, Hongmei; Song, Wei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Hongjie; Yi, Baolian

    2017-02-01

    A cost-effective nanoporous ultrathin film (NPUF) electrode based on nanoporous gold (NPG)/IrO2 composite has been constructed for proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis. The electrode was fabricated by integrating IrO2 nanoparticles into NPG through a facile dealloying and thermal decomposition method. The NPUF electrode is featured in its 3D interconnected nanoporosity and ultrathin thickness. The nanoporous ultrathin architecture is binder-free and beneficial for improving electrochemical active surface area, enhancing mass transport and facilitating releasing of oxygen produced during water electrolysis. Serving as anode, a single cell performance of 1.728 V (@ 2 A cm-2) has been achieved by NPUF electrode with a loading of IrO2 and Au at 86.43 and 100.0 μg cm-2 respectively, the electrolysis voltage is 58 mV lower than that of conventional electrode with an Ir loading an order of magnitude higher. The electrolysis voltage kept relatively constant up to 300 h (@250 mA cm-2) during the course of durability test, manifesting that NPUF electrode is promising for gas evolution.

  3. A sample lesson plan for the course English Composition II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba Cubillo, Patricia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present a lesson plan and a series of sample tasks to help the instructors from the course English Composition II, at the School of Modern Languages from the University of Costa Rica, to guide students write an essay integrating the four skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. These activities will be a source of comprehensible input for the learners that will hopefully result in a good writing piece. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un plan de lección y una serie de actividades que le ayudarán a los y las instructoras del curso Composición Inglesa II de la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica a guiar a sus estudiantes a escribir un ensayo integrando las cuatro macro-destrezas, a saber comprensión auditiva, conversación, lectura y escritura. Mediante estas actividades se espera que los estudiantes elaboren un ensayo de calidad.

  4. Minerals from Macedonia. XII. The dependence of quartz and opal color on trace element composition - AAS, FT IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makreski, Petre; Jovanovski, Gligor; Stafilov, Trajce; Boev, Blazho

    2004-01-01

    The dependence of the color of quartz and opal natural minerals, collected from different localities in the Republic of Macedonia (Alinci, Belutche, Budinarci, Mariovo, Sasa, Sazhdevo, Chanishte, Cheshinovo, Zletovo) on their element composition is studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR), micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In order to determine the content of different trace elements (Al, Cd, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb and Zn), 15 quartz and 2 opal mineral samples, using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and Zeeman electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) are studied. To avoid matrix interferences, the method for elimination of silicium is proposed. Optimal instrumental parameters for ETAAS determination (temperature and time for drying, pyrolysis and atomizing) are established by extensive testing for each investigated element. It is found that the milky white color of quartz minerals is due to the presence of traces of Ca, the appearance of black color is the result of the existence of Pb, Mn and Al impurities, and the occurrence of Fe and Cr introduce appearance of red and green color, respectively. Preliminary identification of the minerals is based on the comparison of our results, obtained by using the infrared and Raman vibrational spectroscopy, with the corresponding literature data for the analogous mineral species originating all over the world. An overview of the basic morphological and physico-chemical characteristics of the quartz and opal minerals and the geology of the localities is given. The colored pictures of the studied quartz and opal minerals are presented as well. (Author)

  5. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples

  6. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and nitrite ion sensing performance of reclaimable composite samples through a core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Yuqing, Zhao; Cui, Jiantao; Zheng, Qian; Bo, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The following paper reported and discussed a nitrite ion optical sensing platform based on a core-shell structure, using superamagnetic nanoparticles as the core, a silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell and two rhodamine derivatives as probe, respectively. This superamagnetic core made this sensing platform reclaimable after finishing nitrite ion sensing procedure. This sensing platform was carefully characterized by means of electron microscopy images, porous structure analysis, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermal stability analysis. Detailed analysis suggested that the emission of these composite samples was quenchable by nitrite ion, showing emission turn off effect. A static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between chemosensors and nitrite ion was proposed. These composite samples followed Demas quenching equation against different nitrite ion concentrations. Limit of detection value was obtained as low as 0.4 μM. It was found that, after being quenched by nitrite ion, these composite samples could be reclaimed and recovered by sulphamic acid, confirming their recyclability.

  8. Influence of composition and roughness on the pigment mapping of paintings using mid-infrared fiberoptics reflectance spectroscopy (mid-IR FORS) and multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Clarimma; Bagán, Héctor; García, Jose Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Mid-infrared fiberoptics reflectance spectroscopy (mid-IR FORS) is a very interesting technique for artwork characterization purposes. However, the fact that the spectra obtained are a mixture of surface (specular) and volume (diffuse) reflection is a significant drawback. The physical and chemical features of the artwork surface may produce distortions in the spectra that hinder comparison with reference databases acquired in transmission mode. Several studies attempted to understand the influence of the different variables and propose procedures to improve the interpretation of the spectra. This article is focused on the application of mid-IR FORS and multivariate calibration to the analysis of easel paintings. The objectives are the evaluation of the influence of the surface roughness on the spectra, the influence of the matrix composition for the classification of unknown spectra, and the capability of obtaining pigment composition mappings. A first evaluation of a fast procedure for spectra management and pigment discrimination is discussed. The results demonstrate the capability of multivariate methods, principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLS-DA), to model the distortions of the reflectance spectra and to delimitate and discriminate areas of uniform composition. The roughness of the painting surface is found to be an important factor affecting the shape and relative intensity of the spectra. A mapping of the major pigments of a painting is possible using mid-IR FORS and PLS-DA when the calibration set is a palette that includes the potential pigments present in the artwork mixed with the appropriate binder and that shows the different paint textures.

  9. Tuning the Composition and Nanostructure of Pt/Ir Films via Anodized Aluminum Oxide Templated Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    12 ] to dictate fi lm morphology. Such templated deposition is typically con- ducted by either electrodeposition or elec- troless deposition, with...non-enzymatic glucose sensing. [ 34–36 ] In particular, the syn- thesis of such nanostructured fi lms is delineated with a focus on the precise...deposited using alternating exposures to trimethylaluminum and H 2 O to provide a uniform nucleation layer for Pt and Ir fi lms. Nanostructured Pt fi

  10. Numerically stable algorithm for combining census and sample estimates with the multivariate composite estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. L. Czaplewski

    2009-01-01

    The minimum variance multivariate composite estimator is a relatively simple sequential estimator for complex sampling designs (Czaplewski 2009). Such designs combine a probability sample of expensive field data with multiple censuses and/or samples of relatively inexpensive multi-sensor, multi-resolution remotely sensed data. Unfortunately, the multivariate composite...

  11. Automated Fast Screening Method for Cocaine Identification in Seized Drug Samples Using a Portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Dipak; Seelenbinder, John

    2016-05-01

    Quick and presumptive identification of seized drug samples without destroying evidence is necessary for law enforcement officials to control the trafficking and abuse of drugs. This work reports an automated screening method to detect the presence of cocaine in seized samples using portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers. The method is based on the identification of well-defined characteristic vibrational frequencies related to the functional group of the cocaine molecule and is fully automated through the use of an expert system. Traditionally, analysts look for key functional group bands in the infrared spectra and characterization of the molecules present is dependent on user interpretation. This implies the need for user expertise, especially in samples that likely are mixtures. As such, this approach is biased and also not suitable for non-experts. The method proposed in this work uses the well-established "center of gravity" peak picking mathematical algorithm and combines it with the conditional reporting feature in MicroLab software to provide an automated method that can be successfully employed by users with varied experience levels. The method reports the confidence level of cocaine present only when a certain number of cocaine related peaks are identified by the automated method. Unlike library search and chemometric methods that are dependent on the library database or the training set samples used to build the calibration model, the proposed method is relatively independent of adulterants and diluents present in the seized mixture. This automated method in combination with a portable FT-IR spectrometer provides law enforcement officials, criminal investigators, or forensic experts a quick field-based prescreening capability for the presence of cocaine in seized drug samples. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. TLC/IR (UATR) off-line coupling for the characterization of additives in EPDM rubber compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Damazio; Eunice Aparecida Campos; Milton Faria Diniz; Elizabeth da Costa Mattos; Rita de Cássia Lazzarini Dutra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The knowledge of the components that constitutes a rubber composition is important to justify the properties of the final device, particularly when it comes to elastomeric compositions used in the aerospace industry. The development of methodologies that can detect components, specially the smallest proportion of the rubbers composition is a constant challenge and an important gap in the studies of this nature. Therefore, methodologies by using standard techniques and/or of last gene...

  13. Quantification of plaque area and characterization of plaque biochemical composition with atherosclerosis progression in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice by FT-IR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Tomasz P; Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Kostogrys, Renata B; Chlopicki, Stefan; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2013-11-07

    In this work the quantitative determination of atherosclerotic lesion area (ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice) by FT-IR imaging is presented and validated by comparison with atherosclerotic lesion area determination by classic Oil Red O staining. Cluster analysis of FT-IR-based measurements in the 2800-3025 cm(-1) range allowed for quantitative analysis of the atherosclerosis plaque area, the results of which were highly correlated with those of Oil Red O histological staining (R(2) = 0.935). Moreover, a specific class obtained from a second cluster analysis of the aortic cross-section samples at different stages of disease progression (3, 4 and 6 months old) seemed to represent the macrophages (CD68) area within the atherosclerotic plaque.

  14. Constraining the Volatile Composition and Coma Photochemistry in Jupiter Family Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak with High Resolution IR and Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Adam; DiSanti, Michael; Cochran, Anita; Dello Russo, Neil; Bonev, Boncho; Vervack, Ronald; Gibb, Erika; Roth, Nathan; Kawakita, Hideyo

    2018-01-01

    Over the past 20 years optical and IR spectroscopy of cometary comae has expanded our understanding both of cometary volatile composition and coma photochemistry. However, these observations tend to be biased towards Nearly Isotropic Comets (NIC'S) from the Oort Cloud, rather than the generally fainter and less active Jupiter Family Comets (JFC's) that are thought to originate from the Scattered Disk. However, early 2017 provided a rare opportunity to study several JFC's. We present preliminary results from IR and optical spectroscopy of JFC 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak obtained during its 2017 apparition. IR spectra were obtained with the NIRSPEC instrument on Keck II and the new iSHELL spectrograph on NASA IRTF. High spectral resolution optical spectra were obtained with the Tull Coude spectrograph on the 2.7-meter Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We will discuss mixing ratios of HCN, NH3, C2H6, C2H2, H2CO, and CH3OH compared to H2O and compare these to previous observations of comets. Preliminary results from the NIRSPEC observations indicate that 41P has typical C2H2 and HCN abundances compared to other JFC's, while the C2H6 abundance is similar to that of NIC's, but is enriched compared to other JFC's. H2CO appears to be heavily depleted in 41P. Analysis of the iSHELL spectra is underway and we will include results from these observations, which complement those from NIRSPEC and extend the scope or our compositional study by measuring additional molecules. We will also present abundances for CN, C2, NH2, C3, and CH obtained from the optical spectra and discuss the implications for the coma photochemistry.This work is supported by the NASA Postdoctoral Program, administered by the Universities Space Research Association, with additional funding from the NSF and NASA PAST.

  15. 40 CFR 761.350 - Subsampling from composite samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical extraction and analysis laboratory for further subsampling. There are two options for the... container, approved for shipment of the sample, to the chemical extraction and analysis laboratory, for the..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling Non-Liquid, Non-Metal PCB Bulk Product Waste for Purposes of...

  16. Sugar composition and FT-IR analysis of exopolysaccharides produced by microbial isolates from paper mill slime deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Blanco, A.; Siika-aho, M.; Ratto, M.; Buchert, J.; Lenon, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by bacteria isolated from biofilms or slimelayers from different paper and board mills in Finland, France and Spain were subjected to size exclusion chromatography and sugar compositional analysis. High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC)

  17. UV TO FAR-IR CATALOG OF A GALAXY SAMPLE IN NEARBY CLUSTERS: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRENDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Fernandez, Jonathan D.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M., E-mail: jonatan@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008 Granada (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a sample of cluster galaxies devoted to study the environmental influence on the star formation activity. This sample of galaxies inhabits in clusters showing a rich variety in their characteristics and have been observed by the SDSS-DR6 down to M{sub B} {approx} -18, and by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer AIS throughout sky regions corresponding to several megaparsecs. We assign the broadband and emission-line fluxes from ultraviolet to far-infrared to each galaxy performing an accurate spectral energy distribution for spectral fitting analysis. The clusters follow the general X-ray luminosity versus velocity dispersion trend of L{sub X} {proportional_to} {sigma}{sup 4.4}{sub c}. The analysis of the distributions of galaxy density counting up to the 5th nearest neighbor {Sigma}{sub 5} shows: (1) the virial regions and the cluster outskirts share a common range in the high density part of the distribution. This can be attributed to the presence of massive galaxy structures in the surroundings of virial regions. (2) The virial regions of massive clusters ({sigma}{sub c} > 550 km s{sup -1}) present a {Sigma}{sub 5} distribution statistically distinguishable ({approx}96%) from the corresponding distribution of low-mass clusters ({sigma}{sub c} < 550 km s{sup -1}). Both massive and low-mass clusters follow a similar density-radius trend, but the low-mass clusters avoid the high density extreme. We illustrate, with ABELL 1185, the environmental trends of galaxy populations. Maps of sky projected galaxy density show how low-luminosity star-forming galaxies appear distributed along more spread structures than their giant counterparts, whereas low-luminosity passive galaxies avoid the low-density environment. Giant passive and star-forming galaxies share rather similar sky regions with passive galaxies exhibiting more concentrated distributions.

  18. Utilization of composite fecal samples for detection of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Melissa M; Paras, Kelsey L; Howell, Sue B; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-06-15

    Recent reports indicate that anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Presently, the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the only means available for detection of resistance to anthelmintics in cattle herds at the farm level. However, the FECRT is labor and cost intensive, and consequently is only rarely performed on cattle farms unless for research purposes. If costs could be reduced, cattle producers might be more likely to pursue drug resistance testing on their farms. One approach to reducing the cost of the FECRT, is the use of composite fecal samples for performing fecal egg counts (FEC), rather than conducting FEC on fecal samples from 15 to 20 individual animals. In this study FECRT were performed on 14 groups of cattle using both individual and composite FEC methods To measure how well the results of composite sampling reproduce those of individual sampling, Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient was utilized to describe both the linear relationship between methods and the slope and y-intercept of the line relating the data sets. There was little difference between the approaches with 98% agreement in mean FEC found between methods Mean FEC based on individual counts ranged between 0 and 670.6 eggs per gram of feces, indicating that the results of this study are applicable to a wide range of FEC levels. Standard error of the mean FEC and range of FEC are reported for each group prior to and following treatment to describe the variability of the data set. There was greater than 95% agreement in drug efficacy between individual and composite sampling methods, demonstrating composite sampling is appropriate to evaluate drug efficacy. Notably, for all groups tested the efficacy calculated by composite sampling was within the 95% confidence interval for efficacy calculated using individual sampling. The use of composite samples was shown to reduce the number of FEC required by 79

  19. Is it appropriate to composite fish samples for mercury trend monitoring and consumption advisories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Drouillard, Ken G; Arhonditsis, George B; Petro, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring mercury levels in fish can be costly because variation by space, time, and fish type/size needs to be captured. Here, we explored if compositing fish samples to decrease analytical costs would reduce the effectiveness of the monitoring objectives. Six compositing methods were evaluated by applying them to an existing extensive dataset, and examining their performance in reproducing the fish consumption advisories and temporal trends. The methods resulted in varying amount (average 34-72%) of reductions in samples, but all (except one) reproduced advisories very well (96-97% of the advisories did not change or were one category more restrictive compared to analysis of individual samples). Similarly, the methods performed reasonably well in recreating temporal trends, especially when longer-term and frequent measurements were considered. The results indicate that compositing samples within 5cm fish size bins or retaining the largest/smallest individuals and compositing in-between samples in batches of 5 with decreasing fish size would be the best approaches. Based on the literature, the findings from this study are applicable to fillet, muscle plug and whole fish mercury monitoring studies. The compositing methods may also be suitable for monitoring Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in fish. Overall, compositing fish samples for mercury monitoring could result in a substantial savings (approximately 60% of the analytical cost) and should be considered in fish mercury monitoring, especially in long-term programs or when study cost is a concern. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Composite sampling of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate with cellulose sponge surface samplers from a nonporous surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenia A M Tufts

    Full Text Available A series of experiments was conducted to explore the utility of composite-based collection of surface samples for the detection of a Bacillus anthracis surrogate using cellulose sponge samplers on a nonporous stainless steel surface. Two composite-based collection approaches were evaluated over a surface area of 3716 cm2 (four separate 929 cm2 areas, larger than the 645 cm2 prescribed by the standard Centers for Disease Control (CDC and Prevention cellulose sponge sampling protocol for use on nonporous surfaces. The CDC method was also compared to a modified protocol where only one surface of the sponge sampler was used for each of the four areas composited. Differences in collection efficiency compared to positive controls and the potential for contaminant transfer for each protocol were assessed. The impact of the loss of wetting buffer from the sponge sampler onto additional surface areas sampled was evaluated. Statistical tests of the results using ANOVA indicate that the collection of composite samples using the modified sampling protocol is comparable to the collection of composite samples using the standard CDC protocol (p  =  0.261. Most of the surface-bound spores are collected on the first sampling pass, suggesting that multiple passes with the sponge sampler over the same surface may be unnecessary. The effect of moisture loss from the sponge sampler on collection efficiency was not significant (p  =  0.720 for both methods. Contaminant transfer occurs with both sampling protocols, but the magnitude of transfer is significantly greater when using the standard protocol than when the modified protocol is used (p<0.001. The results of this study suggest that composite surface sampling, by either method presented here, could successfully be used to increase the surface area sampled per sponge sampler, resulting in reduced sampling times in the field and decreased laboratory processing cost and turn-around times.

  1. TCLP Preparation and Analysis of K East Basin Composite Sludge Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvers, K.L.; Wagner, J.J.; Steele, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    Sludge samples from the Hanford K East Basin were analyzed by the Toxicity Characterization Leaching Procedure (TCLP) to assist in the appropriate Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCIL4) designation of this material. Sludge samples were collected by Fluor Hanford, Inc. using the consolidated sludge sampling system (system that allows collection of a single sample from multiple sample locations). These samples were shipped to the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building) and then transferred to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL, 325 Building) for recovery and testing. Two sludge composites were prepared, using the consolidated sludge samples, to represent K East canister sludge (sample KC Can Comp) and K East floor sludge (sample KC Floor Comp). Each composite was extracted in duplicate and analyzed in duplicate following pre-approved(a) TCLP extraction and analyses procedures. In addition, these samples and duplicates were analyzed for total RCRA metals (via acid digestion preparation). The work was conducted in accordance with the requirements of the Hanford Analytical Quality Assurance Requirements Document (HASQARD). A PNNL Quality Assurance Program compliant with J HASQARD was implemented for this effort. The results from the TCLP analyses showed that all RCRA metal concentrations were less than the TCLP limits for both the canister and floor composite samples and their respective duplicates

  2. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  3. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  4. Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Brazilian Commercial Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro de Castro Melo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The concentration and the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from different samples of Cymbopogon citratus were evaluated. Among the 12 samples investigated (11 dried leaf samples and fresh plant leaves, seven presented essential oil concentrations within the threshold established by the Brazilian legislation. The moisture content was also determined and the majority of the samples presented humidity contents near 12%. The GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils led to identification of 22 compounds, with neral and geranial as the two major components. The total percentage of these two compounds varied within the investigated sample oils from 40.7% to 75.4%. In addition, a considerable variation in the chemical composition of the analyzed samples was observed. The process of grinding the leaves significantly decreased (by up to 68% the essential oil content, as well as the percentage of myrcene in the oils.

  5. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Groves, B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kewley, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Petric, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 320-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rich, J. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Matsuhara, H., E-mail: inami@noao.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); and others

    2013-11-10

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}}, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z{sub ☉}, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 10{sup 7} cm s{sup –1}. Based on the [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}/[S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}} ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm{sup –3}, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm{sup –3}, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s{sup –1}) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential

  6. Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry in connection with a chromatographic separation for ultra trace determinations of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Ru, Ir) in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Heumann, K G

    2000-09-01

    An isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometric (ID-ICP-QMS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in environmental samples. Spike solutions, enriched with the isotopes 194Pt, 108Pd, 99Ru, and 191Ir, were used for the isotope dilution step. Interfering elements were eliminated by chromatographic separation using an anion-exchange resin. Samples were dissolved with aqua regia in a high pressure asher. Additional dissolution of possible silicate portions by hydrofluoric acid was usually not necessary. Detection limits of 0.15 ng x g(-1), 0.075 ng x g(-1), and 0.015 ng x g(-1) were achieved for Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir, respectively, using sample weights of only 0.2 g. The reliability of the ID-ICP-QMS method was demonstrated by analyzing a Canadian geological reference material and by participating in an interlaboratory study for the determination of platinum and palladium in a homogenized road dust sample. Surface soil, sampled at different distances from a highway, showed concentrations in the range of 0.1-87 ng x g(-1). An exponential decrease of the platinum and palladium concentration with increasing distance and a small anthropogenic contribution to the natural background concentration of ruthenium and iridium was found in these samples.

  7. New Ablation-Resistant Material Candidate for Hypersonic Applications: Synthesis, Composition, and Oxidation Resistance of HfIr3-Based Solid Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanov, Victor V; Baklanova, Natalya I; Bulina, Natalia V; Titov, Anatoly T

    2018-04-18

    The peculiarities of the solid-state interaction in the HfC-Ir system have been studied within the 1000-1600 °C temperature range using a set of modern analytical techniques. It was stated that the interaction of HfC with iridium becomes noticeable at temperatures as low as 1000-1100 °C and results in the formation of HfIr 3 -based substitutional solid solution. The homogeneity range of the HfIr 3± x phase was evaluated and refined as HfIr 2.43 -HfIr 3.36 . The durability of the HfIr 3 -based system under extreme environmental conditions was studied. It was shown that the HfIr 3 -based material displays excellent ablation resistance under extreme environmental conditions. The benefits of the new designed material result from its relative oxygen impermeability and special microstructure similar to superalloys. The results obtained in this work allow us to consider HfIr 3 as a very promising candidate for extreme applications.

  8. TRAN-STAT, Issue No. 3, January 1978. Topics discussed: some statistical aspects of compositing field samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.

    1978-01-01

    Some statistical aspects of compositing field samples of soils for determining the content of Pu are discussed. Some of the potential problems involved in pooling samples are reviewed. This is followed by more detailed discussions and examples of compositing designs, adequacy of mixing, statistical models and their role in compositing, and related topics

  9. Using multiple criteria for fingerprinting unknown oil samples having very similar chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Fingas, M.F.; Sigouin, L.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted in which 3 mystery oil samples from Quebec were fingerprinted using a multi-criterion approach. The three objectives of the study were to determine the nature and the type of product, to obtain the detailed hydrocarbon composition of the samples, and to determine if the samples came from the same source. The product type was first determined by identifying the hydrocarbon distribution patterns. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profiles were then compared and then the conclusions were verified by quantifying biomarkers and by determining several diagnostic ratios of source-specific marker compounds. Additives in the oil were also identified. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography combined with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was determined that the 3 oils were probably hydraulic-fluid type oil. They were very pure, and composed mostly of saturated hydrocarbons with the total aromatics being 4 to 10 per cent of the total petroleum hydrocarbon. Although it was determined that the oils were mixtures of 2 different hydraulic fluids, there was no clear indication if they had been weathered. The PAH concentration was very low, while the biomarker concentration was very high. Three unknown compounds (antioxidants) were positively identified. Two of the samples came from the same source. One of the samples had similar group hydrocarbon composition but it was not identical in chemical composition and did not come from the same source. 34 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Sample preparation composite and replicate strategy case studies for assay of solid oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Beverly; Harrington, Brent; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Michele Xuemei

    2017-11-30

    Drug product assay is one of several tests required for new drug products to ensure the quality of the product at release and throughout the life cycle of the product. Drug product assay testing is typically performed by preparing a composite sample of multiple dosage units to obtain an assay value representative of the batch. In some cases replicate composite samples may be prepared and the reportable assay value is the average value of all the replicates. In previously published work by Harrington et al. (2014) [5], a sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay was developed to provide a systematic approach which accounts for variability due to the analytical method and dosage form with a standard error of the potency assay criteria based on compendia and regulatory requirements. In this work, this sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay is applied to several case studies to demonstrate the utility of this approach and its application at various stages of pharmaceutical drug product development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, M.; Wenneker, M.; Withagen, J.C.M.; Christensen, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application versus

  12. Technical studies on a composite groundwater sample from F- and H-Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    A composite sample of groundwater from F- and H-Areas was collected by Waste Management Tech and delivered to the Savannah River Laboratory to use in preliminary experiments that would test three remediation technologies under consideration. The three technologies are pH adjustment and filtration, decontamination with a strong acid ion exchange resin, and decontamination with a chelating ion exchange resin

  13. Foam generation and sample composition optimization for the FOAM-C experiment of the ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpy, R; Picker, G; Amann, B; Ranebo, H; Vincent-Bonnieu, S; Minster, O; Winter, J; Dettmann, J; Castiglione, L; Höhler, R; Langevin, D

    2011-01-01

    End of 2009 and early 2010 a sealed cell, for foam generation and observation, has been designed and manufactured at Astrium Friedrichshafen facilities. With the use of this cell, different sample compositions of 'wet foams' have been optimized for mixtures of chemicals such as water, dodecanol, pluronic, aethoxisclerol, glycerol, CTAB, SDS, as well as glass beads. This development is performed in the frame of the breadboarding development activities of the Experiment Container FOAM-C for operation in the ISS Fluid Science Laboratory (ISS). The sample cell supports multiple observation methods such as: Diffusing-Wave and Diffuse Transmission Spectrometry, Time Resolved Correlation Spectroscopy and microscope observation, all of these methods are applied in the cell with a relatively small experiment volume 3 . These units, will be on orbit replaceable sets, that will allow multiple sample compositions processing (in the range of >40).

  14. Sample preparation composite and replicate strategy for assay of solid oral drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Brent; Nickerson, Beverly; Guo, Michele Xuemei; Barber, Marc; Giamalva, David; Lee, Carlos; Scrivens, Garry

    2014-12-16

    In pharmaceutical analysis, the results of drug product assay testing are used to make decisions regarding the quality, efficacy, and stability of the drug product. In order to make sound risk-based decisions concerning drug product potency, an understanding of the uncertainty of the reportable assay value is required. Utilizing the most restrictive criteria in current regulatory documentation, a maximum variability attributed to method repeatability is defined for a drug product potency assay. A sampling strategy that reduces the repeatability component of the assay variability below this predefined maximum is demonstrated. The sampling strategy consists of determining the number of dosage units (k) to be prepared in a composite sample of which there may be a number of equivalent replicate (r) sample preparations. The variability, as measured by the standard error (SE), of a potency assay consists of several sources such as sample preparation and dosage unit variability. A sampling scheme that increases the number of sample preparations (r) and/or number of dosage units (k) per sample preparation will reduce the assay variability and thus decrease the uncertainty around decisions made concerning the potency of the drug product. A maximum allowable repeatability component of the standard error (SE) for the potency assay is derived using material in current regulatory documents. A table of solutions for the number of dosage units per sample preparation (r) and number of replicate sample preparations (k) is presented for any ratio of sample preparation and dosage unit variability.

  15. Impact of enzymatic digestion on bacterial community composition in CF airway samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kayla M; Wagner, Brandie D; Robertson, Charles E; Johnson, Emily J; Zemanick, Edith T; Harris, J Kirk

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of DNA extraction methods for molecular detection of Staphylococcus, an important bacterial group in cystic fibrosis (CF). We sought to evaluate the effect of enzymatic digestion (EnzD) prior to DNA extraction on bacterial communities identified in sputum and oropharyngeal swab (OP) samples from patients with CF. DNA from 81 samples (39 sputum and 42 OP) collected from 63 patients with CF was extracted in duplicate with and without EnzD. Bacterial communities were determined by rRNA gene sequencing, and measures of alpha and beta diversity were calculated. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) was used to assess differences at the community level and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used to compare relative abundance (RA) of individual genera for paired samples with and without EnzD. Shannon Diversity Index (alpha-diversity) decreased in sputum and OP samples with the use of EnzD. Larger shifts in community composition were observed for OP samples (beta-diversity, measured by Morisita-Horn), whereas less change in communities was observed for sputum samples. The use of EnzD with OP swabs resulted in significant increase in RA for the genera Gemella ( p  microbial community composition. We show that the application of EnzD to CF airway samples, particularly OP swabs, results in differences in microbial communities detected by sequencing. Use of EnzD can result in large changes in bacterial community composition, and is particularly useful for detection of Staphylococcus in CF OP samples. The enhanced identification of Staphylococcus aureus is a strong indication to utilize EnzD in studies that use OP swabs to monitor CF airway communities.

  16. An investigation of the composition of gases sampled by formation testers during drilling and well development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamkina, L.S.; Snezhko, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    The experience of studying samples taken by formation testers during the drilling and development of wells that penetrate Foraminifera, Cretaceous and Jurassic deposits at the fields of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is correlated. The compositions of gases taken from oil bearing, water bearing and gas bearing deposits in exploratory and operating wells are compared. Recommendations are given for determining (estimating) the phase state of hydrocarbons in the cross section based on results from an investigation of the composition of gas taken during the drilling process. A corresponding interpretation method is proposed.

  17. Sample size planning for composite reliability coefficients: accuracy in parameter estimation via narrow confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Leann; Kelley, Ken

    2012-11-01

    Composite measures play an important role in psychology and related disciplines. Composite measures almost always have error. Correspondingly, it is important to understand the reliability of the scores from any particular composite measure. However, the point estimates of the reliability of composite measures are fallible and thus all such point estimates should be accompanied by a confidence interval. When confidence intervals are wide, there is much uncertainty in the population value of the reliability coefficient. Given the importance of reporting confidence intervals for estimates of reliability, coupled with the undesirability of wide confidence intervals, we develop methods that allow researchers to plan sample size in order to obtain narrow confidence intervals for population reliability coefficients. We first discuss composite reliability coefficients and then provide a discussion on confidence interval formation for the corresponding population value. Using the accuracy in parameter estimation approach, we develop two methods to obtain accurate estimates of reliability by planning sample size. The first method provides a way to plan sample size so that the expected confidence interval width for the population reliability coefficient is sufficiently narrow. The second method ensures that the confidence interval width will be sufficiently narrow with some desired degree of assurance (e.g., 99% assurance that the 95% confidence interval for the population reliability coefficient will be less than W units wide). The effectiveness of our methods was verified with Monte Carlo simulation studies. We demonstrate how to easily implement the methods with easy-to-use and freely available software. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. The isotopic composition of methane in the stratosphere: high-altitude balloon sample measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic composition of stratospheric methane has been determined on a large suite of air samples from stratospheric balloon flights covering subtropical to polar latitudes and a time period of 16 yr. 154 samples were analyzed for δ13C and 119 samples for δD, increasing the previously published dataset for balloon borne samples by an order of magnitude, and more than doubling the total available stratospheric data (including aircraft samples published to date. The samples also cover a large range in mixing ratio from tropospheric values near 1800 ppb down to only 250 ppb, and the strong isotope fractionation processes accordingly increase the isotopic composition up to δ13C = −14‰ and δD = +190‰, the largest enrichments observed for atmospheric CH4 so far. When analyzing and comparing kinetic isotope effects (KIEs derived from single balloon profiles, it is necessary to take into account the residence time in the stratosphere in combination with the observed mixing ratio and isotope trends in the troposphere, and the range of isotope values covered by the individual profile. The isotopic composition of CH4 in the stratosphere is affected by both chemical and dynamical processes. This severely hampers interpretation of the data in terms of the relative fractions of the three important sink mechanisms (reaction with OH, O(1D and Cl. It is shown that a formal sink partitioning using the measured data severely underestimates the fraction removed by OH, which is likely due to the insensitivity of the measurements to the kinetic fractionation in the lower stratosphere. Full quantitative interpretation of the CH4 isotope data in terms of the three sink reactions requires a global model.

  19. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant

  1. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  2. Radiometric sampling of bucked copper-nickel ores for determining chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komlev, V.N.; Eliseev, G.I.

    1978-01-01

    Presented are the results and the technique of experimental-methodical works on radiometric sampling of bucked copper-nickel ores for determining chemical composition with their selection and analysis by the neutron-gamma method and by the gamma-gamma method. The error is estimated according to the chosen conditions of sampling. It is found that the gamma-gamma method being more rapid but less accurate is applied for rapid control of ore current, whereas the neutron-gamma method is applied for quality control of ores extracted

  3. Composition quantification of electron-transparent samples by backscattered electron imaging in scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, E., E-mail: erich.mueller@kit.edu; Gerthsen, D.

    2017-02-15

    The contrast of backscattered electron (BSE) images in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) depends on material parameters which can be exploited for composition quantification if some information on the material system is available. As an example, the In-concentration in thin In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As layers embedded in a GaAs matrix is analyzed in this work. The spatial resolution of the technique is improved by using thin electron-transparent specimens instead of bulk samples. Although the BSEs are detected in a comparably small angular range by an annular semiconductor detector, the image intensity can be evaluated to determine the composition and local thickness of the specimen. The measured intensities are calibrated within one single image to eliminate the influence of the detection and amplification system. Quantification is performed by comparison of experimental and calculated data. Instead of using time-consuming Monte-Carlo simulations, an analytical model is applied for BSE-intensity calculations which considers single electron scattering and electron diffusion. - Highlights: • Sample thickness and composition are quantified by backscattered electron imaging. • A thin sample is used to achieve spatial resolution of few nanometers. • Calculations are carried out with a time-saving electron diffusion model. • Small differences in atomic number and density detected at low electron energies.

  4. Seasonal Variation, Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Brazilian Propolis Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and chemical composition of propolis samples from three localities of Minas Gerais state (southeast Brazil were determined. Total phenolic contents were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteau method, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, using BHT as reference, and chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Propolis from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido municipalities were found to have high phenolic contents and pronounced antioxidant activity. From these extracts, 40 substances were identified, among them were simple phenylpropanoids, prenylated phenylpropanoids, sesqui- and diterpenoids. Quantitatively, the main constituent of both samples was allyl-3-prenylcinnamic acid. A sample from Virginópolis municipality had no detectable phenolic substances and contained mainly triterpenoids, the main constituents being α- and β-amyrins. Methanolic extracts from Itapecerica and Paula Cândido exhibited pronounced scavenging activity towards DPPH, indistinguishable from BHT activity. However, extracts from Virginópolis sample exhibited no antioxidant activity. Total phenolic substances, GC/MS analyses and antioxidant activity of samples from Itapecerica collected monthly over a period of 1 year revealed considerable variation. No correlation was observed between antioxidant activity and either total phenolic contents or contents of artepillin C and other phenolic substances, as assayed by CG/MS analysis.

  5. The Statistics of Radio Astronomical Polarimetry: Disjoint, Superposed, and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straten, W. van [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Tiburzi, C., E-mail: willem.van.straten@aut.ac.nz [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    A statistical framework is presented for the study of the orthogonally polarized modes of radio pulsar emission via the covariances between the Stokes parameters. To accommodate the typically heavy-tailed distributions of single-pulse radio flux density, the fourth-order joint cumulants of the electric field are used to describe the superposition of modes with arbitrary probability distributions. The framework is used to consider the distinction between superposed and disjoint modes, with particular attention to the effects of integration over finite samples. If the interval over which the polarization state is estimated is longer than the timescale for switching between two or more disjoint modes of emission, then the modes are unresolved by the instrument. The resulting composite sample mean exhibits properties that have been attributed to mode superposition, such as depolarization. Because the distinction between disjoint modes and a composite sample of unresolved disjoint modes depends on the temporal resolution of the observing instrumentation, the arguments in favor of superposed modes of pulsar emission are revisited, and observational evidence for disjoint modes is described. In principle, the four-dimensional covariance matrix that describes the distribution of sample mean Stokes parameters can be used to distinguish between disjoint modes, superposed modes, and a composite sample of unresolved disjoint modes. More comprehensive and conclusive interpretation of the covariance matrix requires more detailed consideration of various relevant phenomena, including temporally correlated subpulse modulation (e.g., jitter), statistical dependence between modes (e.g., covariant intensities and partial coherence), and multipath propagation effects (e.g., scintillation and scattering).

  6. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar

    2016-01-01

    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myth...

  7. Impact of enzymatic digestion on bacterial community composition in CF airway samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla M. Williamson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of DNA extraction methods for molecular detection of Staphylococcus, an important bacterial group in cystic fibrosis (CF. We sought to evaluate the effect of enzymatic digestion (EnzD prior to DNA extraction on bacterial communities identified in sputum and oropharyngeal swab (OP samples from patients with CF. Methods DNA from 81 samples (39 sputum and 42 OP collected from 63 patients with CF was extracted in duplicate with and without EnzD. Bacterial communities were determined by rRNA gene sequencing, and measures of alpha and beta diversity were calculated. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA was used to assess differences at the community level and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests were used to compare relative abundance (RA of individual genera for paired samples with and without EnzD. Results Shannon Diversity Index (alpha-diversity decreased in sputum and OP samples with the use of EnzD. Larger shifts in community composition were observed for OP samples (beta-diversity, measured by Morisita-Horn, whereas less change in communities was observed for sputum samples. The use of EnzD with OP swabs resulted in significant increase in RA for the genera Gemella (p < 0.01, Streptococcus (p < 0.01, and Rothia (p < 0.01. Staphylococcus (p < 0.01 was the only genus with a significant increase in RA from sputum, whereas the following genera decreased in RA with EnzD: Veillonella (p < 0.01, Granulicatella (p < 0.01, Prevotella (p < 0.01, and Gemella (p = 0.02. In OP samples, higher RA of Gram-positive taxa was associated with larger changes in microbial community composition. Discussion We show that the application of EnzD to CF airway samples, particularly OP swabs, results in differences in microbial communities detected by sequencing. Use of EnzD can result in large changes in bacterial community composition, and is particularly useful for detection of Staphylococcus in CF OP

  8. Technical bases and guidance for the use of composite soil sampling for demonstrating compliance with radiological release criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    This guidance provides information on methodologies and the technical bases that licensees should consider for incorporating composite sampling strategies into final status survey (FSS) plans. In addition, this guidance also includes appropriate uses of composite sampling for generating the data for other decommissioning site investigations such as characterization or other preliminary site investigations

  9. Technical bases and guidance for the use of composite soil sampling for demonstrating compliance with radiological release criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitkus, Timothy J. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Independent Environmental Assessment and Verification Program

    2012-04-24

    This guidance provides information on methodologies and the technical bases that licensees should consider for incorporating composite sampling strategies into final status survey (FSS) plans. In addition, this guidance also includes appropriate uses of composite sampling for generating the data for other decommissioning site investigations such as characterization or other preliminary site investigations.

  10. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of carbon isotope composition in unpurified samples: methamphetamine example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, I A; Liu, R H; Legendre, M G; Piotrowski, E G; Furner, R L

    1986-10-01

    A gas chromatograph/quadrupole mass spectrometer system, operated in electron impact/selected ion monitoring mode, is used to determine the intensity ratio of the m/z 59 and the m/z 58 ions of the [C3H8N]+ fragment derived from methamphetamine samples synthesized with varying amounts of 13C-labeled methylamine. Crude products are introduced into the gas chromatograph without prior cleanup. The ratios measured were in excellent agreement with those calculated. A change in 0.25% use of 13C-methylamine is sufficient for product differentiation. The feasibility of using isotope labeling and subsequent mass spectrometric isotope ratio measurement as the basis of a compound tracing mechanism is discussed. Specifically, if methamphetamine samples manufactured from legal sources are asked to incorporate distinct 13C compositions, their sources can be traced when samples are diverted into illegal channels. Samples derived from illicit preparations can also be traced if the manufacturers of a precursor (methylamine in this case) incorporate distinct 13C compositions in their products.

  11. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  12. Synthetic samples as imitators of elements composition for calibration in nuclear-physical methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhov, V.M.; Gerling, V.Eh.; Il'ina, L.K.; Trojnina, G.G.; Galisheva, Eh.P.

    1987-01-01

    The papers on the problems of developing and application of synthetic standard samples (SS), imitating the substance and material (rocks, ores) element composition aimed at calibration, testing and certification of the equipment as well as check on the results of neutron-activation, X-ray spectral, X-ray radiometric, X-ray fluorescence and other nuclear-physical methods of analysis, are reviewed. It is shown that choice of SS preparation method is defined by peculiarities of analysis method for which calibration SS is designed. Experience in application of SS imitators of element composition in interlaboratory comparisons testifies to potential application of synthetic SS for calibration in different methods of analysis including, nuclear-physical ones

  13. Factorial composition of the Aggression Questionnaire: a multi-sample study in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoratou, Silia; Ntzoufras, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Stefanis, Nicholas C

    2009-06-30

    The primary aim of the current article was the evaluation of the factorial composition of the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ(29)) in the Greek population. The translated questionnaire was administered to the following three heterogeneous adult samples: a general population sample from Athens, a sample of young male conscripts and a sample of individuals facing problems related to substance use. Factor analysis highlighted a structure similar to the one proposed by Buss and Perry [Buss, A.F., Perry, M., 1992. The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63, 452-459]. However, the refined 12-item version of Bryant and Smith [Bryant, F.B., Smith, B.D., 2001. Refining the architecture of aggression: a measurement model for the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality 35, 138-167] provided a better fit to our data. Therefore, the refined model was implemented in further analysis. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis was applied in order to assess the variability of the 12-item AQ across gender and samples. The percentage of factor loading invariance between males and females and across the three samples defined above was high (higher than 75%). The reliability (internal consistency) of the scale was satisfactory in all cases. Content validity of the 12-item AQ was confirmed by comparison with the Symptom Check-List 90 Revised.

  14. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  15. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe, E-mail: vine@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Petersen, Claus [Econet AS, Omøgade 8, 2.sal, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Tiered approach to waste sorting ensures flexibility and facilitates comparison of solid waste composition data. • Food and miscellaneous wastes are the main fractions contributing to the residual household waste. • Separation of food packaging from food leftovers during sorting is not critical for determination of the solid waste composition. - Abstract: Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10–50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste from one municipality was sorted at “Level III”, e.g. detailed, while the two others were sorted only at “Level I”). The results showed that residual household waste mainly contained food waste (42 ± 5%, mass per wet basis) and miscellaneous combustibles (18 ± 3%, mass per wet basis). The residual household waste generation rate in the study areas was 3–4 kg per person per week. Statistical analyses revealed that the waste composition was independent of variations in the waste generation rate. Both, waste composition and waste generation rates were statistically similar for each of the three municipalities. While the waste generation rates were similar for each of the two housing types (single

  16. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550{degrees}C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations.

  17. Composition of Trace Metals in Dust Samples Collected from Selected High Schools in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olowoyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential health risks associated with trace metal pollution have necessitated the importance of monitoring their levels in the environment. The present study investigated the concentrations and compositions of trace metals in dust samples collected from classrooms and playing ground from the selected high schools In Pretoria. Schools were selected from Pretoria based on factors such as proximity to high traffic ways, industrial areas, and residential areas. Thirty-two dust samples were collected from inside and outside the classrooms, where learners often stay during recess period. The dust samples were analysed for trace metal concentrations using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The composition of the elements showed that the concentrations of Zn were more than all other elements except from one of the schools. There were significant differences in the concentrations of trace metals from the schools (p<0.05. Regular cleaning, proximity to busy road, and well maintained gardens seem to have positive effects on the concentrations of trace metals recorded from the classrooms dust. The result further revealed a positive correlation for elements such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Sb, indicating that the dust might have a common source.

  18. Influence of sample composition on aerosol organic and black carbon determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakov, T.; Corrigan, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper we present results on characterization of filter-collected redwood (Sequoia sempevirens)-needle and eucalyptus smoke particles by thermal, optical, and solvent extraction methods. Our results demonstrate that organic and black carbon concentrations determined by thermal and optical methods are not only method dependent, but also critically influenced by the overall chemical composition of the samples. These conclusions are supported by the following: (1) the organic fraction of biomass smoke particles analyzed includes a component, ranging in concentration from about 6-20% of total carbon or from 16-30% of organic carbon, that is relatively non-volatile and has a combustion temperature close to that of black carbon; (2) presence of K or Na in biomass smoke samples lowers the combustion temperatures of this organic component and of black carbon, making their combustion properties indistinguishable; (3) about 20% of total organic material is nonvolatile when heated to 550 degrees C in an inert atmosphere. Consequently, thermal methods that rely on a specific temperature to separate organic from black carbon may either underestimate or overestimate the black and organic carbon concentrations, depending on the amounts of Na and K and on the composition and concentration of organic material present in a sample. These analytical uncertainties and, under some conditions, absorption by organic material may contribute to the variability of empirically derived proportionality between light transmission through filter deposits and black carbon concentrations

  19. Expectations for Particulate Contamination Relevant to in Situ Atmospheric Sampling for Compositional Analysis at Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    NASA and ESA are considering options for in situ science with atmospheric entry probes to the ice giants Uranus and Neptune. Nominal probe entry mass is in the 300-kg range, although a miniaturized secondary probe option is being studied in the 30-kg range. In all cases, compositional sampling would commence near the 100-mbar level at Uranus, after ejection of the heat shield and deployment of the descent parachute. In this presentation, I review existing literature on the composition, mass loading, and vertical distribution of condensed material that the probe may encounter. Sample inlets for measurement of the gas composition should be heated to avoid potential buildup of condensate, which would block the flow of atmospheric gas into composition sensors. Heating rate and temperature values -- sufficient to keep sample inlets clean under various assumptions -- will be presented. Three main types of condensed material will be considered: Stratospheric hydrocarbon ices: Solar UV photolyzes CH4, leading to the production of volatile hydrocarbons with higher C/H ratios. These species diffuse from their production regions into colder levels where the ices of C2H2, C2H6, and C4H2 condense. Some studies have also considered condensation of C3H8, C4H10, C6H6, and C6H2. Gunk: The hydrocarbon ices are thought to become polymerized due to irradiation from solar UV. The exact composition of the resulting gunk is not known. Solid-state photochemical processing may produce the traces of reddish (blue-absorbing) haze material, present in the troposphere at temperatures warm enough to sublimate the simple hydrocarbon ices. Tropospheric ices: In the region accessible to probes under study (P < 10 bar), much thicker condensation clouds may form from volatile gases CH4, NH3, and H2S. If large amounts of NH3 are sequestered in the deeper H2O liquid cloud, then the S/N ratio could exceed 1 in the probe-accessible region of the atmosphere, leading to NH4SH and H2S ices below the CH4

  20. IDMS analysis of blank swipe samples for uranium quantity and isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryjinski, M.; Donohue, D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1996 the IAEA has started routine implementation of environmental sampling. During the last 5 years more than 1700 swipe samples were collected and analyzed in the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL). One sensitive point of analyzing environmental samples is evidence of the presence of enriched U. The U content on swipes is extremely low and therefore there is a relatively high probability of a false positive, e.g. small contamination or a measurement bias. In order to avoid and/or control this the IAEA systematically sends to the laboratories blind blank QC samples. In particular more than 50 blank samples were analyzed during the last two years. A preliminary analysis of blank swipes showed the swipe material itself contains up to 10 ng of NU per swipe. However, about 50% of blind blank swipes analyzed show the presence of enriched uranium. A source of this bias has to be clarified and excluded. This paper presents the results of modeling of IDMS analysis for quantity and isotopic composition of uranium in order to identify the possible contribution of different factors to the final measurement uncertainty. This modeling was carried out based on the IAEA Clean Laboratory measurement data and simulation technique

  1. Multivariate Methods for Prediction of Geologic Sample Composition with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard; Anderson, R.; Clegg, S. M.; Bell, J. F., III

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) uses pulses of laser light to ablate a material from the surface of a sample and produce an expanding plasma. The optical emission from the plasma produces a spectrum which can be used to classify target materials and estimate their composition. The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will use LIBS to rapidly analyze targets remotely, allowing more resource- and time-intensive in-situ analyses to be reserved for targets of particular interest. ChemCam will also be used to analyze samples that are not reachable by the rover's in-situ instruments. Due to these tactical and scientific roles, it is important that ChemCam-derived sample compositions are as accurate as possible. We have compared the results of partial least squares (PLS), multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural networks (ANNs), and cascade correlation (CC) ANNs to determine which technique yields better estimates of quantitative element abundances in rock and mineral samples. The number of hidden nodes in the MLP ANNs was optimized using a genetic algorithm. The influence of two data preprocessing techniques were also investigated: genetic algorithm feature selection and averaging the spectra for each training sample prior to training the PLS and ANN algorithms. We used a ChemCam-like laboratory stand-off LIBS system to collect spectra of 30 pressed powder geostandards and a diverse suite of 196 geologic slab samples of known bulk composition. We tested the performance of PLS and ANNs on a subset of these samples, choosing to focus on silicate rocks and minerals with a loss on ignition of less than 2 percent. This resulted in a set of 22 pressed powder geostandards and 80 geologic samples. Four of the geostandards were used as a validation set and 18 were used as the training set for the algorithms. We found that PLS typically resulted in the lowest average absolute error in its predictions, but that the optimized MLP ANN and

  2. Foam generation and sample composition optimization for the FOAM-C experiment of the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpy, R.; Picker, G.; Amann, B.; Ranebo, H.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.; Minster, O.; Winter, J.; Dettmann, J.; Castiglione, L.; Höhler, R.; Langevin, D.

    2011-12-01

    End of 2009 and early 2010 a sealed cell, for foam generation and observation, has been designed and manufactured at Astrium Friedrichshafen facilities. With the use of this cell, different sample compositions of "wet foams" have been optimized for mixtures of chemicals such as water, dodecanol, pluronic, aethoxisclerol, glycerol, CTAB, SDS, as well as glass beads. This development is performed in the frame of the breadboarding development activities of the Experiment Container FOAM-C for operation in the ISS Fluid Science Laboratory (ISS). The sample cell supports multiple observation methods such as: Diffusing-Wave and Diffuse Transmission Spectrometry, Time Resolved Correlation Spectroscopy [1] and microscope observation, all of these methods are applied in the cell with a relatively small experiment volume 40).

  3. Sample Stability and Protein Composition of Saliva: Implications for Its Use as a Diagnostic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Roelofsen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is an easy accessible plasma ultra-filtrate. Therefore, saliva can be an attractive alternative to blood for measurement of diagnostic protein markers. Our aim was to determine stability and protein composition of saliva. Protein stability at room temperature was examined by incubating fresh whole saliva with and without inhibitors of proteases and bacterial metabolism followed by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI analyses. Protein composition was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE fractionation of saliva proteins followed by digestion of excised bands and identification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Results show that rapid protein degradation occurs within 30 minutes after sample collection. Degradation starts already during collection. Protease inhibitors partly prevented degradation while inhibition of bacterial metabolism did not affect degradation. Three stable degradation products of 2937 Da, 3370 Da and 4132 Da were discovered which can be used as markers to monitor sample quality. Saliva proteome analyses revealed 218 proteins of which 84 can also be found in blood plasma. Based on a comparison with seven other proteomics studies on whole saliva we identified 83 new saliva proteins. We conclude that saliva is a promising diagnostic fl uid when precautions are taken towards protein breakdown.

  4. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  5. Elemental Composition of Mars Return Samples Using X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging at the National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schoonen, M. A.; Fogelqvist, E.; Gregerson, J.; Farley, K. A.; Sherman, S.; Hill, J.

    2018-04-01

    NSLS-II at BNL provides a unique and critical capability to perform assessments of the elemental composition and the chemical state of Mars returned samples using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  6. Composition-driven Cu-speciation and reducibility in Cu-CHA zeolite catalysts: a multivariate XAS/FTIR approach to complexity† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Sample description and synthesis details, experimental setup for in situ XAS and FTIR spectroscopy, details on the MCR-ALS method, details on DFT-assisted XANES simulations, details on the determination of N pure by PCA, MCR-ALS results for downsized and upsized component spaces, additional information to support the assignment of theoretical XANES curves, details on EXAFS analysis, details on IR spectral deconvolution. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc02266b Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, A.; Lomachenko, K. A.; Pankin, I. A.; Negri, C.; Berlier, G.; Beato, P.; Falsig, H.; Bordiga, S.; Lamberti, C.

    2017-01-01

    The small pore Cu-CHA zeolite is attracting increasing attention as a versatile platform to design novel single-site catalysts for deNOx applications and for the direct conversion of methane to methanol. Understanding at the atomic scale how the catalyst composition influences the Cu-species formed during thermal activation is a key step to unveil the relevant composition–activity relationships. Herein, we explore by in situ XAS the impact of Cu-CHA catalyst composition on temperature-dependent Cu-speciation and reducibility. Advanced multivariate analysis of in situ XANES in combination with DFT-assisted simulation of XANES spectra and multi-component EXAFS fits as well as in situ FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed N2 allow us to obtain unprecedented quantitative structural information on the complex dynamics during the speciation of Cu-sites inside the framework of the CHA zeolite. PMID:29147509

  7. The correlation between selenium adsorption and the mineral and chemical composition of Taiwan local granite samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, TsingHai; Chiang, Chu-Ling; Wang, Chu-Fang [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences

    2015-07-01

    Selenium-79 (Se-79) is a radioactive isotope of selenium, which is considered as one of the highly mobile nuclides since Se-79 would be presented in an anion species when dissolving into the intruded groundwater. Being an anionic species, the transport of Se-79 would be regulated by the metal oxides relevant minerals such as goethite and hematite (Jan et al., 2008). This is true that the transport of selenium in the shallow surface environment could be relatively easy to estimate by considering the amount of these metal oxides presenting in the soils and sediments. However, when dealing with deep geological repository, the transport of Se-79 becomes less predictable because of the much less content of metal oxide residing in the host rock such as granite. In order to conduct a reliable performance assessment of repository, it is very important to establish the correlation between selenium adsorption and the properties of potential host rock, in this study, the mineral and chemical compositions of Taiwan local granite. From this point of view, selenium adsorption experiments were conducted with 54 different Taiwan local granite samples collected from the depth ranging from 100 ∝ 400 meters below the surface. These granite samples represent a variety of deep geological environments, including the intact rock, groundwater intruded zones, and some weathered samples. Based upon our preliminary results, several solid conclusions could be made. First, the correlation coefficients between the Kd values and the mineral and chemical compositions are rather low (R-square values are often < 0.2). This points out the complexity of these geological samples and strongly suggests more efforts should be put into to acquire more relevant information. Second, the correlation between the selenium Kd values and the content of iron oxide (R-square 0.110) is much higher than that between the CEC of these granite samples (R-square 0.001). This clearly indicates that the minerals that

  8. Determination of Pu isotopic composition and 241Am by high resolution gamma spectrometry on solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Arnab; Paul, Sumana; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Tomar, Bhupendra S.

    2011-08-01

    The present report gives a detailed account of the development of non-destructive assay technique using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (HRGS) for determination of plutonium (Pu) isotopic composition and the 241 Am content in solid Pu samples. Energy range 120-420 keV was used in this study. The methodology involves in situ relative efficiency calibration during the measurement process itself, to reduce the errors and increase the reliability of the method. Twenty solid Pu samples of power reactor and research reactor grade were analyzed by this method and the results were compared with those obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the final results depends strongly upon the accuracy of the available nuclear data (decay constant, gamma abundance etc.). MATLAB based programme was written to perform the analysis. A counting time of 4 hour was chosen for achieving good statistics on the results for samples having 100-200 mg of Pu. The attainable accuracy is found to be 0.5-1% for the fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu + 241 Pu) and 5-10% for 241 Am content. (author)

  9. Variable Sampling Composite Observer Based Frequency Locked Loop and its Application in Grid Connected System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARUN, K.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified digital signal processing procedure is described for the on-line estimation of DC, fundamental and harmonics of periodic signal. A frequency locked loop (FLL incorporated within the parallel structure of observers is proposed to accommodate a wide range of frequency drift. The error in frequency generated under drifting frequencies has been used for changing the sampling frequency of the composite observer, so that the number of samples per cycle of the periodic waveform remains constant. A standard coupled oscillator with automatic gain control is used as numerically controlled oscillator (NCO to generate the enabling pulses for the digital observer. The NCO gives an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency making it suitable for power quality applications. Another observer with DC and second harmonic blocks in the feedback path act as filter and reduces the double frequency content. A systematic study of the FLL is done and a method has been proposed to design the controller. The performance of FLL is validated through simulation and experimental studies. To illustrate applications of the new FLL, estimation of individual harmonics from nonlinear load and the design of a variable sampling resonant controller, for a single phase grid-connected inverter have been presented.

  10. Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples during Torrefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Hess

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction tests on miscanthus and white oak sawdust were conducted in a bubbling sand bed reactor to see the effect of temperature and residence time on the chemical composition. Process conditions for miscanthus and white oak sawdust were 250–350 °C for 30–120 min and 220–270 °C for 30 min, respectively. Torrefaction of miscanthus at 250 °C and a residence time of 30 min resulted in a significant decrease in moisture—about 82.68%—but the other components—hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and volatiles—changed only marginally. Increasing torrefaction temperatures to 350 °C with a residence time of 120 min further reduced the moisture content to 0.54%, with a significant decrease in the hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatiles by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. Regression equations developed for the moisture, hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatile content of the samples with respect to torrefaction temperature and time have adequately described the changes in chemical composition based on R2 values of >0.82. Surface plots based on the regression equation indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 280–350 °C with residence times of 30–120 min can help reduce moisture, nitrogen, and volatile content from 1.13% to 0.6%, 0.27% to 0.23%, and 79% to 23%, with respect to initial values. Trends of chemical compositional changes in white oak sawdust are similar to miscanthus. Torrefaction temperatures of 270 °C and a 30 min residence time reduced the moisture, volatiles, hydrogen, and nitrogen content by about 79%, 17.88%, 20%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas the carbon content increased by about 3.5%.

  11. Composition of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolic and its phytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Lima, Carolina A; Negri, Giuseppina; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Mayworm, Marco A S

    2015-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous material produced by honeybees, containing mainly beeswax and plant material. Despite the wide spectrum of biological activity of propolis, to our knowledge no studies have been carried out about phytotoxic properties of Brazilian propolis and its constituents. The aims of this study were to analyze the chemical composition and to evaluate the phytotoxic activity of the volatile fraction of a sample of Brazilian green propolis. Main constituents are the phenylpropanoid 3-prenylcinnamic acid allyl ester (26.3%) and the sesquiterpene spathulenol (23.4%). Several other sesquiterpenes and phenylpropanoids, in addition to linalool and α-terpineol (monoterpenes), were also detected. The activity of solutions of the volatile fraction at 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1% was tested on lettuce seeds and seedlings. The solution at 1% inhibited completely the seed germination and solutions at 0.1 and 0.5% reduced the germination rate index. The solution at 0.5% reduced the growth of the hypocotyl-radicle axis and the development of the cotyledon leaf. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction of this Brazilian green propolis is different from those previously described, and these results may contribute to a better understanding about the chemical variations in propolis. The volatile fraction of Brazilian green propolis influences both germination of seed lettuce and the growth of its seedlings, showing an phytotoxic potential. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Municipal solid waste composition: Sampling methodology, statistical analyses, and case study evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Jensen, Morten Bang; Götze, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Sound waste management and optimisation of resource recovery require reliable data on solid waste generation and composition. In the absence of standardised and commonly accepted waste characterisation methodologies, various approaches have been reported in literature. This limits both...... comparability and applicability of the results. In this study, a waste sampling and sorting methodology for efficient and statistically robust characterisation of solid waste was introduced. The methodology was applied to residual waste collected from 1442 households distributed among 10 individual sub......-areas in three Danish municipalities (both single and multi-family house areas). In total 17 tonnes of waste were sorted into 10-50 waste fractions, organised according to a three-level (tiered approach) facilitating,comparison of the waste data between individual sub-areas with different fractionation (waste...

  13. Pesticide residues in individual versus composite samples of apples after fine or coarse spray quality application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette E.; Wenneker, Marcel; Withagen, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    . None of the results for the pesticides residues measured in individual apples exceeded the EU Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). However, there was a large variation in the residues levels in the apples, with levels from 0.01 to 1.4 mg kg−1 for captan, the pesticide with the highest variation, and from 0.......01 to 0.2 mg kg−1 for pyraclostrobin, the pesticide with the lowest variation. Residues of fenoxycarb and indoxacarb were only found in a few apples, probably due to the early application time of these two compounds. The evaluation of the effect of spray quality did not show any major difference between......In this study, field trials on fine and coarse spray quality application of pesticides on apples were performed. The main objectives were to study the variation of pesticide residue levels in individual fruits versus composite samples, and the effect of standard fine spray quality application...

  14. Cleaning spectroscopic samples of stars in nearby dwarf galaxies : The use of the nIR Mg I line to weed out Milky Way contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Starkenburg, E.

    Dwarf galaxies provide insight into the processes of star formation and chemical enrichment at the low end of the galaxy mass function, as well as into the clustering of dark matter on small scales. In studies of Local Group dwarf galaxies, spectroscopic samples of individual stars are used to

  15. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  16. Determining the amount of Br, Na and K in six wheat samples with neutron activation analysis (NAA) method in Arak, I.R. Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Pourimani; Khatoon Abasnejad; Khadijeh Ghanbarzadeh; Mohammad Reza Zare; Mahdi Kamali

    2013-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the trace elemental concentrations in wheat and its products is of great importance from a nutritional point of view. In this study, six wheat samples were prepared from the agriculture research center of Arak named Sardari, Amir, MV-17, Batava, Karaj-2 and Alvand; they were analyzed by neutron activation method (NAA). In this method, Isfahan miniature reactor as a neutron source and relative NAA method has been used as the analysis type. In this design in order to record gamma spectrum the MCA system and high purity germanium detector were used. Finally, the concentration of the trace elements such as Br, K and Na value was determined for the Sardari, Amir, Alvand, MV-17, Batava, Karaj-2 wheat samples. The average concentration of trace elements in all wheat samples in the studied area are 2.41(0.8597-6.1175) mg kg -1 for Br, 13.42(8.7063-24.696) mg kg -1 for Na and 463.30(434.22-505.45) mg kg -1 for K, respectively. These were compared with other reports results. This study has been conducted as the first time for this region. (author)

  17. Remote control air sampling and fast chemical analysis of the composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuczka, A; Golisz, T

    1981-01-01

    In 1979 the Central mine rescue station in Bytom (Poland) developed and introduced into use a new method of remote control air and gas (from fires) sampling and swift chemical analysis of the samples' composition. The device in this method includes: a probe (situated beyond the fire detector directly in the control zone), thick-walled elastic hose, direr, piston pump, rotameter, chromatograph and minicomputer. The basic technical data included in the set: the capacity of the pump 8 1/min, 2.5 kg mass. run on 12 V current (built at the Main Mining Affairs Inst. in Poland); the chromatograph is VARIAN 1420-10 (USA produced),the working gas is helium (balloon volume 40 1), feed--alternating 220V, capacity--1.5 kW, time for measuring gas from fires-- 15 to 20 min (as apposed to the 1.5h spent before when the SRC device was being used) at an accuracy of /sup + -/ 0.05% (volume); the chromatograph works with a mini-computer (model CDS-111C) with a 20 kg mass.and a size of 16 x 46 x 56 cm. As tests in Moszczenica coal mines, where a fire in 504/2 occurred, showed (the chromatograph was located 750m from the probe for burning gases), the method proved to be a good one although the VARIAN 1420-10 was insufficiently reliable and the VARIAN-1400-AEROGRAF proved to be better.

  18. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  19. Comparison of individual, pooled, and composite fecal sampling methods for detection of Salmonella on U.S. dairy operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella for individual, pooled, and composite fecal samples and to compare culture results from each sample type for determining herd Salmonella infection status and identifying Salmonella serotype(s). The USDA’s National Animal Hea...

  20. UV and IR laser ablation for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.R.; Koppenaal, D.W.; Farmer, O.T.

    1993-06-01

    Laser ablation particle plume compositions are characterized using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). This study evaluates the mass response characteristics peculiar to ICP/MS detection as a function of laser fluence and frequency. Evaluation of the ICP/MS mass response allows deductions to be made concerning how representative the laser ablation produced particle plume composition is relative to the targeted sample. Using a black glass standard, elemental fractionation was observed, primarily for alkalis and other volatile elements. The extent of elemental fractionation between the target sample and the sampled plume varied significantly as a function of laser fluences and IR and UV laser frequency

  1. Elemental composition of platelets. Part I. Sampling and sample preparation of platelets for trace-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Borberg, H.; Kasperek, K.; Kiem, J.; Siegers, M.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Gross, R.

    1979-01-01

    Sampling of platelets for trace-element analysis poses special problems: obtaining adequate sample materials, achieving a sufficient cell purity, preserving viability (integrity), correcting for trapped plasma, and controlling contamination. We used a blood-cell separator for the primary isolation of platelets from blood, and differential centrifugation in natural plasma to further isolate them. The pyrimidopyrimidine RA233 was used as a stabilizer to maintain viability. 131 I-labeled human serum albumin was used to estimate trapped plasma. Contamination was controlled by using five-times-distilled water to simulate donor's blood in the system and by comparing three fractions: the serum, the first portion of the platelet-rich plasma, and the supernatant plasma after the final centrifugation. Neutron activation analysis was used for the elemental analysis. A single differential centrifugation of the platelet-rich plasma from the blood-cell separator at 400 x g for 8 min was optimum (mean mass fractions: erythrocytes/platelets < 5 mg/g and leukocytes/platelets < 20 mg/g). The trapped plasma in the wet platelet samples amounted to about 0.40 g/g. No appreciable contamination from the sampling system was found for the elements Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn. 2 figures, 3 tables

  2. Nuclear-physical methods of investigation of an element composition in samples of soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hushmurodov, Sh.; Botaev, N.

    2002-01-01

    Soil (ground) and vegetative covers of the Earth are one of the most responsive and specific parts of the biosphere with respect to pollution. A proper control after them is of fundamental importance in creating and protecting optical surrounding. Analysis of soils and plants is a necessary and important stage in the process of investigation of microelements' migration in biogeochemical cycles. For this purpose we studied some reserved terrains of Uzbekistan to reveal a level of their contamination by heavy metals, as well as to find out typical and territorial singularities in accumulation of a number of elements by soils and plants. In order to decrease an influence of systematic errors, and to obtain more precise and reliable data, we carried out the element analysis of the samples by different methods, such as gamma-activation analysis, neutron-activation analysis, X-ray spectral analysis, and X-ray fluorescent analysis. As a result of our investigations we have obtained rather great information, which can be used in future to estimate the conditions of the surrounding nature. The investigations allowed us to determine the content of about 40 elements, as well as to show that the data, obtained by different nuclear-physical methods, are in rather good agreement. A reproducibility of the results of the methods, determined in control measurements, depends on the concentration of the analyzed elements, and is equal to 10-35 %. A comparison of the obtained data allowed us to reveal some singularities in element composition of the investigated samples depending on their type and territorial factor. It has been revealed that the data, obtained by different methods, are in rather good agreement. Our investigations allowed us to find out a series of regularities and singularities in accumulation of elements in plants, as well as to show the possibility of using nuclear-physical methods in such investigations

  3. On adequacy of reference sample composition to metal oxide composition in spectral analysis by the method of sublimating additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhariya, N.F.; Turulina, O.P.

    1983-01-01

    The problem on adequacy of zirconium dioxide reference samples to analysed samples is considered. The mechanism of impurities evaporation process in the presence of the sublimating addition for elements of different nature is studied and limiting it stages have been found. It is shown that kinetic probability of impurities transfer into the form of more high-volatile compounds depending on conditions of preparing zirconium dioxide samples may not coincide with the thermodynamic one. With this connected are systematic deviations of the analytical signal value for samples of different technological prehistory

  4. Anisotropy in Bone Demineralization Revealed by Polarized Far-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Schuetz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bone material is composed of an organic matrix of collagen fibers and apatite nanoparticles. Previously, vibrational spectroscopy techniques such as infrared (IR and Raman spectroscopy have proved to be particularly useful for characterizing the two constituent organic and inorganic phases of bone. In this work, we tested the potential use of high intensity synchrotron-based far-IR radiation (50–500 cm−1 to gain new insights into structure and chemical composition of bovine fibrolamellar bone. The results from our study can be summarized in the following four points: (I compared to far-IR spectra obtained from synthetic hydroxyapatite powder, those from fibrolamellar bone showed similar peak positions, but very different peak widths; (II during stepwise demineralization of the bone samples, there was no significant change neither to far-IR peak width nor position, demonstrating that mineral dissolution occurred in a uniform manner; (III application of external loading on fully demineralized bone had no significant effect on the obtained spectra, while dehydration of samples resulted in clear differences. (IV using linear dichroism, we showed that the anisotropic structure of fibrolamellar bone is also reflected in anisotropic far-IR absorbance properties of both the organic and inorganic phases. Far-IR spectroscopy thus provides a novel way to functionally characterize bone structure and chemistry, and with further technological improvements, has the potential to become a useful clinical diagnostic tool to better assess quality of collagen-based tissues.

  5. Analysing Microbial Community Composition through Amplicon Sequencing: From Sampling to Hypothesis Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa W. Hugerth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial ecology as a scientific field is fundamentally driven by technological advance. The past decade's revolution in DNA sequencing cost and throughput has made it possible for most research groups to map microbial community composition in environments of interest. However, the computational and statistical methodology required to analyse this kind of data is often not part of the biologist training. In this review, we give a historical perspective on the use of sequencing data in microbial ecology and restate the current need for this method; but also highlight the major caveats with standard practices for handling these data, from sample collection and library preparation to statistical analysis. Further, we outline the main new analytical tools that have been developed in the past few years to bypass these caveats, as well as highlight the major requirements of common statistical practices and the extent to which they are applicable to microbial data. Besides delving into the meaning of select alpha- and beta-diversity measures, we give special consideration to techniques for finding the main drivers of community dissimilarity and for interaction network construction. While every project design has specific needs, this review should serve as a starting point for considering what options are available.

  6. Analysis of sample composition using resonant ionization and time-of-flight techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, A. de la; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the setting up of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer that uses a tunable laser to produce resonant ionization of atoms and molecules in a pulsed supersonic beam. The ability of this kind of systems to produce time resolved signals for each species present in the sample allows quantitative analysis of its composition. By using a tunable laser beam of high spectral resolution to produce ionization, studies based on the structure of the photoionization spectra obtained are possible. In the present work several isotopic species of ordinary and deuterated benzene have been studied. Special care has been dedicated to the influence of the presence of a 13C in the ring. In this way values for spectroscopic constants and isotopic shifts have been obtained. Another system based in a homemade proportional counter has been designed and used is an auxiliary system. The results obtained with it are independent of these mentioned above and compatible with them. This system is of great utility for laser wavelength tuning to produce ionization in the mass spectrometer. (Author) 98 refs

  7. Analysis of sample composition using resonant ionization and time-of-flight techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A. de la; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the setting up of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer that uses a tunable laser to produce resonant ionization of atoms and molecules in a pulsed supersonic beam. The ability of this kind of systems to produce time resolved signals for each species present in the samples allows quantitative analysis of its composition. By using a tunable laser beam of high spectral resolution to produce ionization, studies based on the structure of the photoionization spectra obtained are possible. In the present work several isotopic species of ordinary and deuterated benzene have been studies. special care has been dedicated to the influence of the presence of a ''13 C in the ring. In this way values for spectroscopic constants and isotopic shifts have been obtained. Another system based in a homemade proportional counter has been designed and used as an auxiliary system. The results obtained with it are independent of these mentioned above and compatible with them. This system is of great utility for laser wavelength tuning to produce ionization in the mass spectrometer

  8. Sample preparation technique for transmission electron microscopy anodized Al-Li-SiC metal matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Thomson, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    Along with improved mechanical properties, metal matrix composites (MMC) have a disadvantage of enhanced corrosion susceptibility in aggressive environments. Recent studies on corrosion behaviour of an Al-alloy 8090/SiC MMC, revealed considerably high corrosion rates of the MMC in near neutral solutions containing chloride ions. Anodizing is one of the potential surface treatment for the MMC to provide protective coating against corrosion. The surface and cross section of the anodized MMC can easily be observed using scanning electron microscope. The anodizing behaviour of the MMC can be understood further if the anodized cross section in examined under transmission electron microscope (TEM). However, it is relatively difficult to prepare small (3 mm diameter) electron transparent specimens of the MMC supporting an anodic film. In the present study a technique has been developed for preparing thin electron transparent specimens of the anodized MMC. This technique employed conventional ion beam thinning process but the preparation of small discs was a problem. A MMMC consisting of Al-alloy 8090 with 20 % (by weight) SiC particulate with an average size of 5 Mu m, was anodized and observed in TEM after preparing the samples using the above mentioned techniques. (author)

  9. Effect of sample matrix composition on INAA sample weights, measurement precisions, limits of detection, and optimum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Nakazawa, L.; Leslie, J.

    1984-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is extremely useful in guiding one to optimum subsequent experimental analyses of samples of all types of matrices. By taking into account the contributions to the cumulative Compton-continuum levels from all significant induced gamma-emitting radionuclides, it provides good INAA advance estimates of detectable photopeaks, measurement precisions, concentration lower limits of detection (LOD's) and optimum irradiation/decay/counting conditions - as well as of the very important maximum allowable sample size for each set of conditions calculated. The usefulness and importance of the four output parameters cited in the title are discussed using the INAA APCP outputs for NBS SRM-1632 Coal as the example

  10. Quantitative analysis of detailed lignin monomer composition by pyrolysis-gas chromatography combined with preliminary acetylation of the samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, T; Ona, T; Yokoi, H; Ishida, Y; Ohtani, H; Tsuge, S

    2001-11-15

    Detailed quantitative analysis of lignin monomer composition comprising p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohol and p-coumaraldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and sinapaldehyde in plant has not been studied from every point mainly because of artifact formation during the lignin isolation procedure, partial loss of the lignin components inherent in the chemical degradative methods, and difficulty in the explanation of the complex spectra generally observed for the lignin components. Here we propose a new method to quantify lignin monomer composition in detail by pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) using acetylated lignin samples. The lignin acetylation procedure would contribute to prevent secondary formation of cinnamaldehydes from the corresponding alcohol forms during pyrolysis, which are otherwise unavoidable in conventional Py-GC process to some extent. On the basis of the characteristic peaks on the pyrograms of the acetylated sample, lignin monomer compositions in various dehydrogenative polymers (DHP) as lignin model compounds were determined, taking even minor components such as cinnamaldehydes into consideration. The observed compositions by Py-GC were in good agreement with the supplied lignin monomer contents on DHP synthesis. The new Py-GC method combined with sample preacetylation allowed us an accurate quantitative analysis of detailed lignin monomer composition using a microgram order of extractive-free plant samples.

  11. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  12. Background estimation in short-wave region during determination of total sample composition by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, V.A.; Kordyukov, S.V.; Petrov, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Method of background estimation in short-wave spectral region during determination of total sample composition by X-ray fluorescence method is described. 13 types of different rocks with considerable variations of base composition and Zr, Nb, Th, U content below 7x10 -3 % are investigated. The suggested method of background accounting provides for a less statistical error of the background estimation than direct isolated measurement and reliability of its determination in a short-wave region independent on the sample base. Possibilities of suggested method for artificial mixtures conforming by the content of main component to technological concemtrates - niobium, zirconium, tantalum are estimated

  13. Composition analyses of size-resolved aerosol samples taken from aircraft downwind of Kuwait, Spring 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, T.A.; Wilkinson, K. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schnell, R. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1992-09-20

    Analyses are reported for eight aerosol samples taken from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Electra typically 200 to 250 km downwind of Kuwait between May 19 and June 1, 1991. Aerosols were separated into fine (D{sub p} < 2.5 {mu}m) and coarse (2.5 < D{sub p} 10 {mu}m) particles for optical, gravimetric, X ray and nuclear analyses, yielding information on the morphology, mass, and composition of aerosols downwind of Kuwait. The mass of coarse aerosols ranged between 60 and 1971 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and, while dominated by soil derived aerosols, contained considerable content of sulfates and salt (NaCl) and soot in the form of fluffy agglomerates. The mass of fine aerosols varied between 70 and 785 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, of which about 70% was accounted for via compositional analyses performed in vacuum. While most components varied greatly from flight to flight, organic matter and fine soils each accounted for about 1/4 of the fine mass, while salt and sulfates contributed about 10% and 7%, respectively. The Cl/S ratios were remarkably constant, 2.4 {+-} 1.2 for coarse particles and 2.0 {+-} 0.2 for fine particles, with one flight deleted in each case. Vanadium, when observed, ranged from 9 to 27 ng/m{sup 3}, while nickel ranged from 5 to 25 ng/m{sup 3}. In fact, fine sulfates, vanadium, and nickel occurred in levels typical of Los Angeles, California, during summer 1986. The V/Ni ratio, 1.7 {+-} 0.4, was very similar to the ratios measured in fine particles from combusted Kuwaiti oil, 1.4 {+-} 0.9. Bromine, copper, zinc, and arsenic/lead were also observed at levels between 2 and 190 ng/m{sup 3}. The presence of massive amounts of fine, typically alkaline soils in the Kuwaiti smoke plumes significantly modified their behavior and probably mitigated their impacts, locally and globally. 16 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. Development of a portable mass spectrometric system for determination of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples using fluorine volatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loge, G.

    1994-09-01

    Using hardware and materials supplied by LANL, a prototype quadrupole mass spectrometer system designed for portable field analysis of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples was assembled and tested. The system contained the capability for fluorine volatilization of solid uranium samples with gas introduction, which was successfully tested and demonstrated using 100 mg samples of U3O8. Determination of precision and accuracy for measuring isotopic composition was performed using isotopic standards. Use with soil samples containing uranium were also attempted. Silicates in the soil forming SiF4 were found to be a kinetic bottleneck to the formation of UF6. This could be avoided by performing some sort of chemical separation as a pre-treatment step, which was demonstrated using nitric acid.

  15. Metal retention in human transferrin: consequences of solvent composition in analytical sample preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, C Derrick; Randunu, K Manoj; Brumaghim, Julia L; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2011-10-01

    The analysis of metal-binding proteins requires careful sample manipulation to ensure that the metal-protein complex remains in its native state and the metal retention is preserved during sample preparation or analysis. Chemical analysis for the metal content in proteins typically involves some type of liquid chromatography/electrophoresis separation step coupled with an atomic (i.e., inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy or -mass spectrometry) or molecular (i.e., electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) analysis step that requires altered-solvent introduction techniques. UV-VIS absorbance is employed here to monitor the iron content in human holo-transferrin (Tf) under various solvent conditions, changing polarity, pH, ionic strength, and the ionic and hydrophobic environment of the protein. Iron loading percentages (i.e. 100% loading equates to 2 Fe(3+):1 Tf) were quantitatively determined to evaluate the effect of solvent composition on the retention of Fe(3+) in Tf. Maximum retention of Fe(3+) was found in buffered (20 mM Tris) solutions (96 ± 1%). Exposure to organic solvents and deionized H(2)O caused release of ~23-36% of the Fe(3+) from the binding pocket(s) at physiological pH (7.4). Salt concentrations similar to separation conditions used for ion exchange had little to no effect on Fe(3+) retention in holo-Tf. Unsurprisingly, changes in ionic strength caused by additions of guanidine HCl (0-10 M) to holo-Tf resulted in unfolding of the protein and loss of Fe(3+) from Tf; however, denaturing and metal loss was found not to be an instantaneous process for additions of 1-5 M guanidinium to Tf. In contrast, complete denaturing and loss of Fe(3+) was instantaneous with ≥6 M additions of guanidinium, and denaturing and loss of iron from Tf occurred in parallel proportions. Changes to the hydrophobicity of Tf (via addition of 0-14 M urea) had less effect on denaturing and release of Fe(3+) from the Tf binding pocket compared to changes

  16. Passive Sampling to Capture the Spatial Variability of Coarse Particles by Composition in Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive samplers deployed at 25 sites for three week-long intervals were used to characterize spatial variability in the mass and composition of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in Cleveland, OH in summer 2008. The size and composition of individual particles deter...

  17. Self-reference and random sampling approach for label-free identification of DNA composition using plasmonic nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lindsay M; Pang, Lin; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2018-05-09

    The analysis of DNA has led to revolutionary advancements in the fields of medical diagnostics, genomics, prenatal screening, and forensic science, with the global DNA testing market expected to reach revenues of USD 10.04 billion per year by 2020. However, the current methods for DNA analysis remain dependent on the necessity for fluorophores or conjugated proteins, leading to high costs associated with consumable materials and manual labor. Here, we demonstrate a potential label-free DNA composition detection method using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in which we identify the composition of cytosine and adenine within single strands of DNA. This approach depends on the fact that there is one phosphate backbone per nucleotide, which we use as a reference to compensate for systematic measurement variations. We utilize plasmonic nanomaterials with random Raman sampling to perform label-free detection of the nucleotide composition within DNA strands, generating a calibration curve from standard samples of DNA and demonstrating the capability of resolving the nucleotide composition. The work represents an innovative way for detection of the DNA composition within DNA strands without the necessity of attached labels, offering a highly sensitive and reproducible method that factors in random sampling to minimize error.

  18. Infrared (IR) photon-sensitive spectromicroscopy in a cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2016-06-14

    A system designed to suppress thermal radiation background and to allow IR single-photon sensitive spectromicroscopy of small samples by using both absorption, reflection, and emission/luminescence measurements. The system in one embodiment includes: a light source; a plurality of cold mirrors configured to direct light along a beam path; a cold or warm sample holder in the beam path; windows of sample holder (or whole sample holder) are transparent in a spectral region of interest, so they do not emit thermal radiation in the same spectral region of interest; a cold monochromator or other cold spectral device configured to direct a selected fraction of light onto a cold detector; a system of cold apertures and shields positioned along the beam path to prevent unwanted thermal radiation from arriving at the cold monochromator and/or the detector; a plurality of optical, IR and microwave filters positioned along the beam path and configured to adjust a spectral composition of light incident upon the sample under investigation and/or on the detector; a refrigerator configured to maintain the detector at a temperature below 1.0K; and an enclosure configured to: thermally insulate the light source, the plurality of mirrors, the sample holder, the cold monochromator and the refrigerator.

  19. Development of a polydimethylsiloxane-thymol/nitroprusside composite based sensor involving thymol derivatization for ammonium monitoring in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Blanco, M C; Jornet-Martínez, N; Moliner-Martínez, Y; Molins-Legua, C; Herráez-Hernández, R; Verdú Andrés, J; Campins-Falcó, P

    2015-01-15

    This report describes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-thymol/nitroprusside delivery composite sensor for direct monitoring of ammonium in environmental water samples. The sensor is based on a PDMS support that contains the Berthelot's reaction reagents. To prepare the PDMS-thymol/nitroprusside composite discs, thymol and nitroprusside have been encapsulated in the PDMS matrix, forming a reagent release support which significantly simplifies the analytical measurements, since it avoids the need to prepare derivatizing reagents and sample handling is reduced to the sampling step. When, the PDMS-thymol/nitroprusside composite was introduced in water samples spontaneous release of the chromophore and catalyst was produced, and the derivatization reaction took place to form the indothymol blue. Thus, qualitative analysis of NH4(+) could be carried out by visual inspection, but also, it can be quantified by measuring the absorbance at 690 nm. These portable devices provided good sensitivity (LODdetection of ammonium. The PDMS-NH4(+) sensor has been successfully applied to determine ammonium in water samples and in the aqueous extracts of particulate matter PM10 samples. Moreover, the reliability of the method for qualitative analysis has been demonstrated. Finally, the advantages of the PDMS-NH4(+) sensor have been examined by comparing some analytical and complementary characteristics with the properties of well-established ammonium determination methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sample-length dependence of the critical current of slightly and significantly bent-damaged Bi2223 superconducting composite tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S; Fujimoto, M; Okuda, H; Oh, S S; Ha, D W

    2007-01-01

    The local critical current along a sample length is different from position to position in a long sample, especially when the sample is damaged by externally applied strain. In the present work, we attempted to reveal the relation of the distribution of the local critical current to overall critical current and the sample-length dependence of critical current for slightly and significantly damaged Bi2223 composite tape samples. In the experiment, 48 cm long Bi2223 composite tape samples, composed of 48 local elements with a length of 1 cm and 8 parts with a length 6 cm, were bent by 0.37 and 1.0% to cause slight and significant damage, respectively. The V-I curve, critical current (1 μV cm -1 criterion) and n value were measured for the overall sample as well as for the local elements and parts. It was found that the critical current distributions of the 1 cm elements at 0.37 and 1.0% bending strains are described by the three-parameter- and bimodal Weibull distribution functions, respectively. The critical current of a long sample at both bending strains could be described well by substituting the distributed critical current and n value of the short elements into the series circuit model for voltage generation. Also the measured relation of average critical current to sample length could be reproduced well in the computer by a Monte Carlo simulation method. It was shown that the critical current and n value decrease with increasing sample length at both bending strains. The extent of the decrease in critical current with sample length is dependent on the criterion of the critical current; the critical current decreases only slightly under the 1 μV cm -1 criterion which is not damage-sensitive, while it decreases greatly with increasing sample length under damage-sensitive criteria such as the 1 μV one

  1. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues; Das TApIR Experiment IR-Absorptionsspektren fluessiger Wasserstoffisotopologe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-11-27

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  2. Lipid hydrolysis products affect the composition of microbiota isolated from infant fecal samples after in vitro fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Licht, Tine Rask; Hellgren, Lars

    ileum and in colon can be expected to selectively modulate the growth rate and hereby the composition of the microbiota. In earlier studies, we have shown that this concentration is dependent on the type of emulsification of the triglycerides, which deviates between breast milk and formula milk. Here......, we have determined effects of selected combinations of FFA and MAG on microbial composition during a 24-hour anaerobic in vitro fermentation in microbiota obtained from infant fecal samples (age 2-5 months). PCR-based quantification of 11 different bacterial taxa revealed that the growth...

  3. Segmentation of 9Cr Steel Samples based on Composition and Mechanical Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Narayanan; Maddali, Siddharth; Vyacheslav, Romanov; Hawk, Jeffrey

    Data mining approaches were used to look at composition-process-property linkage in 9Cr steel. We present results of cluster identification using 7 principal composition elements and analyze its significance with respect to mechanical tensile properties. Data set comprises 82 compositional variants of 9Cr steel whose Cr weight fraction ranges 8-13%. The alloys underwent heat treatments (homogenization, normalization, and 1 to 3 tempering cycles) and were tested for tensile and creep properties at room temperature and elevated temperatures (427/800 oC median/max). In this study, alloys were partitioned into groups, and their mechanical properties were analyzed for significant differences across groups. Normalized weight fractions were used to delineate groups of alloys. Partitioning Around Medoids (PAM) clustering was used, with dissimilarities instead of distance metrics. Dataset of 21 chemical components, with Fe being the majority component, followed by Cr and C. Major contributors of composition to PAM clustering were obtained from PCA scores. Mean ultimate tensile strength of segmented groups of alloys was analyzed with ANOVA & Tukey HSD tests to identify the final 3 groups based on composition and mechanical property.

  4. Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasen, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter discusses the roles of composite laminates and aggregates in cryogenic technology. Filamentary-reinforced composites are emphasized because they are the most widely used composite materials. Topics considered include composite systems and terminology, design and fabrication, composite failure, high-pressure reinforced plastic laminates, low-pressure reinforced plastics, reinforced metals, selectively reinforced structures, the effect of cryogenic temperatures, woven-fabric and random-mat composites, uniaxial fiber-reinforced composites, composite joints in cryogenic structures, joining techniques at room temperature, radiation effects, testing laminates at cryogenic temperatures, static and cyclic tensile testing, static and cyclic compression testing, interlaminar shear testing, secondary property tests, and concrete aggregates. It is suggested that cryogenic composite technology would benefit from the development of a fracture mechanics model for predicting the fitness-for-purpose of polymer-matrix composite structures

  5. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  6. Estimating Accuracy of Land-Cover Composition From Two-Stage Clustering Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), ...

  7. Oral Samples as Non-Invasive Proxies for Assessing the Composition of the Rumen Microbial Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Tapio

    Full Text Available Microbial community analysis was carried out on ruminal digesta obtained directly via rumen fistula and buccal fluid, regurgitated digesta (bolus and faeces of dairy cattle to assess if non-invasive samples could be used as proxies for ruminal digesta. Samples were collected from five cows receiving grass silage based diets containing no additional lipid or four different lipid supplements in a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Extracted DNA was analysed by qPCR and by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA genes or the fungal ITS1 amplicons. Faeces contained few protozoa, and bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were substantially different to ruminal digesta. Buccal and bolus samples gave much more similar profiles to ruminal digesta, although fewer archaea were detected in buccal and bolus samples. Bolus samples overall were most similar to ruminal samples. The differences between both buccal and bolus samples and ruminal digesta were consistent across all treatments. It can be concluded that either proxy sample type could be used as a predictor of the rumen microbial community, thereby enabling more convenient large-scale animal sampling for phenotyping and possible use in future animal breeding programs aimed at selecting cattle with a lower environmental footprint.

  8. Nanostructured and nanolayer coatings based on nitrides of the metals structure study and structure and composition standard samples set development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Chabina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches by methods of analytical microscopy and the x-ray analysis have allowed to develop a set of standard samples of composition and structure of the strengthening nanostructured and nanolayer coatings for control of the strengthening nanostructured and nanolayer coatings based on nitrides of the metals used to protect critical parts of the compressor of the gas turbine engine from dust erosion, corrosion and oxidation.

  9. Composition calculations by the KARATE code system for the spent-fuel samples from the Novovoronezh reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hordosy, G.

    2006-01-01

    KARATE is a code system developed in KFKI AERI. It is routinely used for core calculation. Its depletion module are now tested against the radiochemical measurements of spent fuel samples from the Novovoronezh Unit IV, performed in RIAR, Dimitrovgrad. Due to the insufficient knowledge of operational history of the unit, the irradiation history of the samples was taken from formerly published Russian calculations. The calculation of isotopic composition was performed by the MULTICEL module of program system. The agreement between the calculated and measured values of the concentration of the most important actinides and fission products is investigated (Authors)

  10. Detection of dopamine in non-treated urine samples using glassy carbon electrodes modified with PAMAM dendrimer-Pt composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.G.; Armendariz, G.M.E.; Godinez, Luis A.; Torres, J.; Sepulveda-Guzman, S.; Bustos, E.

    2011-01-01

    Composites of hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers, generation 4.0 (64 peripheral OH groups) containing Pt nanoparticles were synthesized at different reaction times using a microwave reactor. The synthetic procedure resulted in dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles of Pt (DENs-Pt) of 1.53 ± 0.17 nm diameter that was calculated from transmission electron microscopy, and the Pt nanoparticles had single crystal plane in (1 1 1) orientation determinate by selective area diffraction. Each composite was electrochemically immobilized on a pre-functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode that was incorporated as a flow injection amperometric (FIA) detector, for the selective detection and quantification of dopamine (DA) in untreated urine samples. Comparison of the analytical performance of the novel electrochemical detector revealed that the DENs-Pt modified GC electrode with the composite synthesized for 30 min in the microwave reactor, showed the best response for the detection of DA in samples of non-treated urine, being the detection and quantification limits smaller (19 and 9 ppb, respectively) than those corresponding to the naked a GC electrode (846 and 423 ppb, respectively) using the FIA detector. In addition, it was found that this electroanalytical approach suffers minimal matrix effects that arise in the analysis of DA in untreated samples of urine.

  11. Detection of dopamine in non-treated urine samples using glassy carbon electrodes modified with PAMAM dendrimer-Pt composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.G. [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, Universidad de Guanajuato, Cerro de la Venada S/N Col. Pueblito de Rocha, 36040 Guanajuato, Gto (Mexico); Armendariz, G.M.E.; Godinez, Luis A.; Torres, J. [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico); Sepulveda-Guzman, S. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, 66451 Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Bustos, E., E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2011-09-01

    Composites of hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers, generation 4.0 (64 peripheral OH groups) containing Pt nanoparticles were synthesized at different reaction times using a microwave reactor. The synthetic procedure resulted in dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles of Pt (DENs-Pt) of 1.53 {+-} 0.17 nm diameter that was calculated from transmission electron microscopy, and the Pt nanoparticles had single crystal plane in (1 1 1) orientation determinate by selective area diffraction. Each composite was electrochemically immobilized on a pre-functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode that was incorporated as a flow injection amperometric (FIA) detector, for the selective detection and quantification of dopamine (DA) in untreated urine samples. Comparison of the analytical performance of the novel electrochemical detector revealed that the DENs-Pt modified GC electrode with the composite synthesized for 30 min in the microwave reactor, showed the best response for the detection of DA in samples of non-treated urine, being the detection and quantification limits smaller (19 and 9 ppb, respectively) than those corresponding to the naked a GC electrode (846 and 423 ppb, respectively) using the FIA detector. In addition, it was found that this electroanalytical approach suffers minimal matrix effects that arise in the analysis of DA in untreated samples of urine.

  12. The research of anti corrosive properties of various compositions on samples of standard metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghazada Y.J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this proceeding. the compositions of the T-30 turbine oil with liquid rubber. Co. Ni. Zn. Mg and Ba salts of the natural petroleum acids (NPA boiling in the range 220–340°C and nitro compounds which are produced on the basis of C14H28 α-olefins have been investigated in different ratio and contents as metalworking fluids (MWF. The physical and chemical properties of the produced compositions have been studied. and the morphology of inhibited carbon steel surface was analyzed and characterized by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. The effect of the temperature on the inhibition efficiency and thermodynamic parameters have also been reported. The thermal analyzer was used for the thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA of the prepared MWF. The experiments have been operated with different concentrations of the inhibitor on the steel plates in condensation and environment phases in the experiment chamber.

  13. Direct Analysis of Samples of Various Origin and Composition Using Specific Types of Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byliński, Hubert; Gębicki, Jacek; Dymerski, Tomasz; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-07-04

    One of the major sources of error that occur during chemical analysis utilizing the more conventional and established analytical techniques is the possibility of losing part of the analytes during the sample preparation stage. Unfortunately, this sample preparation stage is required to improve analytical sensitivity and precision. Direct techniques have helped to shorten or even bypass the sample preparation stage; and in this review, we comment of some of the new direct techniques that are mass-spectrometry based. The study presents information about the measurement techniques using mass spectrometry, which allow direct sample analysis, without sample preparation or limiting some pre-concentration steps. MALDI - MS, PTR - MS, SIFT - MS, DESI - MS techniques are discussed. These solutions have numerous applications in different fields of human activity due to their interesting properties. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are presented. The trends in development of direct analysis using the aforementioned techniques are also presented.

  14. Multi-element composition of historical lichen collections and bark samples, indicators of changing atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, O. W.; Chimonides, P. D. J.; Jeffries, T. E.; Jones, G. C.; Rusu, A.-M.; Read, H.

    Thirty six element signatures were compared in historical Parmelia sulcata samples from the Natural History Museum herbarium collected over the period 1797-1967 with those recorded in the same species and tree bark sampled in 2000 from Burnham Beeches, lying 40 km west of London. Nineteen elements reached highest concentrations in herbarium samples, consistent with a pollution legacy and dust contamination in the herbarium. Healthy Parmelia sampled east and down-wind of London at a farm during peak SO 2 emissions in 1967 contained highest V, Ni, Zn, Cd, Se, Ge contents, supporting derivation from fuel combustion; the same sample was previously determined as having a low δ34S and high S and N contents. Lowest V, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, Ba, Pb, Mo, Sb, Li, B, Cs, U, Th, Ga contents were recorded in a sample with a high δ34S and low S content collected in 1887 from a remote region from Ross-shire, Scotland. Se and Cd enrichment, never-the-less suggest a transboundary pollution influence. Lichen Pb concentrations from Burnham Beeches were amongst the lowest recorded in spite of lichens being collected close to roads. Herbarium samples help interpret changes in element deposition where few data exist, in spite of dust contamination.

  15. Correlation between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone samples in ancient human burials: perspectives in paleonutritional studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, L.; Di Tota, G.; Bondioli, L.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The authors describe the results of an assay based on the comparison between chemical composition of dental calculus and bone respectively obtained from teeth and bones of ancient skeletons. The chemical analysis has been performed by synchrotron light. The concentrations of the following oligoelements having paleonutritional correlations were analysed: Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Sr and Ca. The authors demonstrate that- in a given individual the concentration of such elements in the bone sample were in the range of those obtained for the same elements in the sample of dental calculus. Such correspondence suggests that the chemical analysis of dental calculus may give paleonutritional indications analogous to those deriving from the analysis of bone samples. The authors underline also that the use of dental calculus has a distinct advantage over the use of bone samples, since it may allow a diachronic investigation. In fact, dental calculus typically presents a concentric pattern of growth, and the chemical composition of each layer may vary in accordance with temporal dietary variations. This is not the case for bone. This fact is the theoretical basis for the possible future development of techniques directed to the reconstruction of variations in the dietary habits of ancient individuals, possibly in relation to environmental seasonal changes

  16. 226Ra and 228Ra in scale and sludge samples and their correlation with the chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, José Marcus; da Cruz, Rosana Petinatti

    2003-01-01

    In order to contribute to a future waste management policy related to the presence of technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the Brazilian petroleum industry, the present work presents the chemical composition and the (226)Ra and (228)Ra content of sludge and scales generated during the offshore E and P petroleum activities in the Campos Basin, the primary offshore oil production region in Brazil. The (226)Ra and (228)Ra content on 36 sludge and scales samples were determined by gamma-spectrometry. Based on X-ray diffractometry results, a chemical analysis schema for these samples was developed. The results have shown that scales are 75% barium and strontium sulfates, with a mean (226)Ra and (228)Ra content of 106 kBq kg(-1) and 78 kBq kg(-1), respectively. On the other hand, sludge samples have a much more complex chemical composition than the scales. The (226)Ra and (228)Ra content in sludge also varies much more than the content observed in the scales samples and ranged from 0.36 to 367 kBq kg(-1) and 0.25 to 343 kBq kg(-1), respectively.

  17. Iron oxide functionalized graphene nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of chemical warfare agents from aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthakindi, Sridhar; Purohit, Ajay; Singh, Varoon; Tak, Vijay; Goud, D Raghavender; Dubey, D K; Pardasani, Deepak

    2015-05-15

    Present study deals with the preparation and evaluation of graphene based magnetic nano-composite for dispersive solid phase extraction of Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) relevant chemicals from aqueous samples. Nano-composite, Fe3O4@SiO2-G was synthesized by covalently bonding silica coated Fe3O4 onto the graphene sheets. Nerve agents (NA), Sulfur mustard (SM) and their non-toxic environmental markers were the target analytes. Extraction parameters like amount of sorbent, extraction time and desorption conditions were optimized. Dispersion of 20 milligram of sorbent in 200mL of water sample for 20min. followed by methanol/chloroform extraction produced average to good recoveries (27-94%) of targeted analytes. Recoveries of real agents exhibited great dependency upon sample pH and ionic strength. Sarin produced maximum recovery under mild acidic conditions (56% at pH 5) while VX demanded alkaline media (83% at pH 9). Salts presence in the aqueous samples was found to be advantageous, raising the recoveries to as high as 94% for SM. Excellent limits of detection (LOD) for sulphur mustard and VX (0.11ngmL(-1) and 0.19ngmL(-1) respectively) proved the utility of the developed method for the off-site analysis of CWC relevant chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. I. Sampling technique. Use of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egner, H; Eriksson, E; Emanuelsson, A

    1947-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of atmospheric precipitations in Sweden, a technique using ion exchange resins has been developed. The possibilities of nitrate reduction, and ammonia losses, when the precipitation is collected in zinc gauges is stressed. Glass funnels are used, and they are effectively protected from bird droppings. The ion exchange resins so far available are quite serviceable but show some deficiencies as to stability, and activity in alkaline solutions. New resins, which are not yet available, seem to offer definite advantages.

  19. Comparison of POCIS passive samplers vs. composite water sampling: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Justine; Dumoulin, David; Howsam, Michael; Mondamert, Leslie; Goossens, Jean-François; Prygiel, Jean; Billon, Gabriel

    2017-12-31

    The relevance of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) was evaluated for the assessment of concentrations of 46 pesticides and 19 pharmaceuticals in a small, peri-urban river with multi-origin inputs. Throughout the period of POCIS deployment, 24h-average water samples were collected automatically, and showed the rapid temporal evolution of concentrations of several micropollutants, as well as permitting the calculation of average concentrations in the water phase for comparison with those estimated from POCIS passive samplers. In the daily water samples, cyproconazol, epoxyconazol and imidacloprid showed high temporal variations with concentrations ranging from under the limit of detection up to several hundreds of ngL -1 . Erythromycin, cyprofloxacin and iopromide also increased rapidly up to tens of ngL -1 within a few days. Conversely, atrazine, caffeine, diclofenac, and to a lesser extent carbamazepine and sucralose, were systematically present in the water samples and showed limited variation in concentrations. For most of the substances studied here, the passive samplers gave reliable average concentrations between the minimal and maximal daily concentrations during the time of deployment. For pesticides, a relatively good correlation was clearly established (R 2 =0.89) between the concentrations obtained by POCIS and those gained from average water samples. A slight underestimation of the concentration by POCIS can be attributed to inappropriate sampling rates extracted from the literature and for our system, and new values are proposed. Considering the all data set, 75% of the results indicate a relatively good agreement between the POCIS and the average water samples concentration (values of the ratio ranging between 0,33 and 3). Note further that this agreement between these concentrations remains valid considering different sampling rates extracted from the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling Well Sampled Composite Spectral Energy Distributions of Distant Galaxies via an MCMC-driven Inference Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Imad; Kriek, Mariska; Johnson, Benjamin; Conroy, Charlie

    2018-01-01

    Using a novel, MCMC-driven inference framework, we have modeled the stellar and dust emission of 32 composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs), which span from the near-ultraviolet (NUV) to far infrared (FIR). The composite SEDs were originally constructed in a previous work from the photometric catalogs of the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey, in which SEDs of individual galaxies at 0.5 MIPS 24 μm was added for each SED type, and in this work, PACS 100 μm, PACS160 μm, SPIRE 25 μm, and SPIRE 350 μm photometry have been added to extend the range of the composite SEDs into the FIR. We fit the composite SEDs with the Prospector code, which utilizes an MCMC sampling to explore the parameter space for models created by the Flexible Stellar Population Synthesis (FSPS) code, in order to investigate how specific star formation rate (sSFR), dust temperature, and other galaxy properties vary with SED type.This work is also being used to better constrain the SPS models within FSPS.

  1. Impact Localization Method for Composite Plate Based on Low Sampling Rate Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors have been increasingly used in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM in recent years. In this paper, we proposed an impact localization algorithm based on the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD and Particle Swarm Optimization-Support Vector Machine (PSO-SVM to achieve better localization accuracy for the FBG-embedded plate. In our method, EMD is used to extract the features of FBG signals, and PSO-SVM is then applied to automatically train a classification model for the impact localization. Meanwhile, an impact monitoring system for the FBG-embedded composites has been established to actually validate our algorithm. Moreover, the relationship between the localization accuracy and the distance from impact to the nearest sensor has also been studied. Results suggest that the localization accuracy keeps increasing and is satisfactory, ranging from 93.89% to 97.14%, on our experimental conditions with the decrease of the distance. This article reports an effective and easy-implementing method for FBG signal processing on SHM systems of the composites.

  2. Quantitative analysis from limited sampling: influence of the chemical composition of apatites on their resistance to irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribet, I.; Petit, J.C.; CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance

    1998-01-01

    Apatites are investigated as possible high performance radioactive waste matrices for specific actinides. In this paper, we have quantified the influence of the chemical composition of apatites on their fission-track annealing behaviour. We aimed to evaluate the capability of apatites to self-anneal high densities of radiation damages produced during disposal. The thermal annealing kinetics, at 280 deg. C, of induced fission tracks has been determined for six different apatite compositions. We show that the chemical composition of apatites is a critical parameter with respect to their annealing behaviour. A mathematical treatment of the data, based upon the methodology of optimum design of experiments, allowed the quantification of the role of substitution for two major elements, of the apatite structure (Ca, P), for chlorine and for the two groups of minor elements, actinides (U+Th) and lanthanides (La+Ce+Y), which are relevant in the nuclear waste disposal context. A high actinide content enhances the annealing of fission-tracks in apatites, which is a very favourable feature of these minerals as radioactive waste matrices. This work also points to a new strategy for the best use of information provided by geological samples. In particular, the mathematical methodology proposed here allows, first, to evaluate the 'quality' of the information obtained and, second, to improve it by a proper choice of additional samples to investigate. (authors)

  3. Analytical procedures for determining Pb and Sr isotopic compositions in water samples by ID-TIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Few articles deal with lead and strontium isotopic analysis of water samples. The aim of this study was to define the chemical procedures for Pb and Sr isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from an urban sedimentary aquifer. Thirty lead and fourteen strontium isotopic analyses were performed to test different analytical procedures. Pb and Sr isotopic ratios as well as Sr concentration did not vary using different chemical procedures. However, the Pb concentrations were very dependent on the different procedures. Therefore, the choice of the best analytical procedure was based on the Pb results, which indicated a higher reproducibility from samples that had been filtered and acidified before the evaporation, had their residues totally dissolved, and were purified by ion chromatography using the Biorad® column. Our results showed no changes in Pb ratios with the storage time.

  4. The applying of multisensory system to assessment of blood samples by composition of equilibrium gaseous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the possibility of blood sample’s assessment with the following diagnostic characteristics: "endometriosis", "fibroids", "uterine body cancer" by the signals of multisensor system. It has been found that blood samples can be reliably ranking into groups according to their diagnostic characteristics using the geometry, square of "visual prints" and the sorption effectiveness parameters max ij А.

  5. Impact of Sample Type and DNA Isolation Procedure on Genomic Inference of Microbiome Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Bergmark, Lasse; Munk, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    that in standard protocols. Based on this insight, we designed an improved DNA isolation procedure optimized for microbiome genomics that can be used for the three examined specimen types and potentially also for other biological specimens. A standard operating procedure is available from https://dx.doi.org/10......Explorations of complex microbiomes using genomics greatly enhance our understanding about their diversity, biogeography, and function. The isolation of DNA from microbiome specimens is a key prerequisite for such examinations, but challenges remain in obtaining sufficient DNA quantities required...... for certain sequencing approaches, achieving accurate genomic inference of microbiome composition, and facilitating comparability of findings across specimen types and sequencing projects. These aspects are particularly relevant for the genomics-based global surveillance of infectious agents and antimicrobial...

  6. THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND VARIOUS SAMPLES PREPARATION METHODS FOR In Vitro GAS TEST OF TWO TROPICAL FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Daryatmo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3x2 factorial experimental design was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition ofSesbania grandiflora (SG and Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC leaves and to measure the effects ofpreparation and drying methods on the in vitro gas production in the presence and absence of PEG. Thecollected samples were divided into three groups: One group was fresh samples (F. The second groupwas oven-dried at 55°C for 48h (OD and the last group was freeze-dried at –40°C for 72h (FD. Resultsshowed that the mean value of gas production from fresh SG and MEC samples were not significantlyhigher (P<0.05 than from FD and OD samples. In SG and MEC, the mean value of gas production ofFD was not significant compared to OD samples (P>0.05. Gas production from samples added withPEG were higher (P<0.05 than without PEG. In conclusion, the preparation and drying methods of feedsamples could affect the volume of gas production. The addition of PEG in SG and MEC resulted inhigher gas production volumes.

  7. The TApIR experiment. IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groessle, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the thesis is the infrared absorption spectroscopy of liquid hydrogen isotopologues with the tritium absorption infrared spectroscopy (TApIR) experiment at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). The calibration process from the sample preparation to the reference measurements are described. A further issue is the classical evaluation of FTIR absorption spectra and the extension using the rolling circle filter (RCF) including the effects on statistical and systematical errors. The impact of thermal and nuclear spin temperature on the IR absorption spectra is discussed. An empirical based modeling for the IR absorption spectra of liquid hydrogen isotopologues is performed.

  8. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  9. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Gao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  10. Review of cleaning techniques and their effects on the chemical composition of foliar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini Oliva, S.; Raitio, H.

    2003-07-01

    Chemical foliar analysis is a tool widely used to study tree nutrition and to monitor the impact and extent of air pollutants. This paper reviews a number of cleaning methods, and the effects of cleaning on foliar chemistry. Cleaning may include mechanical techniques such as the use of dry or moistened tissues, shaking, blowing, and brushing, or use various washing techniques with water or other solvents. Owing to the diversity of plant species, tissue differences, etc., there is no standard procedure for all kinds of samples. Analysis of uncleaned leaves is considered a good method for assessing the degree of air contamination because it provides an estimate of the element content of the deposits on leaf surfaces or when the analysis is aimed at the investigation of transfer of elements along the food chain. Sample cleaning is recommended in order (1) to investigate the transfer rate of chemical elements from soil to plants, (2) to qualify the washoff of dry deposition from foliage and (3) to separate superficially absorbed and biomass-incorporated elements. Since there is not a standard cleaning procedure for all kinds of samples and aims, it is advised to conduct a pilot study in order to be able to establish a cleaning procedure to provide reliable foliar data. (orig.)

  11. Bacterial Composition, Genotoxicity, and Cytotoxicity of Fecal Samples from Individuals Consuming Omnivorous or Vegetarian Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Ermanno; Prete, Roberta; Lazzi, Camilla; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Moretti, Massimo; Corsetti, Aldo; Cenci, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the composition of viable fecal bacteria and gut toxicology biomarkers of 29 healthy volunteers, who followed omnivorous, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, or vegan diets. In particular, the research was focused on the prevalence of some representative viable bacteria from the four dominant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) commonly present in human feces, in order to evaluate the relationship between microorganisms selected by the habitual dietary patterns and the potential risk due to fecal water (FW) genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, considered as biomarkers for cancer risk and protective food activity. The relative differences of viable bacteria among dietary groups were generally not statistically significant. However, compared to omnivores, lacto-ovo-vegetarians showed low levels of total anaerobes. Otherwise, vegans showed total anaerobes counts similar to those of omnivores, but with lower number of bifidobacteria and the highest levels of bacteria from the Bacteroides–Prevotella genera. FW genotoxicity of lacto-ovo-vegetarians resulted significantly lower either in relation to that of omnivores and vegans. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians also showed the lowest levels of cytotoxicity, while the highest were found for vegans. These results highlighted that lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet was particularly effective in a favorable modulation of microbial activity, thus contributing to a significant reduction of the genotoxic and cytotoxic risk in the gut. PMID:28293225

  12. Bacterial Composition, Genotoxicity, and Cytotoxicity of Fecal Samples from Individuals Consuming Omnivorous or Vegetarian Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, Ermanno; Prete, Roberta; Lazzi, Camilla; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Moretti, Massimo; Corsetti, Aldo; Cenci, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzes the composition of viable fecal bacteria and gut toxicology biomarkers of 29 healthy volunteers, who followed omnivorous, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, or vegan diets. In particular, the research was focused on the prevalence of some representative viable bacteria from the four dominant phyla (Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria) commonly present in human feces, in order to evaluate the relationship between microorganisms selected by the habitual dietary patterns and the potential risk due to fecal water (FW) genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, considered as biomarkers for cancer risk and protective food activity. The relative differences of viable bacteria among dietary groups were generally not statistically significant. However, compared to omnivores, lacto-ovo-vegetarians showed low levels of total anaerobes. Otherwise, vegans showed total anaerobes counts similar to those of omnivores, but with lower number of bifidobacteria and the highest levels of bacteria from the Bacteroides-Prevotella genera. FW genotoxicity of lacto-ovo-vegetarians resulted significantly lower either in relation to that of omnivores and vegans. Lacto-ovo-vegetarians also showed the lowest levels of cytotoxicity, while the highest were found for vegans. These results highlighted that lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet was particularly effective in a favorable modulation of microbial activity, thus contributing to a significant reduction of the genotoxic and cytotoxic risk in the gut.

  13. Comparison of elemental, nutritional, and isotopic composition of Philippine and Japanese polished rice samples for provenance validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Mendoza, Norman dS.; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Conanan, Aida P.; Nosotros, Ro-Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa), has been considered the best staple food among all cereals and is the staple food for over 3 billion people, constituting over half of the world's population (Cantral and Reeves, 2002). In this study, elemental, isotopic and proximate analyses were done on rice samples in a attempt to establish variances between Philippine and Japanese rice, which can be useful for geographical authenticity testing. Rice samples were collected in Japan and in the Philippines (market survey samples from Metro Manila, and farm harvests from Aklan province). The samples were washed, dried and ground to fine powder. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), a very sensitive non-destructive multi-element analytical technique, was used for the elemental analysis of the samples and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) was used to obtain the isotopic signatures of the samples. Proximate analysis (AOAC procedure) was used to determine nutrient aggregates. Results show that compared with the unpolished rice standard NIES CRM10b, the polished Japanese and Philippine rice sampled show reduced concentrations of elements by as much as 1/10, 1/4, 1/5 and 1/3 for Mg, Mn, K and Na, respectively. Levels of Ca and Zn are not greatly affected. Arsenic is found in all the Japanese rice tested at an average concentration of 0.103 μg/g and three out of four of the Philippine rice at an average concentration of 0.070 μg/g. Arsenic contamination may have been introduced from the fertilizer used in rice fields. Higher levels of Br are seen in two of the Philippine rice at 14 and 34 μg/g with the most probable source being the pesticide methyl bromide. The rice samples from Aklan showed inter-variety variability in composition (70 to 85 % carbohydrates, 0.5 to 3.0 % fat and 4 to 5 % protein) which makes it difficult to establish provenance in terms of proximate composition. Isotopic ratio of δ 13 C show signature that of a C3 plant with possible narrow distinguishable

  14. Identification of market bags composition for biodegradable and oxo-biodegradable samples through thermal analysis in inert and oxidizer atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finzi-Quintao, Cristiane M.; Novack, Katia M.

    2015-01-01

    Plastic films used to make market bags are based on polymers such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polypropylene, these materials require a long time to degrade in the environment. The alternative technologies of polymers have been developed to reduce the degradation time and the impact on the environment caused by the conventional materials, using pro-degrading additives or by the development biodegradable polymers. In Brazil, the laws of some municipalities require the use of biodegradable material in the production of market bags but the absence of specific surveillance policies makes its chemical composition unknown. In this paper, we analyzed 7 samples that was obtained from a a trading company and commercial market of Belo Horizonte . The samples were characterized by TGA / DTA , XRF , FTIR and MEV which allowed the identification and evaluation of the thermal behavior of the material in inert and oxidizing atmosphere. (author)

  15. Introduction to body composition assessment using the deuterium dilution technique with analysis of saliva samples by fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  16. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO_2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770 mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660 mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO_2. The ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645 mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10–160 nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25 nM (based on 3S_b/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. - Graphical abstract: A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A composite electrode was prepared using nanoparticles of ZrO_2 and MWCNTs. • The ZrO_2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE has greatly improved the voltammetry of terbutaline • The proposed electrode enabled a detection limit of 2.25 nM. • The proposed electrode exhibited good reproducibility and long

  17. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio

    2009-03-01

    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  18. Elemental Composition In Airborne Particulate Sample Of Bandung and Lembang Region In 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidayat, Achmad

    2003-01-01

    Concentration of airborne particulate of Bandung higher than that of Lembang. The PM2.5 fraction was in the range of 4,3 μg/m 3 to 21,1 μg/m 3 for Bandung area, and 2,9 μg/m 3 to 19,2 μg/m 3 for Lembang area for 24 hours sampling time. The PM10 fraction of Bandung area was in the range of 12,1 μg/m 3 to 44, 1 μg/m 3 , where a s the PM10 fraction of Lembang area was in the range of 5,2 μg/m 3 to 30,6 μg/m 3 . The data much lower than that of National ambient air quality standard for 24 hours, 65 μg/m 3 and 150 μg/m 3 for PM2.5 fraction and PM10 fraction respectively. No clear correlation either concentration of fine or coarse particulate to rainfall. For teen elements, which were Al, Br, Ca, Ce, CI, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V and Zn, were detected. The elements of Br, Ce, CI, Cr, I, Sb and Zn were enriched in fine and coarse of Bandung and Lembang samples, where as AI, Ca, Mn, Na and V were not enriched. The special element of Fe was enriched in fine particulate of Lembang, where as in particulate of Bandung was not enriched. Analysis of coarse particulate samples indicated the similar results to fine particulate except for Ce. The results of analysis explained that pollutant source of Bandung and Lembang were the same. Some elements such as Br, CI and I possibly come from organic material burning; Br and CI could be from motor vehicle; Cr, and Zn could be from paint factory; Zn and Sb could be from refuse incineration; while Ce could be from electronic factory. The calculation results indicated that enrichment factor of elements in fine particulate higher than that of coarse particulate. Furthermore the enrichment factor of element in airborne particulate of Bandung area was higher than that of airborne particulate of Lembang

  19. Dust-deficient Palomar-Green Quasars and the Diversity of AGN Intrinsic IR Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Rieke, G. H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Shi, Yong, E-mail: jianwei@email.arizona.edu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2017-02-01

    To elucidate the intrinsic broadband infrared (IR) emission properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 87 z ≲ 0.5 Palomar-Green (PG) quasars. While the Elvis AGN template with a moderate far-IR correction can reasonably match the SEDs of the AGN components in ∼60% of the sample (and is superior to alternatives such as that by Assef), it fails on two quasar populations: (1) hot-dust-deficient (HDD) quasars that show very weak emission thoroughly from the near-IR to the far-IR, and (2) warm-dust-deficient (WDD) quasars that have similar hot dust emission as normal quasars but are relatively faint in the mid- and far-IR. After building composite AGN templates for these dust-deficient quasars, we successfully fit the 0.3–500 μm SEDs of the PG sample with the appropriate AGN template, an infrared template of a star-forming galaxy, and a host galaxy stellar template. 20 HDD and 12 WDD quasars are identified from the SED decomposition, including seven ambiguous cases. Compared with normal quasars, the HDD quasars have AGNs with relatively low Eddington ratios and the fraction of WDD quasars increases with AGN luminosity. Moreover, both the HDD and WDD quasar populations show relatively stronger mid-IR silicate emission. Virtually identical SED properties are also found in some quasars from z = 0.5 to 6. We propose a conceptual model to demonstrate that the observed dust deficiency of quasars can result from a change of structures of the circumnuclear tori that can occur at any cosmic epoch.

  20. Pick a Color MARIA: Adaptive Sampling Enables the Rapid Identification of Complex Perovskite Nanocrystal Compositions with Defined Emission Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezinge, Leonard; Maceiczyk, Richard M; Lignos, Ioannis; Kovalenko, Maksym V; deMello, Andrew J

    2018-06-06

    Recent advances in the development of hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite (LHP) nanocrystals (NCs) have demonstrated their versatility and potential application in photovoltaics and as light sources through compositional tuning of optical properties. That said, due to their compositional complexity, the targeted synthesis of mixed-cation and/or mixed-halide LHP NCs still represents an immense challenge for traditional batch-scale chemistry. To address this limitation, we herein report the integration of a high-throughput segmented-flow microfluidic reactor and a self-optimizing algorithm for the synthesis of NCs with defined emission properties. The algorithm, named Multiparametric Automated Regression Kriging Interpolation and Adaptive Sampling (MARIA), iteratively computes optimal sampling points at each stage of an experimental sequence to reach a target emission peak wavelength based on spectroscopic measurements. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method through the synthesis of multinary LHP NCs, (Cs/FA)Pb(I/Br) 3 (FA = formamidinium) and (Rb/Cs/FA)Pb(I/Br) 3 NCs, using MARIA to rapidly identify reagent concentrations that yield user-defined photoluminescence peak wavelengths in the green-red spectral region. The procedure returns a robust model around a target output in far fewer measurements than systematic screening of parametric space and additionally enables the prediction of other spectral properties, such as, full-width at half-maximum and intensity, for conditions yielding NCs with similar emission peak wavelength.

  1. Sampling errors associated with soil composites used to estimate mean Ra-226 concentrations at an UMTRA remedial-action site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Baker, K.R.; Nelson, R.A.; Miller, R.H.; Miller, M.L.

    1987-07-01

    The decision whether to take additional remedial action (removal of soil) from regions contaminated by uranium mill tailings involves collecting 20 plugs of soil from each 10-m by 10-m plot in the region and analyzing a 500-g portion of the mixed soil for 226 Ra. A soil sampling study was conducted in the windblown mill-tailings flood plain area at Shiprock, New Mexico, to evaluate whether reducing the number of soil plugs to 9 would have any appreciable impact on remedial-action decisions. The results of the Shiprock study are described and used in this paper to develop a simple model of the standard deviation of 226 Ra measurements on composite samples formed from 21 or fewer plugs. This model is used to predict as a function of the number of soil plugs per composite, the percent accuracy with which the mean 226 Ra concentration in surface soil can be estimated, and the probability of making incorrect remedial action decisions on the basis of statistical tests. 8 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs

  2. A performance comparison of sampling methods in the assessment of species composition patterns and environment–vegetation relationships in species-rich grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Swacha; Zoltán Botta-Dukát; Zygmunt Kącki; Daniel Pruchniewicz; Ludwik Żołnierz

    2017-01-01

    The influence that different sampling methods have on the results and the interpretation of vegetation analysis has been much debated, but little is yet known about how the spatial arrangement of samples affect patterns of species composition and environment–vegetation relationships within the same vegetation type. We compared three data sets of the same sample size obtained by three standard sampling methods: preferential, random, and systematic. These different sampling methods were applied...

  3. Influence of high-conductivity buffer composition on field-enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anres, Philippe; Delaunay, Nathalie; Vial, Jérôme; Thormann, Wolfgang; Gareil, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to clarify the mechanism taking place in field-enhanced sample injection coupled to sweeping and micellar EKC (FESI-Sweep-MEKC), with the utilization of two acidic high-conductivity buffers (HCBs), phosphoric acid or sodium phosphate buffer, in view of maximizing sensitivity enhancements. Using cationic model compounds in acidic media, a chemometric approach and simulations with SIMUL5 were implemented. Experimental design first enabled to identify the significant factors and their potential interactions. Simulation demonstrates the formation of moving boundaries during sample injection, which originate at the initial sample/HCB and HCB/buffer discontinuities and gradually change the compositions of HCB and BGE. With sodium phosphate buffer, the HCB conductivity increased during the injection, leading to a more efficient preconcentration by staking (about 1.6 times) than with phosphoric acid alone, for which conductivity decreased during injection. For the same injection time at constant voltage, however, a lower amount of analytes was injected with sodium phosphate buffer than with phosphoric acid. Consequently sensitivity enhancements were lower for the whole FESI-Sweep-MEKC process. This is why, in order to maximize sensitivity enhancements, it is proposed to work with sodium phosphate buffer as HCB and to use constant current during sample injection. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sequence-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal compositions of multiple kombucha (tea fungus) samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    Kombucha is a sweetened tea beverage that, as a consequence of fermentation, contains ethanol, carbon dioxide, a high concentration of acid (gluconic, acetic and lactic) as well as a number of other metabolites and is thought to contain a number of health-promoting components. The sucrose-tea solution is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulosic pellicle, which forms a floating mat in the tea, and generates a new layer with each successful fermentation. The specific identity of the microbial populations present has been the focus of attention but, to date, the majority of studies have relied on culture-based analyses. To gain a more comprehensive insight into the kombucha microbiota we have carried out the first culture-independent, high-throughput sequencing analysis of the bacterial and fungal populations of 5 distinct pellicles as well as the resultant fermented kombucha at two time points. Following the analysis it was established that the major bacterial genus present was Gluconacetobacter, present at >85% in most samples, with only trace populations of Acetobacter detected (kombucha, also being revealed. The yeast populations were found to be dominated by Zygosaccharomyces at >95% in the fermented beverage, with a greater fungal diversity present in the cellulosic pellicle, including numerous species not identified in kombucha previously. Ultimately, this study represents the most accurate description of the microbiology of kombucha to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  6. Composition of microbial communities in aerosol, snow and ice samples from remote glaciated areas (Antarctica, Alps, Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elster, J.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Řeháková, K.

    2007-06-01

    Taxonomical and ecological analyses were performed on micro-autotrophs (cyanobacteria and algae together with remnants of diatom valves), micro-fungi (hyphae and spores), bacteria (rod, cocci and red clusters), yeast, and plant pollen extracted from various samples: Alps snow (Mt. Blank area), Andean snow (Illimani, Bolivia), Antarctic aerosol filters (Dumont d'Urville, Terre Adélie), and Antarctic inland ice (Terre Adélie). Three methods for ice and snow sample's pre-concentration were tested (filtration, centrifugation and lyophilisation). Afterwards, cultivation methods for terrestrial, freshwater and marine microorganisms (micro-autotrophs and micro-fungi) were used in combination with liquid and solid media. The main goal of the study was to find out if micro-autotrophs are commonly transported by air masses, and later stored in snow and icecaps around the world. The most striking result of this study was the absence of culturable micro-autotrophs in all studied samples. However, an unusual culturable pigmented prokaryote was found in both alpine snow and aerosol samples. Analyses of many samples and proper statistical analyses (PCA, RDA- Monte Carlo permutation tests) showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in both microbial community and biotic remnants composition F=9.33, p=0.001. In addition, GLM showed that studied treatments highly significantly differ in numbers of categories of microorganisms and remnants of biological material F=11.45, p=0.00005. The Antarctic aerosol samples were characterised by having red clusters of bacteria, the unusual prokaryote and yeasts. The high mountain snow from the Alps and Andes contained much more culturable heterotrophs. The unusual prokaryote was very abundant, as were coccoid bacteria, red clusters of bacteria, as well as yeasts. The Antarctic ice samples were quite different. These samples had higher numbers of rod bacteria and fungal hyphae. The microbial communities and biological remnants of

  7. Does respondent driven sampling alter the social network composition and health-seeking behaviors of illicit drug users followed prospectively?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby E Rudolph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Respondent driven sampling (RDS was originally developed to sample and provide peer education to injection drug users at risk for HIV. Based on the premise that drug users' social networks were maintained through sharing rituals, this peer-driven approach to disseminate educational information and reduce risk behaviors capitalizes and expands upon the norms that sustain these relationships. Compared with traditional outreach interventions, peer-driven interventions produce greater reductions in HIV risk behaviors and adoption of safer behaviors over time, however, control and intervention groups are not similarly recruited. As peer-recruitment may alter risk networks and individual risk behaviors over time, such comparison studies are unable to isolate the effect of a peer-delivered intervention. This analysis examines whether RDS recruitment (without an intervention is associated with changes in health-seeking behaviors and network composition over 6 months. New York City drug users (N = 618 were recruited using targeted street outreach (TSO and RDS (2006-2009. 329 non-injectors (RDS = 237; TSO = 92 completed baseline and 6-month surveys ascertaining demographic, drug use, and network characteristics. Chi-square and t-tests compared RDS- and TSO-recruited participants on changes in HIV testing and drug treatment utilization and in the proportion of drug using, sex, incarcerated and social support networks over the follow-up period. The sample was 66% male, 24% Hispanic, 69% black, 62% homeless, and the median age was 35. At baseline, the median network size was 3, 86% used crack, 70% used cocaine, 40% used heroin, and in the past 6 months 72% were tested for HIV and 46% were enrolled in drug treatment. There were no significant differences by recruitment strategy with respect to changes in health-seeking behaviors or network composition over 6 months. These findings suggest no association between RDS recruitment and changes in

  8. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2016-01-01

    135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135 Cs/ 137 Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135 Cs/ 137 Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. - Highlights: • 135 Cs/ 137 Cs useful for tracking anthropogenic environmental radiocesium releases. • European surface soils/vegetation have uniform ratio consistent with Chernobyl. • 135 Cs/ 137 Cs in Irish sea represents thermal fission ratio distinct from Chernobyl. • Can distinguish between major source terms in Europe based on 135 Cs/ 137 Cs.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE ACS IMAGING OF THE GOALS SAMPLE: QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF NEARBY LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES WITH L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-C.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C., E-mail: dkim@nrao.edu, E-mail: aevans@virginia.edu, E-mail: gcp8y@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others

    2013-05-10

    A Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys study of the structural properties of 85 luminous and ultraluminous (L{sub IR} > 10{sup 11.4} L{sub Sun }) infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) in the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) sample is presented. Two-dimensional GALFIT analysis has been performed on F814W ''I-band'' images to decompose each galaxy, as appropriate, into bulge, disk, central point-spread function (PSF) and stellar bar components. The fraction of bulge-less disk systems is observed to be higher in LIRGs (35%) than in ULIRGs (20%), with the disk+bulge systems making up the dominant fraction of both LIRGs (55%) and ULIRGs (45%). Further, bulge+disk systems are the dominant late-stage merger galaxy type and are the dominant type for LIRGs and ULIRGs at almost every stage of galaxy-galaxy nuclear separation. The mean I-band host absolute magnitude of the GOALS galaxies is -22.64 {+-} 0.62 mag (1.8{sup +1.4}{sub -0.4} L{sup *}{sub I}), and the mean bulge absolute magnitude in GOALS galaxies is about 1.1 mag fainter than the mean host magnitude. Almost all ULIRGs have bulge magnitudes at the high end (-20.6 to -23.5 mag) of the GOALS bulge magnitude range. Mass ratios in the GOALS binary systems are consistent with most of the galaxies being the result of major mergers, and an examination of the residual-to-host intensity ratios in GOALS binary systems suggests that smaller companions suffer more tidal distortion than the larger companions. We find approximately twice as many bars in GOALS disk+bulge systems (32.8%) than in pure-disk mergers (15.9%) but most of the disk+bulge systems that contain bars are disk-dominated with small bulges. The bar-to-host intensity ratio, bar half-light radius, and bar ellipticity in GOALS galaxies are similar to those found in nearby spiral galaxies. The fraction of stellar bars decreases toward later merger stages and smaller nuclear separations, indicating that bars are

  10. Electronic structure, local magnetism, and spin-orbit effects of Ir(IV)-, Ir(V)-, and Ir(VI)-based compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Kayser, P.; Alonso, J. A.; Martínez-Lope, M. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Choi, Y.; Haskel, D.

    2015-06-01

    Element- and orbital-selective x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Ir 5d electronic states in double perovskite Sr2MIrO6 (M = Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, In) and La2NiIrO6 compounds. All the studied systems present a significant influence of spin-orbit interactions in the electronic ground state. In addition, we find that the Ir 5d local magnetic moment shows different character depending on the oxidation state despite the net magnetization being similar for all the compounds. Ir carries an orbital contribution comparable to the spin contribution for Ir4+ (5d(5)) and Ir5+ (5d(4)) oxides, whereas the orbital contribution is quenched for Ir6+ (5d(3)) samples. Incorporation of a magnetic 3d atom allows getting insight into the magnetic coupling between 5d and 3d transition metals. Together with previous susceptibility and neutron diffractionmeasurements, the results indicate that Ir carries a significant local magnetic moment even in samples without a 3d metal. The size of the (small) net magnetization of these compounds is a result of predominant antiferromagnetic interactions between local moments coupled with structural details of each perovskite structure

  11. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  12. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  13. Fibre-Optic IR-Spectroscopy for Biomedical Diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Bindig, Uwe; Gersonde, Ingo; Meinke, Martina; Becker, Yukiyo; Müller, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The use of microscopy is a valuable means of gaining vital information for medical diagnostics. Due to a number of recent technological developments advances have been made in IR microscopy and in particular, rapid detection methods. Microscopic examination methods usually involve sampling followed by a method of sample purification or preparation. The advantages of the IR analytical method are that it is based on a direct, non‒destructive measurement of sample material and that the resulting...

  14. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze, B; Vasques, ACJ; Stabe, CFC; Pareja, JC; Rosado, LEFPD; de Queiroz, EC; Tambascia, MA

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 9011 percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  15. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs.

  16. The effect of test dose and first IR stimulation temperature on post-IR IRSL measurements of rock slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Murray, Andrew; Sohbati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    lies close to the laboratory saturation levels only for higher first IR stimulation temperatures e.g. 200°C or 250°C. Our data confirm earlier suggestions based on sand-grain measurements that, for older sam-ples, accurate measurements close to saturation require that a higher first IR temperature...

  17. Calibration of carbon analyzer LECO type IR-212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilis Windaryati; Pranjono; Galuh Sri Banawa

    2013-01-01

    Calibration of Carbon Analyzer LECO type IR-212 has been done. The aim of this research is to study the performance of the carbon analyzer LECO type IR-212 for its accuracy assurance. The experiment includes a series of performance adjustment using standard material traceable nationally/internationally. The standard material used for the calibration is standard carbon manufactured by LECO, which refers to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRM) of traceable certificate. The method used is based on Application Bulletin Leco Corporation. The composition used for the experiment varies from 0,0097% to 0,8110% that is 0,0097 ± 0,0014%; 0,0348 ± 0,0013%; 0,1770 ± 0,003% and 0,8110 ± 0,007%. The analysis results for those varied composition are 0,0097 ± 0,000175%; 0,03474 ± 0,000152%; 0,1762 ± 0,00228% and 0,80982 ± 0,000958% for their mean value and standard deviation respectively. In the standard analysis, the results are close to the true value is the measurement of a standard sample with a content of 0.811% with a correction factor of 1.0015. The smallest standard deviation in measurements of 0,0348% sample gives the lowest standard deviation, i.e. 0,000152. The analysis results are considered sufficiently stable with linear calibration curve of y = 0.9984 x with correlation coefficient R 2 = 1. (author)

  18. Group Chemical Changes and Physical Property Correlations in Refining of Lube Base Stocks. Ir and Nmr Spectroscopy Corrélations entre les propriétés physiques et les changements de composition chimique au cours du raffinage des huiles de base. Spectrométrie infra rouge et résonance magnétique nucléaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh H.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes occurring in the chemical composition of lubricating oil base stocks with different degreeand typeof refining have been investigated by IR and NMR spectroscopy. Significant conclusions about the chemical composition have been reached through the study of structural parameters. Correlations between molecular parameters such as aromaticity , average number of carbon atoms per alkyl substituentand the Viscosity Indexof base oils are reported. The term degree of refininghas been assigned a quantitative value in combination with the VI to denote the progressive refining of raw lube distillates to base stocks. Les modifications de la composition chimique d'huiles lubrifiantes au cours de divers type de raffinage à des degrés variables de sévérité sont étudiées par spectrométries IR et RMN. L'étude des paramètres structuraux aboutit à des conclusions significatives sur la composition chimique. Des corrélations entre l'indice de viscosité et des paramètres structuraux tels que l'aromaticité et le nombre moyen d'atomes de carbone par substituant alkyl sont dégagées. On attribue au terme degré de raffinage une valeur quantitative - combiné avec l'indice de viscosité pour signifier le raffinage progressif de distillats bruts en huiles de base.

  19. Composite Magnetic Nanoparticles (CuFe₂O₄) as a New Microsorbent for Extraction of Rhodamine B from Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaie, Ali; Allahnoori, Farzad; Ehteshami, Shokooh

    2017-09-01

    In this work, novel composite magnetic nanoparticles (CuFe2O4) were synthesized based on sol-gel combustion in the laboratory. Next, a simple production method was optimized for the preparation of the copper nanoferrites (CuFe2O4), which are stable in water, magnetically active, and have a high specific area used as sorbent material for organic dye extraction in water solution. CuFe2O4 nanopowders were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The size range of the nanoparticles obtained in such conditions was estimated by SEM images to be 35-45 nm. The parameters influencing the extraction of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles, such as desorption solvent, amount of sorbent, desorption time, sample pH, ionic strength, and extraction time, were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration curve in the range of 0.75-5.00 μg/L with R2 = 0.9996 was obtained. The LOQ (10Sb) and LOD (3Sb) of the method were 0.75 and 0.25 μg/L (n = 3), respectively. The RSD for a water sample spiked with 1 μg/L rhodamine B was 3% (n = 5). The method was applied for the determination of rhodamine B in tap water, dishwashing foam, dishwashing liquid, and shampoo samples. The relative recovery percentages for these samples were in the range of 95-99%.

  20. THE ROLE OF STARBURST-ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS COMPOSITES IN LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY MERGERS: INSIGHTS FROM THE NEW OPTICAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, T.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Sanders, D. B.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the fraction of starbursts, starburst-active galactic nucleus (AGN) composites, Seyferts, and low-ionization narrow emission-line region galaxies (LINERs) as a function of infrared luminosity (L IR ) and merger progress for ∼500 infrared (IR)-selected galaxies. Using the new optical classifications afforded by the extremely large data set of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we find that the fraction of LINERs in IR-selected samples is rare ( IR > 10 12 L sun ), starburst-AGN composite galaxies dominate at early-intermediate stages of the merger, and AGN galaxies dominate during the final merger stages. Our results are consistent with models for IR-luminous galaxies where mergers of gas-rich spirals fuel both starburst and AGN, and where the AGN becomes increasingly dominant during the final merger stages of the most luminous IR objects.

  1. Crystal growth and characterization of Ir-Te compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzhals, Philipp; Weber, Frank; Zocco, Diego; Adelmann, Peter; Merz, Michael; Wolf, Thomas; Kuntz, Sebastian; Grube, Kai [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Solid State Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    IrTe{sub 2} is distinguished by a structural phase transition whose origin is not understood up to the present day. We grew crystals using the self-flux method starting from the reagents iridium and tellurium and got specimen with varying amounts of IrTe{sub 2} and Ir{sub 3}Te{sub 8}, analyzed by x-ray powder diffraction. We studied the transition near T = 280 K in magnetization measurements down to T = 1.8 K probing also for superconductivity, which was reported for intercalated samples. Results indicate that the structural transition happens over an extended range in temperature and superconductivity is absent in our samples. Ir{sub 3}Te{sub 8} is not studied to such an extent as IrTe{sub 2}. In previous publications a structural phase transition is reported. We characterized the transition by performing magnetization measurements and X-ray diffraction.

  2. Premier's imaging IR limb sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Stefan; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland; Langen, Jörg; Carnicero Dominguez, Bernardo; Bensi, Paolo; Silvestrin, Pierluigi

    2017-11-01

    The Imaging IR Limb Sounder (IRLS) is one of the two instruments planned on board of the candidate Earth Explorer Core Mission PREMIER. PREMIER stands for PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and Millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation. PREMIER went recently through the process of a feasibility study (Phase A) within the Earth Observation Envelope Program. Emerging from recent advanced instrument technologies IRLS shall, next to a millimetre-wave limb sounder (called STEAMR), explore the benefits of three-dimensional limb sounding with embedded cloud imaging capability. Such 3D imaging technology is expected to open a new era of limb sounding that will allow detailed studies of the link between atmospheric composition and climate, since it will map simultaneously fields of temperature and many trace gases in the mid/upper troposphere and stratosphere across a large vertical and horizontal field of view and with high vertical and horizontal resolution. PREMIER shall fly in a tandem formation looking backwards to METOP's swath and thereby improve meteorological and environmental analyses.

  3. Concurrent Flame Growth, Spread and Extinction over Composite Fabric Samples in Low Speed Purely Forced Flow in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; T'ien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the NASA BASS and BASS-II experimental projects aboard the International Space Station, flame growth, spread and extinction over a composite cotton-fiberglass fabric blend (referred to as the SIBAL fabric) were studied in low-speed concurrent forced flows. The tests were conducted in a small flow duct within the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The fuel samples measured 1.2 and 2.2 cm wide and 10 cm long. Ambient oxygen was varied from 21% down to 16% and flow speed from 40 cm/s down to 1 cm/s. A small flame resulted at low flow, enabling us to observe the entire history of flame development including ignition, flame growth, steady spread (in some cases) and decay at the end of the sample. In addition, by decreasing flow velocity during some of the tests, low-speed flame quenching extinction limits were found as a function of oxygen percentage. The quenching speeds were found to be between 1 and 5 cm/s with higher speed in lower oxygen atmosphere. The shape of the quenching boundary supports the prediction by earlier theoretical models. These long duration microgravity experiments provide a rare opportunity for solid fuel combustion since microgravity time in ground-based facilities is generally not sufficient. This is the first time that a low-speed quenching boundary in concurrent spread is determined in a clean and unambiguous manner.

  4. The IRS-1 signaling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F

    1994-07-01

    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  5. MicrOmega IR: a new infrared hyperspectral imaging microscope or in situ analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitua, Leroi; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Berthé, Michel

    2017-11-01

    MicrOmega IR is an ultra miniaturized Near Infrared hyperspectral microscope for in situ analysis of samples. It is designed to be implemented on board space planetary vehicles (lander and/or rovers). It acquires images of samples typically some 5 mm in width with a spatial sampling of 20 μm. On each pixel, MicrOmega acquires the spectrum in the spectral range 0.9 - 2.6 μm, with a possibility to extend the sensibility up to 4 μm. The spectrum will be measured in up to 300 contiguous spectral channels (600 in the extended range): given the diagnostic spectral features present in this domain, it provides the composition of each spatially resolved constituent. MicrOmega has thus the potential to identify: minerals, such as pyroxene and olivine, ferric oxides, hydrated phases such as phyllosilicates, sulfates and carbonates, ices and organics. The composition of the various phases within a given sample is a critical record of its formation and evolution. Coupled to the mapping information, it provides unique clues to describe the history of the parent body. In particular, the capability to identify hydrated grains and to characterize their adjacent phases has a huge potential in the search for potential bio-relics in Martian samples. This purely non destructive characterization enables further analyses (e.g. through mass spectrometry) to be performed, and/or to contribute to sample selection to return to Earth. MicrOmega IR is coupled to a visible microscope: MicrOmega VIS. Thus, the MicrOmega instrument is developed by an international consortium: IAS (Orsay, France), LESIA (Meudon, France), CBM (Orléans, France), University Of Bern (Bern, Switzerland), IKI (Moscow, Russia). This instrument (MicrOmega IR, MicrOmega VIS and the electronics) is selected for the ESA Exomars mission (launch scheduled for 2013). MicrOmega IR will be used in a reduced spectral range (0.9 - 2.6 μm), due to power, mass and thermal constraints: however, most minerals and other

  6. Sample-size resonance, ferromagnetic resonance and magneto-permittivity resonance in multiferroic nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composites at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Zhenyu; Jiang, Jia; An, Taiyu; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan, E-mail: hujf@sdu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic resonance and magneto-permittivity resonance can be observed in appropriate microwave frequencies at room temperature for multiferroic nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composite sample with an appropriate sample-thickness (such as 2 mm). Ferromagnetic resonance originates from the room-temperature weak ferromagnetism of nano-BiFeO{sub 3}. The observed magneto-permittivity resonance in multiferroic nano-BiFeO{sub 3} is connected with the dynamic magnetoelectric coupling through Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) magnetoelectric interaction or the combination of magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects. In addition, we experimentally observed the resonance of negative imaginary permeability for nano BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin toroidal samples with longer sample thicknesses D=3.7 and 4.9 mm. Such resonance of negative imaginary permeability belongs to sample-size resonance. - Highlights: • Nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composite shows a ferromagnetic resonance. • Nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composite shows a magneto-permittivity resonance. • Resonance of negative imaginary permeability in BiFeO{sub 3} is a sample-size resonance. • Nano-BiFeO{sub 3}/paraffin composite with large thickness shows a sample-size resonance.

  7. Sample-size resonance, ferromagnetic resonance and magneto-permittivity resonance in multiferroic nano-BiFeO3/paraffin composites at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Zhenyu; Jiang, Jia; An, Taiyu; Qin, Hongwei; Hu, Jifan

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate that ferromagnetic resonance and magneto-permittivity resonance can be observed in appropriate microwave frequencies at room temperature for multiferroic nano-BiFeO 3 /paraffin composite sample with an appropriate sample-thickness (such as 2 mm). Ferromagnetic resonance originates from the room-temperature weak ferromagnetism of nano-BiFeO 3 . The observed magneto-permittivity resonance in multiferroic nano-BiFeO 3 is connected with the dynamic magnetoelectric coupling through Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) magnetoelectric interaction or the combination of magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects. In addition, we experimentally observed the resonance of negative imaginary permeability for nano BiFeO 3 /paraffin toroidal samples with longer sample thicknesses D=3.7 and 4.9 mm. Such resonance of negative imaginary permeability belongs to sample-size resonance. - Highlights: • Nano-BiFeO 3 /paraffin composite shows a ferromagnetic resonance. • Nano-BiFeO 3 /paraffin composite shows a magneto-permittivity resonance. • Resonance of negative imaginary permeability in BiFeO 3 is a sample-size resonance. • Nano-BiFeO 3 /paraffin composite with large thickness shows a sample-size resonance.

  8. Estimates of diet selection in cattle grazing cornstalk residues by measurement of chemical composition and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy of diet samples collected by ruminal evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel, Emily A; Smart, Alexander J; St-Pierre, Benoit; Selman, Susan L; Bailey, Eric A; Beck, Erin E; Walker, Julie A; Wright, Cody L; Held, Jeffrey E; Brake, Derek W

    2018-05-04

    Six ruminally cannulated cows (570 ± 73 kg) fed corn residues were placed in a 6 × 6 Latin square to evaluate predictions of diet composition from ruminally collected diet samples. After complete ruminal evacuation, cows were fed 1-kg meals (dry matter [DM]-basis) containing different combinations of cornstalk and leaf and husk (LH) residues in ratios of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and 100:0. Diet samples from each meal were collected by removal of ruminal contents after 1-h and were either unrinsed, hand-rinsed or machine-rinsed to evaluate effects of endogenous compounds on predictions of diet composition. Diet samples were analyzed for neutral (NDF) and acid (ADF) detergent fiber, acid detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), acid detergent lignin (ADL), crude protein (CP), and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate diet composition. Rinsing type increased NDF and ADF content and decreased ADIA and CP content of diet samples (P content of diet samples. Differences in concentration between cornstalk and LH residues within each chemical component were standardized by calculating a coefficient of variation (CV). Accuracy and precision of estimates of diet composition were analyzed by regressing predicted diet composition and known diet composition. Predictions of diet composition were improved by increasing differences in concentration of chemical components between cornstalk and LH residues up to a CV of 22.6 ± 5.4%. Predictions of diet composition from unrinsed ADIA and machine-rinsed NIRS had the greatest accuracy (slope = 0.98 and 0.95, respectively) and large coefficients of determination (r2 = 0.86 and 0.74, respectively). Subsequently, a field study (Exp. 2) was performed to evaluate predictions of diet composition in cattle (646 ± 89 kg) grazing corn residue. Five cows were placed in 1 of 10 paddocks and allowed to graze continuously or to strip-graze corn residues. Predictions of diet composition from ADIA, ADL, and NIRS did not

  9. Influence of IR-laser irradiation on α-SiC-chromium silicides ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasova, M.; Marquez Aguilar, P.A.; Resendiz-Gonzalez, M.C.; Kakazey, M.; Bykov, A.; Gonzalez Morales, I.

    2005-01-01

    This project investigated the influence of IR-laser irradiation (λ = 1064 nm, P = 240 mW) on composite ceramics SiC-chromium silicides (CrSi 2 , CrSi, Cr 5 Si 3 ) by methods of X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray microanalysis. Samples were irradiated in air. It was established that a surface temperature of 1990 K was required to melt chromium silicides, evaporate silicon from SiC, oxidize chromium silicides, and enrich superficial layer by carbon and chromium oxide

  10. Impact of sampling depth and plant species on local environmental conditions, microbiological parameters and bacterial composition in a mercury contaminated salt marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleary, D.F.R.; Oliveira, V.; Gomes, N.C.M.; Pereira, A.; Henriques, I.; Marques, B.; Almeida, A.; Cunha, A.; Correia, A.; Lillebø, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vegetated habitat contained distinct bacterial communities. ► Variation in bacterial composition with depth differed between plant species. ► There is evidence of an effect of mercury concentration on bacterial composition. ► Depth and sampling depth explained almost 70% of the variation in bacterial composition. - Abstract: We compare the environmental characteristics and bacterial communities associated with two rushes, Juncus maritimus and Bolboschoenus maritimus, and adjacent unvegetated habitat in a salt marsh subjected to historical mercury pollution. Mercury content was higher in vegetated than unvegetated habitat and increased with sampling depth. There was also a significant relationship between mercury concentration and bacterial composition. Habitat (Juncus, Bolboschoenus or unvegetated), sample depth, and the interaction between both, however, explained most of the variation in composition (∼70%). Variation in composition with depth was most prominent for the unvegetated habitat, followed by Juncus, but more constrained for Bolboschoenus habitat. This constraint may be indicative of a strong plant–microbe ecophysiological adaptation. Vegetated habitat contained distinct bacterial communities associated with higher potential activity of aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase and arylsulphatase and incorporation rates of 14 C-glucose and 14 C-acetate. Communities in unvegetated habitat were, in contrast, associated with both higher pH and proportion of sulphate reducing bacteria.

  11. Chemical and electrical characteristics of annealed Ni/Au and Ni/Ir/Au contacts on AlGaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngoepe, P.N.M., E-mail: phuti.ngoepe@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa); Meyer, W.E.; Auret, F.D.; Omotoso, E.; Diale, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028 (South Africa); Swart, H.C.; Duvenhage, M.M.; Coetsee, E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of Ni/Au and Ni/Ir/Au metal contacts deposited on AlGaN was investigated at different annealing temperatures. The samples were studied with electrical and chemical composition techniques. I–V characteristics of the Schottky diodes were optimum after 500 and 600 °C annealing for Ni/Au and Ni/Ir/Au based diodes, respectively. The depth profiles of the contacts were measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. These chemical composition techniques were used to examine the evolution of the metal contacts in order to verify the influence the metals have on the electrical properties of the diodes. The insertion of Ir as a diffusion barrier between Ni and Au effected the electrical properties, improving the stability of the contacts at high temperatures. Gold diffused into the AlGaN film, degrading the electrical properties of the Ni/Au diode. At 500 °C, the insertion of Ir, however, prevented the in-diffusion of Au into the AlGaN substrate.

  12. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  13. IR Spectroscopy. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzler, H.; Gremlich, H.U.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: absorption and molecular design, spectrometers, sample preparation, qualitative spectral interpretation and assertions, near-infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy, reference spectra and expert systems

  14. Knowing when to trust a teacher: The contribution of category status and sample composition to young children's judgments of informant trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Chris A

    2018-09-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which category status influences children's attention to the composition of evidence samples provided by different informants. Children were told about two informants, each of whom presented different samples of evidence, and then were asked to judge which informant they would trust to help them learn something new. The composition of evidence samples was manipulated such that one sample included either a large number (n = 5) or a diverse range of exemplars relative to the other sample, which included either a small number (n = 2) or a homogeneous range of exemplars. Experiment 1 revealed that participants (N = 37; M age = 4.76 years) preferred to place their trust in the informant who presented the large or diverse sample when each informant was labeled "teacher" but exhibited no preference when each informant was labeled "child." Experiment 2 revealed developmental differences in responses when labels and sample composition were pitted against each other. Younger children (n = 32; M age = 3.42 years) consistently trusted the "teacher" regardless of the composition of the sample the informant was said to have provided, whereas older children (n = 30; M age = 5.54 years) consistently trusted the informant who provided the large or diverse sample regardless of whether it was provided by a "teacher" or a "child." These results have important implications for understanding the interplay between children's category knowledge and their evaluation of evidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A UV to mid-IR study of AGN selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Mi; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Assef, Roberto [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We classify the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 431,038 sources in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). There are up to 17 bands of data available per source, including ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (NDWFS), near-IR (NEWFIRM), and mid-infrared (IRAC and MIPS) data, as well as spectroscopic redshifts for ∼20,000 objects, primarily from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. We fit galaxy, active galactic nucleus (AGN), stellar, and brown dwarf templates to the observed SEDs, which yield spectral classes for the Galactic sources and photometric redshifts and galaxy/AGN luminosities for the extragalactic sources. The photometric redshift precision of the galaxy and AGN samples are σ/(1 + z) = 0.040 and σ/(1 + z) = 0.169, respectively, with the worst 5% outliers excluded. On the basis of the χ{sub ν}{sup 2} of the SED fit for each SED model, we are able to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic sources for sources brighter than I = 23.5 mag. We compare the SED fits for a galaxy-only model and a galaxy-AGN model. Using known X-ray and spectroscopic AGN samples, we confirm that SED fitting can be successfully used as a method to identify large populations of AGNs, including spatially resolved AGNs with significant contributions from the host galaxy and objects with the emission line ratios of 'composite' spectra. We also use our results to compare with the X-ray, mid-IR, optical color, and emission line ratio selection techniques. For an F-ratio threshold of F > 10, we find 16,266 AGN candidates brighter than I = 23.5 mag and a surface density of ∼1900 AGN deg{sup –2}.

  16. Dependence of critical current on sample length analyzed by the variation of local critical current bent of BSCCO superconducting composite tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, H.; Mukai, Y.; Shin, J.K.; Ochiai, S.; Okuda, H.; Osamura, K.; Otto, A.; Malozemoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Using the high critical current type BSCCO composite tape fabricated at American Superconductor Corporation, the relation of overall critical current to the distribution of local critical current and the dependence of overall critical current on sample length of the bent samples were studied experimentally and analytically. The measured overall critical current was described well from the distribution of local critical current and n-value of the constituting short elements, by regarding the overall sample to be composed of local series circuits and applying the voltage summation model. Also the dependence of overall critical current on sample length could be reproduced in computer satisfactorily by the proposed simulation method

  17. Relationship between sleep characteristics and measures of body size and composition in a nationally-representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Gu, Fangyi; Caporaso, Neil; Matthews, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Short sleep has been linked to obesity. However, sleep is a multidimensional behavior that cannot be characterized solely by sleep duration. There is limited study that comprehensively examined different sleep characteristics in relation to obesity. We examined various aspects of sleep in relation to adiposity in 2005-2006 NHANES participants who were 18 or older and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and depression ( N  = 3995). Sleep characteristics were self-reported, and included duration, overall quality, onset latency, fragmentation, daytime sleepiness, snoring, and sleep disorders. Body measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass. Snoring was associated with higher BMI (adjusted difference in kg/m 2 comparing snoring for 5+ nights/week with no snoring (95 % confidence interval), 1.85 (0.88, 2.83)), larger waist circumference (cm, 4.52 (2.29, 6.75)), higher percentage of body fat (%, 1.61 (0.84, 2.38)), and higher android/gynoid ratio (0.03 (0.01, 0.06)). The associations were independent of sleep duration and sleep quality, and cannot be explained by the existence of sleep disorders such as sleep apnea. Poor sleep quality (two or more problematic sleep conditions) and short sleep duration (body size and fat composition, although the effects were attenuated after snoring was adjusted. In a nationally representative sample of healthy US adults, snoring, short sleep, and poor sleep quality were associated with higher adiposity.

  18. Development of a portable mass spectrometric system for determination of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples using fluorine volatilization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loge, G.

    1994-01-01

    Using hardware and materials supplied by LANL, a prototype quadrupole mass spectrometer system designed for portable field analysis of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples was assembled and tested. The system contained the capability for fluorine volatilization of solid uranium samples with gas introduction, which was successfully tested and demonstrated using 100 mg samples of U 3 O 8 . Determination of precision and accuracy for measuring isotopic composition was performed using isotopic standards. Use with soil samples containing uranium were also attempted. Silicates in the soil forming SiF 4 were found to be a kinetic bottleneck to the formation of UF 6 . This could be avoided by performing some sort of chemical separation as a pre-treatment step, which was demonstrated using nitric acid

  19. Volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Red Flower Oil’ preparation from different manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Tao, Jia-Xun; Noda, Isao

    2008-06-01

    As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 'Red Flower Oil' preparation is widely used as a household remedy in China and Southeast Asia. Usually, the preparation is a mixture of several plant essential oils with different volatile features, such as wintergreen oil, turpentine oil and clove oil. The proportions of these plant essential oils in 'Red Flower Oil' vary from different manufacturers. Thus, it is important to develop a simple and rapid evaluation method for quality assurance of the preparations. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) was applied and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) based on the volatile characteristic of samples was used to enhance the resolution of FT-IR spectra. 2D IR technique could, not only easily provide the composition and their volatile sequences in 'Red flower Oil' preparations, but also rapidly discriminate the subtle differences in products from different manufacturers. Therefore, FT-IR combined with volatility-dependent 2D IR correlation analysis provides a very fast and effective method for the quality control of essential oil mixtures in TCM.

  20. Nanomechanical IR spectroscopy for fast analysis of liquid-dispersed engineered nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Yamada, Shoko; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Boisen, Anja; Schmid, Silvan

    2016-01-01

    The proliferated use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, calls for novel techniques allowing for fast and sensitive analysis of minute samples. Here we present nanomechanical IR spectroscopy (NAM-IR) for chemical analysis of picograms of ENMs. ENMs are nebulized directly from dispersion and efficiently collected on nanomechanical string resonators through a non-diffusion limited sampling method. Even very small amounts of sample can convert absorbed IR light into a measu...

  1. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  2. Enhanced exchange anisotropy in IrMn/CoFeB systems and its correlation with uncompensated interfacial spins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yuqing; Pan, Genhua; Moate, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Bottom pinned exchange bias systems of IrMn/CoFe and IrMn/CoFeB on CoFe seed layers were studied. Enhanced exchange anisotropy has been observed for IrMn/CoFeB samples annealed at 350 °C. The ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic layers of both samples are polycrystalline and textured {110} for the...

  3. Final Report For The Initial Solid Phase Characterization Of The 2011 Grab Samples And Composite For The C-109 Hard Heel Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, J.S.; Cooke, G.A.; Pestovich, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    On May 3, 2011, solid phase characterization subsamples were taken from six of the eight grab samples that had been collected from tank 241-C-109 in April, 2011 and delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. These subsamples were characterized in order to guide the creation of the composite for the C-109 hard heel study. Visual observation showed that there was a large variability in the physical characteristics of the eight individual grab samples. Several of the grab samples consisted of 'stone-like' cobbles (several > 25 mm in diameter) while the other grab samples were of a finer granular composition referred to as 'bulk material'. Half of the six subsamples taken for this initial SPC were of crushed cobbles and half were of the bulk material. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on all six subsamples, and X-ray diffraction was performed on all three of the 'bulk material' samples and one of the crushed cobble samples. The crushed cobbles were found to be composed primarily of gibbsite (Al(OHh) 3 ). Analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated gibbsite to be the only crystalline phase detected, and scanning electron microscopy showed the crushed cobbles to consist primarily of aggregates of euhedral to subhedral gibbsite crystals that were 20 to 100 μm in size. The aggregates, having a moderate amount of pore space, were cemented primarily by recrystallized gibbsite making them resistant to crushing. The bulk material consisted of coarse to fine-grained pebble-sized (2 to 20 mm) particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed them to be a mixture of natrophosphate (Na 7 (PO 4 ) 2 F·19(H 2 O)) and gibbsite crystals in varying amounts in each of the three subsamples (i.e., some grab samples were primarily natrophosphate while others were mixed with gibbsite). The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the bulk material showed the crystals to be euhedral to anhedral (rounded) in shape. Trace phases, too minor to be detected by XRD, were observed in the SEM analysis

  4. Ratiometric, visual, dual-signal fluorescent sensing and imaging of pH/copper ions in real samples based on carbon dots-fluorescein isothiocyanate composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinxin; Jin, Hui; Gao, Cuili; Gui, Rijun; Wang, Zonghua

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a facile aqueous synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) was developed by using natural kelp as a new carbon source. Through hydrothermal carbonization of kelp juice, fluorescent CDs were prepared and the CDs' surface was modified with polyethylenimine (PEI). The PEI-modified CDs were conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to fabricate CDs-FITC composites. To exploit broad applications, the CDs-FITC composites were developed as fluorescent sensing or imaging platforms of pH and Cu 2+ . Analytical performances of the composites-based fluorescence (FL) sensors were evaluated, including visual FL imaging of pH in glass bottle, ratiometric FL sensing of pH in yogurt samples, visual FL latent fingerprint and leaf imaging detection of [Cu 2+ ], dual-signal FL sensing of [Cu 2+ ] in yogurt and human serum samples. Experimental results from ratiometric, visual, dual-signal FL sensing and imaging applications confirmed the high feasibility, accuracy, stabilization and simplicity of CDs-FITC composites-based FL sensors for the detection of pH and Cu 2+ ions in real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of crystal violet and malachite green in water samples using partial least squares regression and central composite design after preconcentration by dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi-Asrami, Mahboobeh; Ghasemi, Jahan B; Amiri, Nayereh; Sadeghi, Seyed Jamal

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a simple, fast, and inexpensive method is introduced for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG) contents in aquatic samples using partial least squares regression (PLS) as a multivariate calibration technique after preconcentration by graphene oxide (GO). The method was based on the sorption and desorption of analytes onto GO and direct determination by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric techniques. GO was synthesized according to Hummers method. To characterize the shape and structure of GO, FT-IR, SEM, and XRD were used. The effective factors on the extraction efficiency such as pH, extraction time, and the amount of adsorbent were optimized using central composite design. The optimum values of these factors were 6, 15 min, and 12 mg, respectively. The maximum capacity of GO for the adsorption of CV and MG was 63.17 and 77.02 mg g -1 , respectively. Preconcentration factors and extraction recoveries were obtained and were 19.6, 98% for CV and 20, 100% for MG, respectively. LOD and linear dynamic ranges for CV and MG were 0.009, 0.03-0.3, 0.015, and 0.05-0.5 (μg mL -1 ), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were 1.99 and 0.58 for CV and 1.69 and 3.13 for MG at the concentration level of 50 ng mL -1 , respectively. Finally, the proposed DSPE/PLS method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the trace amount of CV and MG in the real water samples.

  6. High-pressure synthesis and structural, physical properties of CaIr1-xPtxO3 and CaIr1-xRhxO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, S.; Bromiley, G. D.; Klemme, S.; Irifune, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Attfield, P.; Nishiyama, N.

    2010-12-01

    Since the discovery of the perovskite to post-perovskite transition in MgSiO3 in a laser-heated DAC, wide attention has been focussed on the post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3. This is because the post-perovskite phase is likely to play a key role in Earth’s lowermost mantle, and because the perovskite to post-perovskite transition can explain many features of the D” seismic discontinuity. While it is meaningful to conduct further studies of MgSiO3, the post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3 cannot be quenched to ambient pressure/temperature conditions. Thus, further studies must be conducted using analogue compounds of MgSiO3 post-perovskite, which are quenchable to ambient pressure/temperature conditions. The post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3 crystallizes in a layered structure with CaIrO3-structure. Therefore, it is useful to investigate compounds with CaIrO3-structure. There are only four quenchable oxides with CaIrO3-structure reported to date: CaIrO3, CaPtO3, CaRhO3 and CaRuO3. CaIrO3 can be synthesized at ambient pressure, whilst the other three oxides can only be obtained at high pressure/temperature conditions using a multi-anvil apparatus. Further studies on these materials have revealed structural phase transitions at high P-T and a metal-insulator transition by hole doping. In the case of CaIrO3, The post-perovskite phase of CaIrO3 synthesized at 2GPa, 1373K transforms into a perovskite phase at 2GPa, 1673K. In other words, the perovskite phase can be synthesized at temperatures higher than those needed for synthesizing the post-perovskite phase. This is also the case for CaRhO3 (6GPa, 1873K) and CaRuO3 (23GPa, 1343K), while CaPtO3 remained post-perovskite at higher temperatures. We have succeeded in synthesizing solid solutions between CaIrO3, CaPtO3 and CaRhO3. We have found the systematic change in structural and physical properties of post-perovskite oxides, with composition and P-T, which broadens the future opportunity for studying post-perovskite systems

  7. Ir-based refractory superalloys by pulse electric current sintering (PECS) process (II prealloyed powder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Yamabe-Mitarai, Y.; Harada, H.

    2002-02-01

    Five prealloyed powder samples prepared from binary Ir-based refractory superalloys were sintered at 1800 °C for 4 h by Pulse Electric Current Sintering (PECS). No metal loss was observed during sintering. The relative densities of the sintered specimens all exceeded 90% T.D. The best one was Ir-13% Hf with the density of 97.82% T.D. Phases detected in sintered samples were in accordance with the phase diagram as expected. Fractured surfaces were observed in two samples (Ir-13% Hf and Ir-15% Zr). Some improvements obtained by using prealloyed powders instead of elemental powders, which were investigated in the previous studies, were presented.

  8. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X-L; Perez-Locas, C; Dufresne, G; Clement, G; Popovic, S; Beraldin, F; Dabeka, R W; Feeley, M

    2011-06-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g(-1)), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g(-1)), canned soups (22.2-44.4 ng g(-1)), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g(-1)), canned peas (16.8 ng g(-1)), canned evaporated milk (15.3 ng g(-1)), and canned luncheon meats (10.5 ng g(-1)). BPA levels in baby food composite samples were low, with 2.75 ng g(-1) in canned liquid infant formula, and 0.84-2.46 ng g(-1) in jarred baby foods. BPA was also detected in some foods that are not canned or in jars, such as yeast (8.52 ng g(-1)), baking powder (0.64 ng g(-1)), some cheeses (0.68-2.24 ng g(-1)), breads and some cereals (0.40-1.73 ng g(-1)), and fast foods (1.1-10.9 ng g(-1)). Dietary intakes of BPA were low for all age-sex groups, with 0.17-0.33 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for infants, 0.082-0.23 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for children aged from 1 to 19 years, and 0.052-0.081 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for adults, well below the established regulatory limits. BPA intakes from 19 of the 55 samples account for more than 95% of the total dietary intakes, and most of the 19 samples were either canned or in jars. Intakes of BPA from non-canned foods are low.

  9. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  10. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  11. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  12. FT-IR X-ray diffraction and porosimetry studies of archaeologic artifacts recently excavated from Rajakkamangalam in Tamilnadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Suresh; Velraj, Gothandapani

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fragmented pottery sample were collected from the recently excavated archaeologic site named Rajakkamangalam, India. The samples were collected at different depths. The samples were subjected to FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and also porosimetry study was done, The spectroscopic method Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been employed to find the mineralogical composition of the potteries. And the complementary technique to find the clay minerals present using XRD. The major primary minerals present in the samples are Kaolinite and the secondary mineral present is quartz and the accessory minerals present in the sample are hematite and magnetite. In addition to the used mineral the orthoclase and orthopyroxene are present in the sample of interest. The firing temperature of the samples at the time of manufacturing is also estimated from apparent porosity of the samples. The percentage of the potteries lies in the range of porosity is 17-42 percentages. The results obtained from Porosimetry techniques on pottery shreds provide information of the firing temperature might have been fired below 1000 deg C at the time of manufacturing the potteries. (author)

  13. Day and night variation in chemical composition and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in a high air pollution situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, P. I.; Wang, Q.; Kuuspalo, K.; Ruusunen, J.; Hao, L.; Fang, D.; Väisänen, O.; Ruuskanen, A.; Sippula, O.; Happo, M. S.; Uski, O.; Kasurinen, S.; Torvela, T.; Koponen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.; Gu, C.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2015-11-01

    Urban air particulate pollution is a known cause for adverse human health effects worldwide. China has encountered air quality problems in recent years due to rapid industrialization. Toxicological effects induced by particulate air pollution vary with particle sizes and season. However, it is not known how distinctively different photochemical activity and different emission sources during the day and the night affect the chemical composition of the PM size ranges and subsequently how it is reflected to the toxicological properties of the PM exposures. The particulate matter (PM) samples were collected in four different size ranges (PM10-2.5; PM2.5-1; PM1-0.2 and PM0.2) with a high volume cascade impactor. The PM samples were extracted with methanol, dried and thereafter used in the chemical and toxicological analyses. RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the particulate samples in four different doses for 24 h. Cytotoxicity, inflammatory parameters, cell cycle and genotoxicity were measured after exposure of the cells to particulate samples. Particles were characterized for their chemical composition, including ions, element and PAH compounds, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to take images of the PM samples. Chemical composition and the induced toxicological responses of the size segregated PM samples showed considerable size dependent differences as well as day to night variation. The PM10-2.5 and the PM0.2 samples had the highest inflammatory potency among the size ranges. Instead, almost all the PM samples were equally cytotoxic and only minor differences were seen in genotoxicity and cell cycle effects. Overall, the PM0.2 samples had the highest toxic potential among the different size ranges in many parameters. PAH compounds in the samples and were generally more abundant during the night than the day, indicating possible photo-oxidation of the PAH compounds due to solar radiation. This was reflected to different toxicity in the PM

  14. Effect of Mechanical Impact Energy on the Sorption and Diffusion of Moisture in Reinforced Polymer Composite Samples on Variation of Their Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startsev, V. O.; Il'ichev, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of mechanical impact energy on the sorption and diffusion of moisture in polymer composite samples on variation of their sizes was investigated. Square samples, with sides of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mm, made of a KMKU-2m-120.E0,1 carbon-fiber and KMKS-2m.120.T10 glass-fiber plastics with different resistances to calibrated impacts, were compared. Impact loading diagrams of the samples in relation to their sizes and impact energy were analyzed. It is shown that the moisture saturation and moisture diffusion coefficient of the impact-damaged materials can be modeled by Fick's second law with account of impact energy and sample sizes.

  15. Summary of Inorganic Compositional Data for Groundwater, Soil-Water, and Surface-Water Samples at the Headgate Draw Subsurface Drip Irrigation Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geboy, Nicholas J.; Engle, Mark A.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Zupanic, John W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a 5-year project on the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) application of coalbed-methane (CBM) produced waters, water samples were collected from the Headgate Draw SDI site in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. This research is part of a larger study to understand short- and long-term impacts on both soil and water quality from the beneficial use of CBM waters to grow forage crops through use of SDI. This document provides a summary of the context, sampling methodology, and quality assurance and quality control documentation of samples collected prior to and over the first year of SDI operation at the site (May 2008-October 2009). This report contains an associated database containing inorganic compositional data, water-quality criteria parameters, and calculated geochemical parameters for samples of groundwater, soil water, surface water, treated CBM waters, and as-received CBM waters collected at the Headgate Draw SDI site.

  16. Distribution of local critical current along sample length and its relation to overall current in a long Bi2223/Ag superconducting composite tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S; Doko, D; Okuda, H; Oh, S S; Ha, D W

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the local critical current and the n-value along the sample length and its relation to the overall critical current were studied experimentally and analytically for the bent multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag/Ag-Mg alloy superconducting composite tape. Then, based on the results, it was attempted to simulate on a computer the dependence of the critical current on the sample length. The main results are summarized as follows. The experimentally observed relation of the distributed local critical current and n-value to the overall critical current was described comprehensively with a simple voltage summation model, in which the sample was regarded as a one-dimensional series circuit. The sample length dependence of the critical current was reproduced on the computer by a Monte Carlo simulation incorporating the voltage summation model and the regression analysis results for the local critical current distribution and the relation of the n-value to the critical current

  17. Broadly tunable picosecond ir source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, A.J.; Hyer, R.C.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A completely grating tuned (1.9 to 2.4 μm) picosecond traveling wave IR generator capable of controlled spectral bandwidth operation down to the Fourier Transform limit is reported. Subsequent down conversion in CdSe extends tuning to 10 to 20 μm

  18. Application of Conventional and K0-Based Internal Monostandard NAA Using Reactor Neutrons for Compositional Analysis of Large Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Swain, K. K.; Pujari, P.K.

    2018-01-01

    Large sample neutron activation analysis (LSNAA) work was carried out for samples of coal, uranium ore, stainless steel, ancient and new clay potteries, dross and clay pottery replica from Peru using low flux high thermalized irradiation sites. Large as well as non-standard geometry samples (1 g - 0.5 kg) were irradiated using thermal column (TC) facility of Apsara reactor as well as graphite reflector position of critical facility (CF) at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. Small size (10 - 500 mg) samples were also irradiated at core position of Apsara reactor, pneumatic carrier facility (PCF) of Dhruva reactor and pneumatic fast transfer facility (PFTS) of KAMINI reactor. Irradiation positions were characterized using indium flux monitor for TC and CF whereas multi monitors were used at other positions. Radioactive assay was carried out using high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The k0-based internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method was used to determine elemental concentration ratios with respect to Na in coal and uranium ore samples, Sc in pottery samples and Fe in stainless steel. Insitu relative detection efficiency for each irradiated sample was obtained using γ rays of activation products in the required energy range. Representative sample sizes were arrived at for coal and uranium ore from the plots of La/Na ratios as a function of the mass of the sample. For stainless steel sample of SS 304L, the absolute concentrations were calculated from concentration ratios by mass balance approach since all the major elements (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn) were amenable to NAA. Concentration ratios obtained by IM-NAA were used for provenance study of 30 clay potteries, obtained from excavated Buddhist sites of AP, India. The La to Ce concentration ratios were used for preliminary grouping and concentration ratios of 15 elements with respect to Sc were used by statistical cluster analysis for confirmation of grouping. Concentrations of Au and Ag were determined in not so

  19. Studies of gel metal-oxide composite samples as filling materials for W-188/Re-188 generator column

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iller, E.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Lada, W.; Wawszczak, D.; Sypula, M.; Doner, K.; Konior, M.; Milczarek, J.; Zoladek, J.; Ráliš, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 1 (2009), s. 83-86 ISSN 0236-5731. [9th International Conference on Nuclear Analytical Methods in the Life Sciences. Lisbon, 07.09.2008-12.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : W-188/Re-188 generator * W-Zr gels * W-Zr composites * Sol-gel process Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.631, year: 2009

  20. Studies of IR-screening smoke clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cudzilo, S. [Military Univ. of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-02-01

    This paper contains some results of research on the IR-screening capability of smoke clouds generated during the combustion process of varied pyrotechnic formulations. The smoke compositions were made from some oxygen or oxygen-free mixtures containing metal and chloroorganic compounds or mixtures based on red phosphorus. The camouflage effectiveness of clouds generated by these formulations was investigated under laboratory conditions with an infrared camera. The technique employed enables determination of radiant temperature distributions in a smoke cloud treated as an energy equivalent of a grey body emission. The results of the analysis of thermographs from the camera were the basis on which the mixtures producing screens of the highest countermeasure for thermal imaging systems have been chosen. (orig.)

  1. An IR and XPS spectroscopy assessment of the physico-chemical surface properties of alumina–YAG nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spina, Giulia; Bonelli, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.bonelli@polito.it; Palmero, Paola, E-mail: paola.palmero@polito.it; Montanaro, Laura

    2013-12-16

    Well-dispersed nano-crystalline transition alumina suspensions were mixed with yttrium chloride aqueous solutions, with the aim of producing by spray-drying Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) composite powders of increasing YAG vol.%. Two samples were prepared, with different Y content, corresponding to 5 and 20 YAG vol.%, respectively. Both samples were then treated at either 600 or 1150 °C. The obtained powders were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and compared to three reference samples: commercial nano-crystalline transition alumina, YAG and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. YAG powders were obtained by co-precipitation route whereas Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were yielded by spray-drying of a yttrium chloride aqueous solution. Modification of physico-chemical properties of the surface of alumina nanoparticles were assessed by combining XPS and FT-IR spectroscopies. On the basis of the results obtained, a possible model is proposed for the structure of the obtained composites, in which Y basically reacts with more acidic hydroxyls of alumina, by forming Y-rich surface grains, the extension of which depends on the thermal treatment. - Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YAG) composite nanopowders were prepared by spray drying. • Combined XPS and IR spectroscopy: effective tools to study surface modifications. • Y reacts with more acidic hydroxyls at alumina surface. • Y-rich surface grains form: their extension depends on the thermal treatment.

  2. Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai

    OpenAIRE

    Mockevičius, Arminas

    2014-01-01

    Viešosios teisės magistro studijų programos studento Armino Mockevičiaus buvo parašytas magistro baigiamasis darbas „Alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklausos teisinio reguliavimo raida Lietuvos Respublikoje: problemos ir sprendimai“. Šis darbas parašytas Vilniuje, 2014 metais, Mykolo Romerio universiteto Teisės fakulteto Konstitucinės ir administracinės teisės institute, vadovaujant dr. Gintautui Vilkeliui, apimtis 98 p. Darbo tikslas yra atskleisti alkoholio ir tabako pasiūlos ir paklau...

  3. High field Moessbauer study of dilute Ir-(Fe) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabatake, Toshiro; Mazaki, Hiromasa; Shinjo, Teruya.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of very dilute Fe impurities in Ir has been studied by means of Moessbauer measurement in external fields up to 80 kOe at 4.2 K. The saturation hyperfine field increases in proportion to the external field up to the maximum magnetic field available. This means that for a localized spin fluctuation system IrFe, the effective magnetic moment associated with Fe impurities is induced in proportion to the external field. No anomalous spectrum was observed with a very dilute sample (--10 ppm 57 Co), indicating that the interaction between impurities is responsible for the anomalous spectrum previously observed with a less homogeneous sample. (author)

  4. MID-IR LUMINOSITIES AND UV/OPTICAL STAR FORMATION RATES AT z < 1.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, Samir; Dickinson, Mark; Michael Rich, R.; Charlot, Stephane; Lee, Janice C.; Schiminovich, David; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Noeske, Kai; Papovich, Casey; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Faber, S. M.; Ivison, Rob J.; Frayer, David T.; Walton, Josiah M.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Bundy, Kevin; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) nonionizing continuum and mid-infrared (IR) emission constitute the basis of two widely used star formation (SF) indicators at intermediate and high redshifts. We study 2430 galaxies with z 10 -10 12 L sun ). We show that the IR luminosity can be estimated from the UV and optical photometry to within a factor of 2, implying that most z IR >10 11 L sun , yet with little current SF. For them a reasonable amount of dust absorption of stellar light (but presumably higher than in nearby early-type galaxies) is sufficient to produce the observed levels of IR, which includes a large contribution from intermediate and old stellar populations. In our sample, which contains very few ultraluminous IR galaxies, optical and X-ray active galactic nuclei do not contribute on average more than ∼50% to the mid-IR luminosity, and we see no evidence for a large population of 'IR excess' galaxies.

  5. IR sensor for monitoring of burner flame; IR sensor foer oevervakning av braennarflamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanberg, Marcus; Funkquist, Jonas; Clausen, Soennik; Wetterstroem, Jonas

    2007-12-15

    To obtain a smooth operation of the coal-fired power plants many power plant managers have installed online mass flow measurement of coal to all burners. This signal is used to monitor the coal mass flow to the individual burner and match it with appropriate amount of air and also to monitor the distribution of coal between the burners. The online mass flow measurement system is very expensive (approximately 150 kEUR for ten burners) and is not beneficial for smaller plants. The accuracy of the measurement and the sample frequency are also questionable. The idea in this project has been to evaluate a cheaper system that can present the same information and may also provide better accuracy and faster sample frequency. The infrared sensor is a cheap narrow banded light emission sensor that can be placed in a water cooed probe. The sensor was directed at the burner flame and the emitted light was monitored. Through calibration the mass flow of coal can be presented. Two measurement campaigns were performed. Both campaigns were carried out in Nordjyllandsverket in Denmark even though the second campaign was planned to be in Uppsala. Due to severe problems in the Uppsala plant the campaign was moved to Nordjyllandsverket. The pre-requisites for the test plant were that online measurement of coal flow was installed. In Nordjyllandsverket 4 out of 16 burners have the mass flow measurement installed. Risoe Laboratories has vast experiences in the IR technology and they provided the IR sensing equipment. One IR sensor was placed in the flame guard position just behind the flame directed towards the ignition zone. A second sensor was placed at the boiler wall directed towards the flame. The boiler wall position did not give any results and the location was not used during the second campaign. The flame-guard-positioned-sensor- signal was thoroughly evaluated and the results show that there is a clear correlation between the coal mass flow and the IR sensor signal. Tests were

  6. Depth-resolved sample composition analysis using laser-induced ablation-quadrupole mass spectrometry and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, J.; Gierse, N.; Li, C.; Brezinsek, S.; Zlobinski, M.; Turan, B.; Haas, S.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring a sample's material composition became more and more important over the last years for both - industrial process control as well as for post mortem analysis in research and industrial development. Although material composition identification as well as a comparison with standard samples works fine, there is a lack of diagnostics which can provide quantitative information with depth resolution without any standard samples. We present a novel method utilizing a residual gas analysis with quadrupole mass spectrometry after picosecond laser-induced ablation and release of volatile species. In the present experiment, well characterized multilayer thin film solar cells (μc-Si:H and a-Si:D as p-i-n-junctions on ZnO:Al electrodes) are used as a set of well characterized material samples to demonstrate the capabilities of the new method. The linearity of the spectrometer signal to gas pressure simplifies its calibration and reduces its uncertainties in comparison with other analysis techniques, although high vacuum conditions (10-6 hPa to 10-7 hPa) are required to reach high sensitivity better than the percent-range. Moreover, the laser-ablation based sample analysis requires no preparation of the sample and is flexible regarding ablation rates. The application of a picosecond laser pulse ensures that the thermal penetration depth of the laser is in the same order of magnitude as the ablation rate, which enables to achieve depth resolutions in the order of 100 nm and avoids matrix mixing effects at the edge of the laser-induced crater in the sample.

  7. IR spectroscopy at the ITO-organic interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Milan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Shazada, Ahmad [Max-Planck Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Mainz (Germany); Tamanai, Akemi; Trollmann, Jens; Glaser, Tobias; Beck, Sebastian; Tengeler, Sven; Pucci, Annemarie [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Thin films of P3HT have been prepared by spin coating and electrooxidative polymerization on platinum- and ITO-coated substrates. Additionally, P3HT-films on silicon substrates have been prepared by spin coating only. The measured IR spectra of the spin coated films allowed for an elaboration of a detailed optical model for P3HT, which has been used to simulate IR reflection-absorption spectra on ITO and Pt substrates. Comparison of simulated spectra with measurements revealed no substrate influence on the IR spectra for the spincoated films. In case of spincoated P3HT-films on ITO-substrate, the obtained IR spectra correspond to simulation data very well up to 6000 wavenumbers. In the electropolymerized P3HT films we have identified residuals of the electrolyte ionic liquid, acting as dopand for P3HT. While IR spectra of the electropolymerized P3HT films on Pt substrate could be explained reasonably well as a superposition of chemically doped P3HT and the ionic electrolyte, the IR spectra of electropolymerized P3HT films on ITO substrates showed strongly deposition-time dependent deviations. These were most likely related to varying properties of the ITO surface between reference and sample measurement due to an interaction of ITO and the electrolyte at the film-substrate interface.

  8. Effects of vitamin E and fish oil inclusion in broiler diets on meat fatty acid composition and on the flavour of a composite sample of breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D Ian

    2010-08-15

    Enriching poultry meat with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) can increase low population intakes of LC n-3 PUFA, but fishy taints can spoil reheated meat. This experiment determined the effect of different amounts of LC n-3 PUFA and vitamin E in the broiler diet on the fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of the breast meat. Ross 308 broilers (120) were randomly allocated to one of five treatments from 21 to 42 days of age. Diets contained (g kg(-1)) 0, 9 or 18 LC n-3 PUFA (0LC, 9LC, 18LC), and 100, 150 or 200 mg LD-alpha-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) (E). The five diets were 0LC100E, 9LC100E, 18LC100E, 18LC150E, 18LC200E, with four pens per diet, except 18LC100E (eight pens). Breast meat was analysed for fatty acids (uncooked) and sensory analysis by R-index (reheated). LC n-3 PUFA content (mg kg(-1) meat) was 514 (0LC100E) and 2236 (9LC and 18LC). Compared with 0LC100E, meat from 18LC100E and 18LC150E tasted significantly different, while 23% of panellists detected fishy taints in 9LC100E and 18LC200E. Chicken meat can be enriched with nutritionally meaningful amounts of LC n-3 PUFA, but > 100 mg dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate kg(-1) broiler diet is needed to protect reheated meat from oxidative deterioration. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. A sensitive determination of terbutaline in pharmaceuticals and urine samples using a composite electrode based on zirconium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baytak, Aysegul Kutluay; Teker, Tugce; Duzmen, Sehriban; Aslanoglu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    An accurate and precise determination of terbutaline has been carried out using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanoparticles of zirconium oxide (ZrO2NPs). Energy dispersive X-ray and scanning electron microscopic techniques were utilized for the characterization of the composite layer. Terbutaline exhibited a broad oxidation peak at 770mV on a GCE. However, MWCNTs/GCE presented an electrocatalytic effect toward the oxidation of terbutaline with a better anodic peak at 660mV. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of terbutaline has greatly been improved at a GCE modified with a composite of MWCNTs and nanoparticles of ZrO2. The ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a sharp anodic wave at 645mV with a large enhancement of the current response for terbutaline. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was performed for the determination of terbutaline at ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE. A linear plot was obtained for the current responses of terbutaline against concentrations in the range of 10-160nM yielding a detection limit of 2.25nM (based on 3Sb/m). Improved voltammetric behavior, long-time stability and good reproducibility were obtained for terbutaline at the proposed electrode. A mean recovery of 101.2% with an RSD% of 1.9 was obtained for the analysis of the drug formulation. The accurate and precise quantification of terbutaline makes the ZrO2NPs/MWCNTs/GCE system of great interest for monitoring its therapeutic use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mid-IR Spectra of Refractory Minerals Relevant to Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhari, Shekeab

    2008-09-01

    On 4 July 2005 the Spitzer Space Telescope obtained mid-IR ( 5-40 µm) spectra of the ejecta from the hypervelocity impact of the Deep Impact projectile with comet 9P/Tempel 1. Spectral modeling demonstrates that there are abundant minerals present in the ejecta including Ca/Fe/Mg-rich silicates, carbonates, phyllosilicates, water ice, amorphous carbon, and sulfides [1]. However, precise mineralogical identifications are hampered by the lack of comprehensive 5 - 40 µm spectral measurements of the emissivity for a broad compositional range of these materials. Here, we present our initial results for 2 - 50 µm transmission spectra and absorption constants for materials relevant to comets, including pyrrhotite, pyrite, and several phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. Measuring the transmission of materials over the full spectral range sensitive by Spitzer requires grinding the minerals into submicron powders and then mixing them with KBr (for the 1-25 um region) and polyethylene (16-50 um region) to form pellets. Transmission measurements of sub-micron sulfides are particularly difficult to obtain because the minerals oxidize rapidly upon grinding and subsequent handling unless special care is taken. A detailed description of our sample preparation and measurement technique will be provided to assist other researchers in their attempts to acquire similar spectra. References: [1] Lisse, C.M. et al., Science 313, 635 - 640 (2006)

  11. IR Absorption Coefficients for the Quantification of Water in Hydrous Ringwoodite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sylvia-Monique; Jacobsen, Steven D.; Bina, Craig R.; Smyth, Joseph R.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2010-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy, combined with the 'Comparator technique' has been developed to determine water contents ranging from a few wt ppm to wt% in glasses and nominally anhydrous minerals including garnets, olivine, and SiO2 polymorphs (Thomas et al. 2009). The routine is one promising example of quantification tools to determine mineral specific molar absorption coefficients (ɛ) for IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific absorption coefficients are required because general IR calibrations do not necessarily apply to minerals with water incorporated as hydroxyl point defects. Here we utilize the 'Comparator technique' to provide ɛ-values for a set of synthetic Fe-free (Fo100) and Fe-bearing (Fo90, Fo87, Fo83, Fo60) ringwoodites, as well as for γ-Mg2GeO4. Ringwoodite is considered one of the major phases of the Earth's lower transition zone (520-660 km depth) and the knowledge of its absolute water storage capacity is essential for modeling the Earth's deep water cycle. Samples were synthesized at variable P-T conditions in a multi-anvil press and cover a range of OH contents. Single-crystals were characterized using X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Mineral specific IR absorption coefficients were calculated from independently determined water contents from Raman spectroscopy. Unpolarized IR spectra of Mg-ringwoodite show broad absorption features in the OH region with band maxima at ~2350, 2538, 3130, 3172, 3598 and 3688 cm-1. In the spectra of Fe-bearing ringwoodite and γ-Mg2GeO4 the maxima of the main OH band are shifted to 3244 cm-1 (Fo60) and 3207 cm-1, respectively. For Mg-ringwoodite with the mean wavenumber (area-weighted average of the peak position) of 3170 cm-1 an ɛ-value of 191500 ± 38300 L cm-2/ molH2O was determined. For the ringwoodites with Fo90, Fo87 and Fo83 composition and the mean wavenumbers of 3229 cm-1, 3252 cm-1 and 3163 cm-1 values of 123600 ± 24700 L cm-2/ molH2O, 176300 ± 52900 L cm-2/ molH2O and 155000 ± 46500 L cm-2/ molH2O were

  12. Trace element and REE composition of five samples of the Yucca Mountain calcite-silica deposits. Special report No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, D.

    1993-07-01

    The attached materials document the results of part of a recent effort of geochemical sampling and analysis at Yucca Mountain and nearby regions. The efforts come as a result of interest in comprehensive analyses of rare earth elements (REE), lanthanum (La) through lutecium (Lu). Several additional, non-REE analyses were obtained as well. Commercially available REE analyses have proved to be insufficiently sensitive for geochemical purposes. Dr. Roman Schmitt at the Radiation Center at Oregon State University in Corvallis was sent five samples as a trial effort. The results are very encouraging. The purpose of compiling Dr. Schmitt's report and the other materials is to inform the sponsor of his independent observations of these results and other information that sent to him. To provide a more complete appreciation of the utility of REE analyses a copy of Dave Vaniman's recent article is included in which he notes that REE analyses from Yucca Mountain indicate the occurrence of two distinctly different REE patterns as do several other chemical parameters of the calcite-silica deposits. Our four samples with high equivalent CaCO 3 were collected from sites we believe to be spring deposits. One sample, 24D, is from southern Crater Flat which is acknowledged by U.S.G.S. investigators to be a spring deposit. All four of these samples have REE patterns similar to those from the saturated zone reported by Vaniman

  13. Latent class analysis of real time qPCR and bacteriological culturing for the diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae in cow composite milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H.; Toft, Nils; Jørgensen, Hannah J.

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) has re-emerged as a mastitis pathogen among Norwegian dairy cows. The Norwegian cattle health services recommend that infected herds implement measures to eradicate S. agalactiae, this includes a screening of milk samples from all lactating cows....... The performance of the qPCR-test currently in use for this purpose has not been evaluated under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time qPCR assay in use in Norway (Mastitis 4 qPCR, DNA Diagnostics A/S, Risskov, Denmark) and compare...... it to conventional bacteriological culturing for detection of S. agalactiae in milk samples. Because none of these tests are considered a perfect reference test, the evaluation was performed using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Aseptically collected cow-composite milk samples from 578 cows belonging...

  14. Partition coefficients for Ni, Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ir between monosulfide solid solution and sulfide liquid and the formation of compositionally zoned Ni-Cu sulfide bodies by fractional crystallization of sulfide liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, S.J.; Makovicky, E.; Makovicky, M.

    1996-01-01

    of the system. There is a positive correlation between the partition coefficients and sulfur content of the monosulfide solid solution and between the partition coefficients and the sulfur content of the liquid. In sulfur-saturated and sulfur-over-saturated experimental systems, the metals behave in a manner...... (Alexo, Abitibi Greenstone Belt) and a zoned tholeiite-related ore (Oktyabr'sky, Noril'sk region, Siberia). In both cases, the experimental partition coefficients numerically model the composition zones of the actual ores. This supports the model of fractional crystallization of a monosulfide solid...

  15. Assessment of the radionuclide composition of "hot particles" sampled in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant fourth reactor unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified, and the fuel burn-up in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burn-up values based on the cesium isotopes in comparison with other radionuclides was observed. The studies conducted were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of 242Cm and 243Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from 241Am (and going higher) in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  16. Influence of the radial spacing between cathodes on the surface composition of iron samples sintered by hollow cathode electric discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunatto S.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports an investigation of the influence of the radial spacing between cathodes on the iron sintering process by hollow cathode electrical discharge, with surface enrichment of the alloying elements Cr and Ni. Pressed cylindrical samples of 9.5 mm diameter and density of 7.0 ± 0.1 g/cm³ were prepared by compaction of Ancorsteel 1000C iron powder. These samples, constituting the central cathode, were positioned concentrically in the interior of an external cathode machined from a tube of stainless steel AISI 310 (containing: 25% Cr, 16% Ni, 1.5% Mn, 1.5% Si, 0.03% C and the remainder Fe. Sintering was done at 1150 °C, for 120 min, utilizing radial spacings between the central and hollow cathodes of 3, 6 and 9 mm and a gas mixture of 80% Ar and 20% H2, with a flow rate of 5 cm³/s at a pressure of 3 Torr. The electric discharge was generated using a pulsed voltage power source, with a period of 200 mus. The radial spacing had only a slight influence on the quantity of atoms of alloying elements deposited and diffused on the surface of the sample. Analysis with a microprobe showed the presence of chrome (up to 4.0% and nickel (up to 3.0%, in at. % at the surface of the samples. This surface enrichment can be attributed to the mechanism of sputtering of the metallic atoms present in the external cathode, with the deposition of these elements on the sample surface and consequent diffusion within the sample.

  17. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ežerskytė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  18. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preconcentration of Arsenic in Water Samples Using the Composition-Induced Phase Separation Method and Determination by ETAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçoğlu M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new phase transition microextraction method was developed for determination of trace amount of arsenic ions in water samples in this work. The method is based on the critical point of miscibility of solvents. In this method the mixed solution of sample and organic solvent is initially homogeneous but is separated into two phases by adding a secondary solvent (modifier. In acidic medium As(V was complexed with ammonium molybdate, this complex was quantitatively extracted to the mixture of organic solvent (acetonitrile/methyl isobutyl ketone before ETAAS determination. Total inorganic arsenic (III, V was extracted similarly after oxidation of As(III to As(V with nitric acid. Concentration of As(III was calculated by difference in the concentration between total arsenic and As(V. Optimization of the experimental conditions and instrumental parameters was investigated in detail. A detection limit of 0.05 μgL−1 with enrichment factor of 85 was achieved for only 5 mL of sample. The analytical curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.25-4.00 μgL−1. Relative standard deviation (RSD for 10 replicate determinations of 2.0 μgL−1 of As(V was 4,1%. The method was successfully applied to preconcentration and determination of arsenic in real water samples.

  20. A TIMS-based method for the high precision measurements of the three-isotope potassium composition of small samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Bizzarro, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A novel thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) method for the three-isotope analysis of K has been developed, and ion chromatographic methods for the separation of K have been adapted for the processing of small samples. The precise measurement of K-isotopes is challenged by the presence of ...

  1. [Composition of marine sediment samples in the Costa Rica intertidal zones using X-Ray fluorescence analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Alfonso; Lizano, Omar G; Alfaro, Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Using an energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence analysis, simultaneous evaluation of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ge, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in 74 marine sediment samples from the Costa Rica intertidal zones was conducted. Samples were collected between June 1999 and December 2001, from Caribbean and Pacific beaches of Costa Rica. Calcium and iron showed the highest abundances and are indicators of the natural origin of the sediments. Calcium is associated with biogenic processes such as coral reefs near the sampling sites and iron indicates a terrigenous origin. In general, the beaches of the Caribbean and North Pacific regions showed the greatest concentration of calcium. This is indicative of the abundant reef structures near these beaches. The beaches of the Central and South Pacific show the greatest iron concentrations, indicating an important lithosphere contribution and/or little contribution of calcium carbonate due to the poor development of coralline structures near the sampling sites. Finally, the analyses did not show evidence of elements associated with anthropogenic pollution. Only a northern section of Puerto Viejo beach showed high concentrations of lead, zinc and titanium, perhaps associated with hydrothermal sources.

  2. A study on elemental composition in epiphytic lichen samples used as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montezani, Edmila

    2010-01-01

    Studies on air pollution have intensified in recent years, due to the diversity of emissions and the effect caused to the health of populations. Consequently, several techniques have been investigated for air pollution evaluation and among them one that has gained considerable attention is that of biomonitoring. In this study chemical elemental levels in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo city were evaluated, by means of passive biomonitoring, using epiphytic Canoparmelia texana species, in order to compare between the results obtained in samples from different sites of Sao Paulo city and in a reference site of Ubatuba city, SP. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) procedure applied in the analyses consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples along with synthetic standards of elements in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 for 16 hours under a thermal neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , followed by gamma ray spectrometry for the determination of As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Rb, Sc, Se and Zn. Results obtained in the analyses of lichens samples in replicates presented good reproducibility indicating homogeneity of the prepared samples. The precision and accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analyses of certified reference materials IAEA-336 Lichen and INCT-TL-1 Tea Leaves. Results obtained in the reference materials presented, in general, good precision, with relative standard deviations between 0.4 and 14.8% and good accuracy with relative errors between 0.2 and 8.7%. In Sao Paulo city, the lichens were collected in the following sites: Parque Dom Pedro II, Congonhas, Cidade Universitaria, Lapa, Mooca, Morumbi, Nossa Senhora do O, Parque Ibirapuera, Pinheiros, Santana, Santo Amaro and Taboao da Serra. Element concentrations found in lichens indicated a great variability depending on the sites where the samples were collected. The results obtained in the lichens submitted to the cluster analysis indicated three groups of sampling sites according to the

  3. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  4. Data fusion of Landsat TM and IRS images in forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangxing Wang; Markus Holopainen; Eero Lukkarinen

    2000-01-01

    Data fusion of Landsat TM images and Indian Remote Sensing satellite panchromatic image (IRS-1C PAN) was studied and compared to the use of TM or IRS image only. The aim was to combine the high spatial resolution of IRS-1C PAN to the high spectral resolution of Landsat TM images using a data fusion algorithm. The ground truth of the study was based on a sample of 1,020...

  5. Graphene oxide-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of inorganic selenium in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanan; Chen, Beibei; Wu, Shaowei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a method of graphene oxide (GO)-TiO2 composite solid phase extraction followed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) detection was proposed for the speciation of inorganic selenium in environmental waters. The adsorption behavior of inorganic Se(IV) and Se(VI) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite was investigated. It was found that Se(IV) was quantitatively retained on the GO-TiO2 composites within a wide pH range of 0.5-10, while Se(VI) was quantitatively adsorbed on GO-TiO2(1:1) composite at pH 0.5-2, and no obvious adsorption of Se(VI) within the pH range of 4-10 was found. By selecting pH 6.0, Se(IV) could be easily determined. After reduction of Se(VI), total Se was determined by the proposed method, and Se(VI) was calculated as the difference between the total Se and Se(IV). The factors affecting the separation/preconcentration of Se(IV) and Se(VI) were studied. Under the optimum conditions, the isothermal adsorption of Se(IV) on the GO-TiO2(1:1) composite fitted Langmuir model; a linear range over 0.1-12ngmL(-1) was obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) and precision of the method for Se(IV) was 0.04ngmL(-1) and 9.4% (cSe(IV)=0.5ngmL(-1), n=7), respectively. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a standard water sample (GSBZ50031-94) was analyzed, and the determined value was in a good agreement to the certified value. The established method was applied to inorganic Se speciation in environmental water samples and the recovery of 87.4-102% was obtained for the spiked samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioluminescence dating: the IR emission of feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilles, Thomas.; Habermann, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A new luminescence reader for radioluminescence (RL) measurements is presented. The system allows detection of RL emissions in the near infrared region (IR). Basic bleaching properties of the IR-RL emission of feldspars are investigated. Sunlight-bleaching experiments as a test for sensitivity changes are presented. IR-bleaching experiments were carried out to obtain information about the underlying physical processes of the IR-RL emission

  7. Least-mean-square spatial filter for IR sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takken, E H; Friedman, D; Milton, A F; Nitzberg, R

    1979-12-15

    A new least-mean-square filter is defined for signal-detection problems. The technique is proposed for scanning IR surveillance systems operating in poorly characterized but primarily low-frequency clutter interference. Near-optimal detection of point-source targets is predicted both for continuous-time and sampled-data systems.

  8. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabelac, M.; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, P.; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report double-resonant IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy of neutral gramicidin peptides in the gas phase. The IR spectra of gramicidin A and C, recorded in both the 1000 cm(-1) to 1800 cm(-1) and the 2700 to 3750 cm(-1) region, allow structural analysis. By studying this broad IR range, various local

  9. Buffer choice and effects of sample composition examined by experiment planning methods for determination of molybdenum by atomic absorption with a flame atomizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zav'yalkov, P.I.; Danishehvskii, A.L.; Rakita, R.A.; Yakshinskii, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors use orthogonal experiment planning to define the optimum form of buffer and to establish the effects of sample composition since there are high levels of cation and anion interference in the atomic-absorption determination of molybdenum. A spectroscopic buffer has been identified (HCLO 4 + NH 4 Cl mixture), which eliminates the interference from the elements tested and improves the analytical characteristics in determining molybdenum. A model has been formulated enabling one to estimate the buffer performance and the effects of the components on the determination of molybdenum. The model enables one to forecast the expected order of the effect without performing additional experiments

  10. General procedure for the determination of trace amounts of iodine in natural water samples of unknown composition by spectrophotometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesavento, M.; Profumo, A.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to samples of natural waters containing 2 x 10 -7 to 5 x 10 -5 M iodine and the solutions are then oxidised with hydrogen peroxide on a boiling water-bath. They are then reduced with sodium sulphite, which is subsequently removed by bubbling a stream of inert gas through the solution. All of the inorganic iodine, now present in the solution in the -1 oxidation state, can be titrated spectrophotometrically with standard potassium iodate solution, following a method previously described in which interferences from oxidants and reductants are eliminated. (author)

  11. General procedure for the determination of trace amounts of iodine in natural water samples of unknown composition by spectrophotometric titration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesavento, M.; Profumo, A. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica Generale)

    1985-02-01

    Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to samples of natural waters containing 2 x 10/sup -7/ to 5 x 10/sup -5/ M iodine and the solutions are then oxidised with hydrogen peroxide on a boiling water-bath. They are then reduced with sodium sulphite, which is subsequently removed by bubbling a stream of inert gas through the solution. All of the inorganic iodine, now present in the solution in the -1 oxidation state, can be titrated spectrophotometrically with standard potassium iodate solution, following a method previously described in which interferences from oxidants and reductants are eliminated.

  12. Biocompatibility of Ir/Ti-oxide coatings: Interaction with platelets, endothelial and smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habibzadeh, Sajjad [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Li, Ling [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Omanovic, Sasha [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Shum-Tim, Dominique [Divisions of Cardiac Surgery and Surgical Research, Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Davis, Elaine C., E-mail: elaine.davis@mcgill.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ir/Ti-oxide coated surfaces are characterized by the so-called “cracked-mud” morphology. • 40% Ir in the coating material results in a morphologically uniform coating. • ECs and SMCs showed a desirable response to the Ir/Ti-oxide coated surfaces. • Ir/Ti-oxide coated surfaces are more bio/hemocompatible than the untreated 316L stainless steel. - Abstract: Applying surface coatings on a biomedical implant is a promising modification technique which can enhance the implant's biocompatibility via controlling blood constituents- or/and cell-surface interaction. In this study, the influence of composition of Ir{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x}-oxide coatings (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) formed on a titanium (Ti) substrate on the responses of platelets, endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was investigated. The results showed that a significant decrease in platelet adhesion and activation was obtained on Ir{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}-oxide and Ir{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}-oxide coatings, rendering the surfaces more blood compatible, in comparison to the control (316L stainless steel, 316L-SS) and other coating compositions. Further, a substantial increase in the EC/SMC surface count ratio after 4 h of cell attachment to the Ir{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}-oxide and Ir{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}-oxide coatings, relative to the 316L-SS control and the other coating compositions, indicated high potential of these coatings for the enhancement of surface endothelialization. This indicates the capability of the corresponding coating compositions to promote EC proliferation on the surface, while inhibiting that of SMCs, which is important in cardiovascular stents applications.

  13. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  14. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Saliva Samples by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  15. Construction and characterization on composite electrospinning fibers doped with iridium complex owing fluorine atoms in its auxiliary ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Pengju; Xu, Shuxia; Wu, Kun; Mou, Wanzhi

    2014-10-15

    The authors synthesized a fluorine-containing Ir(III) complex Ir(PTZ)2(HFD) and the corresponding composite electrospinning fibers PVP@Ir(PTZ)2(HFD), where PTZ, HFD and PVP stood for 2-phenylbenzo[d]thiazole, 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione and poly(vinylpyrrolidone), respectively. The molecular structure of the Ir(III) complex was confirmed by its single crystal analysis, which suggested that Ir(PTZ)2(HFD) molecules crystallized as monoclinic system with two molecules in each unit cell. Density functional theory calculation on the crystal revealed that the onset electronic transitions possessed a mixed character of metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MLCT) and ligand-to-ligand-charge-transfer (LLCT). Ir(PTZ)2(HFD) was then doped into electrospinning fibers so that the photophysical comparison between bulk Ir(PTZ)2(HFD) and composite samples could be performed. It was found that both face-to-face π-π attraction in crystal and the immobilization in PVP host could improve photoluminescence performance by restraining the geometric relaxation of MLCT excited state, showing emission blue shift, longer excited state lifetime and improved photostability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between visfatin and HOMA-IR in hypertensive patients, and the effect of antihypertensive drugs on visfatin and HOMA-IR in hypertensive patients with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jianjun; Chen, Xiaoni; Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Si; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Kai; He, Sen; Peng, Yong; Jiang, Lingyun; Li, Longxin; Wan, Liyan

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the correlation between serum visfatin and insulin resistance (IR) in non-diabetic essential hypertensive (EH) patients with and without IR, and to evaluate the effect of antihypertensive treatment on serum visfatin and IR in these patients. A total of 81 non-diabetic EH patients, including 54 with IR and 27 without IR, were enrolled. After two weeks wash-out, patients with IR were randomly assigned to telmisartan (group T) or amlodipine (group A) for 6 months. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment for measurement of routine biochemical parameters, visfatin and insulin resistance (measured by HOMA-IR). Visfatin was independently correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.845, P=0.000). After 6 months of treatment, both drugs lowered HOMA-IR, more significantly so in group T than group A (P=0.010). Serum visfatin levels increased in group T but decreased in group A. Serum visfatin levels were higher in non-diabetic EH patients with IR compared with those without IR. Visfatin is independently correlated with HOMA-IR. Telmisartan lowers HOMA-IR to a greater extent than amlodipine. Interestingly, serum visfatin increased with telmisartan yet decreased with amlodipine treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  18. A detailed post-IR IRSL dating study of the Niuyangzigou loess site in northeastern China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Shuangwen; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew Sean

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report standard quartz SAR OSL and post-IR infrared (IR) stimulated luminescence (post-IR IRSL; pIRIR290) measurements made on sand-sized quartz and K-feldspar extracts from the loess-palaeosol sequence at Niuyangzigou in northeastern China. The quartz OSL characteristics...... temperature -pIRIR (MET-pIRIR) data. It appears that the low temperature MET-pIRIR data are strongly affected by poor dose recovery, but this is not the case for the pIRIR290 results. Natural signal measurements at the highest (first IR) stimulation temperature on a sample expected to be in field saturation...

  19. Homa1-ir And Homa2-ir Indexes In Identifying Insulin Resistance And Metabolic Syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (brams) [Índices Homa1-ir E Homa2-ir Para Identificação De Resistência à Insulina E Síndrome Metabólica - Estudo Brasileiro De Síndrome Metabólica (brams)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze B.; Vasques A.C.J.; Stabe C.F.C.; Pareja J.C.; de Lima Rosado L.E.F.P.; de Queiroz E.C.; Tambascia M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  20. Characterization and identification of microorganisms by FT-IR microspectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Thi, N. A.; Kirschner, C.; Naumann, D.

    2003-12-01

    We report on a novel FT-IR approach for microbial characterization/identification based on a light microscope coupled to an infrared spectrometer which offers the possibility to acquire IR-spectra of microcolonies containing only few hundred cells. Microcolony samples suitable for FT-IR microspectroscopic measurements were obtained by a replica technique with a stamping device that transfers spatially accurate cells of microcolonies growing on solid culture plates to a special, IR-transparent or reflecting stamping plate. High quality spectra could be recorded either by applying the transmission/absorbance or the reflectance/absorbance mode of the infrared microscope. Signal to noise ratios higher than 1000 were obtained for microcolonies as small as 40 μm in diameter. Reproducibility levels were established that allowed species and strain identification. The differentiation and classification capacity of the FT-IR microscopic technique was tested for different selected microorganisms. Cluster and factor analysis methods were used to evaluate the complex spectral data. Excellent discrimination between bacteria and yeasts, and at the same time Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains was obtained. Twenty-two selected strains of different species within the genus Staphylococcus were repetitively measured and could be grouped into correct species cluster. Moreover, the results indicated that the method allows also identifications at the subspecies level. Additionally, the new approach allowed spectral mapping analysis of single colonies which provided spatially resolved characterization of growth heterogeneity within complex microbial populations such as colonies.

  1. Red-IR stimulated luminescence in K-feldspar: Single or multiple trap origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Jain, Mayank; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We investigate on the origins of the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in 3 potassium feldspars based on IR-red spectroscopy (700–1050 nm) using a fiber-coupled tunable Ti:Sapphire laser, in combination with different thermal and optical (pre)treatments of the samples. We also...

  2. Nanomechanical IR spectroscopy for fast analysis of liquid-dispersed engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Yamada, Shoko; Ek, Pramod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The proliferated use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, calls for novel techniques allowing for fast and sensitive analysis of minute samples. Here we present nanomechanical IR spectroscopy (NAM-IR) for chemical analysis of picograms of ENMs. ENMs are nebulized directly from...

  3. DURACON-IR: Durable and Conductive IR witness coatings for High Accuracy IR Thermography, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An accurate assessment of composite structural performance and proactive component and system life management strategies requires quantitative information on the...

  4. Monitoring tensile damage evolution in Nextel 312/BlackglasTM composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeongguk; Liaw, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    Tensile damage evolution was monitored with the aid of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. Several NDE methods, such as ultrasonic testing (UT), infrared (IR) thermography, and acoustic emission (AE) techniques, were employed to analyze damage evolution during tensile testing of Nextel 312/Blackglas TM composites. Prior to tensile testing, UT was used to characterize the initial defect distribution of the samples. During tensile testing, AE sensors and an IR camera were used for in situ monitoring of the progressive damage of the samples. AE provided the amounts of damage evolution in terms of the AE intensity and/or energy, and the IR camera was used to obtain the temperature changes during the test. Microstructural characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to investigate the fracture mechanisms and modes of Nextel 312/Blackglas TM samples. Moreover, SEM characterization was used to document failure behavior, and to show comparable results with NDE signatures

  5. Development of a LC-MS/MS Method for the Multi-Mycotoxin Determination in Composite Cereal-Based Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara De Santis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The analytical scenario for determining contaminants in the food and feed sector is constantly prompted by the progress and improvement of knowledge and expertise of researchers and by the technical innovation of the instrumentation available. Mycotoxins are agricultural contaminants of fungal origin occurring at all latitudes worldwide and being characterized by acute and chronic effects on human health and animal wellness, depending on the species sensitivity. The major mycotoxins of food concern are aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, the first for its toxicity, and the second for its recurrent occurrence. However, the European legislation sets maximum limits for mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and zearalenone, and indicative limits for T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Due to the actual probability that co-occurring mycotoxins are present in a food or feed product, nowadays, the availability of reliable, sensitive, and versatile multi-mycotoxin methods is assuming a relevant importance. Due to the wide range of matrices susceptible to mycotoxin contamination and the possible co-occurrence, a multi-mycotoxin and multi-matrix method was validated in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS with the purpose to overcome specific matrix effects and analyze complex cereal-based samples within the Italian Total Diet Study project.

  6. Chemical composition and antioxidant and antifungal properties of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint and Mentha arvensis L. (cornmint samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo, M.C.S.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils and infusions from commercial peppermint sachets (CPS, and non-commercial genuine peppermint (NCP and cornmint (NCC samples were analyzed by GC/MS and LC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of mint oils against Fusarium moniliforme, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates was determined. Antioxidant potential was monitored by total phenolic content (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and soybean oil oxidation tests. CPS and NCC oils had lower menthofuran content than NCP. Mint oils did not show a uniform standard of antifungal activity and they had the modest reducing ability. CPS and NCC infusions showed higher IC50 and lower TPC than NCP ones. In the soybean oxidation test, mint oils presented prooxidant behavior. CPS infusions showed antioxidant potential significantly (P<0.05, Tukey lower than that from NCC and NCP infusions. NCP infusions were more efficient in delaying propagation reaction than NCC ones. This may be attributed to higher amount of rosmarinic acid and hesperidin in NCP.

  7. Determination of uranium isotopic composition and 236U content of soil samples and hot particles using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulyga, S F; Becker, J S

    2001-07-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The 236U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. Nuclear track radiography was applied for the identification and extraction of hot radioactive particles from soil samples. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) with a MicroMist nebulizer and a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN). The performance of the DF-ICP-MS with a quartz DIHEN and plasma shielded torch was studied. Overall detection efficiencies of 4 x 10(-4) and 10(-3) counts per atom were achieved for 238U in DF-ICP-QMS with the MicroMist nebulizer and DIHEN, respectively. The rate of formation of uranium hydride ions UH+/U+ was 1.2 x 10(-4) and 1.4 x 10(-4), respectively. The precision of short-term measurements of uranium isotopic ratios (n = 5) in 1 microg L(-1) NBS U-020 standard solution was 0.11% (238U/235U) and 1.4% (236U/238U) using a MicroMist nebulizer and 0.25% (235U/238U) and 1.9% (236U/P38U) using a DIHEN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the 236U/238U ratio ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-3). Results obtained with ICP-MS, alpha- and gamma-spectrometry showed differences in the migration properties of spent uranium, plutonium, and americium. The isotopic ratio of uranium was also measured in hot particles extracted from soil samples.

  8. Determination of uranium isotopic composition and 236U content of soil samples and hot particles using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Becker, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The 236 U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. Nuclear track radiography was applied for the identification and extraction of hot radioactive particles from soil samples. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) with a MicroMist nebulizer and a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN). The performance of the DF-ICP-MS with a quartz DIHEN and plasma shielded torch was studied. Overall detection efficiencies of 4 x 10 -4 and 10 -3 counts per atom were achieved for 238 U in DF-ICP-QMS with the MicroMist nebulizer and DIHEN, respectively. The rate of formation of uranium hydride ions UH + /U + was 1.2 x 10 -4 and 1.4 x 10 -4 , respectively. The precision of short-term measurements of uranium isotopic ratios (n = 5) in 1 μg L -1 NBS U-020 standard solution was 0.11% ( 238 U/ 235 U) and 1.4% ( 236 U/ 238 U) using a MicroMist nebulizer and 0.25% ( 235 U/ 238 U) and 1.9% ( 236 U/ 238 U) using a DIHEN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the 236 U/ 238 U ratio ranged from 10 -5 to 10 -3 . Results obtained with ICP-MS, α- and γ-spectrometry showed differences in the migration properties of spent uranium, plutonium, and americium. The isotopic ratio of uranium was also measured in hot particles extracted from soil samples. (orig.)

  9. The choice of ultrasound assisted extraction coupled with spectrophotometric for rapid determination of gallic acid in water samples: Central composite design for optimization of process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooralhossini, Jaleh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Asfaram, Arash

    2017-01-01

    A sensitive procedure namely ultrasound-assisted (UA) coupled dispersive nano solid-phase microextraction spectrophotometry (DNSPME-UV-Vis) was designed for preconcentration and subsequent determination of gallic acid (GA) from water samples, while the detailed of composition and morphology and also purity and structure of this new sorbent was identified by techniques like field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) techniques. Among conventional parameters viz. pH, amount of sorbent, sonication time and volume of elution solvent based on Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and central composite design according to statistics based contour the best operational conditions was set at pH of 2.0; 1.5mg sorbent, 4.0min sonication and 150μL ethanol. Under these pre-qualified conditions the method has linear response over wide concentration range of 15-6000ngmL -1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The good figure of merits like acceptable LOD (S/N=3) and LOQ (S/N=10) with numerical value of 2.923 and 9.744ngmL -1 , respectively and relative recovery between 95.54 and 100.02% show the applicability and efficiency of this method for real samples analysis with RSDs below 6.0%. Finally the method with good performance were used for monitoring under study analyte in various real samples like tap, river and mineral waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Compressibility of Ir-Os alloys under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusenko, Kirill V.; Bykova, Elena; Bykov, Maxim; Gromilov, Sergey A.; Kurnosov, Alexander V.; Prescher, Clemens; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Hanfland, Michael; Smaalen, Sander van; Margadonna, Serena; Dubrovinsky, Leonid S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • fcc- and hcp-Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors. • Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence. • Compressibility of alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature in diamond anvil cells. • Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content. - Abstract: Several fcc- and hcp-structured Ir-Os alloys were prepared from single-source precursors in hydrogen atmosphere at 873 K. Their atomic volumes measured at ambient conditions using powder X-ray diffraction follow nearly linear dependence as a function of composition. Alloys have been studied up to 30 GPa at room temperature by means of synchrotron-based X-ray powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells. Their bulk moduli increase with increasing osmium content and show a deviation from linearity. Bulk modulus of hcp-Ir 0.20 Os 0.80 is identical to that of pure Os (411 GPa) within experimental errors. Peculiarities on fcc-Ir 0.80 Os 0.20 compressibility curve indicate possible changes of its electronic properties at ∼20 GPa

  11. Pt{sub X}Ru{sub Y}Ir{sub Z} as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in a PEM fuel cell; Pt{sub X}Ru{sub Y}Ir{sub Z} como electrocatalizador bifuncional para la reaccion redox del oxigeno en una celda tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Fernandez, A.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: limos@cie.unam.mx; Cano, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    This work presents the synthesis and characterization of the ternary material Pt{sub X}Ru{sub Y}Ir{sub Z}, obtained by chemical reduction with NaBH{sub 4}. Two different atomic compositions were developed (sample A and B) in order to observe the kinetic effect, as suggested by the combinatorial libraries. The main objective of this synthesis is to study the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR and OER) and its potential use in the construction of a bifunctional catalyst. In addition, each of the metals are synthesized separately using the same technique in order to make the corresponding comparison. The compounds obtained were characterized by sweep electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and composition using fluorescence and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The results showed a displacement of the x-ray diffraction peaks for Ir and Pt in sample A, and displacement in sample B for Ru and Ir peaks. These changes suggest the possible formation of a solid solution substitution. Separate cyclic and linear voltamperometry studies were performed for the oxygen reduction and release reactions. The electrochemical analysis showed improved kinetic behavior when combining the three metals according to the composition of sample B. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta la sintesis y caracterizacion del material ternario Pt{sub X}Ru{sub Y}Ir{sub Z}, elaborado por la tecnica de Reduccion Quimica utilizando al NaBH{sub 4}. Se elaboraron dos composiciones atomicas diferentes (Muestra A y B) con el fin de observar el efecto cinetico, como lo sugieren las librerias combinatorias. El objetivo principal de esta sintesis es para el estudio de la Reaccion Redox del Oxigeno (RRO y REO) y su potencial uso para la construccion de un catalizador bifuncional. Asi mismo, se realiza la sintesis de cada uno de los metales por separado empleando la misma tecnica, con el proposito de realizar la comparacion correspondiente. Los compuestos obtenidos se caracterizaron por Microscopia Electronica de

  12. The Associations Between Increasing Degrees of HOMA-IR and Measurements of Adiposity Among Euglycemic U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, William R; Johnson, Tammie M; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael R; Churilla, James R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between increasing degrees of insulin resistance (using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and two measures of adiposity in a nationally representative sample of euglycemic U.S. adults. Sample included adult participants (≥ 20 years of age) [N = 1586 (body mass index, BMI model), N = 1577 (waist circumference, WC model)] from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). HOMA-IR was categorized into quartiles. BMI and WC were examined continuously as the dependent variables. Following adjustment for covariates, those with HOMA-IR values in the second, third, and fourth quartiles had significantly higher BMIs (P HOMA-IR (P HOMA-IR and BMI (R(2) = 0.4171, P HOMA-IR and WC (R(2) = 0.4826, P HOMA-IR value is associated with higher BMI and WC values in euglycemic subjects.

  13. FT-IR microspectroscopy characterization of supports for enzyme immobilization in biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaccio, M.; Della Ventura, B.; Gabrovska, K.; Marinov, I.; Godjevargova, T.; Mita, D. G.; Lepore, M.

    2010-04-01

    The investigation of materials suitable for enzyme immobilization in biosensing applications has a widespread interest. There are many studies on physico-chemical properties of these materials at macroscopic level but few studies have been devoted to examine and correlate these properties at microscopic level. FT-IR spectroscopy with Micro-Attenuated Total Reflection (Micro-ATR) approach can be extremely useful for understanding a variety of aspects of materials which can be used for optimising immobilization procedures. Moreover, this experimental approach is particularly simple to use (no sample preparation is required) and minimally invasive. Using a Perkin Elmer Spectrum One FT-IR spectrometer equipped with a mercury-cadmium-telluride detector and a micro-ATR element we investigated different materials used for immobilization procedures with various enzymes widely used for biosensing in environmental and clinical applications. In particular, composite membranes constituted by a chemically modified poly-acrylonitrile (PAN) membrane plus layers of tethered chitosan of different molecular weight have been examined. Also silica gel matrices without and with glucose oxidase have been investigated. Spectra have been analysed and the contribution of principal functional groups has been evidenced.

  14. Development of SPE for recovery of polysaccharides and its application to the determination of monosaccharides composition of the polysaccharide sample of a lactobacillus KLB 58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Yoon Suk; Cheong, Won Jo

    2007-07-01

    A new SPE cartridge has been prepared in this study to purify polysaccharides of high molecular weights. A porous nonpolar styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer phase (Hamilton PRP-1) was used to make the new cartridge. The cartridge was conditioned with methanol, water, and ACN in sequence, and the sample dissolved in a small amount of water was loaded. Impurities of low molecular weights were removed first by elution of 80:20 or 90:10 v/v% ACN/water, and polysaccharides were quantitatively recovered by elution of 50:50 v/v% ACN/water or pure water. The recovery of pure dextran 10000 was 90-95%. The SPE method was applied to purification of the polysaccharide sample of KLB58, a new lactobacillus discovered in Korea. The purified KLB 58 sample (weight recovery after SPE purification; 60%) was hydrolyzed for analysis of composition of monosaccharides. The hydrolysate was found to be composed primarily of fructose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose with small amounts of fucose and ribose.

  15. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  16. STATYBINIŲ MEDŽIAGŲ KONKURENCINGUMAS IR TENDENCIJOS

    OpenAIRE

    Kontrimas, Robertas

    2010-01-01

    Darbe analizuojamas statybinių medžiagų konkurencingumas, nustatyti statybinių medžiagų konkurencingumą įtakojantys veiksniai ir pateikti pasiūlymai rinkos gerinimui. Pasitvirtino hipotezė, kad statybinių medžiagų paklausą ir kainas įtakoja klientų poreikiai ir jų finansinės galimybės, tačiau pasaulinės krizės įtaka yra labai ženkli,. Atlikta darbuotojų ir pirkėjų apklausa padėjo nustatyti, kokios statybinės medžiagos dažniausiai yra perkamos, kaip klientai ir darbuotojai vertina įmonę ir jos...

  17. Assessing the composition of fragmented agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages in ancient sediments: comparison of counting and area-based methods in Famennian samples (Late Devonian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Catherine; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice; Charruault, Anne-Lise; Renaud, Sabrina

    2018-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera have been used as proxies for various paleoenvironmental variables such as food availability, carbon flux from surface waters, microhabitats, and indirectly water depth. Estimating assemblage composition based on morphotypes, as opposed to genus- or species-level identification, potentially loses important ecological information but opens the way to the study of ancient time periods. However, the ability to accurately constrain benthic foraminiferal assemblages has been questioned when the most abundant foraminifera are fragile agglutinated forms, particularly prone to fragmentation. Here we test an alternate method for accurately estimating the composition of fragmented assemblages. The cumulated area per morphotype method is assessed, i.e., the sum of the area of all tests or fragments of a given morphotype in a sample. The percentage of each morphotype is calculated as a portion of the total cumulated area. Percentages of different morphotypes based on counting and cumulated area methods are compared one by one and analyzed using principal component analyses, a co-inertia analysis, and Shannon diversity indices. Morphotype percentages are further compared to an estimate of water depth based on microfacies description. Percentages of the morphotypes are not related to water depth. In all cases, counting and cumulated area methods deliver highly similar results, suggesting that the less time-consuming traditional counting method may provide robust estimates of assemblages. The size of each morphotype may deliver paleobiological information, for instance regarding biomass, but should be considered carefully due to the pervasive issue of fragmentation.

  18. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  19. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of the Flowers, Leaves and Stems of Two Senecio polyanthemoides Sch. Bip. Samples from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal A. Oladipupo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the flowers, leaves and stems of Senecio polyanthemoides Sch. Bip. Samples collected from two different localities within the city of uMhlathuze, KwaZulu-Natal Province (South Africa were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC and GC/MS. Twenty-six constituents were identified, representing an average of 86.0 - 99.6% of the total oil composition. The chemical profile reveals the dominance of monoterpenoid compounds, although some quantitative variance was noticed. The main constituents of the oils were limonene (3.1 – 43.0%, p-cymene (4.9-36.3%, β-selinene (1.3-32.7%, α-pinene (1.8-21.4%, β-pinene (7.6-16.5% and 1,8-cineole (9.3-11.4%, caryophyllene oxide (4.1-13.4% and humulene epoxide II (8.6-10.3%.

  20. Web-Face-to-Face Mixed-Mode Design in a Longitudinal Survey: Effects on Participation Rates, Sample Composition, and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Annamaria

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential mixed-mode designs are increasingly considered as an alternative to interviewer-administered data collection, allowing researchers to take advantage of the benefits of each mode. We assess the effects of the introduction of a sequential web-face-to-face mixed-mode design over three waves of a longitudinal survey in which members were previously interviewed face-to-face. Findings are reported from a large-scale randomised experiment carried out on the UK Household Longitudinal Study. No differences are found between the mixed-mode design and face-to-face design in terms of cumulative response rates and only minimal differences in terms of sample composition. On the other hand, potential cost savings are evident.

  1. Hermann agreement updates IRS guidelines for incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccolo, B M; Peregrine, M W

    1995-01-01

    The October 1994 agreement between the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) and Hermann Hospital of Houston, Texas, elucidates current IRS policy on physician recruitment incentives. The IRS distinguishes between the recruiting and the retention of physicians and perimts incentives beyond reasonable compensation in the former but not the latter circumstance. This new agreement, while not legally precedential, nevertheless provides guidance for healthcare organizations seeking safe harbor protection.

  2. Rapid discrimination of sea buckthorn berries from different H. rhamnoides subspecies by multi-step IR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Gang; Tu, Ya; Sun, Suqin; Shen, Xudong; Li, Qingzhu; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-01

    As an important ethnic medicine, sea buckthorn was widely used to prevent and treat various diseases due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, sea buckthorn was originated from H. rhamnoides, which includes five subspecies distributed in China. Confusion and misidentification usually occurred due to their similar morphology, especially in dried and powdered forms. Additionally, these five subspecies have vital differences in quality and physiological efficacy. This paper focused on the quick classification and identification method of sea buckthorn berry powders from five H. rhamnoides subspecies using multi-step IR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis. The holistic chemical compositions revealed by the FT-IR spectra demonstrated that flavonoids, fatty acids and sugars were the main chemical components. Further, the differences in FT-IR spectra regarding their peaks, positions and intensities were used to identify H. rhamnoides subspecies samples. The discrimination was achieved using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The results showed that the combination of multi-step IR spectroscopy and chemometric analysis offered a simple, fast and reliable method for the classification and identification of the sea buckthorn berry powders from different H. rhamnoides subspecies.

  3. OH/IR stars in the Galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, B.

    1978-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations leading to the discovery of 71 OH/IR sources are described in this thesis. These OH/IR sources are characterized by their double peaked OH emission profile at a wavelength of 18 cm and by their strong IR infrared emission. An analysis of the distribution and radial velocities of a number of previously known and new OH/IR sources was performed. The parameter ΔV (the velocity separation between two emission peaks of the 18 cm line profile) was found to be a good criterion for a population classification with respect to stellar age

  4. FT-IR spectroscopy of lipoproteins—A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilov, Dubravka; Balarin, Maja; Kosović, Marin; Gamulin, Ozren; Brnjas-Kraljević, Jasminka

    2009-08-01

    FT-IR spectra, in the frequency region 4000-600 cm -1, of four major lipoprotein classes: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and two subclasses of high density lipoproteins (HDL 2 and HDL 3) were analyzed to obtain their detailed spectral characterization. Information about the protein domain of particle was obtained from the analysis of amide I band. The procedure of decomposition and curve fitting of this band confirms the data already known about the secondary structure of two different apolipoproteins: apo A-I in HDL 2 and HDL 3 and apo B-100 in LDL and VLDL. For information about the lipid composition and packing of the particular lipoprotein the well expressed lipid bands in the spectra were analyzed. Characterization of spectral details in the FT-IR spectrum of natural lipoprotein is necessary to study the influence of external compounds on its structure.

  5. Importance of Using Multiple Sampling Methodologies for Estimating of Fish Community Composition in Offshore Wind Power Construction Areas of the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mathias H.; Gullstroem, Martin; Oehman, Marcus C. (Dept. of Zoology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Asplund, Maria E. (Dept. of Marine Ecology, Goeteborg Univ., Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Fiskebaeckskil (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    In this study a visual SCUBA investigation was conducted in Utgrunden 2, an area where windmills had not yet been constructed, and where the bottom mainly consisted of mud or sand with no or a sparse number of algae or mussel beds. A wind farm at Utgrunden 2 would alter the local habitat from a predominantly sandy soft-bottom habitat to an area in which artificial reef structures that resemble hard-bottom habitats is introduced, i.e., the steel foundations and possibly boulders for scour protection. The fish community that will develop over time would be expected to change to resemble the assemblages observed at Utgrunden 1 and hence not visible using trawling and echosound sampling technique. As the goal of EIA is to assess changes, following human development visual techniques is recommended as a complement when examining the environmental effects of offshore windpower. Otherwise important ecological changes may go unnoticed. For a comprehensive understanding of the ecological effects of windfarm developments it is recommended that a combination of sampling methods is applied and that this should be defined before an investigation commences. Although it is well established in the scientific literature that different sampling methods will give different estimations of fish community composition, environmental impact assessments of offshore windpower have been incorrectly interpreted. In the interpretation of the results of such assessments it is common that the findings are extrapolated by stakeholders and media to include a larger extent of the fish populations than what was intended. Therefore, to fully understand how windpower influences fish the underwater visual census technique is here put forward as a necessary complement to more widescreening fish sampling methods (e.g., gill nets, echo-sounds, trawling)

  6. Visible-IR and Raman micro-spectroscopic investigation of three Itokawa particles collected by Hayabusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetto, R.; Bonal, L.; Beck, P.; Dartois, E.; Dionnet, Z.; Djouadi, Z.; Füri, E.; Kakazu, Y.; Oudayer, P.; Quirico, E.; Engrand, C.

    2014-07-01

    HAYABUSA grains offer a unique perspective to better understand the link between asteroids and cosmomaterials available in the laboratory and to get an insight on the early stages of surface space weathering. The scientific objectives of our consortium are threefold: (i) the characterization of asteroidal surface processes (e.g., space weathering alteration); (ii) the assessment of parent-body alteration processes; (iii) the search for a possible association between S-type asteroids and micrometeorites. To this aim, our strategy is based on a combination of analytical techniques. Here we report a first series of results obtained through Visible-Infrared and Raman spectroscopy of three Itokawa particles (RA-QD02-0163, -0174, and -0213) collected by the Hayabusa spacecraft and provided by JAXA for our consortium. In a first step, our main objective was to collect maximum information without altering the particles. Reported results were thus obtained on the raw particles, both (i) in their original containers, and (ii) deposited on diamond windows. Raman and IR confocal spectra were acquired at the SMIS beamline of the French national synchrotron facility SOLEIL and at the Lyon Raman national facility using spots of 2 μ m for the Raman, and 10--20 μ m for the IR analyses. Point analyses and automatic mapping were performed. Analytical parameters (e.g., laser power on the sample) were optimized to prevent any damage. Diffuse reflectance spectra (i=45°, e=0°) in the visible and near-IR wavelengths were obtained with an IAS-CSNSM in-home system coupling a fiber spectrometer to an optical microscope, providing a 20-μ m spot on sample. In the case of particle -0163, Raman and IR results reveal a heterogeneous mixing of minerals, mostly olivine (Fo76), and Ca-rich (En50, Wo50) and Ca-poor (En85) pyroxenes. The modal distribution of these minerals is determined based on the spectral maps. The mineral compositions of -0163 are consistent with those previously reported on

  7. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  8. The Alzheimer's prevention initiative composite cognitive test score: sample size estimates for the evaluation of preclinical Alzheimer's disease treatments in presenilin 1 E280A mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Langbaum, Jessica B S; Hendrix, Suzanne B; Chen, Kewei; Fleisher, Adam S; Friesenhahn, Michel; Ward, Michael; Aguirre, Camilo; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Madrigal, Lucìa; Muñoz, Claudia; Tirado, Victoria; Moreno, Sonia; Tariot, Pierre N; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M

    2014-06-01

    To identify a cognitive composite that is sensitive to tracking preclinical Alzheimer's disease decline to be used as a primary end point in treatment trials. We capitalized on longitudinal data collected from 1995 to 2010 from cognitively unimpaired presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers from the world's largest known early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease kindred to identify a composite cognitive test with the greatest statistical power to track preclinical Alzheimer's disease decline and estimate the number of carriers age 30 years and older needed to detect a treatment effect in the Alzheimer's Prevention Initiative's (API) preclinical Alzheimer's disease treatment trial. The mean-to-standard-deviation ratios (MSDRs) of change over time were calculated in a search for the optimal combination of 1 to 7 cognitive tests/subtests drawn from the neuropsychological test battery in cognitively unimpaired mutation carriers during a 2- and 5-year follow-up period (n = 78 and 57), using data from noncarriers (n = 31 and 56) during the same time period to correct for aging and practice effects. Combinations that performed well were then evaluated for robustness across follow-up years, occurrence of selected items within top-performing combinations, and representation of relevant cognitive domains. The optimal test combination included Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word List Recall, CERAD Boston Naming Test (high frequency items), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) Orientation to Time, CERAD Constructional Praxis, and Raven's Progressive Matrices (Set A), with an MSDR of 1.62. This composite is more sensitive than using either the CERAD Word List Recall (MSDR = 0.38) or the entire CERAD-Col battery (MSDR = 0.76). A sample size of 75 cognitively normal PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers aged 30 years and older per treatment arm allows for a detectable treatment effect of 29% in a 60-month trial (80% power, P = .05). We

  9. IR-RF dating of sand-sized K-feldspar extracts: A test of accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Jain, Mayank; Murray, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a recently developed radioluminescence (RL) attachment to the Risø TL/OSL reader to test the InfraRed-RadioFluorescence (IR-RF) dating method applied to K-feldspar rich extracts from our known-age archive samples. We present experiments to characterise the instrument performa......In this paper we use a recently developed radioluminescence (RL) attachment to the Risø TL/OSL reader to test the InfraRed-RadioFluorescence (IR-RF) dating method applied to K-feldspar rich extracts from our known-age archive samples. We present experiments to characterise the instrument...... performance and to test the reproducibility of IR-RF measurements. These experiments illustrate the high sensitivity and dose rate of our RL system, the negligible influence of the turntable movement on IR-RF signals and the effectiveness of the built in 395 nm LED at bleaching IR-RF signals. We measure IR......-RF ages on a set of samples with independent age control using a robust analytical method, which is able to detect any possible sensitivity change. Our IR-RF ages do not agree well with the independent age control; the ages of the younger samples (20–45 ka) are significantly over-estimated while the ages...

  10. Determination of uranium isotopic composition and {sup 236}U content of soil samples and hot particles using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulyga, S.F. [Radiation Physics and Chemistry Problems Inst., Minsk (Belarus); Becker, J.S. [Central Department for Analytical Chemistry, Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    As a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) the environment was contaminated with spent nuclear fuel. The {sup 236}U isotope was used in this study to monitor the spent uranium from nuclear fallout in soil samples collected in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP. Nuclear track radiography was applied for the identification and extraction of hot radioactive particles from soil samples. A rapid and sensitive analytical procedure was developed for uranium isotopic ratio measurement in environmental samples based on double-focusing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DF-ICP-MS) with a MicroMist nebulizer and a direct injection high-efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN). The performance of the DF-ICP-MS with a quartz DIHEN and plasma shielded torch was studied. Overall detection efficiencies of 4 x 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -3} counts per atom were achieved for {sup 238}U in DF-ICP-QMS with the MicroMist nebulizer and DIHEN, respectively. The rate of formation of uranium hydride ions UH{sup +}/U{sup +} was 1.2 x 10{sup -4} and 1.4 x 10{sup -4}, respectively. The precision of short-term measurements of uranium isotopic ratios (n = 5) in 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} NBS U-020 standard solution was 0.11% ({sup 238}U/{sup 235}U) and 1.4% ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U) using a MicroMist nebulizer and 0.25% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U) and 1.9% ({sup 236}U/{sup 238}U) using a DIHEN. The isotopic composition of all investigated Chernobyl soil samples differed from those of natural uranium; i.e. in these samples the {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U ratio ranged from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -3}. Results obtained with ICP-MS, {alpha}- and {gamma}-spectrometry showed differences in the migration properties of spent uranium, plutonium, and americium. The isotopic ratio of uranium was also measured in hot particles extracted from soil samples. (orig.)

  11. Teaching IR to Medical Students: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aoife M; Lee, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) has grown rapidly over the last 20 years and is now an essential component of modern medicine. Despite IR's increasing penetration and reputation in healthcare systems, IR is poorly taught, if taught at all, in most medical schools. Medical students are the referrers of tomorrow and potential IR recruits and deserve to be taught IR by expert IRs. The lack of formal IR teaching curricula in many medical schools needs to be addressed urgently for the continued development and dissemination of, particularly acute, IR services throughout Europe. We call on IRs to take up the baton to teach IR to the next generation of doctors.

  12. Development of IR Contrast Data Analysis Application for Characterizing Delaminations in Graphite-Epoxy Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havican, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Develop infrared (IR) flash thermography application based on use of a calibration standard for inspecting graphite-epoxy laminated/honeycomb structures. Background: Graphite/Epoxy composites (laminated and honeycomb) are widely used on NASA programs. Composite materials are susceptible for impact damage that is not readily detected by visual inspection. IR inspection can provide required sensitivity to detect surface damage in composites during manufacturing and during service. IR contrast analysis can provide characterization of depth, size and gap thickness of impact damage. Benefits/Payoffs: The research provides an empirical method of calibrating the flash thermography response in nondestructive evaluation. A physical calibration standard with artificial flaws such as flat bottom holes with desired diameter and depth values in a desired material is used in calibration. The research devises several probability of detection (POD) analysis approaches to enable cost effective POD study to meet program requirements.

  13. How to Incorporate Technology with Inquiry-Based Learning to Enhance the Understanding of Chemical Composition; How to Analyze Unknown Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Lunsford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of technology in teaching offers numerous amounts of possibilities and can be challenging for physics, chemistry and geology content courses. When incorporating technology into a science content lab it is better to be driven by pedagogy than by technology in an inquiry-based lab setting. Students need to be introduced to real-world technology in the beginning of first year chemistry or physics course to ensure real-world technology concepts while assisting with content such as periodic trends on the periodic table. This article will describe the use of technology with Raman Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive XRay Spectroscopy (EDS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR to research chemical compositions in the real world of unknown samples. Such unknown samples utilized in this lab were clamshell (parts of clams that look like shark teeth versus shark teeth. The data will be shared to show how the students (pre-service teachers and in-service teachers solved the problem using technology while learning important content that will assist in the next level of chemistry, physics and even geology.

  14. A Bone Sample Containing a Bone Graft Substitute Analyzed by Correlating Density Information Obtained by X-ray Micro Tomography with Compositional Information Obtained by Raman Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Charwat-Pessler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of bone graft substitutes to promote new bone formation has been increasingly used in the medical field to repair skeletal defects or to replace missing bone in a broad range of applications in dentistry and orthopedics. A common way to assess such materials is via micro computed tomography (µ-CT, through the density information content provided by the absorption of X-rays. Information on the chemical composition of a material can be obtained via Raman spectroscopy. By investigating a bone sample from miniature pigs containing the bone graft substitute Bio Oss®, we pursued the target of assessing to what extent the density information gained by µ-CT imaging matches the chemical information content provided by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Raman images and Raman correlation maps of the investigated sample were used in order to generate a Raman based segmented image by means of an agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis. The resulting segments, showing chemically related areas, were subsequently compared with the µ-CT image by means of a one-way ANOVA. We found out that to a certain extent typical gray-level values (and the related histograms in the µ-CT image can be reliably related to specific segments within the image resulting from the cluster analysis.

  15. Effect of spin structure transition in IrMn on the CoPd/IrMn perpendicular exchange biased system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Muhammad Bilal; Guentherodt, Gernot [II. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The exchange bias (EB) phenomenon is studied in MBE grown Pd(10 nm)/CoPd(x=8,16,30 nm)/IrMn(15 nm)/Pd(4 nm) samples, which exhibit a perpendicular anisotropy of Co22Pd78. These samples are field cooled along the out-of-plane direction and hysteresis loops are measured along both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions. It is observed that there is a transition temperature where the out-of-plane EB becomes greater than the in-plane EB. This behavior of EB is an evidence of the change in the spin structure of the given system, which is also revealed by the magnetization versus temperature measurements of the exchange biased and of the sole IrMn samples. It is found that with increasing temperature there is a spin structure transition in Ir25Mn75 (15nm) related to the 2Q to 3Q transition in the bulk, which is responsible for the increase in out-of-plane EB. A vertical shift in the hysteresis loop is also observed in these exchange biased samples at low temperatures (T<50 K).

  16. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  17. Atom condensation on an atomically smooth surface: Ir, Re, W, and Pd on Ir(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.C.; Ehrlich, G.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of condensing metal atoms over the two types of sites present on an atomically smooth Ir(111) has been measured in a field ion microscope. For Ir, Re, W, and Pd from a thermal source, condensing on Ir(111) at ∼20 K, the atoms are randomly distributed, as expected if they condense at the first site struck

  18. Biochemical applications of FT-IR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, A.M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of (FT-)IR spectroscopy in general biochemical research. In chapter 3, IR spectroscopy is used in the quantitation of residual detergent after reconstitution of an integral membrane protein in a pre-defined lipid matrix. This chapter discusses the choice of the

  19. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.

    1995-01-01

    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  20. Benzene adsorption and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Ludwig, W.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    Adsorption, decompn. and oxidn. of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) was studied by high resoln. (synchrotron) XPS, temp. programmed desorption and LEED. Mol. adsorption of benzene on Ir(1 1 1) is obsd. between 170 K and 350 K. Above this temp. both desorption and decompn. of benzene take place. An ordered

  1. Major- and minor-metal composition of three distinct solid material fractions associated with Juan de Fuca hydrothermal fluids (northeast Pacific), and calculation of dilution fluid samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, T.K.; Seeley, J.L.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1988-01-01

    Three distinct types of solid material are associated with each sample of the hydrothermal fluid that was collected from the vents of the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The solid materials appear to be representative of deposits on ocean floors near mid-ocean ridges, and interpretation of the chemistry of the hydrothermal solutions requires understanding of them. Sr isotopic evidence indicates that at least two and probably all three of these solid materials were removed from the solution with which they are associated, by precipitation or adsorption. This occurred after the "pure" hydrothermal fluid was diluted and thoroughly mixed with ambient seawater. The three types of solid materials, are, respectively, a coarse Zn- and Fe-rich material with small amounts of Na and Ca; a finer material also rich in Zn and Fe, but with alkali and alkaline-earth metals; and a scum composed of Ba or Zn, with either considerable Fe or Si, and Sr. Mineral identification is uncertain because of uncertain anion composition. Only in the cases of Ba and Zn were metal masses greater in solid materials than in the associated fluids. For all other metals measured, masses in fluids dwarf those in solids. The fluids themselves contain greater concentrations of all metals measured, except Mg, than seawater. We discuss in detail the relative merits of two methods of determining the mixing proportions of "pure" hydrothermal solution and seawater in the fluids, one based on Sr isotopes, and another previously used method based on Mg concentrations. Comparison of solute concentrations in the several samples shows that degree of dilution of "pure" hydrothermal solutions by seawater, and amounts of original solutes that were removed from it as solid materials, are not related. There is no clear evidence that appreciable amounts of solid materials were not conserved (lost) either during or prior to sample collection. ?? 1988.

  2. Effect of Wood Aging on Wine Mineral Composition and 87Sr/86Sr Isotopic Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ayse D; Bruno de Sousa, Raúl; Curvelo-Garcia, António S; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Catarino, Sofia

    2017-06-14

    The evolution of mineral composition and wine strontium isotopic ratio 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (Sr IR) during wood aging were investigated. A red wine was aged in stainless steel tanks with French oak staves (Quercus sessiliflora Salisb.), with three industrial scale replicates. Sampling was carried out after 30, 60, and 90 days of aging, and the wines were evaluated in terms of general analysis, phenolic composition, total polysaccharides, multielement composition, and Sr IR. Li, Be, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Tl, and Pb elements and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr were determined by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS) and Na, K, Ca, and Fe by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Two-way ANOVA was applied to assess wood aging and time effect on Sr IR and mineral composition. Wood aging resulted in significantly higher concentrations of Mg, V, Co, Ni, and Sr. At the end of the aging period, wine exhibited statistically identical Sr IR compared to control. Study suggests that wood aging does not affect 87 Sr/ 86 Sr, not precluding the use of this parameter for wine traceability purposes.

  3. Latent class analysis of real time qPCR and bacteriological culturing for the diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae in cow composite milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Toft, Nils; Jørgensen, Hannah J; Mørk, Tormod; Sølverød, Liv; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2018-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) has re-emerged as a mastitis pathogen among Norwegian dairy cows. The Norwegian cattle health services recommend that infected herds implement measures to eradicate S. agalactiae, this includes a screening of milk samples from all lactating cows. The performance of the qPCR-test currently in use for this purpose has not been evaluated under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time qPCR assay in use in Norway (Mastitis 4 qPCR, DNA Diagnostics A/S, Risskov, Denmark) and compare it to conventional bacteriological culturing for detection of S. agalactiae in milk samples. Because none of these tests are considered a perfect reference test, the evaluation was performed using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Aseptically collected cow-composite milk samples from 578 cows belonging to 6 herds were cultured and tested by qPCR. While 37 (6.4%) samples were positive for S. agalactiae by bacteriological culture, 66 (11.4%) samples were positive by qPCR. The within-herd prevalence in the six herds, as estimated by the latent class models ranged from 7.7 to 50.8%. At the recommended cut-off (cycle threshold 37), the sensitivity of the qPCR was significantly higher at 95.3 (95% posterior probability interval [PPI] [84.2; 99.6]) than that of bacteriological culture at 58.2 (95% PPI [43.8; 74.4]). However, bacterial culture had a higher specificity of 99.7 (95% PPI [98.5; 100.0]) compared to the qPCR at 98.5 (95% PPI [94.6; 99.9]). The median estimated negative predictive values of qPCR was consistently higher than those of the BC at all estimated prevalences, and the superiority of the qPCR increased with increasing within-herd prevalence. The median positive predictive values of BC was in general higher than the estimates for the qPCR, however, at the highest prevalence the predictive ability of both tests were similar. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  4. Smulkaus ir vidutinio verslo konkurencingumas Lietuvoje

    OpenAIRE

    Vijeikis, Juozas; Makštutis, Antanas

    2009-01-01

    Straipsnio mokslinė problema, naujumas ir aktualumas. Konkurencingumas kaip įmonių efektyvios veiklos reiškinys yra aktualus šalies verslo gyvenime vykdant darnios ekonominės plėtros politiką. Ši politika kaip problema smulkaus ir vidutinio verslo (SVV) plėtrai ir konkurencingumui didinti nėra sistemiškai ištirta ir aprašyta Lietuvos sąlygomis mokslinėje ir praktinėje literatūroje. Vienas svarbiausių veiksnių, siekiant spartaus ekonominio augimo, yra darnios verslininkystės plėtra Lietuvoje n...

  5. Synthesis of a highly active carbon-supported Ir-V/C catalyst for the hydrogen oxidation reaction in PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bing; Qiao Jinli; Yang Daijun; Zheng Junsheng; Ma Jianxin; Zhang Jiujun; Wang Haijiang

    2009-01-01

    The active, carbon-supported Ir and Ir-V nanoclusters with well-controlled particle size, dispersity, and composition uniformity, have been synthesized via an ethylene glycol method using IrCl 3 and NH 4 VO 3 as the Ir and V precursors. The nanostructured catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The catalytic activities of these carbon-supported nanoclusters were screened by applying on-line cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques, which were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of fuel cells using several anode Ir/C and Ir-V/C catalysts. It was found that Ir/C and Ir-V/C catalysts affect the performance of electrocatalysts significantly based on the discharge characteristics of the fuel cell. The catalyst Ir-V/C at 40 wt.% displayed the highest catalytic activity to hydrogen oxidation reaction and, therefore, high cell performance is achieved which results in a maximum power density of 563 mW cm -2 at 0.512 V and 70 deg. C in a real H 2 /air fuel cell. This performance is 20% higher as compared to the commercial available Pt/C catalyst. Fuel cell life test at a constant current density of 1000 mA cm -2 in a H 2 /O 2 condition shows good stability of anode Ir-V/C after 100 h of continuous operation.

  6. Tarptautinio turizmo raida ir vystymo prognozės Lietuvoje ir Lenkijoje

    OpenAIRE

    Veličkaitė, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    Išanalizuota ir įvertinta Lietuvos ir Lenkijos atvykstamojo turizmo raida 2000- 2007m., užsienio turistų srautai, apgyvendinimo paslaugų paklausa, turistų tikslai ir kelionių transporto pasirinkimas, turistų išlaidos ir šalių turizmo pajamos, iškeltos atvykstamojo turizmo problemos bei pateikti jų sprendimo siūlymai.paskutinėje darbo dalyje buvo atliktos 2008- 2015metų Lietuvos ir Lenkijos turizmo raidos prognozės. In the final master work Lithuanian and Poland arriving tourism development...

  7. Influence of physical properties and chemical composition of sample on formation of aerosol particles generated by nanosecond laser ablation at 213 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa, E-mail: mhola@sci.muni.c [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Konecna, Veronika [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Mikuska, Pavel [Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic v.v.i., Veveri 97, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kaiser, Jozef [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-01-15

    The influence of sample properties and composition on the size and concentration of aerosol particles generated by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser ablation at 213 nm was investigated for three sets of different materials, each containing five specimens with a similar matrix (Co-cemented carbides with a variable content of W and Co, steel samples with minor differences in elemental content and silica glasses with various colors). The concentration of ablated particles (particle number concentration, PNC) was measured in two size ranges (10-250 nm and 0.25-17 mum) using an optical aerosol spectrometer. The shapes and volumes of the ablation craters were obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and by an optical profilometer, respectively. Additionally, the structure of the laser-generated particles was studied after their collection on a filter using SEM. The results of particle concentration measurements showed a significant dominance of particles smaller than 250 nm in comparison with larger particles, irrespective of the kind of material. Even if the number of particles larger than 0.25 mum is negligible (up to 0.1%), the volume of large particles that left the ablation cell can reach 50% of the whole particle volume depending on the material. Study of the ablation craters and the laser-generated particles showed a various number of particles produced by different ablation mechanisms (particle splashing or condensation), but the similar character of released particles for all materials was observed by SEM after particle collection on the membrane filter. The created aerosol always consisted of two main structures - spherical particles with diameters from tenths to units of micrometers originally ejected from the molten surface layer and mum-sized 'fibres' composed of primary agglomerates with diameters in the range between tens and hundreds of nanometers. The shape and structure of ablation craters were in good agreement with particle concentration

  8. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  9. Ag-related alloy formation and magnetic phases for Ag/Co/Ir(111) ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Jyh-Shen; Tsai, Du-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Hsun-Tony; Chen, Wei-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    The Kerr intensity versus the Ag thickness for Ag grown on the top of Co/Ir(111) exhibits an oscillating behavior with a period around one monolayer which should be due to the morphological change related electronic structure differences of the Ag layer. From systematical investigations of Ag/Co/Ir(111) films with the Co layer thinner than 4 monolayers at temperatures below 900 K, a magnetic phase diagram has been established. As the annealing temperature increases for Ag/Co/Ir(111) films, enhancements of the coercive force occur in both the polar and longitudinal configurations due to the intermixing of Ag and Co at the interface and the formation of Co–Ir alloy. The disappearance of ferromagnetism is mainly attributed to the reduced atomic percent of cobalt in Co–Ir alloy, the lowered Curie temperature by a reduction of the thickness of magnetic layers, and the intermixing of Ag and Co at the Ag/Co interface. - Highlights: • An oscillating behavior occurs due to the morphological change for Ag on Co/Ir(111). • A magnetic phase diagram has been established for Ag/Co/Ir(111). • Some Ag atoms intermix with the underlying Co layer at high temperatures. • Polar coercive force is enhanced due to the compositional change

  10. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.

    1996-01-01

    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  11. Mid-IR laser ultrasonic testing for fiber reinforced plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Masahiro; Hatano, Hideki; Oguchi, Kanae; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Watanabe, Makoto; Enoki, Manabu

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic testing is the most common method to detect defects in materials and evaluate their sizes and locations. Since piezo-electric transducers are manually handled from point to point, it takes more costs for huge products such as airplanes. Laser ultrasonic testing (LUT) is a breakthrough technique. A pulsed laser generates ultrasonic waves on a material surface due to thermoelastic effect or ablation. The ultrasonic waves can be detected by another laser with an interferometer. Thus, LUT can realize instantaneous inspection without contacting a sample. A pulse laser with around 3.2 μm wavelength (in the mid-IR range) is more suitable to generate ultrasonic waves for fiber reinforced plastics (FRPs) because the light is well absorbed by the polymeric matrix. On the other hand, such a laser is not available in the market. In order to emit the mid-IR laser pulse, we came up with the application of an optical parametric oscillator and developed an efficient wavelength conversion device by pumping a compact Nd:YAG solid-state laser. Our mid-IR LUT system is most suitable for inspection of FRPs. The signal-to-noise ratio of ultrasonic waves generated by the mid-IR laser is higher than that by the Nd:YAG laser. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the performance of the mid-IR LUT system in reflection mode. We investigated the effects of the material properties and the laser properties on the generated ultrasonic waves. In addition, C-scan images by the system were also presented.

  12. Sample dilution and bacterial community composition influence empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors in surface waters of the world's oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teira, Eva; Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Sarmento, Hugo; Valencia-Vila, Joaquín; Serrano Catalá, Teresa; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Varela, Marta M; Ferrera, Isabel; Gutiérrez Morán, Xosé Anxelu; Gasol, Josep M

    2015-12-01

    The transformation of leucine incorporation rates to prokaryotic carbon production rates requires the use of either theoretical or empirically determined conversion factors. Empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors (eCFs) vary widely across environments, and little is known about their potential controlling factors. We conducted 10 surface seawater manipulation experiments across the world's oceans, where the growth of the natural prokaryotic assemblages was promoted by filtration (i.e., removal of grazers [F treatment]) or filtration combined with dilution (i.e., also relieving resource competition [FD treatment]). The impact of sunlight exposure was also evaluated in the FD treatments, and we did not find a significant effect on the eCFs. The eCFs varied from 0.09 to 1.47 kg C mol Leu(-1) and were significantly lower in the FD than in the F samples. Also, changes in bacterial community composition during the incubations, as assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), were more pronounced in the FD than in the F treatments, compared to unmanipulated controls. Thus, we discourage the common procedure of diluting samples (in addition to filtration) for eCF determination. The eCFs in the filtered treatment were negatively correlated with the initial chlorophyll a concentration, picocyanobacterial abundance (mostly Prochlorococcus), and the percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes with high nucleic acid content (%HNA). The latter two variables explained 80% of the eCF variability in the F treatment, supporting the view that both Prochlorococcus and HNA prokaryotes incorporate leucine in substantial amounts, although this results in relatively low carbon production rates in the oligotrophic ocean. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Sample Dilution and Bacterial Community Composition Influence Empirical Leucine-to-Carbon Conversion Factors in Surface Waters of the World's Oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Teira, Eva

    2015-09-25

    The transformation of leucine incorporation rates to prokaryotic carbon production rates requires the use of either theoretical or empirically determined conversion factors. Empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors (eCFs) vary widely across environments, and little is known about their potential controlling factors. We conducted 10 surface seawater manipulation experiments across the world\\'s oceans, where the growth of the natural prokaryotic assemblages was promoted by filtration (i.e., removal of grazers [F treatment]) or filtration combined with dilution (i.e., also relieving resource competition [FD treatment]). The impact of sunlight exposure was also evaluated in the FD treatments, and we did not find a significant effect on the eCFs. The eCFs varied from 0.09 to 1.47 kg C mol Leu−1 and were significantly lower in the FD than in the F samples. Also, changes in bacterial community composition during the incubations, as assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), were more pronounced in the FD than in the F treatments, compared to unmanipulated controls. Thus, we discourage the common procedure of diluting samples (in addition to filtration) for eCF determination. The eCFs in the filtered treatment were negatively correlated with the initial chlorophyll a concentration, picocyanobacterial abundance (mostly Prochlorococcus), and the percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes with high nucleic acid content (%HNA). The latter two variables explained 80% of the eCF variability in the F treatment, supporting the view that both Prochlorococcus and HNA prokaryotes incorporate leucine in substantial amounts, although this results in relatively low carbon production rates in the oligotrophic ocean.

  14. Sample Dilution and Bacterial Community Composition Influence Empirical Leucine-to-Carbon Conversion Factors in Surface Waters of the World's Oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Teira, Eva; Hernando-Morales, Ví ctor; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Alonso-Sá ez, Laura; Sarmento, Hugo; Valencia-Vila, Joaquí n; Serrano Catalá , Teresa; Herná ndez-Ruiz, Marta; Varela, Marta M.; Ferrera, Isabel; Moran, Xose Anxelu G.; Gasol, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of leucine incorporation rates to prokaryotic carbon production rates requires the use of either theoretical or empirically determined conversion factors. Empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors (eCFs) vary widely across environments, and little is known about their potential controlling factors. We conducted 10 surface seawater manipulation experiments across the world's oceans, where the growth of the natural prokaryotic assemblages was promoted by filtration (i.e., removal of grazers [F treatment]) or filtration combined with dilution (i.e., also relieving resource competition [FD treatment]). The impact of sunlight exposure was also evaluated in the FD treatments, and we did not find a significant effect on the eCFs. The eCFs varied from 0.09 to 1.47 kg C mol Leu−1 and were significantly lower in the FD than in the F samples. Also, changes in bacterial community composition during the incubations, as assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), were more pronounced in the FD than in the F treatments, compared to unmanipulated controls. Thus, we discourage the common procedure of diluting samples (in addition to filtration) for eCF determination. The eCFs in the filtered treatment were negatively correlated with the initial chlorophyll a concentration, picocyanobacterial abundance (mostly Prochlorococcus), and the percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes with high nucleic acid content (%HNA). The latter two variables explained 80% of the eCF variability in the F treatment, supporting the view that both Prochlorococcus and HNA prokaryotes incorporate leucine in substantial amounts, although this results in relatively low carbon production rates in the oligotrophic ocean.

  15. Deposition and characterization of IrOx nanofoils on carbon nanotube templates by reactive magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Min; Cai, Jhen-Hong; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Tsai, Dah-Shyang; Tiong, Kwong-Kau

    2012-01-01

    Large surface area IrO x nanofoils (IrO x NF) were deposited on multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) templates, forming IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites, by reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering using Ir metal target. The structural and spectroscopic properties of IrO x NF were characterized. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of foil-like structure for the as-deposited samples. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed the contiguous presence of glassy iridium oxide, iridium metal, and iridium dioxide nanocrystals in the foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis provided the information of the oxidation states and the stoichiometry of IrO x NF. Raman spectra revealed the amorphous-like phase of the as-deposited IrO x NF. The nanofoil structure provided ultra-high surface area for electrical charge storage which made the IrO x /MWCNT nanocomposites as an attractive candidate for the supercapacitor applications.

  16. OD bands in the IR spectra of a deuterated soda-lime-silica glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuker, C.; Brzezinka, K.W.; Gaber, M.; Kohl, A.; Geissler, H. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    IR spectra of a deuterated glass of the composition (in mol%) 16 Na{sub 2}O . 10 CaO . 74 SiO{sub 2} complete earlier spectroscopic studies on water-poor soda-lime-silica glasses. The approved IR spectroscopic method of the deuterium exchange allows a reliable assignment of the hydroxyl bands also in the case of glasses. By spectra comparison the assignment of the IR bands at 3500 and 2800 cm{sup -1} to hydroxyl groups with different hydrogen bonding is verified. The IR band at about 4500 cm{sup -1} is interpreted as both a combination of the stretching vibrations {nu}O-H and {nu}Si-OH and a combination of the stretching vibration {nu}O-H and the deformation vibration {delta}SiOH. The bands at 1763 and 1602 cm{sup -1} are attributed to combination vibrations of the glass network. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of sample composition using resonant ionization and time-of-flight techniques; Analisis de composicion de muestras mediante ionizacion resonante y tecnicas de tiempo de vuelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, A de la; Ortiz, M; Campos, J

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes the setting up of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer that uses a tunable laser to produce resonant ionization of atoms and molecules in a pulsed supersonic beam. The ability of this kind of systems to produce time resolved signals for each species present in the sample allows quantitative analysis of its composition. By using a tunable laser beam of high spectral resolution to produce ionization, studies based on the structure of the photoionization spectra obtained are possible. In the present work several isotopic species of ordinary and deuterated benzene have been studied. Special care has been dedicated to the influence of the presence of a 13C in the ring. In this way values for spectroscopic constants and isotopic shifts have been obtained. Another system based in a homemade proportional counter has been designed and used is an auxiliary system. The results obtained with it are independent of these mentioned above and compatible with them. This system is of great utility for laser wavelength tuning to produce ionization in the mass spectrometer. (Author) 98 refs.

  18. Analyzing the Effects of Climate Factors on Soybean Protein, Oil Contents, and Composition by Extensive and High-Density Sampling in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenwen; Yang, Ruping; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Cunxiang; Sun, Shi; Zhang, Shouwei; Jiang, Bingjun; Tian, Shiyan; Liu, Xiaobing; Han, Tianfu

    2016-05-25

    From 2010 to 2013, 763 soybean samples were collected from an extensive area of China. The correlations between seed compositions and climate data were analyzed. The contents of crude protein and water-soluble protein, total amount of protein plus oil, and most of the amino acids were positively correlated with an accumulated temperature ≥15 °C (AT15) and the mean daily temperature (MDT) but were negatively correlated with hours of sunshine (HS) and diurnal temperature range (DTR). The correlations of crude oil and most fatty acids with climate factors were opposite to those of crude protein. Crude oil content had a quadratic regression relationship with MDT, and a positive correlation between oil content and MDT was found when the daily temperature was soybean protein and oil contents. The study illustrated the effects of climate factors on soybean protein and oil contents and proposed agronomic practices for improving soybean quality in different regions of China. The results provide a foundation for the regionalization of high-quality soybean production in China and similar regions in the world.

  19. Characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by FT-IR spectroscopy and nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Castilho, Maiara L.; Campos, Claudia B. L.; Tellez, Claudio; Raniero, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus existing as mycelia in the environment (or at 25 °C in vitro) and as yeast cells in the human host (or at 37 °C in vitro). Because mycological examination of lesions in patients frequently is unable to show the presence of the fungus and serological tests can misdiagnose the disease with other mycosis, the development of new approach's for molecular identification of P. brasiliensis spurges is needed. This study describes the use of a gold nanoprobe of a known gene sequence of P. brasiliensis as a molecular tool to identify P. brasiliensis by regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) associated with a colorimetric methods. This approach is suitable for testing in remote areas because it does not require any further step than gene amplification, being safer and cheaper than electrophoresis methods. The proposed test showed a color change of the PCR reaction mixture from red to blue in negative samples, whereas the solution remains red in positive samples. We also performed a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy analysis to characterize and compare the chemical composition between yeast and mycelia forms, which revealed biochemical differences between these two forms. The analysis of the spectra showed that differences were distributed in chemical bonds of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. The most prominent difference between both forms was vibration modes related to 1,3-β-glucan usually found in mycelia and 1,3-α-glucan found in yeasts and also chitin forms. In this work, we introduce FT-IR as a new method suitable to reveal overall differences that biochemically distinguish each form of P. brasiliensis that could be additionally used to discriminate biochemical differences among a single form under distinct environmental conditions.

  20. Vartotojų lojalumas : formavimas ir valdymas

    OpenAIRE

    Zikienė, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Vienas iš esminių daugelio organizacijų tikslų, garantuojančių tolesnį sėkmingą konkuravimą nuolat besikeičiančiame verslo pasaulyje, yra vartotojų lojalumo įgijimas ir išlaikymas. Įvairios lojalumo formavimo ir valdymo problemos plačiai ir detaliai analizuojamos šioje mokomojoje knygoje. Knyga pradedama vartotojų lojalumo analize marketingo mokslo raidos kontekste. Tolesnis dėmesys skiriamas vartotojų lojalumo vadybinio aspekto analizei, atskleidžiant vartotojų lojalumo koncepcijos teorines ...

  1. Effects of curing conditions on the structure of sodium carboxymethyl starch/mineral matrix system: FT-IR investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarska, Karolina; Grabowska, Beata; Bobrowski, Artur; Cukrowicz, Sylwia

    2018-04-24

    Strength properties of the microwave cured molding sands containing binders in a form of the aqueous solution of sodium carboxymethyl starch (CMS-Na) are higher than the same molding composition cured by conventional heating. Finding the reason of this effect was the main purpose in this study. Structural changes caused by both physical curing methods of molding sands systems containing mineral matrix (silica sand) and polymer water-soluble binder (CMS-Na) were compared. It was shown, by means of the FT-IR spectroscopic studies, that the activation of the polar groups in the polymer macromolecules structure as well as silanol groups on the mineral matrix surfaces was occurred in the microwave radiation. Binding process in microwave-cured samples was an effect of formation the hydrogen bonds network between hydroxyl and/or carbonyl groups present in polymer and silanol groups present in mineral matrix. FT-IR studies of structural changes in conventional and microwave cured samples confirm that participation of hydrogen bonds is greater after microwave curing than conventional heating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Concentration of noble metals by sublimation during the analysis of massive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuburkov, Yu.T.; Zhujkov, B.L.; Gehrbish, Sh.; Al'pert, L.K.; Chan Zuj Ty

    1990-01-01

    The possibility of concentrating noble metals from terrestrial samples of various composition by chemical sublimation in an air stream at a temperature of 1000-1200 deg C was examined. It was found that the chemical yields of Au, Pt, Ir, Ru, Os and Re for all the samples increased by introducing solid additives of FeCl 2 , TiO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 . The concentration technique provides the possibility of determining some noble metals in massive samples (up to 50 g) with widely ranging element contents. By using gamma and neutron activation on a microtron, the detection limits of 3x10 -2 ppm for Pt and Ir and 4x10 -3 ppm for Au were achieved. In the case of X-ray fluorescence analysis, the detection limit for these elements was 0.4 ppm

  3. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation negatively regulates IRS-1 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, Michael W.; Ruhoff, Mary S.; Roth, Richard A.; Kim, Jeong-a; Quon, Michael J.; Krause, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The IRS-1 PH and PTB domains are essential for insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation and insulin signaling, while Ser/Thr phosphorylation of IRS-1 disrupts these signaling events. To investigate consensus PKC phosphorylation sites in the PH-PTB domains of human IRS-1, we changed Ser24, Ser58, and Thr191 to Ala (3A) or Glu (3E), to block or mimic phosphorylation, respectively. The 3A mutant abrogated the inhibitory effect of PKCδ on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, while reductions in insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation, cellular proliferation, and Akt activation were observed with the 3E mutant. When single Glu mutants were tested, the Ser24 to Glu mutant had the greatest inhibitory effect on insulin-stimulated IRS-1 Tyr phosphorylation. PKCδ-mediated IRS-1 Ser24 phosphorylation was confirmed in cells with PKCδ catalytic domain mutants and by an RNAi method. Mechanistic studies revealed that IRS-1 with Ala and Glu point mutations at Ser24 impaired phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate binding. In summary, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that Ser24 is a negative regulatory phosphorylation site in IRS-1

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR data of IR-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) (Toba+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.; Wang, W.-H.; Matsuhara, H.; Akiyama, M.; Goto, T.; Koyama, Y.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamamura, I.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the star-forming activity of a sample of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme red color in the optical and IR regime, (i-[22])AB>7.0. Combining an IR-bright DOG sample with the flux at 22μm>3.8mJy discovered by Toba & Nagao (2016ApJ...820...46T) with the IRAS faint source catalog version 2 and AKARI far-IR (FIR) all-sky survey bright source catalog version 2, we selected 109 DOGs with FIR data. For a subsample of seven IR-bright DOGs with spectroscopic redshifts (0.07DOGs and (2) the contribution of the active galactic nucleus to IR luminosity increases with IR luminosity. By comparing the stellar mass and SFR relation for our DOG sample and the literature, we found that most of the IR-bright DOGs lie significantly above the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at similar redshift, indicating that the majority of IRAS- or AKARI-detected IR-bright DOGs are starburst galaxies. (1 data file).

  5. IR-RF dating of sand-sized K-feldspar extracts: A test of accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buylaert, J.-P.; Jain, M.; Murray, A.S.; Thomsen, K.J.; Lapp, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a recently developed radioluminescence (RL) attachment to the Risø TL/OSL reader to test the InfraRed-RadioFluorescence (IR-RF) dating method applied to K-feldspar rich extracts from our known-age archive samples. We present experiments to characterise the instrument performance and to test the reproducibility of IR-RF measurements. These experiments illustrate the high sensitivity and dose rate of our RL system, the negligible influence of the turntable movement on IR-RF signals and the effectiveness of the built in 395 nm LED at bleaching IR-RF signals. We measure IR-RF ages on a set of samples with independent age control using a robust analytical method, which is able to detect any possible sensitivity change. Our IR-RF ages do not agree well with the independent age control; the ages of the younger samples (20–45 ka) are significantly over-estimated while the ages of the older samples (∼130 ka) are significantly under-estimated. Experiments are undertaken to investigate this disagreement and our results indicate that they can most likely be explained by 1) the difficulty of defining the correct bleaching level prior to regeneration measurements, 2) signal instability, 3) sensitivity changes between the additive dose and regenerative dose measurements, or a combination of these three factors.

  6. Polarised IR-microscope spectra of guanidinium hydrogensulphate single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, M; Baran, J

    2006-07-01

    Polarised IR-microscope spectra of C(NH(2))(3)*HSO(4) small single crystal samples were measured at room temperature. The spectra are discussed on the basis of oriented gas model approximation and group theory. The stretching nuOH vibration of the hydrogen bond with the Ocdots, three dots, centeredO distance of 2.603A gives characteristic broad AB-type absorption in the IR spectra. The changes of intensity of the AB bands in function of polariser angle are described. Detailed assignments for bands derived from stretching and bending modes of sulphate anions and guanidinium cations were performed. The observed intensities of these bands in polarised infrared spectra were correlated with theoretical calculation of directional cosines of selected transition dipole moments for investigated crystal. The vibrational studies seem to be helpful in understanding of physical and chemical properties of described compound and also in design of new complexes with exactly defined behaviors.

  7. Polarized IR-microscope spectra of guanidinium hydrogenselenate single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, M; Baran, J

    2005-10-01

    The polarized IR-microscope spectra of C(NH2)3.HSeO4 small single crystal samples were measured at room temperature. The spectra are discussed with the framework of oriented gas model approximation and group theory. The stretching nuOH vibration of the hydrogen bond with the O...O distance of 2.616 A gives characteristic broad AB-type absorption in the IR spectra. The changes of intensity of the AB bands in function of polarizer angle are described. Detailed assignment for bands derived from stretching and bending modes of selenate anions and guanidinium cations were performed. The observed intensities of these bands in polarized infrared spectra were correlated with theoretical calculation of directional cosines of selected transition dipole moments for investigated crystal. The vibrational studies seem to be helpful in understanding of physical and chemical properties of described compound and also in design of new complexes with exactly defined behaviors.

  8. Activity uniformity of Ir-192 seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Gromadzki, Z.C.

    1981-01-01

    A simple device that uses materials and apparatus commonly available in a radiotherapy department has been designed, fabricated and used in routine quality control relative to the activity uniformity of clinical Ir-192 seeds in ribbons. Detailed evaluation indicated that this system is easy to use and can yield relative activity measurements of individual Ir-192 seeds accurate to within 2%. With this device, activity uniformity of commercial Ir-192 seeds from two manufacturers has been assessed. For the seven shipments of Ir-192 seeds studied, the root mean square variations of individual seed strength from the average of each shipment ranged from 3.4 to 7.1%. Variation in seed activity by more than +- 10% from the average is not uncommon

  9. Implementing GPS into Pave-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    To further enhance the capabilities of the Pave-IR thermal segregation detection system developed at the Texas Transportation Institute, researchers incorporated global positioning system (GPS) data collection into the thermal profiles. This GPS capa...

  10. Joint IAEA/NEA IRS guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Reporting System (IRS) is an international system jointly operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD/NEA). The fundamental objective of the IRS is to contribute to improving the safety of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) which are operated worldwide. This objective can be achieved by providing timely and detailed information on both technical and human factors related to events of safety significance which occur at these plants. The purpose of these guidelines, which supersede the previous IAEA Safety Series No. 93 (Part II) and the NEA IRS guidelines, is to describe the system and to give users the necessary background and guidance to enable them to produce IRS reports meeting a high standard of quality while retaining the high efficiency of the system expected by all Member States operating nuclear power plants

  11. Characterization of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on Ir-based electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee-Chul; Lee, Won-Jong

    2002-01-01

    Structural and electrical characteristics of Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) ferroelectric thin films deposited on various Ir-based electrodes (Ir, IrO 2 , and Pt/IrO 2 ) using electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition were investigated. On the Ir electrode, stoichiometric PZT films with pure perovskite phase could be obtained over a very wide range of processing conditions. However, PZT films prepared on the IrO 2 electrode contain a large amount of PbO x phases and exhibited high Pb-excess composition. The deposition characteristics were dependent on the behavior of PbO molecules on the electrode surface. The PZT thin film capacitors prepared on the Ir bottom electrode showed different electrical properties depending on top electrode materials. The PZT capacitors with Ir, IrO 2 , and Pt top electrodes showed good leakage current characteristics, whereas those with the Ru top electrode showed a very high leakage current density. The PZT capacitor exhibited the best fatigue endurance with an IrO 2 top electrode. An Ir top electrode provided better fatigue endurance than a Pt top electrode. The PZT capacitor with an Ir-based electrode is thought to be attractive for the application to ferroelectric random access memory devices because of its wide processing window for a high-quality ferroelectric film and good polarization, fatigue, and leakage current characteristics

  12. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopic Imaging of Human Tissue Sections towards Improving Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Peter L.; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis. PMID:25650759

  13. Crumpled rGO-supported Pt-Ir bifunctional catalyst prepared by spray pyrolysis for unitized regenerative fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Gyeom; Nah, In Wook; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, Sehkyu

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) crumpled reduced graphene oxide supported Pt-Ir alloys that served as bifunctional oxygen catalysts for use in untized regenerative fuel cells were synthesized by a facile spray pyrolysis method. Pt-Ir catalysts supported on rGO (Pt-Ir/rGOs) were physically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to observe change in composition by heat treatment, alloying, and morphological transition of the catalysts. Their catalytic activities and stabilities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) conditions were electrochemically investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), potential cycling and hold tests on the rotating disk electrode (RDE). Pt-Ir/rGO with no post heat-treatment (Pt-Ir/rGO_NP) showed a lower activity for ORR and OER although metal nanoparticles decorated on the support are relatively small. However, Pt-Ir/rGO showed remarkably enhanced activity following heat treatment, depending on temperature. Pt-Ir/rGO heat-treated at 600 °C after spray pyrolysis (Pt-Ir/rGO_P600) exhibited a higher activity and stability than a commercially available Pt/C catalyst kept under the ORR condition, and it also revealed a comparable OER activity and durability versus the commercial unsupported Ir catalyst.

  14. Perforated SiN membrane resonators for nanomechanical IR spectroscopy poster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian; Carnoy, Matthias; Boisen, Anja

    Constant progress in micro- and nanofabrication provides a great opportunity in development of micro- and nanomechanical resonatorsthat can be used for sensing purposes. These sensors usually consist of singly-clamped cantilever beams, doubly-clamped bridges ormembranes that exhibit resonant......, lateral dimension of1×1 mm2 and 2 µm perforation grid pitch were used instead of strings which makes the IR beam alignment significantly simpler whilemaintaining similar sampling efficiency and photothermal IR absorption sensitivity....

  15. UV/IR Filaments for High Resolution Novel Spectroscopic Interrogation of Plumes on Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy of plumes created by a laser filament. The molecules to be detected are excited by the short pulse IR pulse, while the co-propagating... spectroscopy of gas samples has been demonstrated in IR filaments [32], using the fs pulse of the filament (800 nm) to vibrationally excite the components...Petit. Isotope ratio determination of uranium by optical emission spectroscopy on a laser -produced plasma; basic investigation and analytical results

  16. Multivariate analysis of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopic data to confirm phase partitioning in methacrylate-based dentin adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiang; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Abedin, Farhana; Laurence, Jennifer S; Misra, Anil; Spencer, Paulette

    2013-12-01

    Water is ubiquitous in the mouths of healthy individuals and is a major interfering factor in the development of a durable seal between the tooth and composite restoration. Water leads to the formation of a variety of defects in dentin adhesives; these defects undermine the tooth-composite bond. Our group recently analyzed phase partitioning of dentin adhesives using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration measurements provided by HPLC offered a more thorough representation of current adhesive performance and elucidated directions to be taken for further improvement. The sample preparation and instrument analysis using HPLC are, however, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The objective of this work was to develop a methodology for rapid, reliable, and accurate quantitative analysis of near-equilibrium phase partitioning in adhesives exposed to conditions simulating the wet oral environment. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate statistical methods, including partial least squares (PLS) regression and principal component regression (PCR), were used for multivariate calibration to quantify the compositions in separated phases. Excellent predictions were achieved when either the hydrophobic-rich phase or the hydrophilic-rich phase mixtures were analyzed. These results indicate that FT-IR spectroscopy has excellent potential as a rapid method of detection and quantification of dentin adhesives that experience phase separation under conditions that simulate the wet oral environment.

  17. The study of the curing of the polyurethane coating by method of IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Korshunova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the curing process of polyurethane compositions with participation of two different catalysts by the method of IR spectroscopy are given. The time dependences of curing of polyurethane coatings from concentrations of catalysts were determined, on the basis of which the most effective catalyst was selected.

  18. Biocompatibility of Ir/Ti-oxide coatings: Interaction with platelets, endothelial and smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibzadeh, Sajjad; Li, Ling; Omanovic, Sasha; Shum-Tim, Dominique; Davis, Elaine C.

    2014-05-01

    Applying surface coatings on a biomedical implant is a promising modification technique which can enhance the implant's biocompatibility via controlling blood constituents- or/and cell-surface interaction. In this study, the influence of composition of IrxTi1-x-oxide coatings (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) formed on a titanium (Ti) substrate on the responses of platelets, endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was investigated. The results showed that a significant decrease in platelet adhesion and activation was obtained on Ir0.2Ti0.8-oxide and Ir0.4Ti0.6-oxide coatings, rendering the surfaces more blood compatible, in comparison to the control (316L stainless steel, 316L-SS) and other coating compositions. Further, a substantial increase in the EC/SMC surface count ratio after 4 h of cell attachment to the Ir0.2Ti0.8-oxide and Ir0.4Ti0.6-oxide coatings, relative to the 316L-SS control and the other coating compositions, indicated high potential of these coatings for the enhancement of surface endothelialization. This indicates the capability of the corresponding coating compositions to promote EC proliferation on the surface, while inhibiting that of SMCs, which is important in cardiovascular stents applications.

  19. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing. PMID:24992094

  20. IR-based spot weld NDT in automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2015-05-01

    Today's auto industry primarily relies on destructive teardown evaluation to ensure the quality of the resistance spot welds (RSWs) due to their criticality in crash resistance and performance of vehicles. The destructive teardown evaluation is labor intensive and costly. The very nature of the destructive test means only a few selected welds will be sampled for quality. Most of the welds in a car are never checked. There are significant costs and risks associated with reworking and scrapping the defective welded parts made between the teardown tests. IR thermography as a non-destructive testing (NDT) tool has its distinct advantage — its non-intrusive and non-contact nature. This makes the IR based NDT especially attractive for the highly automated assembly lines. IR for weld quality inspection has been explored in the past, mostly limited to the offline post-processing manner in a laboratory environment. No online real-time RSW inspection using IR thermography has been reported. Typically for postprocessing inspection, a short-pulse heating via xenon flash lamp light (in a few milliseconds) is applied to the surface of a spot weld. However, applications in the auto industry have been unsuccessful, largely due to a critical drawback that cannot be implemented in the high-volume production line - the prerequisite of painting the weld surface to eliminate surface reflection and other environmental interference. This is due to the low signal-to-noise ratio resulting from the low/unknown surface emissivity and the very small temperature changes (typically on the order of 0.1°C) induced by the flash lamp method. An integrated approach consisting of innovations in both data analysis algorithms and hardware apparatus that effectively solved the key technical barriers for IR NDT. The system can be used for both real-time (during welding) and post-processing inspections (after welds have been made). First, we developed a special IR thermal image processing method that

  1. Production and characterization of composite stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leirose, G.D.; Lameiras, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    Composite stone is a product similar to natural granite or marble, produced with particles of these materials. This material is used like natural stone as lining. The fabrication of artificial stones using residues of banded iron formations is a promising alternative to its actual destination (storage in dam). This research aims the characterization of composite stone to prove the efficacy of this kind of processing. It was used first, natural quartz as a raw material. The patterns of the samples were confirmed by IR spectra and XRD patterns, ensuring the reproducibility of processing applied. Moreover, this material is homogeneous, with low porosity and high flexural strength, confirmed by its structural characterization. Thus, it can be affirmed that the process chosen is suitable, enabling the application of this methodology to the use of waste. (author)

  2. Industrial radiography with Ir-192 using computed radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngernvijit, Narippawaj; Punnachaiya, Suvit; Chankow, Nares; Sukbumperng, Ampai; Thong-Aram, Decho

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to study the utilization of a low activity Ir-192 gamma source for industrial radiographic testing using the Computed Radiography (CR) system. Due to a photo-salbutamol Imaging Plate (I P) using in CR is much more radiation sensitive than a type II film with lead foil intensifying screen, the exposure time with CR can be significantly reduced. For short-lived gamma-ray source like Ir-192 source, the exposure time must be proportionally increased until it is not practical particularly for thick specimens. Generally, when the source decays to an activity of about 5 Ci or less, it will be returned to the manufacturer as a radioactive waste. In this research, the optimum conditions for radiography of a 20 mm thick welded steel sample with 2.4 Ci Ir-192 was investigated using the CR system with high resolution image plate, i.e. type Bas-SR of the Fuji Film Co. Ltd. The I P was sandwiched by a pair of 0.25 mm thick Pb intensifying sere en. Low energy scattered radiations was filtered by placing another Pb sheet with a thickness of 3 mm under the cassette. It was found that the CR image could give a contrast sensitivity of 2.5 % using only 3-minute exposure time which was comparable to the image taken by the type II film with Pb intensifying screen using the exposure time of 45 minutes

  3. Mid-IR and far-IR investigation of AgI-doped silver diborate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgens, J.J.; Martin, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The structures of xAgI+(1-x)Ag 2 O·2B 2 O 3 glasses, where 0.2≤x≤0.6, have been investigated using mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy. The mid-IR spectra revealed that in those glasses prepared using AgNO 3 as the starting material for Ag 2 O, the BO 4 - /BO 3 ratio is constant with increasing amounts of AgI as would be expected form the proposed behavior of AgI in these glasses. However, a survey of the literature revealed those glasses prepared from pure Ag 2 O show a strong linear dependence of the BO 4 - /BO 3 ratio on AgI content. Most probably, in those glasses prepared with Ag 2 O the Ag 2 O/B 2 O 3 ratio changes with AgI content due to the decomposition of Ag 2 O during melting. This different behavior is associated with AgNO 3 decomposing to Ag 2 O with heating followed by incorporation into the glassy network. For Ag 2 O used directly, it is proposed that it decomposes to Ag metal and O 2 (gas) with heating before it can be incorporated into the borate network. This latter behavior decreases with increasing AgI in the batch composition because AgI lowers the liquidus temperature of the melt considerably. The far-IR analysis of the AgI-doped silver diborate glasses suggests that there are three coordination environments for the Ag + ions; one with iodide anions and the other two with oxygen ions. It is proposed that the separate oxygen coordination environments for the Ag + ions arise from one with bridging oxygens of BO 4 - units, and the other with nonbridging oxygens on BO 3 - units. Furthermore, it is proposed that the Ag + ions in the iodide-ion environments progressively agglomerate into disordered regions of AgI, but do not form structures similar to α-AgI. (Abstract Truncated)

  4. Characterization of additives typically employed in EPDM formulations by using FT-IR of gaseous pyrolyzates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Beck Sanches

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was employed to investigate the gaseous pyrolysis products of ethylene - propylene - diene rubber (EPDM. The objective was to evaluate the potential of FT-IR analysis of gaseous pyrolyzates (PY-G/FT-IR for characterization of EPDM additives. Two EPDM formulations, containing additives typically employed in EPDM rubbers, were analyzed. Initially, gaseous pyrolysis products from paraffin oil, stearic acid, 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline, tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (TMTM, tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT were characterized separately, and their main absorptions were identified. Subsequently, the gaseous pyrolysis products of raw, unvulcanized, and vulcanized EPDM formulations were analyzed. The similarities observed in the FT-IR spectra of unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM show that the vulcanization process does not interfere with the pyrolysis products. The identification of the functional groups of the studied additives was possible in both unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM samples, without solvent extraction. Results also demonstrate that the PY-G/FT-IR technique can identify additives containing sulfur in concentrations as low as 1.4 phr (1.26% in both unvulcanized and vulcanized EPDM. However, the method showed some limitation due to overlapping and to similarities of TMTM and TMTD PY-G/FT-IR spectra, which could not be distinguished from each other. The PY-G/FT-IR technique is a faster and cheaper alternative to the sophisticated techniques usually applied to detection of additives in rubbers.

  5. Pressure-modulation dynamic attenuated-total-reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, C.; Story, G. M.; Noda, I.; Bibby, A.; Manning, C. J.

    1998-06-01

    A single-reflectance attenuated-total-reflectance (ATR) accessory with a diamond internal-reflection element was modified by the addition of a piezoelectric transducer. Initial dynamic pressure-modulation experiments have been performed in the sample compartment of a step-scanning FT-IR spectrometer. A sinusoidal pressure modulation applied to samples of isotactic polypropylene and linear low density polyethylene resulted in dynamic responses which appear to be similar to those observed in previous dynamic 2D IR experiments. Preliminary pressure-modulation dynamic ATR results are also reported for a styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer. The new method has the advantages that a much wider variety of sample types and geometries can be studied and less sample preparation is required. Dynamic 2D IR experiments carried out by ATR no longer require thin films of large area and sufficient strength to withstand the dynamic strain applied by a rheometer. The ability to obtain dynamic IR spectroscopic information from a wider variety of sample types and thicknesses would greatly expand the amount of useful information that could be extracted from normally complicated, highly overlapped IR spectra.

  6. Iridium Interfacial Stack - IrIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David

    2012-01-01

    Iridium Interfacial Stack (IrIS) is the sputter deposition of high-purity tantalum silicide (TaSi2-400 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm)/iridium (Ir-200 nm)/platinum (Pt-200 nm) in an ultra-high vacuum system followed by a 600 C anneal in nitrogen for 30 minutes. IrIS simultaneously acts as both a bond metal and a diffusion barrier. This bondable metallization that also acts as a diffusion barrier can prevent oxygen from air and gold from the wire-bond from infiltrating silicon carbide (SiC) monolithically integrated circuits (ICs) operating above 500 C in air for over 1,000 hours. This TaSi2/Pt/Ir/Pt metallization is easily bonded for electrical connection to off-chip circuitry and does not require extra anneals or masking steps. There are two ways that IrIS can be used in SiC ICs for applications above 500 C: it can be put directly on a SiC ohmic contact metal, such as Ti, or be used as a bond metal residing on top of an interconnect metal. For simplicity, only the use as a bond metal is discussed. The layer thickness ratio of TaSi2 to the first Pt layer deposited thereon should be 2:1. This will allow Si from the TaSi2 to react with the Pt to form Pt2Si during the 600 C anneal carried out after all layers have been deposited. The Ir layer does not readily form a silicide at 600 C, and thereby prevents the Si from migrating into the top-most Pt layer during future anneals and high-temperature IC operation. The second (i.e., top-most) deposited Pt layer needs to be about 200 nm to enable easy wire bonding. The thickness of 200 nm for Ir was chosen for initial experiments; further optimization of the Ir layer thickness may be possible via further experimentation. Ir itself is not easily wire-bonded because of its hardness and much higher melting point than Pt. Below the iridium layer, the TaSi2 and Pt react and form desired Pt2Si during the post-deposition anneal while above the iridium layer remains pure Pt as desired to facilitate easy and strong wire-bonding to the Si

  7. MTF measurement of IR optics in different temperature ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Alexander; Duncker, Hannes; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2017-10-01

    Infrared (IR) optical systems are at the core of many military, civilian and manufacturing applications and perform mission critical functions. To reliably fulfill the demanding requirements imposed on today's high performance IR optics, highly accurate, reproducible and fast lens testing is of crucial importance. Testing the optical performance within different temperature ranges becomes key in many military applications. Due to highly complex IR-Applications in the fields of aerospace, military and automotive industries, MTF Measurement under realistic environmental conditions become more and more relevant. A Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) test bench with an integrated thermal chamber allows measuring several sample sizes in a temperature range from -40 °C to +120°C. To reach reliable measurement results under these difficult conditions, a specially developed temperature stable design including an insulating vacuum are used. The main function of this instrument is the measurement of the MTF both on- and off-axis at up to +/-70° field angle, as well as measurement of effective focal length, flange focal length and distortion. The vertical configuration of the system guarantees a small overall footprint. By integrating a high-resolution IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) in the detection unit, time consuming measurement procedures such as scanning slit with liquid nitrogen cooled detectors can be avoided. The specified absolute accuracy of +/- 3% MTF is validated using internationally traceable reference optics. Together with a complete and intuitive software solution, this makes the instrument a turn-key device for today's state-of- the-art optical testing.

  8. Platinum Activated IrO2/SnO2 Nanocatalysts and Their Electrode Structures for High Performance Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng; Christensen, Erik

    2013-01-01

    of the introduction of Pt on the properties of the composites was explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical test. Interaction between the introduced Pt nanoparticles and the bulk IrO2/SnO2 was evidenced in XRD. Electrochemical characterization showed the enhanced activitiy for the Pt activated IrO2/SnO2...

  9. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.; Yang, Y. M.; Guo, Z. B.; Wu, Y. H.; Qiu, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb

  10. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-02

    Mar 2, 2017 ... Abstract. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and a complex female endocrine disorder, and is one of the leading cause of female infertility. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR,. IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 gene in the ...

  11. A Rapid Method of Crude Oil Analysis Using FT-IR Spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June,2016), 24(1): 47-55 ... ABSTRACT: This study determines the viability of the use of Fourier Transform ... IR spectra of Crude oil sample containing a mixture of both degraded (sample 151).

  12. Optimization of Pt-Ir on carbon fiber paper for the electro-oxidation of ammonia in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, Bryan K.; Botte, Gerardine G.

    2010-01-01

    Plating bath concentrations of Pt(IV) and Ir(III) have been optimized as well as the total catalytic loading of bimetallic Pt-Ir alloy for the electro-oxidation of ammonia in alkaline media at standard conditions. This was accomplished using cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and statistical optimization tools. Concentrations of Pt(IV) and Ir(III) of the plating bath strongly influence electrode surface atomic compositions of the Pt-Ir alloy directly affecting the electro-oxidation behavior of ammonia. Several anode materials were studied using cyclic voltammetry, which demonstrated that Pt-Ir was the most active catalyst for the electro-oxidation of ammonia. Criteria for optimization were minimizing the climatic oxidation overpotential for ammonia and maximizing the exchange current density. Optimized bath composition was found to be 8.844 ± 0.001 g L -1 Pt(IV) and 4.112 ± 0.001 g L -1 Ir(III) based on electrochemical techniques. Physical characterization of the electrodes by SEM indicates that the plating bath concentrations of Pt and Ir influence the growth and deposition behavior of the alloy.

  13. Photothermal IR spectroscopy with perforated membrane micromechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian

    -IR method. In order to overcome them, string resonators were replaced by membranes. A reliable sampling technique was maintained by adding perforation to membranes and thereby essentially getting membrane porous filters. Membranes gave also access to fully integrated magnetic transduction that allowed...... for significant shrinkage and simplification of the system. An analytical model of a locally heated membrane was developed and confirmed through FEM simulations. Then, low stress silicon nitride perforated membranes were fabricated and characterized using two different experimental setups that employed optical...

  14. The efficacy of imagery rescripting (IR) for social phobia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Won; Kwon, Jung-Hye

    2013-12-01

    There is a need for brief effective treatment of social phobia and Imagery Rescripting (IR) is a potential candidate. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of IR preceded by cognitive restructuring as a stand-alone brief treatment using a randomized controlled design. Twenty-three individuals with social phobia were randomly assigned to an IR group or to a control group. Participants in the IR group were provided with one session of imagery interviewing and two sessions of cognitive restructuring and Imagery Rescripting. Those in the control group had one session of clinical interviewing and two sessions of supportive therapy. Outcome measures including the Korean version of the social avoidance and distress scale (K-SADS) were administered before and after treatment, and at three-month follow-up. The short version of the Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery and the Traumatic Experience Scale were also administered before treatment. Participants in the IR group improved significantly on K-SADS and other outcome measures, compared to the control group. The beneficial effects of IR were maintained at three-month follow-up. It was also found that mental imagery ability and the severity of the traumatic experience did not moderate the outcome of IR. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of our study using a large sample. The efficacy of IR as a stand-alone brief treatment was demonstrated for social phobia. The findings indicate that IR could be utilized as a cost-effective intervention for social phobia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR images or infrared (IR images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic

  16. Robust Ground Target Detection by SAR and IR Sensor Fusion Using Adaboost-Based Feature Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungho; Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, So-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Long-range ground targets are difficult to detect in a noisy cluttered environment using either synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images or infrared (IR) images. SAR-based detectors can provide a high detection rate with a high false alarm rate to background scatter noise. IR-based approaches can detect hot targets but are affected strongly by the weather conditions. This paper proposes a novel target detection method by decision-level SAR and IR fusion using an Adaboost-based machine learning scheme to achieve a high detection rate and low false alarm rate. The proposed method consists of individual detection, registration, and fusion architecture. This paper presents a single framework of a SAR and IR target detection method using modified Boolean map visual theory (modBMVT) and feature-selection based fusion. Previous methods applied different algorithms to detect SAR and IR targets because of the different physical image characteristics. One method that is optimized for IR target detection produces unsuccessful results in SAR target detection. This study examined the image characteristics and proposed a unified SAR and IR target detection method by inserting a median local average filter (MLAF, pre-filter) and an asymmetric morphological closing filter (AMCF, post-filter) into the BMVT. The original BMVT was optimized to detect small infrared targets. The proposed modBMVT can remove the thermal and scatter noise by the MLAF and detect extended targets by attaching the AMCF after the BMVT. Heterogeneous SAR and IR images were registered automatically using the proposed RANdom SAmple Region Consensus (RANSARC)-based homography optimization after a brute-force correspondence search using the detected target centers and regions. The final targets were detected by feature-selection based sensor fusion using Adaboost. The proposed method showed good SAR and IR target detection performance through feature selection-based decision fusion on a synthetic database generated

  17. The yo-yo IR2 test: physiological response, reliability, and application to elite soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni; Nybo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    biopsies and blood samples were obtained, and heart rate was measured before, during, and after the Yo-Yo IR2 test. Additionally, 119 Scandinavian elite soccer players carried out the Yo-Yo IR2 test on two to four occasions. Results: Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 591 +/- 43 (320-920) m or 4.3 (2.6-7.9) min...... was better (P elite soccer players than for moderate elite players (1059 +/- 35 vs 771 +/- 26 m) and better (P elite soccer players...... turnover. Specifically, the Yo-Yo IR2 test was shown to be a sensitive tool to differentiate between intermittent exercise performance of soccer players in different seasonal periods and at different competitive levels and playing positions....

  18. Kas netilpo tarp politikos ir diplomatijos?

    OpenAIRE

    Streikus, Arūnas

    2008-01-01

    The review analyzes A. Kasparavičius’s monograph “Tarp Politikos ir Diplomatijos: Šventasis Sostas ir Lietuvos Respublika” (Vilnius, 2008). The historiographic value of the study is undisputed. A. Kasperavičius had an opportunity to use a broad spectrum of sources, among which two sets of archive documents stand out: the funds of the archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Embassy under the Holy See in Rome. A. Kasparavičius managed to avoid the arid scientific...

  19. Elecciones Legislativas en Irán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Sainz de la Peña

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Las elecciones legislativas en Irán, una vez eliminados los reformistas se han celebrado en un clima de rivalidad. Las elecciones tenían que dejar claro quién mandaba en Irán, si los clérigos y el Guía el ayatolá Seyed Ali Jamenei o, el Presidente de la República, el laico Mahmud Ahmadineyad, apoyado en el Cuerpo de Guardias Revolucionarios. La realidad ha sido que las facciones conservadoras encabezadas por el Frente Unido Principalista, apoyados por el Guía Supremo, han obtenido el triunfo.

  20. Infrared stabilization of rice bran and its effects on γ-oryzanol content, tocopherols and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Neşe; Tuncel, Necati Barış; Kocabıyık, Habib

    2014-06-01

    Rice bran is a nutritionally valuable by-product of paddy milling. In this study an experimental infrared (IR) stabilization system was developed to prevent rice bran rancidity. The free fatty acid content of raw and IR-stabilized rice bran samples was monitored every 15 days during 6 months of storage. In addition, energy consumption was determined. The free fatty acid content of rice bran stabilized at 600 W IR power for 5 min remained below 5% for 165 days. No significant change in γ-oryzanol content or fatty acid composition but a significant decrease in tocopherol content was observed in stabilized rice bran compared with raw bran. IR stabilization was found to be comparable to extrusion with regard to energy consumption. IR stabilization was effective in preventing hydrolytic rancidity of rice bran. By optimizing the operational parameters of IR stabilization, this by-product has the potential for use in the food industry in various ways as a value-added commodity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. General review of multispectral cooled IR development at CEA-Leti, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, F.; Marmonier, F.; Grangier, C.; Adelmini, L.; Gravrand, O.; Ballet, P.; Baudry, X.; Baylet, J.; Badano, G.; Espiau de Lamaestre, R.; Bisotto, S.

    2017-02-01

    Multicolor detection capabilities, which bring information on the thermal and chemical composition of the scene, are desirable for advanced infrared (IR) imaging systems. This communication reviews intra and multiband solutions developed at CEA-Leti, from dual-band molecular beam epitaxy grown Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) photodiodes to plasmon-enhanced multicolor IR detectors and backside pixelated filters. Spectral responses, quantum efficiency and detector noise performances, pros and cons regarding global system are discussed in regards to technology maturity, pixel pitch reduction, and affordability. From MWIR-LWIR large band to intra MWIR or LWIR bands peaked detection, results underline the full possibility developed at CEA-Leti.

  2. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High HOMA-IR, adjusted for puberty, relates to the metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese Chilean youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Raquel A; Leiva, Laura B; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Lera, Lydia M; Albala, Cecilia B; Blanco, Estela; Gahagan, Sheila

    2011-05-01

    To determine how the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) is related to metabolic risk in a sample of overweight and obese Chilean youths accounting for Tanner stage. A cross-sectional study assessing 486 overweight and obese youths (aged 5-15 years) recruited from the University of Chile, Pediatric Obesity Clinic. We measured anthropometry, Tanner stage, HOMA-IR, and laboratory tests related to metabolic risk. HOMA-IR was categorized by quartile for children (Tanner stages I and II) and adolescents (Tanner stage III and above) from a normative Chilean sample. Children and adolescents with HOMA-IR in the highest quartile were likely to have higher body mass index (BMI) Z-scores, elevated waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein. HOMA-IR had good negative predictive value for characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (MetS; 0.82). In a multivariate regression model, BMI Z-score [odds ratio (OR) 1.5] and HOMA-IR (OR 3.3) predicted 22% of the variance for the MetS, with 36% of the explained variance attributed to HOMA-IR. In a large clinical sample of overweight and obese Chilean youths, HOMA-IR ≥ 75th percentile was significantly associated with the cluster of factors referred to as the MetS. We emphasize the importance of establishing percentiles for HOMA-IR based on a normative sample and taking Tanner stage into account. Although BMI is easy to assess and interpret with minimal costs in a clinical setting, adding HOMA-IR explains more of the variance in the MetS than BMI Z-score alone. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. The HOMA-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) Closely Mirrors the HOMA-IR Index in the Screening of Insulin Resistance in the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Brunna Sullara; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Cassani, Roberta Soares Lara; Forti, Adriana Costa E; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The major adverse consequences of obesity are associated with the development of insulin resistance (IR) and adiposopathy. The Homeostasis Model Assessment-Adiponectin (HOMA-AD) was proposed as a modified version of the HOMA1-IR, which incorporates adiponectin in the denominator of the index. To evaluate the performance of the HOMA-AD index compared with the HOMA1-IR index as a surrogate marker of IR in women, and to establish the cutoff value of the HOMA-AD. The Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS) is a cross-sectional multicenter survey. The data from 1,061 subjects met the desired criteria: 18-65 years old, BMI: 18.5-49.9 Kg/m² and without diabetes. The IR was assessed by the indexes HOMA1-IR and HOMA-AD (total sample) and by the hyperglycemic clamp (n = 49). Metabolic syndrome was defined using the IDF criteria. For the IR assessed by the clamp, the HOMA-AD demonstrated a stronger coefficient of correlation (r = -0.64) compared with the HOMA1-IR (r = -0.56); p HOMA1-IR, the HOMA-AD showed higher values of the AUC for the identification of IR based on the clamp test (AUC: 0.844 vs. AUC: 0.804) and on the metabolic syndrome (AUC: 0.703 vs. AUC: 0.689), respectively; p HOMA-AD in comparison with the HOMA1-IR in the diagnosis of IR and metabolic syndrome (p > 0.05). The optimal cutoff identified for the HOMA-AD for the diagnosis of IR was 0.95. The HOMA-AD index was demonstrated to be a useful surrogate marker for detecting IR among adult women and presented a similar performance compared with the HOMA1-IR index. These results may assist physicians and researchers in determining which method to use to evaluate IR in light of the available facilities.

  5. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  6. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.

    2015-06-01

    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  7. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as

  8. TIJAH: Embracing IR Methods in XML Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    List, Johan; Mihajlovic, V.; Ramirez, Georgina; de Vries, A.P.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Blok, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses our participation in INEX (the Initiative for the Evaluation of XML Retrieval) using the TIJAH XML-IR system. TIJAH's system design follows a `standard' layered database architecture, carefully separating the conceptual, logical and physical levels. At the conceptual level, we

  9. IR and OLAP in XML document warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose to combine IR and OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies to exploit a warehouse of text-rich XML documents. In the system we plan to develop, a multidimensional implementation of a relevance modeling document model will be used for interactively querying...

  10. Isolated Gramicidin Peptides Probed by IR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rijs, A. M.; Kabeláč, Martin; Abo-Riziq, A.; Hobza, Pavel; de Vries, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2011), s. 1816-1821 ISSN 1439-4235 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550808 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : density functional calculations * gramicidin * IR spectroscopy * protein folding Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.412, year: 2011

  11. Airborne pipeline leak detection: UV or IR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, François; Gravel, Jean-François; Allard, Martin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a study of different approaches to the measurement of the above ground vapor plume created by the spill caused by a small 0.1 l/min (or less) leak in an underground liquid petroleum pipeline. The scenarios are those for the measurement from an airborne platform. The usual approach is that of IR absorption, but in the case of liquid petroleum products, there are drawbacks that will be discussed, especially when using alkanes to detect a leak. The optical measurements studied include UV enhanced Raman lidar, UV fluorescence lidar and IR absorption path integrated lidars. The breadboards used for testing the different approaches will be described along with the set-ups for leak simulation. Although IR absorption would intuitively be the most sensitive, it is shown that UV-Raman could be an alternative. When using the very broad alkane signature in the IR, the varying ground spectral reflectance are a problem. It is also determined that integrated path measurements are preferred, the UV enhanced Raman measurements showing that the vapor plume stays very close to the ground.

  12. Near IR spectra of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrillat, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The author reports on recent observations from the near IR spectra of symbiotic stars. The helium and oxygen lines useful for the construction of theoretical models are identified. Observations for cool stars and novae (nebular phase) are outlined and the spectra of specific symbiotic stars between lambdalambda 8000-11000 are presented and discussed. (Auth./C.F.)

  13. Methanol decomposition and oxidation on Ir(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, C.J.; Ludwig, W.; Bakker, J.W.; Gluhoi, A.C.; Nieuwenhuys, B.E.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption, decompn., and oxidn. of methanol (CH3OH) has been studied on Ir(111) using temp.-programmed desorption and high-energy resoln. fast XPS. Mol. methanol desorption from a methanol-satd. surface at low temp. shows three desorption peaks, around 150 K (alpha ), around 170 K (beta 1), and

  14. Column Stores as an IR Prototyping Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.F. Mühleisen (Hannes); T. Samar (Thaer); J.J.P. Lin (Jimmy); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract. We make the suggestion that instead of implementing custom index structures and query evaluation algorithms, IR researchers should simply store document representations in a column-oriented relational database and write ranking models using SQL. For rapid prototyping, this is

  15. Influence of Biodegradation on the Organic Compounds Composition of Peat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikova, Olga; Svarovskaya, Lidiya; Duchko, Maria; Strelnikova, Evgeniya; Russkikh, Irina

    2016-06-01

    Largest wetland systems are situated on the territory of the Tomsk region. They are characterized by the high content of organic matter (OM), which undergoes transformation as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. The composition of peat OM is determined by the nature of initial peat-forming plants, their transformation products and bacteria. An experiment in stimulated microbial impact was carried out for estimating the influence of biodegradation on the composition of peat lipids. The composition of the functional groups in the bacterial biomass, initial peat and peat after biodegradation was determined by IR-spectroscopy using the spectrometer NICOLET 5700. The IR spectra of peat and bacteria organic matter are characterized by the presence of absorption bands in ranges: 3400-3200 cm-1, which refers to the stretching vibrations of OH-group of carboxylic acids and various types of hydrogen bonds; 1738-1671 cm-1 - characteristic stretching vibrations of the C = O group of carboxylic acids and ketones; 1262 cm-1 - stretching vibrations of C-O of carboxylic acids. Group and individual composition of organic compounds in studied samples was determined by gas chromatography-mass-spectrometry.

  16. Use of new composite materials for the determination of Cu, Cd, Mo, As, and Sb in biological samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lučaníková, M.; Kučera, Jan; Šebesta, F.; John, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 269, č. 2 (2006), s. 463-468 ISSN 0236-5731 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/04/0943 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radiochemical neutron activation analysis * separation using composite materials Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.509, year: 2006

  17. Polarized neutron reflectivity study of a thermally treated MnIr/CoFe exchange bias system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaji, Naoki; Miyajima, Toyoo; Doi, Shuuichi; Nomura, Kenji

    2010-12-01

    It has recently been found that the exchange bias of a MnIr/CoFe system can be increased significantly by adding a thermal treatment to the bilayer. To reveal the origin of the higher exchange bias, we performed polarized neutron reflectivity measurements at the JRR-3 neutron source. The magnetization vector near the MnIr/CoFe interface for thermally treated samples differed from that for samples without the treatment. We propose a model in which the pinned spin area at the interface is extended due to the increased roughness and atomic interdiffusion that result from the thermal treatment.

  18. Study of fluorine doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 solid solution electro-catalyst powders for proton exchange membrane based oxygen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadakia, Karan Sandeep; Jampani, Prashanth H.; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Patel, Prasad; Chung, Sung Jae; Park, Sung Kyoo; Poston, James A.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: High surface area (∼300 m"2/g) nanostructured powders of nominal composition (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 and (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F have been synthesized and tested as oxygen evolution electro-catalysts for PEM based water electrolysis using a simple two-step chemical synthesis procedure. Superior electrochemical activity was demonstrated by fluorine doped compositions of (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 with an optimal composition (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F (x = 0.25) demonstrating on-par performance with commercial hydrated IrO_2 and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO_2. Using first principles calculations, the electronic structure modification resulting in ∼75 at.% reduction (experimentally observed) in noble metal content without loss in catalytic performance and stability has been established. - Highlights: • (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F nanopowder electrocatalysts have been wet chemically synthesized. • (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F exhibits superior electrochemical activity than pure IrO_2. • Stability of the (Nb,Ir)O_2:10F nanomaterials is comparable to pure (Nb,Ir)O_2. • High surface area F doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 are promising OER anode electro-catalysts. - Abstract: High surface area (∼300 m"2/g) nanostructured powders of (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2 and (Nb_1_−_xIr_x)O_2:10F (∼100 m"2/g) have been examined as promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis. Nb_2O_5 and 10 wt.% F doped Nb_2O_5 powders were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process which were then converted to solid solution (Nb,Ir)O_2 and 10 wt.% F doped (Nb,Ir)O_2 [(NbIr)O_2:10F] electro-catalysts by soaking in IrCl_4 followed by heat treatment in air. Electro-catalyst powders of optimal composition (Nb_0_._7_5Ir_0_._2_5)O_2:10F with ∼75 at.% reduction in noble metal content exhibited comparable OER activity to commercial hydrated IrO_2 and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO_2

  19. Study of fluorine doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} solid solution electro-catalyst powders for proton exchange membrane based oxygen evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadakia, Karan Sandeep [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Jampani, Prashanth H., E-mail: pjampani@pitt.edu [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Datta, Moni Kanchan [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Patel, Prasad [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Chung, Sung Jae [Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Park, Sung Kyoo [Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Poston, James A.; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu [US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV 26507 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N. [Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Bioengineering, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15217 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: High surface area (∼300 m{sup 2}/g) nanostructured powders of nominal composition (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} and (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F have been synthesized and tested as oxygen evolution electro-catalysts for PEM based water electrolysis using a simple two-step chemical synthesis procedure. Superior electrochemical activity was demonstrated by fluorine doped compositions of (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} with an optimal composition (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir{sub 0.25})O{sub 2}:10F (x = 0.25) demonstrating on-par performance with commercial hydrated IrO{sub 2} and nanostructured in-house chemically synthesized IrO{sub 2}. Using first principles calculations, the electronic structure modification resulting in ∼75 at.% reduction (experimentally observed) in noble metal content without loss in catalytic performance and stability has been established. - Highlights: • (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F nanopowder electrocatalysts have been wet chemically synthesized. • (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir{sub 0.25})O{sub 2}:10F exhibits superior electrochemical activity than pure IrO{sub 2}. • Stability of the (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2}:10F nanomaterials is comparable to pure (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2}. • High surface area F doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} are promising OER anode electro-catalysts. - Abstract: High surface area (∼300 m{sup 2}/g) nanostructured powders of (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2} and (Nb{sub 1−x}Ir{sub x})O{sub 2}:10F (∼100 m{sup 2}/g) have been examined as promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electro-catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 10 wt.% F doped Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} powders were prepared by a low temperature sol-gel process which were then converted to solid solution (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} and 10 wt.% F doped (Nb,Ir)O{sub 2} [(NbIr)O{sub 2}:10F] electro-catalysts by soaking in IrCl{sub 4} followed by heat treatment in air. Electro-catalyst powders of optimal composition (Nb{sub 0.75}Ir

  20. Enhanced actuation in functionalized carbon nanotube–Nafion composites

    KAUST Repository

    Lian, Huiqin; Qian, Weizhong; Estevez, Luis; Liu, Hailan; Liu, Yuexian; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Kuisheng; Guo, Wenli; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication and electromechanical performance of functionalized carbon nanotube (FCNT)-Nafion composite actuators were studied. The CNTs were modified successfully with polyethylene glycol (PEG), as verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the FCNTs are homogeneously dispersed in the Nafion matrix. The properties of FCNT-Nafion composites in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, dynamic mechanical properties, and actuation behavior were evaluated. The results show that the sample with 0.5 wt% FCNT exhibits the best overall behavior. Its storage modulus is 2.4 times higher than that of Nafion. In addition, the maximum generated strain and the blocking force for the same sample are 2 and 2.4 times higher compared to the neat Nafion actuator, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Enhanced actuation in functionalized carbon nanotube–Nafion composites

    KAUST Repository

    Lian, Huiqin

    2011-08-01

    The fabrication and electromechanical performance of functionalized carbon nanotube (FCNT)-Nafion composite actuators were studied. The CNTs were modified successfully with polyethylene glycol (PEG), as verified by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that the FCNTs are homogeneously dispersed in the Nafion matrix. The properties of FCNT-Nafion composites in terms of water uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity, dynamic mechanical properties, and actuation behavior were evaluated. The results show that the sample with 0.5 wt% FCNT exhibits the best overall behavior. Its storage modulus is 2.4 times higher than that of Nafion. In addition, the maximum generated strain and the blocking force for the same sample are 2 and 2.4 times higher compared to the neat Nafion actuator, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Magnetic graphene composites as both an adsorbent for sample enrichment and a MALDI-TOF MS matrix for the detection of nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiangang; Zhang, Li; Li, Ruijin; Hu, Di; Ma, Nengxuan; Shuang, Shaomin; Cai, Zongwei; Dong, Chuan

    2015-03-07

    A simple and rapid method that uses synthesized magnetic graphene composites as both an adsorbent for enrichment and as a matrix in MALDI-TOF MS analysis was developed for the detection of nitropolycyclic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) in PM2.5 samples. Three nitro-PAHs were detected down to sub pg μL(-1) levels based on calculations from an instrumental signal-to-noise better than 3, which shows the feasibility of using the new materials in MALDI-TOF MS as a potential powerful analytical approach for the analysis of nitro-PAHs in PM2.5 samples.

  3. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  4. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  5. IR-IR Conformation Specific Spectroscopy of Na+(Glucose) Adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Jonathan M.; Kregel, Steven J.; Fischer, Kaitlyn C.; Garand, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    We report an IR-IR double resonance study of the structural landscape present in the Na+(glucose) complex. Our experimental approach involves minimal modifications to a typical IR predissociation setup, and can be carried out via ion-dip or isomer-burning methods, providing additional flexibility to suit different experimental needs. In the current study, the single-laser IR predissociation spectrum of Na+(glucose), which clearly indicates contributions from multiple structures, was experimentally disentangled to reveal the presence of three α-conformers and five β-conformers. Comparisons with calculations show that these eight conformations correspond to the lowest energy gas-phase structures with distinctive Na+ coordination. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Materials characterization of impregnated W and W–Ir cathodes after oxygen poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Impregnated W and W–Ir cathodes were operated with 100 ppm of oxygen in Xe gas. • High concentrations of oxygen accelerated the formation of tungstate layers. • The W–Ir emitter exhibited less erosion and redeposition at the upstream end. • Tungsten was preferentially transported in the insert plasma of the W–Ir cathode. - Abstract: Electric thrusters use hollow cathodes as the electron source for generating the plasma discharge and for beam neutralization. These cathodes contain porous tungsten emitters impregnated with BaO material to achieve a lower surface work function and are operated with xenon propellant. Oxygen contaminants in the xenon plasma can poison the emitter surface, resulting in a higher work function and increased operating temperature. This could lead directly to cathode failure by preventing discharge ignition or could accelerate evaporation of the BaO material. Exposures over hundreds of hours to very high levels of oxygen can result in increased temperatures, oxidation of the tungsten substrate, and the formation of surface layers of barium tungstates. In this work, we present results of a cathode test in which impregnated tungsten and tungsten–iridium emitters were operated with 100 ppm of oxygen in the xenon plasma for several hundred hours. The chemical and morphological changes were studied using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and laser profilometry. The results provide strong evidence that high concentrations of oxygen accelerate the formation of tungstate layers in both types of emitters, a phenomenon not inherent to normal cathode operation. Deposits of pure tungsten were observed on the W–Ir emitter, indicating that tungsten is preferentially removed from the surface and transported in the insert plasma. A W–Ir cathode surface will therefore evolve to a pure W composition, eliminating the work function benefit of W–Ir. However, the W–Ir emitter exhibited less erosion

  7. Unique atom hyper-kagome order in Na4Ir3O8 and in low-symmetry spinel modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanov, V M; Shirokov, V B; Talanov, M V

    2015-05-01

    Group-theoretical and thermodynamic methods of the Landau theory of phase transitions are used to investigate the hyper-kagome atomic order in structures of ordered spinels and a spinel-like Na4Ir3O8 crystal. The formation of an atom hyper-kagome sublattice in Na4Ir3O8 is described theoretically on the basis of the archetype (hypothetical parent structure/phase) concept. The archetype structure of Na4Ir3O8 has a spinel-like structure (space group Fd\\bar 3m) and composition [Na1/2Ir3/2](16d)[Na3/2](16c)O(32e)4. The critical order parameter which induces hypothetical phase transition has been stated. It is shown that the derived structure of Na4Ir3O8 is formed as a result of the displacements of Na, Ir and O atoms, and ordering of Na, Ir and O atoms, ordering dxy, dxz, dyz orbitals as well. Ordering of all atoms takes place according to the type 1:3. Ir and Na atoms form an intriguing atom order: a network of corner-shared Ir triangles called a hyper-kagome lattice. The Ir atoms form nanoclusters which are named decagons. The existence of hyper-kagome lattices in six types of ordered spinel structures is predicted theoretically. The structure mechanisms of the formation of the predicted hyper-kagome atom order in some ordered spinel phases are established. For a number of cases typical diagrams of possible crystal phase states are built in the framework of the Landau theory of phase transitions. Thermodynamical conditions of hyper-kagome order formation are discussed by means of these diagrams. The proposed theory is in accordance with experimental data.

  8. The discrimination of 72 nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate salts using IR and Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Inorganic oxidizing energetic salts including nitrates, chlorates and perchlorates are widely used in the manufacture of not only licit pyrotechnic compositions, but also illicit homemade explosive mixtures. Their identification in forensic laboratories is usually accomplished by either capillary electrophoresis or ion chromatography, with the disadvantage of dissociating the salt into its ions. On the contrary, vibrational spectroscopy, including IR and Raman, enables the non-invasive identification of the salt, i.e. avoiding its dissociation. This study focuses on the discrimination of all nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate salts that are commercially available, using both Raman and IR spectroscopy, with the aim of testing whether every salt can be unequivocally identified. Besides the visual spectra comparison by assigning every band with the corresponding molecular vibrational mode, a statistical analysis based on Pearson correlation was performed to ensure an objective identification, either using Raman, IR or both. Positively, 25 salts (out of 72) were unequivocally identified using Raman, 30 salts when using IR and 44 when combining both techniques. Negatively, some salts were undistinguishable even using both techniques demonstrating there are some salts that provide very similar Raman and IR spectra.

  9. Magnetic nanoparticles-nylon 6 composite for the dispersive micro solid phase extraction of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gallardo, Emilia M; Lucena, R; Cárdenas, S; Valcárcel, M

    2014-06-06

    In this article, the easy synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles-nylon 6 composite is presented, characterized and applied in the microextraction field. The one-step synthesis of the composite is performed by a solvent changeover playing with the different solubility of the polymeric network in formic acid and water. The new material has been characterized by different techniques including infrared spectroscopy, transmission and scanning microscopy. The extraction performance of the composite under a dispersive micro solid phase extraction format has been evaluated by determining four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[b]fluoranthene, fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and phenanthrene) in water using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) combined with photo diode array detection. The developed methodology allows the determination of the analytes with limits of detection in the range from 0.05 μg/L (benzo[b]fluoranthene) to 0.58 μg/L (phenanthrene). The repeatability of the method was better than 6.9% at the limit of quantification level. The relative recoveries varied in the interval 80-111%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  11. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  12. Validation of deep freezing of pilot samples for checking of time stability of indirect analyses of basic milk composition and for their long shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential part of raw milk component measurement is indirect infraanalyse. The checking of time measurement stability is important there. The preparation of pilot samples was described. Information about deep frozen milk pilot sample stability are sporadic. Aim of this work was to verify the stability of long-term stored and deep frozen pilot samples (FPSs. Pilot samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen bath −196 °C and after that stored at −21 °C for one month (A and more months (B till analyse. The pilot samples were measured by CombiFoss 6000: fat F (%; protein CP (%; lactose L (%; casein C (%; solid non fat SNF (%; urea U (mg/100ml; somatic cell count SCC (ths./ml. In the short-term (A experiment the impact of freezing on pilot milk samples was relatively small, in the framework of acceptable value of repeatability (±0.02 % for components. The stability of values of FPSs was better according to standard deviations for important F evaluation in H (Holstein breed samples. The repeatability of values of FPSs in the time was very good for other components. The repeatability was better for SCC in J (Jersey breed samples (±16.5 thousands/ml. That is why the higher variability (±30.1 thousands/ml in H sample is visible less sceptically. The apparent result trends were not observable in the repeatability development of important milk indicators in FPSs. The mild trend was only in CP, but this trend covered absolutely very small shift (variation range. There are only oscillations, which are similar between J and H samples. It is possible to attribute these oscillations rather to instrument effects than to sample effects. The oscilations were markedly higher in the long-term (B experiment. Between J and H samples the oscilations were very similar in curves F and L. It is also possible to attribute them more to instrumental effects. The repeatability values (standard deviations sd of FPSs were mostly lower than ±0.06 %. It is acceptable for

  13. Atomic-layer deposited IrO2 nanodots for charge-trap flash-memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sangmoo; Cha, Young-Kwan; Seo, Bum-Seok; Park, Sangjin; Park, Ju-Hee; Shin, Sangmin; Seol, Kwang Soo; Park, Jong-Bong; Jung, Young-Soo; Park, Youngsoo; Park, Yoondong; Yoo, In-Kyeong; Choi, Suk-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Charge-trap flash- (CTF) memory structures have been fabricated by employing IrO 2 nanodots (NDs) grown by atomic-layer deposition. A band of isolated IrO 2 NDs of about 3 nm lying almost parallel to Si/SiO 2 interface is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The memory device with IrO 2 NDs shows much larger capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis and memory window compared with the control sample without IrO 2 NDs. After annealing at 800 deg. C for 20 min, the ND device shows almost no change in the width of C-V hysteresis and the ND distribution. These results indicate that the IrO 2 NDs embedded in SiO 2 can be utilized as thermally stable, discrete charge traps, promising for metal oxide-ND-based CTF memory devices

  14. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Damayanthi, Rathnayaka M. T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μm×45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES.

  15. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  16. Development of Ir/Au-TES microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Ataka, Manabu; Ohkubo, Masataka; Hirayama, Fuminori

    2004-01-01

    We are developing X-ray microcalorimeters using transition edge sensors (TES) for high resolution x-ray spectroscopy. Microcalorimeters are thermal detectors which measure the energy of an incident x-ray photon using a TES thermometer operated at a sharp transition edge between normal and superconducting states. TES microcalorimeters can achieve faster response than conventional microcalorimeters by keeping the operating point of TES in the transition region through the use of strong negative electrothermal feedback (ETF). We developed a bilayer TES where a normal metal Au was deposited on a superconductor Ir in order to improve the thermal conductivity of the Ir-TES. We investigated resistance-temperature characteristics. As a result, it showed a very sharp transition within 1 mK at the temperature of 110 mK. The energy resolution of 9.4 eV (FWHM) was achieved for a 5899 eV Mn K al line. (author)

  17. The mid-IR silicon photonics sensor platform (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimerling, Lionel; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha M.

    2017-02-01

    Advances in integrated silicon photonics are enabling highly connected sensor networks that offer sensitivity, selectivity and pattern recognition. Cost, performance and the evolution path of the so-called `Internet of Things' will gate the proliferation of these networks. The wavelength spectral range of 3-8um, commonly known as the mid-IR, is critical to specificity for sensors that identify materials by detection of local vibrational modes, reflectivity and thermal emission. For ubiquitous sensing applications in this regime, the sensors must move from premium to commodity level manufacturing volumes and cost. Scaling performance/cost is critically dependent on establishing a minimum set of platform attributes for point, wearable, and physical sensing. Optical sensors are ideal for non-invasive applications. Optical sensor device physics involves evanescent or intra-cavity structures for applied to concentration, interrogation and photo-catalysis functions. The ultimate utility of a platform is dependent on sample delivery/presentation modalities; system reset, recalibration and maintenance capabilities; and sensitivity and selectivity performance. The attributes and performance of a unified Glass-on-Silicon platform has shown good prospects for heterogeneous integration on materials and devices using a low cost process flow. Integrated, single mode, silicon photonic platforms offer significant performance and cost advantages, but they require discovery and qualification of new materials and process integration schemes for the mid-IR. Waveguide integrated light sources based on rare earth dopants and Ge-pumped frequency combs have promise. Optical resonators and waveguide spirals can enhance sensitivity. PbTe materials are among the best choices for a standard, waveguide integrated photodetector. Chalcogenide glasses are capable of transmitting mid-IR signals with high transparency. Integrated sensor case studies of i) high sensitivity analyte detection in

  18. Critical Dispersion-Theory Tests of Silicon's IR Refractive Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstens, William; Smith, D. Y.

    Silicon strongly absorbs both visible and UV light, but is highly transparent in the IR. Hence, it is a common choice for infrared windows and lenses. However, optical design is hindered by literature index values that disagree by up to 1%. In contrast optical-glass indices are known to 0.01% or better. The most widely available silicon IR indices are based on bulk measurements using either Snell's-Law refraction by a prism or channel-spectra interference of front- and backsurface reflections from a planar sample. To test the physical acceptability of these data, we have developed criteria based on a Taylor expansion of the Kramers-Kronig relation for the index at energies below strong inter-band transitions. These tests require that the coefficients of the series in powers of energy squared must be positive within the region of transparency. This is satisfied by essentially all prism measurements; their small scatter arises primarily from impurities and doping. In contrast, channel-spectra data fail in the second and third coefficients. A review of the experimental analysis indicates three problems besides purity: incorrect channel number arising from a channel-spectra model that neglects spectrum distortion by the weak lattice absorption; use of a series expansion of mixed parity in photon energy to describe the even-parity index; and use of an incorrect absorption energy in the Li-Sellmeier dispersion formula. Recommendations for IR index values for pure silicon will be discussed. Supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  19. Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G., E-mail: gubbiotti@fisica.unipg.it; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (IOM-CNR), Unità di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Del Bianco, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-05-07

    Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.

  20. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  1. Determination of isotopic composition of strontium in black tea samples from India by Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Lagad, R.A.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Fang, Kuo Huang; You, Chen-Feng

    2009-01-01

    Identification of geographical origins of food materials is of great importance due to rampant mislabeling that is usually done for getting a higher market price for the agricultural produce. Several works have been undertaken to identify the provenance of tea (Camellia Sinensis). The geographical identification is based on trace elemental profiling of the samples as well as stable isotope ratio signatures. Significant amount of work is also reported for a wide range of food samples such as Coffee, honey, rice etc.

  2. An Assessment of Elemental Compositions and Concentrations in a Marble Sample from Hatnub Area using Internal Mono Standard Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, N.F.; EL-Shershaby, A.; EL-Bahi, S.; Walley El-Dine, N.; Abd El-Halim, E.S.; Afifi, S.

    2012-01-01

    A marble sample was taken from Hatnub area near Asyot, where a high pollution is expected. The sample was specially treated and prepared for elemental analysis using the k 0 -based internal mono standard neutron activation analysis . The irradiation facility of the first Egyptian Training Research Reactor (ETRR-1) was used to irradiate the sample together with gold and zirconium monitor samples. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) built in the vertical thermal column of the second Egyptian Training Research Reactor (ETRR-2) was used to irradiate another weight of the marble sample and a sample from a certificated reference material JB-1 for short time irradiation. A new method was developed to measure the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio and the deviation in the real epithermal neutron spectrum ( 1/E 1±a lpha ) from the ideal (1/E ). The elemental analysis was carried out by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The accuracy of the internal mono standard method has been evaluated by analyzing the JB-1 certified reference material

  3. Investigation of influence of electronic irradiation on photoluminescence spectrum and ir-spectrum of porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daineko, E.A.; Dihanbayev, K.K.; Akhtar, P.; Hussain, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we study the influence of 2-Mev electron irradiation on porous silicon (PS). Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and IR-spectrum have been done on both newly-prepared PS samples and samples prepared a year ago after the irradiation. We analyzed PL spectrum for both types of PS samples. The experimental results suggest that the peak position in PL spectrum decreases for newly-prepared PS samples. The size of the nanocrystals calculated by the method of singling out of spectrum components was equal to 3.0-3.2 nm. Porosity of the samples was 60-75%. From IR-spectrum of newly-prepared PS samples wide absorption band was observed at 1100 cm/sup -1/ (Si-O-Si bond). Another peak of Si-O-Si group was observed at 850 cm/sub -1/. Also hydrogen absorption bands were appearing from 2000 to 2200 cm/sup -1/, corresponding to vibration modes SiH, SiH/sub 2/, SiH/sub 3/. As a result of electron irradiation the PL intensity of newly-prepared PS samples decreases abruptly by a factor of 30 without peak shifting. As for the samples prepared a year ago we observed a decrease in the PL intensity by 25-30%. From IR-spectrum of PS samples prepared a year ago it was shown that the intensity of bridge bonds corresponding to absorption band 850 cm/sup -1/, decreases gradually. Our experimental data shows that PS samples stored for longer time have better radiation resistant properties than the newly-prepared PS samples due to the replacement of Si-H bonds with more resistant Si-O bonds. Porous silicon, electrochemical anodizing, photoluminescence spectrum, IR-spectrum, electronic irradiation. (author)

  4. Identifying metabolic syndrome in African American children using fasting HOMA-IR in place of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sushma; Lustig, Robert H; Fleming, Sharon E

    2011-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing among young people. We compared the use of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with the use of fasting blood glucose to identify MetS in African American children. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from a sample of 105 children (45 boys, 60 girls) aged 9 to 13 years with body mass indexes at or above the 85th percentile for age and sex. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting levels of blood glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured. We found that HOMA-IR is a stronger indicator of MetS in children than blood glucose. Using HOMA-IR as 1 of the 5 components, we found a 38% prevalence of MetS in this sample of African American children and the proportion of false negatives decreased from 94% with blood glucose alone to 13% with HOMA-IR. The prevalence of MetS was higher in obese than overweight children and higher among girls than boys. Using HOMA-IR was preferred to fasting blood glucose because insulin resistance was more significantly interrelated with the other 4 MetS components.

  5. Prediction of the oversulphated chondroitin sulphate contamination of unfractionated heparin by ATR-IR spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwig, J; Beyer, T; Brinz, D; Holzgrabe, U; Diller, M; Manns, D

    2009-03-01

    The detection of a contamination of heparin with oversulphated chondroitin sulphate (OSCS) was first analysed in an unfractionated heparin batch supplied to the US API-market in April 2006. OSCS is a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural occuring glycosaminoglycan chondroitin sulphate. Moreover some spectroscopic characteristics of the substance overlap with those of heparin, so that the infrared (IR) spectra are visually difficult to distinguish whereas (1)H-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectroscopy or capillary electrophoresis (CE) provides identification by a simple visual inspection of either the spectrum or the electropherogram respectively. However, applying special tools of Multivariate Data Analysis (MVA) to the IR spectra an identification of the contaminated samples is possible. In detail a rapid Attenuation Total Reflectance-Infrared (ATR-IR) measurement was selected, which does not require any sample preparation. The result (contaminated or not contaminated) is predicted within a few minutes. A method transfer to mobile ATR-IR spectrometers seems to be possible. The analysis is based on the fact that the fingerprint of the OSCS IR spectrum (1st derivative) complies with a theoretically calculated principal component in the MVA.

  6. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) / Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 1099

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A finder file from SSA's Title XVI database is provided to the IRS. The IRS discloses 1099 information to SSA for use in verifying eligibility, amount, and benefits...

  7. A simplification of the deuterium oxide dilution technique using FT-IR analysis of plasma, for estimating piglet milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glencross, B.D.; Tuckey, R.C.; Hartmann, P.E.; Mullan, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies estimating milk intake using deuterium oxide (D 2 O) as a tracer have required sublimation of the sample fluid (usually plasma) to remove solids and retrieve total water. This procedure has been simplified by directly measuring the D 2 O content of plasma with a Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, removing the requirement for sample sublimation. Comparisons of samples that were split and then analysed as water of sublimation and as total plasma were performed. It was found that the direct analysis of the plasma could be achieved without a loss in fidelity of the results (sublimated v. plasma, r 2 = 0.976; n = 26). Linearity of assay standards was very high (r 2 > 0.997). The modified technique was used to determine the milk intake by piglets from litters of 7 sows during established lactation (Days 10-15). Water turnover (WTO) was shown to be the primary point by which differences in the piglet milk intakes were influenced. Differences in the milk composition had minimal effect on the milk intake determinations. Milk intake by each piglet was shown to be strongly correlated to piglet growth (r 2 = 0.59, P 2 = 0.84, P < 0.01). Copyright (1997) CSIRO Australia

  8. Graphene-Derivatized Silica Composite as Solid-Phase Extraction Sorbent Combined with GC–MS/MS for the Determination of Polycyclic Musks in Aqueous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic musks (PCMs have recently received growing attention as emerging contaminants because of their bioaccumulation and potential ecotoxicological effects. Herein, an effective method for the determination of five PCMs in aqueous samples is presented. Reduced graphene oxide-derivatized silica (rGO@silica particles were prepared from graphene oxide and aminosilica microparticles and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. PCMs were preconcentrated using rGO@silica as the solid-phase extraction sorbent and quantified by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Several experimental parameters, such as eluent, elution volume, sorbent amount, pH, and sample volume were optimized. The correlation coefficient (R ranged from 0.9958 to 0.9992, while the limits of detection and quantitation for the five PCMs were 0.3–0.8 ng/L and 1.1–2.1 ng/L, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained for tap water (86.6–105.9% and river water samples (82.9–107.1%, with relative standard deviations <10% under optimal conditions. The developed method was applied to analyze PCMs in tap and river water samples from Beijing, China. Galaxolide (HHCB and tonalide (AHTN were the main PCM components detected in one river water sample at concentrations of 18.7 for HHCB, and 11.7 ng/L for AHTN.

  9. UV-IR mixing in nonassociative Snyder ϕ4 theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Mignemi, Salvatore; Trampetic, Josip; You, Jiangyang

    2018-03-01

    Using a quantization of the nonassociative and noncommutative Snyder ϕ4 scalar field theory in a Hermitian realization, we present in this article analytical formulas for the momentum-conserving part of the one-loop two-point function of this theory in D -, 4-, and 3-dimensional Euclidean spaces, which are exact with respect to the noncommutative deformation parameter β . We prove that these integrals are regularized by the Snyder deformation. These results indicate that the Snyder deformation does partially regularize the UV divergences of the undeformed theory, as it was proposed decades ago. Furthermore, it is observed that different nonassociative ϕ4 products can generate different momentum-conserving integrals. Finally, most importantly, a logarithmic infrared divergence emerges in one of these interaction terms. We then analyze sample momentum nonconserving integral qualitatively and show that it could exhibit IR divergence too. Therefore, infrared divergences should exist, in general, in the Snyder ϕ4 theory. We consider infrared divergences at the limit p →0 as UV/IR mixings induced by nonassociativity, since they are associated to the matching UV divergence in the zero-momentum limit and appear in specific types of nonassociative ϕ4 products. We also discuss the extrapolation of the Snyder deformation parameter β to negative values as well as certain general properties of one-loop quantum corrections in Snyder ϕ4 theory at the zero-momentum limit.

  10. Interface adjustment and exchange coupling in the IrMn/NiFe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spizzo, F.; Tamisari, M.; Chinni, F.; Bonfiglioli, E.; Del Bianco, L., E-mail: lucia.delbianco@unife.it

    2017-01-01

    The exchange bias effect was investigated, in the 5–300 K temperature range, in samples of IrMn [100 Å]/NiFe [50 Å] (set A) and in samples with inverted layer-stacking sequence (set B), produced at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering in a static magnetic field of 400 Oe. The samples of each set differ for the nominal thickness (t{sub Cu}) of a Cu spacer, grown at the interface between the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers, which was varied between 0 and 2 Å. It has been found out that the Cu insertion reduces the values of the exchange field and of the coercivity and can also affect their thermal evolution, depending on the stack configuration. Indeed, the latter also determines a peculiar variation of the exchange bias properties with time, shown and discussed with reference to the samples without Cu of the two sets. The results have been explained considering that, in this system, the exchange coupling mechanism is ruled by the glassy magnetic behavior of the IrMn spins located at the interface with the NiFe layer. Varying the stack configuration and t{sub Cu} results in a modulation of the structural and magnetic features of the interface, which ultimately affects the spins dynamics of the glassy IrMn interfacial component. - Highlights: • Exchange bias effect in IrMn/NiFe samples with interfacial Cu spacer. • A variation of exchange bias with time is observed in as-deposited samples. • Magnetic modification of the interface by varying the stack sequence and Cu thickness. • Interface adjustment affects the dynamics of interfacial IrMn spins. • The exchange bias properties can be tuned by interface adjustment.

  11. IGF-IR targeted therapy: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A.J. Varewijck (Aimee)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) has been studied as an anti-cancer target. However, monotherapy trials with IGF-IR targeted antibodies or with IGF-IR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have, overall, been very disappointing in the clinical setting. This review discusses potential reasons

  12. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha

    2010-01-01

    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  13. Detecting infrared luminescence and non-chemical signaling of living cells: single cell mid-IR spectroscopy in cryogenic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereverzev, Sergey

    2017-02-01

    Many life-relevant interaction energies are in IR range, and it is reasonable to believe that some biochemical reactions inside cells can results in emission of IR photons. Cells can use this emission for non-chemical and non-electrical signaling. Detecting weak infrared radiation from live cells is complicated because of strong thermal radiation background and absorption of radiation by tissues. A microfluidic device with live cells inside a vacuum cryogenic environment should suppress this background, and thereby permit observation of live cell auto-luminescence or signaling in the IR regime. One can make IR-transparent windows not emitting in this range, so only the cell and a small amount of liquid around it will emit infrared radiation. Currently mid-IR spectroscopy of single cells requires the use of a synchrotron source to measure absorption or reflection spectra. Decreasing of thermal radiation background will allow absorption and reflection spectroscopy of cells without using synchrotron light. Moreover, cell auto-luminescence can be directly measured. The complete absence of thermal background radiation for cryogenically cooled samples allows the use IR photon-sensitive detectors and obtaining single molecule sensitivity in IR photo-luminescence measurements. Due to low photon energies, photo-luminescence measurements will be non-distractive for pressures samples. The technique described here is based upon US patent 9366574.

  14. Drift and transmission FT-IR spectroscopy of forest soils: an approach to determine decomposition processes of forest litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberhauer, G.; Gerzabek, M.H.

    1999-06-01

    A method is described to characterize organic soil layers using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The applicability of FT-IR, either dispersive or transmission, to investigate decomposition processes of spruce litter in soil originating from three different forest sites in two climatic regions was studied. Spectral information of transmission and diffuse reflection FT-IR spectra was analyzed and compared. For data evaluation Kubelka Munk (KM) transformation was applied to the DRIFT spectra. Sample preparation for DRIFT is simpler and less time consuming in comparison to transmission FT-IR, which uses KBr pellets. A variety of bands characteristics of molecular structures and functional groups has been identified for these complex samples. Analysis of both transmission FT-IR and DRIFT, showed that the intensity of distinct bands is a measure of the decomposition of forest litter. Interferences due to water adsorption spectra were reduced by DRIFT measurement in comparison to transmission FT-IR spectroscopy. However, data analysis revealed that intensity changes of several bands of DRIFT and transmission FT-IR were significantly correlated with soil horizons. The application of regression models enables identification and differentiation of organic forest soil horizons and allows to determine the decomposition status of soil organic matter in distinct layers. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it may be concluded that FT-IR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of decomposition dynamics in forest soils. (author)

  15. BOOTES-IR: near IR follow-up GRB observations by a robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Postrigo, A. de Ugarte; Jelinek, M.

    2005-01-01

    BOOTES-IR is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which operates in Southern Spain since 1998, to the near IR (NIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission in the NIR, alike BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like INTEGRAL, SWIFT and GLAST. Given that the afterglow emission in both, the NIR and the optical, in the instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible to detect this prompt emission at NIR wavelengths too. The combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1 and BOOTES-2 will allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a high redshift (z > 5). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the IR magnitudes be H ∼ 7-10, hence very high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by larger instruments

  16. BRCA1 is expressed in uterine serous carcinoma (USC) and controls insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) gene expression in USC cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichay, Keren; Kidron, Debora; Attias-Geva, Zohar; Schayek, Hagit; Sarfstein, Rive; Fishman, Ami; Werner, Haim; Bruchim, Ilan

    2012-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) and BRCA1 affect cell growth and apoptosis. Little information is available about BRCA1 activity on the IGF signaling pathway. This study evaluated the effect of BRCA1 on IGF-IR expression. BRCA1 and IGF-IR immunohistochemistry on archival tissues (35 uterine serous carcinomas [USCs] and 17 metastases) were performed. USPC1 and USPC2 cell lines were transiently cotransfected with an IGF-IR promoter construct driving a luciferase reporter gene and a BRCA1 expression plasmid. Endogenous IGF-IR levels were evaluated by Western immunoblotting. We found high BRCA1 and IGF-IR protein expression in primary and metastatic USC tumors. All samples were immunostained for BRCA1-71% strongly stained; and 33/35 (94%) were stained positive for IGF-IR-2 (6%) strongly stained. No difference in BRCA1 and IGF-IR staining intensity was noted between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and noncarriers. Metastatic tumors stained more intensely for BRCA1 than did the primary tumor site (P = 0.041) and with borderline significance for IGF-IR (P = 0.069). BRCA1 and IGF-IR staining did not correlate to survival. BRCA1 expression led to 35% and 54% reduction in IGF-IR promoter activity in the USPC1 and USCP2 cell lines, respectively. Western immunoblotting showed a decline in phosphorylated IGF-IR and phosphorylated AKT in both transiently and stably transfected cells. BRCA1 and IGF-IR are highly expressed in USC tumors. BRCA1 suppresses IGF-IR gene expression and activity. These findings suggest a possible biological link between the BRCA1 and the IGF-I signaling pathways in USC. The clinical implications of this association need to be explored.

  17. Application of Titanium Dioxide-Graphene Composite Material for Photocatalytic Degradation of Alkylphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanbasha Basheer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide-graphene (TiO2-G composite was used for the photodegradation of alkylphenols in wastewater samples. The TiO2-G composites were prepared via sonochemical and calcination methods. The synthesized composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared spectroscopy (IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic efficiency was evaluated by studying the degradation profiles of alkylphenols using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID. It was found that the synthesized TiO2-G composites exhibit enhanced photocatalytic efficiencies as compared to pristine TiO2. The presence of graphene not only provides a large surface area support for the TiO2 photocatalyst, but also stabilizes charge separation by trapping electrons transferred from TiO2, thereby hindering charge transfer and enhancing its photocatalytic efficiency.

  18. Application of the CALUXTM assay to the analysis of DXNs in a composite from Sushi samples and estimation of DXN intake from the Sushi items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagata, H.; Hiroyuki, K.; Toshio, N. [Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Masafumi, N.; Hisatoshi, Y.; Hiroshi, M. [Hiyoshi Corp., Shiga (Japan); Yoshiaki, A.; Tomoaki, T.; Kumiko, S. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Kanako, N.; Masatake, T. [Jissen Women' s Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction The CALUX assay, which reasonably and rapidly analyzes the amounts of dioxin-toxicity (CALUX TEQ), has been widely used as a method for screenings. The assay has been applied to environmental samples such as water, atmospheric air and soils, biological samples such as milk, blood and fat, and dietary samples such as fish and shellfish. In this study we have compared the CALUX assay with high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), in the analysis of DXN in sushi samples and estimated the DXN intake from the sushi meal. According to the total dietary study on the DXN carried out in the past 3 years in Japan, the DXN intake from fish and shellfish accounts for 74.4% of the total dietary DXN intake. As a sushi meal consists of various types of fish, shellfish and rice, we estimated the DXN intake from one meal of sushi using the DXN concentrations obtained by the HRGC/HRMS analysis.

  19. Comparison of the solid-phase extraction efficiency of a bounded and an included cyclodextrin-silica microporous composite for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri-Aucejo, Adela; Amorós, Pedro; Moragues, Alaina; Guillem, Carmen; Belenguer-Sapiña, Carolina

    2016-08-15

    Solid-phase extraction is one of the most important techniques for sample purification and concentration. A wide variety of solid phases have been used for sample preparation over time. In this work, the efficiency of a new kind of solid-phase extraction adsorbent, which is a microporous material made from modified cyclodextrin bounded to a silica network, is evaluated through an analytical method which combines solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples. Several parameters that affected the analytes recovery, such as the amount of solid phase, the nature and volume of the eluent or the sample volume and concentration influence have been evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the material possesses adsorption ability to the tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Under the optimum conditions, the quantification limits of the method were in the range of 0.09-2.4μgL(-1) and fine linear correlations between peak height and concentration were found around 1.3-70μgL(-1). The method has good repeatability and reproducibility, with coefficients of variation under 8%. Due to the concentration results, this material may represent an alternative for trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water trough solid-phase extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Satellite Maps and Relevant Compositional Properties of PM2.5 in Difficult Winter Situations and Comparisons to DISCOVER-AQ Airborne Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean-climate regions like California's San Joaquin Valley are subject to severe wintertime particulate pollution affecting public health. We present maps of episodes and particulate diagnostics to aid diagnosis and amelioration. For abatement at sources, we require an understanding of sources and transport. Remote sensing should be of aid, but radiance-to-particle relationships are far different from methods which have been of use in the Eastern USA, Northern and Central Europe. Here are the problems: (a) Thin if very polluted mixed layers (MLs) yield optical depths, AOD, near the detection level, (b) bright and quite variegated surfaces (c) Unusual particle composition (e.g., predominance of NH4NO3 and fireplace buning aerosol), which complicate the relationship of AOD to PM2.5. Specialized analysis of MODIS-Aqua data to obtain AOD using the multi-angle (MAIAC) technique employed by Lyapustin and Wang. Meteorological analyses like NOAA's Rapid Analysis Product (RAP, or newer products like HRRR), which are formulated to remain close to observations (e.g. of water), provide useful ML information corroborated by DISCOVER-AQ in-situ and lidar observations. The many PM2.5 measurements allow a calibration of these products and thus maps of aerosol on many successive aerosol buildups. These calibrations also allow insight into compositional information relevant to MODIS retrievals, the product of aerosol density and specific scattering. We have found that the rich in-situ, lidar, and sun-photometer data sets of NASA'S DISCOVER-AQ data set (2013) of great aid. We will highlight the most interesting of many intercomparisons possible with this rich data set. We conclude with a description of new work to extend these insights to similar regions, e.g. the Imperial Valley of California, the Po Valley and maritime Southern Europe, and the litoral regions of Israel.

  1. Combining TXRF, FT-IR and GC-MS information for identification of inorganic and organic components in black pigments of rock art from Alero Hornillos 2 (Jujuy, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Cristina; Maier, Marta S; Parera, Sara D; Yacobaccio, Hugo; Solá, Patricia

    2008-06-01

    Archaeological samples are complex in composition since they generally comprise a mixture of materials submitted to deterioration factors largely dependent on the environmental conditions. Therefore, the integration of analytical tools such as TXRF, FT-IR and GC-MS can maximize the amount of information provided by the sample. Recently, two black rock art samples of camelid figures at Alero Hornillos 2, an archaeological site located near the town of Susques (Jujuy Province, Argentina), were investigated. TXRF, selected for inorganic information, showed the presence of manganese and iron among other elements, consistent with an iron and manganese oxide as the black pigment. Aiming at the detection of any residual organic compounds, the samples were extracted with a chloroform-methanol mixture and the extracts were analyzed by FT-IR, showing the presence of bands attributable to lipids. Analysis by GC-MS of the carboxylic acid methyl esters prepared from the sample extracts, indicated that the main organic constituents were saturated (C(16:0) and C(18:0)) fatty acids in relative abundance characteristic of degraded animal fat. The presence of minor C(15:0) and C(17:0) fatty acids and branched-chain iso-C(16:0) pointed to a ruminant animal source.

  2. Characterization of a novel miniaturized burst-mode infrared laser system for IR-MALDESI mass spectrometry imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelöf, Måns; Manni, Jeffrey; Nazari, Milad; Bokhart, Mark; Muddiman, David C

    2018-03-01

    Laser systems are widely used in mass spectrometry as sample probes and ionization sources. Mid-infrared lasers are particularly suitable for analysis of high water content samples such as animal and plant tissues, using water as a resonantly excited sacrificial matrix. Commercially available mid-IR lasers have historically been bulky and expensive due to cooling requirements. This work presents a novel air-cooled miniature mid-IR laser with adjustable burst-mode output and details an evaluation of its performance for mass spectrometry imaging. The miniature laser was found capable of generating sufficient energy for complete ablation of animal tissue in the context of an IR-MALDESI experiment with exogenously added ice matrix, yielding several hundred confident metabolite identifications. Graphical abstract The use of a novel miniature 2.94 μm burst-mode laser in IR-MALDESI allows for rapid and sensitive mass spectrometry imaging of a whole mouse.

  3. Reference ranges of HOMA-IR in normal-weight and obese young Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashaj, Blegina; Luciano, Rosa; Contoli, Benedetta; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Spreghini, Maria Rita; Rustico, Carmela; Sforza, Rita Wietrzycowska; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Manco, Melania

    2016-04-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) may develop very early in life being associated with occurrence of cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs). Aim of the present study was to identify in young Caucasians normative values of IR as estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and cutoffs diagnostic of CMRFs. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters were assessed in 2753 Caucasians (age 2-17.8 years; 1204 F). Reference ranges of HOMA-IR were defined for the whole population and for samples of normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The receiver operator characteristic analysis was used to find cutoffs of HOMA-IR accurately identifying individuals with any CMRF among total cholesterol and/or triglycerides higher than the 95th percentile and/or HDL cholesterol lower than the 5th for age and sex, impaired glucose tolerance, and alanine aminotransferase levels ≥40 U/l. Overweight/obese individuals had higher HOMA-IR levels compared with normal-weight peers (p HOMA-IR index rose progressively with age, plateaued between age 13 and 15 years and started decreasing afterward. HOMA-IR peaked at age 13 years in girls and at 15 years in boys. The 75th percentile of HOMA-IR in the whole population (3.02; AUROC = 0.73, 95 % CI = 0.70-0.75), in normal-weight (1.68; AUROC = 0.76, 95 % CI = 0.74-0.79), and obese (3.42; AUROC = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.69-0.72) individuals identified the cutoffs best classifying individuals with any CMRF. Percentiles of HOMA-IR varied significantly in young Caucasians depending on sex, age, and BMI category. The 75th percentile may represent an accurate cutoff point to suspect the occurrence of one or more CMRFs among high total cholesterol and triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and ALT ≥ 40 UI/l.

  4. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis for studying Clostridium cell response to conversion of enzymatically hydrolyzed hay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Nescerecka, Alina; Tihomirova, Kristina; Mezule, Linda; Juhna, Talis

    2013-07-01

    Grass hay is one of assailable cellulose containing non-food agricultural wastes that can be used as a carbohydrate source by microorganisms producing biofuels. In this study three Clostridium strains Clostridium acetobutylicum, Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium tetanomorphum, capable of producing acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) were adapted to convert enzymatically hydrolyzed hay used as a growth media additive. The results of growth curves, substrate degradation kinetics and FT-IR analyses of bacterial biomass macromolecular composition showed diverse strain-specific cell response to the growth medium composition.

  5. Solid phase microextraction headspace sampling of chemical warfare agent contaminated samples : method development for GC-MS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson Lepage, C.R.; Hancock, J.R. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada); Wyatt, H.D.M. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Defence R and D Canada-Suffield (DRDC-Suffield) is responsible for analyzing samples that are suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, either collected by the Canadian Forces or by first-responders in the event of a terrorist attack in Canada. The analytical techniques used to identify the composition of the samples include gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GC-MS and LC-MS generally require solvent extraction and reconcentration, thereby increasing sample handling. The authors examined analytical techniques which reduce or eliminate sample manipulation. In particular, this paper presented a screening method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) headspace sampling and GC-MS analysis for chemical warfare agents such as mustard, sarin, soman, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate in contaminated soil samples. SPME is a method which uses small adsorbent polymer coated silica fibers that trap vaporous or liquid analytes for GC or LC analysis. Collection efficiency can be increased by adjusting sampling time and temperature. This method was tested on two real-world samples, one from excavated chemical munitions and the second from a caustic decontamination mixture. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of Permian-Triassic boundary layer samples at the Selong Site in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Sakamoto, K.; Mingqing, W.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty samples from a limestone stratum across the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary layer in China were analyzed for 30 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS, and also for mineral compositions with a powder X-ray diffractometer. The depth profile was found to indicate a sudden change of elemental and mineral compositions across the P-Tr boundary. Also the profile showed several peaks in elemental concentrations in the lower Permian layered samples as well as in the overlying Triassic strata, which are associated with the change of mineral compositions. Elemental profiles were found to be classified into 4 groups and to give some insights in the geochemical records. Ir is far less abundant (0.1 ppt) compared with that of the K-T boundaries (10 ppb), and the Ir/Co ratio is outside the K-T and Cl chondrite trends. This change of elementary profile is suggestive of the internal causes rather than the external ones such as an asteroid impact for the mass extinction at the P-Tr boundary. (author)

  7. Carbon-supported ternary PtSnIr catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; Kokoh, K.B.; Coutanceau, C.; Leger, J.-M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Dos Anjos, D.M. [Equipe Electrocatalyse, UMR 6503 CNRS, Universite de Poitiers, 40 avenue du Recteur Pineau 86022 Poitiers Cedex (France); Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Olivi, P.; De Andrade, A.R. [Departamento de Quimica da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Tremiliosi-Filho, G. [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 780, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-08-01

    Binary PtIr, PtSn and ternary PtSnIr electrocatalysts were prepared by the Pechini-Adams modified method on carbon Vulcan XC-72, and these materials were characterized by TEM and XRD. The XRD results showed that the electrocatalysts consisted of the Pt displaced phase, suggesting the formation of solid solutions between the metals Pt/Ir and Pt/Sn. However, the increase in Sn loading promoted phase separation, with the formation of peaks typical of cubic Pt{sub 3}Sn. The electrochemical investigation of these different electrode materials was carried out as a function of the electrocatalyst composition, in a 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, with either the presence or the absence of ethanol. Cyclic voltammetric measurements and chronoamperometric results obtained at room temperature showed that PtSn/C and PtSnIr/C displayed better electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation compared to PtIr/C and Pt/C, mainly at low potentials. The oxidation process was also investigated by in situ infrared reflectance spectroscopy, to identify the adsorbed species. Linearly adsorbed CO and CO{sub 2} were found, indicating that the cleavage of the C-C bond in the ethanol substrate occurred during the oxidation process. At 90 C, the Pt{sub 89}Sn{sub 11}/C and Pt{sub 68}Sn{sub 9}Ir{sub 23}/C electrocatalysts displayed higher current and power performances as anode materials in a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). (author)

  8. Characteristics of Ir/Au transition edge sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Yuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2004-01-01

    A new type of microcalorimeter has been developed using a transition edge sensor (TES) and an electro-thermal feedback (ETF) method to achieve higher energy resolution and higher count rate. We are developing a superconducting Ir-based transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters. To improve thermal conductivity and achieve higher energy resolution with an Ir-TES, we fabricated an Ir/Au bilayer TES by depositing gold on Ir and investigated the influence of intermediate between superconducting and normal states at the transition edge for signal responses by microscopic observation in the Ir/Au-TES. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Impact of animal density on cattle nutrition in dry Mediterranean rangelands: a faecal near-IR spectroscopy-aided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Yehuda, Y; Muklada, H; Peleg, G; Henkin, Z; Voet, H; Ungar, E D

    2018-02-01

    In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement. In each season, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict the chemical composition of herbage samples (ash, NDF, CP, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) content from IVDMD). Near-IR spectroscopy was applied also to faecal samples to determine the chemical composition of the diet selected by the animal, as well as the contents of ash, NDF and CP in the faeces themselves. A faecal-NIRS equation was applied to estimate the dietary proportion of PL. Seasonal categories were green, dry without PL supplementation and dry with it. We found no effects of animal density on nutrition during the green season but effects were apparent when cows consumed dry pasture. Ash content predicted by faecal NIRS was higher in the diet than in plant samples clipped from pasture, which infers that cows ingested soil. Dietary and faecal ash contents were higher (Panimals. During the dry period, dietary contents of ME were higher in L than in H (Panimal health, the above results cast doubts on the long-term sustainability of the higher of the animal densities tested. Although it may be sustainable vis-à-vis the vegetation, treatment H may have exceeded the boundaries of what is acceptable for cow health. Chemical information revealed with NIRS can be used to evaluate whether animal densities are compatible with animal health and welfare standards and can play a role in determining the carrying capacity of Mediterranean rangelands.

  10. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Du, Li [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liao, Shijun, E-mail: chsjliao@scut.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir. - Highlights: • Mesoporous nanoparticles were synthesized and used as support for metal catalyst. • PdIr bimetallic catalyst exhibited significantly improved hydrogenation activity. • The strong promotion of Ir was recognized firstly and investigated intensively. • PdIr exhibits 18 times higher activity than Pd to the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. - Abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction

  11. Controlling Hydrogenation of Graphene on Ir(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Richard; Andersen, Mie; Jørgensen, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Combined fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of two types of hydrogen adsorbate structures at the graphene/ Ir(111) interface, namely, graphane-like islands and hydrogen dimer structures. While the former give rise to a periodic...... pattern, dimers tend to destroy the periodicity. Our data reveal distinctive growth rates and stability of both types of structures, thereby allowing one to obtain well-defined patterns of hydrogen clusters. The ability to control and manipulate the formation and size of hydrogen structures on graphene...

  12. PEP-II IR-2 Alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first results and preliminary analysis obtained with several alignment monitoring systems recently installed in the PEP-II interaction region. The hydrostatic level system, stretched wire system, and laser tracker have been installed in addition to the existing tiltmeters and LVDT sensors. These systems detected motion of the left raft, which correlated primarily with the low energy ring (LER) current. The motion is of the order of 120 micrometers. The cause was identified as synchrotron radiation heating the beampipe, causing its expansion which then results in its deformation and offset of the IR quadrupoles. We also discuss further plans on measurements, analysis and means to counteract this motion

  13. Computer dosimetry of 192Ir wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, R.W.; Gillin, M.T.; Grimm, D.F.; Niroomand-Rad, A.

    1985-01-01

    The dosimetry of 192 Ir linear sources with a commercial treatment planning computer system has been evaluated. Reference dose rate data were selected from the literature and normalized in a manner consistent with our clinical and dosimetric terminology. The results of the computer calculations are compared to the reference data and good agreement is shown at distances within about 7 cm from a linear source. The methodology of translating source calibration in terms of exposure rate for use in the treatment planning computer is developed. This may be useful as a practical guideline for users of similar computer calculation programs for iridium as well as other sources

  14. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  15. Stringy horizons and UV/IR mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2015-11-24

    The target-space interpretation of the exact (in α{sup ′}) reflection coefficient for scattering from Euclidean black-hole horizons in classical string theory is studied. For concreteness, we focus on the solvable SL(2,ℝ){sub k}/U(1) black hole. It is shown that it exhibits a fascinating UV/IR mixing, dramatically modifying the late-time behavior of general relativity. We speculate that this might play an important role in the black-hole information puzzle, as well as in clarifying features related with the non-locality of Little String Theory.

  16. Atsiskaitymai e. versle: ypatumai ir naujos tendencijos

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšniauskas, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Alternatyvių atsiskaitymų e. versle sistemos pradeda kelti rimtą grėsmę tradiciniams atsiskaitymams elektronine bankininkyste, mokėjimo kortelėmis ar grynaisiais pinigais. Todėl būtina detaliau išsiaiškinti kokie yra alternatyvių atsiskaitymų ypatumai, kurie veiksniai vartotojams yra svarbiausi ir kokie yra alternatyvūs atsiskaitymo būdai. Tai siekiama padaryti išanalizuojant mokslinę literatūrą, pateikiant pagrindines alternatyvių atsiskaitymų sistemas, atliekant alternatyvių atsiskaitymų pa...

  17. Fast IR diodes thermometer for tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiangbo

    2001-01-01

    A 30 channel fast IR pyrometry array has been constructed for tokamak, which has 0.5 μs time response, 10 mm diameter spatial resolution and 5 degree C temperature resolution. The temperature measuring range is from 250 degree C to 1200 degree C. The two dimensional temperature profiles of the first wall during both major and minor disruptions can be measured with an accuracy of about 1% measuring temperature, which is adequate for tokamak experiments. This gives a very useful tool for the disruption study, especially for the divertor physics and edge heat flux research on tokamak and other magnetic confinement devices

  18. Determination of the elemental composition of aerosol samples in the working environment of a secondary lead smelting company in Nigeria using EDXRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obiajunwa, E.I.; Johnson-Fatokun, F.O.; Olaniyi, H.B.; Olowole, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique was employed to determine the concentrations of elements in aerosol samples collected in the working environment of a secondary lead smelting company in Nigeria. Sampling was done using Whatman-41 cellulose filters mounted in Negretti air samplers at 10 locations within the factory. The concentrations of eight elements (K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) were determined. The TSP values ranged from 70 to 7963 μg/m 3 and the concentration of Pb was found to be between 2.98 and 538.47 μg/m 3 . The high Pb concentration is a danger signal to the health of the factory workers

  19. Fabrication of a polymeric composite incorporating metal-organic framework nanosheets for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Songbo; Lin, Wei; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Shuqin; Zhu, Fang; Liu, Yuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, it was discovered that even distribution of a metal-organic framework (MOF) [e.g. copper 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (CBDC)] within polymeric matrixes (e.g. polyimide) resulted in a high-efficient coating material on the surface of a stainless steel wire (SSW). Consequently, a home-made solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated for fast determination of target analytes in real water samples. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that the coating possessed homogenously porous surface. Coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct immersion SPME (DI-SPME) technique, the fiber was evaluated through the analysis of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Under optimized extraction and desorption conditions, the established method based on the home-made fiber exhibited good repeatability (4.2–12.7%, n = 6) and reproducibility (0.9–11.7%, n = 3), low limits of detection (LODs, 0.11–2.10 ng L"−"1), low limits of quantification (LOQs, 0.36–6.99 ng L"−"1) and wide linear ranges (20–5000 ng L"−"1). Eventually, the method was proven applicable in the determination of PAHs in real samples, as the recoveries were in a satisfactory range (81.7–116%). - Highlights: • A homogenously porous CBDC@polyimide-coated fiber was fabricated and characterized. • The fiber exhibited highly desired extraction performance towards PAHs. • The fiber was employed for the determination of PAHs in real aqueous samples.

  20. Fabrication of a polymeric composite incorporating metal-organic framework nanosheets for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Songbo; Lin, Wei; Xu, Jianqiao [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product of Safety/KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Ying [School of Pharmacy, Guiyang Medical University, Guiyang 550004 (China); Liu, Shuqin; Zhu, Fang [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product of Safety/KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liu, Yuan, E-mail: yliu@shou.edu.cn [College of Food Science & Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306 (China); Ouyang, Gangfeng, E-mail: cesoygf@mail.sysu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product of Safety/KLGHEI of Environment and Energy Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2017-06-08

    In this contribution, it was discovered that even distribution of a metal-organic framework (MOF) [e.g. copper 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (CBDC)] within polymeric matrixes (e.g. polyimide) resulted in a high-efficient coating material on the surface of a stainless steel wire (SSW). Consequently, a home-made solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was fabricated for fast determination of target analytes in real water samples. Scanning electron microscope images indicated that the coating possessed homogenously porous surface. Coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct immersion SPME (DI-SPME) technique, the fiber was evaluated through the analysis of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous samples. Under optimized extraction and desorption conditions, the established method based on the home-made fiber exhibited good repeatability (4.2–12.7%, n = 6) and reproducibility (0.9–11.7%, n = 3), low limits of detection (LODs, 0.11–2.10 ng L{sup −1}), low limits of quantification (LOQs, 0.36–6.99 ng L{sup −1}) and wide linear ranges (20–5000 ng L{sup −1}). Eventually, the method was proven applicable in the determination of PAHs in real samples, as the recoveries were in a satisfactory range (81.7–116%). - Highlights: • A homogenously porous CBDC@polyimide-coated fiber was fabricated and characterized. • The fiber exhibited highly desired extraction performance towards PAHs. • The fiber was employed for the determination of PAHs in real aqueous samples.

  1. Nanoparticle Nucleation Is Termolecular in Metal and Involves Hydrogen: Evidence for a Kinetically Effective Nucleus of Three {Ir3H2x·P2W15Nb3O62}6- in Ir(0)n Nanoparticle Formation From [(1,5-COD)IrI·P2W15Nb3O62]8- Plus Dihydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkar, Saim; Finke, Richard G

    2017-04-19

    The nucleation process yielding Ir(0) ∼300 nanoparticles from (Bu 4 N) 5 Na 3 [(1,5-COD)Ir·P 2 W 15 Nb 3 O 62 ] (abbreviated hereafter as (COD)Ir·POM 8- , where POM 9- = the polyoxometalate, P 2 W 15 Nb 3 O 62 9- ) under H 2 is investigated to learn the true molecularity, and hence the associated kinetically effective nucleus (KEN), for nanoparticle formation for the first time. Recent work with this prototype transition-metal nanoparticle formation system ( J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014 , 136 , 17601 - 17615 ) revealed that nucleation in this system is an apparent second-order in the precatalyst, A = (COD)Ir·POM 8- , not the higher order implied by classic nucleation theory and its nA ⇌ A n , "critical nucleus", A n concept. Herein, the three most reasonable more intimate mechanisms of nucleation are tested: bimolecular nucleation, termolecular nucleation, and a mechanism termed "alternative termolecular nucleation" in which 2(COD)Ir + and 1(COD)Ir·POM 8- yield the transition state of the rate-determining step of nucleation. The results obtained definitively rule out a simple bimolecular nucleation mechanism and provide evidence for the alternative termolecular mechanism with a KEN of 3, Ir 3 . All higher molecularity nucleation mechanisms were also ruled out. Further insights into the KEN and its more detailed composition involving hydrogen, {Ir 3 H 2x POM} 6- , are also obtained from the established role of H 2 in the Ir(0) ∼300 formation balanced reaction stoichiometry, from the p(H 2 ) dependence of the kinetics, and from a D 2 /H 2 kinetic isotope effect of 1.2(±0.3). Eight insights and conclusions are presented. A section covering caveats in the current work, and thus needed future studies, is also included.

  2. Sediment dispersal during ne monsoon over northern Bay of Bengal: Preliminary results using IRS-P4 OCM data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anuradha, T.; Suneethi, J.; Dash, S.K.; Pradhan, Y.; Prasad, J.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Nayak, S.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    False Color Composite (FCC) from the sequential satellite images of Indian Remote Sensing Satellite IRS-P4 OCM (bands around 443, 555, and 845 nm) together with sea truth data acquisition at 42 stations along the Orissa coast have been used...

  3. Design and Development of transducer for IR radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattarachindanuwong, Surat; Poopat, Bovornchoke; Meethong, Wachira

    2003-06-01

    Recently, IR radiation has many important roles such as for plastics industry, food industry and medical instrumentation. The consequence of exposed irradiation objects from IR can be greatly affected by the quantity of IR radiation. Therefore the objectively this research is to design and develop a transducer for IR radiation measurement. By using a quartz halogen lamp as a IR heat source of IR radiation and a thermopile sensor as a transducer. The thermal conductivity of transducer and air flow, were also considered for design and development of transducer. The study shows that the designed transducer can be used and applied in high temperature process, for example, the quality control of welding, the non-contact temperature measurement of drying oven and the testing of IR source in medical therapy device

  4. Superconductivity and magnetism in Ir-doped GdFeAsO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Y.J.; Chen, Y.L.; Cheng, C.H.; Yang, Y.; Jiang, J.; Wang, Y.Z.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The 5d-transition metal, Ir has successfully been doped at Fe site and induced superconductivity in GdFeAsO at T c = 18.9 K and ∼20 atom%. The Ir-doping shortened the c-axis length and stretched the a-axis one, which led to enhance the coupling between the FeAs- and SmO-layer, and to weaken the bonding between Fe and As atom. Paramagnetism was observed in all of the samples, which was resulted from the magnetic Gd ion as in the F-doped GdFeAsO. An upper critical field of GdFe 0.8 Ir 0.2 AsO was extrapolated to around 24 T, much smaller than that of F-doped GdFeAsO owing to a relatively low T c and small value of dH c2 /dT.

  5. Genetic variant near IRS1 is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rung, Johan; Cauchi, Stéphane; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    sample of 4,977 French individuals. We then selected the 28 best hits for replication in 7,698 Danish subjects and identified 4 SNPs showing strong association with T2D, one of which (rs2943641, P = 9.3 x 10(-12), OR = 1.19) was located adjacent to the insulin receptor substrate 1 gene (IRS1). Unlike...... previously reported T2D risk loci, which predominantly associate with impaired beta cell function, the C allele of rs2943641 was associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in 14,358 French, Danish and Finnish participants from population-based cohorts; this allele was also associated...... with reduced basal levels of IRS1 protein and decreased insulin induction of IRS1-associated phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase activity in human skeletal muscle biopsies....

  6. Can Patients Comprehend the Educational Materials that Hospitals Provide about Common IR Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadigh, Gelareh; Hawkins, C Matthew; O'Keefe, John J; Khan, Ramsha; Duszak, Richard

    2015-08-01

    To assess the readability of online education materials offered by hospitals describing commonly performed interventional radiology (IR) procedures. Online patient education materials from 402 hospitals selected from the Medicare Hospital Compare database were assessed. The presence of an IR service was determined by representation in the Society of Interventional Radiology physician finder directory. Patient online education materials about (i) uterine artery embolization for fibroid tumors, (ii) liver cancer embolization, (iii) varicose vein treatment, (iv) central venous access, (v) inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement, (vi) nephrostomy tube insertion, (vii) gastrostomy tube placement, and (viii) vertebral augmentation were targeted and assessed by using six validated readability scoring systems. Of 402 hospitals sampled, 156 (39%) were presumed to offer IR services. Of these, 119 (76%) offered online patient education material for one or more of the eight service lines. The average readability scores corresponding to grade varied between the ninth- and 12th-grade levels. All were higher than the recommended seventh-grade level (P Reading Ease scores ranged from 42 to 69, corresponding with fairly difficult to difficult readability for all service lines except IVC filter and gastrostomy tube placement, which corresponded with standard readability. A majority of hospitals offering IR services provide at least some online patient education material. Most, however, are written significantly above the reading comprehension level of most Americans. More attention to health literacy by hospitals and IR physicians is warranted. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Luminescence dating of the Stratzing loess profile (Austria) – Testing the potential of an elevated temperature post-IR IRSL protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    less fading and is thus less dependent on accurate fading corrections. This study builds upon these investigations and applies a post-IR IRSL SAR dating protocol to polymineral fine-grain samples of the loess/palaeosol sequence in Stratzing, Lower Austria. After a preheat at 320 °C (60 s) and an IR...

  8. Protonation of benzimidazoles and 1,2,3-benzotriazoles Solid-state linear dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectral analysis and ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka B.; Pindeva, Liliya I.

    2006-09-01

    IR-LD spectroscopic data obtained by the orientated solid samples as a suspension in a nematic liquid crystal of 1-hydroxy-1,2,3-benzotriazole, 2-methyl-, 2-acetonitrilebenzimidazoles and their protonated salts have been presented. The stereo-structures have been predicted and compared with theoretical ones. The IR-characteristic bands assignments of all molecule systems have been achieved.

  9. Evolution of the vertebrate insulin receptor substrate (Irs) gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salam, Ahmad; Irwin, David M

    2017-06-23

    Insulin receptor substrate (Irs) proteins are essential for insulin signaling as they allow downstream effectors to dock with, and be activated by, the insulin receptor. A family of four Irs proteins have been identified in mice, however the gene for one of these, IRS3, has been pseudogenized in humans. While it is known that the Irs gene family originated in vertebrates, it is not known when it originated and which members are most closely related to each other. A better understanding of the evolution of Irs genes and proteins should provide insight into the regulation of metabolism by insulin. Multiple genes for Irs proteins were identified in a wide variety of vertebrate species. Phylogenetic and genomic neighborhood analyses indicate that this gene family originated very early in vertebrae evolution. Most Irs genes were duplicated and retained in fish after the fish-specific genome duplication. Irs genes have been lost of various lineages, including Irs3 in primates and birds and Irs1 in most fish. Irs3 and Irs4 experienced an episode of more rapid protein sequence evolution on the ancestral mammalian lineage. Comparisons of the conservation of the proteins sequences among Irs paralogs show that domains involved in binding to the plasma membrane and insulin receptors are most strongly conserved, while divergence has occurred in sequences involved in interacting with downstream effector proteins. The Irs gene family originated very early in vertebrate evolution, likely through genome duplications, and in parallel with duplications of other components of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin and the insulin receptor. While the N-terminal sequences of these proteins are conserved among the paralogs, changes in the C-terminal sequences likely allowed changes in biological function.

  10. Spin orientations of the spin-half Ir(4+) ions in Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3: Density functional, perturbation theory, and Madelung potential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Elijah E; Xiang, Hongjun; Köhler, Jürgen; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2016-03-21

    The spins of the low-spin Ir(4+) (S = 1/2, d(5)) ions at the octahedral sites of the oxides Sr3NiIrO6, Sr2IrO4, and Na2IrO3 exhibit preferred orientations with respect to their IrO6 octahedra. We evaluated the magnetic anisotropies of these S = 1/2 ions on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), and probed their origin by performing perturbation theory analyses with SOC as perturbation within the LS coupling scheme. The observed spin orientations of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4 are correctly predicted by DFT calculations, and are accounted for by the perturbation theory analysis. As for the spin orientation of Na2IrO3, both experimental studies and DFT calculations have not been unequivocal. Our analysis reveals that the Ir(4+) spin orientation of Na2IrO3 should have nonzero components along the c- and a-axis directions. The spin orientations determined by DFT calculations are sensitive to the accuracy of the crystal structures employed, which is explained by perturbation theory analyses when interactions between adjacent Ir(4+) ions are taken into consideration. There are indications implying that the 5d electrons of Na2IrO3 are less strongly localized compared with those of Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. This implication was confirmed by showing that the Madelung potentials of the Ir(4+) ions are less negative in Na2IrO3 than in Sr3NiIrO6 and Sr2IrO4. Most transition-metal S = 1/2 ions do have magnetic anisotropies because the SOC induces interactions among their crystal-field split d-states, and the associated mixing of the states modifies only the orbital parts of the states. This finding cannot be mimicked by a spin Hamiltonian because this model Hamiltonian lacks the orbital degree of freedom, thereby leading to the spin-half syndrome. The spin-orbital entanglement for the 5d spin-half ions Ir(4+) is not as strong as has been assumed.

  11. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the $^{192}Os (p, n)^{192}$Ir reaction Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{192}$Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Sudar, S; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.12.010

    2005-01-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide /sup 192/Ir (T/sub 1/2/=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction /sup 192/Os(p, n)/sup 192/Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20MeV. Thin samples of enriched /sup 192/Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of /sup 192/Ir over the energy range E/sub p/=16 to 8MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/ mu A.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of /sup 192/Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  12. Surface enrichment of Pt in stable Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles on MgAl 2 O 4 spinel in oxidizing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Weizhen; Nie, Lei; Chen, Ying; Kovarik, Libor; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    With the capability of MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets in stabilizing small Rh, Ir and Pt particles, bimetallic Ir-Pt catalysts on the same support were investigated, aiming at further lowering the catalyst cost by substituting expensive Pt with cheaper Ir in the bulk. Small Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles (< 2nm) were successfully stabilized on the spinel {111} nano-facets as expected. Interestingly, methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rate on the surface Pt atoms increases with oxidizing aging but decreases upon reducing treatment, where Ir is almost inactive under the same reaction conditions. Up to three times enhancement in Pt exposure was achieved when the sample was oxidized at 800 °C in air for 1 week and subsequently reduced by H2 for 2 h, demonstrating successful surface enrichment of Pt on Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles. A dynamic stabilization mechanism involving wetting\

  13. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Bismuth Phosphate Sludge (Group 1) and Bismuth Phosphate Saltcake (Group 2) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn; Edwards, Matthew K.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenso