Sample records for ir biocheminiai kiaulienos

  1. IR intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output.......Definitions, formulas, and code for producing epsilon values (molar absorption coefficients) and IR spectral curve from 'Gaussian' FREQ output....

  2. IRS organigram (United States)

    Messerschmid, Ernst


    Charts and graphs relative to magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster technology are given. The research activities at the Institute of Space Transportation, University of Stuttgart, are summarized. Information is given on the Institute's Electric Propulsion and Plasma Wind Tunnel; thermal arcjet research; the nozzle-type thruster, DT-IRS; nozzle-type MPD thrusters; a hot anode thruster; the DT6 thruster; the ZT-1 thruster; the cylindrical MPD thruster; and a comparison of continuous and quasi-steady MPD.

  3. IOT Overview: IR Instruments (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  4. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.


    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  5. HWIL IR imaging testing (United States)

    Vinson, R. J.; Passwater, R. D.


    The Army simulator facilities are presently configured to conduct hardware-in-the-loop mission tasks on the HELLFIRE and COPPERHEAD missile systems. These systems presently use a LASER seeker. The facility is an ideal candidate to be converted to include infrared (IR) seekers used on the TGSM system. This study investigates the possibility and impact of a facility update. This report documents the feasibility of developing a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) hybrid simulation incorporating infrared IR seekers used for the Assault Breaker program. Other hardware to be considered are the autopilot, signal conditioning, signal processing, and actuators which may be integrated into the system simulation. Considerations are given to replacing all or elements of hardware while substituting math models in the system simulation.

  6. Localised IR spectroscopy of hemoglobin

    CERN Document Server

    Yarrow, Fiona


    IR absorption spectroscopy of hemoglobin was performed using an IR optical parametric oscillator laser and a commercial atomic force microscope in a novel experimental arrangement based on the use of a bottom-up excitation alignment. This experimental approach enables detection of protein samples with a resolution that is much higher than that of standard IR spectroscopy. Presented here are AFM based IR absorption spectra of micron sized hemoglobin features

  7. IR nanoscale spectroscopy and imaging (United States)

    Kennedy, Eamonn; Yarrow, Fiona; Rice, James H.


    Sub diffraction limited infrared absorption imaging was applied to hemoglobin by coupling IR optics with an atomic force microscope. Comparisons between the AFM topography and IR absorption images of micron sized hemoglobin features are presented, along with nanoscale IR spectroscopic analysis of the metalloprotein.

  8. Albuminas ir jo vartojimas


    Reingardienė, Dagmara Ona


    Albuminas yra natūralus koloidas, tačiau jo vartojimo svarba ir efektyvumas, gydant kritines būkles, pastaraisiais metais iš esmės pasikeitė. Šiame straipsnyje aptariami naujausi literatūros duomenys apie albumino vartojimą. Aišku, kad įprastas albumino vartojimas, esant sumažėjusiam jo kiekiui plazmoje, nerekomenduotinas. Šiuo metu moksliškai pagrįstų indikacijų albumino vartojimui nėra. Jo galima skirti tik kaip antrojo pasirinkimo tirpalą tais atvejais, kai kiti tirpalai neindikuotini ar k...

  9. IR and the Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf; Stevenson, Hayley


    , in the end, one finite interconnected space. Together these two starting points make for the basic conundrum of Inter- national Relations and the Earth: how does a divided world live on a single globe? This introduction first provides an overview of the recent rise of ‘the environment’ in international......, ‘what has the environment ever done for IR?’, before the plan for the rest of the book sketches the content and direction of the ensuing chapters that explore the problematique of International Relations and the Earth....

  10. The IRS-1 signaling system. (United States)

    White, M F


    IRS-1 is a principal substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. It undergoes multi-site tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates the insulin signal by associating with various signaling molecules containing Src homology 2 domains. Interleukin-4 also stimulates IRS-1 phosphorylation, and it is suspected that a few more growth factors or cytokines will be added to form a select group of receptors that utilize the IRS-1 signaling pathway. More IRS-1-like adapter molecules, such as 4PS (IRS-2), may remain to be found.

  11. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  12. The extragalactic IR background

    CERN Document Server

    De Zotti, G; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Franceschini, A; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L


    Current limits on the intensity of the extragalactic infrared background are consistent with the expected contribution from evolving galaxies. Depending on the behaviour of the star formation rate and of the initial mass function, we can expect that dust extinction during early evolutionary phases ranges from moderate to strong. An example of the latter case may be the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS F10214 + 4724. The remarkable lack of high redshift galaxies in faint optically selected samples may be indirect evidence that strong extinction is common during early phases. Testable implications of different scenarios are discussed; ISO can play a key role in this context. Estimates of possible contributions of galaxies to the background under different assumptions are presented. The COBE/FIRAS limits on deviations from a blackbody spectrum at sub-mm wavelengths already set important constraints on the evolution of the far-IR emission of galaxies and on the density of obscured (``Type 2'') AGNs. A major progress in ...

  13. The IRS-1 signaling system. (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F


    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  14. IR seeker simulator and IR scene generation to evaluate IR decoy effectiveness; 2005BU1-EO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. de; Dam, F.A.M.; Kunz, G.J.; Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    IR decoys can be an effective countermeasure against IR guided anti ship missiles. However, it's not so easy to determine how the decoys should be deployed to get maximum effectiveness. A limitation of trials is that results are obtained for the specific trial condition only. Software tools have bee

  15. Optical constants of infrared (IR) materials in the IR region (United States)

    Nagendra, C. L.; Thutupalli, G. K. M.


    Optical constants, i.e., refractive index 'n' and absorption index 'k' of the IR materials, Ge, ThF4, CdTe and CdSe have been determined, through spectrophotometric method, in the IR region from 2.5 to 15 microns. It is seen that all these films are transparent in the IR region, and the optical constants of the films deposited at elevated temperatures (T = 200 C) are unaffected, even after subjecting to severe environs such as humidity and thermal shock/cycling. Making use of Ge/ThF4 and CdTe/CdSe coating combinations, IR antireflection coatings (ARCs) which can find applications in space-borne electrooptical systems have been successfully designed and developed. The resulting ARCs have not only efficient optical properties, low reflection loss and high transmission, but are also durable against adverse environments.

  16. Advanced IR imaging seeker program (United States)

    Aguiera, R. A.


    An advanced IR Imaging Seeker System was developed which is compatible with the Hellfire Missile System mission. A technical overview of this program and current status is presented. The IR imaging seeker was tested during late 1979 and early 1980. This seeker utilizes a 1024 element InAsSb/silicon hybrid focal plane array (FPA) operating at 77 degrees K and IR-sensitive in the 2.4-4.0 micrometer wavelength region. A multimode tracker provides improved tracking capability for operation against targets in a high clutter background.

  17. Results of IR working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritson, D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)


    The IP luminosity at the Eloisatron will direct very large fluxes of hadronic debris into the IR quads. For instance at 1.10{sup 35} cm{sup 2}/sec the flux corresponds to 180 kilowatts. Already at the SSC fluxes in the neighborhood of 2 kilowatts are expected to require special handling. Scaling from SSC design experience we propose a configuration for the first IR quads at the Eloisatron capable of handling the heat load and radiation problems.

  18. Impaired Insulin Signaling is Associated with Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction in IR+/−-IRS-1+/− Double Heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Franko


    Full Text Available Mitochondria play a pivotal role in energy metabolism, but whether insulin signaling per se could regulate mitochondrial function has not been identified yet. To investigate whether mitochondrial function is regulated by insulin signaling, we analyzed muscle and liver of insulin receptor (IR+/−-insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1+/− double heterozygous (IR-IRS1dh mice, a well described model for insulin resistance. IR-IRS1dh mice were studied at the age of 6 and 12 months and glucose metabolism was determined by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Mitochondrial enzyme activities, oxygen consumption, and membrane potential were assessed using spectrophotometric, respirometric, and proton motive force analysis, respectively. IR-IRS1dh mice showed elevated serum insulin levels. Hepatic mitochondrial oxygen consumption was reduced in IR-IRS1dh animals at 12 months of age. Furthermore, 6-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice demonstrated enhanced mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle, but a tendency of impaired glucose tolerance. On the other hand, 12-month-old IR-IRS1dh mice showed improved glucose tolerance, but normal muscle mitochondrial function. Our data revealed that deficiency in IR/IRS-1 resulted in normal or even elevated skeletal muscle, but impaired hepatic mitochondrial function, suggesting a direct cross-talk between insulin signaling and mitochondria in the liver.

  19. #Occupy IR: Exposing the Orthodoxy


    Ivan Manokha; Mona Chalabi


    The #occupy IR/IPE initiative was created in response to the #occupy movement, whose own roots can be traced backed to the latest crisis of global finance. In this contribution, we link #occupy and the crisis in a different way. We argue that we must occupy IR/IPE because of the discipline’s failure to apprehend and acknowledge the crisis itself, just as the Occupy movement is calling for their overarching authorities to notice and help address the social and economic inequalities produced by...

  20. Rethinking IR from the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Picq

    Full Text Available Abstract This article proposes Amazonia as a site to think world politics. The Amazon is invisible in the study International Relations (IR, yet its experiences are deeply global. I present the international dynamics at play in Amazonia at different historical moments to posit that this periphery has contributed to forging the political-economy of what is refer to as the core. The Amazon's absence from the study of IR speaks about the larger inequality in processes of knowledge production. Serious engagements with Amazonia are one way to invite a plurality of worlds in the production of theories, disrupting global divisions of labor in knowledge production ally.

  1. Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles for minimizing Ir utilization in oxygen evolution reaction. (United States)

    Lim, Jinkyu; Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Chanyeon; Roh, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Hyunjoo


    Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained bimetallic nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Ir mass activity and durability compared with Ir nanoparticles.

  2. Oferta ir akceptas vartojimo sutartyse


    Ežerskytė, Ramunė


    Sutarčiai sudaryti paprastai reikia, kad viena šalis pasiūlytų sudaryti sutartį (oferta), o kita šalis sutiktų su pasiūlymu (akceptas). Sutarčių įvairovėje išskiriamos vartojimo sutartys, kurios dėl silpnesnės šalies apsaugos principo įgyvendinimo pasižymi tam tikrais ypatumais. Vartojimo sutarčių sudarymas pateikiant ofertą ir akceptą yra šio magistro baigiamojo darbo objektas. Magistro baigiamąjį darbą sudaro trys dalys. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje analizuojama vartojimo sutarties sąvoka ir spec...

  3. IRS memorandum limits joint ventures. (United States)

    Herman, A W


    Based on a new memorandum, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) will be looking at joint hospital/physician activities with greater attention to the nuances of public versus private benefit. As a result, hospitals face greater risk of losing their tax-exempt status in the maze of joint ventures, physician recruitment, and practice acquisition. To be successful, ventures will have to be backed by sound reasoning and thorough documentation.

  4. Climate Prediction Center IR 4km Dataset (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CPC IR 4km dataset was created from all available individual geostationary satellite data which have been merged to form nearly seamless global (60N-60S) IR...

  5. Moisture map by IR thermography (United States)

    Grinzato, E.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.


    A new approach to moisture detection in buildings by an optical method is presented. Limits of classical and new methods are discussed. The state of the art about the use of IR thermography is illustrated as well. The new technique exploits characteristics of the materials and takes into account explicitly the heat and mass exchange between surface and environment. A set of experiments in controlled laboratory conditions on different materials is used to better understand the physical problem. The testing procedure and the data reduction are illustrated. A case study on a heritage building points up the features of this technique.

  6. Coprates Chasma Landslides in IR (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Today's daytime IR image is of a portion of Coprates Chasma, part of Valles Marineris. As with yesterday's image, this image shows multiple large landslides. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.2, Longitude 300.2 East (59.8 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. IR Thermography NDE of ISS Radiator Panels (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, William; Morton, Richard; Wilson, Walter; Reynolds, Gary


    The presentation covers an active and a passive infrared (IR) thermography for detection of delaminations in the radiator panels used for the International Space Station (ISS) program. The passive radiator IR data was taken by a NASA astronaut in an extravehicular activity (EVA) using a modified FLIR EVA hand-held camera. The IR data could be successfully analyzed to detect gross facesheet disbonds. The technique used the internal hot fluid tube as the heat source in analyzing the IR data. Some non-flight ISS radiators were inspected using an active technique of IR flash thermography to detect disbond of face sheet with honeycomb core, and debonds in facesheet overlap areas. The surface temperature and radiated heat emission from flight radiators is stable during acquisition of the IR video data. This data was analyzed to detect locations of unexpected surface temperature gradients. The flash thermography data was analyzed using derivative analysis and contrast evolutions. Results of the inspection are provided.

  8. How to remedy Eurocentrism in IR?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar


    While IR's Eurocentric limits are usually acknowledged, what those limits mean for theorizing about the international is seldom clarified. In The Global Transformation, Buzan and Lawson offer a 'composite approach' that goes some way towards addressing IR's Eurocentrism, challenging existing myth...... helps us recognize what is missing from IR theorizing - conceptions of the international by 'others' who also constitute the international. I illustrate this point by focussing on a landmark text on Ottoman history, Ortayll's The Longest Century of the Empire....

  9. IR properties of AGN and SB (United States)

    Talezade Lari, M. H.; Davoudifar, P.; Mickaelian, A. M.


    Through multi-wavelength flux ratios it is possible to detect AGN and Star-burst Galaxies. Techniques of detecting extragalactic objects as well as AGN are studied in different wavelengths (X-Ray, Radio and IR). Specification of AGN as IR and radio sources is discussed. IR catalogues of 2MASS and WISE were used to study the interrelationship between interactions/merging, starburst and AGN phenomena.

  10. Atmospheric Entry Experiments at IRS (United States)

    Auweter-Kurtz, M.; Endlich, P.; Herdrich, G.; Kurtz, H.; Laux, T.; Löhle, S.; Nazina, N.; Pidan, S.


    Entering the atmosphere of celestial bodies, spacecrafts encounter gases at velocities of several km/s, thereby being subjected to great heat loads. The thermal protection systems and the environment (plasma) have to be investigated by means of computational and ground facility based simulations. For more than a decade, plasma wind tunnels at IRS have been used for the investigation of TPS materials. Nevertheless, ground tests and computer simulations cannot re- place space flights completely. Particularly, entry mission phases encounter challenging problems, such as hypersonic aerothermodynamics. Concerning the TPS, radiation-cooled materials used for reuseable spacecrafts and ablator tech- nologies are of importance. Besides the mentioned technologies, there is the goal to manage guidance navigation, con- trol, landing technology and inflatable technologies such as ballutes that aim to keep vehicles in the atmosphere without landing. The requirement to save mass and energy for planned interplanetary missions such as Mars Society Balloon Mission, Mars Sample Return Mission, Mars Express or Venus Sample Return mission led to the need for manoeuvres like aerocapture, aero-breaking and hyperbolic entries. All three are characterized by very high kinetic vehicle energies to be dissipated by the manoeuvre. In this field flight data are rare. The importance of these manoeuvres and the need to increase the knowledge of required TPS designs and behavior during such mission phases point out the need of flight experiments. As result of the experience within the plasma diagnostic tool development and the plasma wind tunnel data base, flight experiments like the PYrometric RE-entry EXperiment PYREX were developed, fully qualified and successfully flown. Flight experiments such as the entry spectrometer RESPECT and PYREX on HOPE-X are in the conceptual phase. To increase knowledge in the scope of atmospheric manoeuvres and entries, data bases have to be created combining both

  11. Hydrogen intercalation under graphene on Ir(111) (United States)

    Grånäs, Elin; Gerber, Timm; Schröder, Ulrike A.; Schulte, Karina; Andersen, Jesper N.; Michely, Thomas; Knudsen, Jan


    Using high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy we study the intercalation of hydrogen under graphene/Ir(111). The hydrogen intercalated graphene is characterized by a component in C 1s that is shifted -0.10 to -0.18 eV with respect to pristine graphene and a component in Ir 4f at 60.54 eV. The position of this Ir 4f component is identical to that of the Ir(111) surface layer with hydrogen atoms adsorbed, indicating that the atomic hydrogen adsorption site on bare Ir(111) and beneath graphene is the same. Based on co-existence of fully- and non-intercalated graphene, and the inability to intercalate a closed graphene film covering the entire Ir(111) surface, we conclude that hydrogen dissociatively adsorbs at bare Ir(111) patches, and subsequently diffuses rapidly under graphene. A likely entry point for the intercalating hydrogen atoms is identified to be where graphene crosses an underlying Ir(111) step.

  12. Quantitative gas analysis with FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, J.; Larsen, A.


    Calibration spectra of CO in the 2.38-5100 ppm concentration range (22 spectra) have been measured with a spectral resolution of 4 cm(-1), in the mid-IR (2186-2001 cm(-1)) region, with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument. The multivariate calibration method partial least-squares (PLS1...

  13. Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission (United States)


    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-16-15 MEASURING COLLIMATOR INFRARED (IR) SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION Christopher L. Dobbins Weapons...Distribution Statement A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DESTRUCTION NOTICE FOR CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS...AND DATES COVERED Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Collimator Infrared (IR) Spectral Transmission 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher L

  14. The IR Luminosity Functions of Rich Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lei; Rieke, Marcia J; Christlein, Daniel; Zabludoff, Ann I


    We present MIPS observations of the cluster A3266. About 100 spectroscopic cluster members have been detected at 24 micron. The IR luminosity function in A3266 is very similar to that in the Coma cluster down to the detection limit L_IR~10^43 ergs/s, suggesting a universal form of the bright end IR LF for local rich clusters with M~10^15 M_sun. The shape of the bright end of the A3266-Coma composite IR LF is not significantly different from that of nearby field galaxies, but the fraction of IR-bright galaxies (SFR > 0.2M_sun/yr) in both clusters increases with cluster-centric radius. The decrease of the blue galaxy fraction toward the high density cores only accounts for part of the trend; the fraction of red galaxies with moderate SFRs (0.2 < SFR < 1 M_sun/yr) also decreases with increasing galaxy density. These results suggest that for the IR bright galaxies, nearby rich clusters are distinguished from the field by a lower star-forming galaxy fraction, but not by a change in L*_IR. The composite IR LF...

  15. Status Of Sofradir IR-CCD Detectors (United States)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Radisson, Patrick


    The topics of this paper deal with the IR-CCD detectors manufactured by SOFRADIR the new French joint venture. Description of the IRCCD technology and the advantages of this approach are given. In conclusion, some IR-CCD typical results are given.

  16. Increasing Medical Student Exposure to IR through Integration of IR into the Gross Anatomy Course. (United States)

    DePietro, Daniel M; Kiefer, Ryan M; Redmond, Jonas W; Workman, Alan D; Nadolski, Gregory J; Gade, Terence P; Trerotola, Scott O; Hunt, Stephen J


    To compare medical student knowledge of and interest in interventional radiology (IR) before and after the integration of an IR lecture series within the gross anatomy course. Four elective IR lectures were scheduled to coincide with the relevant anatomy dissection curriculum. Anonymous surveys were distributed to 146 students before and after the lectures regarding students' knowledge of and interest in IR, responsibilities of an IR physician, and IR training pathways. Those who did not attend served as controls. Response rates were 67% (n = 98) in the prelecture group, 55% (n = 22) in the group who attended the lecture, and 28% (n = 30) in the control group. A total of 73% of the prelecture group reported little knowledge of IR compared with other specialties. This decreased to 27% in those who attended the lecture (P attended believed they had more knowledge of IR than any other specialty, compared with 7% of controls (P value not significant) and 2% of the prelecture group (P attendance could name a significantly greater number of IR procedures (mean, 1.82) than the prelecture group (mean, 0.57; P attended would consider a career in IR, compared with 24% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P attended had knowledge of the IR residency, compared with 5% in the prelecture group and 33% in the control group (P students about IR and generating interest in the field. Copyright © 2017 SIR. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualizing Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy with Computer Animation (United States)

    Abrams, Charles B.; Fine, Leonard W.


    IR Tutor, an interactive, animated infrared (IR) spectroscopy tutorial has been developed for Macintosh and IBM-compatible computers. Using unique color animation, complicated vibrational modes can be introduced to beginning students. Rules governing the appearance of IR absorption bands become obvious because the vibrational modes can be visualized. Each peak in the IR spectrum is highlighted, and the animation of the corresponding normal mode can be shown. Students can study each spectrum stepwise, or click on any individual peak to see its assignment. Important regions of each spectrum can be expanded and spectra can be overlaid for comparison. An introduction to the theory of IR spectroscopy is included, making the program a complete instructional package. Our own success in using this software for teaching and research in both academic and industrial environments will be described. IR Tutor consists of three sections: (1) The 'Introduction' is a review of basic principles of spectroscopy. (2) 'Theory' begins with the classical model of a simple diatomic molecule and is expanded to include larger molecules by introducing normal modes and group frequencies. (3) 'Interpretation' is the heart of the tutorial. Thirteen IR spectra are analyzed in detail, covering the most important functional groups. This section features color animation of each normal mode, full interactivity, overlay of related spectra, and expansion of important regions. This section can also be used as a reference.

  18. Holographic RG flows with nematic IR phases

    CERN Document Server

    Cremonini, Sera; Rong, Junchen; Sun, Kai


    We construct zero-temperature geometries that interpolate between a Lifshitz fixed point in the UV and an IR phase that breaks spatial rotations but preserves translations. We work with a simple holographic model describing two massive gauge fields coupled to gravity and a neutral scalar. Our construction can be used to describe RG flows in non-relativistic, strongly coupled quantum systems with nematic order in the IR. In particular, when the dynamical critical exponent of the UV fixed point is z=2 and the IR scaling exponents are chosen appropriately, our model realizes holographically the scaling properties of the bosonic modes of the quadratic band crossing model.

  19. Near-IR Photoluminescence of C60(). (United States)

    Strelnikov, Dmitry V; Kern, Bastian; Kappes, Manfred M


    We have observed that C60(+) ions isolated in cryogenic matrices show distinct near-IR photoluminescence upon excitation in the near-IR range. By contrast, UV photoexcitation does not lead to measurable luminescence. Near-IR C60(+) photoluminescence is a one-photon process. The emission is mainly concentrated in one band and corresponds to (2)A1u ← (2)E1g relaxation. We present experimental data for the Stokes shift, power, and temperature dependencies as well as the quantum efficiency of the photoluminescence. Our findings may be relevant for astronomy, considering recent unequivocal assignment of five diffuse interstellar bands to near-IR absorption bands of C60(+).

  20. IR aperture measurement at β*=40 cm

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Valentino, Gianluca; Valloni, Alessandra; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    This note summarizes MD 307, performed on August 27 2015, during which we measured with beam the global apertures at 6.5 TeV with IR1 and IR5 squeezed to β* =40 cm and a half crossing angle of 205 rad. The measurement technique involved opening collimators in steps, while inducing beam losses at each step, until the main loss location moved from the collimators to the global bottleneck in one of the triplets. Measurements were performed in both beams and planes, and each measurement gave the minimum triplet aperture over IR1 and IR5. The results are in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. At the end of the MD, an asynchronous beam dump test was performed with all collimators moved in to so-called 2-σ retraction settings. This MD is one in a series meant to address various open points for the reach in β* in Run II.

  1. WFC3 IR Image Quality (United States)

    Dressel, Linda


    The IR imaging performance over the detector will be assessed periodically {every 4 months} in two passbands to check for image stability. The field around star 58 in the open cluster NGC188 is the chosen target because it is sufficiently dense to provide good sampling over the FOV while providing enough isolated stars to permit accurate PSF {point spread function} measurement. It is available year-round and used previously for ACS image quality assessment. The field is astrometric, and astrometric guide stars will be used, so that the plate scale and image orientation may also be determined if necessary {as in SMOV proposals 11437 and 11443}. Full frame images will be obtained at each of 4 POSTARG offset positions designed to improve sampling over the detector in F098M, F105W, and F160W. The PSFs will be sampled at 4 positions with subpixel shifts in filters F164N and F127M.This proposal is a periodic repeat {once every 4 months} of the visits in SMOV proposal 11437 {activity ID WFC3-24}. The data will be analyzed using the code and techniques described in ISR WFC3 2008-41 {Hartig}. Profiles of encircled energy will be monitored and presented in an ISR. If an update to the SIAF is needed, {V2,V3} locations of stars will be obtained from the Flight Ops Sensors and Calibrations group at GSFC, the {V2,V3} of the reference pixel and the orientation of the detector will be determined by the WFC3 group, and the Telescopes group will update and deliver the SIAF to the PRDB branch.The specific PSF metrics to be examined are encircled energy for aperture diameter 0.25, 0.37, and 0.60 arcsec, FWHM, and sharpness. {See ISR WFC3 2008-41 tables 2 and 3 and preceding text.} 20 stars distributed over the detector will be measured in each exposure for each filter. The mean, rms, and rms of the mean will be determined for each metric. The values determined from each of the 4 exposures per filter within a visit will be compared to each other to see to what extent they are affected

  2. IR Optimization, DID and anti-DID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei; Maruyama, Takashi; /SLAC; Parker, Brett; /Brookhaven


    In this paper, we discuss optimization of the larger crossing angle Interaction Region of the Linear Collider, where specially shaped transverse field of the Detector Integrated Dipole can be reversed and adjusted to optimize trajectories of the low energy pairs, so that their majority would be directed into the extraction exit hole. This decreases the backscattering and makes background in 14mrad IR to be similar to background in 2mrad IR.

  3. Matrix isolation studies with Fourier transform IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, David W.; Reedy, Gerald T.


    The combination of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with the matrix-isolation techniques has advantages compared with the use of more conventional grating spectroscopy. Furthermore, the recent commercial availability of Fourier transform spectrometers has made FT-IR a practical alternative. Some advantages of the FT-IR spectrometer over the grating spectrometer are the result of the computerized data system that is a necessary part of the FT-IR spectrometer; other advantages are a consequence of the difference in optical arrangements and these represent the inherent advantages of the FT-IR method. In most applications with the matrix-isolation technique, the use of FT-IR spectroscopy results in either an improved signal-to-noise ratio or a shorter time for data collection compared with grating infrared spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been used in the laboratory to study several molecular species in low-temperature matrices. Some species have been produced by high-temperature vaporization from Knudsen cells and others by sputtering. By sputtering, Ar and Kr matrices have been prepared which contain U atoms, UO, UO/sub 2/, UO/sub 3/, PuO, PuO/sub 2/, UN, or UN/sub 2/, depending upon the composition of the gas used to sputter as well as the identity of the metallic cathode. Infrared spectra of matrices containing these compounds are presented and discussed. (JRD)

  4. Resonant optical devices for IR lasers (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G.; Li, Yuan; Raghu Srimathi, Indumathi; Woodward, Ryan H.; Poutous, Menelaos K.; Pung, Aaron J.; Richardson, Martin; Shah, Lawrence; Shori, Ramesh; Magnusson, Robert


    This paper highlights recent developments in resonant optical devices for infrared (IR) and mid-infrared (mid- IR) lasers. Sub-wavelength grating based resonant optical filters are introduced and their application in 2 μm thulium fiber laser and amplifier systems has been discussed. The paper focuses on applying such filtering techniques to 2.8 μm mid-IR fiber laser systems. A narrowband mid-IR Guided-Mode Resonance Filter (GMRF) was designed and fabricated using Hafnium(IV) Oxide film/quartz wafer material system. The fabricated GMRF was then integrated into an Erbium (Er)-doped Zr-Ba-La-Al-Na (ZBLAN) fluoride glass fiber laser as a wavelength selective feedback element. The laser operated at 2782 nm with a linewidth less than 2 nm demonstrating the viability of GMRF's for wavelength selection in the mid-IR. Furthermore, a GMRF of narrower linewidth based on Aluminum Oxide/quartz wafer material system is fabricated and tested in the same setup. The potentials and challenges with GMRFs will be discussed and summarized.

  5. Tuning the Graphene on Ir(111) adsorption regime by Fe/Ir surface-alloying (United States)

    Brede, Jens; Sławińska, Jagoda; Abadia, Mikel; Rogero, Celia; Ortega, J. Enrique; Piquero-Zulaica, Ignacio; Lobo-Checa, Jorge; Arnau, Andres; Iribas Cerdá, Jorge


    A combined scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and density functional theory study of graphene on a Fe-Ir(111) alloy with variable Ir concentration is presented. Starting from an intercalated Fe layer between the graphene and Ir(111) surface we find that graphene-substrate interaction can be fine-tuned by Fe-Ir alloying at the interface. When a critical Ir-concentration close to 0.25 is reached in the Fe layer, the Dirac cone of graphene is largely restored and can thereafter be tuned across the Fermi level by further increasing the Ir content. Indeed, our study reveals an abrupt transition between a chemisorbed phase at small Ir concentrations and a physisorbed phase above the critical concentration. The latter phase is highly reminiscent of the graphene on the clean Ir(111) surface. Furthermore, the transition is accompanied by an inversion of the graphene’s induced magnetization due to the coupling with the Fe atoms from antiferromagnetic when chemisorbed to weakly ferromagnetic in the physisorption regime, with spin polarizations whose magnitude may be tuned with the amount of Fe content.

  6. Tunable mid IR plasmon in GZO nanocrystals. (United States)

    Hamza, M K; Bluet, J-M; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Canut, B; Boisron, O; Melinon, P; Masenelli, B


    Degenerate metal oxide nanoparticles are promising systems to expand the significant achievements of plasmonics into the infrared (IR) range. Among the possible candidates, Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals are particularly suited for mid IR, considering their wide range of possible doping levels and thus of plasmon tuning. In the present work, we report on the tunable mid IR plasmon induced in degenerate Ga-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are produced by a plasma expansion and exhibit unprotected surfaces. Tuning the Ga concentration allows tuning the localized surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, the plasmon resonance is characterized by a large damping. By comparing the plasmon of nanocrystal assemblies to that of nanoparticles dispersed in an alumina matrix, we investigate the possible origins of such damping. We demonstrate that it partially results from the self-organization of the naked particles and also from intrinsic inhomogeneity of dopants.

  7. The FLUKA Model of IR8

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R B


    The study of machine induced background (MIB), the radiation environment and beam dynamics of the LHC requires a detailed model of the machine tunnel, elements and electromagnetic fields. In this note, a specially created model of IR8 in FLUKA is described, including the tunnel, vacuum chambers, magnets, collimators, injection elements and shielding. The inclusion of all relevant machine elements in the LSS of IR8 results in a very flexible model suitable for a large variety of calculations and studies. The validation of the model is discussed, and some example applications described.

  8. Compressive sensing in the EO/IR. (United States)

    Gehm, M E; Brady, D J


    We investigate the utility of compressive sensing (CS) to electro-optic and infrared (EO/IR) applications. We introduce the field through a discussion of historical antecedents and the development of the modern CS framework. Basic economic arguments (in the broadest sense) are presented regarding the applicability of CS to the EO/IR and used to draw conclusions regarding application areas where CS would be most viable. A number of experimental success stories are presented to demonstrate the overall feasibility of the approaches, and we conclude with a discussion of open challenges to practical adoption of CS methods.

  9. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2 (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark


    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  10. Near-IR imaging and imaging polarimetry of OMC 2 (United States)

    Rayner, John; Mclean, Ian; Aspin, Colin; Mccaughrean, Mark


    NIR and 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry of the molecular cloud region OMC 2, reveals a cluster of low- to intermediate-mass premain-sequence stars embedded in circumstellar disks. The 2.2-micron imaging polarimetry indicates that the compact NIR sources OMC 2 IRS1, IRS2, IRS3 and IRS4 N, are illumination centers for the surrounding extended emission. By application of Hubble's relation to the nebulae illuminated by IRS1, IRS2 and IRS4 N, the illuminating geometry is explained and the intrinsic NIR colors of these objects are estimated.

  11. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, M.H. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Joanny, M.; Roche, H.; Micolon, F.; Salasca, S.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)


    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring.

  12. Controlling Hydrogenation of Graphene on Ir(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balog, Richard; Andersen, Mie; Jørgensen, Bjarke


    Combined fast X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of two types of hydrogen adsorbate structures at the graphene/ Ir(111) interface, namely, graphane-like islands and hydrogen dimer structures. While the former give rise to a periodic...

  13. Interactive Response Systems (IRS) Socrative Application Sample (United States)

    Aslan, Bilge; Seker, Hasan


    In globally developing education system, technology has made instructional improved in many ways. One of these improvements is the Interactive Response Systems (IRS) that are applied in classroom activities. Therefore, it is "smart" to focus on interactive response systems in learning environment. This study was conducted aiming to focus…

  14. Synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy: chemistry of living cells. (United States)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Bechtel, Hans A; Hao, Zhao; Martin, Michael C


    Advanced analytical capabilities of synchrotron IR spectromicroscopy meet the demands of modern biological research for studying molecular reactions in individual living cells. (To listen to a podcast about this article, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at

  15. Panel discussion: The future of IR astronomy (United States)

    Caroff, Lawrence J.


    A panel discussion was held on the future of IR astronomy. The chairman gave a brief introduction to current planned programs for NASA and other space agencies, followed by short contributions from the six panel members on a variety of special topics. After that, a short question and answer session was held.

  16. Encapsulated thermopile detector array for IR microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.; Emadi, A.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.


    The miniaturized IR spectrometer discussed in this paper is comprised of: slit, planar imaging diffraction grating and Thermo-Electric (TE) detector array, which is fabricated using CMOS compatible MEMS technology. The resolving power is maximized by spacing the TE elements at an as narrow as possib

  17. Growth and termination of a rutile IrO2(100) layer on Ir(111) (United States)

    Rai, Rahul; Li, Tao; Liang, Zhu; Kim, Minkyu; Asthagiri, Aravind; Weaver, Jason F.


    We investigated the oxidation of Ir(111) by gas-phase oxygen atoms at temperatures between 500 and 625 K using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (LEISS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that a well-ordered surface oxide with (√ 3 × √ 3)R30° periodicity relative to Ir(111) develops prior to the formation of a rutile IrO2(100) layer. The IrO2(100) layer reaches a saturation thickness of about four oxide layers under the oxidation conditions employed, and decomposes during TPD to produce a single, sharp O2 desorption peak at 770 K. Favorable lattice matching at the oxide-metal interface is likely responsible for the preferential growth of the IrO2(100) facet during the initial oxidation of Ir(111), with the resulting coincidence lattice generating a clear (6 × 1) moiré pattern in LEED. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy (TPRS) experiments reveal that CO and H2O molecules bind only weakly on the IrO2(100) surface and LEISS measurements show that the oxide surface is highly enriched in O-atoms. These characteristics provide strong evidence that the rutile IrO2(100) layer is oxygen-terminated, and thus lacks reactive Ir atoms that can strongly bind molecular adsorbates. Oxygen binding energies predicted by DFT suggest that on-top O-atoms will remain adsorbed on IrO2(100) at temperatures up to 625 K, thus supporting the conclusion that the rutile IrO2 layer grown in our experiments is oxygen-terminated. As such, the appearance of only a single O2 TPD peak indicates that the singly coordinate, on-top O-atoms remain stable on the IrO2(100) surface up to temperatures at which the oxide layer begins to thermally decompose.

  18. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a method of fabrication of far IR and THZ range multilayer metal-mesh filters. This type of filter consists of alternative...

  19. Metal-Mesh Optical Filter Technology for Mid IR, Far IR, and Submillimeter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative, high transmission band-pass filter technology proposed here is an improvement in multilayer metal-mesh filter design and manufacture for the far IR...

  20. Tax-deferred annuity plans: meeting the IRS audit challenge. (United States)

    Schussler, M


    A growing number of nonprofit organizations are being fined for violations of IRS regulations following IRS audits of their tax-deferred annuity (TDA) plans. To ensure that their organizations can withstand the scrutiny of an IRS audit, TDA plan administrators must ensure that plans meet IRS regulations and be prepared for IRS audits. Documentation--particularly of the TDA plan itself, and procedures related to salary reduction programs, compensation limits, excess deferrals and other excess contributions, loans, and distributions--must be comprehensive and in compliance with IRS regulations.

  1. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.


    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  2. Studying the nonlinearity in Sonic IR NDE (United States)

    Yu, Qiuye; Obeidat, Omar; Han, Xiaoyan


    Sonic IR Imaging combines pulsed ultrasound excitation and infrared imaging to detect defects in materials. The sound pulse causes rubbing due to non--unison motion between faces of defects, and infrared sensors image the temperature map over the target to identify defects. It works in various materials, including metal/metal alloy, ceramics, and composite materials. Its biggest advantage is that it's a fast, wide area NDE technique. It takes only a fraction of a second or a few seconds, depending on the thermal properties of the target, for one test over a few square feet. However, due to the nonlinearity in the coupling between the ultrasound transducer and the target, the repeatability has been an issue, which affects its application. In this paper, we present our study on this issue in Sonic IR.

  3. Flexible high-performance IR camera systems (United States)

    Hoelter, Theodore R.; Petronio, Susan M.; Carralejo, Ronald J.; Frank, Jeffery D.; Graff, John H.


    Indigo Systems Corporation has developed a family of standard readout integrated circuits (ROIC) for use in IR focal plane arrays (FPAs) imaging systems. These standard ROICs are designed to provide a compete set of operating features for camera level FPA control, while also providing high performance capability with any of several detector materials. By creating a uniform electrical interface for FPAs, these standard ROICs simplify the task of FPA integration with imaging electronics and physical packages. This paper begins with a brief description of the features of four Indigo standard ROICs and continues with a description of the features, design, and measured performance of indium antimonide, quantum well IR photo- detectors and indium gallium arsenide imaging system built using the described standard ROICs.

  4. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X


    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  5. Medical Applications of IR Focal Plane Arrays (United States)


    imaging in deep venous thrombosis, coming up with definitive conclusions. Kunihiko Mabuchi (Japan) describes the development of an image processing... Hemodialysis Shunts", Proc. 19th Annual Intl. IEEE/EMBS Conf., Chicago, II., Nov. 1997. 60. Marcott, C, Reeder, R., Paschelis, E., Boskey, A., "FT-IR...major thrust for all the infrared measurements. These, coupled with standard equipment and methods will definitely give us the further validation

  6. Overview of IRS Plasma Wind Tunnel Facilities (United States)


    Saturn system with the 80- 30, 40, Cassini spacecraft, which was designed, built and 120 h launched by NASA [30]. During the entry into Titan’s i 60...launched in 1995, a ring reentry for landing in Cayenne and the re- first experiment was conducted to determine whether quired mass flow within the PWK... formation . In the IRS MPG facility continuous The operating times range typically from several operation with methane components up to 10%, as minutes to

  7. An uncooled capacitive sensor for IR detection (United States)

    Siebke, Georg; Gerngroß, Kathrin; Holik, Peter; Schmitz, Sam; Rohloff, Markus; Tätzner, Simon; Steltenkamp, Siegfried


    The beetle Melanophila acuminata detects forest fires from distances as far as 80 miles away. To accomplish this, the beetle uses highly specific IR receptors with a diameter of approximately 15 μm. These receptors are mechanoreceptors that detect deformations induced by the absorption of radiation. Although the detection mechanism is understood in principle, it is still unclear how the beetle reaches such high sensitivity. In this work, we present the biomimetic approach of an uncooled IR sensor based on the beetle's receptors. This sensor is based on a fluid-filled pressure cell and operates at room temperature. Upon absorbing IR radiation, the fluid heats up and expands. The expanding fluid deflects one electrode of a plate capacitor. By measuring the change in capacitance, the volume increase and the absorbed energy can be inferred. To prevent the risk of damage at high energy absorption, a compensation mechanism is presented in this work. The mechanism prevents large but slow volume changes inside the pressure cell by a microfluidic connection of the pressure cell with a compensation chamber. The channel and the compensation chamber act as a microfluidic low-pass filter and do not affect the overall sensitivity above an appropriate cut-off frequency. Using MEMS technology, we are able to incorporate the complete system into a silicon chip with an area of a few mm2. Here, we show a proof-of-concept and first measurements of the sensor.

  8. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) / Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 1099 (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A finder file from SSA's Title XVI database is provided to the IRS. The IRS discloses 1099 information to SSA for use in verifying eligibility, amount, and benefits...

  9. IR decoys modeling method based on particle system (United States)

    Liu, Jun-yu; Wu, Kai-feng; Dong, Yan-bing


    Due to the complexity in combustion processes of IR decoys, it is difficult to describe its infrared radiation characteristics by deterministic model. In this work, the IR decoys simulation based on particle system was found. The measured date of the IR decoy is used to analyze the typical characteristic of the IR decoy. A semi-empirical model of the IR decoy motion law has been set up based on friction factors and a IR decoys simulation model has been build up based on particle system. The infrared imaging characteristic and time varying characteristic of the IR decoy were simulated by making use of the particle feature such as lifetime, speed and color. The dynamic IR decoys simulation is realized with the VC++6.0 and OpenGL.

  10. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha


    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  11. Arbitrage Rebate Compliance: Recent IRS Scrutiny of School Districts. (United States)

    Given, Lynda K.; Gurrola, George E.; Richardson, James R.


    Describes rules and procedures school districts must follow to comply with IRS arbitrage and rebate rules and exceptions on profits derived from investing yields of tax-exempt bonds in a higher yielding account. Describes consequences of noncompliance and seven ways to be prepared for an IRS audit--for example, answering the IRS promptly. (PKP)

  12. IR Cards: Inquiry-Based Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy (United States)

    Bennett, Jacqueline; Forster, Tabetha


    As infrared spectroscopy (IR) is frequently used in undergraduate organic chemistry courses, an inductive introduction to IR spectroscopy that uses index cards printed with spectra, structures, and chemical names is described. Groups of students are given an alphabetized deck of these "IR cards" to sort into functional groups. The students then…

  13. IGF-IR targeted therapy: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); A.J. Varewijck (Aimee)


    textabstractThe IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) has been studied as an anti-cancer target. However, monotherapy trials with IGF-IR targeted antibodies or with IGF-IR specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors have, overall, been very disappointing in the clinical setting. This review discusses potential reasons wh

  14. Measuring PAH Emission in Ultradeep Spitzer IRS Spectroscopy of High Redshift IR Luminous Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Teplitz, H I; Armus, L; Chary, R; Marshall, J A; Colbert, J W; Frayer, D T; Pope, A; Blain, A; Spoon, H; Charmandaris, V; Scott, D


    The study of the dominant population of high redshift IR-luminous galaxies (10^11 - 10^12 Lsun at 1IR. We present the deepest spectra taken to date with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. We targeted two faint (f24~0.15 mJy) sources in the Southern GOODS field at z=1.09 and z=2.69. Spectra of the lower redshift target were taken in the observed-frame 8--21 micron range, while the spectrum of the higher redshift target covered 21--37 microns. We also present the spectra of two secondary sources within the slit. We detect strong PAH emission in all four targets, and compare the spectra to those of local galaxies observed by the IRS. The z=1.09 source appears to be a typical, star-formation dominated IR-luminous galaxy, while the z=2.69 source is a composite source with strong star formation and a prominent AGN. The IRAC colors of this source show no evidence of rest-frame near-infrared stellar photospheric...

  15. Ibogaino ir noribogaino toksiškumo ir farmakokinetinių savybių tyrimas



    Ibogainas yra indolo grupės alkaloidas, išskiriamas iš augalo Tabernanthe iboga Baill. (Apocynaceae). Šis alkaloidas mažina priklausomybę nuo opiatų bei lengvina abstinencijos požymius. Noribogainas – ibogaino aktyvusis metabolitas, sukeliantis mažiau nepageidaujamų reiškinių. Darbo tikslas: ištirti ibogaino ir noribogaino toksiškumą ir farmakokinetines savybes taikant eksperimentinį laboratorinių pelių modelį. Uždaviniai: Nustatyti ibogaino ir noribogaino toksiškumą, apskaičiuojant šių medži...

  16. Tekstai ir tekstynai svetimos kalbos mokymosi procese


    Končius, Vytenis


    Išanalizavus tyrimo rezultatus straipsnyje aptariamos išvados ir pateikiami tolimesnių tyrimų siūlymai. Corpus linguistics can help in the process of second language acquisition, for example, by examining a number of well-established claims or “myths” about second language teaching and learning. One of these claims, which is rarely examined, is the supposed benefit of extensive reading to the successful acquisition of the vocabulary (Krashen et al). This claim states that a language learne...

  17. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis


    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  18. IR and OLAP in XML document warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Juan Manuel; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Berlanga, Rafael


    In this paper we propose to combine IR and OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies to exploit a warehouse of text-rich XML documents. In the system we plan to develop, a multidimensional implementation of a relevance modeling document model will be used for interactively querying...... the warehouse by allowing navigation in the structure of documents and in a concept hierarchy of query terms. The facts described in the relevant documents will be ranked and analyzed in a novel OLAP cube model able to represent and manage facts with relevance indexes....

  19. Low Power Polysilicon Sources for IR Applications (United States)

    Das, N. C.; Jhabvala, M.; Shu, P.


    We have designed and fabricated polysilicon thin film infrared (IR) sources by micromachining technology. These sources are made with a lightly doped middle region for light emission and heavy doping of the supporting legs. The sources are fabricated on a 10 mm thick, low temperature process parameters in the fabrication of these silicon dioxide layer. Different doping levels were used to achieve various source resistances. From the power requirement to reach the required light emission versus source resistance curve it is seen that there exists a resistance value which minimizes the necessary input power.

  20. Types of Research Bias Encountered in IR. (United States)

    Gabr, Ahmed; Kallini, Joseph Ralph; Desai, Kush; Hickey, Ryan; Thornburg, Bartley; Kulik, Laura; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad


    Bias is a systemic error in studies that leads to inaccurate deductions. Relevant biases in the field of IR and interventional oncology were identified after reviewing articles published in the Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology and CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology. Biases cited in these articles were divided into three categories: preinterventional (health care access, participation, referral, and sample biases), periinterventional (contamination, investigator, and operator biases), and postinterventional (guarantee-time, lead time, loss to follow-up, recall, and reporting biases). Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stringy horizons and UV/IR mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Israel, Roy [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel); Giveon, Amit [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University,Jerusalem, 91904 (Israel); Itzhaki, Nissan; Liram, Lior [Physics Department, Tel-Aviv University Israel,Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)


    The target-space interpretation of the exact (in α{sup ′}) reflection coefficient for scattering from Euclidean black-hole horizons in classical string theory is studied. For concreteness, we focus on the solvable SL(2,ℝ){sub k}/U(1) black hole. It is shown that it exhibits a fascinating UV/IR mixing, dramatically modifying the late-time behavior of general relativity. We speculate that this might play an important role in the black-hole information puzzle, as well as in clarifying features related with the non-locality of Little String Theory.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zaichen; Yu Xutao; Bi Guangguo


    In this letter,we propose a hybrid analog/digital detection algorithm,the Correlated Interference Cancellation (CIC) algorithm,for Impulse Radio Ultra-WideBand (IR-UWB) system. The CIC algorithm correlates received signal with its delayed versions in the analog domain and samples the correlation output at the symbol rate. The symbol rate samples are processed in the digital domain to perform interference cancellation. Therefore,CIC works for high data rate systems with heavy InterSymbol Interference (ISI). Simulation results show that CIC achieves good performance in typical UWB channels.

  3. Pelno (nuostolio) atskaitos formavimas ir analizė


    Liutkevičius, Marius


    Užsienio šalyse visos įmonės, organizacijos yra įpratusios prie tam tikrų pastovių apskaitos ir finansinės informacijos pateikimo principų ir taisyklių. Todėl Lietuvos įmonėms bendradarbiaujant su užsienio partneriais ir investuotojais, viena pagrindinių problemų yra finansinių rezultatų pristatymas ir pateikimas. Užsienio partneriai ar investuotojai nori matyti Lietuvos įmonių finansinę informaciją, parengtą pagal jiems suprantamus ir priimtinus principus bei taisykles. Ši informacija naudoj...

  4. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle supported PdIr bimetal catalyst for selective hydrogenation, and the significant promotional effect of Ir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Huang, Chao; Yang, Fan [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Yang, Xu [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Du, Li [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China); Liao, Shijun, E-mail: [The Key Laboratory of Fuel Cell Technology of Guangdong Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)


    Graphical abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction caused by the addition of Ir. - Highlights: • Mesoporous nanoparticles were synthesized and used as support for metal catalyst. • PdIr bimetallic catalyst exhibited significantly improved hydrogenation activity. • The strong promotion of Ir was recognized firstly and investigated intensively. • PdIr exhibits 18 times higher activity than Pd to the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. - Abstract: A mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) supported bimetal catalyst, PdIr/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation and hydrogen reduction method. The strong promotional effect of Ir was observed and thoroughly investigated. At the optimal molar ratio of Ir to Pd (N{sub Ir}/N{sub Pd} = 0.1), the activity of PdIr{sub 0.1}/MSN was up to eight times and 28 times higher than that of monometallic Pd/MSN and Ir/MSN, respectively. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrogen temperature programmed reduction, which revealed that the promotional effect of Ir may be due to the enhanced dispersion of active components on the MSN, and to the intensified Pd–Ir electronic interaction

  5. New supersymmetric quartet of nuclei: 192Os, 193Os, 193Ir, 194Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R; Frank, A; Graw, G; Hertenberger, R; Jolie, J; Wirth, H -F


    We present evidence of the existence of a new supersymmetric quartet of nuclei in the A=190 mass region. The analysis is based on new experimental information on the odd-odd nucleus 194Ir from transfer and capture reactions. The new data allow the identification of a new supersymmetric quartet, consisting of the 192,193Os and 193,194Ir nuclei. We make explicit predictions fo r193Os, and suggest that its spectroscopic properties be measured in dedicated experiments. Finally, we study correlations between different transfer reactions.

  6. Vientos galácticos extremos y ``starburst" en IR mergers e IR QSOs (United States)

    Lípari, S.; Sanders, D.; Terlevich, R.; Veilleux, S.; Díaz, R.; Taniguchi, Y.; Zheng, W.; Kim, D.; Tsvetanov, Z.; Carranza, G.; Dottori, H.

    We report -as a part of a long-term study of mergers and IR QSOs- detailed spectroscopic evidences for outflow (OF) and Wolf Rayet (WR) features in: (i) low velocity OF ongoing mergers NGC 4038/39 and IRAS 23128-5919; and (ii) extreme velocity OF (EVOF) QSOs IRAS 01003-2238 and IRAS 13218+0552. We also study the presence of OF and EVOF in a complete sample of ultra-luminous IR galaxies and QSOs (``The IRAS 1 Jy MKO-KPNO Survey", of 118 objects). We found EVOF in IRAS 11119+3257, 14394+5332, 15130+1958 and 15462-0450 (and probable OF in IRAS 05024-1941, 13305-1739, 13451+1232, and 23389+0300). The OF components detected in these objects were mainly associated to starburst processes: i.e., to galactic-winds generated in multiple type II SN explosions and massive stars. The EVOF were detected in objects with strong starburst plus obscured IR QSOs; which suggest that interaction of both processes could generate EVOF. In addition, we analyze the presence of Wolf Rayet features in the large sample of Bright PG-QSOs (Boroson and Green 1992), and nearby mergers and galactic-wind galaxies. We found clear WR features in the Fe II PG-QSOs (type I): PG 1244+026, 1444+407, 1448+273, 1535+547; and in the IR merger Arp 220. We describe the properties of the [O III]λ5007-4959 emission, in strong and extreme Fe II+IR+BAL emitters (QSOs of types I and II). HST archive images of IR+BAL QSOs show in practically all of these objects "arc or shell" features probably associated to galactic-winds (i.e., to multiple type II SN explosions) and/or merger processes. Finally, we discuss the presence of extreme starburst and galactic wind as a possible evolutive link between IR merger and IR QSOs; where the relation between mergers and extreme starburst (with powerful galactic-winds and ``multiple" type II SN explosions) plays an important role, in the evolution of galaxies (a complete version of this work was published in Astro-ph 0007316).

  7. Active IR-applications in civil engineering (United States)

    Wiggenhauser, H.


    Applications of IR-thermography in civil engineering are not limited to the identification of heat losses in building envelopes. As it is well known from other areas of non-destructive testing, active IR-thermographic methods such as cooling down or lock-in thermography improves the results in many investigations. In civil engineering these techniques have not been used widely. Mostly thermography is used in a quasi-static manner. The interpretation of moisture measurements with thermography on surfaces can be very difficult due to several overlapping effects: emissivity changes due to composition, heat transfer through wet sections of the specimen, cooling through air flow or reflected spurious radiation sources. These effects can be reduced by selectively measuring the reflection in two wavelength windows, one on an absorption band of water and another in a reference band and then combining the results in a moisture index image. Cooling down thermography can be used to identify subsurface structural deficiencies. For building materials like concrete these measurements are performed on a much longer time scale than in flash lamp experiments. A quantitative analysis of the full cooling down process over several minutes can reliably identify defects at different depths. Experiments at BAM have shown, that active thermography is capabale of identifying structural deficiencies or moist areas in building materials much more reliable than quasi-static thermography.

  8. MEMS-based IR-sources (United States)

    Weise, Sebastian; Steinbach, Bastian; Biermann, Steffen


    The series JSIR350 sources are MEMS based infrared emitters. These IR sources are characterized by a high radiation output. Thus, they are excellent for NDIR gas analysis and are ideally suited for using with our pyro-electric or thermopile detectors. The MEMS chips used in Micro-Hybrid's infrared emitters consist of nano-amorphous carbon (NAC). The MEMS chips are produced in the USA. All Micro-Hybrid Emitter are designed and specified to operate up to 850°C. The improvements we have made in the source's packaging enable us to provide IR sources with the best performance on the market. This new technology enables us to seal the housings of infrared radiation sources with soldered infrared filters or windows and thus cause the parts to be impenetrable to gases. Micro-Hybrid provide various ways of adapting our MEMS based infrared emitter JSIR350 to customer specifications, like specific burn-in parameters/characteristic, different industrial standard housings, producible with customized cap, reflector or pin-out.

  9. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Zhu


    Full Text Available Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM. In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light dose uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  10. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT. (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele M; Finlay, Jarod C; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles B; Friedberg, Joseph S; Cengel, Keith A


    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light fluence uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  11. Modelling the Spoon IRS diagnostic diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael


    We explore whether our models for starbursts, quiescent star-forming galaxies and for AGN dust tori are able to model the full range of IRS spectra measured with Spitzer. The diagnostic plot of 9.7 mu silicate optical depth versus 6.2 mu PAH equivalent width, introduced by Spoon and coworkers in 2007, gives a good indication of the age and optical depth of a starburst, and of the contribution of an AGN dust torus. However there is aliasing between age and optical depth at later times in the evolution of a starburst, and between age and the presence of an AGN dust torus. Modeling the full IRS spectra and using broad-band 25-850 mu fluxes can help to resolve these aliases. The observed spectral energy distributions require starbursts of a range of ages with initial dust optical depth ranging from 50-200, optically thin dust emission ('cirrus') illuminated by a range of surface brightnesses of the interstellar radiation field, and AGN dust tori with a range of viewing angles.

  12. An IR Navigation System for Pleural PDT (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy; Liang, Xing; Kim, Michele; Finlay, Jarod; Dimofte, Andreea; Rodriguez, Carmen; Simone, Charles; Friedberg, Joseph; Cengel, Keith


    Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment with lung-sparing surgical treatment for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). In the current pleural PDT protocol, a moving fiber-based point source is used to deliver the light. The light fluences at multiple locations are monitored by several isotropic detectors placed in the pleural cavity. To improve the delivery of light fluence uniformity, an infrared (IR) navigation system is used to track the motion of the light source in real-time at a rate of 20 - 60 Hz. A treatment planning system uses the laser source positions obtained from the IR camera to calculate light fluence distribution to monitor the light dose uniformity on the surface of the pleural cavity. A novel reconstruction algorithm is used to determine the pleural cavity surface contour. A dual-correction method is used to match the calculated fluences at detector locations to the detector readings. Preliminary data from a phantom shows superior light uniformity using this method. Light fluence uniformity from patient treatments is also shown with and without the correction method.

  13. Wafer level test solutions for IR sensors (United States)

    Giessmann, Sebastian; Werner, Frank-Michael


    Wafer probers provide an established platform for performing electrical measurements at wafer level for CMOS and similar process technologies. For testing IR sensors, the requirements are beyond the standard prober capabilities. This presentation will give an overview about state of the art IR sensor probing systems reaching from flexible engineering solutions to automated production needs. Cooled sensors typically need to be tested at a target temperature below 80 K. Not only is the device temperature important but also the surrounding environment is required to prevent background radiation from reaching the device under test. To achieve that, a cryogenic shield is protecting the movable chuck. By operating that shield to attract residual gases inside the chamber, a completely contamination-free test environment can be guaranteed. The use of special black coatings are furthermore supporting the removal of stray light. Typically, probe card needles are operating at ambient (room) temperature when connecting to the wafer. To avoid the entrance of heat, which can result in distorted measurements, the probe card is fully embedded into the cryogenic shield. A shutter system, located above the probe field, is designed to switch between the microscope view to align the sensor under the needles and the test relevant setup. This includes a completely closed position to take dark current measurements. Another position holds a possible filter glass with the required aperture opening. The necessary infrared sources to stimulate the device are located above.

  14. Bipolar outflows in OH/IR stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, A A; Hekkert, P L; Likkel, L; Comeron, F; Norris, R P; Molster, F J; Cohen, R J; Zijlstra, Albert A.


    We investigate the development of bipolar outflows during the early post-AGB evolution. A sample of ten OH/IR stars is observed at high angular resolution, including bipolar nebulae (OH231.8+4.2), bright post-AGB stars (HD 101584) and reflection nebulae (e.g. Roberts 22). The IRAS colour--colour diagram separates the sample into different types of objects. One group may contain the progenitors to the (few) extreme bipolar planetary nebulae. Two objects show colours and chemistry very similar to the planetary nebulae with late IR-[WC] stars. One object is a confirmed close binary. A model is presented consisting of an outer AGB wind which is swept up by a faster post-AGB wind, with either wind being non-spherically symetric. The interface of the two winds is shown to exhibit a linear relation between velocity and distance from the star. The OH data confirms the predicted linear velocity gradients, and reveals torus-like, uniformly expanding components. All sources are discussed in detail using optical/HST imag...

  15. Epitaxial polar europium oxide on Ir(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, Stefan; Foerster, Daniel F.; Busse, Carsten; Michely, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany)


    EuO is a ferromagnetic semiconductor with a Curie temperature of 69 K and a band gap of about 1.2 eV. We have grown submonolayer films of EuO by means of reactive molecular beam epitaxy on Ir(111). The initial growth shows atomically flat islands of polar EuO(111) as can be seen from scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). Both in STM images and LEED we see a rotational mismatch of the dense-packed rows of EuO(111) and Ir(111) of up to about 5 . Using dI/dz spectroscopy and analyzing the Gundlach oscillations in scanning tunneling spectra we find a strong increase of the work function for the first polar bilayer EuO compared to bare iridium. The work function increase also gives rise to a strong reduction of the apparent height of the EuO islands in STM images. We interpret the work function increase to result from the additional surface dipole created by the polar EuO(111) surface.

  16. Irène Jacob visits CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin


    French actress Irène Jacob, the daughter of physicist Maurice Jacob, visited the ATLAS and CMS control rooms on Monday 17 May together with Italian theatre actor-director Pippo Delbono, in search of inspiration for a short film. The film will be screened at the “nuit des particules” event accompanying this year’s ICHEP.   Pippo Delbono et Irène Jacob discussing their project. “La nuit des particules” (night of the particles) is an event open to the general public that is being organised for the evening of Tuesday, 27 July, to accompany the 35th International Conference on High Energy Physics (ICHEP). ICHEP is a major highlight in every physicist’s calendar, and this year’s edition is being held in Paris from 22 to 28 July. The short film will be screened during the evening, which will include a lecture and a show at the legendary Parisian cinema Le Grand Rex, with a colossal seating capacity of 2 700 spe...

  17. HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes in identifying insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS). (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Stabe, Christiane França Camargo; Pareja, José Carlos; Rosado, Lina Enriqueta Frandsen Paez de Lima; Queiroz, Elaine Cristina de; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio


    To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. In the healthy group, HOMA-IR indexes were associated with central obesity, triglycerides and total cholesterol (p 2.7 and HOMA2-IR > 1.8; and, for MS were: HOMA1-IR > 2.3 (sensitivity: 76.8%; specificity: 66.7%) and HOMA2-IR > 1.4 (sensitivity: 79.2%; specificity: 61.2%). The cut-off values identified for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR indexes have a clinical and epidemiological application for identifying IR and MS in Westernized admixtured multi-ethnic populations.

  18. IR camera temperature resolution enhancing using computer processing of IR image (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.


    As it is well-known, application of the IR camera for the security problems is very promising way. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possility of viewing the temperature trace on a human body skin, caused by temperature changing inside the human body due to water drinking. We use new approach, based on usung a correlation function, for computer processing of IR images. Its application results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments were made with measurements of a body temperature covered by shirt. We try to see a human body temperature changing in physical experiments under consideration. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, cancelled under clothes or inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  19. Organic/IR-Semiconductor heterojunctions for low-cost, high temperature IR arrays (United States)

    Jones, Colin E.


    This program evaluated a new technology for producing infrared photo-diodes in HgCdTe and InSb using evaporated organic heterojunctions. High quantum-efficiency IR detectors were demonstrated with the organic process comparable to commercial IR detectors. The organic photodiodes at room temperature were better than commercial detectors. They had lower leakage currents and higher resistance-area products (RoAs). Detector arrays made with the organics can operate at higher temperatures than the current detectors. Initial data at low temperatures were poorer than commercial detectors with lower RoAs and slightly higher 1/f noise. This comparison at low temperature may change with further optimization of the organic process. The organic diode process is very simple, low cost and non-damaging to the HgCdTe or InSb. It involves thermal evaporation of the organic onto the HgCdTe or InSb followed by evaporation of metal contacts through a shadow mask. Phase 1 demonstrated organic/HaCdTe IR detectors with quantum efficiencies similar to commercial devices operating at higher temperatures. The technology is ready for a Phase 2 to further optimize the processing for IR arrays and to increase yields.

  20. No Evolution in the IR-Radio Relation for IR-Luminous Galaxies at z<2 in the COSMOS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, Mark T; Murphy, E; Carilli, C L; Helou, G; Aussel, H; Le Floc'h, E; Frayer, D T; Ilbert, O; Oesch, P; Salvato, M; Smolcic, V; Kartaltepe, J; Sanders, D B


    Previous observational studies of the infrared (IR)-radio relation out to high redshift employed any detectable star forming systems at a given redshift within the restricted area of cosmological survey fields. Consequently, the evolution inferred relies on a comparison between the average IR/radio properties of (i) very IR-luminous high-z sources and (ii) more heterogeneous low(er)-z samples that often lack the strongest IR emitters. In this report we consider populations of objects with comparable luminosities over the last 10 Gyr by taking advantage of deep IR (esp. Spitzer 24 micron) and VLA 1.4 GHz observations of the COSMOS field. Consistent with recent model predictions, both Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) and galaxies on the bright end of the evolving IR luminosity function do not display any change in their average IR/radio ratios out to z~2 when corrected for bias. Uncorrected data suggested ~0.3 dex of positive evolution.

  1. Electronic structure, local magnetism, and spin-orbit effects of Ir(IV)-, Ir(V)-, and Ir(VI)-based compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguna-Marco, M. A.; Kayser, P.; Alonso, J. A.; Martinez-Lope, M. J.; van Veenendaal, M.; Choi, Y.; Haskel, D.


    Element- and orbital-selective x-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism measurements are carried out to probe the electronic structure and magnetism of Ir 5d electronic states in double perovskite Sr2MIrO6 (M = Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Ni, Fe, Zn, In) and La2NiIrO6 compounds. All the studied systems present a significant influence of spin-orbit interactions in the electronic ground state. In addition, we find that the Ir 5d local magnetic moment shows different character depending on the oxidation state despite the net magnetization being similar for all the compounds. Ir carries an orbital contribution comparable to the spin contribution for Ir4+ (5d(5)) and Ir5+ (5d(4)) oxides, whereas the orbital contribution is quenched for Ir6+ (5d(3)) samples. Incorporation of a magnetic 3d atom allows getting insight into the magnetic coupling between 5d and 3d transition metals. Together with previous susceptibility and neutron diffractionmeasurements, the results indicate that Ir carries a significant local magnetic moment even in samples without a 3d metal. The size of the (small) net magnetization of these compounds is a result of predominant antiferromagnetic interactions between local moments coupled with structural details of each perovskite structure

  2. Multiplication of Rice Sterile Line IR58025A%IR58025A的繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宗岳; 莫志军; 胡继银


    IR58025A是一个很优越的不育系,由它配制的Mestizo,在菲律宾种子供不应求.但是应用面积一直不能扩大.IR58025A纯度低、繁殖制种产量低是重要的制约因素.作者在菲律宾SL Agritech Corp工作期间,对IR58025A&B群体进行了观察分析,确认IR58025A纯度低的原因是混杂,于是繁殖田不喷赤霉素、严格除杂.同时运用异交力学说,分析繁殖制种低产的原因主要是柱头活力低、传粉效率低等,采取选择适宜地域季节、喷硼酸、父本双行改单行、加强父本培育、改进赤霉素喷施技术、竹杆赶粉改绳索赶粉……等对策,使产量成倍提高.运用科学理论,抓住症结,因地制宜,针对性地采取简便易行对策,迅速扫除了障碍.2002年10月在菲律宾22ha繁殖田收获IR58025A种子的纯度超过99.9%,平均产量1.77t/ha.

  3. IR-360 nuclear power plant safety functions and component classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefpour, F., E-mail: [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokri, F.; Soltani, H. [Management of Nuclear Power Plant Construction Company (MASNA) (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The IR-360 nuclear power plant as a 2-loop PWR of 360 MWe power generation capacity is under design in MASNA Company. For design of the IR-360 structures, systems and components (SSCs), the codes and standards and their design requirements must be determined. It is a prerequisite to classify the IR-360 safety functions and safety grade of structures, systems and components correctly for selecting and adopting the suitable design codes and standards. This paper refers to the IAEA nuclear safety codes and standards as well as USNRC standard system to determine the IR-360 safety functions and to formulate the principles of the IR-360 component classification in accordance with the safety philosophy and feature of the IR-360. By implementation of defined classification procedures for the IR-360 SSCs, the appropriate design codes and standards are specified. The requirements of specific codes and standards are used in design process of IR-360 SSCs by design engineers of MASNA Company. In this paper, individual determination of the IR-360 safety functions and definition of the classification procedures and roles are presented. Implementation of this work which is described with example ensures the safety and reliability of the IR-360 nuclear power plant.

  4. Charge-Coupled Scanned IR Imaging Sensors (United States)


    34- —- . imjiiMwmimTimfm ■ ■liliil« III 11.1 II 1 . ■ ’""""■l" i.1 i.’ *sppi» pnp »ppnn^mipipi — ’" • ’■■ ’i- •*mm ^■tl UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSlFi...showing the floating diffusion (21), the MOS transistor (22), the reset gate (23), and the drain (24) n 3. (a) Photograph through the microscope of the...spectral response 22 12. Characteristics of setting circuit of IR-CCD chip run as an MOS transistor . The bias is C.2 V/step; tht. transconductance (gm

  5. Tellurium halide IR fibers for remote spectroscopy (United States)

    Zhang, Xhang H.; Ma, Hong Li; Blanchetiere, Chantal; Le Foulgoc, Karine; Lucas, Jacques; Heuze, Jean; Colardelle, P.; Froissard, P.; Picque, D.; Corrieu, G.


    The new family of IR transmitting glasses, the TeX glasses, based on the association of tellurium and halide (Cl, Br, or I) are characterized by a wide optical window extending from 2 to 18 micrometers and a strong stability towards devitrification. Optical fibers drawn from these glasses exhibit low losses in the 7 - 10 micrometers range (less than 1 dB/m for single index fibers, 1 - 2 dB/m for fibers having a core-clad structure). The TeX glass fibers have been used in a remote analysis set-up which is mainly composed of a FTIR spectrometer coupled with a HgCdTe detector. This prototype system permits qualitative and quantitative analysis in a wide wavelength region lying from 3 to 13 micrometers , covering the fundamental absorption of more organic species. The evolution of a lactic and an alcoholic fermentation has been monitored by means of this set-up.

  6. ATF2 tests and CLIC IR study

    CERN Document Server

    Angal-Kalinin, D; Jones, J; Scarfe, A; Tygier, S


    This task covered three separate subtasks dealing with ILC and CLIC beam delivery system and Interaction region studies as well as testing the tuning procedures at ATF2 final focus test facility. The proposed local chromaticity correction final focus system for both ILC as well as CLIC is being tested experimentally for the first time at ATF2, various tuning procedures have been applied to study the applicability of various procedures to the ILC and CLIC to optimize the interaction region. The CLIC IR region was studied in detail, and the impact and mitigation of CLIC detector solenoid effects on the beam orbit, coupling and extraction have been considered. The work programme of this task concentrated on central region integration of the ILC following the design changes proposed during the technical design phase of the ILC, participation in ATF2 beam tuning studies and CLIC interaction region studies.

  7. Pre-Starbursts in Luminous IR Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Y; Hwang, C Y; Lo, K Y; Veilleux, S; Gao, Yu; Gruendl, Robert A.


    We present first results of our on-going BIMA Key Project: imaging the CO(1-0) emission from a sample of 10 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) that are at various merging stages, with special emphasis on systems apparently in the early/intermediate stages of merging. We present here CO images with $\\sim 5''$ resolution. An important result is the recognition of a plausible pre-starburst phase in some early LIRG mergers (e.g., Arp 302 and NGC 6670). Our initial analysis suggests that a merger-induced starburst phase may not begin before the nuclear separation between the merging galaxies reaches roughly 10 kpc. The surface gas density seems to increase from a few times $10^2 \\Msun pc^{-2} to >10^3 \\Msun pc^{-2}$ while the prominent CO extent systematically decreases as merging progresses.

  8. Micro cryogenic coolers for IR imaging (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan; Wang, Yunda; Cooper, Jill; Lin, Martin M.; Bright, Victor M.; Lee, Y. C.; Bradley, Peter E.; Radebaugh, Ray; Huber, Marcia L.


    Joule-Thomson micro cryogenic coolers (MCCs) are a preferred approach for small and low power cryocoolers. With the same heat lift, MCC's power input can be only 1/10 of a thermoelectric cooler's input, and MCC's size can be only 1/10 of a Stirling cooler's size. With futuristic planar MCC and with high frequency MEMS compressors to be developed, its size can be reduced another order of magnitude. Such "invisible" cryocoolers may revolutionize future IR imaging systems. We will review our studies on the feasibility of MCC with an emphasis on: 1) high thermal isolation levels reaching 89,000 K/W; 2) custom-designed gas mixtures with refrigeration capabilities increased by 10X and pressure ratio reduced to only 4:1; 3) compressors with low pressure ratios; and 4) excellent scalability for further size reduction.

  9. Cobalt sites in zeolites FAU - IR investigations (United States)

    Góra-Marek, Kinga; Mrowiec, Halina; Walas, Stanisław


    The properties of Co 2+ in zeolites CoX and CoY and their interaction with CO, NO, and propene were followed. The IR experiments of CO and NO informed on the electron acceptor properties of Co 2+ sites and the influence of framework composition and of geometry of Co 2+ environment on the properties of Co 2+. It has been found, that the activation of CO and NO is realized mostly by π back donation, on the other hand, the activation of C dbnd C double bond in propene is realized by π donation. The strength of molecules to Co 2+ bonding was followed in desorption experiments. It has been found, that σ donation in the case of CO and π donation has more important impact to the strength of molecule to Co 2+ bonding.

  10. Microresonator-based mid-IR devices (United States)

    Jain, Ravinder K.; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani


    High optical quality (high-Q) whispering-gallery mode (WGM) microresonators are key enablers for numerous highperformance photonic devices, including ultrasensitive molecular detectors and advanced light sources such as narrowlinewidth lasers and comb generators. For sensing applications, the unique characteristics of such WGM devices appear to be particularly relevant in the mid-IR (MIR) spectral region because of the stronger molecular absorption bands in this spectral region. However, most current WGM-based passive and active devices function in the near-IR (NIR) spectral region. We propose the development of reproducible high-Q WGM microresonators for the MIR by using low phonon energy glasses (such as fluorides, chalcogenides, and tellurides) along with an elegant and reproducible microsphere fabrication technique based on the use of novel state-of-the-art microheaters. In this paper, we first review the current state-of-the-art of WGM MIR microresonators and related optoelectronic devices, and then present recent results of our work on fabrication and characterization of high-Q WGM optical microresonators with several fluoride (ZBLAN, InF3 and AlF3) glasses. Intrinsic quality factors in excess of ten million have been measured in the NIR regime in the fluoridebased microspheres fabricated in our lab with the proposed -- highly reliable and reproducible - microheater fabrication method, and similar or better performances are expected from similar microspheres at MIR wavelengths between 2 to 5 microns. We next discuss potential applications of these microresonators, notably for low-threshold and narrowlinewidth MIR lasers and MIR comb applications.

  11. VLT near- to mid-IR imaging and spectroscopy of the M17 UC1-IRS5 region

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiwei; Chini, Rolf; Jiang, Zhibo; Fang, Min


    We investigate the surroundings of the hypercompact HII region M17 UC1 to probe the physical properties of the associated young stellar objects and the environment of massive star formation. Five of the seven point sources in this region show $L$-band excess emission. Geometric match is found between the H_2 emission and near-IR polarized light in the vicinity of IRS5A, and between the diffuse mid-IR emission and near-IR polarization north of UC1. The H_2 emission is typical for dense PDRs, which are FUV pumped initially and repopulated by collisional de-excitation. The spectral types of IRS5A and B273A are B3-B7 V/III and G4-G5 III, respectively. The observed infrared luminosity L_IR in the range 1-20 micron is derived for three objects; we obtain 2.0x10^3 L_\\sun for IRS5A, 13 L_\\sun for IRS5C, and 10 L_\\sun for B273A. IRS5 might be a young quadruple system. Its primary star IRS5A is confirmed to be a high-mass protostellar object (~ 9 M_\\sun, ~1x10^5 yrs); it might have terminated accretion due to the feedb...

  12. Endurance test on IR rig for RI production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Heung June; Youn, Y. J.; Han, H. S.; Hong, S. B.; Cho, Y. G.; Ryu, J. S


    This report presents the pressure drop, vibration and endurance test results for IR rig for RI production which were desigened and fabricated by KAERI. From the pressure drop test results, it is noted that the flow rate through the IR rig corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 3.12 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the IR rig ranges from 13 to 17 Hz. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for the IR rig is less than 30 {mu}m, and the maximum displacement is less than 110{mu}m. These experimental results show that the design criteria of IR rig meet the HANARO limit conditions. Endurance test results show that the appreciable fretting wear for the IR rig does not occur, however tiny trace of wear between contact points is observed.

  13. IR sensor for monitoring of burner flame; IR sensor foer oevervakning av braennarflamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanberg, Marcus; Funkquist, Jonas; Clausen, Soennik; Wetterstroem, Jonas


    To obtain a smooth operation of the coal-fired power plants many power plant managers have installed online mass flow measurement of coal to all burners. This signal is used to monitor the coal mass flow to the individual burner and match it with appropriate amount of air and also to monitor the distribution of coal between the burners. The online mass flow measurement system is very expensive (approximately 150 kEUR for ten burners) and is not beneficial for smaller plants. The accuracy of the measurement and the sample frequency are also questionable. The idea in this project has been to evaluate a cheaper system that can present the same information and may also provide better accuracy and faster sample frequency. The infrared sensor is a cheap narrow banded light emission sensor that can be placed in a water cooed probe. The sensor was directed at the burner flame and the emitted light was monitored. Through calibration the mass flow of coal can be presented. Two measurement campaigns were performed. Both campaigns were carried out in Nordjyllandsverket in Denmark even though the second campaign was planned to be in Uppsala. Due to severe problems in the Uppsala plant the campaign was moved to Nordjyllandsverket. The pre-requisites for the test plant were that online measurement of coal flow was installed. In Nordjyllandsverket 4 out of 16 burners have the mass flow measurement installed. Risoe Laboratories has vast experiences in the IR technology and they provided the IR sensing equipment. One IR sensor was placed in the flame guard position just behind the flame directed towards the ignition zone. A second sensor was placed at the boiler wall directed towards the flame. The boiler wall position did not give any results and the location was not used during the second campaign. The flame-guard-positioned-sensor- signal was thoroughly evaluated and the results show that there is a clear correlation between the coal mass flow and the IR sensor signal. Tests were

  14. Matrixisolation und IR-spektroskopische Charakterisierung fluorierter Dehydrophenylnitrene


    Cakir, Bayram


    In dieser Arbeit wurden iodierte-Fluorbenzolazide untersucht. Die ortho-, meta- und para-iodierte Fluorbenzolazide wurden unter Matrixbedingungen mit verschiedenen Lichtquellen bestrahlt. Die Matrixtemperatur betrug in Neon 3.5 K und in Argon 3.5 K. Nach den Bestrahlungen erfolgte immer eine IR-Aufnahme. Charakterisiert wurden die entstandenen Photoprodukte durch Vergleich der IR-Aufnahmen mit den theoretisch berechneten IR-Spektren, vorwiegend mit (U)B(3)LYP/6- 311G(d,p)-Rechnung...

  15. The Project of Medical IR Materials Passed Argumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Bozhang


    Research Project on the Key Technologies for Medical IR Materials and Products declared by Puyang Linshi Chemical New Materials Co., Ltd. passed the expert argumentation organized by Henan Science and Technology Department in April 2012, and was listed in the significant scientific and technological special projects of Henan Province. This project, with the re- search basis of medical IR development, will form the production capacity of 150 million pairs of medical IR surgical gloves after achieving the designed capacity.

  16. A combined IR/IR and IR/UV spectroscopy study on the proton transfer coordinate of isolated 3-hydroxychromone in the electronic ground and excited state. (United States)

    Stamm, A; Weiler, M; Brächer, A; Schwing, K; Gerhards, M


    In this paper the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) of isolated 3-hydroxychromone (3-HC), the prototype of the flavonols, is investigated for the first time by combined IR/UV spectroscopy in molecular beam experiments. The IR/UV investigations are performed both for the electronically excited and electronic ground state indicating a spectral overlap of transitions of the 3-HC monomer and clusters with water in the electronic ground state, whereas in the excited state only the IR frequencies of the proton-transferred monomer structure are observed. Due to the loss of isomer and species selectivity with respect to the UV excitations IR/IR techniques are applied in order to figure out the assignment of the vibrational transitions in the S0 state. In this context the quadruple resonance IR/UV/IR/UV technique (originally developed to distinguish different isomers in the electronically excited state) could be applied to identify the OH stretching vibration of the monomer in the electronic ground state. In agreement with calculations the OH stretching frequency differs significantly from the corresponding values of substituted hydroxychromones.

  17. Spitzer/IRS Mapping of Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H; Colina, Luis


    We present results of our program Spitzer/IRS Mapping of local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs). The maps cover the central 20"x20" or 30"x 30" regions of the galaxies, and use all four IRS modules to cover the full 5-38 microns spectral range. We have built spectral maps of the main mid-IR emission lines, continuum and PAH features, and extracted 1D spectra for regions of interest in each galaxy. The final goal is to fully characterize the mid-IR properties of local LIRGs as a first step to understanding their more distant counterparts.

  18. Role of IRS-2 in insulin and cytokine signalling. (United States)

    Sun, X J; Wang, L M; Zhang, Y; Yenush, L; Myers, M G; Glasheen, E; Lane, W S; Pierce, J H; White, M F


    The protein IRS-1 acts as an interface between signalling proteins with Src-homology-2 domains (SH2 proteins) and the receptors for insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone, several interleukins (IL-4, IL-9, IL-13) and other cytokines. It regulates gene expression and stimulates mitogenesis, and appears to mediate insulin/IGF-1-stimulated glucose transport. Thus, survival of the IRS-1-/- mouse with only mild resistance to insulin was surprising. This dilemma is provisionally resolved with our discovery of a second IRS-signalling protein. We purified and cloned a likely candidate called 4PS from myeloid progenitor cells and, because of its resemblance to IRS-1, we designate it IRS-2. Alignment of the sequences of IRS-2 and IRS-1 revealed a highly conserved amino terminus containing a pleckstrin-homology domain and a phosphotyrosine-binding domain, and a poorly conserved carboxy terminus containing several tyrosine phosphorylation motifs. IRS-2 is expressed in many cells, including tissues from IRS-1-/- mice, and may be essential for signalling by several receptor systems.

  19. Komandinio ir grupinio darbo įtaka organizacijos veiklai


    Mizeikytė, Jolanta


    MIZEIKYTĖ, Jolanta. (2009) Komandinio ir grupinio darbo įtaka organizacijos veiklai. Magistro baigiamasis darbas. Kaunas: Vilniaus universiteto, Kauno humanitarinis fakultetas. 72 p. SANTRAUKA Pastaruoju metu vis dažniau tenka išgirsti sąvoką komandinis ir grupinis darbas. Taip yra todėl, kad pastarosios sąvokos tampa nuolatiniu šiuolaikinio verslo palydovu, teikiančiu konkurencinį pranašumą. Darbo objektas – komandinis ir grupinis darbas. Darbo tikslas – ištirti komandinio ir grupinio darbo ...

  20. Upconversion imager measures single mid-IR photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian


    The most sensitive IR detectors today are based on exotic semicoductor technology such as indium antimonide or mercury cadmium telluride. High quality detectors of these sorts are expensive and suffer from high dark currents. Dark current can be somewhat alleviated by extreme cooling. Comparing...... in the near-IR. Conventional detection schemes for IR radiation include microbolometers, which rely on minute temperature changes induced in a 2D nanophotonic sensor device when IR radiation is adsorbed. Microbolometers exist both as cryogenically cooled and uncooled devices. The wavelength upconversion...

  1. Medicare Modernization Act (MMA) IRS Medicare Part D (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA uses the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) information in determing the eligibility of Medicare recipients to receive subsidy payments for Medicare premiums. SSA...

  2. Mechanical properties of Pt-Ir and Ni-Ir binary alloys for glass-molding dies coating. (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng; Lee, Chao-Te; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Donyau; Huang, Chien-Yao; Chou, Chang-Pin


    In this study, the different compositions of Pt-Ir and Ni-Ir alloys were deposited by utilizing ion source assisted magnetron sputtering system (ISAMSS). The surface roughness and crystallite size of the Pt-Ir and Ni-Ir coatings were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. In addition, coatings were soaked at 700 degrees and maintained 10 min under N2 atmosphere using a glass-molding machine. The annealed coatings for oxidation test were examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and for microhardness and reduced modulus test were evaluated by nanoindentation instrucment. The cross-sectional structures between the Pt-Ir and Ni-Ir coating layer and substrates were also examined by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The results show that surface roughness Ra from 1.25 nm to 3.426 nm was observed with increasing the Ni elements. However, the Ra is less than 2 nm measured in Ir-based coatings doped with Pt concentrations under this study. With increasing Pt and Ni doping, the microhardness of both coatings decreased significantly and the values of reduced modulus of Pt-Ir alloys are larger than that of Ni-Ir alloys. After oxidation process, the oxygen concentration of Pt-Ir coatings is less than that of Ni-Ir coatings and the Pt-Ir coatings exhibit superior properties including oxidation resistance, low surface roughness and high reduced modulus over Ni-Ir coatings, especially for the high Pt concentration coatings such as Pt-Ir 2 (55.25 at.% Pt) and Pt-Ir 3 (79.42 at.% Pt) coatings. The surface roughnesses of all specimens annealed at 700 degrees C were slightly larger than as-deposited coatings. Moreover, due to the serious oxidation occurred in Ni-Ir 3 (73.45 at.% Ni) coatings, the value of reduced modulus of this specimen coating is the lowest and the corrsponding Ra value is the largest compared with the rest of Ir-based coatings in the oxidation testing.

  3. AGN and starburst in bright Seyfert galaxies: from IR photometry to IR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Malkan, Matthew A


    Infrared photometry and later infrared spectroscopy provided powerful diagnostics to distinguish between the main emission mechanisms in galaxies: AGN and Starburst. After the pioneering work on infrared photometry with IRAS in the far-IR and the S.Pedro Martir and ESO ground-based work in the near-IR, ISO photometry extended up to 200um the coverage of the galaxies energy distributions. Then Spitzer collected accurate mid-infrared spectroscopy on different samples of galaxies. We will review the work done on the 12um galaxy sample since the times of IRAS photometry to the new Spitzer spectroscopy. The main results on the multifrequency data of 12um selected Seyfert galaxies are presented and discussed in the light of unification and evolution models. The spectroscopic work of Spitzer will soon be complemented at longer wavelengths by the Herschel spectrometers and in the future by SPICA at higher redshift.

  4. The Mid-IR Properties of Starburst Galaxies from Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, B R; Spoon, H W W; Devost, D; Sloan, G C; Guilles, S; Wu, Y; Houck, J R; Armus, L; Weedman, D W; Charmandaris, V; Appleton, P N; Soifer, B T; Hao, L; Marshall, J A; Higdon, S J; Herter, T L


    We present 5-38um mid-infrared spectra at a spectral resolution of R~65-130 of a large sample of 22 starburst nuclei taken with the Infrared Spectrograph IRS on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra show a vast range in starburst SEDs. The silicate absorption ranges from essentially no absorption to heavily obscured systems with an optical depth of tau(9.8um)~5. The spectral slopes can be used to discriminate between starburst and AGN powered sources. The monochromatic continuum fluxes at 15um and 30um enable a remarkably accurate estimate of the total infrared luminosity of the starburst. We find that the PAH equivalent width is independent of the total starburst luminosity L_IR as both continuum and PAH feature scale proportionally. However, the luminosity of the 6.2um feature scales with L_IR and can be used to approximate the total infrared luminosity of the starburst. Although our starburst sample covers about a factor of ten difference in the [NeIII]/[NeII] ratio, we found no systematic correla...

  5. Structural, phase stability, electronic, elastic properties and hardness of IrN{sub 2} and zinc blende IrN: First-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Zhaobo [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Yunnan Province & Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Non-Ferrous and Precious Rare Metals Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhou, Xiaolong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Yunnan Province & Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials of Non-Ferrous and Precious Rare Metals Ministry of Education, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Zhang, Kunhua [State Key Laboratory of Rare Precious Metals Comprehensive Utilization of New Technologies, Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China)


    First-principle calculations were performed to investigate the structural, phase stability, electronic, elastic properties and hardness of monoclinic structure IrN{sub 2} (m-IrN{sub 2}), orthorhombic structure IrN{sub 2} (o-IrN{sub 2}) and zinc blende structure IrN (ZB IrN). The results show us that only m-IrN{sub 2} is both thermodynamic and dynamic stability. The calculated band structure and density of states (DOS) curves indicate that o-IrN{sub 2} and ZB Ir-N compounds we calculated have metallic behavior while m-IrN{sub 2} has a small band gap of ~0.3 eV, and exist a common hybridization between Ir-5d and N-2p states, which forming covalent bonding between Ir and N atoms. The difference charge density reveals the electron transfer from Ir atom to N atom for three Ir-N compounds, which forming strong directional covalent bonds. Notable, a strong N-N bond appeared in m-IrN{sub 2} and o-IrN{sub 2}. The ratio of bulk to shear modulus (B/G) indicate that three Ir-N compounds we calculated are ductile, and ZB IrN possesses a better ductility than two types IrN{sub 2}. m-IrN{sub 2} has highest Debye temperature (736 K), illustrating it possesses strongest covalent bonding. The hardness of three Ir-N compounds were also calculated, and the results reveal that m-IrN{sub 2} (18.23 GPa) and o-IrN{sub 2} (18.02 GPa) are ultraincompressible while ZB IrN has a negative value, which may be attributed to phase transition at ca. 1.98 GPa.

  6. Development trends in IR detector coolers (United States)

    Mai, M.; Rühlich, I.; Wiedmann, Th.; Rosenhagen, C.


    For different IR application specific cooler requirements are needed to achieve best performance on system level. Handheld applications require coolers with highest efficiency and lowest weight. For application with continuous operation, i.e. border surveillance or homeland security, a very high MTTF is mandatory. Space applications additionally require extremely high reliability. In other application like fighter aircraft sufficient cooling capacity even at extreme high reject temperatures has to be provided. Meeting all this requirements within one cooler design is technically not feasible. Therefore, different coolers designs like integral rotary, split rotary or split linear are being employed. The use of flexure bearings supporting the driving mechanism has generated a new sub-group for the linear coolers; also, the coolers may either use a motor with moving magnet or with moving coil. AIM has mainly focussed on long life linear cooler technology and therefore developed a series of moving magnet flexure bearing compressors which meets MTTF's exceeding 20,000h (up to 50,000h with a Pulse-Tube coldfinger). These compressors have a full flexure bearing support on both sides of the driving mechanism. Cooler designs are being compared in regard to characteristic figures as described above.

  7. Technical specification for IR rig manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Hyon Soo; Cho, W. K.; Kim, S. D.; Park, U. J.; Hong, S. B.; Yoo, K. M


    IR Rig is one of the equipments are required in HANARO core for a radioisotope target. The various conditions like high radiation, high heat, rapid flow and vibration may cause swelling, Brittleness and acceleration of corrosion in HANARO core. These specific problems can be prevented and the safety of such equipment are prerequisite as well as durableness and surveillance. Therefore, the selection of material has to be made on the basis of small cross-section area, low energy emission by the gamma ray due to the absorption of neutron and short half life. The body is consist of aluminum and Inconel-750 was used for the internal spring(coil) which is known to be durable. The whole production process including the purchase of accessory, mechanical processing, welding and assembly was carried out according to the standard procedure to meet the requirement. A design, manufacture, utilization of reactor core and the other relevant uses were fit to class ''T'' to certify the whole process as general. And design, fabrication, analytical test, materials and accessory were carried out based on the ASME, ASTM, ANSI, AWS, JIS and KS standard.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzana, J.; Eder, R; Meinders, M.B J; Sawatzky, G.A


    Recent measured bands in the mid IR of parent insulating compounds of cuprate superconductors [Perkins et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 1621 (1993)] are interpreted as multimagnon infrared (IR) absorption assisted by phonons. We present results for the coupling constant of light with this excitations and

  9. Bringing NMR and IR Spectroscopy to High Schools (United States)

    Bonjour, Jessica L.; Hass, Alisa L.; Pollock, David W.; Huebner, Aaron; Frost, John A.


    Development of benchtop, portable Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectrometers has opened up opportunities for creating university-high school partnerships that provide high school students with hands-on experience with NMR and IR instruments. With recent changes to the international baccalaureate chemistry…

  10. A Simulation Program for Dynamic Infrared (IR) Spectra (United States)

    Zoerb, Matthew C.; Harris, Charles B.


    A free program for the simulation of dynamic infrared (IR) spectra is presented. The program simulates the spectrum of two exchanging IR peaks based on simple input parameters. Larger systems can be simulated with minor modifications. The program is available as an executable program for PCs or can be run in MATLAB on any operating system. Source…

  11. Bringing NMR and IR Spectroscopy to High Schools (United States)

    Bonjour, Jessica L.; Hass, Alisa L.; Pollock, David W.; Huebner, Aaron; Frost, John A.


    Development of benchtop, portable Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectrometers has opened up opportunities for creating university-high school partnerships that provide high school students with hands-on experience with NMR and IR instruments. With recent changes to the international baccalaureate chemistry…

  12. A Non-Conventional IR Approach to India's Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Paper presentation for the Panel 'India's international relations: empirical and theoretical perspectives'. EISA Pan-Euro Conference in Warsaw, 18 - 21st September, 2013 Abstract The paper elaborates on a critique of mainstream IR theory - neo-realism and liberal IR - and suggests...

  13. Superconductivity in noncentrosymmetric Mg10Ir19B16

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimczuk, T.; Xu, Q.; Morosan, E.; Thompson, J.D.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Cava, R.J.


    Mg10Ir19B16, a previously unreported compound in the Mg-Ir-B chemical system, is found to be superconducting at temperatures near 5 K. The fact that the compound exhibits a range of superconducting temperatures between 4 and 5 K suggests that a range of stoichiometries is allowed, though no structur

  14. Testing a Model of IR Radiative Losses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignola, F.; Long, C. N.; Reda, I.


    Thermopile pyranometers exhibit IR radiative losses that affect global and diffuse shortwave measurements made with first class thermopile based instruments. Pyrgeometers can be used to measure the sky temperature and are used to calculate the pyranometer?s IR radiative losses.

  15. Cross calibration of IRS-P4 OCM satellite sensor

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, E.; Mascarenhas, A.A.M.Q.; Matondkar, S.G.P.; Naik, P.; Nayak, S.R.

    The cross calibration of ocean color satellite sensor, IRS-P4 OCM using the radiative transfer code, with SeaWiFS as a reference are presented here. Since the bands of IRS-P4 OCM are identical to those of SeaWiFS and SeaWiFS has been continuously...

  16. Investigation of mid-IR picosecond image upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathez, Morgan David; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John


    Imaging and spectroscopy in the mid-infrared (Mid-IR) wavelength region have received considerable attention in recent years. The reason is the high Mid-IR spectral specificity of many gases and complex molecules. In this pilot study we focus on picosecond upconversion imaging exploiting the χ(2...

  17. Transitions between the $4f$-core-excited states in Ir$^{16+}$, Ir$^{17+}$, and Ir$^{18+}$ ions for clock applications

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, U I; Safronova, M S


    Iridium ions near $4f$-$5s$ level crossings are the leading candidates for a new type of atomic clocks with a high projected accuracy and a very high sensitivity to the temporal variation of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$. To identify spectra of these ions in experiment accurate calculations of the spectra and electromagnetic transition probabilities should be performed. Properties of the $4f$-core-excited states in Ir$^{16+}$, Ir$^{17+}$, and Ir$^{18+}$ ions are evaluated using relativistic many-body perturbation theory and Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method (COWAN code). We evaluate excitation energies, wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates. Our large-scale calculations includes the following set of configurations: $4f^{14-k}5s^{m}5p^{n}$ with $(k+m+n)$ equal to 3, 2, and 1 for the Ir$^{16+}$, Ir$^{17+}$, and Ir$^{18+}$ ions, respectively. The $5s-5p$ transitions are illustrated by the synthetic spectra in the 180 - 200 \\AA range. Large contributions of magnetic-dipole transitions to l...

  18. The effect of test dose and first IR stimulation temperature on post-IR IRSL measurements of rock slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Murray, Andrew; Sohbati, Reza


    lies close to the laboratory saturation levels only for higher first IR stimulation temperatures e.g. 200°C or 250°C. Our data confirm earlier suggestions based on sand-grain measurements that, for older sam-ples, accurate measurements close to saturation require that a higher first IR temperature...

  19. A highly active and stable IrOx/SrIrO3 catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction. (United States)

    Seitz, Linsey C; Dickens, Colin F; Nishio, Kazunori; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Montoya, Joseph; Doyle, Andrew; Kirk, Charlotte; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Hwang, Harold Y; Norskov, Jens K; Jaramillo, Thomas F


    Oxygen electrochemistry plays a key role in renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers, but the slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) limit the performance and commercialization of such devices. Here we report an iridium oxide/strontium iridium oxide (IrOx/SrIrO3) catalyst formed during electrochemical testing by strontium leaching from surface layers of thin films of SrIrO3 This catalyst has demonstrated specific activity at 10 milliamps per square centimeter of oxide catalyst (OER current normalized to catalyst surface area), with only 270 to 290 millivolts of overpotential for 30 hours of continuous testing in acidic electrolyte. Density functional theory calculations suggest the formation of highly active surface layers during strontium leaching with IrO3 or anatase IrO2 motifs. The IrOx/SrIrO3 catalyst outperforms known IrOx and ruthenium oxide (RuOx) systems, the only other OER catalysts that have reasonable activity in acidic electrolyte.

  20. Automatic temperature computation for realistic IR simulation (United States)

    Le Goff, Alain; Kersaudy, Philippe; Latger, Jean; Cathala, Thierry; Stolte, Nilo; Barillot, Philippe


    Polygon temperature computation in 3D virtual scenes is fundamental for IR image simulation. This article describes in detail the temperature calculation software and its current extensions, briefly presented in [1]. This software, called MURET, is used by the simulation workshop CHORALE of the French DGA. MURET is a one-dimensional thermal software, which accurately takes into account the material thermal attributes of three-dimensional scene and the variation of the environment characteristics (atmosphere) as a function of the time. Concerning the environment, absorbed incident fluxes are computed wavelength by wavelength, for each half an hour, druing 24 hours before the time of the simulation. For each polygon, incident fluxes are compsed of: direct solar fluxes, sky illumination (including diffuse solar fluxes). Concerning the materials, classical thermal attributes are associated to several layers, such as conductivity, absorption, spectral emissivity, density, specific heat, thickness and convection coefficients are taken into account. In the future, MURET will be able to simulate permeable natural materials (water influence) and vegetation natural materials (woods). This model of thermal attributes induces a very accurate polygon temperature computation for the complex 3D databases often found in CHORALE simulations. The kernel of MUET consists of an efficient ray tracer allowing to compute the history (over 24 hours) of the shadowed parts of the 3D scene and a library, responsible for the thermal computations. The great originality concerns the way the heating fluxes are computed. Using ray tracing, the flux received in each 3D point of the scene accurately takes into account the masking (hidden surfaces) between objects. By the way, this library supplies other thermal modules such as a thermal shows computation tool.

  1. β-Isocyanoalanine as an IR probe: comparison of vibrational dynamics between isonitrile and nitrile-derivatized IR probes. (United States)

    Maj, Michał; Ahn, Changwoo; Kossowska, Dorota; Park, Kwanghee; Kwak, Kyungwon; Han, Hogyu; Cho, Minhaeng


    An infrared (IR) probe based on isonitrile (NC)-derivatized alanine 1 was synthesized and the vibrational properties of its NC stretching mode were investigated using FTIR and femtosecond IR pump-probe spectroscopy. It is found that the NC stretching mode is very sensitive to the hydrogen-bonding ability of solvent molecules. Moreover, its transition dipole strength is larger than that of nitrile (CN) in nitrile-derivatized IR probe 2. The vibrational lifetime of the NC stretching mode is found to be 5.5 ± 0.2 ps in both D2O and DMF solvents, which is several times longer than that of the azido (N3) stretching mode in azido-derivatized IR probe 3. Altogether these properties suggest that the NC group can be a very promising sensing moiety of IR probes for studying the solvation structure and dynamics of biomolecules.

  2. Far-IR Emission From Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calanog, J A; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A; Assef, R J; Bock, J; Casey, C M; Conley, A; Farrah, D; Ibar, E; Kartaltepe, J; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Riechers, D; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Viero, M; Zemcov, M


    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a UV-faint, IR-bright galaxy population that reside at z~2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and AGN activity. We present far-IR observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg^2 of COSMOS. The 3077 DOGs have =1.9+/-0.3 and are selected from 24 um and r+ observations using a color cut of r+ - [24] >= 7.5 (AB mag) and S24 >= 100 uJy. Based on the mid-IR SEDs, 47% are star-formation dominated and 10% are AGN-dominated. We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from HerMES to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 um (>=3sigma). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Detected and undetected DOGs have average IR luminosities of (2.8+/-0.4) x 10^12 L_Sun and (0.77+/-0.08) x 10^12L_Sun, and dust temperatures of 34+/-7 K and 31+/-3 K, respectively. Using far-IR observations, DOGs contribute 30% to the 24 um-select...

  3. Energy Deposition in the LHC Insertion Regions IR1 and IR5

    CERN Document Server

    Hoa, C; Wildner, E


    Proton-proton collision debris coming out from the Interaction Point (IP) impacts the superconducting magnets of the insertion region and induces energy deposition in the coils. This is a critical aspect to evaluate regarding quench limit in the superconducting magnets. The study presents an estimation of the energy deposition in the insertion regions IR1 (ATLAS) and IR5 (CMS) for version 6.5 of the LHC layout, with a baseline nominal luminosity of L=1034 s-1 cm-2 for proton-proton collisions at 14 TeV center of mass energy. All essential components in the insertion regions up to 60 m from the interaction point have been implemented with a detailed description of their geometry, material and magnetic field. Total heat loads and power density distributions are evaluated in the components of the inner triplet, including also the TAS absorbers and the corrector magnets. The results are obtained using FLUKA, a Monte Carlo code modelling particle interaction and transport [1-2].

  4. Small pixel pitch MCT IR-modules (United States)

    Lutz, H.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Rutzinger, S.; Wendler, J.


    It is only some years ago, since VGA format detectors in 15μm pitch, manufactured with AIM's MCT n-on-p LPE standard technology, have been introduced to replace TV/4 format detector arrays as a system upgrade. In recent years a rapid increase in the demand for higher resolution, while preserving high thermal resolution, compactness and low power budget is observed. To satisfy these needs AIM has realized first prototypes of MWIR XGA format (1024x768) detector arrays in 10μm pitch. They fit in the same compact dewar as 640x512, 15μm pitch detector arrays. Therefore, they are best suited for system upgrade purposes to benefit from higher spatial resolution and keep cost on system level low. By combining pitch size reduction with recent development progress in the fields of miniature cryocoolers, short dewars and high operating temperatures the way ahead to ultra-compact high performance MWIR-modules is prepared. For cost reduction MBE grown MCT on commercially available GaAs substrates is introduced at AIM. Recently, 640x512, 15μm pitch FPAs, grown with MBE have successfully passed long-term high temperature storage tests as a crucial step towards serial production readiness level for use in future products. Pitch size reduction is not limited to arrays sensitive in the MWIR, but is of great interest for high performance LWIR or 3rd Gen solutions. Some applications such as rotorcraft pilotage require superior spatial resolution in a compact design to master severe weather conditions or degraded visual environment such as brown-out. For these applications AIM is developing both LWIR as well as dual band detector arrays in HD-format (1280x720) with 12μm pitch. This paper will present latest results in the development of detector arrays with small pitch sizes of 10μm and 12μm at AIM, together with their usage to realize compact cooled IR-modules.

  5. Arsia Mons Collapse Pits in IR (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] We will be looking at collapse pits for the next two weeks. Collapse pits on Mars are formed in several ways. In volcanic areas, channelized lava flows can form roofs which insulate the flowing lava. These features are termed lava tubes on Earth and are common features in basaltic flows. After the lava has drained, parts of the roof of the tube will collapse under its own weight. These collapse pits will only be as deep as the bottom of the original lava tube. Another type of collapse feature associated with volcanic areas arises when very large eruptions completely evacuate the magma chamber beneath the volcano. The weight of the volcano will cause the entire edifice to subside into the void space below it. Structural features including fractures and graben will form during the subsidence. Many times collapse pits will form within the graben. In addition to volcanic collapse pits, Mars has many collapse pits formed when volatiles (such as subsurface ice) are released from the surface layers. As the volatiles leave, the weight of the surrounding rock causes collapse pits to form. These collapse pits are found on the flank of Arsia Mons and are related to lava tube collapse. Image information: IR instrument. Latitude -8.8, Longitude 240.4 East (119.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was

  6. Patient Safety in Interventional Radiology: A CIRSE IR Checklist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Interventional radiology (IR) is an invasive speciality with the potential for complications as with other invasive specialities. The World Health Organization (WHO) produced a surgical safety checklist to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery. The Cardiovascular and Interventional Society of Europe (CIRSE) set up a task force to produce a checklist for IR. Use of the checklist will, we hope, reduce the incidence of complications after IR procedures. It has been modified from the WHO surgical safety checklist and the RAD PASS from Holland.

  7. Resonant photothermal IR spectroscopy of picogram samples with microstring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamada, Shoko; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja


    Here, we report a demonstration of resonant photothermal IR spectroscopy using microstrings in mid-infrared region providing rapid identification of picogram samples. In our microelectromechanical resonant photothermal IR spectroscopy system, samples are deposited directly on microstrings using...... an in-situ sampling method and the resonance frequency of the string is measured optically. Resonance frequency shifts, proportional to the absorbed heat, are recorded in real time as monochromatic infrared light is being scanned over the mid-infrared range. These resonant photothermal IR spectroscopy...

  8. Preclinical Study for Application of Fabricated High Activity Ir-192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee; Oh, Young Taek; Jeong, Chul; Kim, Mi Hwa; Hwang, Jeong Hye; Kim, Hee Seong; Im, Eun Jeong [Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)


    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of high activity Ir-192 sources manufactured by KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for application to present equipment such as various applicators inserted to patients and PLATO(Nucletron, Netherland) of treatment planning system and to evaluate safety and accuracy of Ir-192 as practical clinic use through in vitro dosimetry of Ir-192. We confirmed the physical and radiobiological safety of KAERI sources to use practical. KAERI sources are applicable to commercial high dose rate brachytherapy machine safely. Then those can be substituted for the imported sources such as sources made by Nucletron, Gammamed and exported to the foreign country

  9. E-2-benzylidenebenzocyclanones. II. IR and mass spectrometric investigations (United States)

    Tarczay, Gy; Vékey, K.; Ludányi, K.; Perjési, P.; Sohár, P.


    A series of E-2-benzylideneindanones (a) -tetralones (b) and -benzosuberones (c) with OCH 3 ( 2- 4), NO 2 ( 5- 7) and F ( 8- 10) substituents in ortho, meta or para position was studied by IR and mass spectrometry. The most important IR bands were assigned and stated correlations between some frequencies and the stereostructure or conjugation feature of the molecules investigated. IR spectra were also analyzed in order to find frequencies characteristic of the size of the alkanone ring. The mass spectrometric investigation aimed at determining fragmentation pathways and finding correlations between them and the ring size of the alkanone ring or the position of the substituents.

  10. Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kolev, Tsonko


    A technique that is useful in the study of pharmaceutical products and biological molecules, polarization IR spectroscopy has undergone continuous development since it first emerged almost 100 years ago. Capturing the state of the science as it exists today, "Linearly Polarized IR Spectroscopy: Theory and Applications for Structural Analysis" demonstrates how the technique can be properly utilized to obtain important information about the structure and spectral properties of oriented compounds. The book starts with the theoretical basis of linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscop

  11. Thin Film Electrodeposition of Ir(III Cyclometallated Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Ionescu


    Full Text Available Novel electropolymerizable Ir(III cyclometallated complexes have been synthesized and characterized. In these complexes the cyclometallated ligands are either 2-phenylpyridine H(PhPy or benzothiazole-triphenylamine H(BzTh-tpa, while the Ir(III coordination sphere is completed by a Schiff base substituted with a triphenylamine fragment. A complete electrochemical study has been conducted on all complexes, in order to verify the feasibility of electropolymerization and to elucidate the role of the specific position of the triphenylamine moiety in the molecular structure. Homogeneous thin films of Ir(III metallopolymers have been successfully obtained through electropolymerization process.

  12. Chlorination of (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc by Thionyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhou


    Full Text Available Pincer (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc (2 (Phebox = 3,5-dimethylphenyl-2,6-bis(oxazolinyl complex, formed by benzylic C-H activation of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene using (PheboxIr(OAc2OH2 (1, was treated with thionyl chloride to rapidly form 1-(chloromethyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene in 50% yield at 23 °C. A green species was obtained at the end of reaction, which decomposed during flash column chromatography to form (PheboxIrCl2OH2 in 87% yield.

  13. Hipoglikemijos priežastys, diagnostika ir gydymas


    Adukauskienė, Dalia; Borodičienė, Jurgita


    Hipoglikemijos diagnostika ir gydymas – tai aktuali problema, nes nuo gliukozės, t. y. pagrindinio energijos šaltinio, priklauso centrinės nervų sistemos veikla. Gliukozės homeostazė – tai dinamiškai sinchronizuota sąveika tarp veiksnių, kurie veikia per nervų sistemą ir kraują. Pirminiai gliukoreguliuojantys organai – tai kasa, kepenys, antinksčiai, hipofizė, o gliukozės homeostazėje dalyvauja insulinas, gliukagonas, katecholaminai, gliukokortikoidai ir augimo hormonas. Hipoglikemija gali vy...

  14. Kinetinės tipografikos raida ir modifikacijos


    Komarovska, Gražina


    Šiame darbe aptariamos kinetinės tipografikos atsiradimo prielaidos: klasikinis modernizmas, šrifto įtaigos įteisinimas, kinas. Analizuojami ryšiai tarp kinetinės tipografikos ir naujųjų medijų. Kalbama apie kinetinės tipografikos vizualinę ir stilistinę raišką, estetinius siekius, atsižvelgiant į tipografikos modifikacijas. Įvardijami skirtumai tarp kinetinės tipografikos ir spausdintinės eksperimentinės tipografikos, išryškinama kinetinės tipografikos komunikavimo specifiką. This work di...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of carbazolide-based iridium PNP pincer complexes. Mechanistic and computational investigation of alkene hydrogenation: evidence for an Ir(III)/Ir(V)/Ir(III) catalytic cycle. (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Kim, Bong Gon; Guironnet, Damien; Brookhart, Maurice; Guan, Changjian; Wang, David Y; Krogh-Jespersen, Karsten; Goldman, Alan S


    New carbazolide-based iridium pincer complexes ((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4), 3a, and ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)2, 3b, have been prepared and characterized. The dihydride, 3b, reacts with ethylene to yield the cis-dihydride ethylene complex cis-((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4)(H)2. Under ethylene this complex reacts slowly at 70 °C to yield ethane and the ethylene complex, 3a. Kinetic analysis establishes that the reaction rate is dependent on ethylene concentration and labeling studies show reversible migratory insertion to form an ethyl hydride complex prior to formation of 3a. Exposure of cis-((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4)(H)2 to hydrogen results in very rapid formation of ethane and dihydride, 3b. DFT analysis suggests that ethane elimination from the ethyl hydride complex is assisted by ethylene through formation of ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)(Et)(C2H4) and by H2 through formation of ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)(Et)(H2). Elimination of ethane from Ir(III) complex ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)(Et)(H2) is calculated to proceed through an Ir(V) complex ((carb)PNP)Ir(H)3(Et) which reductively eliminates ethane with a very low barrier to return to the Ir(III) dihydride, 3b. Under catalytic hydrogenation conditions (C2H4/H2), cis-((carb)PNP)Ir(C2H4)(H)2 is the catalyst resting state, and the catalysis proceeds via an Ir(III)/Ir(V)/Ir(III) cycle. This is in sharp contrast to isoelectronic (PCP)Ir systems in which hydrogenation proceeds through an Ir(III)/Ir(I)/Ir(III) cycle. The basis for this remarkable difference is discussed.

  16. Distinguishing and grading human gliomas by IR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Steiner, Gerald; Shaw, Anthony; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Abuid, Mario H; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan; Steller, Wolfram; Salzer, Reiner; Mantsch, Henry H


    As a molecular probe of tissue composition, IR spectroscopy can potentially serve as an adjunct to histopathology in detecting and diagnosing disease. This study demonstrates that cancerous brain tissue (astrocytoma, glioblastoma) is distinguishable from control tissue on the basis of the IR spectra of thin tissue sections. It is further shown that the IR spectra of astrocytoma and glioblastoma affected tissue can be discriminated from one another, thus providing insight into the malignancy grade of the tissue. Both the spectra and the methods employed for their classification reveal characteristic differences in tissue composition. In particular, the nature and relative amounts of brain lipids, including both the gangliosides and phospholipids, appear to be altered in cancerous compared to control tissue. Using a genetic classification approach, classification success rates of up to 89% accuracy were obtained, depending on the number of regions included in the model. The diagnostic potential and practical applications of IR spectroscopy in brain tumor diagnosis are discussed.

  17. Lojalaus vartotojo elgsenos ir įtakos sporto organizacijai vertinimas


    Urbonavičiūtė, Ernesta


    Darbo objektas – Lojalių klientų elgsena ir įtaka. Tikslas –Įvertinti lojalaus kliento elgseną ir įtaką „X“ sporto organizacijai. Uždaviniai: 1. Išanalizuoti vartotojų lojalumo raišką, jo stadijas ir sąlygojančius veiksnius; 2. Atskleisti lojalaus kliento teikiamą naudą sporto organizacijai; 3. Nustatyti lojalaus kliento elgseną ir įtaką „X“ sporto organizacijoje Rezultatai: Lojalumą lemia daug įvairių veiksnių tačiau svarbiausios yra žmogaus asmeninės savybės, tokios ...

  18. IR fixed points in $SU(3)$ gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, K -I; Nakayama, Yu; Yoshie, Y


    We propose a novel RG method to specify the location of the IR fixed point in lattice gauge theories and apply it to the $SU(3)$ gauge theories with $N_f$ fundamental fermions. It is based on the scaling behavior of the propagator through the RG analysis with a finite IR cut-off, which we cannot remove in the conformal field theories in sharp contrast with the confining theories. The method also enables us to estimate the anomalous mass dimension in the continuum limit at the IR fixed point. We perform the program for $N_f=16, 12, 8 $ and $N_f=7$ and indeed identify the location of the IR fixed points in all cases.

  19. Maximum Principle for Nonlinear Cooperative Elliptic Systems on IR N

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEADI Liamidi; MARCOS Aboubacar


    We investigate in this work necessary and sufficient conditions for having a Maximum Principle for a cooperative elliptic system on the whole (IR)N.Moreover,we prove the existence of solutions by an approximation method for the considered system.

  20. IR wireless cluster synapses of HYDRA very large neural networks (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas


    RF/IR wireless (virtual) synapses are critical components of HYDRA (Hyper-Distributed Robotic Autonomy) neural networks, already discussed in two earlier papers. The HYDRA network has the potential to be very large, up to 10 11-neurons and 10 18-synapses, based on already established technologies (cellular RF telephony and IR-wireless LANs). It is organized into almost fully connected IR-wireless clusters. The HYDRA neurons and synapses are very flexible, simple, and low-cost. They can be modified into a broad variety of biologically-inspired brain-like computing capabilities. In this third paper, we focus on neural hardware in general, and on IR-wireless synapses in particular. Such synapses, based on LED/LD-connections, dominate the HYDRA neural cluster.

  1. Infrared spectroscopy of radio-luminous OH/IR stars (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Hyland, A. R.; Fix, John D.; Cobb, Michael L.


    Low-resolution 1.5-2.5-micron spectra for 21 radio-luminous OH/IR stars are presented. These spectra divide into two broad classes. Those with very strong water-vapor absorption closely resemble the spectra of classical Mira variables and are classified Type VM. Those with weaker water-vapor absorption, but still showing strong CO absorption, resemble the spectra of true core-burning supergiants and are classified Type SG. Comparison of the classification of 30 radio-luminous OH/IR stars with their Delta(V)s and luminosities suggests this classification is a good indicator of the intrinsic nature of the underlying star. There is some evidence, however, that some true supergiants (massive main-sequence progenitors) develop the pulsation properties and photospheric characteristics of the Mira-like OH/IR stars when they become optically obscured OH/IR stars.

  2. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  3. Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy of IrN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. F. Pang; A. S. C. Cheung


    High resolution laser induced fluorescence spectra of IrN in the spectral region between 394and 520 nm were recorded using laser vaporization/reaction free jet expansion and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Seven new vibronic transition bands were observed and analyzed. TwoΩ=1 and five Ω=0 new states were identified. Least squares fit of rotationally resolved transition lines yielded accurate molecular constants for the upper states. Spectra of isotopic molecules were observed, which provided confirmation for the vibrational assignment. Comparison of the observed electronic states of IrB, IrC, and IrN provides a good understanding of the chemical bonding of this group of molecules.

  4. A new method for compression-rebuilding of IR spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This work presents a new spectral data compression-rebuilding technique to translate the full IR spectral data into compact codes based on the analysis and comprehension encoding approach. This method has been successfully applied to a sample set of 505 IR spectra randomly picked from 100 000 spectra. The results show that the compression ratio reaches 12.7:1 under a very weak curve distortion. The choice of the number and shape of the basis functions is flexible. The IR spectra can be compressed in a fixed data size in fulfilling the distortion criteria. The data after compression have no significance in the sense of IR spectra. To recover the original spectra, a specific algorithm must be applied. So the method can be used as a cryptic tool. Furthermore, the method can be applied to the compression of other complex curve by utilizing some of proper basis functions.

  5. Calculation of IR-spectra of structural fragments of lignins (United States)

    Derkacheva, O. Yu.; Ishankhodzhaeva, M. M.


    To study structure of softwood lignins the experimental and theoretical IR-spectra in middle IR-diapason were analyzed. To interpret these data the quantum chemical calculations of IR-spectra of general dimmer fragments of softwood lignins by method of density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set were carried out. These calculations showed that frequencies of normal vibrations of fragment with β-alkyl-aryl linkage are close to the experimental values of the IR absorption bands of lignin, and infrared spectrum of this structure is similar to the experimental spectrum of lignin. The calculations with accounting for the solvent showed a strong increase in the intensity of the majority of the bands and the solvent effect on the frequencies of vibrations.

  6. Characterization of Momordica charantia Ussing FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Keseru


    In this paper, because earlier claim shows that the plant used as stomachic, carminative, tonic, antipyretic, antidiabetic, in rheumatoid arthritis and gout, the present investigation was carried to characterized a principal components of plant using FT-IR technique

  7. One-Dimensional Tunable Photonic-Crystal IR Filter Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MetroLaser proposes to design and develop an innovative narrowband tunable IR filter based on the properties of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a...

  8. A study of the Al–Pt–Ir phase diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grushko, B., E-mail: [MaTecK, 52428 Jülich (Germany); PGI-5, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Samuha, S. [Dept. Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel); NRCN, P.O. Box 9001, 84190 Beer-Sheva (Israel); Meshi, L. [Dept. Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84105 Beer-Sheva (Israel)


    Phase equilibria in Al–Pt–Ir were studied up to 50 at.% Al at 1100 °C, up to 70 at.% Al at 900 °C and up to 75 at.% Al at 810 °C. At elevated temperatures the isostructural AlIr and high-temperature AlPt β-phases probably form a continuous compositional region. The ternary extensions of the phases Al{sub 4}Pt, Al{sub 21}Pt{sub 8}, Al{sub 3}Pt{sub 2} and low-temperature AlPt were revealed along approximately constant Al concentrations up to 15, 11, 20 and 10 at.% Ir, respectively. The Al–Ir C-phase dissolved up to 12 at.% Pt, and the χ-phase propagated up to almost Al{sub 3}Pt. A new ternary B-phase (I4{sub 1}/acd, a = 0.86250, c = 2.18409 nm) was revealed around Al{sub 69}Pt{sub 7}Ir{sub 24}. Its structural model was derived from the electron diffraction data. - Highlights: • The Al–Pt–Ir phase diagram was studied at 810, 900 and 1100 °C. • The majority of binaries extend widely along about constant Al. • The new ternary B-phase of the Ga{sub 4}Ir{sub 8}B type was revealed at Al{sub 69}Pt{sub 7}Ir{sub 24}. • The structural model of the B-phase was derived from electron diffraction.

  9. Upconversion applied for mid-IR hyperspectral image acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Kehlet, Louis Martinus; Sanders, Nicolai Højer;


    Different schemes for upconversion mid-IR hyperspectral imaging is implemented and compared in terms of spectral coverage, spectral resolution, speed and noise. Phasematch scanning and scanning of the object within the field of view is considered.......Different schemes for upconversion mid-IR hyperspectral imaging is implemented and compared in terms of spectral coverage, spectral resolution, speed and noise. Phasematch scanning and scanning of the object within the field of view is considered....

  10. Results obtained by investigating saffron ussing FT-IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Andronie


    Full Text Available The biological activity and the pharmaceutical properties of plants are strongly dependent on their structure. The FT-IR spectra of saffron (commercial have been obtained. The vibrational fundamentals from the IR spectrum, were analyzed  and assigned acoording to the available literature. In the present research work the genus saffron is selected because it is famous in wold as foods and also as medicine.

  11. IR emission from the target during plasma magnetron sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cormier, P.-A. [GREMI, Université d' Orléans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex2 (France); Thomann, A.-L., E-mail: [GREMI, Université d' Orléans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex2 (France); Dolique, V. [LMA, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I 7 Avenue Pierre de Coubertin, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Balhamri, A. [ChIPS, Université de Mons, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Université Hassan 1, École Supérieure de Technologie, 218 Berrechid (Morocco); Dussart, R.; Semmar, N.; Lecas, T.; Brault, P. [GREMI, Université d' Orléans, 14 rue d' Issoudun, B.P. 6744, 45067 Orleans Cedex2 (France); Snyders, R. [ChIPS, Université de Mons, 20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova R and D Center, Avenue Corpernic 1, Mons (Belgium); Konstantinidis, S. [Materia Nova R and D Center, Avenue Corpernic 1, Mons (Belgium)


    In this article, energy flux measurements at the substrate location are reported. In particular, the energy flux related to IR radiation emanating from the titanium (10 cm in diam.) target surface is quantified during magnetron sputter deposition processes. In order to modulate the plasma–target surface interaction and the radiative energy flux thereof, the working conditions were varied systematically. The experiments were performed in balanced and unbalanced magnetic field configurations with direct current (DC), pulsed DC and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges. The power delivered to the plasma was varied too, typically from 100 to 800 W. Our data show that the IR contribution to the total energy flux at the substrate increases with the supplied sputter power and as the discharge is driven in a pulse regime. In the case of HiPIMS discharge generated with a balanced magnetic field, the energy flux associated to the IR radiation produced by the target becomes comparable to the energy flux originating from collisional processes (interaction of plasma particles such as ions, electron, sputtered atoms etc. with the substrate). From IR contribution, it was possible to estimate the rise of the target surface temperature during the sputtering process. Typical values found for a titanium target are in the range 210 °C to 870 °C. - Highlights: • During magnetron sputtering process the heated target emits IR radiation. • We follow in real time the energy transferred to the deposited film by IR radiation. • IR radiation can be the main energy contribution in balanced pulsed processes. • IR radiation might affect the deposition process and the final film properties.

  12. Installation and first light of the BOOTES-IR near-IR camera (United States)

    Cunniffe, R.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Kubánek, P.; Jelínek, M.; Vítek, S.; Gorosabel, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Riva, A.; Zerbi, F.; Claret, A.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.


    BIRCAM is a near-infrared (0.8-2.5um) cryogenic camera based on a 1Kx1K HgCdTe array. It was designed for - and is now mounted at - one of the Nasmyth foci of the fast-slewing 0.6 m BOOTES-IR telescope at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (OSN) in Spain. The primary science mission is prompt Gamma Ray-Burst afterglow research, with an implied demand for extremely time-efficient operation. We describe the challenges of installing a heavy camera on a small high-speed telescope, of integrating the dithering mechanism, the filterwheel, and the array itself into a high-efficiency instrument, the design of the software to meet the requirements.

  13. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel


    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  14. Multispectral IR detection modules and applications (United States)

    Münzberg, M.; Breiter, R.; Cabanski, W.; Lutz, H.; Wendler, J.; Ziegler, J.; Rehm, R.; Walther, M.


    promising SL based detectors. Fully integrated IDCAs with a MWIR SL single color device with 256x256 pixels in 40 μm pitch have been integrated and tested. In the next step the pitch was reduced to 24μm in a 384x288 pixel configuration. With this design and further improved technology a very good pixel operabilities with very low cluster sizes (<= 4 pixel) and performances with quantum efficiencies as high as known from MCT is reached in the meantime. A dual color device based on SL technology on the existing 384x288 read-out circuit (ROIC) as used in the dual band QWIP device is available. It combines spectral selective detection in the 3-4.1 μm wavelength range and 4.1-5 μm wavelength range in each pixel with coincident integration in a 384x288x2 format and 40 μm pitch. Excellent thermal resolution with NETD < 17 mK @ F/2, 2.8 ms for the longer wavelength range (red band) and NETD < 30 mK @ F/2, 2.8 ms for the shorter wavelength range (blue band) has been achieved. The pixel outage rates remains below 1% in both colors. The spectral cross talk of the red band to the blue band is estimated below 1%o which is important to reduce significantly the false alarm rate in missile approach warning systems as the primarily intended use of the dual color detector is. Real time analysis of gases, i.e. the detection of toxic or agent gases, by multi spectral detection in the IR used the characteristic infrared emission or absorption lines of different gas types. Spectroscopic systems consisting of a spectrometer with the need for large linear MCT array with small pixel sizes are used in this case. Possibilities are outlined to use long linear arrays, such as the 576x7 MCT detector, to perform spectral selective measurements in the 2-11μm wavelength range. For these applications a 576x7 MCT FPA is integrated in an open dewar cooler assy without window able to operate directly coupled in an evacuated and cooled spectrometer. The sensitivity of the array is consequently not limited

  15. New infrared observations of IRS1, IRS3, and the adjacent nebula in the OMC-2 cluster (United States)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.; Capps, R.; Dinerstein, H. L.


    Observations of the infrared cluster of low luminosity protostars in Orion Molecular Cloud 2 (OMC2) are reported. Results show that the asymmetric distribution of the extended emission seen about IRS1 is another infrared reflection nebula. Energy distributions show that the spectral shape is fairly constant throughout the nebula which indicates there is little internal extinction within this region. Integrated surface brightness values show that the nebula is 5 times brighter than IRS1 at K. Energy distributions show that IRS1 has a more pronounced ice band absorption feature at 3.1 micron; suggesting that there is more extinction along the direct line of sight to IRS1 than along a line from IRS1 to the scattering grains and then to the observer. The distribution of the extended emission around IRS1 is similar to the reflection nebula seen in NGC 7538 (Werner et al. 1979). The asymmetric shapes of the two nebulae are similar and in each case there is excess extinction along line of sight to the illuminating source.

  16. Discrimination of five species of Fritillaria and its extracts by FT-IR and 2D-IR (United States)

    Li, Dan; Jin, Zhexiong; Zhou, Qun; Chen, Jianbo; Lei, Yu; Sun, Suqin


    Bulbus Fritillariae (in Chinese named Beimu), referred to the bulbs of several Fritillaria species ( Liliaceae), is a commonly used anti-tussive and expectorant herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 2000 years. The objective of this study is to discriminate five species of Beimu herbs and their total alkaloid extracts by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared spectroscopy, and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) under thermal perturbation. The structural information of the samples indicated that, Beimu and their extract residues contain a large amount of starch, since some characteristic absorption peaks of the starch, such as 1158, 1080, 1015 and 987 cm -1 can be observed. Further more, the characteristic absorption peaks of the sulfate which arouse at 1120 ± 5 and 618 cm -1 in the IR spectra of Beimu aqueous extracts can be find. This validated that people used the sulfur fumigation method in the processing. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.

  17. Rapid discrimination of Panax notogeinseng of different grades by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Chen, Jian-bo; Wu, Xian-xue; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin


    The herbal material of Notoginseng (the root of Panax notoginseng) is sold by "Tou" (the number of Notoginseng in every 500 g) to distinguish the grade. Normally the better quality, the few number of the "Tou" and the size of Notoginseng is bigger. In this study, three grades of Notoginseng harvested from Yunnan province were discriminated and identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR)). The correlation coefficient of IR spectra between the three grades of Notoginseng and starch are greater than 0.95 in the range of 1300-800 cm-1, means the main compositions of Notoginseng are starch polysaccharide. Also, when the size of Notoginseng is bigger, it may contain more polysaccharide. There is no difference in range of 815-1000 cm-1 of the 2DCOS-IR synchronous spectra of the three grades means polysaccharides possess good thermal stability. In the range of 1200-1300 cm-1 shows the inverse ration between the thermal sensitivity of C-O and the number of "Tou". Combination with the 2DCOS-IR asynchronous spectra, the response speed of amino acid (1640 cm-1) on the thermal perturbation is the fastest, followed by nitrate (1384 cm-1); the response speed of polysaccharides (1079 cm-1) is the slowest. The result proved that the 2DCOS-IR could discriminate different grades of Notoginseng.

  18. Magnetic polarization of Ir in underdoped nonsuperconducting Eu(Fe 0.94Ir0.06)2As2 (United States)

    Jin, W. T.; Xiao, Y.; Su, Y.; Nandi, S.; Jiao, W. H.; Nisbet, G.; Demirdis, S.; Cao, G. H.; Brückel, Th.


    Using polarized neutron diffraction and x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS) techniques, multiple phase transitions were revealed in an underdoped, nonsuperconducting Eu (Fe1 -xIrx )2As2 (x =0.06 ) single crystal. Compared with the parent compound EuFe2As2 , the tetragonal-to-orthorhombic structural phase transition and the antiferromagnetic order of the Fe+2 moments are significantly suppressed to TS=111 (2 ) K and TN,Fe=85 (2 ) K by 6% Ir doping, respectively. In addition, the Eu+2 spins order within the a b plane in the A-type antiferromagnetic structure similar to the parent compound. However, the order temperature is evidently suppressed to TN,Eu=16.0 (5 ) K by Ir doping. Most strikingly, the XRMS measurements at the Ir L3 edge demonstrates that the Ir 5 d states are also magnetically polarized, with the same propagation vector as the magnetic order of Fe. With TN,Ir=12.0 (5 ) K, they feature a much lower onset temperature compared with TN,Fe. Our observation suggests that the magnetism of the Eu sublattice has a considerable effect on the magnetic nature of the 5 d Ir dopant atoms and there exists a possible interplay between the localized Eu+2 moments and the conduction d electrons on the FeAs layers.

  19. New infrared observations of IRS1, IRS3, and the adjacent nebula in the OMC-2 cluster (United States)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.; Capps, R.; Dinerstein, H. L.


    Observations of the infrared cluster of low luminosity protostars in Orion Molecular Cloud 2 (OMC2) are reported. Results show that the asymmetric distribution of the extended emission seen about IRS1 is another infrared reflection nebula. Energy distributions show that the spectral shape is fairly constant throughout the nebula which indicates there is little internal extinction within this region. Integrated surface brightness values show that the nebula is 5 times brighter than IRS1 at K. Energy distributions show that IRS1 has a more pronounced ice band absorption feature at 3.1 micron; suggesting that there is more extinction along the direct line of sight to IRS1 than along a line from IRS1 to the scattering grains and then to the observer. The distribution of the extended emission around IRS1 is similar to the reflection nebula seen in NGC 7538 (Werner et al. 1979). The asymmetric shapes of the two nebulae are similar and in each case there is excess extinction along line of sight to the illuminating source.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Said


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini difokuskan pada tiga hal: (1 Apakah karakteristik lingkup isi Syi’ir Muslimat?, (2 Bagai-manakah kondisi sosial budaya pada saat naskah ditulis oleh penulis?, (3 Apa nilai-nilai pendidikan moral bagi perempuan Muslim di isi Syi’ir Muslimat dalam perspektif gender?. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan filologi dengan meningkatkan penggunaan analisis gender. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah: Pertama, Syi’ir Muslimat ditulis oleh Nyai Wanifah, seorang wanita yang hidup pada zaman kolonial Belanda dipesantren tradisi di Kudus, Jawa Tengah. Kedua, beberapa nilai pendidikan moral di Syi’ir Muslimatantara lain: (1 Pentingnya pendidikan moral, (2 Bahaya perempuan bodoh; (3 Pentingnya belajar bagi perempuan di usia dini, (4 Etika menghias diri; (5 Bahaya materialisme, (6 Etika hubungan keluarga; (7 Dari rumah untuk mencapai surga; (8 Berhati-hatilah dengan tipu iblis; (9 Hindari perzinahan; (10 yang penting dari penutupan aurot; (11 yang ditujukan kepada orang tua. Ketiga, meskipun ada beberapa senyawa yang bias gender dalam Syi’ir Muslimat misalnya: (a Ada penjelasan yang menunjukkan bahwa perempuan lebih rendah dibandingkan laki-laki dalam derajat, (2 Pernyataan bahwa wanita bicara dibandingkan laki-laki, (3 wanita hanya cocok di wilayah domestik; Namun secara umum nasihat di syi’ir masih sangat relafen dalam konteks sekarang, terutama untuk memberikan solusi alternatif dalam merespon krisis moral bangsa terutama pada wanita generasi muda. Kata kunci: Syi’ir Muslimat, Pendidikan Karakter, Analisis Gender. This study focused on three things: (1 What is the characteristics of the scope of contents of Syi’ir Muslimat?, (2 What is the socio-cultural conditions at the time the manuscript was written by the author?, (3 What are the moral education values for Muslim women in the content of Syi’ir Muslimat in the perspective of gender?. This research uses a philological approach with enhanced use of gender analysis. The

  1. Excess mid-IR emission in Cataclysmic Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dubus, G; Kern, B; Taam, R E; Spruit, H C


    We present a search for excess mid-IR emission due to circumbinary material in the orbital plane of cataclysmic variables (CVs). Our motivation stems from the fact that the strong braking exerted by a circumbinary (CB) disc on the binary system could explain several puzzles in our current understanding of CV evolution. Since theoretical estimates predict that the emission from a CB disc can dominate the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the system at wavelengths > 5 microns, we obtained simultaneous visible to mid-IR SEDs for eight systems. We report detections of SS Cyg at 11.7 microns and AE Aqr at 17.6 microns, both in excess of the contribution from the secondary star. In AE Aqr, the IR likely originates from synchrotron-emitting clouds propelled by the white dwarf. In SS Cyg, we argue that the observed mid-IR variability is difficult to reconcile with simple models of CB discs and we consider free-free emission from a wind. In the other systems, our mid-IR upper limits place strong constraints on the...

  2. Short infrared (IR) laser pulses can induce nanoporation (United States)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Barnes, Ronald A.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Beier, Hope T.


    Short infrared (IR) laser pulses on the order of hundreds of microseconds to single milliseconds with typical wavelengths of 1800-2100 nm, have shown the capability to reversibly stimulate action potentials (AP) in neuronal cells. While the IR stimulation technique has proven successful for several applications, the exact mechanism(s) underlying the AP generation has remained elusive. To better understand how IR pulses cause AP stimulation, we determined the threshold for the formation of nanopores in the plasma membrane. Using a surrogate calcium ion, thallium, which is roughly the same shape and charge, but lacks the biological functionality of calcium, we recorded the flow of thallium ions into an exposed cell in the presence of a battery of channel antagonists. The entry of thallium into the cell indicated that the ions entered via nanopores. The data presented here demonstrate a basic understanding of the fundamental effects of IR stimulation and speculates that nanopores, formed in response to the IR exposure, play an upstream role in the generation of AP.

  3. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    Spectral imaging and detection of mid-infrared (mid-IR) wavelengths are emerging as an enabling technology of great technical and scientific interest; primarily because important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints revealing valuable chemical information. While modern Quantum cascade lasers have evolved as ideal coherent mid-IR excitation sources, simple, low noise, room temperature detectors and imaging systems still lag behind. We address this need presenting a novel, field-deployable, upconversion system for sensitive, 2-D, mid-IR spectral imaging. Measured room temperature dark noise is 0.2 photons/spatial element/second, which is a billion times below the dark noise level of cryogenically cooled InSb cameras. Single photon imaging and up to 200 x 100 spatial elements resolution is obtained reaching record high continuous wave quantum efficiency of about 20 % for polarized incoherent light at 3 \\mum. The proposed method is relevant for existing and new mid-IR applicat...

  4. Determination of effective resonance energy for the 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction by the cadmium ratio method (United States)

    Budak, Mustafa Guray; Karadag, Mustafa; Yücel, Haluk


    In this work, the effective resonance energy, Ebarr -value for the 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction was measured using cadmium ratio method. A dual monitor (197Au-98Mo), which has convenient resonance properties, was employed for characterization of the irradiation sites. Then analytical grade iridium oxide samples diluted with CaCO3 to lower neutron self-shielding effect stacked in small cylindrical Teflon boxes were irradiated once with a 1 mm thick Cd cylindrical box placed in a thermalized neutron field of an 241Am-Be neutron source then without it. The activities produced in samples during 193Ir(n,γ)194Ir reaction were measured using a p-type HPGe detector γ-ray spectrometer with a 44.8% relative efficiency. The correction factors for thermal, epithermal neutron self-shielding (Gth, Gepi), true coincidence summing (Fcoi) and gamma-ray self-absorption (Fs) effects were determined with appropriate approaches and programs. Thus, the experimental Ebarr -value was determined to be 2.65 ± 0.61 eV for 193Ir target nuclide. The recent data for Q0 and FCd values for Ebarr determination were based on k0-NAA online database. The present experimental Ebarr value was calculated and compared with more recent values for Q0 and FCd for 193Ir. Additionally, the Ebarr -values was theoretically calculated from the up-to-date resonance data obtained from ENDF/B VII library using two different approaches. Since there is no experimentally determined Ebarr -value for the 193Ir isotope, the results are compared with the calculated ones given in the literature.

  5. Fire and Ice: IRS Mid-IR Spectroscopy of IRAS F00183--7111

    CERN Document Server

    Spoon, H W W; Cami, J; Tielens, A G G M; Chiar, J E; Peeters, E; Keane, J V; Charmandaris, V; Appleton, P N; Teplitz, H I; Burgdorf, M J


    We report the detection of strong absorption and weak emission features in the 4--27 micron Spitzer-IRS spectrum of the distant ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) IRAS F00183--7111 (z=0.327). The absorption features of CO2 and CO gas, water ice, hydrocarbons and silicates are indicative of a strongly obscured (A[9.6]>=5.4; A[V]>=90) and complex line of sight through both hot diffuse ISM and shielded cold molecular clouds towards the nuclear power source. From the profile of the 4.67 micron CO fundamental vibration mode we deduce that the absorbing gas is dense (n~10^6 cm^-3) and warm (720 K) and has a CO column density of ~10^19.5 cm^-2, equivalent to N[H]~10^23.5 cm^-2. The high temperature and density, as well as the small infered size (<0.03pc), locates this absorbing gas close to the power source of this region. Weak emission features of molecular hydrogen, PAHs and Ne+, likely associated with star formation, are detected against the 9.7 micron silicate feature, indicating an origin away from the ab...

  6. 佳能IR1600/IR2000数码复印机的维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    IR1600数码复印机,复印到3万张左右机器前侧复印件出现黑带。拆下左侧盖,解锁拿下感光鼓,看到感光鼓右侧有大量的墨粉,并使机器的同一位置机体内有大量的废粉,并伴有“废粉满”信息(即ASTE TONER FULL)一直不熄灭。打开鼓组件上的两个小白盖倒出废粉,将鼓组件装回到机器上,复印几张又出现上述情况,再次拆下鼓组件,拆除鼓芯发现转矩限制器断下来(见图1)。由于转矩限制器断下,搅拌杆转动时转矩限制器不转动,结果废粉满传感器(PS120)被拨动,

  7. Investigating the Photocatalytic Degradation of Oil Paint using ATR-IR and AFM-IR. (United States)

    Morsch, Suzanne; van Driel, Birgit A; van den Berg, Klaas Jan; Dik, Joris


    As linseed oil has a longstanding and continuing history of use as a binder in artistic paints, developing an understanding of its degradation mechanism is critical to conservation efforts. At present, little can be done to detect the early stages of oil paint deterioration due to the complex chemical composition of degrading paints. In this work, we use advanced infrared analysis techniques to investigate the UV-induced deterioration of model linseed oil paints in detail. Subdiffraction limit infrared analysis (AFM-IR) is applied to identify and map accelerated degradation in the presence of two different grades of titanium white pigment particles (rutile or anatase TiO2). Differentiation between the degradation of these two formulations demonstrates the sensitivity of this approach. The identification of characteristic peaks and transient species residing at the paint surface allows infrared absorbance peaks related to degradation deeper in the film to be extricated from conventional ATR-FTIR spectra, potentially opening up a new approach to degradation monitoring.

  8. On the similarity of IR-bright and IR-dark molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, N; Klessen, R S; Tremblin, P; Ossenkopf, V; Peretto, N


    Are Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) special in terms of their physical properties (mass, temperature, star-formation activity) or do they behave as any other star-forming molecular cloud? In this letter, we display column density and temperature maps derived from Herschel, and ATLASGAL dust continuum observations of a sample of prominent massive IRDCs, i.e. G11.11-0.12 (the 'snake'), G18.82-0.28, G28.37+0.07, and G28.53-0.25. We disentangle the velocity structure of the clouds using 13CO 1-0 (BU-FCRAO GRS) and 12CO 3-2 (JCMT) data, showing that our IRDCs are embedded in massive giant molecular clouds (GMCs). The probability distribution function of column densities (PDF) for all clouds have a power-law tail for high column densities, independent of their evolutionary stage (G11.11-0.12, G18.82-0.28, and G28.37+0.07 contain (proto)-stars, G28.53-0.25 shows no signs of star-formation), we attribute to self-gravity. This is in contrast with the purely lognormal PDFs reported using near/mid-IR extinction maps. The p...

  9. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at IrL2,3 edges in Fe100-Ir and Co100-Ir alloys: Magnetism of 5d electronic states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Krishnamurthy; M Suzuki; N Kawamura; T Ishikawa


    The formation of induced 5 magnetic moment on Ir in Fe100-Ir (=3, 10 and 17) and Co100-Ir (=5, 17, 25 and 32) alloys has been investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at Ir L2,3 absorption edges. Sum rule analysis of the XMCD data show that the orbital moment of Ir is in the range of -0.071(2)B to -0.030(1)B in Fe–Ir alloys and -0.067(2)B to 0.024(1)B in Co–Ir alloys. We find that the total moment of Ir in Fe–Ir alloys is approximately 1/5 of the total 3 moment on Fe at all the three compositions. In contrast, the total moment on Ir in Co–Ir alloys varies between 1/6 to 1/16 of the 3 moment on cobalt. The observed trends of Ir moments and the role of interatomic exchange interactions in 5 moment formation are discussed.

  10. IR Spectroscopy and Photo-Chemistry of Extraterrestrial Ices (United States)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Mastrapa, Rachel; Elsila, Jamie; Sandford, Scott


    Dense molecular clouds from which planetary systems form and the outer Solar System are both cold environments dominated by ices. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used to probe these ices, but the IR absorptions of molecules depend on the conditions. As a result appropriate lab data is needed to correctly fit spectra of extraterrestrial ices. Such fits have shown that most of these ices are composed primarily of H2O, but also contain 1-10 percent of other simple molecules such as CO2, CO, CH4, & NH3;. We shall present near IR spectra of ice mixtures of relevance to icy outer Solar System bodies and show that they still hold surprises, such as the Cheshire cat-like CO2 (2v3) overtone near 2.134 micrometers (4685 cm-1) that is absent from spectra of pure CO2 but present in H2O-CO2 mixtures.

  11. Strong-field physics with mid-IR fields

    CERN Document Server

    Wolter, Benjamin; Baudisch, Matthias; Sclafani, Michele; Hemmer, Michaël; Senftleben, Arne; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Ullrich, Joachim; Moshammer, Robert; Biegert, Jens


    Strong-field physics is currently experiencing a shift towards the use of mid-IR driving wavelengths. This is because they permit conducting experiments unambiguously in the quasi-static regime and enable exploiting the effects related to ponderomotive scaling of electron recollisions. Initial measurements taken in the mid-IR immediately led to a deeper understanding of photo-ionization and allowed a discrimination amongst different theoretical models. Ponderomotive scaling of rescattering has enabled new avenues towards time resolved probing of molecular structure. Essential for this paradigm shift was the convergence of two experimental tools: 1) intense mid-IR sources that can create high energy photons and electrons while operating within the quasi-static regime, and 2) detection systems that can detect the generated high energy particles and image the entire momentum space of the interaction in full coincidence. Here we present a unique combination of these two essential ingredients, namely a 160\\~kHz mi...

  12. Comparison of Laboratory Measurements for IR Imaging System Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Sheng-cai; XU Zong-chang; XIAO Shun-wang


    Sensitivity and human performance are two important parameters for IR imaging system. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) and minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) can describe sensitivity and human performance of IR imaging system. So a lot of engineers apply themselves to studying the methods to measure NETD and MRTD for IR imaging system. The classical laboratory measurement methodologies for NETD and MRTD are introduced. And, two new approaches to three-dimensional (3-D) noise and MRTD/MRC are also portrayed, which can overcome some of the disadvantages existed in classical testing of NETD and MRTD. With the help of the new laboratory measurements, the disadvantages of the classical methods to measure NETD and MRTD can be solved.

  13. The cell growth suppressor, mir-126, targets IRS-1. (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Du, Ying-ying; Lin, Yi-feng; Chen, Ya-ting; Yang, Lu; Wang, Hui-jun; Ma, Duan


    miRNAs are a family of approximately 22-nuleotide-long noncoding RNAs involved in the formation and progress of tumors. Since traditional methods for the detection of miRNAs expression have many disadvantages, we developed a simple method called polyA RT PCR. With this method, we detected a series of miRNAs and found that mir-126 is one of the miRNAs underexpressed in breast cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis showed that mir-126 inhibited cell cycle progression from G1/G0 to S. Further studies revealed that mir-126 targeted IRS-1 at the translation level. Knocking down of IRS-1 suppresses cell growth in HEK293 and breast cancer cell MCF-7, which recapitulates the effects of mir-126. In conclusion, we developed a simple method for high-throughput screening of miRNAs and found that mir-126, a cell growth suppressor, targets IRS-1.

  14. IR spectroscopy of gaseous fluorocarbon ions: The perfluoroethyl anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestoni, Maria Elisa; Chiavarino, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Lemaire, Joel; Maitre, Philippe [Universite Paris Sud, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique - UMR8000 CNRS, Faculte des Sciences - Batiment 350, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Fornarini, Simonetta, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del Farmaco, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , P. le A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} ions are formed by dissociative electron capture in perfluoropropane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both their reactivity towards neutrals and IRMPD spectroscopy are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sampled C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} ions are best described as covalently bound pentafluoroethyl anions. - Abstract: The first IR spectrum of a perfluorinated carbanion has been obtained in the gas phase by IRMPD spectroscopy. Quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/cc-pVTZ level were performed yielding the optimized geometries and IR spectra for a covalently bound C{sub 2}F{sub 5}{sup -} species and for conceivable loosely bound F{sup -}(C{sub 2}F{sub 4}) complexes. Both the computational results and the IR characterization point to a covalent structure for the assayed species in agreement with the reactivity pattern displayed with selected neutrals.

  15. A Parametric Study of Crack Propagation During Sonic IR Inspection (United States)

    Chen, J. C.; Kephart, J.; Riddell, W. T.


    We have developed an experiment to study the propagation of synthetic cracks under various controlled conditions during sonic IR inspection. The experiment provides for good repeatability in testing. The parameters of interest include the initial crack length, load history (stress intensity and load ratio) during crack generation, geometry of the crack, material, and also the various conditions involving the ultrasonic source. In general, we find that under typical sonic IR inspection conditions, the initial crack will propagate when subjected to sonic IR testing. The crack growth after each inspection event varies and exhibits a distribution in length of propagation. The results show that the average crack propagation decreases with increasing initial crack length and increasing stress intensity.

  16. Electronic transport properties of Ir-decorated graphene. (United States)

    Wang, Yilin; Xiao, Shudong; Cai, Xinghan; Bao, Wenzhong; Reutt-Robey, Janice; Fuhrer, Michael S


    Graphene decorated with 5d transitional metal atoms is predicted to exhibit many intriguing properties; for example iridium adatoms are proposed to induce a substantial topological gap in graphene. We extensively investigated the conductivity of single-layer graphene decorated with iridium deposited in ultra-high vacuum at low temperature (7 K) as a function of Ir concentration, carrier density, temperature, and annealing conditions. Our results are consistent with the formation of Ir clusters of ~100 atoms at low temperature, with each cluster donating a single electronic charge to graphene. Annealing graphene increases the cluster size, reducing the doping and increasing the mobility. We do not observe any sign of an energy gap induced by spin-orbit coupling, possibly due to the clustering of Ir.

  17. Vibrational microspectroscopy of food. Raman vs. FT-IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Løkke, Mette Marie; Micklander, Elisabeth


    FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy are complementary techniques for the study of molecular vibrations and structure. The combination with a microscope results in an analytical method that allows spatially resolved investigation of the chemical composition of heterogeneous foods and food ingredients....... The high spatial resolution makes it possible to study areas down to approximately 10x10 mum with FT-IR microspectroscopy and approximately 1 x 1 mum with Raman microspectroscopy. This presentation highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the two microspectroscopic techniques when applied...... to different heterogeneous food systems. FT-IR and Raman microspectroscopy were applied to a number of different problems related to food analysis: (1) in situ determination of starch and pectin in the potato cell, (2) in situ determination of the distribution of amygdalin in bitter almonds, (3...

  18. Rapid discrimination of extracts of Chinese propolis and poplar buds by FT-IR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Zhou, Qun


    The extract of Chinese propolis (ECP) has recently been adulterated with that of poplar buds (EPB), because most of ECP is derived from the poplar plant, and ECP and EPB have almost identical chemical compositions. It is very difficult to differentiate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, how to effectively discriminate these two mixtures is a problem to be solved urgently. In this paper, a rapid method for discriminating ECP and EPB was established by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra combined with the two-dimensional infrared correlation (2D IR) analysis. Forty-three ECP and five EPB samples collected from different areas of China were analyzed by the FT-IR spectroscopy. All the ECP and EPB samples tested show similar IR spectral profiles. The significant differences between ECP and EPB appear in the region of 3000-2800 cm -1 of the spectra. Based on such differences, the two species were successfully classified with the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition technique. Furthermore, these differences were well validated by a series of temperature-dependent dynamic FT-IR spectra and the corresponding 2D IR plots. The results indicate that the differences in these two natural products are caused by the amounts of long-chain alkyl compounds (including long-chain alkanes, long-chain alkyl esters and long chain alkyl alcohols) in them, rather than the flavonoid compounds, generally recognized as the bioactive substances of propolis. There are much more long-chain alkyl compounds in ECP than those in EPB, and the carbon atoms of the compounds in ECP remain in an order Z-shaped array, but those in EPB are disorder. It suggests that FT-IR and 2D IR spectroscopy can provide a valuable method for the rapid differentiation of similar natural products, ECP and EPB. The IR spectra could directly reflect the integrated chemical

  19. Protection of p+-n-Si Photoanodes by Sputter-Deposited Ir/IrOxThin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mei, Bastian Timo; Seger, Brian; Pedersen, Thomas;


    Sputter deposition of Ir/IrOx on p+-n-Si without interfacial corrosion protection layers yielded photoanodes capable of efficient water oxidation (OER) in acidic media (1 M H2SO4). Stability of at least 18 h was shown by chronoamperomety at 1.23 V versus RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) under 38.......6 mW/cm2 simulated sunlight irradiation (λ > 635 nm, AM 1.5G) and measurements with quartz crystal microbalances. Films exceeding a thickness of 4 nm were shown to be highly active though metastable due to an amorphous character. By contrast, 2 nm IrOx films were stable, enabling OER at a current...... density of 1 mA/cm2 at 1.05 V vs. RHE. Further improvement by heat treatment resulted in a cathodic shift of 40 mV and enabled a current density of 10 mA/cm2 (requirements for a 10% efficient tandem device) at 1.12 V vs. RHS under irradiation. Thus, the simple IrOx/Ir/p+-n-Si structures not only provide...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbrich, Jan, E-mail: [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, Robert A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)


    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star-forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 over roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of ∼100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of the order of a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27 ± 5 μJy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, 53 ± 11 μJy, suggesting that variability in the radio is present, but over larger timescales than in the IR. We discuss other sources in the field, in particular two infrared/X-ray stars that show rapidly varying gyrosynchrotron emission.

  1. Crystal structures and elastic properties of superhard IrN2 and IrN3 from first principles (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-Jian; Zhao, Er-Jun; Xiang, Hong-Ping; Hao, Xian-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Juan; Meng, Jian


    First principles calculations were performed to investigate the structural, elastic, and electronic properties of IrN2 for various space groups: cubic Fm-3m and Pa-3 , hexagonal P3221 , tetragonal P42/mnm , orthorhombic Pmmn , Pnnm , and Pnn2 , and monoclinic P21/c . Our calculation indicates that the P21/c phase with arsenopyrite-type structure is energetically more stable than the other phases. It is semiconducting (the remaining phases are metallic) and contains diatomic N-N with the bond distance of 1.414Å . These characters are consistent with the experimental facts that IrN2 is in lower symmetry and nonmetallic. Our conclusion is also in agreement with the recent theoretical studies that the most stable phase of IrN2 is monoclinic P21/c . The calculated bulk modulus of 373GPa is also the highest among the considered space groups. It matches the recent theoretical values of 357GPa within 4.3% and of 402GPa within 7.8%, but smaller than the experimental value of 428GPa by 14.7%. Chemical bonding and potential displacive phase transitions are discussed for IrN2 . For IrN3 , cubic skutterudite structure (Im-3) was assumed. Our calculation indicated that it is also promising to be superhard due to the large bulk modulus of 358GPa and shear modulus of 246GPa . The diatomic N-N bond distance is even shorter (1.272Å) .

  2. Design of IR EDM System with a DSP Phase Detector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUJianguo; WEIQingnong


    The design and realization of a new generation of infra-red electronic distance measurement(IR EDM)system are presented.A DSP(Digital Signal Process)phase detector based on high speed analog-to-digital converter and DSP technique has been designed,in order to improve the precision and reliability of IR EDM system.As a result,the EDM system developed with a DSP phase detector has a precision of 3mm in the measuring range of 2 km.

  3. Low Dose IR Creates an Oncogenic Microenvironment by Inducing Premature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Zhi-Min [Harvard School of Public Health


    Introduction Much of the work addressing ionizing radiation-induced cellular response has been carried out mainly with the traditional cell culture technique involving only one cell type, how cellular response to IR is influenced by the tissue microenvironment remains elusive. By use of a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture system to model critical interactions of different cell types with their neighbors and with their environment, we recently showed that low-dose IR-induced extracellular signaling via the tissue environment affects profoundly cellular responses. This proposal aims at determining the response of mammary epithelial cells in a tissue-like setting.

  4. Raman and FT-IR studies of ocular tissues (United States)

    Ozaki, Yukihiro; Mizuno, Aritake


    Two examples of Raman and FT-IR studies of the ocular tissues are reviewed in this paper. The first example treats Raman studies on cataract development cataract-related lens hydration and structural changes in the lens proteins monitored in situ by Raman spectroscopy are described. The second example is concerned with FT-IR studies on the ocular tissues contain ing collagen nondestructive identification of Type I and IV collagen in the tissues and their structural differences elucidated by infrared spectroscopy are discussed. 1 .

  5. New Material System for 3rd Generation IR Applications (United States)


    misfit dislocations need to be generated somewhere in the thin film stack to alleviate this energy which ultimately propagates into the IR-absorbing...Laboratory ARO U.S. Army Research Office As arsenic Cd cadmium CdSe cadmium selenide CdTe cadmium telluride CdZnTe cadmium zinc telluride CHM...Laboratory (ARL) has begun investigating mercury cadmium selenide (HgCdSe) for infrared (IR) applications. Analogous to HgCdTe, HgCdSe is a tunable

  6. Paauglių smurtas mokykloje: situacija ir analizė


    Bagdžiūnienė, Žaneta


    Paauglių smurtas mokykloje: situacija ir analizė Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto, Socialinės komunikacijos instituto, neakivaizdinių studijų socialinio darbo antro kurso studentės Žanetos Bagdžiūnienės magistro darbo „Paauglių smurtas mokykloje: situacija ir analizė“ tyrimu siekiama išsiaiškinti paauglių smurto apraiškas bei paplitimą mokykloje, atskleisti priežastis, prevencijos galimybes. Iškelta hipotezė - manoma, jog vis dar aktuali problema mokykloje yra paauglių fizinis smurtas, ne...

  7. IR laser operated piezooptics in PbTe:Ca crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Roknabad, Mahmoud Rezaee; Razavi, Mohammad; Mollai, Maedeh


    IR induced piezo optic effect (POE) in PbTe:Ca crystals was found under the influence of nanosecond pulse CO2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 micro meters. It was shown that addition of Ca leads to an increase of the POE tensor coefficient. This indicates the appearance of enhanced IR induced static dipole moments caused predominately by Ca impurities. Simultaneously, the variations in time kinetics for the POE in nanosecond time regime were explored. A substantial role of electron phonon subsystem in the observed POE effect was demonstrated. The studies were done both for diagonal as well as off diagonal POE tensor components.

  8. Far-IR spectroscopy towards Sagittarius B2


    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Cernicharo, José


    The far-IR is a unique wavelength range for Astrophysical studies, however, it can only be fully sampled from space platforms. The fundamental rotational transitions of light molecules, the high-J transitions of polyatomic species, the bending modes of non-polar molecules, several atomic fine structure lines and many frequencies blocked by the earth atmosphere can only be observed between 50 and 200 um (6.0 and 1.5 THz). In this contribution we present the far-IR spectrum of Sgr B2 at a resol...

  9. A Mid-IR Search for Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Wachter, Stefanie


    Motivated by the dearth of relatively faint, compact planetary nebulae (PNe) in uncrowded fields that could serve as potential spectral calibration sources for the Euclid Mission, we have conducted a search for PNe at high Galactic latitudes based on WISE data. Previous studies have largely focused on the Galactic Plane or searched for mid-IR counterparts to optically selected PNe. We instead identify the WISE mid-IR color locus of PNe and investigate the cataloged sources fulfilling these color criteria. We will present preliminary results from this study, including new PNe candidates.

  10. A feasibility study of TAC IR-FEL project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksakal, Huesnue, E-mail: aksakal@cern.c [Nigde University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Letter and Science, 51240 Nigde (Turkey); Arikan, Ertan [Nigde University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Letter and Science, 51240 Nigde (Turkey)


    We have performed preliminary simulation of amplifier mode operation of Turkish accelerator complex (TAC) infrared free electron laser (IR-FEL) facility which is designed to operate in oscillator mode. FEL power values of amplifier mode are explored using 3D SIMPLEX 1.3 (X-ray FEL Practical Simulator) simulation code and it is argued that the same or higher amount of power of TAC IR-FEL planing to obtain in the oscillator mode, could be obtained in the amplifier mode, using same undulator and electron beam parameters with a small modification.

  11. Room temperature mid-IR single photon spectral imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian


    modern Quantum cascade lasers have evolved as ideal coherent mid-IR excitation sources, simple, low noise, room temperature detectors and imaging systems still lag behind. We address this need presenting a novel, field-deployable, upconversion system for sensitive, 2-D, mid-IR spectral imaging. Measured...... room temperature dark noise is 0.2 photons/spatial element/second, which is a billion times below the dark noise level of cryogenically cooled InSb cameras. Single photon imaging and up to 200 x 100 spatial elements resolution is obtained reaching record high continuous wave quantum efficiency of about...

  12. Long-term pharmacological kindling increases in vitro release of IR-Met and IR-Leu-enkephalin from amygdala. (United States)

    Asai, M; Matamoros-Trejo, G; Linares, G


    Met-enkephalin release is increased from amygdala and striatum 1 and 15 days after pharmacological kindling with pentylenetetrazol, following potassium-induced depolarization in vitro via a Ca2+ dependent mechanism. Leu-enkephalin release was only enhanced in amygdala and striatum 1 day after the last seizure. IR-Met-enkephalin amygdala tissue content enhanced 1 and 15 days after seizure. In striatum, we found an IR-Met-enkephalin decrease 35 days after the last stimulus. IR-Leu-enkephalin amygdala tissue content enhanced 1 day after the last seizure, and no significant increases were found in striatum 1, 15 and 35 days after the last seizure. In this paper, we show that opioid peptides release is differentially enhanced in rat brain for several days after the last seizure, thus suggesting that opioid peptides may have a protective action against seizure activity.

  13. 2D IR spectroscopy at 100 kHz utilizing a Mid-IR OPCPA laser source. (United States)

    Luther, Bradley M; Tracy, Kathryn M; Gerrity, Michael; Brown, Susannah; Krummel, Amber T


    We present a 100 kHz 2D IR spectrometer. The system utilizes a ytterbium all normal dispersion fiber oscillator as a common source for the pump and seed beams of a MgO:PPLN OPCPA. The 1030 nm OPCPA pump is generated by amplification of the oscillator in cryocooled Yb:YAG amplifiers, while the 1.68 μm seed is generated in a OPO pumped by the oscillator. The OPCPA outputs are used in a ZGP DFG stage to generate 4.65 μm pulses. A mid-IR pulse shaper delivers pulse pairs to a 2D IR spectrometer allowing for data collection at 100 kHz.

  14. Mapping the structural topology of IRS family cascades through computational biology. (United States)

    Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Doss, C George Priya; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Sarkar, Bimal Kumar; Haneef, S A Syed


    Structural topologies of proteins play significant roles in analyzing their biological functions. Converting the amino acid data in a protein sequence into structural information to outline the function of a protein is a major challenge in post-genome research which can add an extra room in understanding the protein sequence-structure-function relationships. In this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of structural topology of the IRS family members such as IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, IRS-4, IRS-5 and IRS-6. Based on this assessment, we found that IRS-2 encloses the highest number of α helices, β sheets and β turns in the secondary structure topology compared to IRS-1 and IRS-6. IRS family members are rich in serine or leucine residues. Among the IRS family members, the highest percentage of serine and leucine was observed in IRS-1 (15%) and IRS-5 (10%), respectively. Notably, the highest number of disulphide bonds was observed in IRS-1 (10) which is responsible for structural stability of the protein. Hydrogen bond pattern in α helices and β sheet was recorded in IRS-1, IRS-2 and IRS-6. By conservation analysis, the longest protein IRS-3 was found to be highly conserved among the IRS family members. The cluster of sequence logo present in the N terminus of these cascades was noted, and highly conserved residues in N-terminal region help in the formation of the two highly conserved domains such as PH domain and PTB domain. Results generated from this analysis will be more beneficial to researchers in understanding more about insulin signalling mechanism(s) as well as insulin resistance pathway. We discuss here that bioinformatics tools utilized in this study can play a vital role in addressing the complexity of structural topology to understand structure-function relationships in insulin signalling cascades.

  15. NGC 7538 : Multiwavelength Study of Stellar Cluster Regions associated with IRS 1-3 and IRS 9 sources


    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Tamura, M; Pandey, A.K.(Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT), Mumbai, India); Dib, S; S.K Ghosh; Sunada, K.; Zinchenko, I.; Pirogov, L.; Tsujimoto, M


    We present deep and high-resolution (FWHM ~ 0.4 arcsec) near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations of the NGC 7538 IRS 1-3 region (in JHK bands), and IRS 9 region (in HK bands) using the 8.2m Subaru telescope. The NIR analysis is complemented with GMRT low-frequency observations at 325, 610, and 1280 MHz, molecular line observations of H13CO+ (J=1-0), and archival Chandra X-ray observations. Using the 'J-H/H-K' diagram, 144 Class II and 24 Class I young stellar object (YSO) candidates are ident...

  16. Reciprocal regulation by the CepIR and CciIR quorum sensing systems in Burkholderia cenocepacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malott Rebecca J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia cenocepacia belongs to a group of closely related organisms called the B. cepacia complex (Bcc which are important opportunistic human pathogens. B. cenocepacia utilizes a mechanism of cell-cell communication called quorum sensing to control gene expression including genes involved in virulence. The B. cenocepacia quorum sensing network includes the CepIR and CciIR regulatory systems. Results Global gene expression profiles during growth in stationary phase were generated using microarrays of B. cenocepacia cepR, cciR and cepRcciIR mutants. This is the first time CciR was shown to be a global regulator of quorum sensing gene expression. CepR was primarily responsible for positive regulation of gene expression while CciR generally exerted negative gene regulation. Many of the genes that were regulated by both quorum sensing systems were reciprocally regulated by CepR and CciR. Microarray analysis of the cepRcciIR mutant suggested that CepR is positioned upstream of CciR in the quorum sensing hierarchy in B. cenocepacia. A comparison of CepIR-regulated genes identified in previous studies and in the current study showed a substantial amount of overlap validating the microarray approach. Several novel quorum sensing-controlled genes were confirmed using qRT-PCR or promoter::lux fusions. CepR and CciR inversely regulated flagellar-associated genes, the nematocidal protein AidA and a large gene cluster on Chromosome 3. CepR and CciR also regulated genes required for iron transport, synthesis of extracellular enzymes and surface appendages, resistance to oxidative stress, and phage-related genes. Conclusion For the first time, the influence of CciIR on global gene regulation in B. cenocepacia has been elucidated. Novel genes under the control of the CepIR and CciIR quorum sensing systems in B. cenocepacia have been identified. The two quorum sensing systems exert reciprocal regulation of many genes likely enabling fine

  17. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM (United States)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.


    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  18. Using The Cornell Atlas of Spitzer/IRS Sources (United States)

    Samsonyan, A. L.


    I summarize my research studying details of the emission line profiles of the mid infrared [NeII] 12.8 microns and [NeIII] 15.6 microns emission lines. Observations are from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) (Houck et al. 2004), so I illustrate use of the archive of these spectra. The IRS team developed the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources (CASSIS) found at At present, all low resolution (Lebouteiller et al. 2011) and high resolution (Lebouteiller et al. 2015) staring observations with the IRS are available (more than 20,000 spectra of about 15,000 distinct sources). Spectra are provided in various formats to enable easy viewing or measurements. Spectra cover 5 microns to 37 microns in low resolution (R ˜ 60 to 125) and 10 microns to 37 microns in high resolution (R ˜ 600) modes. CASSIS is intended as a long term resource for the astronomical community so that this fundamental data base of mid-infrared spectra will be easily usable perpetually, and I demonstrate some examples of its use.

  19. Thermal analysis of paracetamol polymorphs by FT-IR spectroscopies. (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris; Baranović, Goran


    A simple IR spectroscopy based methodology in routine screening studies of polymorphism is proposed. Reflectance and transmittance temperature-dependent IR measurements (coupled with the 2D-IR data presentation and the baseline analysis) offer a positive identification of each polymorphic phase, therefore allowing simple and rapid monitoring of the measured system. Applicability and flexibility of the methodology was demonstrated on the measurement of the model polymorphic compound paracetamol under various conditions (including geometric constraints and elevated pressure). The thermal behavior of paracetamol strongly depends on slight variations in experimental conditions that can result in formation of various phases (three polymorphs and the amorphous form). The amorphous phase can crystallize during heating into either Form II or Form III within almost identical temperature range. Likewise, the crystal transformations II→I and III→II also can proceed within almost identical temperature range. Furthermore, the thermal behavior is even more diverse than that, and includes the crystallizations of Forms I, II and III from the melt, and the high temperature II→I transition. The variety of the temperatures of the transformations is a major obstacle for unambiguous identification of a particular phase by DSC and a major reason for the implementation of these IR methods.

  20. Thermoelectric Properties and Application Research of IrRh40-IrRh10 Thermocouples%IrRh40-IrRh10高温热电偶热电性能及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹英; 张贺; 吕国义


    A high temperature measurement method of bi-alloy of iridium and rhodium was put forward to solve the fracture problem of nega-tive pole of conventional iridium-rhodium thermocouples. The experimental results on a high temperature calibration device show that the IrRh40-IrRh10 thermocouples have good linearity, and the sensitivity is about 3 uV/C. An air temperature probe made by this type of thermocouples is suitable for measurement of high-temperature air flow in the engine development.%针对常规铱铑-铱热电偶负极铱在测试过程容易断裂的问题,提出了采用双铱铑合金热电偶改善其机械性能的方法,并用高温热电偶校准装置对IrRh40-IrRh10热电偶的热电特性进行了研究和验证,表明其热电特性线有良好的线性,灵敏度约为3μV/℃。利用该类型热电偶制作的气流温度传感器,适用于发动机及导弹等武器装备研制试验中高温气流温度的测量。

  1. Spitzer/IRS investigation of MIPSGAL 24 microns compact bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Flagey, N; Billot, N; Carey, S J


    The MIPSGAL 24 $\\mu$m Galactic Plane Survey has revealed more than 400 compact-extended objects. Less than 15% of these MIPSGAL bubbles (MBs) are known and identified as evolved stars. We present Spitzer observations of 4 MBs obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph to determine the origin of the mid-IR emission. We model the mid-IR gas lines and the dust emission to infer physical conditions within the MBs and consequently their nature. Two MBs show a dust-poor spectrum dominated by highly ionized gas lines of [\\ion{O}{4}], [\\ion{Ne}{3}], [\\ion{Ne}{5}], [\\ion{S}{3}] and [\\ion{S}{4}]. We identify them as planetary nebulae with a density of a few 10$^3\\ \\rm{cm^{-3}}$ and a central white dwarf of $\\gtrsim 200,000$ K. The mid-IR emission of the two other MBs is dominated by a dust continuum and lower-excitation lines. Both of them show a central source in the near-IR (2MASS and IRAC) broadband images. The first dust-rich MB matches a Wolf-Rayet star of $\\sim 60,000$ K at 7.5 kpc with dust components of $\\sim170$ ...

  2. TeddIR: tangible information retrieval for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Wim; Jansen, Michel; Vet, van der Paul; Huibers, Theo; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Parés, N.; Oliver, M.


    Despite several efforts to make search engines more childfriendly, children still have trouble using systems that require keyboard input. We present TeddIR: a system using a tangible interface that allows children to search for books by placing tangible figurines and books they like/dislike in a gre

  3. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth (United States)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel


    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: 2,2-Bis(aminoethoxy)propane, IR spectra, Raman spectra, ... were first optimized by B3LYP with 6-311G++(d,p) basis set in the gas phase. .... Molecular electronic polarizability of symmetric vibrational form of NH2 changes more ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikola, T.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D.; Gull, G. E.; Henderson, C. P.; Schoenwald, J.; Stacey, G. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Vacca, W. D.; De Buizer, J. M. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tielens, A. [Leiden Observatory, P.O. Box 9513, Leiden, 2300 RA (Netherlands)


    We present 75'' Multiplication-Sign 75'' size maps of M82 at 6.4 {mu}m, 6.6 {mu}m, 7.7 {mu}m, 31.5 {mu}m, and 37.1 {mu}m with a resolution of {approx}4'' that we have obtained with the mid-IR camera FORCAST on SOFIA. We find strong emission from the inner 60'' ({approx}1 kpc) along the major axis, with the main peak 5'' west-southwest of the nucleus and a secondary peak 4'' east-northeast of the nucleus. The detailed morphology of the emission differs among the bands, which is likely due to different dust components dominating the continuum emission at short mid-IR wavelengths and long mid-IR wavelengths. We include Spitzer-IRS and Herschel/PACS 70 {mu}m data to fit spectral energy distribution templates at both emission peaks. The best-fitting templates have extinctions of A{sub V} = 18 and A{sub V} = 9 toward the main and secondary emission peak and we estimated a color temperature of 68 K at both peaks from the 31 {mu}m and 37 {mu}m measurement. At the emission peaks the estimated dust masses are on the order of 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }.

  6. A User-Centred Design and Evaluation of IR Interfaces (United States)

    Ahmed, S. M. Zabed; McKnight, Cliff; Oppenheim, Charles


    This paper presents a user-centred design and evaluation methodology for ensuring the usability of IR interfaces. The methodology is based on sequentially performing: a competitive analysis, user task analysis, heuristic evaluation, formative evaluation and a summative comparative evaluation. These techniques are described, and their application…

  7. Upconversion imager measures single mid-IR photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian


    The most sensitive IR detectors today are based on exotic semicoductor technology such as indium antimonide or mercury cadmium telluride. High quality detectors of these sorts are expensive and suffer from high dark currents. Dark current can be somewhat alleviated by extreme cooling. Comparing t...

  8. IR absorption spectroscopic study of mixed cobalt substituted lithium ferrites (United States)

    Sawant, V. S.; Bagade, A. A.; Mohite, S. V.; Rajpure, K. Y.


    The IR spectra of Li0.5-(x/2)CoxFe2.5-(x/2)O4 ferrite samples (0≤x≤0.6) prepared by solution combustion method have been reported. The influence of Co substitution is verified. XRD studies confirm the spinel phase formation of ferrites. Lattice constant varies linearly from 8.31 Å (x=0) to 8.35 Å (x=0.6) with composition. Evidence of two absorption bands in the IR spectra (below 800 cm-1) reveals the characteristic feature of spinel ferrite. The IR spectra featured additional three absorption bands around 550, 670 and 705 cm-1 for the samples x=0.1 and x=0.6. Absence of bands splitting specifies that Fe ions do not exist in excess form. It is found that high frequency band (ν1), due to tetrahedral (A) group, lies at around 600 cm-1 and low frequency band (ν2), due to octahedral (B) group, around 450 cm-1. The positions of bands are found to be composition dependent. The IR bands due to tetrahedral complexes shift slightly towards high frequency side with composition upto x=0.4 where as that due to octahedral complexes shift towards lower frequency side with x. Based on the data of absorption bands, force constants (kt, ko) and bond lengths (RA, RB) were estimated. Compositional dependence of force constants is explained on the basis of cation-oxygen bond distances of respective sites and cation distribution.

  9. Supercontinuum based mid-IR imaging spectroscopy for cancer detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ole; Møller, Uffe Visbech; Kubat, Irnis

    2014-01-01] DTU Fotonik has now demonstrated the first optical fiber based broadband so-called supercontinuum light souce, which covers 1.4-13.3 μm and thereby most of the molecular fingerprint region [1]. This ultra-fast light source is the basic component in the mid-IR camera developed in MINERVA for early...

  10. SN IA in the IR: RAISIN A progress report (United States)

    Kirshner, Robert P.; The RAISIN TEAM


    SN Ia have proven to be a powerful tool for cosmology. Near-IR observations of SN Ia promise even better results because the supernovae are more nearly standard candles at those wavelengths and absorption by dust is diminished by a factor of 4 compared to rest-frame B-band observations. Near IR observations of cosmologically-distant SN Ia discovered with PanSTARRS are underway using the infrared camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (GO-13046). These targets are discovered in the difference images created in the CfA/JHU pipeline, confirmed spectroscopically at the MMT, Magellan, Gemini, or Keck, and inserted in a non-disruptive way into the HST observing schedule for WFC3-IR. We have observed over 20 SN Ia in the range 0.2 color and reddening by dust. Since SN IA behave better in the IR in both these ways, there is reason to expect that this approach will be effective in driving down the systematic errors over time. If we are diligent in building up the size of the sample that is observed in the rest-frame infrared, we can expect more certain knowledge of the properties of dark energy. Unsolved problems include constructing precise K-corrections and firming up the fundamental photometric system in y, J, H, and K, but this approach seems a promising one for the HST era now, JWST soon, and WFIRST in good time.

  11. Clock accuracy analysis for a coherent IR-UWB system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Young, A.; Philips, K.; Groot, H. de


    The performance of a duty-cycled coherent impulse radio UWB system is typically dominated by the accuracy of its timing references. In this paper, a timing analysis is presented for an IR-UWB system to specify the accuracy requirements for the internal clocks of the transceiver. A possible clock gen

  12. IR-REMPI spectroscopy for thermometry of C-60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, D.; von Helden, G.; Sartakov, B.; Meijer, G.


    Gas-phase C-60 molecules are excited with a 30 ps 266 nm Nd:YAG laser, followed by a train of high-power infrared (IR) sub-picosecond pulses from a free electron laser (FEL), which resonantly heats the molecules up to internal energies at which they efficiently undergo delayed ionization. By tuning

  13. MIRAGE dynamic IR scene projector overview and status (United States)

    McHugh, Stephen W.; Warner, Jon A.; Pollack, Mike; Irwin, Alan; Hoelter, Theodore R.; Parrish, William J.; Woolaway, James T., II


    The MIRAGE Dynamic IR Scene Projector is a standard product being developed jointly by Santa Barbara Infrared, Inc. and Indigo Systems Corporation. MIRAGE is a complete IR scene projection system, accepting digital or analog scene data as the input and providing all other electronics, optics and mechanics to project high fidelity dynamic IR scenes to the unit under test. At the heart of the MIRAGE system is the 512 X 512 microemitter array that incorporates many state-of-the-art features previously not available. The Read-In-Integrated-Circuit (RIIC) leverages technology from IR Focal Plane electronics to provide a system with advanced capability with low risk. The RIIC incorporates on chip DACs, snap-shot frame updating, constant current mode, voltage drive emitters and substrate ground plane providing high resolution and low noise performance in a very small package. The first 512 X 512 microemitter assembly has been received and was imaged on 2 APR 99. The complete MIRAGE system is currently in integration with the first deliverable unit scheduled for June 1999.

  14. UNDERCOVER OPERATIONS: IRS’ Management of Project Layoff. (United States)


    IRS initiated Project Layoff because it was concerned about tax evasion, particularly evasion of the wagering excise tax under Section 4401 of the...ties to organized crime. In their initial request, Reno District Office CID staff proposed an undercover operation, to be known as Project Layoff , in

  15. Least-mean-square spatial filter for IR sensors. (United States)

    Takken, E H; Friedman, D; Milton, A F; Nitzberg, R


    A new least-mean-square filter is defined for signal-detection problems. The technique is proposed for scanning IR surveillance systems operating in poorly characterized but primarily low-frequency clutter interference. Near-optimal detection of point-source targets is predicted both for continuous-time and sampled-data systems.

  16. A near-IR uncaging strategy based on cyanine photochemistry. (United States)

    Gorka, Alexander P; Nani, Roger R; Zhu, Jianjian; Mackem, Susan; Schnermann, Martin J


    The development of photocaging groups activated by near-IR light would enable new approaches for basic research and allow for spatial and temporal control of drug delivery. Here we report a near-IR light-initiated uncaging reaction sequence based on readily synthesized C4'-dialkylamine-substituted heptamethine cyanines. Phenol-containing small molecules are uncaged through sequential release of the C4'-amine and intramolecular cyclization. The release sequence is initiated by a previously unexploited photochemical reaction of the cyanine fluorophore scaffold. The uncaging process is compatible with biological milieu and is initiated with low intensity 690 nm light. We show that cell viability can be inhibited through light-dependent release of the estrogen receptor antagonist, 4-hydroxycyclofen. In addition, through uncaging of the same compound, gene expression is controlled with near-IR light in a ligand-dependent CreER(T)/LoxP-reporter cell line derived from transgenic mice. These studies provide a chemical foundation that we expect will enable specific delivery of small molecules using cytocompatible, tissue penetrant near-IR light.

  17. Mid-IR FORCAST/SOFIA Observations of M82

    CERN Document Server

    Nikola, T; Vacca, W D; Adams, J D; De Buizer, J M; Gull, G E; Henderson, C P; Keller, L D; Morris, M R; Schoenwald, J; Stacey, G; Tielens, A


    We present 75"x75" size maps of M82 at 6.4 micron, 6.6 micron, 7.7 micron, 31.5 micron, and 37.1 micron with a resolution of ~4" that we have obtained with the mid-IR camera FORCAST on SOFIA. We find strong emission from the inner 60" (~1kpc) along the major axis, with the main peak 5" west-southwest of the nucleus and a secondary peak 4" east-northeast of the nucleus. The detailed morphology of the emission differs among the bands, which is likely due to different dust components dominating the continuum emission at short mid-IR wavelengths and long mid-IR wavelengths. We include Spitzer-IRS and Herschel/PACS 70 micron data to fit spectral energy distribution templates at both emission peaks. The best fitting templates have extinctions of A_V = 18 and A_V = 9 toward the main and secondary emission peak and we estimated a color temperature of 68 K at both peaks from the 31 micron and 37 micron measurement. At the emission peaks the estimated dust masses are on the order of 10^{4} M_sun.

  18. Cr:ZnSe planar waveguide mid-IR laser (United States)

    Willimas, J. E.; Martyshkin, D. V.; Fedorov, V. V.; Moskalev, I. S.; Camata, R. P.; Mirov, S. B.


    Middle infrared (mid-IR) chromium-doped zinc selenide (Cr:ZnSe) bulk lasers have attracted a lot of attention due to their unique combination of optical and laser properties facilitating a wide range of potential scientific, industrial, and medical applications. Utilization of thin film waveguide geometry enabling good thermal management and control of beam quality is a viable pathway for compact chip-integrated optical laser design. Cr:ZnSe thin films are also promising as saturable absorbers and mode-lockers of the cavities of solid state lasers operating over 1.3-2.1 μm. We recently reported the first successful demonstration of mid-IR Cr:ZnSe planar waveguide lasing at 2.6 μm under gain-switched short-pulse (5 ns) 1.56 μm excitation as well as the passive Q-switching of the cavity of a fiber-pumped Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm using a highly doped Cr:ZnSe thin film. PLD grown Cr:ZnSe waveguide were fabricated on sapphire substrates (Cr:ZnSe/sapphire) with chromium concentration of 1018-1019 cm-3. Further development of mid-IR lasing in the Cr:ZnSe planar waveguide under continuous wave excitation were investigated. In addition, deposition of Cr:ZnSe-based thin film structures on n-type GaAs substrates were also investigated for possible mid-IR electroluminescence.

  19. Hydrogen Bonding in Thermoplastic Polyurethane Elastomers: IR Thermal Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The hydrogen bond percentage and its temperature dependence of the three TPU samples synthesized from polytetrahydrofuran, 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate, N-methyl diethanol amine or 1,4-butane diol were studied by means of IR thermal analysis. The enthalpy and the entropy of the hydrogen bond dissociation were determined by the Vant Hoff plot.

  20. IR-based Communication and Perception in Microrobotic Swarms

    CERN Document Server

    Kornienko, S


    In this work we consider development of IR-based communication and perception mechanisms for real microrobotic systems. It is demonstrated that a specific combination of hardware and software elements provides capabilities for navigation, objects recognition, directional and unidirectional communication. We discuss open issues and their resolution based on the experiments in the swarm of microrobots "Jasmine".

  1. AGN content of X-ray, IR and radio sources (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Paronyan, G. M.; Abrahamyan, H. V.; Gyulzadyan, M. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.


    We have carried out a number of surveys and identification works related to X-ray, IR and radio sources and searched for extragalactic ones. Among them, most interesting are Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Starburst (SB) Galaxies. Some 4500 AGN have been revealed from ROSAT BSC and FSC sources, and many more are hidden ones; those showing evidence of activity but with no emission lines in optical wavelengths. We estimated AGN content of X-ray sources as 52.9%. IR sources contain thousands of SBs, and most important are those having signs of interaction and/or merging. We have carried out optical identifications of IRAS point sources, and 1278 IR galaxies have been revealed, including LIRGs and ULIRGs. We have also combined IRAS PSC and FSC catalogs and compiled its extragalactic sample, which allowed to estimate AGN content among IR sources as 23.7%. Extragalactic radio sources contain bright galaxies, AGN and SBs. We have studied the border between AGN and normal galaxies by radio/optical flux ratios to establish which objects may be attributed to AGN based on radio properties. Interestingly, absolute majority of objects associated with both X-ray and radio sources are AGN.

  2. Easy-to-use Software Toolkit for IR Cameras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    CEDIP Infrared Systems, specialists in thermal IR camera systems, have announced a new toolkit for use with their range of cameras that enables simple set-up and control of a wide range of parameters using National Instruments LabVIEW? programming environment,

  3. Two-Step Processes and IR Recording in Photorefractive Crystals (United States)

    Kraetzig, Eckhard; Buse, Karsten

    Two-step excitation processes have been used for hologram storage in photorefractive crystals. By this means the interference pattern can be formed with red or near-IR light and nondestructive readout of information is possible. Often shallow levels are involved in the holographic recording process in photorefractive crystals. The shallow levels can be populated by illumination with visible or UV pulses forming states with relatively long lifetimes, thus sensitizing the crystals for holographic recording with IR pulses. In LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 the most important shallow levels have been identified. They result from NbLi^5+ and TaLi^5+ antisite defects (Nb5+ or Ta5+ on Li+ site). The crystals can also be pre-illuminated with visible light from a cw argon laser or a xenon lamp and holograms can be recorded with red light from a laser diode. The sensitization process is possible for other photorefractive crystals, too. The holograms can be read nondestructively with IR light and can be erased with green light. The hologram lifetime is limited by electron tunneling or by an ionic conductivity. Lifetimes up to years can be achieved. Recording of components for telecommunication applications with IR light allows one to create reconfigurable and thus more versatile devices.

  4. Unveiling the dynamic infrared sky with Gattini-IR (United States)

    Moore, Anna M.; Kasliwal, Mansi K.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Jones, Mike I.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Lau, Ryan M.; Ofek, Eran; Petrunin, Yuri; Smith, Roger; Terebizh, Valery; Steinbring, Eric; Yan, Lin


    While optical and radio transient surveys have enjoyed a renaissance over the past decade, the dynamic infrared sky remains virtually unexplored. The infrared is a powerful tool for probing transient events in dusty regions that have high optical extinction, and for detecting the coolest of stars that are bright only at these wavelengths. The fundamental roadblocks in studying the infrared time-domain have been the overwhelmingly bright sky background (250 times brighter than optical) and the narrow field-of-view of infrared cameras (largest is 0.6 sq deg). To begin to address these challenges and open a new observational window in the infrared, we present Palomar Gattini-IR: a 25 sq degree, 300mm aperture, infrared telescope at Palomar Observatory that surveys the entire accessible sky (20,000 sq deg) to a depth of 16.4 AB mag (J band, 1.25μm) every night. Palomar Gattini-IR is wider in area than every existing infrared camera by more than a factor of 40 and is able to survey large areas of sky multiple times. We anticipate the potential for otherwise infeasible discoveries, including, for example, the elusive electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections. With dedicated hardware in hand, and a F/1.44 telescope available commercially and cost-effectively, Palomar Gattini-IR will be on-sky in early 2017 and will survey the entire accessible sky every night for two years. We present an overview of the pathfinder Palomar Gattini-IR project, including the ambitious goal of sub-pixel imaging and ramifications of this goal on the opto-mechanical design and data reduction software. Palomar Gattini-IR will pave the way for a dual hemisphere, infrared-optimized, ultra-wide field high cadence machine called Turbo Gattini-IR. To take advantage of the low sky background at 2.5 μm, two identical systems will be located at the polar sites of the South Pole, Antarctica and near Eureka on Ellesmere Island, Canada. Turbo Gattini-IR will survey 15,000 sq. degrees

  5. Standardized cell samples for midIR technology development (United States)

    Kastl, Lena; Rommel, Christina E.; Kemper, Björn; Schnekenburger, Jürgen


    The application of midIR spectroscopy towards human cell and tissue samples is impaired by the need for technical solutions and lacking sample standards for technology development. We here present the standardization of stable test samples for the continuous development and testing of novel optical system components. We have selected cell lines representing the major cellular skin constituents keratinocytes and fibroblasts (NIH-3T3, HaCaT). In addition, two skin cancer cell types (A-375 and SK-MEL-28 cells) were analyzed. Cells were seeded on CaF2 substrates and measured dried and under aqueous medium as well as fixated and unfixated. Several independent cell preparations were analyzed with an FTIR spectrometer in the wave number range from 1000 - 4000 cm-1. The obtained data demonstrate that fixed and dehydrated cells on CaF2 can be stored in pure ethanol for several weeks without significant losses in quality of the spectral properties. The established protocol of cell seeding on CaF2 substrates, chemical fixation, dehydration, storage under ethanol and air-drying is suitable for the production of reliable midIR standards. The retrieved spectra demonstrate that fixed cells on CaF2 can be prepared reproducibly; with stable midIR spectral properties over several weeks and properties mimicking reliable unfixed cells. Moreover, the fixated samples on CaF2 show clear differences in the cell type specific spectra that can be identified by principle component analysis. In summary, the standardized cell culture samples on CaF2 substrates are suitable for the development of a midIR device and the optimization of the specific midIR spectra.

  6. Using IR Imaging of Water Surfaces for Estimating Piston Velocities (United States)

    Gålfalk, M.; Bastviken, D.; Arneborg, L.


    The transport of gasses dissolved in surface waters across the water-atmosphere interface is controlled by the piston velocity (k). This coefficient has large implications for, e.g., greenhouse gas fluxes but is challenging to quantify in situ. At present, empirical k-wind speed relationships from a small number of studies and systems are often extrapolated without knowledge of model performance. It is therefore of interest to search for new methods for estimating k, and to compare the pros and cons of existing and new methods. Wind speeds in such models are often measured at a height of 10 meters. In smaller bodies of water such as lakes, wind speeds can vary dramatically across the surface through varying degrees of wind shadow from e.g. trees at the shoreline. More local measurements of the water surface, through wave heights or surface motion mapping, could give improved k-estimates over a surface, also taking into account wind fetch. At thermal infrared (IR) wavelengths water has very low reflectivity (depending on viewing angle) than can go below 1%, meaning that more than 99% is heat radiation giving a direct measurement of surface temperature variations. Using an IR camera at about 100 frames/s one could map surface temperature structures at a fraction of a mm depth even with waves present. In this presentation I will focus on IR imaging as a possible tool for estimating piston velocities. Results will be presented from IR field measurements, relating the motions of surface temperature structures to k calculated from other simultaneous measurements (flux chamber and ADV-Based Dissipation Rate), but also attempting to calculate k directly from the IR surface divergence. A relation between wave height and k will also be presented.

  7. Synthesis of 4H/fcc-Au@M (M = Ir, Os, IrOs) Core-Shell Nanoribbons For Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction. (United States)

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Li, Bing; Zong, Yun; Zhang, Hua


    The high-yield synthesis of 4H/face-centered cubic (fcc)-Au@Ir core-shell nanoribbons (NRBs) is achieved via the direct growth of Ir on 4H Au NRBs under ambient conditions. Importantly, this method can be used to synthesize 4H/fcc-Au@Os and 4H/fcc-Au@IrOs core-shell NRBs. Significantly, the obtained 4H/fcc-Au@Ir core-shell NRBs demonstrate an exceptional electrocatalytic activity toward the oxygen evolution reaction under acidic condition, which is much higher than that of the commercial Ir/C catalyst.

  8. Radio monitoring of the periodically variable IR source LRLL 54361: No direct correlation between the radio and IR emissions

    CERN Document Server

    Forbrich, Jan; Palau, Aina; Zapata, Luis A; Muzerolle, James; Gutermuth, Robert A


    LRLL 54361 is an infrared source located in the star forming region IC 348 SW. Remarkably, its infrared luminosity increases by a factor of 10 during roughly one week every 25.34 days. To understand the origin of these remarkable periodic variations, we obtained sensitive 3.3 cm JVLA radio continuum observations of LRLL 54361 and its surroundings in six different epochs: three of them during the IR-on state and three during the IR-off state. The radio source associated with LRLL 54361 remained steady and did not show a correlation with the IR variations. We suggest that the IR is tracing the results of fast (with a timescale of days) pulsed accretion from an unseen binary companion, while the radio traces an ionized outflow with an extent of $\\sim$100 AU that smooths out the variability over a period of order a year. The average flux density measured in these 2014 observations, 27$\\pm$5 $\\mu$Jy, is about a factor of two less than that measured about 1.5 years before, $53\\pm$11 $\\mu$Jy, suggesting that variabi...

  9. New infrared observations of IRS1, IRS3 and the adjacent nebula in the OMC-2 cluster (United States)

    Pendleton, Y.; Werner, M.; Capps, R.; Dinerstein, H. L.


    Near infrared reflection nebulae are often observed around embedded protostellar objects. New observations of the infrared cluster of low luminosity protostars in Orion Molecular Cloud 2 (OMC2) are reported. The asymmetric distribution of the extended emission seen about IRS1 is in fact another infrared reflection nebulae. Observations of near infrared polarimetry, photometry, and spectrophotometry were carried out.

  10. Damping and spin mixing conductance in Ni80Fe20/CuIr structures: effect of Ir doping (United States)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Gabor, M. S.; Zighem, F.; Tiusan, C.


    Ni80Fe20(Py) thin films of different thicknesses have been sputtered on thermally oxidized Si substrates and capped with Pt or Cu doped with 6 % , 3 % and 1 % of Ir. Vibrating sample magnetometery has been used to measure the magnetization at saturation. Microstrip line ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR) has been used to investigate the Py and capping layer thickness dependence of the damping parameter enhancement due to the spin pumping. The experimental data have been analyzed using a model for spin pumping that includes the effective spin mixing conductance at the Py/HM (HM  =  Pt and CuIr) interface and the spin-diffusion length of HM. The spin mixing conductance (spin diffusion length) increases (decreases) as Ir doping increases. For samples capped with Pt (CuIr(6%)), the obtained values of spin mixing conductance and the spin diffusion length have been estimated to be 25 nm‑2 (9.87 nm‑2) and 1.05 nm (2.8 nm), respectively. MS-FMR measurements revealed that the effective magnetization varies linearly with the effective Py thickness due to the perpendicular surface anisotropy.

  11. Oferta ir akceptas kaip šalių valios sudaryti sutartį išraiška – teoriniai ir praktiniai aspektai


    Karpickis, Kazimieras


    Šiame magistro baigiamajame darbe atskleidžiama ofertos ir akcepto, kaip asmens valios išraiškos aktų, teisinė prigimtis. Kadangi teisės doktrinoje ir teismų praktikoje oferta ir akceptas yra prilyginami vienašaliams sandoriams, darbe oferta ir akceptas yra analizuojami sandorių ir vienos iš jų rūšies, t. y. vienašalių sandorių, atžvilgiu. Pirmajame darbo skyriuje analizuojama asmens valia ir jos išraiška bei prieinama išvados, jog bendrąja prasme, nevertinant ofertos ir akcepto teisinės prig...

  12. Magnetism and spin-orbit coupling in Ir-based double perovskites La2-xSrxCoIrO6 (United States)

    Kolchinskaya, A.; Komissinskiy, P.; Yazdi, M. Baghaie; Vafaee, M.; Mikhailova, D.; Narayanan, N.; Ehrenberg, H.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Alff, L.


    We have studied Ir spin and orbital magnetic moments in the double perovskites La2-xSrxCoIrO6 by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. In La2CoIrO6, Ir4+ couples antiferromagnetically to the weak ferromagnetic moment of the canted Co2+ sublattice and shows an unusually large negative total magnetic moment (-0.38 μB/f.u.) combined with strong spin-orbit interaction. In contrast, in Sr2CoIrO6, Ir5+ has a paramagnetic moment with almost no orbital contribution. A simple kinetic-energy-driven mechanism including spin-orbit coupling explains why Ir is susceptible to the induction of substantial magnetic moments in the double perovskite structure.

  13. An add-on cap for ATR-IR spectroscopy studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a cap (300B) for an attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectrometer, the ATR-IR spectrometer comprising an ATR-IR plate (200). The cap (300B) comprises an ATR- IR plate facing cap surface. When the ATR-IR plate facing cap surface is placed on the sample surface...... side of the ATR-IR plate (200), a sample cavity enclosing the sample is formed between the sample surface side of the ATR-IR plate (200) and the ATR-IR plate facing cap surface of the cap (300B). This sample cavity can be an air tight cavity. The cap may further comprise a bridge (322), which functions...... as cap securing means (322), as the cap (300B) is secured onto the ATR-IR plate (200) by a pressure clamp (108) and an arm (110) holding the pressure clamp (108) pressing on the bridge (322)....

  14. IR-based spot weld NDT in automotive applications (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili


    Today's auto industry primarily relies on destructive teardown evaluation to ensure the quality of the resistance spot welds (RSWs) due to their criticality in crash resistance and performance of vehicles. The destructive teardown evaluation is labor intensive and costly. The very nature of the destructive test means only a few selected welds will be sampled for quality. Most of the welds in a car are never checked. There are significant costs and risks associated with reworking and scrapping the defective welded parts made between the teardown tests. IR thermography as a non-destructive testing (NDT) tool has its distinct advantage — its non-intrusive and non-contact nature. This makes the IR based NDT especially attractive for the highly automated assembly lines. IR for weld quality inspection has been explored in the past, mostly limited to the offline post-processing manner in a laboratory environment. No online real-time RSW inspection using IR thermography has been reported. Typically for postprocessing inspection, a short-pulse heating via xenon flash lamp light (in a few milliseconds) is applied to the surface of a spot weld. However, applications in the auto industry have been unsuccessful, largely due to a critical drawback that cannot be implemented in the high-volume production line - the prerequisite of painting the weld surface to eliminate surface reflection and other environmental interference. This is due to the low signal-to-noise ratio resulting from the low/unknown surface emissivity and the very small temperature changes (typically on the order of 0.1°C) induced by the flash lamp method. An integrated approach consisting of innovations in both data analysis algorithms and hardware apparatus that effectively solved the key technical barriers for IR NDT. The system can be used for both real-time (during welding) and post-processing inspections (after welds have been made). First, we developed a special IR thermal image processing method that


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barentine, John C.; Lacy, John H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, C1400, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States)


    We report the results of a spectroscopic study of the high-mass protostellar object NGC 7538 IRS 9 and compare our observations to published data on the nearby object NGC 7538 IRS 1. Both objects originated in the same molecular cloud and appear to be at different points in their evolutionary histories, offering an unusual opportunity to study the temporal evolution of envelope chemistry in objects sharing a presumably identical starting composition. Observations were made with the Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph, a sensitive, high spectral resolution (R {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} {approx_equal} 100,000) mid-infrared grating spectrometer. Forty-six individual lines in vibrational modes of the molecules C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCN, NH{sub 3}, and CO were detected, including two isotopologues ({sup 13}CO, {sup 12}C{sup 18}O) and one combination mode ({nu}{sub 4} + {nu}{sub 5} C{sub 2}H{sub 2}). Fitting synthetic spectra to the data yielded the Doppler shift, excitation temperature, Doppler b parameter, column density, and covering factor for each molecule observed; we also computed column density upper limits for lines and species not detected, such as HNCO and OCS. We find differences among spectra of the two objects likely attributable to their differing radiation and thermal environments. Temperatures and column densities for the two objects are generally consistent, while the larger line widths toward IRS 9 result in less saturated lines than those toward IRS 1. Finally, we compute an upper limit on the size of the continuum-emitting region ({approx}2000 AU) and use this constraint and our spectroscopy results to construct a schematic model of IRS 9.

  16. Divergent Roles of IRS (Insulin Receptor Substrate) 1 and 2 in Liver and Skeletal Muscle. (United States)

    Eckstein, Sabine Sarah; Weigert, Cora; Lehmann, Rainer


    IRS1 and IRS2 are the most important representatives of the IRS protein family and critical nodes in insulin/IGF1-signaling. Although they are quite similar in their structural and functional features they show tissue-specific differences. In this review, we outline the functions of IRS1 and IRS2 in skeletal muscle and liver with regard to their importance for metabolism, growth and differentiation. Mechanisms contributing to IRS1 and IRS2 dysregulation in disease states as well as consequences thereof are discussed. IRS1 plays the dominant role in skeletal muscle. It is crucial for normal growth and differentiation of myofibers, insulin-dependent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. The presence of IRS2 in skeletal muscle is negligible for insulin-induced glucose uptake and the general role of IRS2 in muscle is still not fully understood. In liver IRS1 and IRS2 are important to mediate insulindependent regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and complement each other in the diurnal regulation thereof. IRS1 in the liver is more important for signaling in the late refeeding period, whereas IRS2 signaling is mostly dominating in the period directly after food intake and during fasting. Importantly, the expression level of IRS1 and IRS2 is different within the liver lobule, which could be an explanation for the phenomenon of selective insulin resistance. Dysregulated muscular or hepatic abundance and/or phosphorylation status of IRS1 and IRS2 are important factors in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and muscle wasting. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  17. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  18. IR spectral analysis for the diagnostics of crust earthquake precursors (United States)

    Umarkhodgaev, R. M.; Liperovsky, V. A.; Mikhailin, V. V.; Meister, C.-V.; Naumov, D. Ju


    In regions of future earthquakes, a few days before the seismic shock, the emanation of radon and hydrogen is being observed, which causes clouds of increased ionisation in the atmosphere. In the present work the possible diagnostics of these clouds using infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered, which may be important and useful for the general geophysical system of earthquake prediction and the observation of industrial emissions of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. Some possible physical processes are analysed, which cause, under the condition of additional ionisation in a pre-breakdown electrical field, emissions in the IR interval. In doing so, the transparency region of the IR spectrum at wavelengths of 7-15 μm is taken into account. This transparency region corresponds to spectral lines of small atmospheric constituents like CH4, CO2, N2O, NO2, NO, and O3. The possible intensities of the IR emissions observable in laboratories and in nature are estimated. The acceleration process of the electrons in the pre-breakdown electrical field before its adhesion to the molecules is analysed. The laboratory equipment for the investigation of the IR absorption spectrum is constructed for the cases of normal and decreased atmospheric pressures. The syntheses of ozone and nitrous oxides are performed in the barrier discharge. It is studied if the products of the syntheses may be used to model atmospheric processes where these components take part. Spectra of products of the syntheses in the wavelength region of 2-10 μm are observed and analysed. A device is created for the syntheses and accumulation of nitrous oxides. Experiments to observe the IR-spectra of ozone and nitrous oxides during the syntheses and during the further evolution of these molecules are performed. For the earthquake prediction, practically, the investigation of emission spectra is most important, but during the laboratory experiments, the radiation of the excited molecules is shifted by a

  19. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage. (United States)

    Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Mello, Maria Luiza S


    Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs) with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1) after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1) overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder) at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue under

  20. IR-laser assisted additive freeform optics manufacturing. (United States)

    Hong, Zhihan; Liang, Rongguang


    Computer-controlled additive manufacturing (AM) processes, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, create 3D objects by the successive adding of a material or materials. While there have been tremendous developments in AM, the 3D printing of optics is lagging due to the limits in materials and tight requirements for optical applicaitons. We propose a new precision additive freeform optics manufacturing (AFOM) method using an pulsed infrared (IR) laser. Compared to ultraviolet (UV) curable materials, thermally curable optical silicones have a number of advantages, such as strong UV stability, non-yellowing, and high transmission, making it particularly suitable for optical applications. Pulsed IR laser radiation offers a distinct advantage in processing optical silicones, as the high peak intensity achieved in the focal region allows for curing the material quickly, while the brief duration of the laser-material interaction creates a negligible heat-affected zone.

  1. Misaligned disks in the binary protostar IRS 43

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Christian; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.


    Recent high angular resolution (∼ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 2) ALMA observations of the 1.1 mm continuum and of HCO+ J = 3–2 and HCN J = 3–2 gas toward the binary protostar IRS 43 reveal multiple Keplerian disks that are significantly misaligned (\\gt 60^\\circ ), both in inclination...... and position angle and also with respect to the binary orbital plane. Each stellar component has an associated circumstellar disk while the binary is surrounded by a circumbinary disk. Together with archival VLA measurements of the stellar positions over 25 years, and assuming a circular orbit, we use our...... continuum measurements to determine the binary separation, a=74+/- 4 {au}, and its inclination, i\\lt 30^\\circ . The misalignment in this system suggests that turbulence has likely played a major role in the formation of IRS 43....

  2. Measuring the IR solar corona during the 2017 eclipse (United States)

    Bryans, Paul; Hannigan, James; Philip, Judge; Larson, Brandon; Sewell, Scott; McIntire, Lauren


    On 21 August 2017 a total solar eclipse will pass across the continental United States, offering a unique opportunity to conduct scientific research of the solar atmosphere. With the light from the Sun eclipsed, the solar corona becomes visible in a way not possible when swamped by the light from the photosphere. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the corona, in particular, is predicted to contain some of the most magnetically sensitive spectral lines. However, no comprehensive survey of this spectral range has been carried out to date. Here, we describe a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, currently under construction at NCAR, to measure the IR spectrum from 2 to 12 microns. We will discuss the operation of the experiment, which will be deployed along the path of totality in Wyoming, and the scientific results we hope to obtain.

  3. IR study of Pb–Sr titanate borosilicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C R Gautam; Devendra Kumar; Om Parkash


    The infrared spectra (IR) of various glass compositions in the glass system, [(PbSr1–)O.TiO2]– [2SiO2.B2O3]–[BaO.K2O]–[La2O3], were recorded over a continuous spectral range (400–4000 cm-1) to study their structure systematically. IR spectrum of each glass composition shows a number of absorption bands. These bands are strongly influenced by the increasing substitution of SrO for PbO. Various bands shift with composition. Absorption peaks occur due to the vibrational mode of the borate network in these glasses. The vibrational modes of the borate network are seen to be mainly due to the asymmetric stretching relaxation of the B–O bond of trigonal BO3 units. More splitting is observed in strontium-rich composition.

  4. Dust processing in photodissociation regions - Mid-IR emission modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Compiegne, M; Verstraete, L; Habart, E


    Mid-infrared spectroscopy of dense illuminated ridges (or photodissociation regions, PDRs) suggests dust evolution. Such evolution must be reflected in the gas physical properties through processes like photo-electric heating or H_2 formation. With Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and ISOCAM data, we study the mid-IR emission of closeby, well known PDRs. Focusing on the band and continuum dust emissions, we follow their relative contributions and analyze their variations in terms of abundance of dust populations. In order to disentangle dust evolution and excitation effects, we use a dust emission model that we couple to radiative transfer. Our dust model reproduces extinction and emission of the standard interstellar medium that we represent with diffuse high galactic latitude clouds called Cirrus. We take the properties of dust in Cirrus as a reference to which we compare the dust emission from more excited regions, namely the Horsehead and the reflection nebula NGC 2023 North. We show that in both regio...

  5. Parabenų mikroekstrakcija ir dujų chromatografinis nustatymas


    Prichodko, Aleksandra


    Parabenai pasižymi antibakterinėmis bei priešgrybelinėmis savybėmis ir plačiai naudojami kosmetikos, maisto, farmacijos pramonėje kaip konservantai, apsaugantys produktus nuo ankstyvo gedimo ir prailginantys jų galiojimo laiką. Padidėjus įtarimams, jog prasiskverbę per odą parabenai gali sukelti alergines reakcijas, ardyti endokrininę sistemą, skatinti vėžinių ląstelių gamybą, buvo pradėta kontroliuoti jų kiekį aplinkoje, maisto bei kosmetikos produktuose. Tačiau parabenų koncentracijos dažna...

  6. First lasing of the IR upgrade FEL at Jefferson lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Behre; Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Christopher Curtis; David Douglas; H. Dylla; L. Dillon-townes; Richard Evans; Albert Grippo; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; John Heckman; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Tommy Hiatt; Kevin Jordan; Nikolitsa Merminga; George Neil; Joseph Preble; Harvey Rutt; Michelle D. Shinn; Timothy Siggins; Hiroyuki Toyokawa; David W. Waldman; Richard Walker; Neil Wilson; Byung Yunn; Shukui Zhang


    We report initial lasing results from the IR Upgrade FEL at Jefferson Lab[1]. The electron accelerator was operated with low average current beam at 80 MeV. The time structure of the beam was 120 pC bunches at 4.678 MHz with up to 750 {micro}sec pulses at 2Hz. Lasing was established over the entire wavelength range of the mirrors (5.5-6.6 {micro}m). The detuning curve length, turn-on time, and power were in agreement with modeling results assuming a 1 psec FWHM micropulse. The same model predicts over 10 kW of power output with 10 mA of beam and 10% output coupling, which is the ultimate design goal of the IR Upgrade FEL. The behavior of the laser while the dispersion section strength was varied was found to qualitatively match predictions. Initial CW lasing results also will be presented.

  7. IR-thermography for Quality Prediction in Selective Laser Deburring (United States)

    Möller, Mauritz; Conrad, Christian; Haimerl, Walter; Emmelmann, Claus

    Selective Laser Deburring (SLD) is an innovative edge-refinement process being developed at the Laser Zentrum Nord (LZN) in Hamburg. It offers a wear-free processing of defined radii and bevels at the edges as well as the possibility to deburr several materials with the same laser source. Sheet metal parts of various applications need to be post-processed to remove sharp edges and burrs remaining from the initial production process. Thus, SLD will provide an extended degree of automation for the next generation of manufacturing facilities. This paper investigates the dependence between the deburring result and the temperature field in- and post-process. In order to achieve this, the surface temperature near to the deburred edge is monitored with IR-thermography. Different strategies are discussed for the approach using the IR-information as a quality assurance. Additional experiments are performed to rate the accuracy of the quality prediction method in different deburring applications.

  8. An IR study of pure and ion irradiated frozen formamide

    CERN Document Server

    Brucato, J R; Strazzulla, G; Baratta, Giuseppa A.; Brucato, John R.; Strazzulla, Giovanni


    Context. The chemical evolution of formamide (HCONH2), a molecule of astrobiological interest that has been tentatively identified in interstellar ices and in cometary coma, has been studied in laboratory under simulated astrophysical conditions such as ion irradiation at low temperature. Aims. To evaluate the abundances of formamide observed in space or in laboratory, the integrated absorbances for all the principal IR features of frozen amorphous pure formamide deposited at 20 K were measured. Further evidence that energetic processing of ices occurring in space is extremely relevant both to astrochemistry and to astrobiology has been found, showing that new molecular species are synthesized by ion irradiation at a low temperature. Methods. Pure formamide were deposited at 20 K and IR transmission spectra measured for different ice thicknesses. The ice thickness was derived by looking at the interference pattern (intensity versus time) of a He-Ne laser beam reflected at an angle of 45 deg by the vacuum-film...

  9. Applications of FT-IR spectrophotometry in cancer diagnostics. (United States)

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Hoang, Vu Dang; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y


    This review provides a brief background to the application of infrared spectroscopy, including Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, in biological fluids. It is not meant to be complete or exhaustive but to provide the reader with sufficient background for selected applications in cancer diagnostics. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a fast and nondestructive analytical method. The infrared spectrum of a mixture serves as the basis to quantitate its constituents, and a number of common clinical chemistry tests have proven to be feasible using this approach. This review focuses on biomedical FT-IR applications, published in the period 2009-2013, used for early detection of cancer through qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  10. Clusterin: an IR-inducible protein determining life and death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The roles of ionizing radiation (IR)-inducible genes/proteins are now being elucidated and the research team will focus on the functions of the clusterin (CLU) proteins after low dose IR exposures. With funding from the DOE, we discovered that x-ray-inducible transcript/protein #8 (xip8) bound to the Ku70 DNA double strand break repair protein using various molecular biology techniques. We showed that translation of the CLU/xip8 transcript was complicated, leading to two classes of proteins separated by their intracellular processing. One set of CLU proteins (a secreted and precursor protein, sCLU and psCLU, respectively) were induced by very low doses of IR (>2.0 cGy) and subsequently secreted from the cell. The functions of sCLU, particularly in bystander effects, are not known; sCLU does not bind Ku70, but can interact with the TGF-ß II receptor. Another intracellular class of CLU proteins was targeted to the cytoplasm and existed in a dormant precursor nuclear form (pnCLU). After higher IR doses (>1.0 Gy), pnCLU was activated via post-translational modification, and translocated to the nucleus, where nuclear CLU (nCLU) interacted with Ku70/Ku80, and signaled cell death. The mechanism(s) of how cells die following nCLU accumulation are unknown. Recent data from our lab indicate that CLU gene transcription is also complicated. Thus far, the data suggest that: (a) p53 is a negative regulator of CLU transcription, however, the mechanisms by which it exerts this negative pressure are not known; and (b) IR induces transcription of the CLU promoter, independent of p53, at regulatory elements that lie between -1403 and -325 bps 5'-from the TATAA box. In this renewal, the research team will investigate three separate, but interrelated hypotheses: (1) p53 negatively regulates the CLU promoter via distinct head to tail p53 half sites, and induction is mediated by the combination of retinoblatoma control elements (RCEs) and NF-∫B sites; (2) sCLU is cytoprotective

  11. IR-stimulated visible fluorescence in pink and brown diamond. (United States)

    Byrne, K S; Chapman, J G; Luiten, A N


    Irradiation of natural pink and brown diamond by middle-ultraviolet light (photon energy ϵ ≥ 4.1 eV ) is seen to induce anomalous fluorescence phenomena at N3 defect centres (structure N3-V). When diamonds primed in this fashion are subsequently exposed to infrared light (even with a delay of many hours), a transient burst of blue N3 fluorescence is observed. The dependence of this IR-triggered fluorescence on pump wavelength and intensity suggest that this fluorescence phenomena is intrinsically related to pink diamond photochromism. An energy transfer process between N3 defects and other defect species can account for both the UV-induced fluorescence intensity changes, and the apparent optical upconversion of IR light. From this standpoint, we consider the implications of this N3 fluorescence behaviour for the current understanding of pink diamond photochromism kinetics.

  12. Obstacle-avoiding robot with IR and PIR motion sensors (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Omar, Z.; Suaibun, S.


    Obstacle avoiding robot was designed, constructed and programmed which may be potentially used for educational and research purposes. The developed robot will move in a particular direction once the infrared (IR) and the PIR passive infrared (PIR) sensors sense a signal while avoiding the obstacles in its path. The robot can also perform desired tasks in unstructured environments without continuous human guidance. The hardware was integrated in one application board as embedded system design. The software was developed using C++ and compiled by Arduino IDE 1.6.5. The main objective of this project is to provide simple guidelines to the polytechnic students and beginners who are interested in this type of research. It is hoped that this robot could benefit students who wish to carry out research on IR and PIR sensors.

  13. Misaligned Disks in the Binary Protostar IRS 43

    CERN Document Server

    Brinch, Christian; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Nelson, Richard P; Gressel, Oliver


    Recent high angular resolution ($\\sim$0.2") ALMA observations of the 1.1 mm continuum and of HCO+ J=3-2 and HCN J=3-2 gas towards the binary protostar IRS 43 reveal multiple Keplerian disks which are significantly misaligned ($\\gt$ 60$^\\circ$), both in inclination and position angle and also with respect to the binary orbital plane. Each stellar component has an associated circumstellar disk while the binary is surrounded by a circumbinary disk. Together with archival VLA measurements of the stellar positions over 25 years, and assuming a circular orbit, we use our continuum measurements to determine the binary separation, a = 74 $\\pm$ 4 AU, and its inclination, i $\\lt$ 30$^\\circ$. The misalignment in this system suggests that turbulence has likely played a major role in the formation of IRS 43.

  14. Mid-IR laser system for advanced neurosurgery (United States)

    Klosner, M.; Wu, C.; Heller, D. F.


    We present work on a laser system operating in the near- and mid-IR spectral regions, having output characteristics designed to be optimal for cutting various tissue types. We provide a brief overview of laser-tissue interactions and the importance of controlling certain properties of the light beam. We describe the principle of operation of the laser system, which is generally based on a wavelength-tunable alexandrite laser oscillator/amplifier, and multiple Raman conversion stages. This configuration provides robust access to the mid-IR spectral region at wavelengths, pulse energies, pulse durations, and repetition rates that are attractive for neurosurgical applications. We summarize results for ultra-precise selective cutting of nerve sheaths and retinas with little collateral damage; this has applications in procedures such as optic-nerve-sheath fenestration and possible spinal repair. We also report results for cutting cornea, and dermal tissues.

  15. Divertor IR thermography on Alcator C-Mod. (United States)

    Terry, J L; LaBombard, B; Brunner, D; Payne, J; Wurden, G A


    Alcator C-Mod is a particularly challenging environment for thermography. It presents issues that will similarly face ITER, including low-emissivity metal targets, low-Z surface films, and closed divertor geometry. In order to make measurements of the incident divertor heat flux using IR thermography, the C-Mod divertor has been modified and instrumented. A 6° toroidal sector has been given a 2° toroidal ramp in order to eliminate magnetic field-line shadowing by imperfectly aligned divertor tiles. This sector is viewed from above by a toroidally displaced IR camera and is instrumented with thermocouples and calorimeters. The camera provides time histories of surface temperatures that are used to compute incident heat-flux profiles. The camera sensitivity is calibrated in situ using the embedded thermocouples, thus correcting for changes and nonuniformities in surface emissivity due to surface coatings.

  16. Studies of Neutron Stars at Optical/IR Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; De Luca, A; Israel, G L; Curto, G L; Motch, C; Perna, R; Rea, N; Turolla, R; Zane, S


    In the last years, optical studies of Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) have expanded from the more classical rotation-powered ones to other categories, like the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs), which make up the class of the magnetars, the radio-quiet INSs with X-ray thermal emission and, more recently, the enigmatic Compact Central Objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants. Apart from 10 rotation-powered pulsars, so far optical/IR counterparts have been found for 5 magnetars and for 4 INSs. In this work we present some of the latest observational results obtained from optical/IR observations of different types of INSs.

  17. Divertor IR thermography on Alcator C-Moda) (United States)

    Terry, J. L.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Payne, J.; Wurden, G. A.


    Alcator C-Mod is a particularly challenging environment for thermography. It presents issues that will similarly face ITER, including low-emissivity metal targets, low-Z surface films, and closed divertor geometry. In order to make measurements of the incident divertor heat flux using IR thermography, the C-Mod divertor has been modified and instrumented. A 6° toroidal sector has been given a 2° toroidal ramp in order to eliminate magnetic field-line shadowing by imperfectly aligned divertor tiles. This sector is viewed from above by a toroidally displaced IR camera and is instrumented with thermocouples and calorimeters. The camera provides time histories of surface temperatures that are used to compute incident heat-flux profiles. The camera sensitivity is calibrated in situ using the embedded thermocouples, thus correcting for changes and nonuniformities in surface emissivity due to surface coatings.

  18. Magnetic properties and crystal structure of Sr3CoIrO6 and Sr3NiIrO6 (United States)

    Mikhailova, D.; Schwarz, B.; Senyshyn, A.; Bell, A. M. T.; Skourski, Y.; Ehrenberg, H.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Agrestini, S.; Rotter, M.; Reichel, P.; Chen, J. M.; Hu, Z.; Li, Z. M.; Li, Z. F.; Tjeng, L. H.


    We have studied the magnetic properties and crystal structure of Sr3CoIrO6 and Sr3NiIrO6 as a function of temperature. Two characteristic temperatures, T1=90 K and T2=25 K for Sr3CoIrO6, and T1=85 K and T2=15 K for Sr3NiIrO6, were observed. Below T1 a significant increase of magnetization and below T2 a weak temperature dependence of magnetization in the field-cooled and practically zero magnetization values in the zero-field-cooled mode were detected for both compounds. The existence of Ir4+ in Sr3CoIrO6 was confirmed by an Ir-LIII x-ray absorption measurement. Magnetoelastic effects have been observed in the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of Sr3CoIrO6 and Sr3NiIrO6. The magnetic structure of Sr3CoIrO6 in zero fields can be described as a commensurate modulated antiferromagnet with a propagation vector k=(0,0,1). Neutron powder diffraction with polarized neutrons gave evidence of short-range magnetic order, above and below the magnetic ordering temperature.

  19. The Electric Dipole Moment of Iridium Monosilicide, IrSi (United States)

    Le, Anh; Steimle, Timothy C.; Cheng, Lan; Stanton, John F.


    The optical spectrum of iridium monosilicide (IrSi) was recently observed using REMPI spectroscopy in the range 17200 to 23850 cm^{-1}. The observation was supported by an ab initio calculation which predicted a X^{2}Δ_{5/2} state. Here, we report on the analysis of the optical Stark effect for the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and [16.0]1.5 (v=6) states. The (6,0)[16.0]1.5 - X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and the (7,0)[16.0]3.5- X^{2}Δ_{5/2} bands of IrSi have been recorded using high-resolution laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The observed optical Stark shifts for the ^{193}IrSi and ^{191}IrSi isotopologues were analyzed to produce the electric dipole moments of -0.4139(64)D and 0.7821(63)D for the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} and [16.0]1.5 (v=6) states, respectively. The negative sign of electric dipole moment of the X^{2}Δ_{5/2} state is supported by high-level quantum-chemical calculations employing all-electron scalar-relativistic CCSD(T) method augmented with spin-orbit corrections as well as corrections due to full triple excitations. In particular, electron-correlation effects have been shown to be essential in the prediction of the negative sign of the dipole moment. A comparison with other iridium containing molecules will be made. Maria A. Garcia, Carolin Vietz, Fernando Ruipérez, Michael D. Morse, and Ivan Infante, Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko. J. Chem. Phys., (submitted)

  20. IR Camera Report for the 7 Day Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The following report gives a summary of the IR camera performance results and data for the 7 day production run that occurred from 10 Sep 2015 thru 16 Sep 2015. During this production run our goal was to see how well the camera performed its task of monitoring the target window temperature with our improved alignment procedure and emissivity measurements. We also wanted to see if the increased shielding would be effective in protecting the camera from damage and failure.

  1. IR absorption spectroscopic study of mixed cobalt substituted lithium ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, V.S.; Bagade, A.A.; Mohite, S.V.; Rajpure, K.Y., E-mail:


    The IR spectra of Li{sub 0.5−(x/2)}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 2.5−(x/2)}O{sub 4} ferrite samples (0≤x≤0.6) prepared by solution combustion method have been reported. The influence of Co substitution is verified. XRD studies confirm the spinel phase formation of ferrites. Lattice constant varies linearly from 8.31 Å (x=0) to 8.35 Å (x=0.6) with composition. Evidence of two absorption bands in the IR spectra (below 800 cm{sup −1}) reveals the characteristic feature of spinel ferrite. The IR spectra featured additional three absorption bands around 550, 670 and 705 cm{sup −1} for the samples x=0.1 and x=0.6. Absence of bands splitting specifies that Fe ions do not exist in excess form. It is found that high frequency band (ν{sub 1}), due to tetrahedral (A) group, lies at around 600 cm{sup −1} and low frequency band (ν{sub 2}), due to octahedral (B) group, around 450 cm{sup −1}. The positions of bands are found to be composition dependent. The IR bands due to tetrahedral complexes shift slightly towards high frequency side with composition upto x=0.4 where as that due to octahedral complexes shift towards lower frequency side with x. Based on the data of absorption bands, force constants (k{sub t}, k{sub o}) and bond lengths (R{sub A}, R{sub B}) were estimated. Compositional dependence of force constants is explained on the basis of cation–oxygen bond distances of respective sites and cation distribution.

  2. Adsorption of hydrogen on stable and metastable Ir(100) surfaces (United States)

    Arman, Mohammad Alif; Klein, Andreas; Ferstl, Pascal; Valookaran, Abhilash; Gustafson, Johan; Schulte, Karina; Lundgren, Edvin; Heinz, Klaus; Schneider, Alexander; Mittendorfer, Florian; Hammer, Lutz; Knudsen, Jan


    Using the combination of high resolution core level spectroscopy and density functional theory we present a detailed spectroscopic study for all clean and hydrogen covered phases of Ir(100). The results are complemented by an investigation of the hydrogen desorption process from various phases using temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. In total, all experimentally determined core level shifts match very well with those predicted by density functional theory based on established structural models. In particular, we find for the (bridge site) adsorption on the unreconstructed 1×1 phase that the initial core level shift of surface Ir atoms is altered by +0.17 eV for each Ir-H bond formed. In the submonolayer regime we find evidence for island formation at low temperatures. For the H-induced deconstructed 5×1-H phase we identify four different surface core level shifts with two of them being degenerate. Finally, for the reconstructed 5×1-hex phase also four surface components are identified, which undergo a rather rigid core level shift of +0.15 eV upon hydrogen adsorption suggesting a similarly homogeneous charge transfer to all Ir surface atoms. Thermodesorption experiments for the 5×1-H phase reveal two different binding states for hydrogen independent of the total coverage. We conclude that the surface always separates into patches of fully covered deconstructed and uncovered reconstructed phases. We could also show by tunneling microscopy that with the desorption of the last hydrogen atom from the deconstructed unit cell the surface instantaneously reverts into the reconstructed state. Eventually, we could determine the saturation coverage upon molecular adsorption for all phases to be θmax1 × 1 - H = 1.0 ML , θmax5 × 1 - H = 0.8 ML , and θmax5 × 1 - hex - H ≥ 1.0 ML .

  3. IR Spectra and Bond Energies Computed Using DFT (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles; Andrews, Lester; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)


    The combination of density functional theory (DFT) frequencies and infrared (IR) intensities and experimental spectra is a very powerful tool in the identification of molecules and ions. The computed and measured isotopic ratios make the identification much more secure than frequencies and intensities alone. This will be illustrated using several examples, such as Mn(CO)n and Mn(CO)n-. The accuracy of DFT metal-ligand bond energies will also be discussed.

  4. Mid-IR Microresonator-Based Optical Frequency Combs (United States)


    the atmosphere and overlaps with strong absorption bands of important greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (~4.2m) and nitrous oxide (~4.4m...frequency combs (Kerr combs) generated by cascading parametric nonlinear effects in whispering gallery mode (WGM) crystalline microresonators. The...quantitatively study the effect of the resonator morphology and mode characteristics on its GVD, with the goal of creating ideal conditions for mid-IR

  5. Spatially-resolved mid-ir spectroscopy of ngc 1068

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mason


    Full Text Available Presentamos espectros espacialmente resueltos, cercanos al l mite de difracci on, de 10 m, del n ucleo de la galaxia Seyfert 2 NGC 1068. Estos revelan variaciones notables en la pendiente del cont nuo, el per l y la profundidad del rasgo de silicato, y ujos de l neas de estructura na en escalas de subsegundos de arco, que ilustran en detalles sin precedente la complejidad de las regiones circunnuclares de esta galaxia en longitudes de onda del IR medio. Las im agenes de adquisici on muestran dos componentes distintos: una fuente brillante compacta (radio < 15 pc dentro de los 0.4 segarc centrales, identi cada con el toro obscurecedor de AGN, y una emisi on extendida, de brillo m as bajo proveniente del polvo de los conos de ionizaci on. El espectro observado de la fuente compacta se compara con modelos de toro grumoso, siendo esta la primera comparaci on detallada de estos modelos con observaciones. Los modelos requieren que la mayor parte de las nubes se localice dentro de unos cuantos parsecs de la m aquina central, lo cual concuerda muy bien con observaciones interferom etricas recientes del IR medio. Sin embargo, el ujo del IR medio medido con aperturas mayores de alrededor de 1 segarc est a dominado por la emisi on de polvo procedente de los conos de ionizaci on. Muchos de los intentos previos para determinar la distribuci on de la energ a espectral del toro estar an probablemente afectados por la contaminaci on procedente de la emisi on extendida, lo cual pone de relieve la importancia que la resoluci on espacial tiene para estudios IR de AGN cercanos.

  6. Espectroscopía Espacial en el IR-Lejano (United States)

    Goicoechea, Javier R.; Cernicharo, J.

    Debido a la opacidad atmosférica, el dominio IR--lejano del espectro electromagnético ha sido la última ventana en ser utilizada por la Astrofísica Molecular. El potencial que supone abrir este nuevo rango de frecuencias a través de la espectroscopía molecular ha comenzado a ser explotado con el Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). La sensibilidad de la instrumentación embarcada en dicho satélite no tiene comparación alguna con las escasas misiones espaciales, o a bordo de aviones, realizadas con anterioridad a su lanzamiento. En particular, casi todo el rango operativo de ISO en el IR--lejano no había sido explorado. El espectro IR--lejano de las fuentes más representativas de la galaxia era desconocido y los principales emisores de radiación, las moléculas, estaban por identificar. Las observaciones en el IR--lejano están especialmente indicadas para el estudio del gas caliente en las nubes moleculares del medio interestelar y en el interior de las envolturas circunestelares alrededor de estrellas evolucionadas. Algunas de estas fuentes; Sgr B2 en el Centro Galáctico y las Proto--Nebulosas Planetarias, constituyen uno de los objetos más paradigmáticos en nuestra comprensión de la complejidad química de La Galaxia. En esta contribución se presentan los resultados espectroscópicos más importantes de algunas de estas fuentes astronómicas.

  7. The electronic mechanism of the gamma/gamma' interface strength of Ir-based alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, K; Tse, J S


    The electronic structures of the gamma/gamma' interface for two-phase Ir-based alloys (Ir/Ir sub 3 Ta and Ir/Ir sub 3 Ti) have been investigated by performing first-principles quantum mechanics DMol3 (a type of density functional theory for molecules) calculations. The Mayer bond order (MBO) is used to represent the shear and cohesion strengths of the interface by a local sum of the horizontal and vertical MBOs. By comparison with those for single-crystal Ir, the results show that both the cohesive and shear strengths of the gamma/gamma' interface for the Ir/Ir sub 3 Ta alloy increase. The cohesive strength of the interface for the Ir/Ir sub 3 Ti alloy increases, whereas the shear strength of the interface for Ir/Ir sub 3 Ti decreases. The electron charge density, the Hirshfeld charge, and orbital charge transfers are also calculated and analysed. An electronic mechanism for the gamma/gamma' interface strength of Ir-based alloys is then suggested.

  8. Near-IR imaging towards a puzzling YSO precessing jet

    CERN Document Server

    Paron, S; Ortega, M E


    At present there are many studies concerning jets towards low-mass young stellar objects, while equivalent studies towards massive or intermediate-mass young stellar objects are scarce. In a previous study, we found highly misaligned molecular outflows towards the infrared point source IRS. Using near-IR data acquired with Gemini-NIRI at the JHKs-broad-bands and narrow-bands centered at the emission lines of [FeII], H2 1-0 S(1), H2 2-1 S(1), Br-gamma, and CO 2-0 (bh), we studied the circumstellar environment of IRS with an angular resolution between 0.35" and 0.45". The emission in the JHKs-broad-bands shows, with great detail, the presence of a cone-like shape nebula extending to the north/northeast of the point source, which appears to be attached to it by a jet-like structure. In the three bands the nebula is resolved in a twisted-shaped feature composed by two arc-like features and a bow shock-like structure seen mainly in the Ks-band, which strongly suggests the presence of a precessing jet. An analysis ...

  9. Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Antiferromagnetic Sr_{2}IrO_{4}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang


    Full Text Available We report point-contact measurements of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR in a single crystal of antiferromagnetic Mott insulator Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. The point-contact technique is used here as a local probe of magnetotransport properties on the nanoscale. The measurements at liquid nitrogen temperature reveal negative magnetoresistances (up to 28% for modest magnetic fields (250 mT applied within the IrO_{2} a-b plane and electric currents flowing perpendicular to the plane. The angular dependence of magnetoresistance shows a crossover from fourfold to twofold symmetry in response to an increasing magnetic field with angular variations in resistance from 1% to 14%. We tentatively attribute the fourfold symmetry to the crystalline component of AMR and the field-induced transition to the effects of applied field on the canting of antiferromagnetic-coupled moments in Sr_{2}IrO_{4}. The observed AMR is very large compared to the crystalline AMRs in 3d transition metal alloys or oxides (0.1%–0.5% and can be associated with the large spin-orbit interactions in this 5d oxide while the transition provides evidence of correlations between electronic transport, magnetic order, and orbital states. The finding of this work opens an entirely new avenue to not only gain a new insight into physics associated with spin-orbit coupling but also to better harness the power of spintronics in a more technically favorable fashion.

  10. Reference-free nonuniformity compensation for IR imaging arrays (United States)

    Narendra, P. M.


    Multi-detector IR imaging focal plane arrays possess large detector-to-detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations which can completely mask the useful thermal signatures in IR scenes. Conventional detector compensation techniques require uniform temperature references of constant radiance over the entire field of view and a mechanical/electro-optical shutter. This detracts from the mechanical simplicity of multi-detector staring focal planes (which require no scanning). This paper describes a real-time offset and responsivity (gain) compensation technique which dispenses with temperature references and shutters in staring focal planes. The technique makes use of the IR scene itself for calibration and continuously updates the compensation coefficients without interrupting the field of view with a shutter or a temperature reference. The results of real-time simulations of this technique with a number of sensors are presented. Real-time hardware implementation considerations suggest that the technique can be implemented with the addition of very little hardware to a conventional compensation technique requiring temperature references. The technique is also suitable for multi-detector scanning focal planes and for the removal of shading in TV sensors as well.

  11. Nonuniformity compensation for IR focal plane array sensors (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Er, Meng H.; Gan, Yu H.; Fong, Yew C.


    Recent reports indicate that cooled and uncooled IR focal plane array sensors are progressing to a field-worthy level for commercial and defense applications. They offer higher sensitivity, amenability to signal processing and mechanical simplicity. However these sensors contain large detector-to- detector dark current (offset) and responsivity (gain) variations. These variations result in a severe problem called fixed pattern noise that can mask/distort the image obtained from the sensor. The correction process is generally termed as nonuniformity compensation. Conventional two-point compensation techniques are accurate enough, but require built-in controllable temperature references along with mechanical and electro-optical shutters. Therefore this compensation technique detracts the mechanical simplicity of using IR focal plane arrays. Scene-based nonuniformity techniques dispenses with the requirement of temperature references and shutters, but are not accurate enough for certain applications. This paper discusses two-point and scene-based nonuniformity compensation algorithms and proposes an empirical formula to automatically calculate the scene constants, which is an essential step towards practical applications. This paper reports the analyzed results of testing the algorithms on a number of IR images. A practical problem of 'artifacts' which arise when using scene-based nonuniformity compensation is also discussed. A common hardware scheme to implement both the algorithms is also presented in this paper.

  12. The IR Sector – Opening new horizons for CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    Last week saw the CERN family grow by one, as we welcomed Cyprus as an Associate Member in the pre-stage to Membership. This gives me a good opportunity, three months into the job, to share the vision for the new International Relations (IR) Sector. CERN is and always has been an incredible example of successful, inclusive international collaboration and exchange in the pursuit of common goals. The IR Sector continues and builds on that tradition and spirit.   In the 60-plus years of CERN’s existence, our world has been transformed at all levels. And over the last decade or so, the world of particle physics has evolved beyond recognition. CERN is now a global lab, with a European core, and particle physics is a field that is increasingly planned and coordinated around the world. It is for these reasons that CERN needs to develop its International Relations so we can respond to and navigate these changes. The establishment by the Director-General of the IR Sector is a sign of her commitm...

  13. Development of Monolithic Michelson Interferometer for RV measurement in IR (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian C.


    We present a fixed delay interferometer to be installed in IR-ET (Infra-Red Exoplanets Tracker). We introduce the design, fabrication and testing processes. In particular, we present a new methodology of computing the fundamental limit of radial velocity (RV) measurement given by photon noise for DFDI (Dispersed Fixed Delay Interferometer) method as opposed to conventional echelle method. The new method is later used to determine the optical path difference (OPD) of the IR-ET interferometer. In addition, we introduce a novel method of monitoring the stability of the interferometer for IR-ET in broad-band using fourier-transform white-light scanning interferometry technique. The new method can be potentially expanded and applied to thermo-optic effect measurement if temperature control system is introduced into the experiment. The thermal response of the optical system is 3500 m/s/°C. We find that the RV calibration precision of 'Bracketing' method is 1.74 m/s without temperature control.

  14. Global Land Surface Emissivity Retrieved From Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements (United States)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, W. L.; Strow, L. L.; Yang, Ping; Schlussel, P.; Calbet, X.


    Ultraspectral resolution infrared (IR) radiances obtained from nadir observations provide information about the atmosphere, surface, aerosols, and clouds. Surface spectral emissivity (SSE) and surface skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information about the Earth s ecosystem and land-surface-type properties, which might be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth s environment and global climate change. In this study, fast radiative transfer models applied to the atmosphere under all weather conditions are used for atmospheric profile and surface or cloud parameter retrieval from ultraspectral and/or hyperspectral spaceborne IR soundings. An inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral IR sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface or cloud microphysical parameters. This inversion scheme has been applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). Rapidly produced SSE is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted surface and atmospheric parameters. Initial validation of retrieved emissivity spectra is conducted with Namib and Kalahari desert laboratory measurements. Seasonal products of global land SSE and surface skin temperature retrieved with IASI are presented to demonstrate seasonal variation of SSE.

  15. IR recording in photorefractive crystals via two-step processes (United States)

    Kraetzig, Eckhard E.


    Two-step excitation processes have been used for hologram storage in photorefractive crystals. Then the interference pattern can be formed with red or near-IR light and nondestructive readout of information is possible. Often shallow levels are involved in the holographic recording process in photorefractive crystals. The shallow levels can be populated by illumination with visible or UV pulses forming states with relatively long life times, thus sensitizing the crystals for holographic recording with IR pulses. In LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 the most important shallow levels have been identified. They result from NbLi5+ and TaLi5+ antisite defects (Nb5+ or Ta5+ on Li+ site). The crystals can also be pre-illuminated with visible light of a cw argon laser or of a Xenon lamp and holograms can be recorded with red light of a laser diode. The sensitization process is possible for other photorefractive crystals, too. The holograms can be read nondestructively with IR light and can be erased with green light.

  16. Power-Law Template for IR Point Source Clustering (United States)

    Addison, Graeme E.; Dunkley, Joanna; Hajian, Amir; Viero, Marco; Bond, J. Richard; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark; Halpern, Mark; Hincks, Adam; Hlozek, Renee; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moodley, Kavilan; Page, Lyman A.; Reese, Erik D.; Scott, Douglass; Spergel, David N.; Staggs,Suzanne T.; Wollack, Edward


    We perform a combined fit to angular power spectra of unresolved infrared (IR) point sources from the Planck satellite (at 217,353,545 and 857 GHz, over angular scales 100 law of the form C_l\\propto I(sup -n) with n = 1.25 +/- 0.06. While the IR sources are understood to lie at a range of redshifts, with a variety of dust properties, we find that the frequency dependence of the clustering power can be described by the square of a modified blackbody, nu(sup beta) B(nu,T_eff), with a single emissivity index beta = 2.20 +/- 0.07 and effective temperature T_eff= 9.7 K. Our predictions for the clustering amplitude are consistent with existing ACT and South Pole Telescope results at around 150 and 220 GHz, as is our prediction for the effective dust spectral index, which we find to be alpha_150-220 = 3.68 +/- 0.07 between 150 and 220 GHz. Our constraints on the clustering shape and frequency dependence can be used to model the IR clustering as a contaminant in Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy measurements. The combined Planck and BLAST data also rule out a linear bias clustering model.

  17. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR. (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.


    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  18. Detectors with Improved Near-to-Mid IR Performance and Reduced Cooling Requirements Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I proposal addresses a NASA need for improved near-to-mid IR detectors for imaging and spectroscopy. High performance IR detectors with cutoff...

  19. 76 FR 57804 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for the IRS Individual Taxpayer Burden Survey (United States)


    ... fraction of the total burden of the tax system. Equally, if not more burdensome, is the time and out-of...-related recordkeeping, gathering materials, learning about tax law, using IRS and/or non-IRS...

  20. Developing institutional repositories network: Taking IR Grid at Chinese Academy of Sciences as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongming; ZHU; Dongrong; ZHANG; Lin; LI; Jianxia; MA; Xiwen; LIU


    This paper introduces the current practice of building a network of institutional repositories(IRs)at Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS),which is named CAS IR Grid.National Science Library(NSL)of CAS plays a leading role in the construction,promotion and implementation of CAS IR Grid.It aims to promote each institute of CAS to build IR of its own,and finally form the IR network of CAS institutes.NSL’s experience is introduced in coordinating and supporting institutes’building of their respective IRs and promoting IR services by adopting collaborative and progressive development strategies.Achievements made during the development of CAS IR Grid are described and challenges for its future development are discussed.The authors aim to provide best practices for developing a network of institutional repositories in research institute settings,which can serve as a practical reference to other institutions engaged in the similar task.

  1. Optimization of grate combustion by means of an IR camera. Final report; Optimering af risteforbraending IR-kamera. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didriksen, H.; Jensen, Joergen Peter; Hansen, Joergen (DONG Energy, Fredericia (Denmark)); Clausen, Soennik; Larsen, Henning (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))


    The target of the project has been to improve the control and regulation of grate-fired straw boilers by involving measuring signals from a specially developed IR camera in a new regulation concept. The project was carried out with the straw boiler at the Avedoere power station. The conclusion has been that it is a very demanding task to develop an IR camera, including software, which must function as a process measuring device for continuous on-line measuring under very demanding conditions in a straw fired boiler. The result showed that this was not possible within the framework of this project. The developed camera has on the other hand proved to be very well suited for measuring campaigns, where the camera is ''manned''/continuously monitored. (Energy 11)

  2. Comparison between ATR-IR, Raman, concatenated ATR-IR and Raman spectroscopy for the determination of total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of Chinese rice wine. (United States)

    Wu, Zhengzong; Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Pan, Xiaowei; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan


    The application of attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and combination of ATR-IR and RS for measurements of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of Chinese rice wine (CRW) were investigated in this study. Synergy interval partial least-squares (SiPLS), support vector machine (SVM) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to process the merged data from two individual instruments. It was observed that the performances of models based on the RS spectra were better than those based on the ATR-IR spectra. In addition, SVM models based on the efficient information extracted from ATR-IR and RS spectra were superior to PLS models based on the same information and PLS models based on ATR-IR or RS spectra. The overall results demonstrated that integrating ATR-IR and RS was possible and could improve the prediction accuracy of TAC and TPC in CRWs.

  3. Gas-phase peptide structures unraveled by far-IR spectroscopy: combining IR-UV ion-dip experiments with Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Jaeqx, Sander; Oomens, Jos; Cimas, Alvaro; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre; Rijs, Anouk M


    Vibrational spectroscopy provides an important probe of the three-dimensional structures of peptides. With increasing size, these IR spectra become very complex and to extract structural information, comparison with theoretical spectra is essential. Harmonic DFT calculations have become a common workhorse for predicting vibrational frequencies of small neutral and ionized gaseous peptides. Although the far-IR region (IR spectra of peptides. Here, Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) is applied to predict the far-IR signatures of two γ-turn peptides. Combining experiments and simulations, far-IR spectra can provide structural information on gas-phase peptides superior to that extracted from mid-IR and amide A features.

  4. Characterization of the heavy metal pyrochlore lattice superconductor CaIr2. (United States)

    Haldolaarachchige, Neel; Gibson, Quinn; Schoop, Leslie M; Luo, Huixia; Cava, R J


    We report the electronic properties of the cubic laves phase superconductor CaIr2(Tc = 5.8 K), in which the Ir atoms have a pyrochlore lattice. The estimated superconducting parameters obtained from magnetization and specific heat measurements indicate that CaIr2 is a weakly coupled BCS superconductor. Electronic band structure calculations show that the Ir d-states are dominant at the Fermi level, creating a complex Fermi surface that is impacted substantially by spin-orbit coupling.

  5. Quantitative Vapor-phase IR Intensities and DFT Computations to Predict Absolute IR Spectra based on Molecular Structure: I. Alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Yavelak, Veronica; Oats, R. P.; Brauer, Carolyn S.


    Recently recorded quantitative IR spectra of a variety of gas-phase alkanes are shown to have integrated intensities in both the C-H stretching and C-H bending regions that depend linearly on the molecular size, i.e. the number of C-H bonds. This result is well predicted from CH4 to C15H32 by DFT computations of IR spectra at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of DFT theory. A simple model predicting the absolute IR band intensities of alkanes based only on structural formula is proposed: For the C-H stretching band near 2930 cm-1 this is given by (in km/mol): CH¬_str = (34±3)*CH – (41±60) where CH is number of C-H bonds in the alkane. The linearity is explained in terms of coordinated motion of methylene groups rather than the summed intensities of autonomous -CH2- units. The effect of alkyl chain length on the intensity of a C-H bending mode is explored and interpreted in terms of conformer distribution. The relative intensity contribution of a methyl mode compared to the total C-H stretch intensity is shown to be linear in the number of terminal methyl groups in the alkane, and can be used to predict quantitative spectra a priori based on structure alone.

  6. Quantitative vapor-phase IR intensities and DFT computations to predict absolute IR spectra based on molecular structure: I. Alkanes (United States)

    Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Yavelak, Veronica; Oates, R. P.; Brauer, Carolyn S.


    Recently recorded quantitative IR spectra of a variety of gas-phase alkanes are shown to have integrated intensities in both the C3H stretching and C3H bending regions that depend linearly on the molecular size, i.e. the number of C3H bonds. This result is well predicted from CH4 to C15H32 by density functional theory (DFT) computations of IR spectra using Becke's three parameter functional (B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)). Using the experimental data, a simple model predicting the absolute IR band intensities of alkanes based only on structural formula is proposed: For the C3H stretching band envelope centered near 2930 cm-1 this is given by (km/mol) CH_str=(34±1)×CH-(41±23) where CH is number of C3H bonds in the alkane. The linearity is explained in terms of coordinated motion of methylene groups rather than the summed intensities of autonomous -CH2-units. The effect of alkyl chain length on the intensity of a C3H bending mode is explored and interpreted in terms of conformer distribution. The relative intensity contribution of a methyl mode compared to the total C3H stretch intensity is shown to be linear in the number of methyl groups in the alkane, and can be used to predict quantitative spectra a priori based on structure alone.

  7. Neutron Diffraction Study of the Structures of Ba5CuIr3O12 and Ba16Cu3Ir10O39

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, Graeme R.; Battle, Peter D.; Sloan, Jeremy; Vente, Jaap F.; Darriet, Jacques; Weill, François


    The crystal structures of Ba5CuIr3O12 and Ba16Cu3Ir10O39 have been determined using a combination of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. Considering their structures to be based on hcp stacks of Ba3O9 and Ba3CuO6 layers, Ba5CuIr3O12 has a 10-layer structure, space group P3c1 with a = 10.14055

  8. Data in support of FSH induction of IRS-2 in human granulosa cells: Mapping the transcription factor binding sites in human IRS-2 promoter


    Surleen Kaur; Anjali, G.; Priya Bhardwaj; Jyoti Taneja; Rita Singh


    Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) plays critical role in the regulation of various metabolic processes by insulin and IGF-1. The defects in its expression and/or function are linked to diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin resistance and cancer. To predict the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for the regulation of human IRS-2 gene expression, the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) and the corresponding TFs were investigated by analysis of IRS-2 promoter sequ...

  9. Synergistic effects in multicomponent electrocatalysts: the Pb-Ir-O system. (United States)

    Mullens, Conor; Pikulski, Michael; Agachan, Sabri; Gorski, Waldemar


    The ionic interactions were studied in aqueous solutions of Na(3)IrCl(6) + Pb(NO(3))(2) in order to develop a facilitated electrosynthesis of iridium-based catalytic surfaces. Spectroscopic studies indicated that ion pair charge-transfer complexes [IrCl(6)(3-)]-Pb(II) (K = 6 x 10(3)) and [Ir(H(2)O)Cl(5)(2-)]-Pb(II) (K = 2 x 10(3)) were formed in fresh and aged solutions, respectively. Electrochemical studies showed that interactions between the Ir(H(2)O)Cl(5)(2-) and Pb(II) species lead to synergistic lowering of the overpotential that was necessary for nucleation and growth of mixed metal oxide PbIrOx on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes. The Ir:Pb stoichiometry of the PbIrOx surface films was the same (1:1) as that of the high-temperature phase of Pb-Ir-O pyrochlore. Compared to IrOx, the PbIrOx films displayed enhanced catalytic activity toward the electrooxidation of carbohydrates. This was ascribed to synergism that involved retention of carbohydrate molecules at the Pb(II) sites of a PbIrOx film and oxidation at the adjacent Ir(IV) sites. The synergistic electroplating utilizing interactions between the partially aquated transition metal complex and posttransition metal ion represents a new synthetic route to highly homogeneous and reactive films of mixed metal oxides.

  10. Konferencija. Demokratija ir vertybės filosofų akimis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalija Keciorytė


    Full Text Available Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universiteto (VGTU Filosofijos ir politologijos katedros darbštuoliai, kasmet rengdami konferencijas (pamečiui respublikines ir tarptautines, tikisi nustebinti jos dalyvius. Kuo galima nustebinti šiais konferencijų pertekliaus ir mokslo perprodukcijos laikais?

  11. Semiclassical relations and IR effects in de Sitter and slow-roll space-times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Giddings, Steven; Sloth, Martin Snoager


    We calculate IR divergent graviton one-loop corrections to scalar correlators in de Sitter space, and show that the leading IR contribution may be reproduced via simple semiclassical consistency relations. One can likewise use such semiclassical relations to calculate leading IR corrections to co...

  12. 27 CFR 24.47 - Execution of IRS Form SS-4. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Execution of IRS Form SS-4... Number § 24.47 Execution of IRS Form SS-4. (a) Preparation. The application on IRS Form SS-4, together... center as instructed on the Form SS-4. (b) Signature. The application will be signed by: (1)...

  13. Carbon-supported Pd-Ir catalyst as anodic catalyst in direct formic acid fuel cell (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Tang, Yawen; Gao, Ying; Lu, Tianhong

    It was reported for the first time that the electrocatalytic activity of the Carbon-supported Pd-Ir (Pd-Ir/C) catalyst with the suitable atomic ratio of Pd and Ir for the oxidation of formic acid in the direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) is better than that of the Carbon-supported Pd (Pd/C) catalyst, although Ir has no electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of formic acid. The potential of the anodic peak of formic acid at the Pd-Ir/C catalyst electrode with the atomic ratio of Pd and Ir = 5:1 is 50 mV more negative than that and the peak current density is 13% higher than that at the Pd/C catalyst electrode. This is attributed to that Ir can promote the oxidation of formic acid at Pd through the direct pathway because Ir can decrease the adsorption strength of CO on Pd. However, when the content of Ir in the Pd-Ir/C catalyst is too high the electrocatalytic activity of the Pd-Ir/C catalyst would be decreased because Ir has no electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of formic acid.

  14. The phase system Fe-Ir-S at 1100, 1000 and 800 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Karup-Møller, Sven


    Phase relations in the dry condensed Fe-Ir-S system were determined at 1100, 1000 and 800 degrees C. Orientational runs were performed at 500 degrees C. Between 1100 and 800 degrees C, the system comprises five sulphides and an uninterrupted field of gamma(Fe, Ir). Fe1-xS dissolves 5.8 at.% Ir...

  15. Magnetically polarized Ir dopant atoms in superconducting Ba(Fe1-xIrx)2As2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, M. P.M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kim, M. G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Kreyssig, A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Kim, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ryan, P. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thaler, A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Budko, S. L. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Strassheim, W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Canfield, P. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Hill, J. P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Goldman, A. I. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    We investigate the magnetic polarization of the Ir 5d dopant states in the pnictide superconductor Ba(Fe1-xIrx)2As2 with x=0.027(2) using Ir L3 edge x-ray resonant magnetic scattering (XRMS). Despite the fact that doping partially suppresses the antiferromagnetic transition, we find that magnetic order survives around the Ir dopant sites. The Ir states are magnetically polarized with commensurate stripe-like antiferromagnetic order and long correlations lengths, ξmag>2800 and >850 Å, in the abplane and along the c axis, respectively, driven by their interaction with the Fe spins. This Ir magnetic order persists up to the Néel transition of the majority Fe spins at TN=74(2) K. At 5 K we find that magnetic order coexists microscopically with superconductivity in Ba(Fe1-xIrx)2As2. The energy dependence of the XRMS through the Ir L3 edge shows a non-Lorentzian line shape, which we explain in terms of interference between Ir resonant scattering and Fe nonresonant magnetic scattering.

  16. Research on IR-UWB through wall ranging error%IR-UWB穿墙测距误差研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙静; 张钦宇; 张乃通; 张霆廷; 马琳


    通过将IR—UWB穿墙测距NLOS误差建模为由空间结构导致的几何距离误差和脉冲信号波形失真导致的峰值偏移误差.依据高频射线理论推导了基于收发节点距离和墙体参数的几何距离误差限.通过对IR—UWB信号穿墙透射机理的建模,研究了频率依赖性导致的波形失真问题及相应的TOA测距误差.仿真结果表明,几何距离误差主要由墙体障碍物参数决定,受收发节点间距离的影响不大;IR—UWB信号穿墙传播会发生波形畸变,墙体的非均匀性和相对介电常数越大,波形畸变越严重,由此导致的TOA相关峰值偏移误差维持在脉冲信号距离分辨率范围内.%As the TOA ranging error was always corrupted by the direct path blockage and excess delay in complicated indoor environments, the NLOS ranging error due to IR-UWB through wall propagation was mod- eled by dividing it into two parts: the geometrical error caused by the pulse transmitted through wall, and the peak biased error caused by the pulse waveform distortion due to frequency dependence of huge bandwidth. The theoretical geometrical error bound was derived from transceiver distance, wall thickness and materials. The IR-UWB through wall propagation was modeled using sub-band method, and the peak biased errors were investigated through the waveform distortion of IR-UWB signal propagated in different wall structures. The simulation results show that the geometrical error was mainly determined by the obstacles parameters and the peak biased errors caused by IR-UWB waveform distortions were within the distance resolution of IR-UWB signal.

  17. NO Reactions Over Ir-Based Catalysts in the Presence of O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxin Guo


    Full Text Available The behaviour of a series of Ir-based catalysts supported on SiO2, ZSM-5 and γ-Al2O3 with various Ir loadings prepared by impregnation method was conducted by temperature programmed reaction (TPR technique. The result implies that NO is oxidized to NO2 while simultaneously being reduced to N2 or N2O in the NO reactions over iridium catalysts. The surface active phase over iridium catalysts that promote the NO reactions is IrO2. The catalytic activity increases with the increase of the Ir loading and support materials have a little effect on the catalytic activity. When the loading is less than 0.1%, the catalytic activity was found to be dependent on the nature of support materials and in order: Ir/ZSM-5>Ir/γ-Al2O3>Ir/SiO2. When the loading is higher than 0.1%, the catalytic activity for NO oxidation is in order: Ir/ZSM-5>Ir/SiO2>Ir/γ -Al2O3, which is correlated with Ir dispersion on the surface of support materials and the catalytic activity for NO reduction is in sequence: Ir/γ -Al2O3>Ir/SiO2>Ir/ZSM-5, which is attributed to the adsorbed-dissociation of NO2. Compared to Pt/γ-Al2O3, Ir/γ-Al2O3 catalyst is more benefit for the NO reduction.

  18. Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 associates with small nucleolar RNA which contributes to ribosome biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsufumi eOzoe


    Full Text Available Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs are well known to play crucial roles in mediating intracellular signals of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs/insulin. Previously we showed that IRS-1 forms high molecular mass complexes containing RNAs. To identify RNAs in IRS-1 complexes, we performed UV cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP analysis using HEK293 cells expressing FLAG-IRS-1 and FLAG-IRS-2. We detected the radioactive signals in the immunoprecipitates of FLAG-IRS-1 proportional to the UV irradiation, but not in the immunoprecipitates of FLAG-IRS-2, suggesting the direct contact of RNAs with IRS-1. RNAs cross-linked to IRS-1 were then amplified by RT-PCR, followed by sequence analysis. We isolated sequence tags attributed to 25 messenger RNAs and 8 non-coding RNAs, including small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs. We focused on the interaction of IRS-1 with U96A snoRNA (U96A and its host Rack1 (receptor for activated C kinase 1 pre-mRNA. We confirmed the interaction of IRS-1 with U96A, and with RACK1 pre-mRNA by immunoprecipitation with IRS-1 followed by Northern blotting or RT-PCR analyses. Mature U96A in IRS-1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts was quantitatively less than WT. We also found that a part of nuclear IRS-1 is localized in the Cajal body, a nuclear subcompartment where snoRNA mature. The unanticipated function of IRS-1 in snoRNA biogenesis highlights the potential of RNA-associated IRS-1 complex to open a new line of investigation to dissect the novel mechanisms regulating IGFs/insulin-mediated biological events.

  19. Formation and reactivity of a porphyrin iridium hydride in water: acid dissociation constants and equilibrium thermodynamics relevant to Ir-H, Ir-OH, and Ir-CH2- bond dissociation energetics. (United States)

    Bhagan, Salome; Wayland, Bradford B


    Aqueous solutions of group nine metal(III) (M = Co, Rh, Ir) complexes of tetra(3,5-disulfonatomesityl)porphyrin [(TMPS)M(III)] form an equilibrium distribution of aquo and hydroxo complexes ([(TMPS)M(III)(D(2)O)(2-n)(OD)(n)]((7+n)-)). Evaluation of acid dissociation constants for coordinated water show that the extent of proton dissociation from water increases regularly on moving down the group from cobalt to iridium, which is consistent with the expected order of increasing metal-ligand bond strengths. Aqueous (D(2)O) solutions of [(TMPS)Ir(III)(D(2)O)(2)](7-) react with dihydrogen to form an iridium hydride complex ([(TMPS)Ir-D(D(2)O)](8-)) with an acid dissociation constant of 1.8(0.5) × 10(-12) (298 K), which is much smaller than the Rh-D derivative (4.3 (0.4) × 10(-8)), reflecting a stronger Ir-D bond. The iridium hydride complex adds with ethene and acetaldehyde to form organometallic derivatives [(TMPS)Ir-CH(2)CH(2)D(D(2)O)](8-) and [(TMPS)Ir-CH(OD)CH(3)(D(2)O)](8-). Only a six-coordinate carbonyl complex [(TMPS)Ir-D(CO)](8-) is observed for reaction of the Ir-D with CO (P(CO) = 0.2-2.0 atm), which contrasts with the (TMPS)Rh-D analog which reacts with CO to produce an equilibrium with a rhodium formyl complex ([(TMPS)Rh-CDO(D(2)O)](8-)). Reactivity studies and equilibrium thermodynamic measurements were used to discuss the relative M-X bond energetics (M = Rh, Ir; X = H, OH, and CH(2)-) and the thermodynamically favorable oxidative addition of water with the (TMPS)Ir(II) derivatives.

  20. The mid-IR silicon photonics sensor platform (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kimerling, Lionel; Hu, Juejun; Agarwal, Anuradha M.


    Advances in integrated silicon photonics are enabling highly connected sensor networks that offer sensitivity, selectivity and pattern recognition. Cost, performance and the evolution path of the so-called `Internet of Things' will gate the proliferation of these networks. The wavelength spectral range of 3-8um, commonly known as the mid-IR, is critical to specificity for sensors that identify materials by detection of local vibrational modes, reflectivity and thermal emission. For ubiquitous sensing applications in this regime, the sensors must move from premium to commodity level manufacturing volumes and cost. Scaling performance/cost is critically dependent on establishing a minimum set of platform attributes for point, wearable, and physical sensing. Optical sensors are ideal for non-invasive applications. Optical sensor device physics involves evanescent or intra-cavity structures for applied to concentration, interrogation and photo-catalysis functions. The ultimate utility of a platform is dependent on sample delivery/presentation modalities; system reset, recalibration and maintenance capabilities; and sensitivity and selectivity performance. The attributes and performance of a unified Glass-on-Silicon platform has shown good prospects for heterogeneous integration on materials and devices using a low cost process flow. Integrated, single mode, silicon photonic platforms offer significant performance and cost advantages, but they require discovery and qualification of new materials and process integration schemes for the mid-IR. Waveguide integrated light sources based on rare earth dopants and Ge-pumped frequency combs have promise. Optical resonators and waveguide spirals can enhance sensitivity. PbTe materials are among the best choices for a standard, waveguide integrated photodetector. Chalcogenide glasses are capable of transmitting mid-IR signals with high transparency. Integrated sensor case studies of i) high sensitivity analyte detection in

  1. Development status of the AIRS IR focal plane assembly (United States)

    Libonate, G. Scott; Denley, Brian; Krueger, Eric E.; Rutter, James H., Jr.; Stobie, James A.; Terzis, C. L.


    The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) is a high resolution IR spectrometer (lambda/(Delta) (lambda) congruent 1200) which will map global temperatures and identify atmospheric aerosols from orbit by monitoring key atmospheric absorption lines. The focal plane consists of ten bilinear photovoltaic (PV) and two photoconductive (PC) HgCdTe detector arrays (modules) sampling a 3.7 to 15.4 micrometer spectral window in 15 bands. To attain the desired temperature accuracy, tight constraints on focal plane performance parameters such as linearity better than 0.1%, quantum efficiency (QE) on the order of 70%, low noise or noise equivalent quantum flux density (NEQFD), and no outages at key spectral lines have been imposed. Assessment of focal plane performance begins at the detector and readout levels where flight candidate detector arrays and CMOS readouts are selected. PV detector arrays and their readouts are hybridized (PC modules are wire-bonded directly) into modules which are then individually tested under simulated flight conditions. Five of the twelve module types are incorporated into an engineering-level (EM) focal plane upon which the module level tests are repeated as a prelude to the fabrication and testing of a separate, fully populated, flight-level (PFM) focal plane. Module testing has demonstrated that many difficult system requirements have been met, and work continues to optimize module performance. Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems' (LMIRIS) overall design of the infrared (IR) detector/Dewar assembly and focal plane development program is given, followed by a summary of PV and PC module data.

  2. Thickness and air gap measurement of assembled IR objectives (United States)

    Lueerss, B.; Langehanenberg, P.


    A growing number of applications like surveillance, thermography, or automotive demand for infrared imaging systems. Their imaging performance is significantly influenced by the alignment of the individual lenses. Besides the lateral orientation of lenses, the air spacing between the lenses is a crucial parameter. Because of restricted mechanical accessibility within an assembled objective, a non-contact technique is required for the testing of these parameters. So far, commercial measurement systems were not available for testing of IR objectives since most materials used for infrared imaging are non-transparent at wavelengths below 2 μm. We herewith present a time-domain low coherent interferometer capable of measuring any kind of infrared material (e.g., Ge, Si, etc.) as well as VIS materials. The set-up is based on a Michelson interferometer in which the light from a broadband superluminescent diode is split into a reference arm with a variable optical delay and a measurement arm where the sample is placed. On a detector, the reflected signals from both arms are superimposed and recorded as a function of the variable optical path. Whenever the group delay difference is zero, a coherence peak occurs and the relative distances of the lens surfaces are derived from the optical delay. In order to penetrate IR materials, the instrument operates at 2.2 μm. Together with an LWIR autocollimator, this technique allows for the determination of centering errors, lens thicknesses and air spacings of assembled IR objective lenses with a micron accuracy. It is therefore a tool for precision manufacturing and quality control.

  3. MidIR and LWIR polarimetric sensor comparison study (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan; Felton, Melvin; Mack, Robert; LeMaster, Daniel; Farlow, Craig; Kudenov, Michael; Pezzaniti, Larry


    We present a comparative study involving five distinctly different polarimetric imaging platforms that are designed to record calibrated Stokes images (and associated polarimetric products) in either the MidIR or LWIR spectral regions. The data set used in this study was recorded during April 14-18, 2008, at the Russell Tower Measurement Facility, Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, AL. Four of the five camera systems were designed to operate in the LWIR (approx. 8-12μm), and used either cooled mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal-plane-arrays (FPA), or a near-room temperature microbolometer. The lone MidIR polarimetric sensor was based on a liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled indium antimonide (InSb) FPA, resulting in an approximate wavelength response of 3-5μm. The selection of cameras was comprised of the following optical designs: a LWIR "super-pixel," or division-of-focal plane (DoFP) sensor; two LWIR spinning-achromatic-retarder (SAR) based sensors; one LWIR division-of-amplitude (DoAM) sensor; and one MidIR division-of-aperture (DoA) sensor. Cross-sensor comparisons were conducted by examining calibrated Stokes images (e.g., S0, S1, S2, and degree-of-linear polarization (DOLP)) recorded by each sensor for a given target at approximately the same test periods to ensure that data sets were recorded under similar atmospheric conditions. Target detections are applied to the image set for each polarimetric sensor for further comparison, i.e., conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and an effective contrast ratio are considered.

  4. Differentiation of Leishmania species by FT-IR spectroscopy (United States)

    Aguiar, Josafá C.; Mittmann, Josane; Ferreira, Isabelle; Ferreira-Strixino, Juliana; Raniero, Leandro


    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease caused by protozoa that belong to the genus Leishmania. It is transmitted by the bite of an infected female Sand fly. The disease is endemic in 88 countries Desjeux (2001) [1] (16 developed countries and 72 developing countries) on four continents. In Brazil, epidemiological data show the disease is present in all Brazilian regions, with the highest incidences in the North and Northeast. There are several methods used to diagnose leishmaniasis, but these procedures have many limitations, are time consuming, have low sensitivity, and are expensive. In this context, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis has the potential to provide rapid results and may be adapted for a clinical test with high sensitivity and specificity. In this work, FT-IR was used as a tool to investigate the promastigotes of Leishmaniaamazonensis, Leishmaniachagasi, and Leishmaniamajor species. The spectra were analyzed by cluster analysis and deconvolution procedure base on spectra second derivatives. Results: cluster analysis found four specific regions that are able to identify the Leishmania species. The dendrogram representation clearly indicates the heterogeneity among Leishmania species. The band deconvolution done by the curve fitting in these regions quantitatively differentiated the polysaccharides, amide III, phospholipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. L. chagasi and L. major showed a greater biochemistry similarity and have three bands that were not registered in L. amazonensis. The L. amazonensis presented three specific bands that were not recorded in the other two species. It is evident that the FT-IR method is an indispensable tool to discriminate these parasites. The high sensitivity and specificity of this technique opens up the possibilities for further studies about characterization of other microorganisms.

  5. IR Thermography of International Space Station Radiator Panels (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay; Winfree, WIlliam; Morton, Richard; Howell, Patricia


    Several non-flight qualification test radiators were inspected using flash thermography. Flash thermography data analysis used raw and second derivative images to detect anomalies (Echotherm and Mosaic). Simple contrast evolutions were plotted for the detected anomalies to help in anomaly characterization. Many out-of-family indications were noted. Some out-of-family indications were classified as cold spot indications and are due to additional adhesive or adhesive layer behind the facesheet. Some out-of-family indications were classified as hot spot indications and are due to void, unbond or lack of adhesive behind the facesheet. The IR inspection helped in assessing expected manufacturing quality of the radiators.

  6. Expanded IR glass map for multispectral optics designs (United States)

    Bayya, Shyam; Gibson, Daniel; Nguyen, Vinh; Beadie, Guy; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kotov, Mikhail


    This paper presents new multispectral IR glasses with transmission from 0.9 to > 14 μm in wavelength and refractive index from 2.38 to 2.17. These new glasses are designed to have comparable glass softening temperatures and compatible coefficients of thermal expansion to allow bonding and co-molding of multilayer optics. With large variation in their Abbe numbers and negative to near-zero dn/dT, optics made from these new glasses can significantly reduce the size/weight or complexity of the multispectral imaging systems for weight sensitive platforms.

  7. Structured IR illumination for relative depth sensing in virtual interfaces (United States)

    Kress, Bernard; Raulot, Victorien; Grossman, Michel


    Depth mapping or depth sensing has become a popular field, applied not only to automotive sensing for collision avoidance (radar) but also to gesture sensing for gaming and virtual interfaces (optical). Popular gesture sensing devices such as the Kinect from Microsoft's Xbox gaming device produce a full absolute depth map, which is in most cases not adapted to the task on hand (relative gesture sensing). We propose in this paper a new gesture sensing technique through structured IR illumination to provide a relative depth mapping rather than an absolute one, and this reducing the requirements on computing power and therefore enabling this technology for wearable computing such as see through display.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Telles


    Full Text Available In this contribution I will very brie y summarize some recent results obtained applying 3D spectroscopy to observations of the well known HII galaxy II Zw 40, both in the optical and near-IR. I have studied the distribution of the dust in the starburst region, the velocity and velocity dispersion, and the geometry of the molecular hydrogen and ionized gas. I found a clear correlation between the component of the ISM and the velocity eld suggesting that the latter has a fundamental role in de ning the modes of the star formation process.

  9. Determination of sea surface temperatures from microwave and IR data (United States)

    Rangaswamy, S.; Grover, J.


    Microwave measurements from the Nimbus 7 SMMR were used to derive the atmospheric precipitable water, which was then used to obtain the atmospheric correction for use with AVHRR thermal IR measurements to obtain sea surface temperature (SST). The resulting SST's were compared with the NOAA operational sea surface temperature measurements, and the two sets of measurements were found to be in reasonable agreement. The average residuals between the two sets of measurements was 0.15 K with the NOAA operational SST's being slightly greater.

  10. Development of nanostructured protective "sight glasses" for IR gas sensors (United States)

    Bergmann, René; Davis, Zachary James; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Clausen, Sønnik; Boisen, Anja; Jensen, Jens Møller; Buchner, Rainer; Stolberg-Rohr, Thomine; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen


    In this work protective "sight glasses" for infrared gas sensors showing a sub-wavelength nanostructure with random patterns have been fabricated by reactive ion etching (RIE) in an easy and comparable cheap single step mask-less process. By an organic coating, the intrinsic water repellent property of the surface could be enhanced, shown by contact angle and roll-off angle measurements. The "self-cleaning" surface property and chemical robustness towards aggressive environments are demonstrated. FT-IR spectroscopy concerning the optical properties of these nanostructured silicon windows revealed a stable anti-reflective "moth-eye" effect in certain wavelength ranges owing to the nanostructures.

  11. Metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated IR pyrolized polyacrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimov, Mikhail N.; Zhilyaeva, Natalya A.; Vasilyev, Andrey A.; Muratov, Dmitriy G.; Zemtsov, Lev M.; Karpacheva, Galina P. [A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis RAS, Leninskiy Prospekt 29, 119991 Moscow Russia (Russian Federation)


    In this paper we report about new approach to preparation of metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated carbon. Polyacrylonitrile is suggested as a precursor for Co, Pd and Ru nanoparticles carbon support which is prepared under IR pyrolysis conditions of a precursor. The first part of the paper is devoted to study activated carbon structural characteristics dependence on activation conditions. In the second part the effect of type of metal introduced in precursor on metal-carbon nanocomposite structural characteristics is shown. Prepared AC and nanocomposite samples are characterized by BET, TEM, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  12. Development of 6.1 A Materials for IR Applications (United States)


    thin - film stack to alleviate this energy, which ultimately propagates into the IR absorbing layer. Generally, a two orders of magnitude higher...substrates, re-grow a GaSb buffer layer if so desired, and then deposit a Zn(Se)Te thin film that is lattice matched to HgCdSe all without exposing the...microscopy UHV ultra high vacuum UV ultraviolet Zn zinc ZnTe zinc telluride ZnSeTe zinc selenide telluride 17 NO OF. COPIES ORGANIZATION 1

  13. NG7538 IRS1 N: modeling a circumstellar maser disk

    CERN Document Server

    Pestalozzi, M R; Conway, J; Booth, R


    We present an edge-on Keplerian disk model to explain the main component of the 12.2 and 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission detected toward NGC7538-IRS1 N. The brightness distribution and spectrum of the line of bright masers are successfully modeled with high amplification of background radio continuum emission along velocity coherent paths through a maser disk. The bend seen in the position-velocity diagram is a characteristic signature of differentially rotating disks. For a central mass of 30 solar masses, suggested by other observations, our model fixes the masing disk to have inner and outer radii of about 270 AU and 750 AU.

  14. Neo-Poulantzian Perspectives in IR and the Current Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ougaard, Morten

    This paper is about Poulantzas, historical materialism, international relations, and the current crisis. My purpose is to discuss how some Poulantzian theoretical contributions can be applied to the study of subject matters that are the focus of academic fields such as International Relations (IR......), International Political Economy (IPE), International Politics, World Politics and others. I deliberately abstain from singling out any of these disciplines or fields or labels and from trying to define them precisely, because one of my arguments is that historical materialism (HM) is a research program2...

  15. Disintegration rate measurement of a 192Ir solution. (United States)

    Fonseca, K A; Koskinas, M F; Dias, M S


    The disintegration rate of 192Ir has been measured using the 4pibeta-gamma coincidence technique. This radionuclide decays by electron capture (EC) and beta-emission. Since the EC contribution is low (4.5%), it has been corrected using decay scheme data taken from the literature. This measurement has been performed in collaboration with the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes (IRDDM), in Rio de Janeiro. The results, which were obtained independently and employed different techniques, are compared with the Systéme International Reference (SIR) maintained at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures.

  16. Lack of Arg972 polymorphism in the IRS1 gene in Parakand Brazilian Indians


    Bezerra, RMN; Chadid, TT; Altemani, CM; Sales, TSI; Menezes, R.; Soares, MCP; Saad, STO; Saad, MJA


    Several polymorphisms in the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) gene have been reported in the last years. The most common IRS1 variant, a Gly --> Arg substitution at codon 972 (Arg972 IRS1), is more prevalent among subjects who have features of insulin resistance syndrome associated, or not, with type 2 diabetes in European populations. To determine whether the absence of IRS1 polymorphism is a more general characteristic of Paleo-Indian-derived populations, we examined the Arg972 IRS1 poly...

  17. Lack of Arg972 polymorphism in the IRS1 gene in Parakanã Brazilian Indians. (United States)

    Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Chadid, Thiago T; Altemani, Claúdia M; Sales, Teresa S I; Menezes, Raimundo; Soares, Manoel C P; Saad, Sara T O; Saad, Mario J A


    Several polymorphisms in the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) gene have been reported in the last years. The most common IRS1 variant, a Gly --> Arg substitution at codon 972 (Arg972 IRS1), is more prevalent among subjects who have features of insulin resistance syndrome associated, or not, with type 2 diabetes in European populations. To determine whether the absence of IRS1 polymorphism is a more general characteristic of Paleo-Indian-derived populations, we examined the Arg972 IRS1 polymorphism in Parakanã Indians and found a lack of this polymorphism in the Parakanã population.

  18. Superconductivity at 3.7 K in Ternary Silicide Li2IrSi3


    Hirai, Daigorou; Kawakami, Rui; Magdysyuk, Oxana V.; Dinnebier, Robert E; Yaresko, Alexander; Takagi, Hidenori


    We report the discovery of superconductivity at Tc = 3.7 K in the new ternary lithium silicide Li2IrSi3. The crystal structure of Li2IrSi3 consists of IrSi6 antiprisms connected by Si triangles, giving rise to a three dimensional framework of covalent Si-Si and Si-Ir bonds. Electronic specific-heat in superconducting phase suggests that Li2IrSi3 is a BCS weak-coupling superconductor.

  19. In search of the elusive IrB{sub 2}: Can mechanochemistry help?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhilin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Blair, Richard G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Orlovskaya, Nina, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Cullen, David A. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lapidus, Saul H. [X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kata, Dariusz; Rutkowski, Paweł; Lis, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Department of Ceramics and Refractories, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)


    The previously unknown hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type IrB{sub 2} diboride and orthorhombic IrB monoboride phases were produced by mechanochemical syntheses. High energy ball milling of elemental Ir and B powder for 30 h, followed by annealing of the powder at 1050 °C for 48 h, resulted in the formation of the desired phases. Both traditional laboratory and high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used for phase identification of the synthesized powder. In addition to XRD, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to further characterize the microstructure of the phases produced. - Graphical abstract: ReB{sub 2}-type IrB{sub 2} and a new IrB have been successfully synthesized for the first time using mechanochemical method. Crystal structures of IrB{sub 2} and IrB were studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Microstructures of the new phases were characterized by SEM and TEM. - Highlights: • ReB{sub 2}-type IrB{sub 2} and a new IrB have been synthesized by mechanochemical method. • Crystal structures of IrB{sub 2} and IrB were studied by synchrotron XRD. • Microstructures of the new phases were characterized by SEM and TEM.

  20. AFM-IR: Technology and Applications in Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging. (United States)

    Dazzi, Alexandre; Prater, Craig B


    Atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) is a rapidly emerging technique that provides chemical analysis and compositional mapping with spatial resolution far below conventional optical diffraction limits. AFM-IR works by using the tip of an AFM probe to locally detect thermal expansion in a sample resulting from absorption of infrared radiation. AFM-IR thus can provide the spatial resolution of AFM in combination with the chemical analysis and compositional imaging capabilities of infrared spectroscopy. This article briefly reviews the development and underlying technology of AFM-IR, including recent advances, and then surveys a wide range of applications and investigations using AFM-IR. AFM-IR applications that will be discussed include those in polymers, life sciences, photonics, solar cells, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and cultural heritage. In the Supporting Information , the authors provide a theoretical section that reviews the physics underlying the AFM-IR measurement and detection mechanisms.

  1. The importance of correcting for variable probe-sample interactions in AFM-IR spectroscopy: AFM-IR of dried bacteria on a polyurethane film. (United States)

    Barlow, Daniel E; Biffinger, Justin C; Cockrell-Zugell, Allison L; Lo, Michael; Kjoller, Kevin; Cook, Debra; Lee, Woo Kyung; Pehrsson, Pehr E; Crookes-Goodson, Wendy J; Hung, Chia-Suei; Nadeau, Lloyd J; Russell, John N


    AFM-IR is a combined atomic force microscopy-infrared spectroscopy method that shows promise for nanoscale chemical characterization of biological-materials interactions. In an effort to apply this method to quantitatively probe mechanisms of microbiologically induced polyurethane degradation, we have investigated monolayer clusters of ∼200 nm thick Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 bacteria (Pf) on a 300 nm thick polyether-polyurethane (PU) film. Here, the impact of the different biological and polymer mechanical properties on the thermomechanical AFM-IR detection mechanism was first assessed without the additional complication of polymer degradation. AFM-IR spectra of Pf and PU were compared with FTIR and showed good agreement. Local AFM-IR spectra of Pf on PU (Pf-PU) exhibited bands from both constituents, showing that AFM-IR is sensitive to chemical composition both at and below the surface. One distinct difference in local AFM-IR spectra on Pf-PU was an anomalous ∼4× increase in IR peak intensities for the probe in contact with Pf versus PU. This was attributed to differences in probe-sample interactions. In particular, significantly higher cantilever damping was observed for probe contact with PU, with a ∼10× smaller Q factor. AFM-IR chemical mapping at single wavelengths was also affected. We demonstrate ratioing of mapping data for chemical analysis as a simple method to cancel the extreme effects of the variable probe-sample interactions.

  2. Data in support of FSH induction of IRS-2 in human granulosa cells: Mapping the transcription factor binding sites in human IRS-2 promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surleen Kaur


    Full Text Available Insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2 plays critical role in the regulation of various metabolic processes by insulin and IGF-1. The defects in its expression and/or function are linked to diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, insulin resistance and cancer. To predict the transcription factors (TFs responsible for the regulation of human IRS-2 gene expression, the transcription factor binding sites (TFBS and the corresponding TFs were investigated by analysis of IRS-2 promoter sequence using MatInspector Genomatix software (Cartharius et al., 2005 [1]. The ibid data is part of author׳s publication (Anjali et al., 2015 [2] that explains Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH mediated IRS-2 promoter activation in human granulosa cells and its importance in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Further analysis was carried out for binary interactions of TF regulatory genes in IRS-2 network using Cytoscape software tool and R-code. In this manuscript, we describe the methodology used for the identification of TFBSs in human IRS-2 promoter region and provide details on experimental procedures, analysis method, validation of data and also the raw files. The purpose of this article is to provide the data on all TFBSs in the promoter region of human IRS-2 gene as it has the potential for prediction of the regulation of IRS-2 gene in normal or diseased cells from patients with metabolic disorders and cancer.

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning of laboratory solutions enriched uranium (IR-01 b); Descontaminacion y desmantelamiento del laboratorio de soluciones de uranio enriquecido (IR-01b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Arocas, P. P.; Sama Colao, J.; Garcia Diaz, A.; Torre Rodriguez, J.; Martinez, A.; Argiles, E.; Garrido Delgado, C.


    Completed actions decontamination and decommissioning of the Laboratory of Enriched Uranium Solutions, attached to the Radioactivity lR-0l CIEMAT, was carried out final radiological control of the laboratory. From the documentation generated proceeded to request modification of the IR-01 installation by closing its laboratory IR-01 b.

  4. The insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 in intestinal epithelial differentiation and in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L Esposito

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is associated with lifestyle factors that affect insulin/IGF signaling, of which the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1 is a key transducer. We investigated expression, localization and pathologic correlations of IRS1 in cancer-uninvolved colonic epithelium, primary CRCs with paired liver metastases and in vitro polarizing Caco2 and HT29 cells. IRS1 mRNA and protein resulted higher, relative to paired mucosa, in adenomas of familial adenomatous polyposis patients and in CRCs that overexpressed c-MYC, ß-catenin, InsRß, and IGF1R. Analysis of IRS1 immunostaining in 24 cases of primary CRC with paired colonic epithelium and hepatic metastasis showed that staining intensity was significantly higher in metastases relative to both primary CRC (P<0.01 and colonic epithelium (P<0.01. Primary and metastatic CRCs, compared to colonic epithelium, contained significantly higher numbers of IRS1-positive cells (P = 0.013 and P = 0.014, respectively. Pathologic correlations in 163 primary CRCs revealed that diffuse IRS1 staining was associated with tumors combining differentiated phenotype and aggressive markers (high Ki67, p53, and ß-catenin. In Caco 2 IRS1 and InsR were maximally expressed after polarization, while IGF1R was highest in pre-polarized cells. No nuclear IRS1 was detected, while, with polarization, phosphorylated IRS1 (pIRS1 shifted from the lateral to the apical plasma membrane and was expressed in surface cells only. In HT29, that carry mutations constitutively activating survival signaling, IRS1 and IGF1R decreased with polarization, while pIRS1 localized in nuclear spots throughout the course. Overall, these data provide evidence that IRS1 is modulated according to CRC differentiation, and support a role of IRS1 in CRC progression and liver metastatization.

  5. Progress in cooled IR detectors and new developments (United States)

    Tribolet, Philippe; Vuillermet, Michel


    Cooled IR detectors are produced at mass production level at Sofradir for years based on its mature and proven HgCdTe technology. However, following the market needs, a lot of progress have been made and allow Sofradir to offer new product designs mainly dealing with the simplification of the detector use as well as reliability improvements. In addition to the conventional technologies used at mass production level, the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) approach has been under investigation for several years to prepare both the very large array fabrication and the new (3rd) generation developments. CEA-Leti, in cooperation with Sofradir, obtained very good results on 4-inches wafer size which confirms the mastering of this growth process. Very high qualities FPAs (1280×1024), with pitches as small as 15μm, were demonstrated as well as bicolor and dual band FPAs which use more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures. A very new development at CEA-Leti concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with HgCdTe which presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors: extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low flux applications and fast detectors. The cooled IR detector field is progressing very rapidly and new developments will offer a lot of system simplification and enhancements.

  6. Tenoxicam-kollicoat IR binary systems: physicochemical and biological evaluation. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Abbas


    Tenoxicam (TNX) binary systems in Kollicoat IR (KL) matrix were prepared in different drug: polymer ratios using kneading and spray-drying method. The prepared binary systems were characterized for drug dissolution rate, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), IR spectroscopy and x-ray diffractometry. The results showed that the drug dissolution rate was remarkably enhanced by incorporating it in the KL matrix either by kneading or spray-drying, and the dissolution rate was increased by decreasing the drug weight ratio. The DSc and x-ray studies revealed the presence of TNX in less crystalline or amorphous state in its-KL binary systems. Moreover, the spray-dried TNX-KL system in 1:4 ratio, that exhibited the faster dissolution rate, was formulated in oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs). The data indicated that a fast disintegration and higher drug dissolution rate was achieved in case of the ODTs containing the spray-dried form compared to the ODTS containing untreated drug or the commercial tablet (Epicotil). Also, the drug exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) faster onset of the anti-inflammatory analgesic activities in case of the ODTs containing the spray-dried form, that was superior to that observed with both the commercial tablet product and the ODTS containing untreated drug.

  7. Crosstalk between adiponectin and IGF-IR in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana eMauro


    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic and multifactorial disorder that is reaching epidemic proportions. It is characterized by an enlarged mass of adipose tissue caused by a combination of size increase of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy and de novo adipocyte differentiation (hyperplasia. Obesity is related to many metabolic disorders like hypertension, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and it is associated with an increased risk of cancer development in different tissues including breast. Adipose tissue is now regarded as not just a storage reservoir for excess energy, but rather as an endocrine organ, secreting a large number of bioactive molecules called adipokines. Among these, adiponectin represents the most abundant adipose tissue-excreted protein, which exhibits insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. The serum concentrations of adiponectin are inversely correlated with body mass index. Recently, low levels of plasma adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk for obesity-related cancers and development of more aggressive phenotype, concomitantly with alterations in the bioavailability of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I and IGF-I Receptor (IGF-IR signaling pathways. In this review we discuss the cross-talk between adiponectin/AdipoR1 and IGF-I/IGF-IR in breast cancer.

  8. Qualification tests for {sup 192}Ir sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iancso, Georgeta, E-mail:; Iliescu, Elena, E-mail:; Iancu, Rodica, E-mail: [National Institute of R and D for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, Magurele (Romania)


    This paper describes the results of qualification tests for {sup 192}Ir sealed sources, available in Testing and Nuclear Expertise Laboratory of National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering 'Horia Hulubei' (I.F.I.N.-HH), Romania. These sources had to be produced in I.F.I.N.-HH and were tested in order to obtain the authorization from The National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). The sources are used for gammagraphy procedures or in gammadefectoscopy equipments. Tests, measurement methods and equipments used, comply with CNCAN, AIEA and International Quality Standards and regulations. The qualification tests are: 1. Radiological tests and measurements: dose equivalent rate at 1 m; tightness; dose equivalent rate at the surface of the transport and storage container; external unfixed contamination of the container surface. 2. Mechanical and climatic tests: thermal shock; external pressure; mechanic shock; vibrations; boring; thermal conditions for storage and transportation. Passing all tests, it was obtained the Radiological Security Authorization for producing the {sup 192}Ir sealed sources. Now IFIN-HH can meet many demands for this sealed sources, as the only manufacturer in Romania.

  9. Evolution path of MWS technologies: RF, IR, and UV (United States)

    Tidhar, Gil; Schlisselberg, Raanan


    In recent years some major technological developments in the fields of electro-optics and computer H/W took place, which call for reconsideration of the development paths for missile warning systems (MWS). In this work, we provide a review of the technological developments, and then suggest a framework for the following issues: (a) Prioritization of requirements for MWS, (b) Selection of best candidate technologies for next-generation MWS, (c) Establishing a generic parameter sensitivity model for MWS performance, with which we could quantify the effects of different design choices on system-level performance. Our work shows that (a) Infrared optical H/W remains the leading technology for MWS applications, (b) 3rd generation infrared imaging H/W will make a significant impact on MWS performance, compared with 2nd generation based IR-MWS system's performance. (c) Dual band infrared sensor FPAs now under development will further improve performance, yet the improvement will be offset by the lack of some of the more important features of the 3rd generation imagers-very high resolution and frame rate (d) A combination of 3rd generation and dual band IR imaging, when it becomes available, will provide yet another significant improvement.

  10. Beam diagnostics at DAFNE with fast uncooled IR detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bocci, A; Drago, A; Grilli, A; Marcelli, A; Piccinini, M; Raco, A; Sorchetti, R; Gambicorti, L; De Sio, A; Pace, E; Piotrowski, J


    Bunch-by-bunch longitudinal diagnostics is a key issue of modern accelerators. To face up this challenging demand, tests of mid-IR compact uncooled photoconductive HgCdTe detectors have been recently performed at DAFNE. Different devices were used to monitor the emission of e- bunches. The first experiments allowed recording of 2.7 ns long e- bunches with a FWHM of a single pulse of about 600 ps. These results address the possibility to improve diagnostics at DAFNE and to this purpose an exit port on a bending magnet of the positron ring has been set-up. An HV chamber, hosting a gold-coated plane mirror that collects and deflects the radiation through a ZnSe window, is the front-end of this port. After the window, a simple optical layout in air allows focusing IR radiation on different detectors. The instrumentation will allow comparison in the sub-ns time domain between the two rings and to identify and characterize bunch instabilities. Moreover, to improve performances tests of new photovoltaic detectors wi...

  11. Warped Higgsless Models with IR-Brane Kinetic Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudiasl, H; Lillie, Benjamin Huntington; Rizzo, T G


    We examine a warped Higgsless $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R\\times U(1)_{B-L}$ model in 5--$d$ with IR(TeV)--brane kinetic terms. It is shown that adding a brane term for the $U(1)_{B-L}$ gauge field does not affect the scale ($\\sim 2-3$ TeV) where perturbative unitarity in $W_L^+ W_L^- \\to W_L^+ W_L^-$ is violated. This term could, however, enhance the agreement of the model with the precision electroweak data. In contrast, the inclusion of a kinetic term corresponding to the $SU(2)_D$ custodial symmetry of the theory delays the unitarity violation in $W_L^\\pm$ scattering to energy scales of $\\sim 6-7$ TeV for a significant fraction of the parameter space. This is about a factor of 4 improvement compared to the corresponding scale of unitarity violation in the Standard Model without a Higgs. We also show that null searches for extra gauge bosons at the Tevatron and for contact interactions at LEP II place non-trivial bounds on the size of the IR-brane terms.

  12. High-performance MCT and QWIP IR detectors at Sofradir (United States)

    Reibel, Yann; Rubaldo, Laurent; Manissadjian, Alain; Billon-Lanfrey, David; Rothman, Johan; de Borniol, Eric; Destéfanis, Gérard; Costard, E.


    Cooled IR technologies are challenged for answering new system needs like compactness and reduction of cryo-power which is key feature for the SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) requirements. This paper describes the status of MCT IR technology in France at Leti and Sofradir. A focus will be made on hot detector technology for SWAP applications. Sofradir has improved its HgCdTe technology to open the way for High Operating Temperature systems that release the Stirling cooler engine power consumption. Solutions for high performance detectors such as dual bands, much smaller pixel pitch or megapixels will also be discussed. In the meantime, the development of avalanche photodiodes or TV format with digital interface is key to bringing customers cutting-edge functionalities. Since 1997, Sofradir has been working with Thales and Research Technologies (TRT) to develop and produce Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP) as a complementary offer with MCT, to provide large LW staring arrays. A dualband MW-LW QWIP detector (25μm pitch 384×288 IDDCA) is currently under development. We will present in this paper its latest results.

  13. SPICA: Mid-IR exoplanet spectroscopy in Space (United States)

    Waldmann, I. P.; Swinyard, B.; Tessenyi, M.; Tinetti, G.


    In less than three decades, the field of exoplanetary science has undergone nothing short of a revolution. We have gone from the oddball discovery of a 'planetary sized object' orbiting a pulsar star (Wolszczan and Frail, 1992) to efficient and systematic all-sky surveys with nearly two thousand confirmed exoplanets and over three thousand candidates awaiting confirmation (Burke et al., 2013). With such wealth of systems discovered, we are constantly edging closer to finding the holy grail of planetary science: an Earth analogue with habitable conditions. To understand conditions of habitability, we must characterise the exoplanets. This is best achieved by the spectroscopy of their atmospheres in the near to mid-IR wavelength ranges (5-20 microns) where complex molecules emit. Whilst JWST/MIRI does cover these wavelength ranges in four separate filters, the importance of oneshot, simultaneous wavelength coverage to constrain stellar and planetary variability cannot be overstated. In this talk we will present the concept of a highstability spectrograph on the proposed SPICA mission, featuring a continuous wavelength coverage from the near to mid-IR, ideally placed to characterise warm- Neptunes to habitable zone planets.

  14. Estimation of Leaf Area Index Using IRS Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faridhosseini


    Full Text Available Estimation of vegetation cover attributes, such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI, is an important step in identifying the amount of water use for some plants. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using IRS LISS-III data to retrieve LAI. To get a LAI retrieval model based on reflectance and vegetation index, detailed field data were collected in the study area of eastern Iran. In this study, atmospheric corrected IRS LISS-III imagery was used to calculate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. Data of 50 samples of LAI were measured by Sun Scan System – SS1 in the study area. In situ measurements of LAI were related to widely use spectral vegetation indices (NDVI. The best model through analyzing the results was LAI = 19.305×NDVI+5.514 using the method of linear-regression analysis. The results showed that the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.534 and RMSE was 0.67. Thereby, suggesting that, when using remote sensing NDVI for LAI estimation, not only is the choice of NDVI of importance but also prior knowledge of plant architecture and soil background. Hence, some kind of landscape stratification is required before using multi- spectral imagery for large-scale mapping of vegetation biophysical variables.

  15. 3D flare particle model for ShipIR/NTCS (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.


    A key component in any soft-kill response to an incoming guided missile is the flare /chaff decoy used to distract or seduce the seeker homing system away from the naval platform. This paper describes a new 3D flare particle model in the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR), which provides independent control over the size and radial distribution of its signature. The 3D particles of each flare sub-munition are modelled stochastically and rendered using OpenGL z-buffering, 2D projection, and alpha-blending to produce a unique and time varying signature. A sensitivity analysis on each input parameter provides the data and methods needed to synthesize a model from an IR measurement of a decoy. The new model also eliminated artifacts and deficiencies in our previous model which prevented reliable tracks from the adaptive track gate algorithm already presented by Ramaswamy and Vaitekunas (2015). A sequence of scenarios are used to test and demonstrate the new flare model during a missile engagement.

  16. Quantification of cross-bleaching during infrared (IR) light stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzer, Sebastian; Hülle, Daniela; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov;


    The cross-bleaching behaviour of automated Risø TL/OSL (DA-12, DA-15, DA-20) luminescence readers is investigated. By design, up to 24 or 48 aliquots can be stored on a carousel in a single measurement chamber. Due to this construction, irradiation or illumination on one sample may affect...... measurements of feldspar or polymineral samples it is important to keep the time constant between the (midpoint of the) irradiation and the subsequent read out to avoid the malign effects of anomalous fading in laboratory constructed dose response curves. This may be achieved by running all measurements...... on subsequent samples. Here we investigate the size of this reduction due to cross-bleaching from the IR diodes and quantify the cross-bleaching for 10 different Risø TL/OSL readers produced between 1994 and 2011. We find that cross-bleaching from the IR diodes is worse than from the blue diodes. Using the “run...

  17. Infrared (IR) photon-sensitive spectromicroscopy in a cryogenic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereverzev, Sergey


    A system designed to suppress thermal radiation background and to allow IR single-photon sensitive spectromicroscopy of small samples by using both absorption, reflection, and emission/luminescence measurements. The system in one embodiment includes: a light source; a plurality of cold mirrors configured to direct light along a beam path; a cold or warm sample holder in the beam path; windows of sample holder (or whole sample holder) are transparent in a spectral region of interest, so they do not emit thermal radiation in the same spectral region of interest; a cold monochromator or other cold spectral device configured to direct a selected fraction of light onto a cold detector; a system of cold apertures and shields positioned along the beam path to prevent unwanted thermal radiation from arriving at the cold monochromator and/or the detector; a plurality of optical, IR and microwave filters positioned along the beam path and configured to adjust a spectral composition of light incident upon the sample under investigation and/or on the detector; a refrigerator configured to maintain the detector at a temperature below 1.0K; and an enclosure configured to: thermally insulate the light source, the plurality of mirrors, the sample holder, the cold monochromator and the refrigerator.

  18. Unveiling the Dynamic Infrared Sky with Gattini-IR

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Anna M; Gelino, Christopher R; Jencson, Jacob E; Jones, Mike I; Kirkpatrick, J Davy; Lau, Ryan M; Ofek, Eran; Petrunin, Yuri; Smith, Roger; Terebizh, Valery; Steinbring, Eric; Yan, Lin


    While optical and radio transient surveys have enjoyed a renaissance over the past decade, the dynamic infrared sky remains virtually unexplored. The infrared is a powerful tool for probing transient events in dusty regions that have high optical extinction, and for detecting the coolest of stars that are bright only at these wavelengths. The fundamental roadblocks in studying the infrared time-domain have been the overwhelmingly bright sky background (250 times brighter than optical) and the narrow field-of-view of infrared cameras (largest is 0.6 sq deg). To begin to address these challenges and open a new observational window in the infrared, we present Palomar Gattini-IR: a 25 sq degree, 300mm aperture, infrared telescope at Palomar Observatory that surveys the entire accessible sky (20,000 sq deg) to a depth of 16.4 AB mag (J band, 1.25um) every night. Palomar Gattini-IR is wider in area than every existing infrared camera by more than a factor of 40 and is able to survey large areas of sky multiple time...

  19. Limewashed mural paintings as seen by VIS-IR reflectography (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Striova, J.; Barucci, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Mariotti, P.


    Near-Infrared (NIR) reflectography is a well-established technique for painting diagnostics, offering a fundamental contribution to the conservation of paintings. Since the '80s it has been routinely applied to study the execution technique of the author, as well as the presence of pentimenti, retouches, integrations or underdrawing. In the last decades IR reflectography has been extended to the visible (VIS) spectral range, providing information about the pigment composition. Up to now the multispectral analysis is still applied at an experimental level, as the processing of the image set is not straightforward. Rarely multispectral VIS-IR application has been applied to frescos, probably due to the lack, in most cases, of a scattering background. In this work we present the results provided by a multispectral scanning device based on single sensor acquisition, working in the 380-2500 nm spectral range, that is a laboratory prototype specifically built for research-grade imaging. The technique have been applied on a mock up simulating a mural painting substrate where an underdrawing, made of either carbon or iron-gall ink, was covered by different surface layers of limewash, the so-called scialbo.

  20. The Chandra COSMOS Legacy survey: optical/IR identifications

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesi, S; Elvis, M; Salvato, M; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Hasinger, G; Lanzuisi, G; Miyaji, T; Treister, E; Urry, C M; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Allevato, V; Cappelluti, N; Cardamone, C; Finoguenov, A; Griffiths, R E; Karim, A; Laigle, C; LaMassa, S M; Jahnke, K; Ranalli, P; Schawinski, K; Schinnerer, E; Silverman, J D; Smolcic, V; Suh, H; Trakhtenbrot, B


    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra program on the 2.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 micron identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 micron information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while 54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is availa...

  1. Application of cooled IR focal plane arrays in thermographic cameras (United States)

    Vollheim, B.; Gaertner, M.; Dammass, G.; Krausz, M.


    The usage of cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors in thermographic or radiometric thermal imaging cameras, respectively, leads to special demands on these detectors, which are discussed in this paper. For a radiometric calibration of wide temperature measuring ranges from -40 up to 2,000 °C, a linear and time-stable response of the photodiode array has to be ensured for low as well as high radiation intensities. The maximum detectable photon flux is limited by the allowed shift of the photodiode's bias that should remain in the linear part of the photodiode's I(V) curve even for the highest photocurrent. This limits the measurable highest object temperature in practice earlier than the minimum possible integration time. Higher temperature measuring ranges are realized by means of neutral or spectral filters. Defense and Security applications normally provide images at the given ambient temperature with small hot spots. The usage of radiometric thermal imagers for thermography often feature larger objects with a high temperature contrast to the background. This should not generate artifacts in the image, like pixel patterns or stripes. Further issues concern the clock regime or the sub-frame capabilities of the Read-Out-Circuit and the frame rate dependency of the signal. We will briefly describe the demands on the lens design for thermal imaging cameras when using cooled IR Focal Plane Array detectors with large apertures.

  2. Surface Emissivity Effects on Thermodynamic Retrieval of IR Spectral Radiance (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu


    The surface emissivity effect on the thermodynamic parameters (e.g., the surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature, and moisture) retrieved from satellite infrared (IR) spectral radiance is studied. Simulation analysis demonstrates that surface emissivity plays an important role in retrieval of surface skin temperature and terrestrial boundary layer (TBL) moisture. NAST-I ultraspectral data collected during the CLAMS field campaign are used to retrieve thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere and surface. The retrievals are then validated by coincident in-situ measurements, such as sea surface temperature, radiosonde temperature and moisture profiles. Retrieved surface emissivity is also validated by that computed from the observed radiance and calculated emissions based on the retrievals of surface temperature and atmospheric profiles. In addition, retrieved surface skin temperature and emissivity are validated together by radiance comparison between the observation and retrieval-based calculation in the window region where atmospheric contribution is minimized. Both simulation and validation results have lead to the conclusion that variable surface emissivity in the inversion process is needed to obtain accurate retrievals from satellite IR spectral radiance measurements. Retrieval examples are presented to reveal that surface emissivity plays a significant role in retrieving accurate surface skin temperature and TBL thermodynamic parameters.

  3. Multiplexing of spatial modes in the mid-IR region (United States)

    Gailele, Lucas; Maweza, Loyiso; Dudley, Angela; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Rosales-Guzman, Carmelo; Forbes, Andrew


    Traditional optical communication systems optimize multiplexing in polarization and wavelength both trans- mitted in fiber and free-space to attain high bandwidth data communication. Yet despite these technologies, we are expected to reach a bandwidth ceiling in the near future. Communications using orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying modes offers infinite dimensional states, providing means to increase link capacity by multiplexing spatially overlapping modes in both the azimuthal and radial degrees of freedom. OAM modes are multiplexed and de-multiplexed by the use of spatial light modulators (SLM). Implementation of complex amplitude modulation is employed on laser beams phase and amplitude to generate Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes. Modal decomposition is employed to detect these modes due to their orthogonality as they propagate in space. We demonstrate data transfer by sending images as a proof-of concept in a lab-based scheme. We demonstrate the creation and detection of OAM modes in the mid-IR region as a precursor to a mid-IR free-space communication link.

  4. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.


    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  5. Sectoral thermal emitter for testing of modern IR systems (United States)

    Dulski, R.; Piątkowski, T.; Polakowski, H.


    The paper presents multi-sector stable IR grey body radiation source, that can be used for testing of MRT. Its main element is monolithic metal plate with a test pattern, made of material with high thermal conductivity. On the surface of the test plate the sectors of different emissivity are created during manufacturing process. As a result when viewed by a thermal camera those sectors exhibit thermal contrast depending mainly on the radiative properties of each sector. The value of thermal contrast between particular sectors can be adjusted by changing the temperature of a test plate with respect to ambient. The emissivity values of particular sectors have been calculated and the procedure of adjusting the thermal contrast has been described, as well as the technology used to create the test plate. The model of described emitter has been tested and the results of temperature values obtained from thermal camera were compared with theoretical, calculated figures. The proposed emitter is dedicated for testing and calibrating of modern observations IR systems.

  6. Bright-rimmed molecular cloud around S140 IRS. II. Bipolar outflow from S140 IRS 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Omodaka, T.; Hayashi, S.S.; Miyawaki, R.


    Radioastronomy maps are presented from 16 arcsec resolution scans of the C-12O J = 1 yields 0 emission from S140 IRS, an H II region that is also associated with star formation. The observed C-12O outflow exhibits clear bipolarity. Integral values are calculated for the total mass, momentum and energy of the outflow, which has a velocity asymmetry that features the lowest velocity in the region of greatest mass outflow. Possible explanations for the velocity/mass outflow asymmetry are considered. 37 references.

  7. Mid-IR water and silicate relation in protoplanetary disks (United States)

    Antonellini, S.; Bremer, J.; Kamp, I.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Lahuis, F.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.; Meijerink, R.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.


    Context. Mid-IR water lines from protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars have a detection rate of 50%. Models have identified multiple physical properties of disks such as dust-to-gas mass ratio, dust size power law distribution, disk gas mass, disk inner radius, and disk scale height as potential explanations for the current detection rate. Aims: In this study, we aim to break degeneracies through constraints obtained from observations. We search for a connection between mid-IR water line fluxes and the strength of the 10 μm silicate feature. Methods: We analyze observed water line fluxes from three blends at 15.17, 17.22 and 29.85 μm published earlier and compute the 10 μm silicate feature strength from Spitzer spectra to search for possible trends. We use a series of published ProDiMo thermo-chemical models, to explore disk dust and gas properties, and also the effects of different central stars. In addition, we produced two standard models with different dust opacity functions, and one with a parametric prescription for the dust settling. Results: Our series of models that vary properties of the grain size distribution suggest that mid-IR water emission anticorrelates with the strength of the 10 μm silicate feature. The models also show that the increasing stellar bolometric luminosity simultaneously enhance the strength of this dust feature and the water lines fluxes. No correlation is found between the observed mid-IR water lines and the 10 μm silicate strength. Two-thirds of the targets in our sample show crystalline dust features, and the disks are mainly flaring. Our sample shows the same difference in the peak strength between amorphous and crystalline silicates that was noted in earlier studies, but our models do not support this intrinsic difference in silicate peak strength. Individual properties of our models are not able to reproduce the most extreme observations, suggesting that more complex dust properties (e.g., vertically changing) are

  8. Large exchange bias enhancement in (Pt(or Pd)/Co)/IrMn/Co trilayers with ultrathin IrMn thanks to interfacial Cu dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinai, G. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CEA/CNRS/UJF/Grenoble-INP, CEA/INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Crocus Technology, 4 Place Robert Schuman, 38054 Grenoble (France); Moritz, J. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, Bd des Aiguillettes, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Bandiera, S. [Crocus Technology, 4 Place Robert Schuman, 38054 Grenoble (France); Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CEA/CNRS/UJF/Grenoble-INP, CEA/INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)


    The magnitude of exchange bias (H{sub ex}) at room temperature can be significantly enhanced in IrMn/Co and (Pt(or Pd)/Co)/IrMn/Co structures thanks to the insertion of an ultrathin Cu dusting layer at the IrMn/Co interface. The combination of trilayer structure and interfacial Cu dusting leads to a three-fold increase in H{sub ex} as compared to the conventional IrMn/Co bilayer structure, with an increased blocking temperature (T{sub B}) and a concave curvature of the temperature dependence H{sub ex}(T), ideal for improved Thermally Assisted-Magnetic Random Access Memory storage layer. This exchange bias enhancement is ascribed to a reduction of the spin frustration at the IrMn/Co interface thanks to interfacial Cu addition.

  9. IGF-IR internalizes with Caveolin-1 and PTRF/Cavin in HaCat cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Salani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR is a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK associated with caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane that regulate vesicular transport, endocytosis and intracellular signaling. IGF-IR internalization represents a key mechanism of down-modulation of receptors number on plasma membrane. IGF-IR interacts directly with Caveolin-1 (Cav-1, the most relevant protein of caveolae. Recently it has been demonstrated that the Polymerase I and Transcript Release Factor I (PTRF/Cavin is required for caveolae biogenesis and function. The role of Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin in IGF-IR internalization is still to be clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have investigated the interaction of IGF-IR with Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin in the presence of IGF1in human Hacat cells. We show that IGF-IR internalization triggers Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin translocation from plasma membrane to cytosol and increases IGF-IR interaction with these proteins. In fact, Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin co-immunoprecipitate with IGF-IR during receptor internalization. We found a different time course of co-immunoprecipitation between IGF-IR and Cav-1 compared to IGF-IR and PTRF/Cavin. Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin silencing by siRNA differently affect surface IGF-IR levels following IGF1 treatment: Cav-1 and PTRF/Cavin silencing significantly affect IGF-IR rate of internalization, while PTRF/Cavin silencing also decreases IGF-IR plasma membrane recovery. Since Cav-1 phosphorylation could have a role in IGF-IR internalization, the mutant Cav-1Y14F lacking Tyr14 was transfected. Cav-1Y14F transfected cells showed a reduced internalization of IGF-IR compared with cells expressing wild type Cav-1. Receptor internalization was not impaired by Clathrin silencing. These findings support a critical role of caveolae in IGF-IR intracellular traveling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that Caveolae play a role in IGF-IR internalization. Based on these findings

  10. IR spectroscopic characteristics of cell cycle and cell death probed by synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR spectromicroscopy (United States)

    Holman, H. Y.; Martin, M. C.; Blakely, E. A.; Bjornstad, K.; McKinney, W. R.


    Synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform IR (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy allows the study of individual living cells with a high signal to noise ratio. Here we report the use of the SR-FTIR technique to investigate changes in IR spectral features from individual human lung fibroblast (IMR-90) cells in vitro at different points in their cell cycle. Clear changes are observed in the spectral regions corresponding to proteins, DNA, and RNA as a cell changes from the G(1)-phase to the S-phase and finally into mitosis. These spectral changes include markers for the changing secondary structure of proteins in the cell, as well as variations in DNA/RNA content and packing as the cell cycle progresses. We also observe spectral features that indicate that occasional cells are undergoing various steps in the process of cell death. The dying or dead cell has a shift in the protein amide I and II bands corresponding to changing protein morphologies, and a significant increase in the intensity of an ester carbonyl C===O peak at 1743 cm(-1) is observed. Copyright John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biopolymers (Biospectroscopy) 57: 329-335, 2000.

  11. Composition dependence of phase transformation behavior and shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamabe-Mitarai, Y., E-mail: [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Hara, T.; Kitashima, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Miura, S. [Materials and Process Design, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0813 (Japan); Hosoda, H. [Precision and Intelligence Laboratory (P and I Lab), Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)


    Highlights: ► The partial isothemal section at 1523 K was determined in Ti–Pt–Ir. ► The high-temperature shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir) was investigated. ► The shape recovery ratio was 72% in Ti–10Pt–32Ir after deformation at 1123 K. ► Ir addition to TiPt is effective to improve shape memory effect of TiPt. -- Abstract: The phase transformation and high-temperature shape memory effect of Ti(Pt, Ir) were investigated. First, the Ti-rich phase boundary of Ti(Pt, Ir) was investigated by phase composition analysis by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) using an electron probe X-ray micro analyzer (EPMA), X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then, the three alloys Ti–35Pt–10Ir, Ti–22Pt–22Ir, and Ti–10Pt–32Ir (at%) close to the phase boundary but in the single phase of Ti(Pt, Ir) were prepared by the arc melting method. The shape memory effect and crystal structure were investigated by compression loading–unloading tests and high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively.

  12. How does the far-IR properties of star-forming galaxies depend on environment? (United States)

    Guo, Qi


    Traditionally, most observational studies estimate SFRs using rest-frame UV luminosities or emission lines, which are subject to uncertain corrections for dust extinction. In star-forming regions, UV photons heat the dust, and their energy is re-emitted in the mid- and far-IR range. About half of the starlight is absorbed and re-emitted over the history of the Universe. Observations at IR wavelengths are thus an essential complement to UV and optical tracers of star formation. We use far-IR selected galaxies from the Herschel ATLAS (H-ATLAS) survey and optically selected galaxies from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) redshift survey to study the environmental effects on far-IR properties. It includes the following aspects. What is the typical halo mass of the low-redshift H-ATLAS sources? How does far-IR luminosity depend on host halo mass? How do the far-IR conditional luminosity functions depend on group masses and redshifts? How is the total far-IR light-to-mass ratio in groups of different masses at different redshifts? How much of the far-IR luminosity is contributed by galaxies in groups? Are there any environmental effects on the far-IR-to-optical colour? How does the far-IR properties depend on large-scale environments? Can we pose constrains on current galaxy formation models?

  13. IR finite graviton propagators in de Sitter spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Faizal, Mir; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad


    Graviton propagator diverges in certain gauges in de Sitter spacetime. We address this problem in this work by generalizing the infinitesimal BRST transformations in de Sitter spacetime to finite field-dependent BRST (FFBRST) transformations. These FFBRST transformations are symmetry of the classical action, but do not leave path integral measure invariant for the graviton theory in de Sitter spacetime. Due to the non-trivial Jacobian of such finite transformation the path integral measure changes and hence FFBRST transformation is capable of relating theories in two different gauges. We explicitly construct FFBRST transformation which relates theory with diverging graviton two-point function to theory with infrared (IR) finite graviton. The FFBRST transformation thus establishes that divergence in graviton two-point function may be only a gauge artifact.

  14. IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional (United States)

    Grossman, Jon L.


    For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  15. MRI of lymphedema using short-TI-IR (STIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Koichi; Ishida, Osamu; Mabuchi, Norihisa; Shindou, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Hiroyasu; Kumano, Machiko; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ohkuma, Moriya (Kinki Univ., Osaka (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Thirty four cases with lymphedema of the extremities were examined with MRI at 0.5 tesla. On T1-weighted image, the enlarged subcutaneous tissue and the subcutaneous trabecular structures were seen in all cases. Moreover, the trabecular structures in the enlarged subcutaneous tissue showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2-weighted image in all cases. Additionally, in 12 of 15 cases examined by Short-TI-IR (STIR) image, the trabecular structures and fluid collections in the subcutaneous tissue were shown more definitely in high signal intensity than by T2-weighted image. We consider MRI using STIR is to be useful in the evaluation of edematous disease. (author).

  16. 125Te NMR study of IrTe 2 (United States)

    Mizuno, Kiyoshi; Magishi, Ko-ichi; Shinonome, Yasuaki; Saito, Takahito; Koyama, Kuniyuki; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Nagata, Shoichi


    We have measured 125Te NMR of IrTe2 in order to elucidate the origin of the anomalous behaviors in electrical and magnetic properties around 270 K. In high-temperature region, the NMR spectrum exhibits a sharp line. On the other hand, in low-temperature region, the spectrum shifts to higher magnetic field and splits into three lines. Also, the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate, 1/T1, is proportional to the temperature in both temperature sides; Korringa-like behavior which is characteristic of a metallic state. From the T dependences of the spectrum and 1/T1 around 270 K, it is suggested that these anomalous behaviors may not be due to the charge density wave formation but be caused by a kind of lattice distortion at low temperature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Roscoe


    Full Text Available This article examines whether the transactions between players of online virtual world games can give rise to taxable events. It also compares two earlier articles on the same topic, and argues that the intellectually pure conclusion is that every transaction in virtual worlds creates a taxable event. While the article concludes that the events are taxable, it argues that similar to frequent flier miles, the income from a virtual transaction should not be taxed until it is converted to real world currency. The IRS has implemented Section 6050W designed to require companies like PayPal to report the transactions of their biggest customers. The rules are applicable to virtual world players, but do not perform a sufficient function of ensuring reporting compliance because the number of transactions required to trigger a report are far too high.

  18. IR-LAS Measurements of a Pulsed Xenon Discharge Plasma (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi; Wada, Ryota; Motomura, Hideki; Aono, Masaharu

    As a first step to understand the processes taking place in a pulsed xenon discharge, the temporal behavior of the radial metastable atom distribution in a xenon lamp was measured by IR laser absorption spectroscopy. During the first 10μs after starting the discharge, high electron density and the depletion of the ground state atoms at the center of the discharge brought about an almost flat distribution of the metastable atoms within the half-radius area. Following that, the metastable atom density became higher at the center than outside because of recombination between electrons and ions. After the metastable density increase and following voltage cut off, the metastable density decreases again. Considering the diffusion equation alongside these results, it becomes clear that the decrease of the metastable density is caused by quenching to the resonace level from the metastable level or three-body collisions forming excimers.

  19. Exchange bias measurements of CoFe/IrMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.; Dahlberg, E. Dan; Hou, C.


    The exchange bias anisotropy field in CoFe/IrMn ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic bilayers has been investigated by two different experimental probes. One was the traditional hysteresis loop shift technique and the other was a recently developed technique which monitors small reversible rotations of the magnetization with the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). All the samples show approximately twice the exchange bias anisotropy field measured with the AMR technique compared to that measured with the traditional hysteresis loop method. Based on similar experiments in other materials, there is a portion of the exchange bias uniaxial anisotropy which rotates in a hysteresis loop measurement. It is surmised it is this energy which the hysteresis loop technique neglects and that the AMR technique is a better measure of the exchange bias anisotropy energy. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  20. $Nb_{3}Sn$ quadrupole magnets for the LHC IR

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbi, G L; Chiesa, L; Coccoli, M; Dietderich, D R; Ferracin, P; Gourlay, S A; Hafalia, R R; Lietzke, A F; McInturff, A D; Scanlan, R M


    The development of insertion quadrupoles with 205 T/m gradient and 90 mm bore represents a promising strategy to achieve the ultimate luminosity goal of 2.5 * 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/ at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At present, Nb/sub 3/Sn is the only practical conductor which can meet these requirements. Since Nb/sub 3/Sn is brittle, and considerably more strain sensitive than NbTi, the design concepts and fabrication techniques developed for NbTi magnets need to be modified appropriately. In addition, IR magnets must provide high field quality and operate reliably under severe radiation loads. The results of conceptual design studies addressing these issues are presented. (25 refs).

  1. Near diffraction limited mid-IR spectromicroscopy using frequency upconversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Nicolai Højer; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter;


    Mid-infrared microscopy and spectroscopy is interesting due to its medical, biological and chemical applications. Spectromicroscopy can be used for histopathology, sample analysis and diagnosis. The ability to do spectromicroscopy in the 2.5 to 4.5 μm wavelength range where many organic molecules...... have their fundamental vibrations, with the addition of sufficient spectroscopic resolution to resolve these bands, cane.g.potentially allow for diagnostics without the need for staining of the sample. On a longer timeframe, mid-IR spectromicroscopy has the potential for in-vivo diagnostics, combining...... for all points in the image. In addition, the range of converted/imaged wavelengths can be tuned continuously by changing the temperature of the crystal, or discretely by using a different poling channel in the PPLN crystal....

  2. Structure, IR and Raman spectra of phosphotrihydrazide studied by DFT. (United States)

    Furer, V L; Vandyukov, A E; Majoral, J P; Caminade, A M; Kovalenko, V I


    The FTIR and FT Raman measurements of the phosphotrihydrazide (S)P[N(Me)-NH2]3 have been performed. This compound is a zero generation dendrimer G0 with terminal amine groups. Structural optimization and normal mode analysis were obtained for G0 by the density functional theory (DFT). Optimized geometric bond length and angles obtained by DFT show good agreement with experiment. The amine terminal groups are characterized by the well-defined bands at 3321, 3238, 1614cm(-1) in the experimental IR spectrum and by bands at 3327, 3241cm(-1) in the Raman spectrum of G0. The experimental frequencies of asymmetric and symmetric NH2 stretching vibrations of amine group are lower than theoretical values due to intramolecular NH⋯S hydrogen bond. This hydrogen bond is also responsible for higher experimental infrared intensity of these bands as compared with theoretical values. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed for the studied dendrimer.

  3. Mapping water uptake in organic coatings using AFM-IR. (United States)

    Morsch, S; Lyon, S; Greensmith, P; Smith, S D; Gibbon, S R


    The long-term failure of seemingly intact corrosion resistant organic coatings is thought to occur via the development of ionic transport channels, which spontaneously evolve from hydrophilic regions on immersion, i.e., as a result of localized water uptake. To this end, we investigate water uptake characteristics for industrial epoxy-phenolic can coatings after immersion in deionized water and drying. Moisture sorption and the changing nature of polymer-water interactions are assessed using FTIR for dry and pre-soaked films. More water is found to be absorbed by the pre-soaked coatings on exposure to a humid environment, with a greater degree of hydrogen-bonding between the polymer and water. Furthermore, morphological changes are then correlated to localized water uptake using the AFM-IR technique. Nanoscale softened regions develop on soaking, and these are found to absorb a greater proportion of water from a humid environment.

  4. Insights into Epoxy Network Nanostructural Heterogeneity Using AFM-IR. (United States)

    Morsch, Suzanne; Liu, Yanwen; Lyon, Stuart B; Gibbon, Simon R


    The first direct observation of a chemically heterogeneous nanostructure within an epoxy resin is reported. Epoxy resins comprise the matrix component of many high performance composites, coatings and adhesives, yet the molecular network structure that underpins the performance of these industrially essential materials is not well understood. Internal nodular morphologies have repeatedly been reported for epoxy resins analyzed using SEM or AFM, yet the origin of these features remains a contentious subject, and epoxies are still commonly assumed to be chemically homogeneous. Uniquely, in this contribution we use the recently developed AFM-IR technique to eliminate previous differences in interpretation, and establish that nodule features correspond to heterogeneous network connectivity within an epoxy phenolic formulation.

  5. [IR spectrum characteristics and significance of Luodian jade from Guizhou]. (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Lin, Jin-Hui; Wang, Lei; Wang, Bing; Du, Ying


    In the present paper we selected some typical samples from Luodian jade to perform FTIR test in order to study the vibration attribution of crystals structure. The results confirm that the main mineral composition of Luodian jade is tremolite. Not only has it been not reported in other IR study on natural nephrite that the absorption bands at wave numbers between 840 and 860 cm(-1) caused by residual diopside exist in Luodian jade with the process of tremolite rock transformed to nephrite, but is also the biggest difference between the Luodian jade and other nephrite. The results reveal important mineralogy evidence of metamorphism of Luodian jade, and on the other hand, it also shows that there is a certain difference in the process of nephrite change between Luodian jade and other natural nephrite. Moreover, it further suggests that Luodian jade is a kind of new genetic nephrite ore.

  6. The order parameter symmetry in CeIrIn5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Shakeripour


    Full Text Available To understand the mechanism of superconductivity in unconventional super onductors is one of the big challenges in the field of superconductivity. Based on the BCS theory, there is a direct relation between the pairing mechanism and the symmetry of the order parameter. Therefore, identification of the structure of the superconducting gap or the order parameter provides key information on the pairing mechanism. The s-wave conventional superconductors have full point symmetry of the crystal lattice, thus they have full gap symmetry around the Fermi surface. This leads to the exponential temperature dependence of many physical properties in the superconducting state at low temperature. However, the presence of nodes imposed by symmetry in the gap function of unconventional superconductors implies a different order parameter other than conventional s-wave, which may lead to a different pairing mechanism. Here, we show how thermal conductivity measurements in CeIrIn5 at very low temperatures detect the superconducting gap structure.

  7. Development of a high-definition IR LED scene projector (United States)

    Norton, Dennis T.; LaVeigne, Joe; Franks, Greg; McHugh, Steve; Vengel, Tony; Oleson, Jim; MacDougal, Michael; Westerfeld, David


    Next-generation Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) are demonstrating ever increasing frame rates, dynamic range, and format size, while moving to smaller pitch arrays.1 These improvements in IRFPA performance and array format have challenged the IRFPA test community to accurately and reliably test them in a Hardware-In-the-Loop environment utilizing Infrared Scene Projector (IRSP) systems. The rapidly-evolving IR seeker and sensor technology has, in some cases, surpassed the capabilities of existing IRSP technology. To meet the demands of future IRFPA testing, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. is developing an Infrared Light Emitting Diode IRSP system. Design goals of the system include a peak radiance >2.0W/cm2/sr within the 3.0-5.0μm waveband, maximum frame rates >240Hz, and >4million pixels within a form factor supported by pixel pitches system design considerations, and future development work.

  8. Evaluation of wake detection probability of underwater vehicle by IR (United States)

    Kou, Wei; Chen, Xuan; Yang, Li; Jin, Fang-yuan


    The thermal or cold wake of the underwater vehicles will be formed at the sea surface in different region during sailing, then the underwater vehicles will be detected by airborne or space borne infrared detectors easily, which will imperil their security. A model between the detection probability and the Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of the detectors, and the temperature difference between the wake and the sea surface, etc., was established and the evaluation of detection probability in different discrimination levels and other parameters, such as time, location, atmosphere, sea, detector performance, wake temperature, etc., was realized, and a software named Wake Detection of Underwater Vehicle by Infrared (WDPUV-IR) was developed. The results showed that the detection probability to the wake with high detector performance or large temperature difference or short detection distance or low discrimination level was relatively high, but it was difficult to detect targets with small temperature difference and size when the atmospheric transmittance value was low.

  9. Investigating the Hydration of CM2 meteorites by IR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Góbi, S; Beck, P; Quirico, E; Schmidt, B


    Chondritic meteorites are of great interest since they are one of the most ancient remnants of the early solar system. Some of them, like the carbonaceous CM meteorites experienced aqueous alteration thus their olivine content transformed more or less into hydrated silicates such as phyllosilicates. These hydrated CM2 meteorites have been investigated in KBr pellets by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. In our focus of interest was to study the 3 and 10 $\\mu$m (3000 and 1000 cm$^{-1}$, the O$-$H and silicate streching) bands of several CM2 chondrites. By investigating these signals the water content and the extent of hydration can be determined. In order to achieve this, development of a new pellet production method was essential. This technique facilitates the elimination of adsorbed water coming from the surrounding environment, which would complicate correct interpretation of the results.

  10. IR characterization of hydrogen in crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavola, M., E-mail: michael.stavola@Lehigh.ed [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Kleekajai, S.; Wen, L.; Peng, C. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Yelundur, V.; Rohatgi, A. [School of Electrical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Carnel, L. [REC Wafer AS, NO-3908 Porsgrunn (Norway); Kalejs, J. [American Capital Energy, N. Chelmsford, MA 01863 (United States)


    Hydrogen is commonly introduced into silicon solar cells to reduce the deleterious effects of defects and to increase cell efficiency. A process that is widely used by industry to introduce hydrogen is by the post-deposition annealing of a hydrogen-rich SiN{sub x} layer that is used as an anti-reflection coating. A number of questions about this hydrogen introduction process and hydrogen's subsequent interactions with defects have proved difficult to address because of the low concentration of hydrogen that is introduced into the Si bulk. We have used the fundamental knowledge of hydrogenated defects that has been revealed by recent investigations of impurity-H complexes to develop strategies by which hydrogen in silicon can be detected by IR spectroscopy with high sensitivity. The introduction of hydrogen into Si by the post-deposition annealing of a SiN{sub x} coating has been investigated.

  11. High Power Operation of the JLab IR FEL Driver Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Beard; Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Christopher Gould; Albert Grippo; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; J. Hovater; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Rui Li; Steven Moore; George Neil; Benard Poelker; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Robert Rimmer; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Gwyn Williams; Shukui Zhang


    Operation of the JLab IR Upgrade FEL at CW powers in excess of 10 kW requires sustained production of high electron beam powers by the driver ERL. This in turn demands attention to numerous issues and effects, including: cathode lifetime; control of beamline and RF system vacuum during high current operation; longitudinal space charge; longitudinal and transverse matching of irregular/large volume phase space distributions; halo management; management of remnant dispersive effects; resistive wall, wake-field, and RF heating of beam vacuum chambers; the beam break up instability; the impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (both on beam quality and the performance of laser optics); magnetic component stability and reproducibility; and RF stability and reproducibility. We discuss our experience with these issues and describe the modus vivendi that has evolved during prolonged high current, high power beam and laser operation.

  12. Hydrogenation of Tetralin over Supported Ni and Ir Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipali P. Upare


    Full Text Available Selective hydrogenation and ring opening (SRO of tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin was studied over nickel and iridium supported catalysts in the context of the removal of polynuclear aromatics from diesel fuel. The tetralin hydrogenation was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 270°C, using H2 pressure of 30 bars, WHSV of 2.3 h−1, and H2/feed molar ratio of 40; the resultant products were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The Ir/SiO2 catalyst gave 85% of tetralin conversion and 75.1% of decalin products selectivity whereas Ni/SiO2 catalyst showed an unprecedented high catalytic performance with 88.3% of tetralin conversion and 93% of decalin products selectivity. The catalysts were characterized by using different characterization techniques such as XRD, TPR, and HR-TEM to know the physicochemical properties as well as active sites in the catalysts.

  13. Nontrivial order parameter in Sr2IrO4 (United States)

    Ganguly, Shreemoyee; Grânäs, Oscar; Nordström, Lars


    A thorough analysis of the ground state of the relativistic magnetic insulator Sr2IrO4 is performed. The results are in accordance with the small antiferromagnetic moment and gapped state found in experiment. The solution, obtained using the DFT+SO+U methodology, is thoroughly analyzed in terms of Landau theory. We find that the ordered magnetic moment only forms a secondary order parameter while the primary order parameter is a higher order magnetic multipole of rank five. It is further observed that the electronic structure in the presence of this order parameter is related to the earlier proposed jeff=1 /2 model, but in contrast to that model, the present picture can exactly explain the small magnitude of the ordered magnetic moments.

  14. PbS-PbSe IR detector arrays (United States)

    Barrett, John R. (Inventor)


    A silicon wafer is provided which does not employ individually bonded leads between the IR sensitive elements and the input stages of multiplexers. The wafer is first coated with lead selenide in a first detector array area and is thereafter coated with lead sulfide within a second detector array area. The described steps result in the direct chemical deposition of lead selenide and lead sulfide upon the silicon wafer to eliminate individual wire bonding, bumping, flip chipping, planar interconnecting methods of connecting detector array elements to silicon chip circuitry, e.g., multiplexers, to enable easy fabrication of very long arrays. The electrode structure employed, produces an increase in the electrical field gradient between the electrodes for a given volume of detector material, relative to conventional electrode configurations.

  15. Passive IR polarimetric hyperspectral imaging contributions to multisensor humanitarian demining (United States)

    Iannarilli, Frank J., Jr.; Scott, Herman E.; Jones, Stephen H.


    Supported by the Army Humanitarian Demining MURI, we most recently have focused on determining the unique strengths of passive IR sensing as a function of attribute diversity. Our initial findings identify polarimetric hyperspectral a robust means to rapidly survey and detect partially exposed, non-metallic anti-personnel (AP) mines. We are investigating the discrimination gains expected from the combined polarimetric hyperspectral attributes under laboratory and field conditions. A principal components analysis of our earliest data indicates that this combination of attributes is about three times more effective in discriminating AP mines or mine-like materials than conventional hyperspectral sensing. In addition, we have uncovered a distinguishing spectral behavior of the Fresnel reflectance across resonance features that can be measured only by spectrally-resolved polarimetry.

  16. The distribution of maser emission in OH/IR stars (United States)

    Welty, Alan D.; Fix, John D.; Mutel, Robert L.


    The 1612 MHz OH emission from five OH/IR stars has been mapped at three epochs over a 2.5 yr period of time. Although the stars were observed at very different phases in the radio light curve of each, there were no remarkable changes in the appearance of the maps. This probably implies that the properties of the masers do not range widely throughout a maser shell. The maps have been used to produce star-centered surface maps of the distribution of maser emission from each star. The surface maps generally are sparsely filled with OH emission and are dominated by relatively few (about 10) major clumps of emission. The presence of large regions of low intensity in the surface maps suggests that the number of individual emitting elements is relatively small or that there are a larger number of elements which are distributed in the shell in a distinctly nonrandom manner.

  17. Magnetism, hysteresis cycle, and Ir-substitution doping of Sr2CrIrO6 double perovskite: A Monte Carlo simulation (United States)

    El Rhazouani, O.; El Khatabi, M.; Zarhri, Z.; Slassi, A.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.


    Iridium-based double perovskite (DP) Sr2CrIrO6 is expected to have the highest Curie temperatures (Tc) among all DPs and a high spin-polarization at room temperature, thanks to the more extended 5d orbitals of Ir, which makes it potential candidate in spintronic applications. Several publications have appeared in recent years documenting Ir-based double perovskites, but very few have explored the promising compound Sr2CrIrO6. In this paper, a Monte Carlo simulation has been carried out in the framework of Ising model to make an exploratory study of Sr2CrIrO6. Thermal magnetization, magnetic susceptibility, internal energy and specific heat have been studied. Effect of crystal field of Ir on the magnetic properties has been explored. Magnetic hysteresis cycle has been studied in relation to the exchange coupling values. Effects of Ir-substitution doping by Os "Sr2CrIrxOs1 - xO6" and by Re "Sr2CrIrxRe1 - xO6" (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) on the magnetic behavior have been investigated.

  18. The relationship between IR, optical, and UV extinction (United States)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Mathis, John S.


    An analysis is presented for the variability of absolute IR, optical, and UV extinction, A(sub lambda), derived through the ratio of total-to-selective extinction, R, for 31 lines of sight for which reliable UV extinction parameters were derived. These data sample a wide range of environments and are characterized by 2.5 is less than or equal to R is less than or equal to 6.0. It was found that there is a strong linear dependence between extinction expressed as A(sub lambda)/A(sub V) and 1/R for 1.25 micron is less than or equal to lambda is less than or equal to 0.12 micron. Differences in the general shape of extinction curves are largely due to variations in shape of optical/near-UV extinction corresponding to changes in R, with A(sub lambda)/A(sub V) decreasing for increasing R. From a least-squares fit of the observed R-dependence as a function of wavelength for 0.8/micron is less than or greater than 1/lambda is less than or equal to 8.3/micron, an analytic expression was generated from which IR, optical, and UV extinction curves of the form A(sub lambda)/A(sub V) can be reproduced with reasonable accuracy from a knowledge of R. It was also found that the absolute bump strength normalized to A(sub V) shows a general decrease with increasing R, suggesting that some fraction of bump grains may be selectively incorporated into coagulated grains. Finally, it was found that absolute extinction normalized by suitably chosen color indices results in a minimization of the R-dependence of portions of the UV curve, allowing A(sub lambda) to be estimated for these wavelengths independent of R.

  19. Fusion: ultra-high-speed and IR image sensors (United States)

    Etoh, T. Goji; Dao, V. T. S.; Nguyen, Quang A.; Kimata, M.


    Most targets of ultra-high-speed video cameras operating at more than 1 Mfps, such as combustion, crack propagation, collision, plasma, spark discharge, an air bag at a car accident and a tire under a sudden brake, generate sudden heat. Researchers in these fields require tools to measure the high-speed motion and heat simultaneously. Ultra-high frame rate imaging is achieved by an in-situ storage image sensor. Each pixel of the sensor is equipped with multiple memory elements to record a series of image signals simultaneously at all pixels. Image signals stored in each pixel are read out after an image capturing operation. In 2002, we developed an in-situ storage image sensor operating at 1 Mfps 1). However, the fill factor of the sensor was only 15% due to a light shield covering the wide in-situ storage area. Therefore, in 2011, we developed a backside illuminated (BSI) in-situ storage image sensor to increase the sensitivity with 100% fill factor and a very high quantum efficiency 2). The sensor also achieved a much higher frame rate,16.7 Mfps, thanks to the wiring on the front side with more freedom 3). The BSI structure has another advantage that it has less difficulties in attaching an additional layer on the backside, such as scintillators. This paper proposes development of an ultra-high-speed IR image sensor in combination of advanced nano-technologies for IR imaging and the in-situ storage technology for ultra-highspeed imaging with discussion on issues in the integration.

  20. Thickness and air gap measurement of assembled IR objectives (United States)

    Lueerss, B.; Langehanenberg, P.


    A growing number of applications like surveillance, thermography, or automotive demand for infrared imaging systems. Their imaging performance is significantly influenced by the alignment of the individual lens elements. Besides the lateral orientation of lenses, the air spacing between the lenses is a crucial parameter. Because of restricted mechanical accessibility within an assembled objective, a non-contact technique is required for the testing of these parameters. So far commercial measurement systems were not available for testing of IR objectives since many materials used for infrared imaging are non-transparent at wavelengths below 2 μm. We herewith present a time-domain low coherent interferometer capable of measuring any kind of infrared material (e.g., Ge, Si, etc.) as well as VIS materials. The fiber-optic set-up is based on a Michelson-Interferometer in which the light from a broadband super-luminescent diode is split into a reference arm with a variable optical delay and a measurement arm where the sample is placed. On a photo detector, the reflected signals from both arms are superimposed and recorded as a function of the variable optical path. Whenever the group delay difference is zero, a coherence peak occurs and the relative lens' surface distances are derived from the optical delay. In order to penetrate IR materials, the instrument operates at 2.2 μm. The set-up allows the contactless determination of thicknesses and air gaps inside of assembled infrared objective lenses with accuracy in the micron range. It therefore is a tool for the precise manufacturing or quality control.

  1. [IR and Raman spectra studies of Rotundine based on DFT]. (United States)

    Li, Jun-Ping; Zhou, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Li-Jun; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Qin, Hong-Ying


    Infrared spectroscopy (IR), the normal Raman spectroscopy (NRS) and the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in new Ag/Cu nanomaterial of Rotundine were studied in the present paper. The IR and the NRS of Rotundine were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP/6-311+G(d, p), then the spectral intensity graph of Rotundine were given. The vibrational peaks were assigned comprehensively by the visualization software of Gauss view 5. 0. Rotundine has obvious infrared and Raman vibrational peak in the wave number range of 3 300-2500 and 1 800-600 cm(-1). SnCl2 and PVP was used as capping agent for the silver nanoparticles in SERS of Rotundine. Finally, by using the method of cyclic immersion well dispersed silver nanoparticles was obtained and achieved good enhancement effect. This molecule acquired strong selective enhancement vibration peak, In the wave number ranges of 1 500-1 400 and 1 000-700 cm(-1) the enhancement effect is most obvious. After analyzed, the methylene of this molecule is adsorbed on the silver nanoparticles surface and the angle between the benzene ring and the silver substrate is close to 90 degrees. The theoretically calculated spectra of Rotundine are consistent with the obtained experimental spectra. There are some differences may be due to the interaction forces between molecules and so on. The visualization software displayed the structure characteristics and molecular group vibration of this molecular visually and provided important basis for assigning the vibrational peaks. Rotundine is an important traditional Chinese medicine agent contained in many kinds of sedative drugs. The study provides a strong basis for the rapid, feature and trace identification of Rotundine and also supplies important reference for the biological role of central inhibition of analgesic drugs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Urry, C. M. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Salvato, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Brusa, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Zamorani, G.; Cappelluti, N. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Hasinger, G. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Miyaji, T. [Instituto de Astronomía sede Ensenada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 103, Carret. Tijunana-Ensenada, Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Treister, E. [Universidad de Concepción, Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Allevato, V.; Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Cardamone, C. [Department of Science, Wheelock College, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Griffiths, R. E. [Physics and Astronomy Dept., Natural Sciences Division, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 W. Kawili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Karim, A. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); and others


    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra  COSMOS-Legacy  Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra  program on the 2.2 deg{sup 2} of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 μm identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 μm information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while ≃54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2–10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.

  3. Using IRS Products to Recover 7ETM+ Defective Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobasheri M. Reza


    Full Text Available On May 31st, 2003, Landsat 7 faced an anomaly in the Scan Line Corrector (SLC normal operation. This malfunctioning of SLC caused the individual scan lines alternately overlap each other and consequently produce large gaps at the edges of the image. Regarding the unique specification of ETM+ sensor on board of Landsat-7 satellite such as its spectral bands in the shortwave IR and TIR region and its suitable spatial resolution which is ideal for most of the scientific researches, a technique for the reconstruction of the defected images due to the SLC malfunctioning, was built up. Due to the availability of IRS/1D LISS-III images for our region of interest i.e., southwest of Iran, it was decided to use these images to recover 7ETM+ products. The procedure in reconstructing the defected 7ETM+ images is divided in to two stages. In the first stage, after implementation of some preprocessing to both LISS-III and 7ETM+, a linear regression model between bands 3 and 4 of 7ETM+ and bands 2 and 3 of LISS-III was setup. This model is used to fill up the missing places in 7ETM+ defected image and produced two new images in bands 3 and 4. In the second stage, these two newly reconstructed images of 7ETM+ were used to recover images of 7ETM+ in other spectral bands. At this stage, two methods were introduced, one using linear relationship between band 3 and bands 1 and 2 and in the second method we introduced a planar relationship between bands 3 and 4 with each one of bands 5, 6 and 7. The models are applied to few images and are found to be fairly reliable. The primary and necessary conditions for applying these methods have been explained in detail.

  4. System design of the compact IR space imaging system MIRIS (United States)

    Han, Wonyong; Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Youngsik; Jeong, Woong-Seob; Ree, Chang-Hee; Moon, Bongkon; Cha, Sang-Mok; Park, Sung-Joon; Park, Jang-Hyun; Nam, Uk-Won; Ka, Nung Hyun; Lee, Mi Hyun; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Seon, Kwang-Il; Lee, Duk-Hang; Yang, Sun Choel; Rhee, Seung-Woo; Park, Jong-Oh; Lee, Hyung Mok; Matsumoto, Toshio


    Multi-purpose Infra-Red Imaging System (MIRIS) is the main payload of the Korea Science and Technology Satellite-3 (STSAT-3), which is being developed by Korea Astronomy & Space Science Institute (KASI). MIRIS is a small space telescope mainly for astronomical survey observations in the near infrared wavelengths of 0.9~2 μm. A compact wide field (3.67 x 3.67 degree) optical design has been studied using a 256 x 256 Teledyne PICNIC FPA IR sensor with a pixel scale of 51.6 arcsec. The passive cooling technique is applied to maintain telescope temperature below 200 K with a cold shutter in the filter wheel for accurate dark calibration and to reach required sensitivity, and a micro stirling cooler is employed to cool down the IR detector array below 100K in a cold box. The science mission of the MIRIS is to survey the Galactic plane in the emission line of Paschen-α (Paα, 1.88 μm) and to detect the cosmic infrared background (CIB) radiation. Comparing the Paα map with the Hα data from ground-based surveys, we can probe the origin of the warm-ionized medium (WIM) of the Galaxy. The CIB is being suspected to be originated from the first generation stars of the Universe and we will test this hypothesis by comparing the fluctuations in I (0.9~1.2 um) and H (1.2~2.0 um) bands to search the red shifted Lyman cutoff signature. Recent progress of the MIRIS imaging system design will be presented.

  5. Photodissociation of Peroxynitric Acid in the Near-IR (United States)

    Roehl, Coleen M.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.; Zhang, Hui; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Wennberg, Paul O.


    Temperature-dependent near-IR photodissociation spectra were obtained for several vibrational overtone transitions of peroxynitric acid (HNO4) with a tunable OPO photolysis/OH laser-induced-fluorescence system. Band-integrated photodissociation cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub diss)), determined relative to that for the 3nu(sub 1), OH stretching overtone, were measured for three dissociative bands. Assuming unit quantum efficiency for photodissociation of 3nu(sub 1), we find 2nu(sub 1) + nu(sub 3)(8242/cm) = (1.21 x 10(exp -20) (independent of temperature), 2nu(sub 1) (6900/cm) = 4.09 x 10(exp 18) * e(sup (-826,5/T)) (295 K greater than T greater than 224 K), and nu(sub 1) + 2nu(sub 3) (6252/cm) = 1.87 x 10(exp -19) * e(sup (- 1410.7/T)) (278 K greater than T greater than 240 K) sq cm/molecule cm. The photodissociation cross-sections are independent of pressure over the range 2 to 40 Torr. Temperature-dependent quantum yields (phi) for these transitions were obtained using integrated absorption cross-sections (definity integral of sigma(sub abs)) of HNO4 overtone vibrations measured with a FTIR spectrometer. In the atmosphere, photodissociation in the infrared is dominated by excitation of the first overtone of the OH stretching vibration (2nu((sub 1)). Inclusion of all dissociative HNO4 overtone and combination transitions yields a daytime IR photolysis rate of approximately 1 x 10(esp -1)/s. This process significantly shortens the estimated lifetime of HNO4 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  6. RF switching network: a novel technique for IR sensing (United States)

    Mechtel, Deborah M.; Jenkins, R. Brian; Joyce, Peter J.; Nelson, Charles L.


    Rapid sensing of near infrared (IR) energy on a composite structure would provide information that could mitigate damage to composite structures. This paper describes a novel technique that implements photoconductive sensors in a radio frequency (RF) switching network designed to locate in real time the position and intensity of IR radiation incident on a composite structure. In the implementation described here, photoconductive sensors act as rapid response switches in a two layer RF network embedded in an FR-4 laminate. To detect radiation, phosphorous doped silicon photoconductive sensors are inserted in GHz range RF transmission lines. Photoconductive sensors use semiconductor materials that are optically sensitive at material dependent wavelengths. Incident radiation at the appropriate wavelength produces hole-electron pairs, so that the semiconductor becomes a conductor. By permitting signal propagation only when a sensor is illuminated, the RF signals are selectively routed from the lower layer transmission lines to the upper layer lines, thereby pinpointing the location and strength of incident radiation on a structure. Simulations based on a high frequency 3D planar electromagnetics model are presented and compared to experimental results. Experimental results are described for GHz range RF signal control for 300 mW and 180 mW incident energy from 975 nm and 1060 nm wavelength lasers respectively, where upon illumination, RF transmission line signal output power doubled when compared to non-illuminated results. Experimental results are reported for 100 W incident energy from a 1060 nm laser. Test results illustrate that real-time signal processing would permit a structure or vehicle to be controlled in response to incident radiation

  7. A UV to mid-IR study of AGN selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Mi; Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Assef, Roberto [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Brown, Michael J. I. [School of Physics, Monash University, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Mail Stop 169-221, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Jannuzi, Buell T. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Hickox, Ryan C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Moustakas, John [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Siena College, 515 Loudon Road, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)


    We classify the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 431,038 sources in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS). There are up to 17 bands of data available per source, including ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (NDWFS), near-IR (NEWFIRM), and mid-infrared (IRAC and MIPS) data, as well as spectroscopic redshifts for ∼20,000 objects, primarily from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. We fit galaxy, active galactic nucleus (AGN), stellar, and brown dwarf templates to the observed SEDs, which yield spectral classes for the Galactic sources and photometric redshifts and galaxy/AGN luminosities for the extragalactic sources. The photometric redshift precision of the galaxy and AGN samples are σ/(1 + z) = 0.040 and σ/(1 + z) = 0.169, respectively, with the worst 5% outliers excluded. On the basis of the χ{sub ν}{sup 2} of the SED fit for each SED model, we are able to distinguish between Galactic and extragalactic sources for sources brighter than I = 23.5 mag. We compare the SED fits for a galaxy-only model and a galaxy-AGN model. Using known X-ray and spectroscopic AGN samples, we confirm that SED fitting can be successfully used as a method to identify large populations of AGNs, including spatially resolved AGNs with significant contributions from the host galaxy and objects with the emission line ratios of 'composite' spectra. We also use our results to compare with the X-ray, mid-IR, optical color, and emission line ratio selection techniques. For an F-ratio threshold of F > 10, we find 16,266 AGN candidates brighter than I = 23.5 mag and a surface density of ∼1900 AGN deg{sup –2}.

  8. Preparation and characterization of Ir/TiC catalyst for oxygen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lirong [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Institute of Fuel Cell, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Sui, Sheng [Institute of Fuel Cell, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhai, Yuchun [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)


    Nano-sized titanium carbide (TiC) was employed as the support material for an iridium (Ir) electrocatalyst in a proton exchange membrane water electrolyser (PEMWE). The Ir/TiC electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was prepared by chemical reduction and deposition with ultrasonic dispersion. The diameter of the Ir particles deposited on the TiC support is 10-40 nm. The Ir/TiC catalyst has a pore volume of 0.1425 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}, which is about two times as high as that of the corresponding unsupported Ir. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicate that the Ir particles are nearly uniformly deposited on the surface of the TiC and exhibit remarkably fine variable crystallites and crystal lattice defects, which enhance the density of active sites and greatly improves the catalytic activity of the Ir/TiC catalyst. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) reveal that the peak current density at 1.5 V versus SCE on the Ir/TiC is about nine times of that for the unsupported Ir black catalyst and potentiostatic analysis shows that the charge passed by the Ir/TiC after 600 s at 1.3 V versus SCE is about 15 times of that for the unsupported Ir catalyst. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) shows that the electrochemical polarization impedance of the Ir/TiC catalyst is about 50 {omega} cm{sup 2} per 0.02 mg as compared to 150 {omega} cm{sup 2} of the Ir black in the range of high frequency. The diffusion polarization impedances of the Ir/TiC form a semicircle and those of the Ir black are close to a straight line with a phase angle of 45 in the range of low frequency. Thus, the catalytic activity of the Ir/TiC for the OER is significantly higher than that of the unsupported Ir catalyst. The TiC support is chemically and electrochemically stable in the whole range of experimental potentials. (author)

  9. 4PS/insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-2 is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice. (United States)

    Patti, M E; Sun, X J; Bruening, J C; Araki, E; Lipes, M A; White, M F; Kahn, C R


    Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) is the major cytoplasmic substrate of the insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptors. Transgenic mice lacking IRS-1 are resistant to insulin and IGF-1, but exhibit significant residual insulin action which corresponds to the presence of an alternative high molecular weight substrate in liver and muscle. Recently, Sun et al. (Sun, X.-J., Wang, L.-M., Zhang, Y., Yenush, L. P., Myers, M. G., Jr., Glasheen, E., Lane, W.S., Pierce, J. H., and White, M. F. (1995) Nature 377, 173-177) purified and cloned 4PS, the major substrate of the IL-4 receptor-associated tyrosine kinase in myeloid cells, which has significant structural similarity to IRS-1. To determine if 4PS is the alternative substrate of the insulin receptor in IRS-1-deficient mice, we performed immunoprecipitation, immunoblotting, and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase assays using specific antibodies to 4PS. Following insulin stimulation, 4PS is rapidly phosphorylated in liver and muscle, binds to the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, and activates the enzyme. Insulin stimulation also results in the association of 4PS with Grb 2 in both liver and muscle. In IRS-1-deficient mice, both the phosphorylation of 4PS and associated PI 3-kinase activity are enhanced, without an increase in protein expression. Immunodepletion of 4PS from liver and muscle homogenates removes most of the phosphotyrosine-associated PI 3-kinase activity in IRS-1-deficient mice. Thus, 4PS is the primary alternative substrate, i.e. IRS-2, which plays a major role in physiologic insulin signal transduction via both PI 3-kinase activation and Grb 2/Sos association. In IRS-1-deficient mice, 4PS/IRS-2 provides signal transduction to these two major pathways of insulin signaling.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IR-bright MSX sources in the SMC with Spitzer/IRS (Kraemer+, 2017) (United States)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.


    Our original set of infrared spectra of MSX SMC sources was obtained in Spitzer Cycle 1 (Program ID 3277, P.I. M. Egan). This program included 35 targets from the MSX SMC catalog. 24 targets were discussed in previous papers; this paper examines the remaining 11 sources in the sample. We also selected 4 objects in the MSX SMC catalog with similar photometric characteristics in an effort to uncover additional sources with crystalline dust. We observed these targets in Spitzer Cycle 3 (Program ID 30355, P.I. J. Houck). See tables 1 and 2 for observation data and basic properties of the targets. Table 3 lists 20 additional MSX SMC sources that were observed by other Spitzer IRS programs. Overall, 59 MSX SMC sources were observed with the IRS. The spectra were observed using the low-resolution modules of the IRS, Short-Low (SL) and Long-Low (LL), which provided spectra in the 5-14 and 14-37um ranges, respectively, at a resolution between ~60 and 120. For 10 evolved stars with oxygen-rich dust in our Cycle 1 program, we obtained spectra from 0.45 to 1.03um with the Double-Beam Spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring Observatory. A 0.45-0.89um spectrum for one of the stars in program 30355 was also observed. These spectra have a resolution of 10Å. Tables 5-7: catalog based on the 243 sources detected in the MSX survey of the SMC, updated with positions and photometry from more recent space-based missions and ground-based surveys. See the Appendix section for more details. The SMC catalog from MSX consists of the 243 sources in the main MSX catalog (Egan+ 2003, see V/114) that lie within the region 7°

  11. Investigations of metastable Ca2IrO4 epitaxial thin-films: systematic comparison with Sr2IrO4 and Ba2IrO4 (United States)

    Souri, M.; Gruenewald, J. H.; Terzic, J.; Brill, J. W.; Cao, G.; Seo, S. S. A.


    We have synthesized thermodynamically metastable Ca2IrO4 thin-films on YAlO3 (110) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The epitaxial Ca2IrO4 thin-films are of K2NiF4-type tetragonal structure. Transport and optical spectroscopy measurements indicate that the electronic structure of the Ca2IrO4 thin-films is similar to that of Jeff = 1/2 spin-orbit-coupled Mott insulator Sr2IrO4 and Ba2IrO4, with the exception of an increased gap energy. The gap increase is to be expected in Ca2IrO4 due to its increased octahedral rotation and tilting, which results in enhanced electron-correlation, U/W. Our results suggest that the epitaxial stabilization growth of metastable-phase thin-films can be used effectively for investigating layered iridates and various complex-oxide systems.

  12. Nanomechanical IR spectroscopy for fast analysis of liquid-dispersed engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Yamada, Shoko; Ek, Pramod Kumar


    The proliferated use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, calls for novel techniques allowing for fast and sensitive analysis of minute samples. Here we present nanomechanical IR spectroscopy (NAM-IR) for chemical analysis of picograms of ENMs. ENMs are nebulized directly from...... dispersion and efficiently collected on nanomechanical string resonators through a non-diffusion limited sampling method. Even very small amounts of sample can convert absorbed IR light into a measurable frequency detuning of the string through photothermal heating. An IR absorption spectrum is thus readily...... obtained by recording this detuning of the resonator over a range of IR wavelengths. Results recorded using NAM-IR agree well with corresponding results obtained through ATR-FTIR, and remarkably, measurement including sample preparation takes only a few minutes, compared to ∼2 days sample preparation...

  13. Analysis and Assessment of Agrimonia Pilosa Ledeb from Different Sources Using FT-IR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing WANG; Zhe-xiong JIN


    To get the IR spectrums of Agrimonia Pilosa Ledeb (APL) from China and Japan areas,and to find out the characters of IR spectrums through the content of different chemical constituents,to provide a fast and effective analysis method monitor the inherent qualities of traditional Chinese medicine-APL.Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FT-IR) was applied to detect sample of APL from China and Japan areas.This study showed that the IR spectra of APL from China and Japan areas have their unique IR fingerprint features.The contents of tannin and calcium phosphate in APL from China is different APL from Japan.So FT-IR is a very quick,effective and well repetitive method for monitoring and distinguishing the traditional Chinese medicine.

  14. Nanomechanical IR Spectroscopy for the fast analysis of picogram samples of engineered nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Ek, Pramod Kumar; Andresen, Thomas Lars


    The proliferation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), e.g. in nanomedicine, demands for novel sensitive techniques allowing for the analysis of minute samples. We present nanoelectromechanical system-based IR spectroscopy (NEMS-IR) of picograms of polymeric micelles. The micelles are nebulized...... with electrospray directly from dispersion and then efficiently collected on the sensor, which detects the IR-wavelength-dependent photothermal sample heating. Only 10 nL of sample (~0.1 mg/mL) is required for the acquisition of an IR spectrum. Measurement, including sample preparation, takes only a few minutes......, compared to 2 days for analysis by ATR-FT-IR. NEMS-IR constitutes a promising technique for the fast analysis of ENMs....

  15. Variation in MidIR and LWIR polarimetric imagery due to diurnal and meteorological impacts (United States)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Felton, Melvin


    We present radiometric and polarimetric calibrated imagery recorded in both the mid-wave IR (MidIR) and long wave IR (LWIR) as a function diurnal variation over several multiday periods. We compare differences in polarimetric and conventional thermal imagry for both IR atmospheric transmission windows, i.e., 3-5μm and 8-12 μm regions. Meteorological parameters measured during the study include temperature, relative-humidity, wind-speed/direction, precipitation, and ambient atmospheric IR loading. The two camera systems used in the study differed significantly in design. The LWIR polarimetric sensor utilizes a spinning achromatic retarder and is best suited for static scenes, while the MidIR system is based on a division-of-aperture design and is capable of recording polarimetric imagery of targets that are rapidly moving. Examples of both S0 (conventional thermal) and degree-of-linear polarization (DOLP) imagery are presented and compared.

  16. Cloning, chromosomal localization, SNP detection and association analysis of the porcine IRS-1 gene. (United States)

    Niu, P-X; Huang, Z; Li, C-C; Fan, B; Li, K; Liu, B; Yu, M; Zhao, S-H


    Insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1) gene is one member of the Insulin receptor substrate (IRS) gene family, which plays an important role in mediating the growth of skeletal muscle and the molecular metabolism of type 2 diabetes. Here, we cloned a 3,573 bp fragment of the partial CDS sequence of porcine IRS-1 gene by in silicon cloning strategy and RT-PCR method. The porcine IRS-1 gene was assigned to SSC15q25 by using IMpRH. Sequencing of PCR products from Duroc and Tibetan pig breeds identified one SNP in exon 1 of porcine IRS-1 gene (C3257A polymorphisms). Association analysis of genotypes with the growth traits, anatomy traits, meat quality traits and physiological biochemical indexes traits showed that different genotypes at locus 3,257 of IRS-1 have significant differences in carcass straight length in pigs (P = 0.0102 \\ 0.05).

  17. Cosmological observables, IR growth of fluctuations, and scale-dependent anisotropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    B. Giddings, Steven; Sloth, Martin Snoager


    We extend semiclassical methods in inflationary cosmology that capture leading IR corrections to correlators. Such large IR effects can be absorbed into a coordinate change when examining sufficiently local observables, but not when comparing observations at large separation in scales, such as seen...... by a late-time observer. The analysis is facilitated by definition of a scale-dependent metric and physical momentum. These assist definition of "IR-safe" observables seen by a post-inflationary observer, which are contrasted to those based on the local geometry of the reheating surface....... For such observables, the observer's horizon provides an effective IR cutoff. IR growth contributes to enhanced statistical inhomogeneities/anisotropies at short scales, observation of which by a present day observer might be sought in 21 cm measurements. Such IR corrections are argued to grow large for a very late...

  18. Cosmological observables, IR growth of fluctuations, and scale-dependent anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B


    We extend semiclassical methods in inflationary cosmology that capture leading IR corrections to correlators. Such large IR effects can be absorbed into a coordinate change when examining sufficiently local observables, but not when comparing observations at large separation in scales, such as seen by a late-time observer. The analysis is facilitated by definition of a scale-dependent metric and physical momentum. These assist definition of "IR-safe" observables seen by a post-inflationary observer, which are contrasted to those based on the local geometry of the reheating surface. For such observables, the observer's horizon provides an effective IR cutoff. IR growth contributes to enhanced statistical inhomogeneities/anisotropies at short scales, observation of which by a present day observer might be sought in 21 cm measurements. Such IR corrections are argued to grow large for a very late-time observer.

  19. Communication: Enhanced oxygen reduction reaction and its underlying mechanism in Pd-Ir-Co trimetallic alloys (United States)

    Ham, Hyung Chul; Manogaran, Dhivya; Lee, Kang Hee; Kwon, Kyungjung; Jin, Seon-ah; You, Dae Jong; Pak, Chanho; Hwang, Gyeong S.


    Based on a combined density functional theory and experimental study, we present that the electrochemical activity of Pd3Co alloy catalysts toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can be enhanced by adding a small amount of Ir. While Ir tends to favorably exist in the subsurface layers, the underlying Ir atoms are found to cause a substantial modification in the surface electronic structure. As a consequence, we find that the activation barriers of O/OH hydrogenation reactions are noticeably lowered, which would be mainly responsible for the enhanced ORR activity. Furthermore, our study suggests that the presence of Ir in the near-surface region can suppress Co out-diffusion from the Pd3Co substrate, thereby improving the durability of Pd-Ir-Co catalysts. We also discuss the relative roles played by Ir and Co in enhancing the ORR activity relative to monometallic Pd catalysts.

  20. FT-IR microscopical analysis with synchrotron radiation: The microscope optics and system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reffner, J.A.; Martoglio, P.A. [Spectra-Tech, Inc., Shelton, CT (United States); Williams, G.P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    When a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectrometer was first interfaced with the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in September 1993, there was an instant realization that the performance at the diffraction limit had increased 40-100 times. The synchrotron source transformed the IR microspectrometer into a true IR microprobe, providing high-quality IR spectra for probe diameters at the diffraction limit. The combination of IR microspectroscopy and synchrotron radiation provides a powerful new tool for molecular spectroscopy. The ability to perform IR microspectroscopy with synchrotron radiation is still under development at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but several initial studies have been completed that demonstrate the broad-ranging applications of this technology and its potential for materials characterization.

  1. Vyrų ir moterų homoseksualumo raiškos ypatumai


    Gocentaitė, Asta


    Tema: Vyrų ir moterų homoseksualumo raiškos ypatumai. Temos aktualumas. Homoseksualūs žmonės kenčia įvairią nelygybę, kurios pasekmė homoseksualus paverčia nematomais, dauguma jaunų gėjų ir lesbiečių gyvena lyg ir dvigubus gyvenimus. Jie pasirenka šią strategiją racionaliai, siekdami išvengti nuoskaudų ir didesnių problemų asmeninėje erdvėje, profesinėje-darbinėje aplinkoje ir viešojoje erdvėje. Homoseksualių žmonių yra visur, įvairaus amžiaus, skirtingų socialinių sluoksnių ir profesijų, ...

  2. Polarization shaping in the mid-IR and polarization-based balanced heterodyne detection with application to 2D IR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Middleton, Chris T; Strasfeld, David B; Zanni, Martin T


    We demonstrate amplitude, phase and polarization shaping of femtosecond mid-IR pulses using a germanium acousto-optical modulator by independently shaping the frequency-dependent amplitudes and phases of two orthogonally polarized pulses which are then collinearly overlapped using a wire-grid polarizer. We use a feedback loop to set and stabilize the relative phase of the orthogonal pulses. We have also used a wire-grid polarizer to implement polarization-based balanced heterodyne detection for improved signal-to-noise of 2D IR spectra collected in a pump-probe geometry. Applications include coherent control of molecular vibrations and improvements in multidimensional IR spectroscopy.

  3. Luminescence properties of IR-emitting bismuth centres in SiO{sub 2}-based glasses in the UV to near-IR spectral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firstova, E G; Vel' miskin, V V; Firstov, S V; Dianov, E M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bufetov, I A [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Khopin, V F; Gur' yanov, A N [G.G.Devyatykh Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Bufetova, G A [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nishchev, K N [N.P. Ogarev Mordovia State University, Physics and Chemistry Institute, Saransk (Russian Federation)


    We have studied UV excitation spectra of IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses of various compositions and obtained energy level diagrams of IR-emitting bismuth-related active centres (BACs) associated with silicon and germanium atoms up to ∼5.2 eV over the ground level. A possible energy level diagram of the BACs in phosphosilicate glass has been proposed. The UV excitation peaks for the IR luminescence of the BACs in the glasses have been shown to considerably overlap with absorption bands of the Bi{sup 3+} ion, suggesting that Bi{sup 3+} may participate in BAC formation. (optical fibres)

  4. Luminescence properties of IR-emitting bismuth centres in SiO2-based glasses in the UV to near-IR spectral region (United States)

    Firstova, E. G.; Bufetov, I. A.; Khopin, V. F.; Vel'miskin, V. V.; Firstov, S. V.; Bufetova, G. A.; Nishchev, K. N.; Gur'yanov, A. N.; Dianov, E. M.


    We have studied UV excitation spectra of IR luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses of various compositions and obtained energy level diagrams of IR-emitting bismuth-related active centres (BACs) associated with silicon and germanium atoms up to ~5.2 eV over the ground level. A possible energy level diagram of the BACs in phosphosilicate glass has been proposed. The UV excitation peaks for the IR luminescence of the BACs in the glasses have been shown to considerably overlap with absorption bands of the Bi3+ ion, suggesting that Bi3+ may participate in BAC formation.

  5. Miofascijinių trigerinių taškų terapijos ir tempimo pratimų poveikis skausmui ir kaklo judesių amplitudei


    Vaišnoraitė, Lina


    Tyrimo problema: miofascijinis skausmo sindromas, sukeltas aktyvių miofascijinių trigerinių, taškų vargina lėtiniais raumenų skausmais, sutrikdo judesių amplitudę, miegą ir gyvenimo kokybę. Latentiniai miofascijiniai trigeriniai taškai bet kuriuo metu, paveikti bet kokio mechaninio stimulo gali tapti aktyviais. Gydant ir taip šalinant latentinius miofascijinius trigerinius taškus užkertamas kelias aktyvių miofascijinių trigerinių taškų formavimuisi ir tuo pačiu miofascijinio skausmo sindromo ...

  6. Training Effect and Hysteretic Behaviour of Angular Dependence of Exchange Bias in Co/IrMn Bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; DU Jun; BAI Xiao-Jun; YOU Biao; ZHANG Wei; HU An


    @@ The training effect and the hysteresis behaviour of the angular dependence of exchange bias are extensively investigated upon the variation of the IrMn layer thickness tIrMn in a series of Co/IrMn bilayers. When tIrMn is very small, both of them are negligible. Then they increase very sharply with increasing tIrMn and then reach maxima at almost the same value of tIrMn. Finally they both decrease when tIrMn is further increased. The similar variation trends suggest that these phenomena arise from irreversible change of antiferromagnet spin orientations, according to the thermal activation model.

  7. Multi-Functional UV-Visible-IR Nanosensors Devices and Structures (United States)



  8. Tracking method based on separation and combination of the measurements for radar and IR fusion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingchao; Wang Wenfei


    A new distributed fusion method of radar/infrared (IR) tracking system based on separation and combination of the measurements is proposed by analyzing the influence of rate measurement. The rate information separated from the radar measurements together with measurements of IR form a pseudo vector of IR, and the corresponding filter is designed. The results indicate that the method not only makes a great improvement to the local tracker's performance, but also improves the global tracking precision efficiently.

  9. Phthalocyanine adsorption to graphene on Ir(111): Evidence for decoupling from vibrational spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endlich, M., E-mail:; Gozdzik, S.; Néel, N.; Kröger, J., E-mail: [Institut für Physik, Technische Universität Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Rosa, A. L. da [Bremen Center for Computational Materials Science, University Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Frauenheim, T. [Bremen Center for Computational Materials Science, University Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Wehling, T. O. [Bremen Center for Computational Materials Science, University Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University Bremen, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)


    Phthalocyanine molecules have been adsorbed to Ir(111) and to graphene on Ir(111). From a comparison of scanning tunneling microscopy images of individual molecules adsorbed to the different surfaces alone it is difficult to discern potential differences in the molecular adsorption geometry. In contrast, vibrational spectroscopy using inelastic electron scattering unequivocally hints at strong molecule deformations on Ir(111) and at a planar adsorption geometry on graphene. The spectroscopic evidence for the different adsorption configurations is supported by density functional calculations.

  10. Use of IR36ms for screening wide compatibility variety(WCV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGXiaoming; XIYong'an; LINYizi


    IR36 has been used as an indica tester in screening WCVs, However, artificial emasculation is not only a time consuming work, but also may produce false hybrids due to incomplete emasculation, and may injure stigmata and ovary which will result in a decrease of spikelet fertility. We studied the possiility of using the male sterile ( ms ) line IR36ms instead of IR36 as a tester to remove such limitation.

  11. Underrepresentation of Women and Minorities in the United States IR Academic Physician Workforce. (United States)

    Higgins, Mikhail C S S; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Richard, Chase; Chapman, Christina H; Laporte, Angelique; Both, Stefan; Thomas, Charles R; Deville, Curtiland


    To assess the United States interventional radiology (IR) academic physician workforce diversity and comparative specialties. Public registries were used to assess demographic differences among 2012 IR faculty and fellows, diagnostic radiology (DR) faculty and residents, DR subspecialty fellows (pediatric, abdominal, neuroradiology, and musculoskeletal), vascular surgery and interventional cardiology trainees, and 2010 US medical school graduates and US Census using binomial tests with .001 significance level (Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons). Significant trends in IR physician representation were evaluated from 1992 to 2012. Women (15.4%), blacks (2.0%), and Hispanics (6.2%) were significantly underrepresented as IR fellows compared with the US population. Women were underrepresented as IR (7.3%) versus DR (27.8%) faculty and IR fellows (15.4%) versus medical school graduates (48.3%), DR residents (27.8%), pediatric radiology fellows (49.4%), and vascular surgery trainees (27.7%) (all P representation among radiologic subspecialty fellows. Blacks (1.8%, 2.1%, respectively, for IR faculty and fellows); Hispanics (1.8%, 6.2%); and combined American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (1.8%, 0) showed no significant differences in representation as IR fellows compared with IR faculty, DR residents, other DR fellows, or interventional cardiology or vascular surgery trainees. Over 20 years, there was no significant increase in female or black representation as IR fellows or faculty. Women, blacks, and Hispanics are underrepresented in the IR academic physician workforce relative to the US population. Given prevalent health care disparities and an increasingly diverse society, research and training efforts should address IR physician workforce diversity. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation Solvation Dynamics and Isomerization of Dye IR-140 Using pump supercontinuum-probing Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, D; Wu, S; Yang, H; Xiang, Q G J; Xu, G; Wang, Danling; Jiang, Hongbing; Wu, Songjiang; Yang, Hong; Xiang, Qihuang Gong Junfeng; Xu, Guangzhi


    The solvation dynamics and isomerization process of an organic dye, IR-140, in polar solvents and nonpolar solvents have been investigated using pump supercontinuum-probing (PSCP) technique. In all solvents, the dynamics exhibits solvent-dependent. Solvent induced spectral shifts of the absorption and emission spectra of IR-140 have also been studied in a variety of solvents. At the same time, the photoisomerization process has been examined. The approximate energy-band structure of IR-140 was also supposed firstly.

  13. Yo-Yo IR2 testing of elite and sub-elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Bendiksen, Mads; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard


    Abstract We examined performance, heart rate response and construct validity of the Yo-Yo IR2 test by testing 111 elite and 92 sub-elite soccer players from Norway and Denmark. VO(2)max, Yo-Yo IR1 and repeated sprint tests (RSA) (n = 51) and match-analyses (n = 39) were also performed. Yo-Yo IR2...

  14. UAB "Kėdbusas" pajamų ir sąnaudų apskaita ir analizė


    Macijauskienė, Loreta


    Įmonė – tai pelno siekiantis ūkio subjektas. Įmonės pagrindinis tikslas iš savo veiklos gauti pelną. Tai yra pagrindinis įmonės veiklos rezultato rodiklis, kurio dydį įtakoja pajamos bei sąnaudos. Todėl, kad būtų pasiektas geras rezultatas, įmonei reikia didinti pajamas ir kiek įmanoma mažinti sąnaudas. Sąnaudų mažinimas įtakoja geresnius įmonės veiklos rezultatus, kas yra labai aktualu tiek įmonės valdytojams, tiek išoriniams vartotojams. Finansų valdymo magistro baigiamojo darbo tema yr...

  15. Novel near-to-mid IR imaging sensors without cooling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Boston Applied Technologies, Inc (BATi), together with Kent State University (KSU), proposes to develop a high sensitivity infrared (IR) imaging sensor without...

  16. In situ scanning FTIR microscopy and IR imaging of Pt electrode surface towards CO adsorption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙世刚; 洪双进; 陈声培; 卢国强; 戴鸿平; 肖晓银


    In situ scanning FTIR microscopy was built up for the first time in the present work, which consists of an FTIR apparatus, an IR microscope, an X-Y mapping stage, and the specially designed electrochemical IR cell and computer software. It has been demonstrated that this new space-resolvd in situ IR technique can be used to study vibration properties of micro-area, and to perform IR imaging of electrode surface. The chemical image obtained using this technique fur CO adsorption on Pt electrode illustrated, at a space-resolution of 10-2 cm, the inhomogeneity and the distribution of reactivity of micro-area of electrode surface.

  17. “Contrapuntal Reading” as a Method, an Ethos, and a Metaphor for Global IR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilgin, Pinar


    . Said’s approach to “contrapuntal reading” as one way of approaching Global IR that embraces diversity and reflects multiple and overlapping experiences and perspectives of humankind. More specifically, I suggest that contrapuntal reading offers students of IR a method of studying world politics...... that focuses on our “intertwined and overlapping histories,” past and present; an ethos for approaching IR through raising the “contrapuntal awareness” of its students and offering an anchor for those who translate the findings of different perspectives; and a metaphor for thinking about Global IR as regional...

  18. Octave-Spanning Mid-IR Supercontinuum Generation with Ultrafast Cascaded Nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Liu, Xing;


    An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation.......An octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinuum is observed experimentally using ultrafast cascaded nonlinearities in an LiInS2 quadratic nonlinear crystal pumped with 70 fs energetic mid-IR pulses and cut for strongly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation....

  19. RF Sputtered Iridium (Ir) Film as a Counter Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (United States)

    Mokurala, Krishnaiah; Kamble, Anvita; Bhargava, Parag; Mallick, Sudhanshu


    Iridium (Ir) films were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate by radio-frequency sputtering at room temperature and the as-deposited films were used as counter electrodes (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The photo conversion efficiency (PCE) of DSSC fabricated with Ir-based CE was 7.2%. Electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical data for Ir-based CE were compared with those for conventional Pt-based CE. The results were indicative of potential use of Ir as an alternative CE material for DSSC.

  20. PEPSI, the High-Resolution Optical-IR Spectrograph for the LBT (United States)

    Andersen, Michael; Strassmeier, Klaus; Hoffman, Axel; Woche, Manfred; Spano, Paolo

    PEPSI is a high resolution fibre feed optical-IR polarimetric echelle spectrograph for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). PEPSI utilizes the two 8.4m LBT apertures to simultaneously record four polarization states at a resolution of 120.000. The extension of the coverage towards the IR is mainly motivated by the larger Zeeman splitting of IR lines, which would allow to study weaker/fainter magnetic structures on stars. The two optical arms, which also have an integral light mode with R up to 300.000, are under construction, while the IR arm is being designed.

  1. USP15 attenuates IGF-I signaling by antagonizing Nedd4-induced IRS-2 ubiquitination. (United States)

    Fukushima, Toshiaki; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Furuta, Haruka; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Nakatsu, Yusuke; Kamata, Hideaki; Asano, Tomoichiro; Komada, Masayuki; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro


    Insulin receptor substrates (IRSs) are phosphorylated by IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase in a ligand-dependent manner. In turn, they bind to and activate effector proteins such as PI3K, leading to various cell responses including cell proliferation. We had reported that ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 induces mono-ubiquitination of IRS-2, thereby enhancing IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, leading to increased IGF signaling and mitogenic activity. Here we show that ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15) antagonizes the effect of Nedd4 on IRS-2. We identified USP15 as a protein that preferentially bound to IRS-2 when IRS-2 was conjugated with ubiquitin. In HEK293 cells, Nedd4 overexpression induced IRS-2 ubiquitination, which was decreased by USP15 co-expression while increased by USP15 knockdown. Nedd4 overexpression enhanced IGF-I-dependent IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, and USP15 co-expression suppressed it. Conversely, USP15 knockdown increased IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We concluded that USP15 attenuates IGF-I signaling by antagonizing Nedd4-induced IRS-2 ubiquitination.

  2. NMR Study of the Dimerized State in CuIr{sub 2}S{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, Ken-ichi, E-mail:; Sasaki, Mayumi; Kakuyanagi, Kosuke [Hokkaido University, Division of Physics, Graduate School of Science (Japan); Nagata, Shoichi [Muroran Institute of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Japan)


    We have investigated the metal-insulator transition (MIT) of CuIr{sub 2}S{sub 4} by a high resolution NMR measurement. The Cu-NMR spectrum below T{sub MI} is broadened and split into four Cu signals with sizable electric quadrupole interactions. The NMR results are consistent with the charge ordering of Ir{sup 3+} and Ir{sup 4+} and the spin dimerization of Ir{sup 4+} spins, as revealed by a recent X-ray study.

  3. Probing excited states dynamics in CO cations using few-cycle IR and EUV laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alnaser, A S [Department of Physics, American University in Sharjah, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Bocharova, I; Singh, K P; Wei, C; Cocke, C L; Litvinyuk, I V [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Physics Department, Kansas State University (United States); Kling, M, E-mail: aalnaser@aus.ed [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany)


    We have used few-cycle IR and EUV laser pulses in pump-probe arrangement to trace out the dissociation pathways in CO when exploded by strong laser fields. We present two preliminary sets of data of different pump pulses. In these sets, different excited state of CO cations are populated using (< 10 fs) IR, and EUV pulses respectively. We followed the time evolution of these states using the time-resolved Coulomb explosion imaging technique. We compare the time evolution of IR- and EUV-induced excited states by measuring the KER of the fragment ions as a function of the time delay between the pump and the IR probe pulse.

  4. High-Energy, Multi-Octave-Spanning Mid-IR Sources via Adiabatic Difference Frequency Generation (United States)


    and arbitrarily shaped mid-IR pulses. Additionally, we have shown that the ADFG mid-IR pulses can be used conveniently as the seed source for an...that the ADFG approach, including a conventional sub-octave near-IR pulse shaper (such as an acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) or...capturing the dispersion of the ADFG device. We have evaluated and modeled the extension of the ADFG approach to the long-wave IR through the use of

  5. Mechanism and implementation of bidirectional IR scene simulation system based on the Peltier effect (United States)

    Feng, Yun-song; Lu, Yuan; Shen, Jia


    The IR scene simulation technique is an effective method to test the responsivity, the precision and the anti-interference capability of the IR detector during its research and development; thus the technique may reduce the cost and research time. Currently, the IR scene simulation technique based on MOS-Resistance arrays is one of the most popular IR scene simulation techniques. However, resistance arrays can only be heated, but not refrigerated. Moreover, other simulation techniques also have the problem of one-direction IR scene simulation. In this paper, the IR simulation mechanism is studied in detail. According to the analysis of the characteristic of the semiconductor device based on the Peltier effect , the bidirectional IR scene simulation technique based on semiconductor refrigeration device with the Peltier effect and the computer controlling technology is put forward. Moreover, a prototype machine is designed ,and the shortcoming of the IR scene simulation system based on MOS-Resistance arrays which can only be heated is avoided. Finally, the performance of the prototype machine is tested by experiments. The results show that the system can realize bidirectional IR scene simulation perfectly by the means of increasing and reducing the temperature.

  6. Multiple-octave spanning mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Binbin


    Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystal like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal pumped in the mid-IR gives multiple-octave spanning supercontinua. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed (covering 1.6-$7.0~\\mu$m). The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS$_2$ pumped in the 3-$4~\\mu$m range, but other mid-IR crystals ...

  7. OH/IR stars near the Galactic Center: Pulsation periods, luminosities, and polarimetry (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay; Mcgregor, Peter J.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Lawrence, Geoffrey F.


    17 stars in the direction of the Galactic Center, 15 of which are OH/IR stars, have been monitored at infrared wavelengths over a period of nearly eight years. Pulsation periods, bolometric luminosities, and light curves for 14 OH/IR stars are presented. The Galactic Center OH/IR stars range in luminosity between M(sub Bol) = -4.5 to M(sub Bol) = -6, implying main sequence progenitors with masses less than 3 solar mass. When compared to optically visible long period variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with similar bolometric luminosities, the Galactic Center OH/IR stars have pulsation periods on average 30% longer. This shift to longer periods is consistent with the current picture of late asymptotic giant branch evolution, placing the OH/IR stars in a phase immediately following the optically visible Mira variable phase during which the star dramatically increases its mass loss rate, becoming invisible at optical wavelength. Infrared polarimetry of 11 of the stars is also presented. The polarization for all of the stars is consistent with purely interstellar polarization, with little evidence for a significant intrinsic component. When compared to OH/IR stars in the galactic plane, the Galactic Center OH/IR stars appear similar in photometric characteristics, except none of the Galactic Center OH/IR stars shows the extremely thick dust shells or very high intrinsic polarization found in the more extreme galactic plane OH/IR stars.

  8. Study on antibacterial alginate-stabilized copper nanoparticles by FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Díaz-Visurraga, Judith; Daza, Carla; Pozo, Claudio; Becerra, Abraham; von Plessing, Carlos; García, Apolinaria


    Background The objective of this study was to clarify the intermolecular interaction between antibacterial copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and to process the spectra applying two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation analysis. To our knowledge, the addition of NaAlg as a stabilizer of copper nanoparticles has not been previously reported. It is expected that the obtained results will provide valuable additional information on: (1) the influence of reducing agent ratio on the formation of copper nanoparticles in order to design functional nanomaterials with increased antibacterial activity, and (2) structural changes related to the incorporation of Cu NPs into the polymer matrix. Methods Cu NPs were prepared by microwave heating using ascorbic acid as reducing agent and NaAlg as stabilizing agent. The characterization of synthesized Cu NPs by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and semiquantitative analysis of the weight percentage composition indicated that the average particle sizes of Cu NPs are about 3–10 nm, they are spherical in shape, and consist of zerovalent Cu and Cu2O. Also, crystallite size and relative particle size of stabilized Cu NPs were calculated by XRD using Scherrer’s formula and FT from the X-ray diffraction data. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, second-derivative spectra, and 2D-IR correlation analysis were applied to studying the stabilization mechanism of Cu NPs by NaAlg molecules. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of stabilized Cu NPs against five bacterial strains (Staphylococccus aureus ATCC 6538P, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and O157: H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 and 14028) were evaluated with macrodilution

  9. Study on antibacterial alginate-stabilized copper nanoparticles by FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Visurraga J


    Full Text Available Judith Díaz-Visurraga,1,2 Carla Daza,2 Claudio Pozo,2 Abraham Becerra,2 Carlos von Plessing,1,2 Apolinaria García31Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion; 2Research Center of Advanced Polymers (CIPA, CONICYT REGIONAL/CIPA R08C1002; 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepción, ChileBackground: The objective of this study was to clarify the intermolecular interaction between antibacterial copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs and sodium alginate (NaAlg by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and to process the spectra applying two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR correlation analysis. To our knowledge, the addition of NaAlg as a stabilizer of copper nanoparticles has not been previously reported. It is expected that the obtained results will provide valuable additional information on: (1 the influence of reducing agent ratio on the formation of copper nanoparticles in order to design functional nanomaterials with increased antibacterial activity, and (2 structural changes related to the incorporation of Cu NPs into the polymer matrix.Methods: Cu NPs were prepared by microwave heating using ascorbic acid as reducing agent and NaAlg as stabilizing agent. The characterization of synthesized Cu NPs by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and semiquantitative analysis of the weight percentage composition indicated that the average particle sizes of Cu NPs are about 3–10 nm, they are spherical in shape, and consist of zerovalent Cu and Cu2O. Also, crystallite size and relative particle size of stabilized Cu NPs were calculated by XRD using Scherrer’s formula and FT from the X-ray diffraction data. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, FT-IR, second-derivative spectra, and 2D-IR correlation analysis were applied to

  10. Transporto priemonių naudotų padangų utilizavimo ir regeneravimo technologijų analizė

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenij Gavrilov


    Full Text Available Nagrinėjamos naudotų padangų regeneravimo ir utilizavimo technologijos. Remiantis užsienio šalių ir Lietuvoje atliktais tyrimais, pateikiamos pozityvios ir negatyvios metodų savybės. Pateikta informacija ir duomenys, gauti deginant gumą klinkerio krosnyse. Taip pat duomenys apie gumos panaudojimą betone ir poveikį kelio dangos konstrukcijai. Suformuluotos išvados.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  11. Dvarų sodybų teisinė apsauga ir administravimas sovietinėje ir posovietinėje Lietuvoje


    Putrimienė, Rasa


    Dvarų paveldo išsaugojimas daug metų yra viena didžiausių paveldosaugos problemų Lietuvoje. Pirmiausia dėl to, kad dvarų sodybos yra kompleksiniai objektai, kurie negali būti išsaugoti be nuolatinės priežiūros ir yra brangiai išlaikomi ir tvarkomi, ypač kai nėra naudojami. Čia kyla problema – valstybės, naudotojų ir paveldosaugininkų interesų konfliktas, kurį bandoma reguliuoti teisės aktais, tik ar visada sėkmingai? Apie dvarų paveldą ir jo išsaugojimo problemas ypač paskutiniu metu nemažai ...

  12. High Spatial Resolution Spectroscopy of W51 IRS2E and IRS2W: Two Very Massive Young Stars in Early Formation Stages

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, C L; Conti, P S; Damineli, A; Figueredo, E


    We present $K$-band spectra of the near infrared counterparts to IRS2E and IRS2W which is associated with the ultracompact HII region W51d, both of them embedded sources in the Galactic compact HII region W51 IRS2. The high spatial resolution observations were obtained with the laser guide star facility and Near infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) mounted at the Gemini North observatory. The spectrum of the ionizing source of W51d shows the photospheric features NIII (21155 \\AA) in emission and HeII (21897 \\AA) in absorption which lead us to classify it as an young O3 type star. We detected CO overtone in emission at 23000 \\AA in the spectrum of IRS2E, suggesting that it is a massive young object still surrounded by an accretion disc, probably transitioning from the hot core phase to an ultracompact HII region.

  13. XMCD study of Ir based double perovskite La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CoIrO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolchyns' ka, Anastasiya; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet, Darmstadt (Germany); Mikhailova, Daria; Narayanan, Naren [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet, Darmstadt (Germany); Institute of Complex Materials, IFW Dresden (Germany); Ehrenberg, Helmut [Institute of Complex Materials, IFW Dresden (Germany); Wilhelm, Fabrice [ESRF, ID-12, Grenoble (France)


    Double perovskites La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CoIrO{sub 6} with 0{<=}x{<=}2 were studied by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). Neutron scattering has revealed a canted antiferromagnetic order of the Co ions. Only by XMCD the magnetic moments within the Ir sublattice could be determined: For x=0 we observe a magnetization on the Ir site of about 0.2 {mu}{sub B} which is coupled antiferromagnetically to the residual Co magnetization. This indicates a kinetically driven induced magnetism at the Ir site similar as in compounds such as Sr{sub 2}CrOsO{sub 6}. With increasing Sr content x, the induced magnetic moment decreases and finally vanishes for x=2.


    Cheng, Tze-Yuan; Deng, Daxiang; Herman, Cila


    Medical Infrared (IR) Imaging has become an important diagnostic tool over recent years. However, one underlying problem in medical diagnostics is associated with accurate quantification of body surface temperatures. This problem is caused by the artifacts induced by the curvature of objects, which leads to inaccurate temperature mapping and biased diagnostic results. Therefore, in our study, an experiment-based analysis is conducted to address the curvature effects toward the 3D temperature reconstruction of the IR thermography image. For quantification purposes, an isothermal copper plate with flat surface, and a cylindrical metal container filled with water are imaged. For the flat surface, the tilting angle measured from camera axis was varied incrementally from 0° to 60 °, such that the effects of surface viewing angle and travel distance on the measured temperature can be explored. On the cylindrical curved surface, the points viewed from 0° to 90° with respect to the camera axis are simultaneously imaged at different temperature levels. The experimental data obtained for the flat surface indicate that both viewing angle and distance effects become noticeable for angles over 40 °. The travel distance contributes a minor change when compared with viewing angle. The experimental results from the curved surface indicate that the curvature effect becomes pronounced when the viewing angle is larger than 60 °. The measurement error on the curved surface is compared with the simulation using the non-dielectric model, and the normalized temperature difference relative to 0° viewing angle was analyzed at six temperature levels. These results indicate that the linear formula associated with directional emissivity is a reasonable approximation for the measurement error, and the normalized error curves change consistently with viewing angle at various temperatures. Therefore, the analysis in this study implies that the directional emissivity based on the non

  15. Water equivalent phantom materials for 192Ir brachytherapy (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Chofor, Ndimofor


    Several solid phantom materials have been tested regarding their suitability as water substitutes for dosimetric measurements in brachytherapy with 192Ir as a typical high energy photon emitter. The radial variations of the spectral photon fluence, of the total, primary and scattered photon fluence and of the absorbed dose to water in the transversal plane of the tested cylindrical phantoms surrounding a centric and coaxially arranged Varian GammaMed afterloading 192Ir brachytherapy source were Monte-Carlo simulated in EGSnrc. The degree of water equivalence of a phantom material was evaluated by comparing the radial dose-to-water profile in the phantom material with that in water. The phantom size was varied over a large range since it influences the dose contribution by scattered photons with energies diminished by single and multiple Compton scattering. Phantom axis distances up to 10 cm were considered as clinically relevant. Scattered photons with energies reaching down into the 25 keV region dominate the photon fluence at source distances exceeding 3.5 cm. The tested phantom materials showed significant differences in the degree of water equivalence. In phantoms with radii up to 10 cm, RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR phantoms show excellent water equivalence with dose deviations from a water phantom not exceeding 0.8%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene show deviations up to 2.6%. For larger phantom radii up to 30 cm, the deviations for RW1, RW3, Solid Water, HE Solid Water, Virtual Water, Plastic Water DT, and Plastic Water LR remain below 1.4%, while Original Plastic Water (as of 2015), Plastic Water (1995), Blue Water, polyethylene, and polystyrene produce deviations up to 8.1%. PMMA plays a separate role, with deviations up to 4.3% for radii not exceeding 10 cm, but below 1% for radii up to 30 cm. As suggested by

  16. Constraining Cometary Crystal Shapes from IR Spectral Features (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Lindsay, Sean; Harker, David E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Murphy, James Richard


    A major challenge in deriving the silicate mineralogy of comets is ascertaining how the anisotropic nature of forsterite crystals affects the spectral features' wavelength, relative intensity, and asymmetry. Forsterite features are identified in cometary comae near 10, 11.05-11.2, 16, 19, 23.5, 27.5 and 33 microns [1-10], so accurate models for forsterite's absorption efficiency (Qabs) are a primary requirement to compute IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs, lambdaF lambda vs. lambda) and constrain the silicate mineralogy of comets. Forsterite is an anisotropic crystal, with three crystallographic axes with distinct indices of refraction for the a-, b-, and c-axis. The shape of a forsterite crystal significantly affects its spectral features [13-16]. We need models that account for crystal shape. The IR absorption efficiencies of forsterite are computed using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) code DDSCAT [11,12]. Starting from a fiducial crystal shape of a cube, we systematically elongate/reduce one of the crystallographic axes. Also, we elongate/reduce one axis while the lengths of the other two axes are slightly asymmetric (0.8:1.2). The most significant grain shape characteristic that affects the crystalline spectral features is the relative lengths of the crystallographic axes. The second significant grain shape characteristic is breaking the symmetry of all three axes [17]. Synthetic spectral energy distributions using seven crystal shape classes [17] are fit to the observed SED of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). The Hale-Bopp crystalline residual better matches equant, b-platelets, c-platelets, and b-columns spectral shape classes, while a-platelets, a-columns and c-columns worsen the spectral fits. Forsterite condensation and partial evaporation experiments demonstrate that environmental temperature and grain shape are connected [18-20]. Thus, grain shape is a potential probe for protoplanetary disk temperatures where the cometary crystalline

  17. Magnetic Moments and Ordered States in Pyrochlore Iridates Nd2Ir2O7 and Sm2Ir2O7 Studied by Muon-Spin Relaxation (United States)

    Asih, Retno; Adam, Noraina; Sakinah Mohd-Tajudin, Saidah; Puspita Sari, Dita; Matsuhira, Kazuyuki; Guo, Hanjie; Wakeshima, Makoto; Hinatsu, Yukio; Nakano, Takehito; Nozue, Yasuo; Sulaiman, Shukri; Ismail Mohamed-Ibrahim, Mohamad; Biswas, Pabitra Kumar; Watanabe, Isao


    Magnetic-ordered states of the pyrochlore iridates Nd2Ir2O7 (Nd227) and Sm2Ir2O7 (Sm227), showing metal-insulator transitions at 33 and 117 K, respectively, were studied by both the muon-spin-relaxation (μSR) method and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A long-range magnetic ordering of Ir moments appeared in conjunction with the metal insulator transition, and additional long-range-ordered states of Nd/Sm moments were confirmed at temperatures below about 10 K. We found that the all-in all-out spin structure most convincingly explained the present μSR results of both Nd227 and Sm227. Observed internal fields were compared with values derived from DFT calculations. The lower limits of the sizes of magnetic moments were estimated to be 0.12 μB and 0.2 μB for Ir and Nd moments in Nd227, and 0.3 μB and 0.1 μB for Ir and Sm moments in Sm227, respectively. Further analysis indicated that the spin coupling between Ir and Nd/Sm moments was ferromagnetic for Nd227 and antiferromagnetic for Sm227.

  18. Chalcogenide microstructured optical fibres for mid-IR applications (United States)

    Trolès, Johann; Brilland, Laurent


    Compared to oxide-based glasses, vitreous materials composed of chalcogen elements (S, Se, Te) show large transparency windows in the infrared. Indeed, chalcogenide glasses can be transparent from the visible up to 12- 18 μm, depending on their compositions. In addition, chalcogenide glasses contain large polarisable atoms and external lone electron pairs that induce exceptional non-linear properties. Consequently, the non-linear properties can be 100 or 1000 times as high as the non-linearity of silica. An original way to obtain single-mode fibres is to design microstructured optical fibres (MOFs). These fibres present unique optical properties thanks to the high degree of freedom in the design of their geometrical structure. Various chalcogenide MOFs operating in the IR range have been elaborated in order to associate the high non-linear properties of these glasses with the original MOF properties. Indeed, chalcogenide MOFs might lead to new devices with unique optical properties in the mid-infrared domain, like multimode or endlessly single-mode transmission of light, small or large mode area fibres, highly birefringent fibres and non-linear properties for wavelength conversion or generation of supercontinuum sources. xml:lang="fr"

  19. Mid-IR Spectral Search for Salt SIgnatures on Europa (United States)

    Becker, Tracy M.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hanley, Jennifer; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Tsang, Constantine; Roth, Lorenz


    We present mid-IR spectra of Europa's leading and trailing hemispheres obtained with the NASA IRTF/TEXES instrument on March 28 and March 30, 2015. The observations span from ~10 - 11 microns with a resolving power of R ~2500. Few observations of Europa have been made at these wavelengths, and the high spectral resolution of the instrument enables the identification of distinguishing spectral features in this relatively unexplored bandpass. While the leading hemisphere of Europa consists of relatively pure water ice, the trailing hemisphere's surface contains a mix of ice and some other component, causing the surface to appear reddish at visible wavelengths. We compare the spectra from the trailing hemisphere with those from the leading, pure-ice hemisphere and with recent laboratory measurements of chlorinated salts, which have distinct spectral signatures at these wavelengths. We find that the signal obtained from Europa's leading hemisphere is 5-10 times lower than the signal obtained from the trailing hemisphere, likely due to a temperature difference between the hemispheres. We discern several spectral features that are present in the trailing hemisphere but not in the spectra of the leading hemisphere, though the explanation for these features is not yet apparent.

  20. A Photometry Campaign for IR Geminorum in Quiescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Fu; Zong-Yun Li; Kam-Ching Leung; Zhou-Sheng Zhang; Zi-Li Li; C. Martin Gaskell


    We report a V band photometry of the SU UMa star IR Gem at quiescence in January 2002. The observations were made with two telescopes spaced ~ 160° apart in longitude. Several photometric modulations have been found. One gives a period of 98.50(13) min, exactly equal to the orbital period determined spectroscopically. Two others occasionally strengthen and seem to be positive and negative superhumps with periods of 103.6(4) and 95.4(4) min, 5.2% longer and 3.1% shorter than the orbital period, respectively. A signal at ~ 0.6 c/d in the power spectrum is roughly consistent with the expected period of nodal precession of the disk. There is a puzzling peak at 0.21(3) c/d corresponding to the ~ 4.3 d sine wave seen in the raw light curve. We suspect it to be a beat frequency between the frequencies of apsidal and nodal precessions of the disk. Quasi-periodic cycles with amplitudes 0.15-0.6 mag can be seen in the light curve. The mechanism underlying this modulation is not clear.

  1. Liquid nitrogen cooling in IR thermography applied to steel specimen (United States)

    Lei, L.; Ferrarini, G.; Bortolin, A.; Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Maldague, X.


    Pulsed Thermography (PT) is one of the most common methods in Active Thermography procedures of the Thermography for NDT & E (Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation), due to the rapidity and convenience of this inspection technique. Flashes or lamps are often used to heat the samples in the traditional PT. This paper mainly explores exactly the opposite external stimulation in IR Thermography: cooling instead of heating. A steel sample with flat-bottom holes of different depths and sizes has been tested. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is sprinkled on the surface of the specimen and the whole process is captured by a thermal camera. To obtain a good comparison, two other classic NDT techniques, Pulsed Thermography and Lock-In Thermography, are also employed. In particular, the Lock-in method is implemented with three different frequencies. In the image processing procedure, the Principal Component Thermography (PCT) method has been performed on all thermal images. For Lock-In results, both Phase and Amplitude images are generated by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Results show that all techniques presented part of the defects while the LN2 technique displays the flaws only at the beginning of the test. Moreover, a binary threshold post-processing is applied to the thermal images, and by comparing these images to a binary map of the location of the defects, the corresponding Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are established and discussed. A comparison of the results indicates that the better ROC curve is obtained using the Flash technique with PCT processing method.

  2. First Lasing at the ELBE mid-IR FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Peter


    First lasing of the mid infrared FEL at ELBE was achieved on May 7, 2004. The Radiation Source ELBE at the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf in Dresden is currently under transition from commissioning to regular user operation. Presently the electron linac produces an up to 18 MeV, 1 mA (cw) electron beam which is alotted to generate various kinds of secondary radiation. After the successful commissioning of the bremsstrahlung and channeling-X-ray facilities during 2003 stable lasing has now been observed in the IR range (15 to 22 μm). The oscillator FEL is equipped with two planar undulator units, both consisting of 34 hybrid permanent magnet periods of 27.3 mm (Krms = 0.3 - 0.8). The distance between the two parts is variable and the gaps can be adjusted and tapered independently. At 19.6 µm an optical power of 3W was out-coupled in a macro pulse of 0.6 ms duration using an electron beam energy of 16.1 MeV and an energy spread of less than 100 keV; the micropulse charge was 50 pC and its width slightly a...

  3. IR DirectFET Extreme Environments Evaluation Final Report (United States)

    Burmeister, Martin; Mottiwala, Amin


    In 2007, International Rectifier (IR) introduced a new version of its DirectFET metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) packaging. The new version (referred to as 'Version 2') enhances device moisture resistance, makes surface mount (SMT) assembly of these devices to printed wiring boards (PWBs) more repeatable, and subsequent assembly inspection simpler. In the present study, the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), in collaboration with Stellar Microelectronics (Stellar), continued an evaluation of the DirectFET that they started together in 2006. The present study focused on comparing the two versions of the DirectFET and examining the suitability of the DirectFET devices for space applications. This study evaluated both versions of two DirectFET packaged devices that had both been shown in the 2006 study to have the best electrical and thermal properties: the IRF6635 and IRF6644. The present study evaluated (1) the relative electrical and thermal performance of both versions of each device, (2) the performance through high reliability testing, and (3) the performance of these devices in combination with a range of alternate solder alloys in the extreme thermal environments of deep space....

  4. Mid-IR Spectra of Refractory Minerals Relevant to Comets (United States)

    Jauhari, Shekeab


    On 4 July 2005 the Spitzer Space Telescope obtained mid-IR ( 5-40 µm) spectra of the ejecta from the hypervelocity impact of the Deep Impact projectile with comet 9P/Tempel 1. Spectral modeling demonstrates that there are abundant minerals present in the ejecta including Ca/Fe/Mg-rich silicates, carbonates, phyllosilicates, water ice, amorphous carbon, and sulfides [1]. However, precise mineralogical identifications are hampered by the lack of comprehensive 5 - 40 µm spectral measurements of the emissivity for a broad compositional range of these materials. Here, we present our initial results for 2 - 50 µm transmission spectra and absorption constants for materials relevant to comets, including pyrrhotite, pyrite, and several phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. Measuring the transmission of materials over the full spectral range sensitive by Spitzer requires grinding the minerals into submicron powders and then mixing them with KBr (for the 1-25 um region) and polyethylene (16-50 um region) to form pellets. Transmission measurements of sub-micron sulfides are particularly difficult to obtain because the minerals oxidize rapidly upon grinding and subsequent handling unless special care is taken. A detailed description of our sample preparation and measurement technique will be provided to assist other researchers in their attempts to acquire similar spectra. References: [1] Lisse, C.M. et al., Science 313, 635 - 640 (2006)

  5. Mid-IR period-magnitude relations for AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Glass, I S; Blommaert, J A D L; Sahai, R; Stute, M; Uttenthaler, S


    Asymptotic Giant Branch variables are found to obey period-luminosity relations in the mid-IR similar to those seen at K_S (2.14 microns), even at 24 microns where emission from circumstellar dust is expected to be dominant. Their loci in the M, logP diagrams are essentially the same for the LMC and for NGC6522 in spite of different ages and metallicities. There is no systematic trend of slope with wavelength. The offsets of the apparent magnitude vs. logP relations imply a difference between the two fields of 3.8 in distance modulus. The colours of the variables confirm that a principal period with log P > 1.75 is a necessary condition for detectable mass-loss. At the longest observed wavelength, 24 microns, many semi-regular variables have dust shells comparable in luminosity to those around Miras. There is a clear bifurcation in LMC colour-magnitude diagrams involving 24 micron magnitudes.

  6. Far-IR Excited OH Lines from Orion KL Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Goicoechea, J R; Cernicharo, J; Daniel, F; Lerate, M R; Lim, T L; Swinyard, B M; Viti, S; Yates, J; Barlow, Michael J.; Cernicharo, Jose; Daniel, Fabien; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Lerate, Mercedes R.; Lim, Tanya L.; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Viti, Serena; Yates, Jeremy


    As part of the first far-IR line survey towards Orion KL, we present the detection of seven new rotationally excited OH Lambda-doublets (at 48, 65, 71, 79, 98 and 115 um). Observations were performed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) Fabry-Perots on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In total, more than 20 resolved OH rotational lines, with upper energy levels up to 620 K, have been detected at an angular and velocity resolutions of 80$'' and 33 km s^-1 respectively. OH line profiles show a complex behavior evolving from pure absorption, P-Cygni type to pure emission. We also present a large scale 6' declination raster in the OH ^2\\Pi_3/2 J=5/2^+-3/2^- and ^2\\Pi_3/2 J=7/2^-5/2^+ lines (at 119.441 and 84.597 um) revealing the decrease of excitation outside the core of the cloud. From the observed profiles, mean intrinsic line widths and velocity offsets between emission and absorption line peaks we conclude that most of the excited OH arises from Orion outflow(s), i.e. the ``plateau'' compon...

  7. Near-IR spectroscopy of planetary nebulae precursors

    CERN Document Server

    García-Hernandez, D A; García-Lario, P; Dominguez-Tagle, C; Conway, G; Prada, F


    We present near-IR spectroscopy of a sample of 30 IRAS sources recently identified as late AGB stars, post-AGB stars or early PNe. The spectra obtained are centered at various wavelengths covering the molecular hydrogen v=1-0 S(1) and v=2-1 S(1) emission lines, the recombination lines of hydrogen Br-gamma, Pf-gamma and Br-alpha, and the CO[v=2-0] first overtone bandhead at 2.294 microns. As a result of these observations we have increased from 4 to 13 the total number of proto-PNe detected in molecular hydrogen. When the molecular hydrogen is fluorescence-excited the detection rate is found to be directly correlated with the evolutionary stage of the central star, rather than with the nebular morphology. In contrast, shocked-excited molecular hydrogen is detected only in strongly bipolar proto-PNe, sometimes even at an early stage in the post-AGB phase. The strong correlation of shocked-excited molecular hydrogen emission with bipolarity found confirms the result previously reported by Kastner et al. (1996) i...

  8. Jet Engine hot parts IR Analysis Procedure (J-EIRP) (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph F.


    A thermal radiation analysis method called Jet Engine IR Analysis Procedure (J-EIRP) was developed to evaluate jet engine cavity hot parts source radiation. The objectives behind J-EIRP were to achieve the greatest accuracy in model representation and solution, while minimizing computer resources and computational time. The computer programs that comprise J-EIRP were selected on the basis of their performance, accuracy, and flexibility to solve both simple and complex problems. These programs were intended for use on a personal computer, but include the ability to solve large problems on a mainframe or supercomputer. J-EIRP also provides the user with a tool for developing thermal design experience and engineering judgment through analysis experimentation, while using minimal computer resources. A sample jet engine cavity analysis demonstrates the procedure and capabilities within J-EIRP, and is compared to a simplified method for approximating cavity radiation. The goal is to introduce the terminology and solution process used in J-EIRP and to provide insight into the radiation heat transfer principles used in this procedure.

  9. Miniaturized FT-IR spectrometer for industrial process measurements (United States)

    Herrala, Esko; Niemela, Pentti; Hannula, Tapio


    There have been made some attempts to transfer the advantages of FT-JR to industrial use. Commercially available research grade instruments have been large and rather expensive. However in many potential applications only medium resolution is required which means that the mirror displacement in a Michelson type interferometer remains short and computation of the Fourier transform can be executed by a small computer. Medium resolution gives also other advantages in spectrometer design simple source and detector optics less severe requirements for mirror transport and small size. We have used a Michelson type interferometer where the moving mirror is suspended by two flexures and driven by a coil actuator. Displacement of the mirror is monitored using moire transducer which is much smaller and has better thermal stability than the conventionally used HeNe laser. The beamsplitter is a standard CaF2/Si and a thermoelectrically cooled PbSe is used as the detector. In the present prototype data is transferred via parallel bus to a PC/AT compatible computer where the necessary mathematics is done. The spectral range is from 5000 to 1800 cm1 with resolution better than 8 cm1. Interferograins can be recorded several times per second and the computation time for a 2000 point spectrum is 10 seconds. Results of environmental tests carried out for the spectrometer will be presented. The results show that it is possible to construct a simple rugged and inexpensive FT-IR spectrometer

  10. Residual stress in silicon wafer using IR polariscope (United States)

    Lu, Zhijia; Wang, Pin; Asundi, Anand


    The infrared phase shift polariscope (IR-PSP) is a full-field optical technique for stress analysis in Silicon wafers. Phase shift polariscope is preferred to a conventional polariscope, as it can provide quantitative information of the normal stress difference and the shear stress in the specimen. The method is based on the principles of photoelasticity, in which stresses induces temporary birefringence in materials which can be quantitatively analyzed using a phase shift polariscope. Compared to other stress analysis techniques such as x-ray diffraction or laser scanning, infrared photoelastic stress analysis provides full-field information with high resolution and in near real time. As the semiconductor fabrication is advancing, larger wafers, thinner films and more compact packages are being manufactured. This results in a growing demand of process control. Residual stress exist in silicon during semiconductor fabrication and these stresses may make cell processing difficult or even cause the failure of the silicon. Reducing these stresses would improve manufacturability and reliability. Therefore stress analysis is essential to trace the root cause of the stresses. The polariscope images are processed using MATLAB and four-step phase shifting method to provide quantitative as well as qualitative information regarding the residual stress of the sample. The system is calibrated using four-point bend specimen and then the residual stress distribution in a MEMS sample is shown.

  11. The Spitzer-IRS spectrum of SMP LMC 11

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard-Salas, J; Sloan, G C; Cami, J; Guiles, S; Houck, J R


    We present the first mid-infrared spectra of SMP LMC 11 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. While this object resembles a planetary nebula in the optical, its infrared properties are more similar to an object in transition from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase. A warm dust continuum dominates the infrared spectrum. The peak emission corresponds to a mean dust temperature of 330 K. The spectrum shows overlapping molecular absorption bands from 12 to 17 um corresponding to acetylene and polyacetylenic chains and benzene. This is the first detection of C4H2, C6H2, C6H6 and other molecules in an extragalactic object. The infrared spectrum of SMP LMC 11 is similar in many ways to that of the pre-planetary nebula AFGL 618. The IRS spectrum shows little evidence of nitrogen-based molecules which are commonly seen in Galactic AGB stars. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are also absent from the spectrum. The detection of the [NeII] 12.8 um line in the infrared and other forbidden emission lines in ...

  12. Initial study of a method for IR measurements in boilers; Inledande studie av metod foer IR-maetning i aangpannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Martin; Joensson, Magnus; Lundin, Leif [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)


    The tubes in steam boilers are required to be regularly inspected, in order to find water-side deposits, thinning of walls or material defects. This is for safety, problem-free operation and high availability. No non-destructive method of inspection is available today for finding deposits on the insides of boiler tubes. Nor is there any method that can not only detect deposits on the insides of the tubes but also monitor the tubes' wall thicknesses. A suitable method - reliable, safe, easy to use and cost-efficient - is therefore needed. One such method is to measure the surface temperature of a larger area of the diaphragm wall, using a non-contact method, and from the resulting information to assess the material thickness and possible water-side or steam-side deposits. An IR camera is used for non-contact measurement of the radiated energy from several adjacent surface elements, and thus also of their temperature. The temperature is displayed on the camera's screen to produce a picture of the temperature distribution. This is a well-established method today, and is used in applications such as the steel industry, the electricity industry, electronics and health care. The surface temperatures of the tube walls can be measured by inserting an IR camera on an arm into the combustion chamber, without anyone having to get inside the boiler. The combustion chamber is the part of the boiler that is of main interest for inspection, as it is the easiest to reach. Measurements are facilitated by higher temperatures and thus higher heat fluxes through the tube walls. Diaphragm wall temperatures can be measured quickly and rationally over large areas. Points of interest in inspections include determining where there are water-side deposits in the tubes, where tubes are thin, where flow is obstructed and where there might be material defects. With the exception of material defects, all of these mechanisms result in changes in the surface temperature, which in many

  13. Resequencing IRS2 reveals rare variants for obesity but not fasting glucose homeostasis in Hispanic children (United States)

    Our objective was to resequence insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) to identify variants associated with obesity- and diabetes-related traits in Hispanic children. Exonic and intronic segments, 5' and 3' flanking regions of IRS2 (approx. 14.5 kb), were bidirectionally sequenced for single nucleotide...

  14. A Critical Review of IR Drops and Electrode Potentials within Pits, Crevices and Cracks. (United States)


    be when the IR>IR* condition is not otherwise met. In the pitting of iron at ambient temperatures when a particular electrode potential within the...Potencial Local De Electrodo En Caridades, Fisuras Y. Grietas Y. Su Papel Como Cause Del Deterioro De Materials Estructurales," II Congress Iberoamericano

  15. An add-on system including a micro-reactor for an atr-ir spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to an add-on system for an attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectrometer, the add-on system allowing for time-resolved in situ IR measurements of heterogeneous mixtures. The add-on device comprises a micro-reactor (300A) forming a sample cavity (305) when...

  16. Semi-quantitative analysis of FT-IR spectra of humic fractions of nine US soils (United States)

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) is a simple and fast tool for characterizing soil organic matter. However, most FT-IR spectra are only analyzed qualitatively. In this work, we prepared mobile humic acid (MHA) and recalcitrant calcium humate (CaHA) from nine soils collected from six ...

  17. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L. F.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.; Burt, B. J.


    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy [1]. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum [2] led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data (5-

  18. A Study of IR Loss Correction Methodologies for Commercially Available Pyranometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Chuck; Andreas, Afshin; Augustine, John; Dooraghi, Mike; Habte, Aron; Hall, Emiel; Kutchenreiter, Mark; McComiskey, Allison; Reda, Ibrahim; Sengupta, Manajit


    This presentation provides a high-level overview of a study of IR Loss Connection Methodologies for Commercially Available Pyranometers. The IR Loss Corrections Study is investigating how various correction methodologies work for several makes and models of commercially available pyranometers in common use, both when operated in ventilators with DC fans and without ventilators, as when they are typically calibrated.

  19. Red-IR stimulated luminescence in K-feldspar: Single or multiple trap origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Jain, Mayank; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    We investigate on the origins of the infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in 3 potassium feldspars based on IR-red spectroscopy (700–1050 nm) using a fiber-coupled tunable Ti:Sapphire laser, in combination with different thermal and optical (pre)treatments of the samples. We also...

  20. Down-regulation of honey bee IRS gene biases behavior toward food rich in protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang


    Full Text Available Food choice and eating behavior affect health and longevity. Large-scale research efforts aim to understand the molecular and social/behavioral mechanisms of energy homeostasis, body weight, and food intake. Honey bees (Apis mellifera could provide a model for these studies since individuals vary in food-related behavior and social factors can be controlled. Here, we examine a potential role of peripheral insulin receptor substrate (IRS expression in honey bee foraging behavior. IRS is central to cellular nutrient sensing through transduction of insulin/insulin-like signals (IIS. By reducing peripheral IRS gene expression and IRS protein amount with the use of RNA interference (RNAi, we demonstrate that IRS influences foraging choice in two standard strains selected for different food-hoarding behavior. Compared with controls, IRS knockdowns bias their foraging effort toward protein (pollen rather than toward carbohydrate (nectar sources. Through control experiments, we establish that IRS does not influence the bees' sucrose sensory response, a modality that is generally associated with food-related behavior and specifically correlated with the foraging preference of honey bees. These results reveal a new affector pathway of honey bee social foraging, and suggest that IRS expressed in peripheral tissue can modulate an insect's foraging choice between protein and carbohydrate sources.

  1. Magnetic, transport and structural properties of Co/Ir multilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colis, S.; Dinia, A.; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Panissod, P.; Meny, C.; Schmerber, G.; Arabski, J. [IPCMS-GEMME (UMR 7504 du CNRS), 23 rue du Loess, BP 34, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)


    We report on the structural properties of a [Co{sub 30}/Ir{sub 10}]{sub 10} {sub x} (A) superlattice, as well as on the magnetic and transport properties of a Co{sub 15}/Ir{sub 5}/Co{sub 30} (A) artificial ferrimagnetic system. The samples were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on MgO(001) substrates covered with a Ir{sub 130} (A) buffer layer. High resolution cross section and plan view transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images present a high quality epitaxial stack [100]MgO(001) parallel [100]Ir(001) parallel [100]Co(001), with a tetragonalization of the Co fcc structure, due to strains induced by the Ir buffer. TEM images also show that the Co/Ir interfaces are flat, while the layers are continuous and free of bridges. These observations are consistent with zero field nuclear magnetic resonance measurements which indicate an fcc structure of the Co layers, and an interface mixing between Co and Ir limited to one atomic layer. As a consequence the antiferromagnetically coupled Co/Ir/Co sandwich presents large saturation and coercive fields which exceed 20 kOe and 220 Oe, respectively. Annealing made on the same sandwich indicate that the magnetic and transport properties are stable up to 300 C. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. The Effectiveness of Integrating Teaching Strategies into IRS Activities to Facilitate Learning (United States)

    Wang, Y.-H.


    Previous studies on the interactive response system (IRS) have generally adopted the lecture method to facilitate teaching and learning, while few have made efforts to investigate the learning effects of instructional methods and IRS activities on learning and teaching. The purpose of the present study was therefore to explore whether the use of…

  3. Conformational, IR spectroscopic and electronic properties of conium alkaloids and their adducts with C60 fullerene (United States)

    Zabolotnyi, M. A.; Prylutskyy, Yu I.; Poluyan, N. A.; Evstigneev, M. P.; Dovbeshko, G. I.


    Conformational, IR spectroscopic and electronic properties of the components of Conium alkaloids (Conium maculatum) in aqueous environment were determined by model calculations and experiment. With the help of FT-IR spectroscopy the possibility of formation of an adduct between γ-coniceine alkaloid and C60 fullerene was demonstrated, which is important for further application of conium analogues in biomedical purposes.

  4. Coupling Molecular Modeling to the Traditional "IR-ID" Exercise in the Introductory Organic Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Stokes-Huby, Heather; Vitale, Dale E.


    This exercise integrates the infrared unknown identification ("IR-ID") experiment common to most organic laboratory syllabi with computer molecular modeling. In this modification students are still required to identify unknown compounds from their IR spectra, but must additionally match some of the absorptions with computed frequencies they…

  5. Frequency up-conversion based single photon, mid-IR spectral imaging with 20% quantum efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian

    Spectral imaging of mid-infrared (mid-IR) light is emerging as a promising technology since important chemical compounds display unique and strong mid-IR spectral fingerprints. We demonstrate for detection a novel method including a field deployable imaging system with single photon sensitivity...

  6. IR-Drop Reduction in Sub-VT Circuits by De-synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Andreas; Andersson, Oskar; Sparsø, Jens;


    This paper proposes IR-drop reduction of sub-VT circuits by de-synchronization. The de-synchronization concept is briefly demonstrated and analyzed by a case study. Extensive IR-drop analysis’ of various technology options of a 65nm CMOS family demonstrate how the noise margins are reduced due...

  7. Reviewing History and IR Journals : Academic Publication Practices and Dominance in World Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendak, Maarten; de Wilde, J.H.


    1 Reviewing History and IR Journals: Academic Publication Practices and dominance in World Society Maarten Duijvendak & Jaap de Wilde Groningen, 2016 This article reflects on analyses of academic History journals and International Relations (IR) journals conducted by students in our Research

  8. The Effectiveness of Integrating Teaching Strategies into IRS Activities to Facilitate Learning (United States)

    Wang, Y.-H.


    Previous studies on the interactive response system (IRS) have generally adopted the lecture method to facilitate teaching and learning, while few have made efforts to investigate the learning effects of instructional methods and IRS activities on learning and teaching. The purpose of the present study was therefore to explore whether the use of…

  9. IR's Role in Piloting an Assessment Model: Coordination, Consultation and Compromise (United States)

    Sweatman, Robert A.


    This chapter focuses on IR's role in coordinating a pilot of the Degree Qualifications Profile (DQP) for assessment in a new master's degree program and provides guidance on frameworks that can be used, important technical considerations, and ways IR can be involved to advance the use of rubrics as a primary program assessment tool.

  10. Obstacles Avoidance Method for an Autonomous Mobile Robot using Two IR Sensors


    A. Gacsadi; V. Tiponut; I. Gavrilut; L. Tepelea


    The paper presents a local navigationmethod for mobile robot, based on sensorial informationgiven by two IR sensors. These types of sensors aresimple and relatively low-cost sensing modalities toperform navigation tasks in environments with obstacles.On the other hand, IR sensors may be preferable due totheir faster response time and can be integrated instructure with microcontroller.

  11. Olivine Composition of the Mars Trojan 5261 Eureka: Spitzer IRS Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L. F.; Emery, J. P.; Mueller, M.; Rivkin, A. S.; Trilling, D.; Burt, B. J.


    The largest Mars trojan, 5261 Eureka, is one of two prototype "Sa" asteroids in the Bus-Demeo taxonomy [1]. Analysis of its visible/near-IR spectrum [2] led to the conclusion that it might represent either an angritic analog or an olivine-rich composition such as an R chondrite. Spitzer IRS data

  12. Multiple-μJ mid-IR supercontinuum generation in quadratic nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Zhou, Binbin; Ashihara, S.


    Pumping a quadratic nonlinear crystal in the mid-IR we observe octave-spanning mid-IR supercontinua. A self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing nonlinearity, allowing formation of filament-free octave-spanning supercontinua in the 2.0–7.0 μm range with 10s of μ...

  13. Šunų ir kačių stomatitų, gingivitų, periodontitų susirgimų analizė Kauno miesto "X" ir "Y" veterinarijos klinikose 2011 - 2013 metais


    Vingytė, Aistė


    Darbo pavadinimas: Šunų ir kačių stomatitų, gingivitų ir periodontitų susirgimų analizė Kauno miesto “X” ir “Y” veterinarijos klinikose 2011 – 2013 metais. Lietuvos Sveikatos Mokslų Universitetas, Veterinarijos akademija, Veterinarijos fakultetas. Darbo apimtis 41 lapas. Darbe yra 22 paveikslai. Naudotų literatūros šaltinių kiekis: 34. Darbe buvo ištirti šunys ir katės, sergantys stomatitu, gingivitu ir periodontitu. Pasirinktos „X“ ir „Y“ klinikos Kaune. Darbas buvo at...

  14. Modelling and Optimising TinyTP over IrDA Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boucouvalas A. C.


    Full Text Available TinyTP is the IrDA transport layer protocol for indoor infrared communications. For the first time, this paper presents a mathematical model for TinyTP over the IrDA protocol stacks taking into account the presence of bit errors. Based on this model, we carry out a comprehensive optimisation study to improve system performance at the transport layer. Four major parameters are optimised for maximum throughput including TinyTP receiver window, IrLAP window and frame size, as well as IrLAP turnaround time. Equations are derived for the optimum IrLAP window and frame sizes. Numerical results show that the system throughput is significantly improved by implementing the optimised parameters. The major contribution of this work is the modelling of TinyTP including the low-layer protocols and optimisation of the overall throughput by appropriate parameter selection.

  15. The development of in-situ calibration method for divertor IR thermography in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sugie, T.; Ogawa, H.; Takeyama, S.; Itami, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)


    For the development of the calibration method of the emissivity in IR light on the divertor plate in ITER divertor IR thermography system, the laboratory experiments have been performed by using IR instruments. The calibration of the IR camera was performed by the plane black body in the temperature of 100–600 degC. The radiances of the tungsten heated by 280 degC were measured by the IR camera without filter (2.5–5.1 μm) and with filter (2.95 μm, 4.67 μm). The preliminary data of the scattered light of the laser of 3.34 μm that injected into the tungsten were acquired.

  16. Perforated SiN membrane resonators for nanomechanical IR spectroscopy poster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurek, Maksymilian; Carnoy, Matthias; Boisen, Anja

    behavior. The principle of operation is based on the monitoring of the resonance frequency shift dueto various external factors such as change of temperature. It has been shown that photothermal infrared (IR) spectroscopy based onnanomechanical silicon nitride (SiN) string resonators (NAM-IR) enables...... the exceptionally fast chemical analysis of pictograms of analytedirectly from liquid solution in only a few minutes [1]. However in this technique the coupling of the IR laser beam to the nanometerwidestring resonators is difficult and inefficient. Therefore perforated SiN membranes with thickness of 100 nm......, lateral dimension of1×1 mm2 and 2 µm perforation grid pitch were used instead of strings which makes the IR beam alignment significantly simpler whilemaintaining similar sampling efficiency and photothermal IR absorption sensitivity....

  17. IR image generation of space target based on OpenGL (United States)

    Shen, Tongsheng; Guo, Ming; Wang, Chenggang


    IR Scene simulation has been an important way to design and assess the IR sensor, and the key of simulation is the generation of IR scene image. Based on OpenGL, the method of IR image generation is proposed. The geometry model is constructed with professional CAD software, and the observer location is determined after scene transformation. The full infrared model of space target is built based on infrared physics and heat transfer, which includes the radiation, convection, conduction between different parts of the space target, and which also includes the radiation, convection of environment. Radiance of space target is converted to gray value, and properties of scene are defined according to the gray level. After a series of processing, dynamic IR images are generated with the technology of double buffering.

  18. Match day: online search trends reflect growing interest in IR training. (United States)

    Harsha, Asheesh K; Schmitt, James E; Stavropoulos, S William


    Google Trends was used to characterize the relationship between the interventional radiology (IR) applicant pool and related Internet queries for "IR fellowship" from July 2006 to July 2013. Results were compared with National Residency Match Panel data by regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance. Search traffic for IR fellowship demonstrated a statistically significant linear annual increase (R(2) = 0.87; P = .0013). Total IR applicants increased by 184% (R(2) = 0.98; P = .0216). Search traffic was predictive of applicants for each match year (R(2) = 0.92; P = .0004) and programs filled (R(2) = 0.93; P = .0003). Internet queries mirror trainee professional interests, with significant increases in search traffic related to IR fellowship and strong correlation with growth in applicants.

  19. Large-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ quadrupoles for $2^{nd}$ generation LHC IRs

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, A V; Chichili, D R; Huang Yu; Kashikhin, V V; Lamm, M J; Limon, P J; Mokhov, N V; Novitski, I; Peterson, T; Strait, J B; Yadav, S


    The 1/sup st/ generation of low-beta quadrupoles for the LHC interaction region (IR) was designed to achieve the nominal LHC luminosity of 10/sup 34/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. Given that the lifetime of the 1/sup st/ generation IR quadrupoles is limited by ionizing radiation to 6-7 years, the 2/sup nd/ generation of IR quadrupoles has to be developed with the goal to achieve the ultimate luminosity up to 10/sup 35/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/. The IR quadrupole parameters such as nominal gradient, dynamic aperture and physical aperture, operation margins are the main factors limiting the machine performance. Conceptual designs of 90-mm aperture high-gradient quadrupoles, suitable for use in 2/sup nd/ generation high-luminosity LHC IRs with the similar optics, are presented. The issues related to the field gradient, field quality and operation margins are discussed. (5 refs).

  20. IR image properties measurement of new micro-mirror array structure beam combiner (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhuo


    Microwave (MW)/Infrared(IR) dual-mode compound guidance technology has greatly developed recent years for enhancing guidance precision effectively. Here a new micro-mirror array structure is introduced as upright display for MW/IR beam combiner in HWIL simulation. The beam combiner is used in the IR/MW compound HWIL system for transmitting the MW signal while reflecting the IR signal. The spatial resolution and spatial uniformity are two important performance indicators for beam combiner in the application of HWIL simulation system. In this paper, the definitions, measurement methods, and results of spatial resolution and spatial uniformity are given. Through the measurement by multiple groups of black and white stripes, the spatial resolution and the spatial uniformity can be got. It shows the micro-mirror array beam combiner can be applied for MW/IR dual-mode common-aperture HWIL simulation system.