WorldWideScience

Sample records for iq200 urine microscopy

  1. Automated urinalysis: first experiences and a comparison between the Iris iQ200 urine microscopy system, the Sysmex UF-100 flow cytometer and manual microscopic particle counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayanfar, Noushin; Tobler, Ulrich; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Bestmann, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Automated analysis of insoluble urine components can reduce the workload of conventional microscopic examination of urine sediment and is possibly helpful for standardization. We compared the diagnostic performance of two automated urine sediment analyzers and combined dipstick/automated urine analysis with that of the traditional dipstick/microscopy algorithm. A total of 332 specimens were collected and analyzed for insoluble urine components by microscopy and automated analyzers, namely the Iris iQ200 (Iris Diagnostics) and the UF-100 flow cytometer (Sysmex). The coefficients of variation for day-to-day quality control of the iQ200 and UF-100 analyzers were 6.5% and 5.5%, respectively, for red blood cells. We reached accuracy ranging from 68% (bacteria) to 97% (yeast) for the iQ200 and from 42% (bacteria) to 93% (yeast) for the UF-100. The combination of dipstick and automated urine sediment analysis increased the sensitivity of screening to approximately 98%. We conclude that automated urine sediment analysis is sufficiently precise and improves the workflow in a routine laboratory. In addition, it allows sediment analysis of all urine samples and thereby helps to detect pathological samples that would have been missed in the conventional two-step procedure according to the European guidelines. Although it is not a substitute for microscopic sediment examination, it can, when combined with dipstick testing, reduce the number of specimens submitted to microscopy. Visual microscopy is still required for some samples, namely, dysmorphic erythrocytes, yeasts, Trichomonas, oval fat bodies, differentiation of casts and certain crystals.

  2. Automated urinalysis: first experiences and a comparison between the Iris iQ200 urine microscopy system, the Sysmex UF-100 flow cytometer and manual microscopic particle counting

    OpenAIRE

    Shayanfar, Noushin; Tobler, Ulrich; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Bestmann, Lukas

    2007-01-01

    Background: Automated analysis of insoluble urine components can reduce the workload of conventional microscopic examination of urine sediment and is possibly helpful for standardization. We compared the diagnostic performance of two automated urine sediment analyzers and combined dipstick/automated urine analysis with that of the traditional dipstick/microscopy algorithm. Methods: A total of 332 specimens were collected and analyzed for insoluble urine components by microscopy and automated ...

  3. The role of uncentrifuged urine microscopy in the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common nosocomial bacterial infections prevalent in both males and females. UTI is diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, microscopy and culture of urine. This study was done to establish the role of the routine uncentrifuged urine microscopy using culture ...

  4. The comparison of automated urine analyzers with manual microscopic examination for urinalysis automated urine analyzers and manual urinalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Demet Ä°nce

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical laboratory. However, manual microscopic sediment examination is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and lacks standardization in high-volume laboratories. In this study, the concordance of analyses between manual microscopic examination and two different automatic urine sediment analyzers has been evaluated. Design and methods: 209 urine samples were analyzed by the Iris iQ200 ELITE (Ä°ris Diagnostics, USA, Dirui FUS-200 (DIRUI Industrial Co., China automatic urine sediment analyzers and by manual microscopic examination. The degree of concordance (Kappa coefficient and the rates within the same grading were evaluated. Results: For erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, bacteria, crystals and yeasts, the degree of concordance between the two instruments was better than the degree of concordance between the manual microscopic method and the individual devices. There was no concordance between all methods for casts. Conclusion: The results from the automated analyzers for erythrocytes, leukocytes and epithelial cells were similar to the result of microscopic examination. However, in order to avoid any error or uncertainty, some images (particularly: dysmorphic cells, bacteria, yeasts, casts and crystals have to be analyzed by manual microscopic examination by trained staff. Therefore, the software programs which are used in automatic urine sediment analysers need further development to recognize urinary shaped elements more accurately. Automated systems are important in terms of time saving and standardization. Keywords: Urinalysis, Autoanalysis, Microscopy

  5. The comparison of automated urine analyzers with manual microscopic examination for urinalysis automated urine analyzers and manual urinalysis

    OpenAIRE

    ?nce, Fatma Demet; Ellida?, Hamit Ya?ar; Koseo?lu, Mehmet; ?im?ek, Ne?e; Yal??n, H?lya; Zengin, Mustafa Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical laboratory. However, manual microscopic sediment examination is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and lacks standardization in high-volume laboratories. In this study, the concordance of analyses between manual microscopic examination and two different automatic urine sediment analyzers has been evaluated. Design and methods: 209 urine samples were analyzed by the Iris iQ200 ELITE (Ä°ris Diagnostics, USA), Dirui...

  6. Diagnostic performance of urine dipstick testing in children with suspected UTI: a systematic review of relationship with age and comparison with microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R; Yonemoto, N; Fitzgerald, A; Tullus, K; Verrier-Jones, K; Lakhanpaul, M

    2010-04-01

    Prompt diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is needed to initiate treatment but is difficult to establish without urine testing, and reliance on culture leads to delay. Urine dipsticks are often used as an alternative to microscopy, although the diagnostic performance of dipsticks at different ages has not been established systematically. Studies comparing urine dipstick testing in infants versus older children and urine dipstick versus microscopy were systematically searched and reviewed. Meta-analysis of available studies was conducted. Six studies addressed these questions. The results of meta-analysis showed that the performance of urine dipstick testing was significantly less in the younger children when compared with older children (p UTI in children over 2 years than for younger children.

  7. Morphological evidence by scanning electron microscopy of excretion of metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vector's urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Zeledon

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparision by scanning electron microscopy (SEM of Trypanosoma cruzi flagellates attached to the cuticle of the rectal gland of infected Dipetalogaster maxima nymphs, showed marked differences before amd after feeding. Before feeding numerous metacyclic trypomastigotes were observed among the abundant epimastigotes that formed the carpet of flagellates. On the other hand, in insects that were allowed to urinate for 24 hours after a meal, the metacyclics were scarce,indicating that they had been detached by the urine flow. An asymetric type of cell division, probably originating both an epi-and a trypomastigote, was occasionally observed. The occurrence of swellings at different levels of the flagella of epimastigotes suggests that secondary sites of attachment may be common.Observando-se, em microscopia eletrônica de varedura, formas flageladas do Trypanosoma cruzi presas a cutícula da glândula retal de ninfas infectadas de Dipetalogaster maxima verificaram-se nítidas diferenças antes e depois da alimentação. Antes, viam-se numerosos tripomastigotas metacíclicos entre os abundantes epimastigotas que formavam o tapete de flagelados, ao passo que nos insetos que urinavam dentro das 24 horas após o repasto os metacíclicos eram raros, indicando que haviam sido desprendidos pelo fluxo urinário. Foi notado, as vezes, um tipo assimétrico de divisão celular, originando um epi e um tripomastigota. Nos flagelados dos epimastigotas a presença de dilatações a diferentes níveis sugere que lugares secundários de aderência podem ser comuns.

  8. Simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips compared to microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium in a community in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Dadzie Ephraim, Richard K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the utility of a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strip testing for the rapid diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium in rural northern Ghana. Cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey in a community in northern Ghana. Participants provided two urine specimens that were examined under a microscope using a centrifugation method. The first urine sample was additionally subjected to reagent strip testing. A short questionnaire was administered to all participants. Microscopy of urine samples obtained from 208 individuals aged 1-77 years revealed an S. haematobium prevalence of 6.8%. The presence of any blood or protein on a urine reagent strip was 100% and 42% sensitive, and 93% and 80% specific for S. haematobium diagnosis. Questionnaires were completed by 198 individuals. Self-reported haematuria showed a sensitivity of 53% and a specificity of 85%. A dichotomous two-question panel was helpful in S. haematobium diagnosis, with working and playing near the river significantly associated with S. haematobium infection (P < 0.001). The use of urine reagent strips, coupled with questions pertaining to water contact patterns, might be considered for point-of-contact diagnosis of S. haematobium where microscopy is unavailable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Correlation between dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy in detecting haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia in steady state in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anigilaje, Emmanuel Ademola; Adedoyin, Olanrewaju Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Haematuria is one of the clinical manifestations of sickle cell nephropathy. Although dipstick urinalysis detects haemoglobin and by extension haematuria; it does not confirm haematuria. Urine sediment microscopy confirms haematuria and constitutes a non-invasive "renal biopsy". The need to correlate dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy findings becomes important because of the cheapness, quickness and simplicity of the former procedure. Dipstick urinalysis and urine sediment microscopy were carried (both on first contact and a month after) among consecutive steady state sickle cell anaemia children attending sickle cell clinic at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital between October 2004 and July 2005. A total of 75 sickle cell anemia children aged between 1-17 years met the inclusion criteria. Haematuria was found in 12 children (16.0%) and persistent haematuria in 10 children 13.3%. Age and gender did not have significant relationship with haematuria both at first contact (p values 0.087 and 0.654 respectively) and at follow-up (p values 0.075 and 0.630 respectively). Eumorphic haematuria was confirmed in all the children with persistent haematuria with Pearson correlation +0.623 and significant p value of 0.000. The study has revealed a direct significant correlation for haematuria detected on dipstick urinalysis and at urine sediment microscopy. It may therefore be inferred that dipstick urinalysis is an easy and readily available tool for the screening of haematuria among children with sickle cell anaemia and should therefore be done routinely at the sickle cell clinics.

  10. Predicting Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection using risk scores, physical examination, microscopy, and leukocyte esterase urine dipsticks among asymptomatic women attending a family planning clinic in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, M W; Kidula, N; Sande, J; Ombette, J; Temmerman, M

    1999-09-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to exert a tremendous health burden on women in developing countries. Poor socioeconomic status, inadequate knowledge, lack of diagnostic facilities, and shortages of effective treatment all contribute to the high incidence of STIs. The use of clinical algorithms for the detection and management of STIs has gained widespread acceptance in settings where there are limited resources. Evaluation of these algorithms have been few, especially in women who are not recognized as members of high-risk groups. To develop a simple scoring system based on historical and demographic data, physical findings, microscopy, and leukocyte esterase (LE) urine dipsticks to predict cervical gonococcal and chlamydial infection among asymptomatic women. One thousand and forty-eight women attending an urban family planning clinic in Nairobi were randomly selected to participate. After the identification of factors that were associated with infection, we assigned one point each for: age 25 or younger, single status, two or more sex partners in the past year, cervical discharge, cervical swab leukocytes, and a positive LE urine dipstick. Identification of any one of these six factors gave a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 30% for the detection of cervical infections. A positive LE urine dipstick had a sensitivity of 63 % and a specificity of 47% when used alone and did not contribute to the identification of infection if a physical examination was performed. The application of existing clinical algorithms to this population performed poorly. The use of risk scores, physical examination, microscopy, and the urine LE dipstick, used alone or in combination, as predictors of gonococcal or chlamydial cervical infection was of limited utility in low-risk, asymptomatic women. Accurate diagnostic testing is necessary to optimize treatment.

  11. Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia A. Moss; Les Groom

    2001-01-01

    Microscopy is the study and interpretation of images produced by a microscope. "Interpretation" is the keyword, because the microscope enables one to see structures that are too small or too close together to be resolved by the unaided eye. (The human eye cannot separate two points or lines that are closer together than 0.1 mm.) it is important to...

  12. Bilirubin - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

  13. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Methods Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 ‘training’ samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. Results An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). Conclusions AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. PMID:25614466

  14. Urine Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine cytology Overview Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose ... bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine ( ...

  15. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 'training' samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  17. The comparison of automated urine analyzers with manual microscopic examination for urinalysis automated urine analyzers and manual urinalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, Fatma Demet; Ellidağ, Hamit Yaşar; Koseoğlu, Mehmet; Şimşek, Neşe; Yalçın, Hülya; Zengin, Mustafa Osman

    2016-08-01

    Urinalysis is one of the most commonly performed tests in the clinical laboratory. However, manual microscopic sediment examination is labor-intensive, time-consuming, and lacks standardization in high-volume laboratories. In this study, the concordance of analyses between manual microscopic examination and two different automatic urine sediment analyzers has been evaluated. 209 urine samples were analyzed by the Iris iQ200 ELITE (İris Diagnostics, USA), Dirui FUS-200 (DIRUI Industrial Co., China) automatic urine sediment analyzers and by manual microscopic examination. The degree of concordance (Kappa coefficient) and the rates within the same grading were evaluated. For erythrocytes, leukocytes, epithelial cells, bacteria, crystals and yeasts, the degree of concordance between the two instruments was better than the degree of concordance between the manual microscopic method and the individual devices. There was no concordance between all methods for casts. The results from the automated analyzers for erythrocytes, leukocytes and epithelial cells were similar to the result of microscopic examination. However, in order to avoid any error or uncertainty, some images (particularly: dysmorphic cells, bacteria, yeasts, casts and crystals) have to be analyzed by manual microscopic examination by trained staff. Therefore, the software programs which are used in automatic urine sediment analysers need further development to recognize urinary shaped elements more accurately. Automated systems are important in terms of time saving and standardization.

  18. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  19. Urine Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor. Brunzel NA. Physical examination of urine. In: Fundamentals of Urine and Body Fluid Analysis. 3rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier; 2013:97. McPherson RA, et al., eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St. Louis, Mo.: ...

  20. Black Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Vakili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy was born at term of healthy, non-consanguineous Iranian parents. His mother attended in the clinic with the history of sometimes discoloration of diapers after passing urine. She noticed that first at the age of one month with intensified in recent months. His Physical examination and growth parameters were normal. His mother denied taking any medication (sorbitol, nitrofurantoin, metronidazole, methocarbamol, sena and methyldopa (5. Qualitative urine examination showed dark black discoloration. By this history, alkaptonuria was the most clinical suspicious. A 24-hour-urine sample was collected and sent for quantitative measurements. The urine sample was highly positive for homogentisic acid and negative for porphyrin metabolites.

  1. Urine Preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  2. Urine Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drugs can darken urine, including the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and primaquine, the antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitrofurantoin ( ... Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the ...

  3. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from an infant, you may need extra collection bags. How the Test will Feel The test involves ... urine, it normally consists of mainly albumin. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  4. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  5. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Female urinary tract Male urinary tract Calcium urine test References Bringhurst FR, Demay MB, Kronenberg HM. Hormones and disorders of mineral metabolism. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  6. The performance of fully automated urine analysis results for predicting the need of urine culture test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Yüksel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Urinalysis and urine culture are most common tests for diagnosis of urinary tract infections. The aim of our study is to examine the diagnostic performance of urine analysis and the role of urine analysis to determine the requirements for urine culture. Methods: Urine culture and urine analysis results of 362 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Culture results were taken as a reference for chemical and microscopic examination of urine and diagnostic accuracy of the test parameters, that may be a marker for urinary tract infection, and the performance of urine analysis were calculated for predicting the urine culture requirements. Results: A total of 362 urine culture results of patients were evaluated and 67% of them were negative. The results of leukocyte esterase and nitrite in chemical analysis and leukocytes and bacteria in microscopic analysis were normal in 50.4% of culture negative urines. In diagnostic accuracy calculations, leukocyte esterase (86.1% and microscopy leukocytes (88.0% were found with high sensitivity, nitrite (95.4% and bacteria (86.6% were found with high specificity. The area under the curve was calculated as 0.852 in ROC analysis for microscopic examination for leukocytes. Conclusion: Full-automatic urine devices can provide sufficient diagnostic accuracy for urine analysis. The evaluation of urine analysis results in an effective way can predict the necessity for urine culture requests and especially may contribute to a reduction in the work load and cost. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 286-289

  7. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  10. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  11. Maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000373.htm Maple syrup urine disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder in ...

  12. Urine drug screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug screen - urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence may indicate that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  13. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urine sample. In certain situations, a sterile bag can be placed around a baby’s diaper area to collect a urine sample. If you have any questions about urine tests, talk with your doctor. Reviewed by: Yamini Durani, MD ...

  14. Calcium in Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Calcium, Serum; Calcium and Phosphates, Urine; ...

  15. Pink urine syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis del Carpio-Orantes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present images we allude to a syndrome of low incidence, characterized by pink urine, being related to factors such as obesity, and being triggered by abdominal surgeries, use of propofol, among others. Being favoured by the presence of abundant crystals of uric acid in the urine confers the typical pink coloration.

  16. Creatinine urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine creatinine test ... Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply ... done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed by the body entirely by the ...

  17. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  18. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  19. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    sudden onset, progressive left sided weakness involving both upper and ... computed tomography of the brain showed right ... included a complete blood count, renal functions which were ... Urine culture had a significant growth of Klebsiella.

  20. Fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Michael J; Smith, Ian; Parker, Ian; Bootman, Martin D

    2014-10-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is a major tool with which to monitor cell physiology. Although the concepts of fluorescence and its optical separation using filters remain similar, microscope design varies with the aim of increasing image contrast and spatial resolution. The basics of wide-field microscopy are outlined to emphasize the selection, advantages, and correct use of laser scanning confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, scanning disk confocal microscopy, total internal reflection, and super-resolution microscopy. In addition, the principles of how these microscopes form images are reviewed to appreciate their capabilities, limitations, and constraints for operation. © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. The Human Urine Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing

  2. 24-hour urine protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider may be able to order a test that is done on just one urine sample (protein-to-creatinine ratio). Normal Results The normal ... Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test ... Abnormal results may be due to: A group ...

  3. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  4. Automated color classification of urine dipstick image in urine examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Royananda; Muchtar, M. A.; Taqiuddin, R.; Adnan, S.; Anugrahwaty, R.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    Urine examination using urine dipstick has long been used to determine the health status of a person. The economical and convenient use of urine dipstick is one of the reasons urine dipstick is still used to check people health status. The real-life implementation of urine dipstick is done manually, in general, that is by comparing it with the reference color visually. This resulted perception differences in the color reading of the examination results. In this research, authors used a scanner to obtain the urine dipstick color image. The use of scanner can be one of the solutions in reading the result of urine dipstick because the light produced is consistent. A method is required to overcome the problems of urine dipstick color matching and the test reference color that have been conducted manually. The method proposed by authors is Euclidean Distance, Otsu along with RGB color feature extraction method to match the colors on the urine dipstick with the standard reference color of urine examination. The result shows that the proposed approach was able to classify the colors on a urine dipstick with an accuracy of 95.45%. The accuracy of color classification on urine dipstick against the standard reference color is influenced by the level of scanner resolution used, the higher the scanner resolution level, the higher the accuracy.

  5. Urine pH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... urine test Male urinary tract References Bose A, Monk RD, Bushinsky DA. Kidney stones. In: Melmed S, Polonsky ... and its influence on urine pH. J Am Diet Assoc . 1995;95(7):791-797. PMID: 7797810 ...

  6. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  7. Diagnosis efficiency of urine malaria test kit for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficiencies of urine malaria test kit with microscopy as the gold standard in detecting Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2, a poly-histidine antigen in urine of febrile patients. The study was conducted in a primary and secondary health institution in Gombe Town, Gombe State, ...

  8. Bacterial Isolates from the Urine of Women in Ilorin and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial Isolates from the Urine of Women in Ilorin and their Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns. ... Methods: Urine samples of women suspected to have UTI were sent for microscopy, culture and sensitivity tests. The results were analyzed and the differences between the results of pregnant and non-pregnant patients were ...

  9. Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H

    1988-08-01

    A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies.

  10. Cortisol in urine and saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurwitz Eller, N; Netterstrøm, B; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis.......The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis....

  11. Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Iron-binding Capacity (TIBC, UIBC) Trichomonas Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine ... blood pressure, and epinephrine increases heart rate and metabolism . After completing their actions, catecholamines are metabolized to ...

  12. The Cutoff Level for Urine Protein in Urine Immunofixation Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Curek, Gulten; Eren, Esin; Aydin, Ozgur; Yilmaz, Necat

    2015-01-01

    Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) maintains its importance in diagnosing monoclonal gammopathies. In particular, urine IFE detects free light chains (FLC) in urine samples even at low concentrations and offers higher sensitivity compared to serum electrophoresis and serum IFE. The aim of the present study was to determine the place and significance of quantitative urinary protein measurement before IFE in interpreting the results of subsequent IFE and to determine the most appropriate protein concentrations for the appearance of bands. The records of a total of 600 patients, who underwent screening for Bence Jones proteinuria using IFE on 24-hour urine, were retrospectively reviewed. Urine IFE was performed using Helena SAS-I and SAS-I devices. The total protein concentration in the urine was quantitatively determined by the Pyrogallol red method, and the urine albumin level was determined using the immunoturbidimetric method. These analyses were measured on an Olympus/Beckmann AU5800. The evaluation of IFE results revealed that 311 patients had normal results, 108 patients had monoclonal bands, five patients had biclonal bands, 28 had polyclonal bands, and 148 patients had various degrees of proteinuria. ROC curves were created in order to determine the most appropriate urinary protein and albumin levels to observe bands in IFE. Accordingly, urine baseline protein level (mg/dL) showed the highest AUC value (cutoff value: 19.4 mg/dL, sensitivity: 92%, specificity: 98.2%, AUC: 0.972). The present study showed that quantitative protein measurement before IFE eliminated the disadvantages associated with the IFE method and its interpretation.

  13. Urine Sodium in 3 Consecutive Days Urine collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that salt sensitivity, which is a heritable trait, is a hallmark to hypertension in blacks. Previous studies on twenty-four hour urinary sodium were either incomplete or yielded contradictory results possibly from incomplete urine collection. This study attempted complete ...

  14. Use of a midstream clean catch mobile application did not lower urine contamination rates in an ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mary S; Kulie, Paige; Benedict, Cameron; Ordoobadi, Alexander J; Sikka, Neal; Steinmetz, Erika; McCarthy, Melissa L

    2018-01-01

    Urine microscopy is a common test performed in emergency departments (EDs). Urine specimens can easily become contaminated by different factors, including the collection method. The midstream clean-catch (MSCC) collection technique is commonly used to reduce urine contamination. The urine culture contamination rate from specimens collected in our ED is 30%. We developed an instructional application (app) to show ED patients how to provide a MSCC urine sample. We hypothesized that ED patients who viewed our instructional app would have significantly lower urine contamination rates compared to patients who did not. We prospectively enrolled 257 subjects with a urinalysis and/or urine culture test ordered in the ED and asked them to watch our MSCC instructional app. After prospective enrollment was complete, we retrospectively matched each enrolled subject to an ED patient who did not watch the instructional app. Controls were matched to cases based on gender, type of urine specimen provided, ED visit date and shift. Urinalysis and urine culture contamination results were compared between the matched pairs using McNemar's test. The overall urine culture contamination rate of the 514 subjects was 38%. The majority of the matched pairs had a urinalysis (63%) or urinalysis plus urine culture (35%) test done. There were no significant differences in our urine contamination rates between the matched pairs overall or when stratified by gender, by prior knowledge of the clean catch process or by type of urine specimen. We did not see a lower contamination rate for patients who viewed our instructional app compared to patients who did not. It is possible that MSCC is not effective for decreasing urine specimen contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  16. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel urine pretreatment that will prevent biological growth or chemical instabilities in urine without using hazardous chemicals is proposed. Untreated urine...

  17. Heavy-ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.; Yang, T.C.H.; Richards, T.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter briefly describes the techniques of optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, soft x-ray microscopy and compares these latter techniques with heavy-ion microscopy. The resolution obtained with these various types of microscopy are compared and the influence of the etching procedure on total resolution is discussed. Several micrographs of mammalian cells are included

  18. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  19. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  20. Determination of americium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvydko, N.S.; Mikhajlova, O.A.; Popov, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A technique has been developed for the determination of americium 241 in urine by a raiochemical purification of the nuclide from uranium (upon co-precipitation of americium 241 with calcium and lanthanum), plutonium, thorum, and polonium 210 (upon co-precipitation of these radionuclides with zirconium iodate). α-Radioactivity was measured either in a thick layer of the americium 241 precipitate with a nonisotope carrier or in thin-layer preparations after electrolytic precipitation of americium 241 on a cathode

  1. [Examination about utility of a Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular antigen swiftness search kit urine in a pneumonia patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikita, Giichi; Yamaguti, Toshiyuki; Tachi, Yoshimi; Kishi, Etsuko; Kawamura, Toru; Takahashi, Shun; Arai, Yukie; Koyama, Sachie; Huruhata, Toshihumi; Itabashi, Akira; Oka, Yoko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Maesaki, Sigefumi

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the usefullness of Binax NOW urine antigen test, an immunochromatographic assay that binds any soluble Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen (C polysaccharide) for the diagnosis of penumoniae form September 2003 to March 2005. We used 372 samples form the patinets with pneumoniae diagnosed for blood or sputum cultuter or gram-stained sputum smear. Out of 24 culture positive specimens, Binax NOW urine antigen test, showed positive in 18 (75%) specimens. The sensitivity of sputum and blood culture was 71.7% and 83.3%, respectively. Binax NOW urine antigen test was seemed false positives in 55 samples, false negatives in 6 samples. The specificity of Binax NOW urine antigen test was evaluated 84.1%. Overall agreement among tests was 83.6%. When compared to culture, false negative urine antigen may be the result of colonizing S. pneumoniae in sputum or pneumonia caused by an agent other than S. pneumoniae. CRP values for cases were both urine antigen and culture were positive ranged from 40 mg/dl to 10 mg/dl while urine antigen and culture negative cases were predominantly less than 10 mg/dl. Positive blood and pleural fluid culture cases were consistently associated with strongly positive urine antigen tests. Non-agreement between urine antigen, culture, and microscopy may be the result of specimen quality, labile nature of S. pneumoniae and antimicrobial therapy.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Background The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. Methods During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Results Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Influenced by Urine Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chen, Fu-An; Chen, Chun-Fan; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Shih, Chia-Jen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Yang, Wu-Chang; Lin, Chih-Ching; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-01-01

    The usage of urine protein/creatinine ratio to estimate daily urine protein excretion is prevalent, but relatively little attention has been paid to the influence of urine concentration and its impact on test accuracy. We took advantage of 24-hour urine collection to examine both urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPCR) and daily urine protein excretion, with the latter as the reference standard. Specific gravity from a concomitant urinalysis of the same urine sample was used to indicate the urine concentration. During 2010 to 2014, there were 540 adequately collected 24h urine samples with protein concentration, creatinine concentration, total volume, and a concomitant urinalysis of the same sample. Variables associated with an accurate UPCR estimation were determined by multivariate linear regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the discriminant cut-off values of urine creatinine concentration for predicting an accurate UPCR estimation in either dilute or concentrated urine samples. Our findings indicated that for dilute urine, as indicated by a low urine specific gravity, UPCR is more likely to overestimate the actual daily urine protein excretion. On the contrary, UPCR of concentrated urine is more likely to result in an underestimation. By ROC curve analysis, the best cut-off value of urine creatinine concentration for predicting overestimation by UPCR of dilute urine (specific gravity ≦ 1.005) was ≦ 38.8 mg/dL, whereas the best cut-off values of urine creatinine for predicting underestimation by UPCR of thick urine were ≧ 63.6 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.015), ≧ 62.1 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.020), ≧ 61.5 mg/dL (specific gravity ≧ 1.025), respectively. We also compared distribution patterns of urine creatinine concentration of 24h urine cohort with a concurrent spot urine cohort and found that the underestimation might be more profound in single voided samples. The UPCR in samples with low

  4. Measurement of tritium concentration in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Deshimaru, Takehide

    1979-01-01

    Concerning the safety management of the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', the internal exposure management for tritium is important, because heavy water is used as the moderator in the reactor, and tritium is produced in the heavy water. Tritium is the radioactive nuclide with the maximum β-ray energy of 18 keV, and the radiation exposure is limited to the internal exposure in human bodies, as tritium is taken in through the skin and by breathing. The tritium concentration in urine of the operators of the Fugen plant was measured. As for tritium measurement, the analysis of raw urine, the analysis after passing through mixed ion exchange resin and the analysis after distillation are applied. The scintillator, the liquid scintillation counter, the ion exchange resin and the distillator are introduced. The preliminary survey was conducted on the urine sample, the scintillator the calibration, etc. The measuring condition, the measurement of efficiency, and the limitation of detection with various background are explained, with the many experimental data and the calculating formula. Concerning the measured tritium concentration in urine, the tritium concentrations in distilled urine, raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin were compared, and the correlation formulae are presented. The actual tritium concentration value in urine was less than 50 pci/ml. The measuring methods of raw urine and the urine refined with ion exchange resin are adequate as they are quick and accurate. (Nakai, Y.)

  5. Correlated Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjollema, Klaas A.; Schnell, Ulrike; Kuipers, Jeroen; Kalicharan, Ruby; Giepmans, Ben N. G.; MullerReichert, T; Verkade, P

    2012-01-01

    Understanding where, when, and how biomolecules (inter)act is crucial to uncover fundamental mechanisms in cell biology. Recent developments in fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) allow protein imaging in living cells and at the near molecular level. However, fluorescence microscopy only reveals

  6. Crystallization of calcium oxalate in minimally diluted urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, T.; Rodgers, A.

    1998-09-01

    Crystallization of calcium oxalate was studied in minimally diluted (92%) urine using a mixed suspension mixed product crystallizer in series with a Malvern particle sizer. The crystallization was initiated by constant flow of aqueous sodium oxalate and urine into the reaction vessel via two independent feed lines. Because the Malvern cell was in series with the reaction vessel, noninvasive measurement of particle sizes could be effected. In addition, aliquots of the mixed suspension were withdrawn and transferred to a Coulter counter for crystal counting and sizing. Steady-state particle size distributions were used to determine nucleation and growth kinetics while scanning electron microscopy was used to examine deposited crystals. Two sets of experiments were performed. In the first, the effect of the concentration of the exogenous sodium oxalate was investigated while in the second, the effect of temperature was studied. Calcium oxalate nucleation and growth rates were found to be dependent on supersaturation levels inside the crystallizer. However, while growth rate increased with increasing temperature, nucleation rates decreased. The favored phases were the trihydrate at 18°C, the dihydrate at 38° and the monohydrate at 58°C. The results of both experiments are in agreement with those obtained in other studies that have been conducted in synthetic and in maximally diluted urine and which have employed invasive crystal counting and sizing techniques. As such, the present study lends confidence to the models of urinary calcium oxalate crystallization processes which currently prevail in the literature.

  7. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  8. Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Stalin

    2013-01-01

    Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may gi...

  9. Radioimmunoassay of triiodothyronine in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosowicz, J.; Gembicki, M.; Schneider, E.; Eder, M.

    1977-01-01

    In 21 cases of hypothyroidism, in 39 cases of hyperthyroidism, in 54 healthy subjects, in 23 pregnant women, and in certain internal diseases determinations of triiodothyronine were carried out in urine by radioimmunoassay. Anti-T 3 antibodies were obtained in rabbits and sheep immunized with a complex of bovine albumin with triiodothyronine ester. Labelled triiodothyronine of high specific activity was obtained by iodinating triodothyronine by the chloramine method. Determinations of triiodothyronine were performed in morning urine and the obtained values were calculated for one-hour excretion. In healthy subjects the excretion of T 3 was from 20 to 95 ng/hour, in hyperthyroidism it was significantly raised to from 120 to over 600 ng/hour, while in most cases of hypothyroidism it was decreased. In pregnancy the urinary excretion of T 3 was normal amounting to from 34 to 87 ng/hour, although in most cases the serum T 3 concentration was raised. In cases of anorexia nervosa and in obese starving subjects the excretion of T 3 fell significantly, and similarly low excretion was found in some cases of debilitating diseases and myocardial infarction. (author)

  10. Microsphere imaging with confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Hyung Su; An, Kyung Won; Lee, Jai Hyung

    2002-01-01

    We have acquired images of polystyrene and fused-silica microsphere by using conventional optical microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy, and performed comparative analysis of these images. Different from conventional optical microscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy had good optical sectioning capability. In addition, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy had better lateral resolution than conventional optical microscopy. These results are attributed to confocality and nonlinearity of confocal microscopy and two photon microscopy, respectively.

  11. Electron microscopy for Engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, I P

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of (mainly) Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in an engineering context. The first two sections are TEM and chemical in nature; the final three sections are more general and include aspects of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

  12. Electron microscopy of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venables, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Electron beam techniques used to study clean surfaces and surface processes on a microscopic scale are reviewed. Recent experimental examples and possible future developments are discussed. Special emphasis is given to (i) transmission diffraction and microscopy techniques, including atomic imaging; (ii) Auger microscopy on bulk and thin film samples; (iii) secondary electron microscopy, especially low energy secondaries for work-function imaging and photoelectron imaging; and (iv) reflection electron microscopy and diffraction. (orig.)

  13. The Urine Marker Test: An Alternative Approach to Supervised Urine Collection for Doping Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylansted; Elsborg, Peter; Wetzke, Monika; Woldemariam, Getachew A; Huppertz, Bernd; Keller, Ruprecht; Butch, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance of this new method via two questionnaires (n = 253). Furthermore, a third study (n = 91) investigated whether ingestion of the marker can identify the urine as coming from a specific person and whether the marker interferes with the detection of prohibited substances. The results indicate that this new method finds wide acceptance both from athletes who have only heard about the procedure and those who have actually tested the new method. Furthermore, the marker, which can identify urine as coming from a specific person, does not interfere with the detection of prohibited substances.

  14. Dictionary of Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Julian

    2005-10-01

    The past decade has seen huge advances in the application of microscopy in all areas of science. This welcome development in microscopy has been paralleled by an expansion of the vocabulary of technical terms used in microscopy: terms have been coined for new instruments and techniques and, as microscopes reach even higher resolution, the use of terms that relate to the optical and physical principles underpinning microscopy is now commonplace. The Dictionary of Microscopy was compiled to meet this challenge and provides concise definitions of over 2,500 terms used in the fields of light microscopy, electron microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, x-ray microscopy and related techniques. Written by Dr Julian P. Heath, Editor of Microscopy and Analysis, the dictionary is intended to provide easy navigation through the microscopy terminology and to be a first point of reference for definitions of new and established terms. The Dictionary of Microscopy is an essential, accessible resource for: students who are new to the field and are learning about microscopes equipment purchasers who want an explanation of the terms used in manufacturers' literature scientists who are considering using a new microscopical technique experienced microscopists as an aide mémoire or quick source of reference librarians, the press and marketing personnel who require definitions for technical reports.

  15. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español Obtención de un análisis de orina (video) It ...

  16. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  17. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test ( ...

  18. The determination of 210Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, W.F.; Helmkamp, R.W.; Hrynyszyn, V.; Contreras, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    To measure 210 Po present in normal human urine a technique was developed in which a 4.5 x 11cm silver foil was shaken at room temperature for 48-hr periods in each of two successive volumes of 1.7 l. of urine acidified to 0.5N with HCl. Alpha rays were counted with an ionization chamber, coupled to a vibrating reed electrometer, and capable of measuring α-ray pulses originating on both sides of the silver foil serving as a central electrode. The background α-count was less than 2/hr. Analyses of human urine spiked with 0.29 to 0.58pCi of 210 Po, together with studies of urine from dogs carrying significant body burdens of 210 Pb, indicated that the average recovery of added 210 Po from 1.7 l. volumes of spiked human urine was 72%. If it is assumed that the same percentage of 210 Po is extracted from non-spiked urine, then the average 210 Po concentration found in 13 analyses of 2 x 1.7 l. samples from 26 different pools of fresh human urine was 0.023pCi/l. Substantial additional 210 Po was generated on short aging of the urine through radioactive decay of excreted 210 Bi. (author)

  19. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print en español ...

  20. Protein in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/proteininurine.html Protein in Urine To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Protein in Urine Test? A protein in urine test ...

  1. Ethanol Induced Urine Acidification is Related with Early Acetaldehyde Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Kil Kwon

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, urine acidification after ethanol ingestion is related with serum acetaldehyde concentration. Early elevation of acetaldhyde could induce urine acidification, but the urine pH was elevated after a few hours, that might make prolonged acidemia.

  2. Urine: Waste product or biologically active tissue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Historically, urine has been viewed primarily as a waste product with little biological role in the overall health of an individual. Increasingly, data suggest that urine plays a role in human health beyond waste excretion. For example, urine might act as an irritant and contribute to symptoms through interaction with-and potential compromise of-the urothelium. To explore the concept that urine may be a vehicle for agents with potential or occult bioactivity and to discuss existing evidence and novel research questions that may yield insight into such a role, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease invited experts in the fields of comparative evolutionary physiology, basic science, nephrology, urology, pediatrics, metabolomics, and proteomics (among others) to a Urinology Think Tank meeting on February 9, 2015. This report reflects ideas that evolved from this meeting and current literature, including the concept of urine quality, the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of urine, including the microbiota, cells, exosomes, pH, metabolites, proteins, and specific gravity (among others). Additionally, the manuscript presents speculative, and hopefully testable, ideas about the functional roles of urine constituents in health and disease. Moving forward, there are several questions that need further understanding and pursuit. There were suggestions to consider actively using various animal models and their biological specimens to elaborate on basic mechanistic information regarding human bladder dysfunction. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. New microscopy for nanoimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kinjo, Y; Watanabe, M

    2002-01-01

    Two types of new microscopy, namely, X-ray contact microscopy (XRCM) in combination with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray projection microscopy (XRPM) using synchrotron radiation and zone plate optics were used to image the fine structures of human chromosomes. In the XRCM plus AFM system, location of X-ray images on a photoresist has become far easier than that with our previous method using transmission electron microscopy coupled with the replica method. In addition, the images obtained suggested that the conformation of chromatin fiber differs from the current textbook model regarding the architecture of a eukaryotic chromosome. X-ray images with high contrast of the specimens could be obtained with XRPM. The resolution of each microscopy was about 30 and 200-300 nm for XRCM plus AFM and XRPM, respectively. (author)

  4. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method for Future Exploration Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A nonhazardous urine pretreatment system prototype is proposed that will stabilize urine against biological growth or chemical instabilities without using hazardous...

  5. Microscopy and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, George; Difilippantonio, Michael; Ried, Thomas; Bieber, Frederick R

    2017-07-11

    This unit provides an overview of light microscopy, including objectives, light sources, filters, film, and color photography for fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We believe there are excellent opportunities for cytogeneticists, pathologists, and other biomedical readers, to take advantage of specimen optical clearing techniques and expansion microscopy-we briefly point to these new opportunities. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. CARS microscopy for imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanyan Grigory; Voskanyan Karine

    2013-01-01

    Optical microscopy grows in its importance with the development of modern nanotechnology, biotechnology, methods of diagnostics and treatment of most dangerous diseases for mankind. There are several important goals of optical microscopy for biomedical studies among which the next three may be distinguished: fast imaging with high lateral spatial resolution, 3-D sectioning capability and high contrast for chemical selectivity. To meet these specific requirements, various types of both linear and nonlinear optical microscopy were elaborated. (authors)

  7. Fluorescence (Multiwave) Confocal Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzel, J; Kästle, Raphaela; Sattler, Elke C

    2016-10-01

    In addition to reflectance confocal microscopy, multiwave confocal microscopes with different laser wavelengths in combination with exogenous fluorophores allow fluorescence mode confocal microscopy in vivo and ex vivo. Fluorescence mode confocal microscopy improves the contrast between the epithelium and the surrounding soft tissue and allows the depiction of certain structures, like epithelial tumors, nerves, and glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Feline urine metabolomic signature: characterization of low-molecular-weight substances in urine from domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Vélez, Sol-Maiam; Villarino, Nicolas F

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This aim of this study was to characterize the composition and content of the feline urine metabolome. Methods Eight healthy domestic cats were acclimated at least 10 days before starting the study. Urine samples (~2 ml) were collected by ultrasound-guided cystocentesis. Samples were centrifuged at 1000 × g for 8 mins, and the supernatant was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometery. The urine metabolome was characterized using an untargeted metabolomics approach. Results Three hundred and eighteen metabolites were detected in the urine of the eight cats. These molecules are key components of at least 100 metabolic pathways. Feline urine appears to be dominated by carbohydrates, carbohydrate conjugates, organic acid and derivatives, and amino acids and analogs. The five most abundant molecules were phenaceturic acid, hippuric acid, pseudouridine phosphate and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid. Conclusions and relevance This study is the first to characterize the feline urine metabolome. The results of this study revealed the presence of multiple low-molecular-weight substances that were not known to be present in feline urine. As expected, the origin of the metabolites detected in urine was diverse, including endogenous compounds and molecules biosynthesized by microbes. Also, the diet seemed to have had a relevant role on the urine metabolome. Further exploration of the urine metabolic phenotype will open a window for discovering unknown, or poorly understood, metabolic pathways. In turn, this will advance our understanding of feline biology and lead to new insights in feline physiology, nutrition and medicine.

  9. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  10. Coherent light microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th

  11. [Development of automatic urine monitoring system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Chen, Bihua

    2014-03-01

    An automatic urine monitoring system is presented to replace manual operation. The system is composed of the flow sensor, MSP430f149 single chip microcomputer, human-computer interaction module, LCD module, clock module and memory module. The signal of urine volume is captured when the urine flows through the flow sensor and then displayed on the LCD after data processing. The experiment results suggest that the design of the monitor provides a high stability, accurate measurement and good real-time, and meets the demand of the clinical application.

  12. Bridging fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    Development of new fluorescent probes and fluorescence microscopes has led to new ways to study cell biology. With the emergence of specialized microscopy units at most universities and research centers, the use of these techniques is well within reach for a broad research community. A major

  13. Voltammetric Determination of Thiodiglycolic Acid in Urine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlasková, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Heyrovský, Michael; Pelclová, D.; Novotný, Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 375, - (2003), s. 164-168 ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : urine * thioglycolic acid * voltammetry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.715, year: 2003

  14. Murine Automated Urine Sampler (MAUS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal outlines planned development for a low-power, low-mass automated urine sample collection and preservation system for small mammals, capable of...

  15. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it used? The urine albumin test or albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is used to screen people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure ( hypertension ) that put them at an ...

  16. On-Demand Urine Analyzer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research program will develop a novel surface-enhanced Raman (SER) sensor that will perform real-time chemical analysis of urine. It...

  17. Kvaliteten af resistensbestemmelser på urin i almen praksis er generelt god

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Per; Knudsen, Anette Flindt; Højbjerg, Tove

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, many microbiological tests (microscopy, culture and susceptibility examinations) are done in general practice for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI). In 2006, the costs of susceptibility examinations were 28 million DKK. Some regional health authorities have established...... a program for quality assessment. National quality requirements for susceptibility examinations have already been established. The clinical microbiological departments send simulated urines with bacteria of common UTI strains. The specimens are examined in general practice with routine methods. The results...

  18. Photodynamic diagnosis of bladder cancer in ex vivo urine cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, C. Y.; Ng, B. K.; Razul, S. Gulam; Olivo, Malini C.; Lau, Weber K. O.; Tan, P. H.; Chin, William

    2006-02-01

    Bladder cancer is the fourth common malignant disease worldwide, accounting for 4% of all cancer cases. In Singapore, it is the ninth most common form of cancer. The high mortality rate can be reduced by early treatment following precancerous screening. Currently, the gold standard for screening bladder tumors is histological examination of biopsy specimen, which is both invasive and time-consuming. In this study ex vivo urine fluorescence cytology is investigated to offer a timely and biopsy-free means for detecting bladder cancers. Sediments in patients' urine samples were extracted and incubated with a novel photosensitizer, hypericin. Laser confocal microscopy was used to capture the fluorescence images at an excitation wavelength of 488 nm. Images were subsequently processed to single out the exfoliated bladder cells from the other cells based on the cellular size. Intensity histogram of each targeted cell was plotted and feature vectors, derived from the histogram moments, were used to represent each sample. A difference in the distribution of the feature vectors of normal and low-grade cancerous bladder cells was observed. Diagnostic algorithm for discriminating between normal and low-grade cancerous cells is elucidated in this paper. This study suggests that the fluorescence intensity profiles of hypericin in bladder cells can potentially provide an automated quantitative means of early bladder cancer diagnosis.

  19. Occurrence of riboflavinyl glucoside in rat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, Hiroshi; Ohishi, Nobuko; Yagi, Kunio

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the metabolism of riboflavin, [2- 14 C]-riboflavin was administered orally to a rat. The urine pooled for 24 h after administration was fractionated by paper and silica gel thin layer chromatographies using various solvent systems. Among the radioactive metabolites, riboflavinyl glucoside was found along with 7-carboxy lumichrome and 8-carboxy lumichrome. The radioactivity of riboflavinyl glucoside comprised about 6 % of the total radioactivity excreted in the urine during 24 h. (author)

  20. Serial-omics characterization of equine urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Horse urine is easily collected and contains molecules readily measurable using mass spectrometry that can be used as biomarkers representative of health, disease or drug tampering. This study aimed at analyzing microliter levels of horse urine to purify, identify and quantify proteins, polar metabolites and non-polar lipids. Urine from a healthy 12 year old quarter horse mare on a diet of grass hay and vitamin/mineral supplements with limited pasture access was collected for serial-omics characterization. The urine was treated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and methanol to partition into three distinct layers for protein, non-polar lipid and polar metabolite content from a single liquid-liquid extraction and was repeated two times. Each layer was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to obtain protein sequence and relative protein levels as well as identify and quantify small polar metabolites and lipids. The results show 46 urine proteins, many related to normal kidney function, structural and circulatory proteins as well as 474 small polar metabolites but only 10 lipid molecules. Metabolites were mostly related to urea cycle and ammonia recycling as well as amino acid related pathways, plant diet specific molecules, etc. The few lipids represented triglycerides and phospholipids. These data show a complete mass spectrometry based-omics characterization of equine urine from a single 333 μL mid-stream urine aliquot. These omics data help serve as a baseline for healthy mare urine composition and the analyses can be used to monitor disease progression, health status, monitor drug use, etc.

  1. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  2. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  3. An update on purple urine bag syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadano Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoshiro Hadano,1 Taro Shimizu,2 Shimon Takada,3 Toshiya Inoue,4 Sumire Sorano51Department of General Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto, Japan; 2Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of General Internal Medicine, Osaka City General Hospital, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Japan; 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Urasoe General Hospital, Urasoe-city, Okinawa, Japan; 5Kobe University School of Medicine, Kusunokicho, Chuoku, Kobe, JapanAbstract: Purple urine bag syndrome is characterized by the urinary drainage bag turning purple in patients on prolonged urinary catheterization, especially those in the bedridden state. It is associated with bacterial urinary tract infections caused by indigo-producing and indirubin-producing bacteria, usually affects women, and is associated with alkaline urine, constipation, and a high bacterial load in the urine. Almost all patients with purple urine bag syndrome are catheterized due to significant disability, and the urinary pH is 7.0 or more. In general, intensive treatment with antibiotics is not recommended. Purple urine bag syndrome per se almost always appears to be asymptomatic and harmless. However, caution is needed, because some cases have been reported to show progression to severe disease states, so further research into the morbidity and mortality of this infection is warranted.Keywords: purple urine, urinary catheterization, geriatrics, urinary tract infection

  4. Mutagens in urine of carbon electrode workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S; Sforzolini, G S; Conti, R; Fagioli, F

    1982-01-01

    Following previous work carried out in an Italian factory producing carbon electrodes and evaluating the occupational mutagenic-carcinogenic hazards, the authors studied the presence of mutagen metabolites in the urine of workers in the same factory who were exposed to petroleum coke and pitch and in the urine of a control group of unexposed workers. The urine samples were concentrated by absorption on XAD-2 columns and were tested using the Salmonella/microsome assay (strain TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1538) with and without the addition of beta-glucuronidase and metabolizing system. The collection of urine samples was carried out twice, with an interval of 2 months; 'before working time', 'after working time', and also during Sunday. The results showed that urine samples collected 'before' occupational exposure (upon waking) or on Sunday revealed no mutagenic activity in either worker groups and that the urine samples collected after or during occupational exposure revealed high mutagenic activity in the exposed workers, with a statistically significant difference between the mean of the revertants/plate values for exposed and unexposed workers. On the basis of the previous and the present research, the authors suggest that application of the Salmonella/microsome test to work environments could offer useful and suitable tool for evaluating the health hazards due to mutagenic/carcinogenic substances from occupational exposure.

  5. The Accuracy of the Sysmex UF-1000i in Urine Bacterial Detection Compared With the Standard Urine Analysis and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Patrick; Anderson, Brian; Zacko, J Christopher; Taylor, Kirk; Donaldson, Keri

    2017-11-01

    - Urinary tract infections are characterized by the presence of microbial pathogens within the urinary tract. They represent one of the most common infections in hospitalized and clinic patients. - To model the parameters of the Sysmex UF-1000i to the gold standard, urine culture, and to compare the detection of dipstick leukocyte esterase and nitrates to urine cultures and UF-1000i results. - Data were compared from urine samples collected in sterile containers for bacterial culture and microscopic analysis. One sample was used to inoculate a 5% sheep blood agar and MacConkey agar plate using a 0.001-mL calibrated loop. The second sample was analyzed by urinalysis-associated microscopy. The media plates were investigated for growth after 18 to 24 hours of aerobic incubation at 37°C. The second sample was analyzed for bacteria and leukocytes with the Sysmex UF-1000i according to the manufacturer's guidelines. Three definitions for culture results, sensitivity, and specificity at different cutoff values were calculated for the UF-1000i. - The negative predictive value for any positive culture in the adult population included in the study was 95.5%, and the negative predictive value for positive cultures containing growth of 100 000 or more colony-forming units was 99.3% using the Sysmex UF-1000i. - Sysmex UF-1000i showed 98% sensitivity and 93.7% specificity with a 95.5% negative predictive value. Thus, a negative screen with the UF-1000i using defined thresholds for white blood cell counts and bacteria was likely to be a true negative, decreasing the need for presumptive antibiotics.

  6. Confocal Raman microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Hollricher, Olaf

    2018-01-01

    This second edition provides a cutting-edge overview of physical, technical and scientific aspects related to the widely used analytical method of confocal Raman microscopy. The book includes expanded background information and adds insights into how confocal Raman microscopy, especially 3D Raman imaging, can be integrated with other methods to produce a variety of correlative microscopy combinations. The benefits are then demonstrated and supported by numerous examples from the fields of materials science, 2D materials, the life sciences, pharmaceutical research and development, as well as the geosciences.

  7. Prognostic value of a quantitative analysis of lipoarabinomannan in urine from patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available Detection of the mycobacterial cell wall antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM in urine can be used to diagnose HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB using a qualitative (positive/negative read-out. However, it is not known whether the quantity of LAM present in urine provides additional prognostic information.Consecutively recruited adult outpatients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART in South Africa were investigated for TB regardless of clinical symptoms using sputum smear microscopy and liquid culture (reference standard. Urine samples were tested using the Clearview TB-ELISA for LAM and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. The ELISA optical densities (OD were used as a quantitative assessment of urine LAM. Among 514 patients with complete sputum and urine LAM OD results, culture-confirmed TB was diagnosed in 84 patients. Twenty-three (27.3% were LAM-positive with a median LAM OD of 0.68 (IQR 0.16-2.43; range, 0.10-3.29 and 61 (72.6% were LAM negative (LAM OD <0.1 above background. Higher LAM ODs were associated with a range of prognostic indices, including lower CD4 cell counts, lower haemoglobin levels, higher blood neutrophil counts and higher mycobacterial load as assessed using both sputum and urine samples. The median LAM OD among patients who died was more than 6.8-fold higher than that of patients who remained alive at 3 months (P<0.001. The small number of deaths, however, precluded adequate assessment of mortality risk stratified according to urine LAM OD.In patients with HIV-associated TB, concentrations of LAM in urine were strongly associated with a range of poor prognostic characteristics known to be associated with mortality risk. Urine LAM assays with a semi-quantitative (negative vs. low-positive vs. high-positive read-out may have improved clinical utility over assays with a simple binary result.

  8. International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Oral, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet; InterM; INTERM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Multidisciplinary Microscopy Congress (INTERM2013) was organized on October 10-13, 2013. The aim of the congress was to bring together scientists from various branches to discuss the latest advances in the field of microscopy. The contents of the congress have been broadened to a more "interdisciplinary" scope, so as to allow all scientists working on related subjects to participate and present their work. These proceedings include 39 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 12 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The 39 papers are grouped into the following sections: - Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences - Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences

  9. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  10. Human Urine-Derived Renal Progenitors for Personalized Modeling of Genetic Kidney Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Elena; Ronconi, Elisa; Angelotti, Maria Lucia; Peired, Anna; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Becherucci, Francesca; Conti, Sara; Sansavini, Giulia; Sisti, Alessandro; Ravaglia, Fiammetta; Lombardi, Duccio; Provenzano, Aldesia; Manonelles, Anna; Cruzado, Josep M; Giglio, Sabrina; Roperto, Rosa Maria; Materassi, Marco; Lasagni, Laura; Romagnani, Paola

    2015-08-01

    The critical role of genetic and epigenetic factors in the pathogenesis of kidney disorders is gradually becoming clear, and the need for disease models that recapitulate human kidney disorders in a personalized manner is paramount. In this study, we describe a method to select and amplify renal progenitor cultures from the urine of patients with kidney disorders. Urine-derived human renal progenitors exhibited phenotype and functional properties identical to those purified from kidney tissue, including the capacity to differentiate into tubular cells and podocytes, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy, Western blot analysis of podocyte-specific proteins, and scanning electron microscopy. Lineage tracing studies performed with conditional transgenic mice, in which podocytes are irreversibly tagged upon tamoxifen treatment (NPHS2.iCreER;mT/mG), that were subjected to doxorubicin nephropathy demonstrated that renal progenitors are the only urinary cell population that can be amplified in long-term culture. To validate the use of these cells for personalized modeling of kidney disorders, renal progenitors were obtained from (1) the urine of children with nephrotic syndrome and carrying potentially pathogenic mutations in genes encoding for podocyte proteins and (2) the urine of children without genetic alterations, as validated by next-generation sequencing. Renal progenitors obtained from patients carrying pathogenic mutations generated podocytes that exhibited an abnormal cytoskeleton structure and functional abnormalities compared with those obtained from patients with proteinuria but without genetic mutations. The results of this study demonstrate that urine-derived patient-specific renal progenitor cultures may be an innovative research tool for modeling of genetic kidney disorders. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Determination of uranium isotopes in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lellis, I.R.; Silva, D.V.F.M. Rey; Taddei, M.H.T.

    2017-01-01

    Variable concentrations of uranium occur naturally in waters, plant products and soils. Small amounts of this element are routinely incorporated by man. Occupationally exposed individuals (IOEs) are subject to the incorporation of higher amounts of uranium into their work routines. The effects on human health resulting from the incorporation of uranium in environmental doses are not very well established and are currently recognized as of little relevance. The incorporation resulting from occupational activities, where higher doses can be found, represents a health risk resulting from chemical damages to the kidneys. Considering that uranium is eliminated from the human body through urine and feces, and that the concentration in the urine can be obtained by means of radiochemical analyzes, this can be considered an efficient indirect method to verify the incorporation of this element. In the work the isotopes of 234 U, 235 U and 238 U were analyzed in urine samples of IOEs and the rate of uranium present in them was verified

  12. Measurement of menadione in urine by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Peterson, James; Choi, Sang-Woon; Suttie, John; Barakat, Susan; Booth, Sarah L

    2010-09-15

    Menadione is a metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using a C(30) column, post-column zinc reduction and fluorescence detection was developed to measure urinary menadione. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol with 0.55% aqueous solution and 5% DI H(2)O. Menaquinone-2 (MK-2) was used as an internal standard. The standard calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.999 for both menadione and MK-2. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.3pmole menadione/mL urine. Sample preparation involved hydrolysis of menadiol conjugates and oxidizing the released menadiol to menadione. Using this method, urinary menadione was shown to increase in response to 3 years of phylloquinone supplementation. This HPLC method is a sensitive and reproducible way to detect menadione in urine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  14. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  15. Sequential analysis of selected actinides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.

    1980-07-01

    The monitoring of personnel by urinalysis for suspected contamination by actinides necessitated the development and implementation of an analytical scheme that will separate and identify alpha emitting radionuclides of these elements. The present work deals with Pu, Am, and Th. These elements are separated from an ashed urine sample by means of coprecipitation and ion exchange techniques. The final analysis is carried out by electroplating the actinides and counting in a α-spectrometer. Mean recoveries of these elements from urine are: Pu 64%, Am 74% and Th 69%. (auth)

  16. Diagnostic performance of Schistosoma real-time PCR in urine samples from Kenyan children infected with Schistosoma haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V. S.; van Dam, Govert J.; Shaproski, David

    2014-01-01

    treatment. METHODOLOGY: Previously collected urine samples (N = 390) from 114 preselected proven parasitological and/or clinical S. haematobium positive Kenyan schoolchildren were analyzed by a Schistosoma internal transcribed spacer-based real-time PCR after 14 years of storage. Pre-treatment day......, respectively. Based on the 'gold standard', PCR showed high sensitivity (>92%) as compared to >31% sensitivity for microscopy, both pre- and post-treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Detection and quantification of Schistosoma DNA in urine by real-time PCR was shown to be a powerful and specific diagnostic...

  17. Confocal Raman Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dieing, Thomas; Toporski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy is a relatively new technique that allows chemical imaging without specific sample preparation. By integrating a sensitive Raman spectrometer within a state-of-the-art microscope, Raman microscopy with a spatial resolution down to 200nm laterally and 500nm vertically can be achieved using visible light excitation. Recent developments in detector and computer technology as well as optimized instrument design have reduced integration times of Raman spectra by orders of magnitude, so that complete images consisting of tens of thousands of Raman spectra can be acquired in seconds or minutes rather than hours, which used to be standard just one decade ago. The purpose of this book is to provide the reader a comprehensive overview of the rapidly developing field of Confocal Raman Microscopy and its applications.

  18. Confocal scanning microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    This report is based on a metrological investigation on confocal microscopy technique carried out by Uffe Rolf Arlø Theilade and Paolo Bariani. The purpose of the experimental activity was twofold a metrological instrument characterization and application to assessment of rough PP injection moulded...... replicated topography. Confocal microscopy is seen to be a promising technique in metrology of microstructures. Some limitations with respect to surface metrology were found during the experiments. The experiments were carried out using a Zeiss LSM 5 Pascal microscope owned by the Danish Polymer Centre...

  19. Leakage radiation interference microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-09-01

    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  20. Microbiological test results using three urine pretreatment regimes with 316L stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Timothy L.

    1993-01-01

    Three urine pretreatments, (1) Oxone (Dupont) and sulfuric acid, (2) sodium hypochlorite and sulfuric acid, (3) and ozone, were studied for their ability to reduce microbial levels in urine and minimize surface attachment to 316L stainless steel coupons. Urine samples inoculated with Bacillus insolitus and a filamentous mold, organisms previously recovered from the vapor compression distillation subsystem of NASA Space Station Freedom water recovery test were tested in glass corrosion cells containing base or weld metal coupons. Microbial levels, changes in pH, color, turbidity, and odor of the fluid were monitored over the course of the 21-day test. Specimen surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy at completion of the test for microbial attachment. Ozonated urine samples were less turbid and had lower microbial levels than controls or samples receiving other pretreatments. Base metal coupons receiving pretreatment were relatively free of attached bacteria. However, well-developed biofilms were found in the heat-affected regions of welded coupons receiving Oxone and hypochlorite pretreatments. Few bacteria were observed in the same regions of the ozone pretreatment sample.

  1. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K 3 cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K 3 cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K 3 cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K 3 cit > patients before taking K 3 cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K 3 cit > patients before taking K 3 cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K 3 cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K 3 cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K 3 cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K 3 cit

  2. Magnetic graphene oxide as adsorbent for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linli; Xu, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Detection of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites in urine is an advisable and valid method to assess human environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, novel Fe3O4/graphene oxide composites were prepared and their application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine was investigated by coupling with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the hybrid material, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide fast separation to simplify the analytical process and graphene oxide provides a large functional surface for the adsorption. The prepared magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The experimental conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 98.3-125.2%, the relative standard deviations ranged between 6.8 and 15.5%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.15 ng/mL. The simple, quick, and affordable method was successfully used in the analysis of human urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two different cities. The results indicated that the monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level in human urine can provide useful information for environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Radioimmunoassay of bleomycin in plasma and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teale, J.D.; Clough, J.M.; Marks, V.

    1977-01-01

    Antibodies to bleomycin were raised by immunization of sheep and rabbits with bleomycin-albumin conjugates. The combination of a high-titre, high-avidity sheep antiserum and iodinated bleomycin produced a radioimmunoassay sensitive to 8 ng of bleomycin per ml of plasma or urine. Untreated specimens (100 μl) of plasma or urine could be added directly to the assay tubes. The anti-serum was specific for bleomycin and showed no cross-reaction with other anti-cancer agents used in combination chemotherapy. Over a concentration range of 20 to 100 ng/ml. recovery of bleomycin from plasma was 110% and from urine, 93%. Repeated assay of plasma samples showed a decrease in bleomycin levels unless the samples were kept at 4 0 C or below. Assay of bleomycin levels in plasma and urine from patients under treatment with bleomycin showed similarities with results reported using a microbiological assay. The radioimmunoassay offers a more reliable, rapid and sensitive method for the measurement of bleomycin. (author)

  4. Potentiometric determination of iodides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikolaev, B.A.; Primakova, L.N.; Rakhman'ko, E.M.

    1996-01-01

    Variants of potentiometric method: determination using a calibrations plot, the Gran method, and the double addition method are considered. The method of double additions of the test solution to the reference one is suggested as the most favorable method of determining iodides in urine under clinical laboratory conditions. Refs. 5, tabs. 2

  5. Getting a Urine Test (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  6. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  7. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, Karel; Van De Loo, Aurora; Mackus, M.; Verster, Joris

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Methods N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the

  8. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  9. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  10. Determination of natural thorium in urines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Jammet, H.

    1959-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of thorium in urine is described. After precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, dissolution of the precipitate, extraction at pH 4-4.2 with cupferron in chloroformic solution and mineralization, a colorimetric determination of thorium with thorin is performed. It is thus possible to detect about 2 γ of thorium in the sample. (author) [fr

  11. URINE CULTURE CONTAMINATION: A ONE-YEAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Background: Urine culture contamination is a significant cause of delay in treatment of patients being investigated for urinary tract infection. ... Lowest contamination rates were in Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) and intensive ... The female gender was found to be the most significant predictor of higher contamination rate.

  12. Stability of Synthetic Cathinones in Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksberg, Lindsay; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    In this report, we evaluate the concentration, pH, temperature and analyte-dependent effects on cathinone stability in preserved human urine. A total of 22 synthetic cathinones were evaluated at 100 ng/mL and 1,000 ng/mL in pH 4 and pH 8 urine over 6 months. Specimens were stored at -20°C, 4°C, 20°C and 32°C. The stability of synthetic cathinones was highly dependent on urine pH and storage temperature. Cathinones were considerably more stable in acidic urine (pH 4) at low temperature. In alkaline urine (pH 8) at 32°C, significant losses (>20%) were observed within hours for the majority of drugs. In contrast, all drugs were stable in frozen and refrigerated urine at pH 4 for the duration of the study. These results highlight the importance of sample storage and the potential for pre-analytical changes in concentration during routine shipping and handling of specimens. Significant structural influence was also observed. Cathinones bearing a tertiary amine (pyrrolidine group) were significantly more stable than their secondary amine counterparts. The methylenedioxy group also exerted a significant stabilizing effect on both the tertiary and secondary amines. In the absence of the methylenedioxy group, no significant differences in stability were observed between the unsubstituted and ring substituted secondary amines. Half-lives at ambient temperature in pH 8 urine ranged from 9 h (3-fluoromethcathinone) to 4.3 months (methylenedioxypyrovalerone and 3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinobutiophenone), demonstrating the importance of analyte dependence, and the dual stabilizing effect of both the pyrollidine and methylenedioxy groups. Biological evidence may be subjected to a variety of environmental conditions prior to, and during transport to the forensic laboratory. These findings demonstrate the inherent instability of certain cathinone species in biological evidence under some conditions. Moreover, this study highlights the need for quantitative drug findings in

  13. Fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Much of the modern understanding of orientational order in liquid crystals (LCs) is based on polarizing microscopy (PM). A PM image bears only two-dimensional (2D) information, integrating the 3D pattern of optical birefringence over the path of light. Recently, we proposed a technique to image 3D director patterns by ...

  14. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  15. Avaliação da análise microscópica tradicional e do analisador automatizado IQ200R no exame de urina

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberg, José Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Orientador : Prof. Dr. Aguinaldo José do Nascimento Co-orientadora : Profª. Drª. Aline Borsato Hauser Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências da Saúde, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas. Defesa: Curitiba, 05/09/2014 Inclui referências Área de concentração: Análises clínicas Resumo: A análise de urina é um dos exames mais solicitados na rotina laboratorial, por ser um procedimento não invasivo, com facilidade na obtenção da am...

  16. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  17. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  18. Epithelial Cells in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/epithelialcellsinurine.html Epithelial Cells in Urine To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Epithelial Cells in Urine Test? Epithelial cells are a type ...

  19. Polarized Light Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized light microscopy (PLM) is a technique which employs the use of polarizing filters to obtain substantial optical property information about the material which is being observed. This information can be combined with other microscopy techniques to confirm or elucidate the identity of an unknown material, determine whether a particular contaminant is present (as with asbestos analysis), or to provide important information that can be used to refine a manufacturing or chemical process. PLM was the major microscopy technique in use for identification of materials for nearly a century since its introduction in 1834 by William Fox Talbot, as other techniques such as SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy), XPD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) had not yet been developed. Today, it is still the only technique approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for asbestos analysis, and is often the technique first applied for identification of unknown materials. PLM uses different configurations in order to determine different material properties. With each configuration additional clues can be gathered, leading to a conclusion of material identity. With no polarizing filter, the microscope can be used just as a stereo optical microscope, and view qualities such as morphology, size, and number of phases. With a single polarizing filter (single polars), additional properties can be established, such as pleochroism, individual refractive indices, and dispersion staining. With two polarizing filters (crossed polars), even more can be deduced: isotropy vs. anisotropy, extinction angle, birefringence/degree of birefringence, sign of elongation, and anomalous polarization colors, among others. With the use of PLM many of these properties can be determined in a matter of seconds, even for those who are not highly trained. McCrone, a leader in the field of polarized light microscopy, often

  20. Effect of blood contamination on results of dipstick evaluation and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio for urine samples from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Behrend, Ellen N; Welles, Elizabeth G; Chew, Dennis J; Gaillard, Philippe R; Busler, Jessica N; Lee, Hollie P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of blood contamination on dipstick results, specific gravity (SG), and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio (UPCR) for urine samples from dogs and cats. SAMPLE Urine samples collected from 279 dogs and 120 cats. PROCEDURES Urine pools were made for each species (dogs [n = 60] and cats [30]). Blood was added to an aliquot of a pool, and serial dilutions were prepared with the remaining urine. Color and dipstick variables were recorded, and SG and UPCR were measured. For cats, 1 set of pools was used; for dogs, 2 sets were used. Comparisons were made between undiluted urine and spiked urine samples for individual colors. Repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare dipstick scores and UPCR results; χ 2 tests were used to compare proteinuria categorizations (nonproteinuric, borderline, or proteinuric). RESULTS Any blood in the urine resulted in significantly increased dipstick scores for blood. In both species, scores for bilirubin and ketones, pH, and SG were affected by visible blood contamination. No significant difference for the dipstick protein reagent results was evident until a sample was visibly hematuric. The UPCR was significantly increased in dark yellow samples of both species. Proteinuria categorizations differed significantly between undiluted urine and urine of all colors, except light yellow. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Any degree of blood contamination affected results of dipstick analysis. Effects depended on urine color and the variable measured. Microscopic blood contamination may affect the UPCR; thus, blood contamination may be a differential diagnosis for proteinuria in yellow urine samples.

  1. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  2. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zava, Theodore T., E-mail: ttzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Kapur, Sonia, E-mail: soniak@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States); Zava, David T., E-mail: dzava@zrtlab.com [ZRT Laboratory, 8605 SW Creekside Place, Beaverton, OR 97008 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R{sup 2} = 0.9483; creatinine: R{sup 2} = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs.

  3. Iodine and creatinine testing in urine dried on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zava, Theodore T.; Kapur, Sonia; Zava, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine extract quantitatively correlates well with liquid urine. ► Filter paper strips can be easily shipped and stored. ► Urine iodine and creatinine are stable at ambient temperature when dried on filter paper. ► Dried urine iodine and creatinine are run using a 96-well format. -- Abstract: Iodine deficiency is a world-wide health problem. A simple, convenient, and inexpensive method to monitor urine iodine levels would have enormous benefit in determining an individual's recent iodine intake or in identifying populations at risk for iodine deficiency or excess. Current methods used to monitor iodine levels require collection of a large volume of urine and its transport to a testing laboratory, both of which are inconvenient and impractical in parts of the world lacking refrigerated storage and transportation. To circumvent these limitations we developed and validated methods to collect and measure iodine and creatinine in urine dried on filter paper strips. We tested liquid urine and liquid-extracted dried urine for iodine and creatinine in a 96-well format using Sandell–Kolthoff and Jaffe reactions, respectively. Our modified dried urine iodine and creatinine assays correlated well with established liquid urine methods (iodine: R 2 = 0.9483; creatinine: R 2 = 0.9782). Results demonstrate that the dried urine iodine and creatinine assays are ideal for testing the iodine status of individuals and for wide scale application in iodine screening programs

  4. Electron microscopy in metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loretto, M.H.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review briefly the contribution which (TEM) transmission electron microscopy (including high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM)) has made to metallurgy. Since it is straightforward with modern electron microscopes to extract the crystallographic information which provides the basis for any interpretation, the major problem in most metallurgical work lies in assessing how the structure (which TEM has characterised) has arisen and which properties of the specimen can be understood in terms of this structure. Radiation damage, quenching, phase transformations, grain boundaries and plastic deformation have been the main fields in which TEM has contributed significantly. After briefly summarising the role of TEM in each field, examples of recent work will be used to indicate current TEM activity in physical metallurgy. (author)

  5. Second harmonic generation microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Risbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Myofibers and collagen show non-linear optical properties enabling imaging using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The technique is evaluated for use as a tool for real-time studies of thermally induced changes in thin samples of unfixed and unstained pork. The forward and the backward...... scattered SHG light reveal complementary features of the structures of myofibers and collagen fibers. Upon heating the myofibers show no structural changes before reaching a temperature of 53 °C. At this temperature the SHG signal becomes extinct. The extinction of the SHG at 53 °C coincides with a low......-temperature endotherm peak observable in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. DSC analysis of epimysium, the connective tissue layer that enfold skeletal muscles, produces one large endotherm starting at 57 °C and peaking at 59.5 °C. SHG microscopy of collagen fibers reveals a variability of thermal...

  6. Electron microscopy and diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjoennes, J.; Olsen, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a description of research activities and plans at the electron microscopy laboratorium, Physics Department, University of Oslo. Since the first electron microscope was installed in 1968, the research has covered inorganic structures, physical metallurgy, as well as theory of electron scattering and the development of methods in this field. The current plans involve efforts in the development of crystallographic and spectroscopic methods

  7. Life cycle comparison of centralized wastewater treatment and urine source separation with struvite precipitation: Focus on urine nutrient management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Stephanie K L; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-08-01

    Alternative approaches to wastewater management including urine source separation have the potential to simultaneously improve multiple aspects of wastewater treatment, including reduced use of potable water for waste conveyance and improved contaminant removal, especially nutrients. In order to pursue such radical changes, system-level evaluations of urine source separation in community contexts are required. The focus of this life cycle assessment (LCA) is managing nutrients from urine produced in a residential setting with urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with a centralized wastewater treatment approach. The life cycle impacts evaluated in this study pertain to construction of the urine source separation system and operation of drinking water treatment, decentralized urine treatment, and centralized wastewater treatment. System boundaries include fertilizer offsets resulting from the production of urine based struvite fertilizer. As calculated by the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and Other Environmental Impacts (TRACI), urine source separation with MgO addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with high P recovery (Scenario B) has the smallest environmental cost relative to existing centralized wastewater treatment (Scenario A) and urine source separation with MgO and Na3PO4 addition for subsequent struvite precipitation with concurrent high P and N recovery (Scenario C). Preliminary economic evaluations show that the three urine management scenarios are relatively equal on a monetary basis (<13% difference). The impacts of each urine management scenario are most sensitive to the assumed urine composition, the selected urine storage time, and the assumed electricity required to treat influent urine and toilet water used to convey urine at the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The importance of full nutrient recovery from urine in combination with the substantial chemical inputs required for N recovery

  8. Deep Learning Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Rivenson, Yair

    2017-05-12

    We demonstrate that a deep neural network can significantly improve optical microscopy, enhancing its spatial resolution over a large field-of-view and depth-of-field. After its training, the only input to this network is an image acquired using a regular optical microscope, without any changes to its design. We blindly tested this deep learning approach using various tissue samples that are imaged with low-resolution and wide-field systems, where the network rapidly outputs an image with remarkably better resolution, matching the performance of higher numerical aperture lenses, also significantly surpassing their limited field-of-view and depth-of-field. These results are transformative for various fields that use microscopy tools, including e.g., life sciences, where optical microscopy is considered as one of the most widely used and deployed techniques. Beyond such applications, our presented approach is broadly applicable to other imaging modalities, also spanning different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and can be used to design computational imagers that get better and better as they continue to image specimen and establish new transformations among different modes of imaging.

  9. Size-exclusion chromatography-based enrichment of extracellular vesicles from urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Lozano-Ramos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Renal biopsy is the gold-standard procedure to diagnose most of renal pathologies. However, this invasive method is of limited repeatability and often describes an irreversible renal damage. Urine is an easily accessible fluid and urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs may be ideal to describe new biomarkers associated with renal pathologies. Several methods to enrich EVs have been described. Most of them contain a mixture of proteins, lipoproteins and cell debris that may be masking relevant biomarkers. Here, we evaluated size-exclusion chromatography (SEC as a suitable method to isolate urinary EVs. Following a conventional centrifugation to eliminate cell debris and apoptotic bodies, urine samples were concentrated using ultrafiltration and loaded on a SEC column. Collected fractions were analysed by protein content and flow cytometry to determine the presence of tetraspanin markers (CD63 and CD9. The highest tetraspanin content was routinely detected in fractions well before the bulk of proteins eluted. These tetraspanin-peak fractions were analysed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM and nanoparticle tracking analysis revealing the presence of EVs.When analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tetraspanin-peak fractions from urine concentrated samples contained multiple bands but the main urine proteins (such as Tamm–Horsfall protein were absent. Furthermore, a preliminary proteomic study of these fractions revealed the presence of EV-related proteins, suggesting their enrichment in concentrated samples. In addition, RNA profiling also showed the presence of vesicular small RNA species.To summarize, our results demonstrated that concentrated urine followed by SEC is a suitable option to isolate EVs with low presence of soluble contaminants. This methodology could permit more accurate analyses of EV-related biomarkers when further characterized by -omics technologies compared with other approaches.

  10. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M.

    1961-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [fr

  11. Radioimmunoassay of urine oxytocin in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebidi, A.; Geelen, G.; Allevard, A.M.; Sempore, B.; Jarsaillon, E.; Meunier, C.; Gharib, C.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for oxytocin (OT) in urine is described. 125 I-OT was prepared, and antibodies were raised in rabbits against OT coupled to bovine serumalbumine. This allowed us to set up a RIA for OT which limit of detection is 1.25 pg/tube (0.6 μU). The use of an extraction procedure using CG 50 Amberlite is essential. The recovery after extraction reaches 70.5 %. pH 5 is the optimum pH were urine samples must be stored. The superposition of the elution peak of endogenous OT on that of exogenous hormone is an argument in favour of the validity of such an extraction procedure. Daily urinary excretion of OT reaches 9.58 mU +- 3.48 in 18 healthy young men [fr

  12. [Components of urinary crystallites in urine of uric acid stone formers and its relationship with formation of stones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-jie; Tan, Jin; Ouyang, Jian-ming

    2010-09-01

    The components, zeta potential, morphology of nanocrystallites in urines of 10 uric acid stone formers as well as their relationship with the formation of uric acid stones were comparatively studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The urine pH of uric acid stone formers was relatively low within the range of 4.8 to 5.7. The main constituent of urinary crystallites was uric acid. Their particle size distribution was highly uneven, ranging from several nanometers to several tens of micrometers, and obvious aggregation was observed. The zeta potential of urinary crystallites in ten lithogenic patients was -6.02 mV, which was higher than that in ten normal subjects (-10.1 mV). After drug therapies (potassium citrate was taken), the urine pH value of the uric acid stone formers increased to 6.5 or so, and at this pH value most of the uric acid had changed to urate. Since the solubility of urate increased greatly than uric acid, the risk of the formation of uric acid stone reduced. The results in this paper showed that there was a close relationship among stone components, urinary crystallites composition and urine pH.

  13. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitr...

  14. Environmental heat stress enhances crystallization in urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, H.; Pratiwi, Q. C.; Sjarifah, I.; Atmojo, T. B.; Khotijah

    2018-03-01

    Over the past several decades, agriculture and plantations have been used as the main livelihood of most of the Karanganyar residents. However, these two sources of living are now replaced by industrial areas that employ thousands of people in that district. The development of this industry triggers multiple environmental impacts, including ecosystem and temperature changes. In consequence, there is an increase in air temperature that can cause a variety of diseases, especially in the workplace. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO) data in 2013, one worker dies every 15 second due to a work accident and 160 workers are suffering from the occupational disease. In Indonesia, the incidence of crystallization in urine is actually still unknown, but it is estimated that there are 170,000 cases annually. A high temperature or called heat stress is one among many factors causing this disease to appear. The workers in the textile industry, especially in the Finishing Department Kusumahadi Co. Ltd that exposed heat stress from the finishing machines and inadequate ventilation. This hot working climate causes the human body to adapt in the form of body cooling mechanism or called sweating This adaptation can cause an increase in sweat production and decrease the production of urine. If it is not followed by consuming the recommended amount of water intake, it can result in the precipitation of body salts that, in a long time, will cause crystallization in urine. The research used the analytic observational designs for a cross-sectional study. There were 34 samples collected from 57 finishing workers. The data were analyzed using Spearman correlation test. The results showed that heat stress (p=0,015) and water intake (p=0,034) has a significant correlation with crystallization in urine.

  15. Determination of uranium in urine by fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsar, M.; Aziz, A.; Mubarak, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The report describes fluorometric determination of traces of uranium in the urine of mine workers and persons handling uranium. After preliminary treatment uranium is extracted by solvent extraction with TBP:MIBK mixtures. An aliquot of the extracted solution is fused with high carbonate flux at 650 0 C in platinum dishes. The fluorescence of fused sample is measured using a fluorometer. Various fusion parameters are discussed. The procedure for the operation and calibration of fluorometer is also described

  16. Comparison of two preparatory techniques for urine cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhundee, J; Rigby, H S

    1990-01-01

    Two methods of preparation of urine for cytology were compared retrospectively. In method 1 cells in the urine were fixed after the preparation of the smear; in method 2 the cells were fixed before smear preparation. Urine cytology reports were correlated with subsequent histological analysis. The specificities of urine cytology using both methods were high (99%). The sensitivity using method 1 was 87%; using method 2 it was 65%. This difference was significant. The cell preparation technique therefore significantly changes the sensitivity of urine cytology. Cellular fixation after smear preparation is preferable to smear preparation after fixation. PMID:2266176

  17. Radioimmunological detection of vasopressin in urine extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buengner, R.

    1983-01-01

    After initial measures had been taken to ensure that ion exchange chromatography would yield a sufficiently high recovery of labelled and non-labelled hormone as well as to eliminate all intervening factors it was possible to use the described extraction procedure in connection with the RIA introduced by Freisenhausen et al. At the clinical level, the technique was employed to assess the post-operative release of AVP (argenine vasopressin) in 24-hour urine samples obtained from patients subjected to hypophysectomy. In a total of 10 patients, where hypophysectomy had been performed for different clinical reasons, the AVP values were seen to be significantly decreased for the first three hours after surgical intervention. They recovered slightly during the following three hours to remain at an average level of 2 pg / 400 μl urine. The extraction procedure described can be used to determine levels of AVP approaching the limit of detection - either due to large volumes of urine or very low concentrations of AVP. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  19. Urine sample preparation for proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowy, Pawel; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-10-01

    Sample preparation for both environmental and more importantly biological matrices is a bottleneck of all kinds of analytical processes. In the case of proteomic analysis this element is even more important due to the amount of cross-reactions that should be taken into consideration. The incorporation of new post-translational modifications, protein hydrolysis, or even its degradation is possible as side effects of proteins sample processing. If protocols are evaluated appropriately, then identification of such proteins does not bring difficulties. However, if structural changes are provided without sufficient attention then protein sequence coverage will be reduced or even identification of such proteins could be impossible. This review summarizes obstacles and achievements in protein sample preparation of urine for proteome analysis using different tools for mass spectrometry analysis. The main aim is to present comprehensively the idea of urine application as a valuable matrix. This article is dedicated to sample preparation and application of urine mainly in novel cancer biomarkers discovery. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Stability of cannabinoids in urine in three storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding Fraga, S; Díaz-Flores Estévez, J; Díaz Romero, C

    1998-01-01

    Stability of cannabinoid compounds in urine samples were evaluated using several storage temperatures. Appreciable losses (> 22.4 percent) were observed in some urine samples, after being stored at room temperature for 10 days. Lower losses (8.1 percent) were observed when the urine samples were refrigerated for 4 weeks. The behavior of urine samples depended on the analyzed urine. This could be due to the different stability of the cannabinoids present in each urine sample. Important losses of 8.0 +/- 10.6, 15.8 +/- 4.2, and 19.6 +/- 6.7 percent were found when the urine samples were frozen during 40 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively. Average losses (> > 5 percent) can be observed after one day which could mainly be due to the decrease of the solubility of 11-nor-U9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) or adsorption process of cannabinoid molecules to the plastic storage containers.

  1. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of gonococcal antigens in urine by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, M.J.; Wilson, D.V.; Hormaeche, R.D. de; Coombs, R.R.A.; Oates, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method of detecting gonococcal antigens by solid-phase radioimmunoassay with radioactively labelled antibody is described. A specificity test has been developed that enables this method to be used to detect gonococcal antigens in urine sediments. When sediments from samples of urine from male patients with gonorrhoea were tested, 31 (74%) of 42 gave positive results, clearly distinguishing them from sediments from urine samples from men with non-specific urethritis, none of which was positive. Ten of 14 urine sediments from urine samples from women with gonorrhoea gave positive results, as did 3 of 18 sediments from urine samples from women patients without gonorrhoea.These experiments demonstrate that gonococcal antigens can be detected in urine by radioimmunoassay; the method could be useful in diagnosis if, after refinement, its sensitivity and specificity were to be increased. (author)

  3. Urine Concentration and Pyuria for Identifying UTI in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pradip P; Monuteaux, Michael C; Bachur, Richard G

    2016-11-01

    Varying urine white blood cell (WBC) thresholds have been recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) among young infants. These thresholds have not been studied with newer automated urinalysis systems that analyze uncentrifuged urine that might be influenced by urine concentration. Our objective was to determine the optimal urine WBC threshold for UTI in young infants by using an automated urinalysis system, stratified by urine concentration. Retrospective cross-sectional study of infants aged UTI in the emergency department with paired urinalysis and urine culture. UTI was defined as ≥50 000 colony-forming units/mL from catheterized specimens. Test characteristics were calculated across a range of WBC and leukocyte esterase (LE) cut-points, dichotomized into specific gravity groups (dilute UTI prevalence was 7.8%. Optimal WBC cut-points were 3 WBC/high-power field (HPF) in dilute urine (likelihood ratio positive [LR+] 9.9, likelihood ratio negative [LR‒] 0.15) and 6 WBC/HPF (LR+ 10.1, LR‒ 0.17) in concentrated urine. For dipstick analysis, positive LE has excellent test characteristics regardless of urine concentration (LR+ 22.1, LR‒ 0.12 in dilute urine; LR+ 31.6, LR‒ 0.22 in concentrated urine). Urine concentration should be incorporated into the interpretation of automated microscopic urinalysis in young infants. Pyuria thresholds of 3 WBC/HPF in dilute urine and 6 WBC/HPF in concentrated urine are recommended for the presumptive diagnosis of UTI. Without correction of specific gravity, positive LE by automated dipstick is a reliably strong indicator of UTI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Fourier plane imaging microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dominguez@ttu.edu; Peralta, Luis Grave de [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Alharbi, Nouf; Alhusain, Mdhaoui [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Bernussi, Ayrton A. [Nano Tech Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2014-09-14

    We show how the image of an unresolved photonic crystal can be reconstructed using a single Fourier plane (FP) image obtained with a second camera that was added to a traditional compound microscope. We discuss how Fourier plane imaging microscopy is an application of a remarkable property of the obtained FP images: they contain more information about the photonic crystals than the images recorded by the camera commonly placed at the real plane of the microscope. We argue that the experimental results support the hypothesis that surface waves, contributing to enhanced resolution abilities, were optically excited in the studied photonic crystals.

  5. Electrochemical force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Collins, Liam F.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2017-01-10

    A system and method for electrochemical force microscopy are provided. The system and method are based on a multidimensional detection scheme that is sensitive to forces experienced by a biased electrode in a solution. The multidimensional approach allows separation of fast processes, such as double layer charging, and charge relaxation, and slow processes, such as diffusion and faradaic reactions, as well as capturing the bias dependence of the response. The time-resolved and bias measurements can also allow probing both linear (small bias range) and non-linear (large bias range) electrochemical regimes and potentially the de-convolution of charge dynamics and diffusion processes from steric effects and electrochemical reactivity.

  6. Correlative Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doory; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Sigal, Yaron M.; Babcock, Hazen P.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Correlative fluorescence light microscopy and electron microscopy allows the imaging of spatial distributions of specific biomolecules in the context of cellular ultrastructure. Recent development of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy allows the location of molecules to be determined with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. However, correlative super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) still remains challenging because the optimal specimen preparation and imaging conditions for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy and EM are often not compatible. Here, we have developed several experiment protocols for correlative stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) and EM methods, both for un-embedded samples by applying EM-specific sample preparations after STORM imaging and for embedded and sectioned samples by optimizing the fluorescence under EM fixation, staining and embedding conditions. We demonstrated these methods using a variety of cellular targets. PMID:25874453

  7. Determination of radium in urine; Dosage du radium dans l'urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourniguet, H; Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of radium in urine is described. The radium is carried by a barium sulfate precipitate. The precipitate is mixed with zinc sulfide and the activity measured by scintillation counting. It is thus possible to detect an amount of radium less than 1 pico-curie in the sample. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du radium dans l'urine. Le radium entraine par un precipite de sulfate de baryum est compte par scintillation apres melange du precipite avec du sulfure de zinc. Cette methode permet de deceler moins de 1 picocurie de radium dans l'echantillon. (auteur)

  8. Changes in urine composition after trauma facilitate bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubron Cecile

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Critically ill patients including trauma patients are at high risk of urinary tract infection (UTI. The composition of urine in trauma patients may be modified due to inflammation, systemic stress, rhabdomyolysis, life support treatment and/or urinary catheter insertion. Methods Prospective, single-centre, observational study conducted in patients with severe trauma and without a history of UTIs or recent antibiotic treatment. The 24-hour urine samples were collected on the first and the fifth days and the growth of Escherichia coli in urine from patients and healthy volunteers was compared. Biochemical and hormonal modifications in urine that could potentially influence bacterial growth were explored. Results Growth of E. coli in urine from trauma patients was significantly higher on days 1 and 5 than in urine of healthy volunteers. Several significant modifications of urine composition could explain these findings. On days 1 and 5, trauma patients had an increase in glycosuria, in urine iron concentration, and in the concentrations of several amino acids compared to healthy volunteers. On day 1, the urinary osmotic pressure was significantly lower than for healthy volunteers. Conclusion We showed that urine of trauma patients facilitated growth of E. coli when compared to urine from healthy volunteers. This effect was present in the first 24 hours and until at least the fifth day after trauma. This phenomenon may be involved in the pathophysiology of UTIs in trauma patients. Further studies are required to define the exact causes of such modifications.

  9. Advanced Microscopy of Microbial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Regenberg, Birgitte; Sternberg, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Growing awareness of heterogeneity in cells of microbial populations has emphasized the importance of advanced microscopy for visualization and understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell variation. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in confocal...... microscopy, super-resolution optical microscopy (STED, SIM, PALM) as well as atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Using examples of bistability in microbial populations as well as biofilm development and differentiation in bacterial and yeast consortia, we demonstrate the importance of microscopy...

  10. TRH radioimmunoassay for unextracted human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuma, Terunori; Hirooka, Yoshibumi; Nihei, Noriyuki

    1975-01-01

    The authors developed a TRH radioimmunoassay for unextracted human urine using anti-TRH antibody produced by immunization of rabbits with a TRH-bis-diazotized-bovine serum albumin conjugate. The antibody had no crossreactivity with TRH analogues, amino acids or pituitary hormones, but with L or DL-Aze3-TRH. TRH was radioiodinized by Greenwood-Hunter's method, followed by purification on Sephadex G-10. Inactivation of TRH by serum was well documented. The authors found however that this inactivation of TRH could be prevented by adjusting the pH to 3.0 or by keeping the temperature between 4 0 C and -20 0 C. All assay procedures were performed in 0.01 M phosphate buffer with 0.15 M NaCl (pH 7.5) at 4 0 C. Free and bound forms were separated with a second antibody system. In this system, sensitivity was 0.01 ng/tube, recovery was approximately 100%, intrassay reproducibility was 3.2% and interassay variation was 9.8%. TRH levels in urine measured with this system were undetectable to 9.0 ng/ml in normal subjects, undetectable in hyperthyroid patients or a tertiary hypothyroid patient and 13 to 24 ng/ml in primary hypothyroid patients. Approximately 6 percent of the intravenously administered TRH was excreted into the urine within 12 hours following administration in a normal subject. As a result this assay system is quite attractive for clinical determination as well as research application. (Evans, J.)

  11. Urine drug screening in the medical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A; Pesce, Amadeo J; Cannon, Donald J

    2002-01-01

    The term drug screen is a misnomer since it implies screening for all drugs, which is not possible. Current practice is to limit the testing to the examination of serum for several drugs such as ethanol, acetaminophen, salicylate, and of urine for several specific drugs or classes of drugs. In the emergency setting the screen should be performed in less than one hour. Controversies continue to exist regarding the value of urine drug testing in the medical setting. The reasons for these include the drugs involved, the sample, the methods utilized to perform the tests, and the level of understanding of the physician using the data, all of which are closely related to the other. Current automated methods provide rapid results demanded in emergency situations, but are often designed for, or adapted from, workplace testing and are not necessarily optimized for clinical applications. Furthermore, the use of these methods without consideration of the frequency in which the drugs are found in a given area is not cost-effective. The laboratory must understand the limitations of the assays used and provide this information to the physician. Additionally, the laboratory and the physicians using the data must cooperate to determine which drugs are appropriate and necessary to measure for their institution and clinical setting. In doing so it should be remembered that for many drugs, the sample, urine, contains the end product(s) of drug metabolism, not the parent drug. Furthermore, it is necessary to understand the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug of interest when interpreting data. Finally, while testing for some drugs may not appear cost-effective, the prevention or reduction of morbidity and mortality may offset any laboratory costs. While the literature is replete with studies concerning new methods and a few regarding physician understanding, there are none that we could find that thoroughly, objectively, and fully addressed the issues of utility and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Inventing urine incontinence devices for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, B; Cleland, V; Johnson, D E; O'Reilly, J L

    1989-01-01

    Nurses have long been aware of the devastating effects of urinary incontinence on women. Although women may find diapers, pads and protective clothing valuable protection, there are few options for a continuous wear, external urine incontinence device (EUID). Inventors have attempted to develop an EUID since ancient times; the first United States patent for an EUID was awarded in 1949. The purpose of this paper is to review technological considerations for development of an external urinary incontinence device for women. Patents and products illustrate the considerations.

  13. Urine protein concentration estimation for biomarker discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Hiten D.; Bramham, Kate; Weston, Andrew; Ward, Malcolm; Thompson, Andrew; Chappell, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances have been made in the study of urinary proteomics as a diagnostic tool for renal disease and pre-eclampsia which requires accurate measurement of urinary protein. We compared different protein assays (Bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Lowry and Bradford) against the ‘gold standard’ amino-acid assay in urine from 43 women (8 non-pregnant, 34 pregnant, including 8 with pre-eclampsia. BCA assay was superior to both Lowry and Bradford assays (Bland Altman bias: 0.08) compared to amino-aci...

  14. The radioimmunological determination of vasopressin in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, M.J. van der.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin, which can be used for the quantitative measurement of the urinary excretion of the hormone in man during physiological and pathological conditions. The final RIA method, using approximately 5 pg 125 I-AVP diluted (1 : 50,000) antiserum 121 and charcoal-dextran separation of the antibody-bound and free fractions, is found to be specific for vasopressin and closely related substances; the sensitivity is 9 pg. The validity is demonstrated and the results of measurements of vasopressin excretion in urine from 39 normal subjects, including 4 children are presented. (Auth.)

  15. Psychogenic urine retention during doping controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Schlegel, Marius M.; Brand, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    relation to recovery, performance, and self-perception of professionalism and athletic excellence. Furthermore, a scale developed especially for the close description and measurement of PURD is presented. A questionnaire was used for measuring paruresis. The results are based on two online and one paper...... and pencil study involving 222 German-speaking athletes from various sports. The results indicate that 60% of these athletes have experienced psychogenic urine retention during doping controls, with only 39% of them showing symptoms of paruresis. PURD impacts athlete recovery and self-perception...

  16. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  17. Progress in the Correlative Atomic Force Microscopy and Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscopy (AFM has evolved from the originally morphological imaging technique to a powerful and multifunctional technique for manipulating and detecting the interactions between molecules at nanometer resolution. However, AFM cannot provide the precise information of synchronized molecular groups and has many shortcomings in the aspects of determining the mechanism of the interactions and the elaborate structure due to the limitations of the technology, itself, such as non-specificity and low imaging speed. To overcome the technical limitations, it is necessary to combine AFM with other complementary techniques, such as fluorescence microscopy. The combination of several complementary techniques in one instrument has increasingly become a vital approach to investigate the details of the interactions among molecules and molecular dynamics. In this review, we reported the principles of AFM and optical microscopy, such as confocal microscopy and single-molecule localization microscopy, and focused on the development and use of correlative AFM and optical microscopy.

  18. The Association Between Urine Output, Creatinine Elevation, and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engoren, Milo; Maile, Michael D; Heung, Michael; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Vahabzadeh, Christie; Haft, Jonathan W; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury can be defined by a fall in urine output, and urine output criteria may be more sensitive in identifying acute kidney injury than traditional serum creatinine criteria. However, as pointed out in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome guidelines, the association of urine output with subsequent creatinine elevations and death is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine what degrees of reduced urine output are associated with subsequent creatinine elevation and death. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients (age ≥18 years) cared for in a cardiovascular intensive care unit after undergoing cardiac operations in a tertiary care university medical center. All adult patients who underwent cardiac operations and were not receiving dialysis preoperatively were studied. The development of acute kidney injury was defined as an increase in creatinine of more than 0.3 mg/dL or by more than 50% above baseline by postoperative day 3. Acute kidney injury developed in 1,061 of 4,195 patients (25%). Urine output had moderate discrimination in predicting subsequent acute kidney injury (C statistic = .637 ± .054). Lower urine output and longer duration of low urine output were associated with greater odds of developing acute kidney injury and death. We found that there is similar accuracy in using urine output corrected for actual, ideal, or adjusted weight to discriminate future acute kidney injury by creatinine elevation and recommend using actual weight for its simplicity. We also found that low urine output is associated with subsequent acute kidney injury and that the association is greater for lower urine output and for low urine output of longer durations. Low urine output (creatinine elevation, is independently associated with mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of iodine in human milk and urine | Ayodele | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological concentrations of iodine were determined in milk and urine. Recovery studies are reported along with results for the analysis of milk and urine samples. Iodine contents ranged from 10 - 110 (mean 52.88 ± 22.60mg/l) and 10 - 90 (mean 27.64 ±16.70) g/l in milk and urine respectively. A significant difference is ...

  20. Bisphenol A levels in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Kunugita, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Isse, Toyohi; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Foureman, Gary L; Morita, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) have been reported in human cells (E-screen assays) and in (italic)in vivo(/italic) studies of rodents, although the latter reports remain controversial, as do the exposure levels and adverse health effects of BPA in humans. In this study we report on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence method for BPA and its conjugate in human urine and on the application of this method in two student cohorts. Urine, along with information on smoking, alcohol intake, and coffee/tea consumption, was collected in two different years from two different groups of university students, 50 in 1992 and 56 in 1999. Overall, the urinary BPA levels in the students in 1992 were significantly higher than were those in 1999. The BPA levels were also positively correlated with coffee and tea consumption in the 1992 cohort but not in the 1999 cohort. We speculate that recent changes made in Japan regarding the interior coating of cans used to package these beverages may partly explain these findings. PMID:12515686

  1. Urine Exosomes: An Emerging Trove of Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J M; Koritzinsky, E H; Glispie, D M; Star, R A; Yuen, P S T

    Exosomes are released by most cells and can be isolated from all biofluids including urine. Exosomes are small vesicles formed as part of the endosomal pathway that contain cellular material surrounded by a lipid bilayer that can be traced to the plasma membrane. Exosomes are potentially a more targeted source of material for biomarker discovery than unfractionated urine, and provide diagnostic and pathophysiological information without an invasive tissue biopsy. Cytoplasmic contents including protein, mRNA, miRNA, and lipids have all been studied within the exosomal fraction. Many prospective urinary exosomal biomarkers have been successfully identified for a variety of kidney or genitourinary tract conditions; detection of systemic conditions may also be possible. Isolation and analysis of exosomes can be achieved by several approaches, although many require specialized equipment or involve lengthy protocols. The need for timely analysis in the clinical setting has driven considerable innovation with several promising options recently emerging. Consensus on exosome isolation, characterization, and normalization procedures would resolve critical clinical translational bottlenecks for existing candidate exosomal biomarkers and provide a template for additional discovery studies. 2017 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Alpha spectrum analysis of 241Am in the urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Yongmei; Yang Yong

    2006-10-01

    With 241 Am as indicator, americium in the urine was concentrated by the method of codeposition, then it was purified by the method of anion exchange, at last, the americium was electroplated. 241 Am in the urine was analysed by six channel low level alpha measuring instrument and Alpha Spectrometer. The results show that the recovering ratio is beyond 60% under the condition that the indicator added to the urine is at the level of mBq. So, 241 Am in the urine can be quantitatively analysed by this method, uncertainty of the result is under 40%, detection limit of the instrument is under 10 -4 Bq. (authors)

  3. Ketones in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Ketones: Urine; p. 351. Joslin Diabetes ...

  4. Blood in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Hemoglobin, Urine; p. 325. Lab Tests ...

  5. Use of urine in snow to indicate condition of wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.; DelGiudice, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Urine deposited in snow by wild gray wolves (Canis lupus) and by fed and fasted captive wolves was analyzed for urea nitrogen, calcium, sodium, potassium, and creatinine. Ratios of the elements with creatinine were considerably higher for fed than for fasted animals, and ratios for fed wolves compared favorably with ratios from wolf urine in snow along trails leading from kills. Thus, wolf urine in the snow can indicate whether wolves have fed recently, and a series of such urine collections from any given pack can indicate relative nutritional state.

  6. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    2002-05-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 {mu}l of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  7. Direct assay for urine cortisol with cortisol kit TFB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Michiko; Hosoya, Takaaki

    2002-01-01

    We examined Cortisol Kit TFB for direct assay of urine cortisol. And the multiplication by dilution factor of urine cortisol values in this kit was examined. The coefficient of correlation of cortisol levels (46 urine samples) between Cortisol Kit TFB and Chemilumi ACS-Cortisol II, which is another kit for direct assay of urine cortisol, was r=0.858, y=1.86x+38.2 (p<0.001). There were differences between the both cortisol levels of each urine sample in spite of the good coefficient of correlation. The urine cortisol values obtained from the standard curve in addition of 50 μl of zero standard were 50-80% of the values obtained from the standard curve in the package insert. These results suggest that the specificity of the antibodies of both direct assay kits for urine cortisol may be different each other, and the multiplication by 1.09, the dilution factor due to the addition of zero standard to only urine sample, is unnecessary although it is indispensable for urine samples to add zero standard. Cortisol Kit TFB was very convenient for its easy assay procedure and short incubation. (author)

  8. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman; Purwanto; Sukarman-Aminjoyo

    1996-01-01

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 μg

  9. Property changes of urinary nanocrystallites and urine of uric acid stone formers after taking potassium citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guang-Na; Ouyang, Jian-Ming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn; Xue, Jun-Fa; Shang, Yun-Feng

    2013-10-15

    The property changes of urinary nanocrystallites in 20 cases of uric acid (UA) stone formers after 1 week of potassium citrate (K{sub 3}cit) intake were comparatively studied by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nanoparticle size analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Before K{sub 3}cit intake, the urinary crystallites mainly contained UA and calcium oxalate. After K{sub 3}cit intake, the components changed to urate and UA; the qualities, species, and amounts of aggregated crystallites decreased; urine pH, citrate, and glycosaminoglycan excretions increased; and UA excretion, Zeta potential, and crystallite size decreased. The stability of crystallites followed the order: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Therefore, the components of urinary stones were closely related to the components of urinary crystallites. - Graphical abstract: The relationships among stone components, urinary crystallite components, and urine pH were established. The crystallites stability order was: controls > patients after taking K{sub 3}cit > patients before taking K{sub 3}cit. Highlights: • Urine crystallite property of uric acid stone former after K{sub 3}cit intake was studied. • The components of crystallites in urine are closely related to type of stones. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the qualities and species of crystallites decreased. • After K{sub 3}cit intake the amount of aggregated crystallites decreased. • The stability of urinary crystallites of UA patients increased after taking K{sub 3}cit.

  10. Estimation of D-Arabinose by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as Surrogate for Mycobacterial Lipoarabinomannan in Human Urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithwiraj De

    Full Text Available Globally, tuberculosis is slowly declining each year and it is estimated that 37 million lives were saved between 2000 and 2013 through effective diagnosis and treatment. Currently, diagnosis relies on demonstration of the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, in clinical specimens by serial sputum microscopy, culture and molecular testing. Commercial immunoassay lateral flow kits developed to detect Mtb lipoglycan lipoarabinomannan (LAM in urine as a marker of active TB exhibit poor sensitivity, especially in immunocompetent individuals, perhaps due to low abundance of the analyte. Our present study was designed to develop methods to validate the presence of LAM in a quantitative fashion in human urine samples obtained from culture-confirmed TB patients. Herein we describe, a consolidated approach for isolating LAM from the urine and quantifying D-arabinose as a proxy for LAM, using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. 298 urine samples obtained from a repository were rigorously analyzed and shown to contain varying amounts of LAM-equivalent ranging between ~10-40 ng/mL. To further substantiate that D-arabinose detected in the samples originated from LAM, tuberculostearic acid, the unique 10-methyloctadecanoic acid present at the phosphatidylinositol end of LAM was also analyzed in a set of samples and found to be present confirming that the D-arabinose was indeed derived from LAM. Among the 144 samples from culture-negative TB suspects, 30 showed presence of D-arabinose suggesting another source of the analyte, such as disseminated TB or from non-tuberculosis mycobacterium. Our work validates that LAM is present in the urine samples of culture-positive patients in small but readily detectable amounts. The study further substantiates LAM in urine as a powerful biomarker for active tuberculosis.

  11. Electron microscopy (nonbiological)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The period 1982-1985, which is covered by this review, has seen major advances in the capabilities of the commercially available instruments. The new electron microscopes operating in the range of 300-400 keV have provided important improvements in the resolution available and in the possibilities for microanalysis of very small specimen areas. Correspondingly there has been a broadening in the range of possible applications of the techniques. Electron microscopy has become a much more powerful tool for studies of semiconductors and catalysts, for example, and offers promise of a major revolution in surface science. The major industrial laboratories, in particular, are investing in million-dollar instruments and in the highly skilled scientists needed to run them because the capabilities of the new instruments are seen to have immediate practical applications to current industrial research. Unfortunately all of the new instruments and most of the skilled users come from overseas. The American instrument industry, although showing some limited signs of life, is not yet in a position to compete in this lucrative market and the training of electron optics specialists in this country is far from meeting the demand. The increased sophistication required for both the operation of the instruments and the interpretation of the observation requires that the quality as well as the quantity of trainees must be improved. 62 references

  12. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  13. Superconductivity and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkes, P.W.; Valdre, U.

    1977-01-01

    In this review article, two aspects of the role of superconductivity in electron microscopy are examined: (i) the development of superconducting devices (mainly lenses) and their incorporation in electron microscopes; (ii) the development of electron microscope techniques for studying fundamental and technological problems associated with superconductivity. The first part opens with a brief account of the relevant properties of conventional lenses, after which the various types of superconducting lenses are described and their properties compared. The relative merits and inconveniences of superconducting and conventional lenses are examined, particular attention being paid to the spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients at accelerating voltages above a megavolt. This part closes with a survey of the various microscope designs that have been built or proposed, incorporating superconducting components. In the second part, some methods that have been or might be used in the study of superconductivity in the electron microscope are described. A brief account of the types of application for which they are suitable is given. (author)

  14. Transmission acoustic microscopy investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maev, Roman; Kolosov, Oleg; Levin, Vadim; Lobkis, Oleg

    The nature of acoustic contrast, i.e. the connection of the amplitude and phase of the output signal of the acoustic microscope with the local values of the acoustic parameters of the sample (density, elasticity, viscosity) is a central problem of acoustic microscopy. A considerable number of studies have been devoted to the formation of the output signal of the reflection scanning acoustic microscope. For the transmission acoustic microscope (TAM) this problem has remained almost unstudied. Experimental investigation of the confocal system of the TAM was carried out on an independently manufactured laboratory mockup of the TAM with the working frequency of the 420 MHz. Acoustic lenses with the radius of curvature of about 500 microns and aperture angle of 45 deg were polished out in the end faces of two cylindrical sound conductors made from Al2O3 single crystals with an axis parallel to the axis C of the crystal (the length of the sound conductor is 20 mm; diameter, 6 mm). At the end faces of the sound conductor, opposite to the lenses, CdS transducers with a diameter of 2 mm were disposed. The electric channel of the TAM provided a possibility for registering the amplitude of the microscope output signal in the case of the dynamic range of the 50 dB.

  15. Innovative Strategies for Clinical Microscopy Instruction: Virtual Versus Light Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, M Jane; Russell, Gregory B; Crandall, Sonia J

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare virtual microscopy with light microscopy to determine differences in learning outcomes and learner attitudes in teaching clinical microscopy to physician assistant (PA) students. A prospective, randomized, crossover design study was conducted with a convenience sample of 67 first-year PA students randomized to 2 groups. One group used light microscopes to find microscopic structures, whereas the other group used instructor-directed video streaming of microscopic elements. At the midpoint of the study, the groups switched instructional strategies. Learning outcomes were assessed via posttest after each section of the study, with comparison of final practical examination results to previous cohorts. Attitudes about the 2 educational strategies were assessed through a postcourse questionnaire with a Likert scale. Analysis of the first posttest demonstrated that students in the video-streamed group had significantly better learning outcomes than those in the light microscopy group (P = .004; Cohen's d = 0.74). Analysis of the posttest after crossover showed no differences between the 2 groups (P = .48). Between the 2 posttests, students first assigned to the light microscopy group scored a 6.6 mean point increase (±10.4 SD; p = .0011), whereas students first assigned to the virtual microscopy group scored a 1.3 mean point increase (±7.1 SD; p = .29). The light microscopy group improved more than the virtual microscopy group (P = .019). Analysis of practical examination data revealed higher scores for the study group compared with 5 previous cohorts of first-year students (P virtual microscopy to traditional light microscopy. Virtual microscopy is an effective educational strategy, and students prefer this method when learning to interpret images of clinical specimens.

  16. Bioassay method for Uranium in urine by Delay Neutron counting; Metoda Bioassay Uranium dalam urin dengan pencacahan Netron Kasip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suratman,; Purwanto,; Sukarman-Aminjoyo, [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre, National Atomic Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    A bioassay method for uranium in urine by neutron counting has been studied. The aim of this research is to obtain a bioassay method for uranium in urine which is used for the determination of internal dose of radiation workers. The bioassay was applied to the artificially uranium contaminated urine. The weight of the contaminant was varied. The uranium in the urine was irradiated in the Kartini reactor core, through pneumatic system. The delayed neutron was counted by BF3 neutron counter. Recovery of the bioassay was between 69.8-88.8 %, standard deviation was less than 10 % and the minimum detection was 0.387 {mu}g.

  17. NDE Acoustic Microscopy Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to develop advanced, more effective high-resolution micro-NDE materials characterization methods using scanning acoustic microscopy. The laboratory's...

  18. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM) system, developed by ARL, is the world's most sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis tool,...

  19. Radio-toxicological analysis of urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Jammet, H.

    1959-01-01

    The article is divided into two parts: general and technical. In the general part, a study of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the organism shows the hazards of internal contamination. In addition, the principle of the different methods for the estimation of this contamination is indicated. The second part, which is purely technical, describes some of the methods for urine analysis used in the S.H.A.R.P. radiotoxicology laboratory at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre. The techniques relate to 239 Pu, 226 Ra, 90 Sr, natural Th, natural U and 233 U. Reprint of a paper published in Annales de Radiologie, Vol. 2, no. 9-10, p. 703-722, 1959 [fr

  20. Taking the Piss : Urine in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwaal, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    As long as there have been humans, urine has been regularly discharged. You may not consider your urine very interesting. In fact, you may be very eager to leave your messy and leaky excretion behind in the bathroom. But have we always looked at this fluid with a feeling of disgust? What did people

  1. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  2. Exorphin Peptides in Urine with HPLC-MS/MS Detection

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Exorphins have been found in urine from individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders by HPLC techniques. However, several studies, using sophisticated analytical techniques , have reported negative findings. This made it necessary to improve our methods. The sample stability during transport and storage and the pre -analytical treatment of urines was improved by peptidase inhibition and solid ...

  3. Analyte variations in consecutive 24-hour urine collections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jonathan S; Hollingsworth, John M; Langman, Craig B; Asplin, John R; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Yan, Phyllis; Bierlein, Maggie; Barraza, Mark A; Defoor, William R; Figueroa, T Ernesto; Jackson, Elizabeth C; Jayanthi, Venkata R; Johnson, Emilie K; Joseph, David B; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic evaluation of children with nephrolithiasis begins with a 24-h urine collection. For adults, the diagnostic yield increases with consecutive collections; however, little is known regarding the variability of multiple 24-h studies in the pediatric population. We sought to evaluate the variability of consecutive 24-h urine collection in children through a multi-institutional study hypothesizing that compared with a single collection, consecutive 24-h urine collections would reveal a greater degree of clinically useful information in the evaluation of children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Including data from six institutions, we identified children less than 18 years of age considered at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis, undergoing metabolic evaluation. We evaluated a subset of patients performing two collections with urine creatinine varying by 10% or less during a 7-day period. Discordance between repeat collections based on normative urine chemistry values was evaluated. A total of 733 children met inclusion criteria, and in over a third both urine calcium and urine volume differed by 30% or more between samples. Urine oxalate demonstrated greater variation between collections in children collections prior to targeted intervention to modify stone risk are advised to increase diagnostic yield in children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The prevalence of E. coli, Ps. aeruginosa and Staph aureus isolates from urine of selected residents in Zaria was investigated. This was an attempt to elucidate the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria commonly implicated in urinary tact infection. Methods: Urine samples collected from students of ...

  5. Acute and chronic urine retention among adults at the urology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E.M.T. Yenli

    A complete work-up to establish the cause of urine ... acute or chronic urine retention was caused mainly by bladder cancer and neurogenic bladder. Initial and ... associated with a significantly impaired quality of life, stigmatiza- tion and a ..... to ensure that they remained healthy and did not have any infection connected with ...

  6. effects of artemether on the plasma and urine concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Komolafe

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... degeneration of the renal tissue of rats, inability of the damaged kidneys to concentrate urine, which manifested as excessive water loss and electrolyte depletion. Key words: Artemether, electrolytes in plasma, urine concentrations, rats. INTRODUCTION. Artemether, one of the derivatives of artemisinin, is.

  7. Value of urine cytology in screening patients with prostatitis syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de la Rosette, J. J.; Hubregtse, M. R.; Wiersma, A. M.; Debruyne, F. M.

    1993-01-01

    We reviewed the results of urine cytology examination of 206 patients with a diagnosis of prostatitis syndromes in the period 1985-1991. The urine samples showed an incidence of 20.4% for slight to moderate atypia and 6.3% for severe atypia. In these patients, cystoscopy, bladder biopsies and

  8. Fertilizer value of urine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. PRADHAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The fertilizer value of human urine was compared with mineral fertilizer in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cultivation at a dose of 113 kg N ha-1 with no-fertilization used as control. The growth of the vine was better in urine fertilized pumpkins than in mineral fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Total fruit biomass was higher in mineral fertilized plants compared to urine fertilized and non-fertilized pumpkins. Urine fertilized pumpkins may have suffered from lower potassium or higher chloride, thus they produced fewer flowers and fruits. However, total fruit biomass and the number of fruits were slightly higher in urine fertilized plants than in their non-fertilized counterparts, i.e. 17.2 t ha-1 more pumpkin could be produced with urine fertilizer. The microbial hygiene quality as well as the contents of soluble sugars, protein and taste quality were similar in all treatments, but lower nitrate and higher chloride contents were recorded in urine fertilized pumpkins than other treatments. In conclusion, our study shows that the production rate of urine fertilized pumpkins was somewhat lower than mineral fertilized pumpkins but it was higher than non-fertilized pumpkins. The hygienic quality was equally good with all treatments.;

  9. Effectiveness of the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stored cat urine was then thawed and mixed with maize starch to form a thick dough and then granulated and dried at room temperature before being packed in a hermetically closed jar. Initially, rodent foot marks on tracking soot coat tiles were used to estimate the rat population before the cat urine extracts application.

  10. The importance of cooling of urine samples for doping analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuenen, J. Gijs; Konings, Wil N.

    Storing and transporting of urine samples for doping analysis, as performed by the anti-doping organizations associated with the World Anti-Doping Agency, does not include a specific protocol for cooled transport from the place of urine sampling to the doping laboratory, although low cost cooling

  11. Effects of diet composition on mutagenic activity in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Akihiro; Matsuhisa, Tsugio

    2004-01-01

    The effects of dietary habits on mutagenic activity in urine were investigated using the umu test based on the use of the genetically engineered bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 pSK1002. Genotoxic effects in sample urine were detected by measuring the activation of the SOS response in the bacteria and recording the beta- galactosidase activity. Human subjects consisted of smokers and non-smokers. Urine from subjects who consumed fish showed the highest mutagenic activity, followed by the urine samples from subjects who ate pork or beef. Chicken induced a low level of mutagenic activity. When the subjects ate fried or roasted animal foods, the urine samples gave higher mutagenicity than the urine samples from the subject who consumed non-fried or non-roasted animal foods. When the subject ate vegetables along with a diet rich in animal foods, the activity in urine decreased. Herbs and spices gave the same tendency toward decline as vegetables. Non-smoker urine shower mutagenic activity than samples from smokers.

  12. Molecular neutron activation analysis of selenium metabolites in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Hansen, G.T.; Ebrahim, A.; Rack, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of the biological importance of selenium in living biological systems, various analytical procedures have been developed for analysis of microquantities of elemental selenium, in urine, serum, and tissue. For urine selenium, these include atomic absorption spectrometry, solution absorption spectrometry, solution fluorescence spectrometry, volumetry, and neutron activation analysis. Of equal or greater importance is the determination of selenium metabolites present in urine for the purpose of describing the biological pathways for the metabolism of selenium in living organisms. While it is known from previous studies that trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe) is a major metabolite in urine, probably the result of reduction and methylation reaction, there are no definitive results in the literature indicating the nature or quantity of other selenium metabolic products in urine. Early techniques to measure TMSe levels in urine involved the use of the radiotracer 75 Se. Because of the long biological half-life of selenium and issues of radiation exposure, its use in humans has been limited. In this paper, the authors report the experimental procedure for the determination of total selenoamino acid concentration in urine and present total selenium values, and, where applicable, TMSe, SeO 2- 3 , and total selenoamino acid concentrations in the urine of normal and diseased subjects

  13. SPE-NMR metabolite sub-profiling of urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, D.M.; Spiesser, L.; Garnier, M.; Roo, de N.; Dorsten, van F.; Hollebrands, B.; Velzen, van E.; Draijer, R.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    NMR-based metabolite profiling of urine is a fast and reproducible method for detection of numerous metabolites with diverse chemical properties. However, signal overlap in the (1)H NMR profiles of human urine may hamper quantification and identification of metabolites. Therefore, a new method has

  14. Polyglycolic acid (Dexon) sutures in Escherichia coli infected urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Schwartz, W

    1979-01-01

    The tensile strength, knot strength and stretch of polyglycolic acid (Dexon) was studied after emersion in physiological saline, sterile urine and infected urine. Tests were made each day under controlled conditions over a 10 day period. The results are compared with those of other earlier studie...

  15. Effect Of Instructions About The Method Of Urine Collection And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the explanation, 15(23.1%) of the patients collected the urine samples wrongly and 44(67.7%) stored the samples for longer than one hour. Significant bacteriuria was more prevalent in 74.2% of patients who submitted their urine samples more than one hour after collection. Communication skill is important and ...

  16. Determination of natural thorium in urines; Dosage du thorium dans les urines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L; Jammet, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of thorium in urine is described. After precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, dissolution of the precipitate, extraction at pH 4-4.2 with cupferron in chloroformic solution and mineralization, a colorimetric determination of thorium with thorin is performed. It is thus possible to detect about 2 {gamma} of thorium in the sample. (author) [French] Cet article decrit une technique de dosage du thorium dans l'urine. Apres precipitation par l'ammoniaque, remise en solution, extraction a pH 4-4,2 par le cupferron en solution chloroformique et mineralisation, le thorium est dose par colorimetrie avec le thorin. Cette methode permet de deceler environ 2 {gamma} de thorium dans l'echantillon. (auteur)

  17. Natural radionuclides in urine- and faeces samples; Natuerliche Radionuklide in Urin- und Stuhlproben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froning, M.; Burow, M.; Ennen, R.; Hoelters, A.; Laumen-Sentis, S.; Zoriy, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Sicherheit und Strahlenschutz

    2016-07-01

    In interpreting of measurement data for incorporation monitoring by excretion samples a clear distinction between the natural intake and the fraction subjected due to occupational exposure should be performed. At the present only a few data about an excretion of primordial elements such as {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th are available in the literature. In the following study actual data measured in urine and faeces will be presented and discussed.

  18. Electronic Blending in Virtual Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Terrence S.; Farah, Camile S.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual microscopy (VM) is a relatively new technology that transforms the computer into a microscope. In essence, VM allows for the scanning and transfer of glass slides from light microscopy technology to the digital environment of the computer. This transition is also a function of the change from print knowledge to electronic knowledge, or as…

  19. Urine Creatinine Concentrations in Drug Monitoring Participants and Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A; Seegmiller, Jesse C; Kloss, Julie; Apple, Fred S

    2016-10-01

    Urine drug testing is commonly performed in both clinical and forensic arenas for screening, monitoring and compliance purposes. We sought to determine if urine creatinine concentrations in monitoring program participants were significantly different from hospital in-patients and out-patients undergoing urine drug testing. We retrospectively reviewed urine creatinine submitted in June through December 2015 for all specimens undergoing urine drug testing. The 20,479 creatinine results were categorized as hospitalized patients (H) and monitoring/compliance groups for pain management (P), legal (L) or recovery (R). Median creatinine concentrations (interquartile range, mg/dL) were significantly different (P creatinine concentrations were significantly lower in the R vs. L group (Pcreatinine concentration and may indicate participants' attempts to tamper with their drug test results through dilution means. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Bioassay techniques for {sup 55}Fe in urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cregan, S P; Leon, J W; Linauskas, S H

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for {sup 55}Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH){sub 3}. precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. Bioassay techniques for 55Fe in urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregan, S.P.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    1993-11-01

    Solvent extraction, ion chromatography and several rapid screening methods were developed and evaluated for 55 Fe bioassay applications. Isopropyl ether and TNOA column extractions had radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90%. These were very reproducible with a coefficient of variation less than 5%. Screening techniques investigated included direct counting of ashed urine solids, and Fe(OH) 3 . precipitated from urine. The sensitivities (2-50 Bq/d urine) of the screening methods were usually limited by the effective urine volume that could be counted in a liquid scintillation counter. The reference isopropyl ether and chromatography methods could easily achieve sensitivities well below the 1 Bq/d urine output target. (author). 49 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  2. Analysis of Urine as Indicators of Specific Body Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Souradeep; Saha, Triya; Narendrakumar, Uttamchand

    2017-11-01

    Urinalysis can be defined as a procedure for examining various factors of urine, which include physical properties, particulate matter, cells, casts, crystals, organisms and solutes. Urinalysis is recommended to be a part of the initial examination of all patients as its cheap, feasible and gives productive results. This paper focuses on the analysis of urine collected at specific body conditions. Here we illustrate the urine profile of different persons having various body conditions, which include, having urinary tract infection, undergoing strenuous exercise, having back pain regularly, having very low urine output and a person who is on 24 hours of diet. Examination of urine collected from different persons having specific body conditions usually helps us in the diagnosis of various diseases, which it indicates.

  3. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  4. A simple method for estimation of phosphorous in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, Seema; Gondane, Sonali; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Following internal contamination of 32 P, it is preferentially eliminated from the body in urine. It is estimated by in-situ precipitation of ammonium molybdo-phosphate (AMP) in urine followed by gross beta counting. The amount of AMP formed in-situ depends on the amount of stable phosphorous (P) present in the urine and hence, it was essential to generate information regarding urinary excretion of stable P. If amount of P excreted is significant then the amount of AMP formed would correspondingly increase leading to absorption of some of the β particles. The present study was taken up for the estimation of daily urinary excretion of P using the phospho-molybdate spectrophotometry method. Few urine samples received from radiation workers were analyzed and based on the observed range of stable P in urine; volume of sample required for 32 P estimation was finalized

  5. Tritium analysis of urine samples from the general Korean public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2013-11-01

    The tritium concentrations of urine samples and the effective dose of the general Korean public were evaluated. To achieve accurate HTO analysis of urine samples, we established the optimal conditions for measuring the HTO content of urine samples. Urine samples from 50 Koreans who do not work at a nuclear facility were analyzed on the basis of the results. The average urine analysis result was 2.8 ±1 .4 Bq/L, and the range was 1.8-5.6 Bq/L. The measured values were lower than those reported for other countries. These results show that environmental factors and lifestyle differences are the main factors affecting the tritium level of the general public. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dietz, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kaminski, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shkrob, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial, extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.

  7. Microscopy techniques in flavivirus research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Mun Keat; Chua, Anthony Jin Shun; Tan, Terence Tze Tong; Tan, Suat Hoon; Ng, Mah Lee

    2014-04-01

    The Flavivirus genus is composed of many medically important viruses that cause high morbidity and mortality, which include Dengue and West Nile viruses. Various molecular and biochemical techniques have been developed in the endeavour to study flaviviruses. However, microscopy techniques still have irreplaceable roles in the identification of novel virus pathogens and characterization of morphological changes in virus-infected cells. Fluorescence microscopy contributes greatly in understanding the fundamental viral protein localizations and virus-host protein interactions during infection. Electron microscopy remains the gold standard for visualizing ultra-structural features of virus particles and infected cells. New imaging techniques and combinatory applications are continuously being developed to push the limit of resolution and extract more quantitative data. Currently, correlative live cell imaging and high resolution three-dimensional imaging have already been achieved through the tandem use of optical and electron microscopy in analyzing biological specimens. Microscopy techniques are also used to measure protein binding affinities and determine the mobility pattern of proteins in cells. This chapter will consolidate on the applications of various well-established microscopy techniques in flavivirus research, and discuss how recently developed microscopy techniques can potentially help advance our understanding in these membrane viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advantage of multiple spot urine collections for estimating daily sodium excretion: comparison with two 24-h urine collections as reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uechi, Ken; Asakura, Keiko; Ri, Yui; Masayasu, Shizuko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Several estimation methods for 24-h sodium excretion using spot urine sample have been reported, but accurate estimation at the individual level remains difficult. We aimed to clarify the most accurate method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion with different numbers of available spot urine samples. A total of 370 participants from throughout Japan collected multiple 24-h urine and spot urine samples independently. Participants were allocated randomly into a development and a validation dataset. Two estimation methods were established in the development dataset using the two 24-h sodium excretion samples as reference: the 'simple mean method' estimated by multiplying the sodium-creatinine ratio by predicted 24-h creatinine excretion, whereas the 'regression method' employed linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the two methods was examined by comparing the estimated means and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) in the validation dataset. Mean sodium excretion by the simple mean method with three spot urine samples was closest to that by 24-h collection (difference: -1.62  mmol/day). CCC with the simple mean method increased with an increased number of spot urine samples at 0.20, 0.31, and 0.42 using one, two, and three samples, respectively. This method with three spot urine samples yielded higher CCC than the regression method (0.40). When only one spot urine sample was available for each study participant, CCC was higher with the regression method (0.36). The simple mean method with three spot urine samples yielded the most accurate estimates of sodium excretion. When only one spot urine sample was available, the regression method was preferable.

  9. Fluorescence confocal microscopy for pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2014-03-01

    Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on

  10. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Reischies, Frederike M. J.; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with...

  11. Estimate of dietary phosphorus intake using 24-h urine collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuuka; Sakuma, Masae; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Akitsu; Matsushita, Asami; Umeda, Minako; Ishikawa, Makoto; Taketani, Yutaka; Takeda, Eiji; Arai, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Increases in serum phosphorus levels and dietary phosphorus intake induces vascular calcification, arterial sclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Limiting phosphorus intake is advisable, however, no assessment methods are capable of estimating dietary phosphorus intake. We hypothesized that urinary phosphorus excretion can be translated into estimation of dietary phosphorus intake, and we evaluated whether a 24-h urine collection method could estimate dietary phosphorus intake. Thirty two healthy subjects were recruited for this study. Subjects collected urine samples over 24 h and weighed dietary records. We calculated dietary protein intake and phosphorus intake from dietary records and urine collection, and investigated associations between the two methods in estimating protein and phosphorus intake. Significant positive correlations were observed between dietary records and UC for protein and phosphorus intake. The average intakes determined from dietary records were significantly higher than from urine collection for both protein and phosphorus. There was a significant positive correlation between both the phosphorus and protein difference in dietary records and urine collection. The phosphorus-protein ratio in urine collection was significantly higher than in dietary records. Our data indicated that the 24-h urine collection method can estimate the amount of dietary phosphorus intake, and the results were superior to estimation by weighed dietary record. PMID:25120281

  12. Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Stig; Cramé, Kim

    1968-01-01

    A method for the determination of lead in urine by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) is described. A combination of wet ashing and extraction with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate into isobutylmethylketone was used. The sensitivity was about 0·02 μg./ml. for 1% absorption, and the detection limit was about 0·02 μg./ml. with an instrumental setting convenient for routine analyses of urines. Using the scale expansion technique, the detection limit was below 0·01 μg./ml., but it was found easier to determine urinary lead concentrations below 0·05 μg./ml. by concentrating the lead in the organic solvent by increasing the volume of urine or decreasing that of the solvent. The method was applied to fresh urines, stored urines, and to urines, obtained during treatment with chelating agents, of patients with lead poisoning. Urines with added inorganic lead were not used. The results agreed well with those obtained with a colorimetric dithizone extraction method (r = 0·989). The AAS method is somewhat more simple and allows the determination of smaller lead concentrations. PMID:5647975

  13. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  14. Urine Trefoil Factors as Prognostic Biomarkers in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanari, Toshio; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Morinaga, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Masashi; Onishi, Akifumi; Ogawa-Akiyama, Ayu; Kano, Yuzuki; Mise, Koki; Ohmoto, Yasukazu; Shikata, Kenichi; Wada, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) peptides are increased in serum and urine in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, whether the levels of TFF predict the progression of CKD remains to be elucidated. We determined the TFF levels using peptide-specific ELISA in spot urine samples and performed a prospective cohort study. The association between the levels of urine TFFs and other urine biomarkers as well as the renal prognosis was analyzed in 216 CKD patients (mean age: 53.7 years, 47.7% female, 56.9% with chronic glomerulonephritis, and mean eGFR: 58.5 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ). The urine TFF1 and TFF3 levels significantly increased with the progression of CKD stages, but not the urine TFF2 levels. The TFF1 and TFF3 peptide levels predicted the progression of CKD ≥ stage 3b by ROC analysis (AUC 0.750 and 0.879, resp.); however, TFF3 alone predicted CKD progression in a multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio 3.854, 95% confidence interval 1.316-11.55). The Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrated that patients with a higher TFF1 and TFF3 alone, or in combination with macroalbuminuria, had a significantly worse renal prognosis. The data suggested that urine TFF peptides are associated with renal progression and the outcomes in patients with CKD.

  15. Mass spectrometric based approaches in urine metabolomics and biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Mona M; Adamko, Darryl J; El-Aneed, Anas

    2017-03-01

    Urine metabolomics has recently emerged as a prominent field for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers that can detect subtle metabolic discrepancies in response to a specific disease or therapeutic intervention. Urine, compared to other biofluids, is characterized by its ease of collection, richness in metabolites and its ability to reflect imbalances of all biochemical pathways within the body. Following urine collection for metabolomic analysis, samples must be immediately frozen to quench any biogenic and/or non-biogenic chemical reactions. According to the aim of the experiment; sample preparation can vary from simple procedures such as filtration to more specific extraction protocols such as liquid-liquid extraction. Due to the lack of comprehensive studies on urine metabolome stability, higher storage temperatures (i.e. 4°C) and repetitive freeze-thaw cycles should be avoided. To date, among all analytical techniques, mass spectrometry (MS) provides the best sensitivity, selectivity and identification capabilities to analyze the majority of the metabolite composition in the urine. Combined with the qualitative and quantitative capabilities of MS, and due to the continuous improvements in its related technologies (i.e. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography [UPLC] and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography [HILIC]), liquid chromatography (LC)-MS is unequivocally the most utilized and the most informative analytical tool employed in urine metabolomics. Furthermore, differential isotope tagging techniques has provided a solution to ion suppression from urine matrix thus allowing for quantitative analysis. In addition to LC-MS, other MS-based technologies have been utilized in urine metabolomics. These include direct injection (infusion)-MS, capillary electrophoresis-MS and gas chromatography-MS. In this article, the current progresses of different MS-based techniques in exploring the urine metabolome as well as the recent findings in providing

  16. Fluctuations of nickel concentrations in urine of electroplating workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernacki, E.J.; Zygowicz, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nickel analyses were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry upon urine specimens obtained from electroplating workers at the beginning, middle and end of the work-shift. The means (+- S.D.) for nickel concentrations in urine specimens from seven electroplating workers on three regular workdays were: 34 +- 32 μg/L (pre-shift); 64 +- μg/L (mid-shift) and 46 +- μg/L (end-shift), compared to 2.7 +- 1.6 μg/L (pre-shift) in 19 controls (hospital workers). Nickel concentrations in urine specimens from six electroplating workers on the first workday after a two-week vacation averaged: 5 +- 3 μg/L (pre-shift); 9 +- 6 μg/L (mid-shift), and 12 +- 6 μg/L (end-shift). Nickel concentrations in personal air samples (seven hours) collected from the breathing zones of five electroplating workers on three regular workdays averaged 9.3 +- 4.4 μg/m 3 . Nickel concentrations in the air samples were correlated with nickel concentrations in end-shift urine specimens (corr. coef. = 0.70; P < 0.05), but were not correlated with nickel concentrations in pre-shift or mid-shift urine specimens. In view of the fluctuations of urine nickel concentrations that occur during the work-shift, the authors recommend that nickel analyses of eight hour urine specimens be used routinely to monitor occupational exposures to nickel. In situations where timed urine collections are impractical, analyses of end-shift urine specimens are the best alternative

  17. Metabolites of cannabidiol identified in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, D J; Mechoulam, R

    1990-03-01

    1. Urine from a dystonic patient treated with cannabidiol (CBD) was examined by g.l.c.-mass spectrometry for CBD metabolites. Metabolites were identified as their trimethylsilyl (TMS), [2H9]TMS, and methyl ester/TMS derivatives and as the TMS derivatives of the product of lithium aluminium deuteride reduction. 2. Thirty-three metabolites were identified in addition to unmetabolized CBD, and a further four metabolites were partially characterized. 3. The major metabolic route was hydroxylation and oxidation at C-7 followed by further hydroxylation in the pentyl and propenyl groups to give 1"-, 2"-, 3"-, 4"- and 10-hydroxy derivatives of CBD-7-oic acid. Other metabolites, mainly acids, were formed by beta-oxidation and related biotransformations from the pentyl side-chain and these were also hydroxylated at C-6 or C-7. The major oxidized metabolite was CBD-7-oic acid containing a hydroxyethyl side-chain. 4. Two 8,9-dihydroxy compounds, presumably derived from the corresponding epoxide were identified. 5. Also present were several cyclized cannabinoids including delta-6- and delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol. 6. This is the first metabolic study of CBD in humans; most observed metabolic routes were typical of those found for CBD and related cannabinoids in other species.

  18. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  19. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Virginia M., E-mail: vweaver@jhsph.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Vargas, Gonzalo García [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Coahuila, Coahuila, México (Mexico); Silbergeld, Ellen K. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rothenberg, Stephen J. [Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, Centro de Investigacion en Salud Poblacional, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Fadrowski, Jeffrey J. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rubio-Andrade, Marisela [Faculty of Medicine, University of Juárez of Durango State, Durango (Mexico); Parsons, Patrick J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, Albany, NY (United States); Steuerwald, Amy J. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  20. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed

  1. Measurement of organically bound tritium in urine and feces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.; Leon, J.W.; Linauskas, S.H.

    1993-11-01

    A bioassay method was developed for directly measuring organically bound tritium (OBT) in urine and feces. Samples first undergo low-temperature distillation and vacuum separation to isolate tritiated water (HTO) and exchangeable tritium. This is followed by converting the non-exchangeable tritium (i.e., OBT) into HTO through oxygen combustion. The method was investigated to: optimise the sample preparation procedures; establish OBT recovery (64% ± 7% for urine and 71% ± 8% for feces); and, determine the detection limit for OBT in urine (0.3 Bq · g -1 ) and feces (5 Bq · g -1 ). The method was evaluated for error sources that are associated with the exchange between HTO and OBT. It is concluded that this bioassay method can reliably measure OBT in urine and feces within the range of ± 10%

  2. Neutron activation analysis for bulk and trace elements in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelis, R.; Speecke, A.; Hoste, J.

    1975-01-01

    Problems in sampling urine for trace element analysis by neutron activation are systematically examined. Collection, storage, sample preparation and contamination hazards during irradiation are studied in detail. Three different sizes of urine samples are prepared for analysis, depending on the concentration and nuclear properties of the elements, and suitable multielement doped urine standards are used. As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn are determined. The extreme care given to sample collection, use of ''ultra-clean'' vials, and work in a dust-free room allows consistent values to be obtained over long periods of time. A literature review of the amounts of forty elements present in urine per day is also given

  3. Bilirubin in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Bilirubin (Urine); 86–87 p. Lab ...

  4. Urine sampling techniques in symptomatic primary-care patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anne; Aabenhus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    in infection rate between mid-stream-clean-catch, mid-stream-urine and random samples. Conclusions: At present, no evidence suggests that sampling technique affects the accuracy of the microbiological diagnosis in non-pregnant women with symptoms of urinary tract infection in primary care. However......Background: Choice of urine sampling technique in urinary tract infection may impact diagnostic accuracy and thus lead to possible over- or undertreatment. Currently no evidencebased consensus exists regarding correct sampling technique of urine from women with symptoms of urinary tract infection...... a randomized or paired design to compare the result of urine culture obtained with two or more collection techniques in adult, female, non-pregnant patients with symptoms of urinary tract infection. We evaluated quality of the studies and compared accuracy based on dichotomized outcomes. Results: We included...

  5. Isolation and identification of two galangin metabolites from rat urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and identification of two galangin metabolites from rat urine and determination of their in vitro hypolipidemic activity. Xuguang Zhang, Shouqian Cheng, Hailong Li, Xiaopo Zhang, Feng Chen, Youbin Li, Junqing Zhang, Yinfeng Tan ...

  6. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  7. European guidelines for workplace drug testing in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Sanna; Beck, Olof; Bosch, Tessa; Brcak, Michaela; Carmichael, Duncan; Fucci, Nadia; George, Claire; Piper, Mark; Salomone, Alberto; Schielen, Wim; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    These European Guidelines for Workplace Drug Testing in Urine have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). The first version of these urine guidelines was published in 2002. Since then, the guidelines have been followed by many laboratories in different European countries and their role has been essential particularly in countries lacking legislation for workplace drug testing. In 2014, the EWDTS started a guidelines updating project and published a new version of the urine guidelines in 2015. Here we represent this updated version of the urine guidelines. The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing should use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mest en urine: van afval naar waardevol product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.P.; Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    Het gescheiden houden van mest en urine in de veehouderij belooft een reeks positieve effecten te geven, waarmee de veehouderij én de akkerbouw een duurzaamheidssprong kunnen maken. Maar dat lukt alleen als er veel praktijken tegelijkertijd veranderen.

  9. The effects of gliadin on urine metabolome in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Zhang, Li; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    Gliadin, a proline-rich protein of gluten, is thought to modulate the gut microbiota and affect the intestinal permeability and immune system. However, little is known about the long-term effects of gliadin on the host and microbial metabolism. To study this, we compared the urine metabolome of two...... groups of mice, which were on a high fat diet with and without gliadin, respectively, for 23 weeks. Using liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (MS) followed by multivariate analyses we were able to show a clear separation of the two groups of mice based on their urine metabolome. Discriminating...... in the gliadin mice. Also, Maillard reaction products and β-oxidized tocopherols were observed in higher levels in the urine of gliadin mice, suggesting increased oxidative stress in the gliadin mice. Indisputably, gliadin affected the urine metabolome. However, the mechanisms behind the observed metabolite...

  10. Mucus in Urine: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is normal. An excess amount may indicate a urinary tract infection (UTI) or other medical condition. A test called urinalysis ... your urinalysis if you have symptoms of a UTI. These include: Frequent urge to urinate, but little ...

  11. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R Max; Chuang, David T; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2011-02-15

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1α subunit of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated.

  12. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  13. Estimating population salt intake in India using spot urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kristina S; Johnson, Claire; Mohan, Sailesh; Rogers, Kris; Shivashankar, Roopa; Thout, Sudhir Raj; Gupta, Priti; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A; Webster, Jacqui; Santos, Joseph Alvin; Krishnan, Anand; Maulik, Pallab K; Reddy, K Srinath; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Neal, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    To compare estimates of mean population salt intake in North and South India derived from spot urine samples versus 24-h urine collections. In a cross-sectional survey, participants were sampled from slum, urban and rural communities in North and in South India. Participants provided 24-h urine collections, and random morning spot urine samples. Salt intake was estimated from the spot urine samples using a series of established estimating equations. Salt intake data from the 24-h urine collections and spot urine equations were weighted to provide estimates of salt intake for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh. A total of 957 individuals provided a complete 24-h urine collection and a spot urine sample. Weighted mean salt intake based on the 24-h urine collection, was 8.59 (95% confidence interval 7.73-9.45) and 9.46 g/day (8.95-9.96) in Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively. Corresponding estimates based on the Tanaka equation [9.04 (8.63-9.45) and 9.79 g/day (9.62-9.96) for Delhi and Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh, respectively], the Mage equation [8.80 (7.67-9.94) and 10.19 g/day (95% CI 9.59-10.79)], the INTERSALT equation [7.99 (7.61-8.37) and 8.64 g/day (8.04-9.23)] and the INTERSALT equation with potassium [8.13 (7.74-8.52) and 8.81 g/day (8.16-9.46)] were all within 1 g/day of the estimate based upon 24-h collections. For the Toft equation, estimates were 1-2 g/day higher [9.94 (9.24-10.64) and 10.69 g/day (9.44-11.93)] and for the Kawasaki equation they were 3-4 g/day higher [12.14 (11.30-12.97) and 13.64 g/day (13.15-14.12)]. In urban and rural areas in North and South India, most spot urine-based equations provided reasonable estimates of mean population salt intake. Equations that did not provide good estimates may have failed because specimen collection was not aligned with the original method.

  14. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enerly E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari NygårdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully

  15. Use of a Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) to Correlate with Parasitemia Levels in T. cruzi/HIV Co-infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Clark, Daniel E.; Choi, Jeong; Reimer-McAtee, Melissa J.; Castro, Rosario; Valencia-Ayala, Edward; Flores, Jorge; Bowman, Natalie; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Torrico, Faustino; Liotta, Lance; Bern, Caryn; Luchini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of reactivated Chagas disease in HIV patients could be lifesaving. In Latin America, the diagnosis is made by microscopical detection of the T. cruzi parasite in the blood; a diagnostic test that lacks sensitivity. This study evaluates if levels of T. cruzi antigens in urine, determined by Chunap (Chagas urine nanoparticle test), are correlated with parasitemia levels in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients. Methodology/Principal Findings T. cruzi antigens in urine of HIV patients (N = 55: 31 T. cruzi infected and 24 T. cruzi serology negative) were concentrated using hydrogel particles and quantified by Western Blot and a calibration curve. Reactivation of Chagas disease was defined by the observation of parasites in blood by microscopy. Parasitemia levels in patients with serology positive for Chagas disease were classified as follows: High parasitemia or reactivation of Chagas disease (detectable parasitemia by microscopy), moderate parasitemia (undetectable by microscopy but detectable by qPCR), and negative parasitemia (undetectable by microscopy and qPCR). The percentage of positive results detected by Chunap was: 100% (7/7) in cases of reactivation, 91.7% (11/12) in cases of moderate parasitemia, and 41.7% (5/12) in cases of negative parasitemia. Chunap specificity was found to be 91.7%. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a direct relationship between parasitemia levels and urine T. cruzi antigen concentrations (p 105 pg was chosen to determine patients with reactivation of Chagas disease (7/7). Antigenuria levels were 36.08 times (95% CI: 7.28 to 64.88) higher in patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 200/mL (p = 0.016). No significant differences were found in HIV loads and CD8+ lymphocyte counts. Conclusion Chunap shows potential for early detection of Chagas reactivation. With appropriate adaptation, this diagnostic test can be used to monitor Chagas disease status in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients. PMID:26919324

  16. Sample handling for mass spectrometric proteomic investigations of human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anette Lykke; Høgdall, Claus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Simonsen, Anja Hviid; T'jampens, Davy; Hellmann, Marja-Leena; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Fung, Eric T; Høgdall, Estrid

    2008-09-01

    Because of its non-invasive sample collection method, human urine is an attractive biological material both for discovering biomarkers and for use in future screening trials for different diseases. Before urine can be used for these applications, standardized protocols for sample handling that optimize protein stability are required. In this explorative study, we examine the influence of different urine collection methods, storage temperatures, storage times, and repetitive freeze-thaw procedures on the protein profiles obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Prospectively collected urine samples from 11 women were collected as either morning or midday specimens. The effects of storage temperature, time to freezing, and freeze-thaw cycles were assessed by calculating the number, intensity, and reproducibility of peaks visualized by SELDI-TOF-MS. On the CM10 array, 122 peaks were detected and 28 peaks were found to be significantly different between urine types, storage temperature and time to freezing. On the IMAC-Cu array, 65 peaks were detected and 1 peak was found to be significantly different according to time to freezing. No significant differences were demonstrated for freeze-thaw cycles. Optimal handling and storage conditions are necessary in clinical urine proteomic investigations. Collection of urine with a single and consistently performed protocol is needed to reduce analytical bias. Collecting only one urine type, which is stored for a limited period at 4°C until freezing at -80°C prior to analysis will provide the most stable profiles. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Direct measurement of tritium in urine by liquid scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caihong; Wen Qinghua; Chen Kefei; Li Huaixin

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces the method for direct measurement of tritium concentration in urine using liquid scintillation. Effects of sampling containers, store patterns and storage time are studied. Meanwhile, results of two methods are compared with direct measurement method and oxidation distillation method. The results shows that direct measurement method is a economic and simple method, which can meet the need of determination of urine tritium for NPP workers. There is no significant difference compared with the data obtained by oxidation distillation method

  18. Stability studies of amphetamine and ephedrine derivatives in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, C; de la Torre, R; Ventura, M; Segura, J; Ventura, R

    2006-10-20

    Knowledge of the stability of drugs in biological specimens is a critical consideration for the interpretation of analytical results. Identification of proper storage conditions has been a matter of concern for most toxicology laboratories (both clinical and forensic), and the stability of drugs of abuse has been extensively studied. This concern should be extended to other areas of analytical chemistry like antidoping control. In this work, the stability of ephedrine derivatives (ephedrine, norephedrine, methylephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and norpseudoephedrine), and amphetamine derivatives (amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) in urine has been studied. Spiked urine samples were prepared for stability testing. Urine samples were quantified by GC/NPD or GC/MS. The homogeneity of each batch of sample was verified before starting the stability study. The stability of analytes was evaluated in sterilized and non-sterilized urine samples at different storage conditions. For long-term stability testing, analyte concentration in urine stored at 4 degrees C and -20 degrees C was determined at different time intervals for 24 months for sterile urine samples, and for 6 months for non-sterile samples. For short-term stability testing, analyte concentration was evaluated in liquid urine stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing (at room temperature) was also studied in sterile urine for up to three cycles. No significant loss of the analytes under study was observed at any of the investigated conditions. These results show the feasibility of preparing reference materials containing ephedrine and amphetamine derivatives to be used for quality control purposes.

  19. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  1. Uranium internal exposure evaluation based on urine assay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1984-09-01

    The difficulties in assessing internal exposures to uranium from urine assay data are described. A simplified application of the ICRP-30 and ICRP Lung Model concepts to the estimation of uranium intake is presented. A discussion follows on the development of a computer code utilizing the ICRP-30-based uranium elimination model with the existing urine assay information. The calculated uranium exposures from 1949 through 1983 are discussed. 13 references, 1 table

  2. Comparison of Urine and Oral Fluid for Workplace Drug Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolin, Armand

    2016-09-01

    To determine the relative detection rates of urine versus oral fluid testing in a safety sensitive industry and the correlation with diagnosed substance use disorders and possible impairment at work. The trial involved 1,500 paired urine and oral fluid tests performed in accordance with Australian Standard/New Zealand Standard (AS/NZS) 4308:2008 and AS 4760:2006. Workers who returned a positive test were screened for substance use disorders, as defined by DSM-5, and for possible impairment at work following that particular episode of substance use. Substances were detected in 3.7% (n = 56) of urine samples and 0.5% (n = 8) of oral fluid samples (p < 0.0001). One worker (0.07%) had a substance detected on oral fluid alone versus 49 workers (3.3%) who had substances detected on urine alone. Twelve workers returned a positive result, defined as being consistent with the use of an illicit drug or a controlled substance without a clinical indication and prescription. Nine workers tested positive on urine alone, one on oral fluid alone and two on both (p = 0.0114). Of note, 6/11 workers who tested positive on urine had possible impairment at work and 2/11 had a substance use disorder versus 2/3 and 0/3, respectively, who tested positive on oral fluid. Urine drug testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 is more likely to detect overall substance use and illicit drug use than oral fluid testing conducted in accordance with AS 4760:2006. Urine testing performed in accordance with AS/NZS 4308:2008 may also be more likely to detect workers with possible impairment at work and substance use disorders than oral fluid testing performed in accordance with AS 4760:2006. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Analysis of uranium in urine of persons occupationaly exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    A technique of uranium analysis in urine of persons occupationaly exposed, using the fluorimetric method is proposed. Two procedures for the determination are presented: the first employs platinum dishes, obtaining a detection limit of 1 ppb and the second one, using aluminium dishes, shows a detection limit of 100 ppb. Uranium and urine physico-chemical characteristics are described, as well as norms for the exposition of workers to uranium. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Fluorimetric routine determination of uranium in urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widua, L.; Schieferdecker, H.; Hezel, U.

    With a modified RA 2 reflectance accessory for the Zeiss PMQII/PMQ3 spectrophotometer, uranium in urine was detected with higher sensitivity. A quick method is now available with a detection limit of <2 μg U/1 urine for the determination of possible uranium incorporations, whose sensitivity meets the requirements of radiation protection. Compared with other extraction methods, the instrument outlay and the required working time are small. The total error of the method is below 5 percent

  5. Urine Culture in Uncomplicated UTI: Interpretation and Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    Acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common clinical problem, accounting for millions of outpatient visits in the USA annually. Although routinely obtaining urine cultures in UTI is not recommended, there are circumstances in which obtaining a pre-therapy culture may be warranted or chosen by clinicians, such as when indicated by the need for careful antimicrobial stewardship. This review focuses on understanding reasons for obtaining a pre-therapy culture, methods of collection, and appropriately interpreting urine culture data.

  6. Metabolomic biomarkers in serum and urine in women with preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Austdal

    Full Text Available To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis.Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10, normal pregnancies (n = 10 and non-pregnant women (n = 10 matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared between groups.Urine and serum samples revealed clear differences between women with preeclampsia and both control groups (normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. Nine urine metabolites were significantly different between preeclampsia and the normal pregnant group. Urine samples from women with early onset preeclampsia clustered together in the multivariate analysis. The preeclampsia serum spectra showed higher levels of low and very-low density lipoproteins and lower levels of high-density lipoproteins when compared to both non-pregnant and normal pregnant women.The MR determined metabolic profiles in urine and serum from women with preeclampsia are clearly different from normal pregnant women. The observed differences represent a potential to examine mechanisms underlying different preeclampsia phenotypes in urine and serum samples in larger studies. In addition, similarities between preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease in metabolomics are demonstrated.

  7. Quantitation of products from riboflavin in rat urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastain, J.L.; McCormick, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    When [2- 14 C] riboflavin is injected i.p. into rats, the excreted vitamin in urine and feces has been shown to be the intact vitamin with trace amounts of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Recent findings with 14 C-riboflavin fed to rats indicated higher levels of riboflavin catabolites in urine, e.g., 7- and 8-carboxylumichromes. The authors have determined catabolites in urine from male rats fed 0, 2, and 6 μg riboflavin/g diet/day for six weeks. Two rats from each group were placed weekly in metabolic cages, and urine was collected for 24 hours. On the fourth week, a third animal from each group received an i.p. injection of 14 C-riboflavin and the urine was collected for 48 hours. Urine samples were extracted with phenol for flavin components and with chloroform for derivatives of lumichrome and lumiflavin. Riboflavin was the predominant flavin excreted by all diet groups with trace amounts of coenzymes and 7- and 8-hydroxymethylriboflavin. Riboflavin accounted for 85% of all the radioactivity recovered from the deficient and sufficient rats and 90% in rats fed excess. Lumichrome-type compounds including carboxylumichromes accounted for only a few % of recovered radioactivity. Thus, these components are primarily a product of intestinal microfloral degradation rather than significant tissue catabolites of riboflavin

  8. Comparison of urine analysis using manual and sedimentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, R; Leich, M

    2012-06-01

    Microscopic examination of urine sediment is an essential part in the evaluation of renal and urinary tract diseases. Traditionally, urine sediments are assessed by microscopic examination of centrifuged urine. However the current method used by the Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation Medical Laboratory involves uncentrifuged urine. To encourage high level of care, the results provided to the physician must be accurate and reliable for proper diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether the centrifuge method is more clinically significant than the uncentrifuged method. In this study, a comparison between the results obtained from centrifuged and uncentrifuged methods were performed. A total of 167 urine samples were randomly collected and analysed during the period April-May 2010 at the Medical Laboratory, Georgetown Public Hospital Corporation. The urine samples were first analysed microscopically by the uncentrifuged, and then by the centrifuged method. The results obtained from both methods were recorded in a log book. These results were then entered into a database created in Microsoft Excel, and analysed for differences and similarities using this application. Analysis was further done in SPSS software to compare the results using Pearson ' correlation. When compared using Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis, both methods showed a good correlation between urinary sediments with the exception of white bloods cells. The centrifuged method had a slightly higher identification rate for all of the parameters. There is substantial agreement between the centrifuged and uncentrifuged methods. However the uncentrifuged method provides for a rapid turnaround time.

  9. Halogenated Anesthetics Determination in Urine by SPME/GC/MS and Urine Levels Relationship Evaluation with Surgical Theatres Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Indelicato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new sensitive analytical method has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the most commonly used gaseous anesthetics, desflurane, sevoflurane, and this latter’s hepatic metabolite hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP in the urine. In addition, an evaluation of anesthetics exposition on the urine levels of a small population of surgical operators has been performed and results are briefly discussed.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women attending Boo-Ali Hospital Tehran Iran: Urine analysis vs. urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etminan-Bakhsh, Mina; Tadi, Sima; Darabi, Roksana

    2017-11-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the common problems in pregnancy. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with pyelonephritis, preterm labor and low birth weight infants. The physiological and anatomical changes in pregnancy facilitate urinary tract infection (UTI) during pregnancy. Several tests are available for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The urine culture is a gold standard diagnostic test for asymptomatic bacteriuria but it is expensive and time-consuming. Screening methods may be useful in detecting high-risk pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The aim of the present study was to compare urine analysis as a rapid screening test to urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. A total of 123 pregnant women attending the obstetrics clinic of Boo-Ali hospital in Tehran, Iran from March 2013 to September 2014 were included in the present diagnostic cross-sectional study. One hundred twenty three mid-stream urine samples were inoculated into cultures and were processed by dipstick (nitrite test and leucocyte esterase test) and microscopic pus cell count. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of nitrite test, leucocyte esterase test and microscopic pus cell count were compared with urine culture in diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria by using SPSS version 19. Of 123 urine samples, significant asymptomatic bacteriuria (≥10 4 cfu/Ml) was detected in 8 (6.5%) subjects. The sensitivity and specificity of nitrite test were 37% and 100% respectively. The sensitivity of pus cell count alone and leucocyte esterase test alone were 100% but the specificity of them were 64% and 65% respectively. We found high negative predictive value by Pus cell count and the leucocyte esterase test (100%) and low positive predictive value by them (16% and 17% respectively). Urine culture is the most useful test for diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None of our screening tests had a sensitivity and

  11. Light microscopy - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the book (six chapters is devoted to some selected applications of bright-field microscopy while the second part (eight chapters to some fluorescence microscopy studies. Both animal and plant biology investigations are presented covering multiple fields like immunology, cell signaling, cancer biology and, surprisingly to me, ecology. This chapter is titled: Light microscopy in aquatic ecology: Methods for plankton communities studies and it is due to Maria Carolina S. Soares and colleagues from the Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Dept. of Biology, Federal University of Juiz de Fora (Brazil. Here they present methods to quantify the different component of planktonic communities in a step-by-step manner so that virus, bacteria, algae and animals pertaining to different taxa can be recognized and the contribution they made to the plankton composition evaluated. It descends that even how the plankton composition is changing due to environmental variations can be accurately determined....

  12. Multiphoton Microscopy for Ophthalmic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Gibson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We review multiphoton microscopy (MPM including two-photon autofluorescence (2PAF, second harmonic generation (SHG, third harmonic generation (THG, fluorescence lifetime (FLIM, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS with relevance to clinical applications in ophthalmology. The different imaging modalities are discussed highlighting the particular strength that each has for functional tissue imaging. MPM is compared with current clinical ophthalmological imaging techniques such as reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence imaging. In addition, we discuss the future prospects for MPM in disease detection and clinical monitoring of disease progression, understanding fundamental disease mechanisms, and real-time monitoring of drug delivery.

  13. Nanoscale Laser Terahertz Emission Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pernille; Kim, Hyewon; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2017-01-01

    Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight into the phys......Laser terahertz emission microscopy (LTEM) has become a powerful tool for studying ultrafast dynamics and local fields in many different types of materials. This technique, which relies on acceleration of charge carriers in a material upon femtosecond excitation, can provide insight...

  14. Illuminating Electron Microscopy of Photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    .1% of the surface of the planet with a device that converts solar energy into a useable form at 10% efficiency would give more than the present worldwide consumption of fossil energy. Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research because they provide a viable route for converting solar...... energy into chemical bonds. By means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) it is possible to gain insight in the fundamentals of their reaction mechanisms, chemical behaviour, structure and morphology before, during and after reaction using in situ investigations. In particular, the environmental TEM...... the microscope that allows electron microscopy under nonconventional TEM conditions and new kinds of in situ spectroscopy....

  15. Development of Personalized Urination Recognition Technology Using Smart Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jong Eun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose This study collected and analyzed activity data sensed through smart bands worn by patients in order to resolve the clinical issues posed by using voiding charts. By developing a smart band-based algorithm for recognizing urination activity in patients, this study aimed to explore the feasibility of urination monitoring systems. Methods This study aimed to develop an algorithm that recognizes urination based on a patient’s posture and changes in posture. Motion data was obtained from a smart band on the arm. An algorithm that recognizes the 3 stages of urination (forward movement, urination, backward movement was developed based on data collected from a 3-axis accelerometer and from tilt angle data. Real-time data were acquired from the smart band, and for data corresponding to a certain duration, the absolute value of the signals was calculated and then compared with the set threshold value to determine the occurrence of vibration signals. In feature extraction, the most essential information describing each pattern was identified after analyzing the characteristics of the data. The results of the feature extraction process were sorted using a classifier to detect urination. Results An experiment was carried out to assess the performance of the recognition technology proposed in this study. The final accuracy of the algorithm was calculated based on clinical guidelines for urologists. The experiment showed a high average accuracy of 90.4%, proving the robustness of the proposed algorithm. Conclusions The proposed urination recognition technology draws on acceleration data and tilt angle data collected via a smart band; these data were then analyzed using a classifier after comparative analyses with standardized feature patterns.

  16. Biophysical effects of water and synthetic urine on skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrovitz, H N; Sims, N

    2001-01-01

    Pressure ulcers often occur at sites subjected to pressure and wetness. Although skin wetness is a risk factor for pressure ulcers,the mechanisms and effects of wetness versus urine constituents on skin breakdown is unclear. The hypothesis that wetness reduces skin hardness and, thereby, increases vulnerability of underlying blood vessels to pressure-induced flow reductions was tested in this study. Pads saturated with water and with a water solution mixed with the main chemical constituents of urine (synthetic urine; s-urine) were applied to forearm skin of 10 healthy subjects for 5.5 hours. Skin hardness, blood flow change caused by 60 mm Hg of pressure, erythema, and temperature were compared among dry, water, and s-urine test sites. 10 healthy women. Research Center, Nova Southeastern University, Health Professions Division, Fort Lauderdale, FL. S-urine and water caused significant reductions in initial hardness and caused greater initial perfusion decreases during pressure load when compared with dry sites. Skin temperature and erythema were lower at wet sites when compared with dry sites. The findings of this study are consistent with the concept that sustained skin wetness increases vulnerability to pressure-induced blood flow reduction. The effect appears to be mainly dependent on wetness, but urine constituents may exacerbate the effect. In addition, wetness-related skin cooling may play a role. In the healthy subjects studied, the blood flow decrease was not sustained due to perfusion recovery under pressure. Skin wetness would likely have more sustained effects in patients with compromised recovery mechanisms. Measures to diminish skin exposure to wetness in these patients, whatever the wetness source, are an important consideration in a multifaceted strategy to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers.

  17. [Estimation of mercury in the urine of cigarette smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowska-Karpińska, Elżbieta; Zdanowicz, Magdalena; Gałażyn-Sidorczuk, Małgorzata

    Cigarette smoking is one of the most common habits of the modern world. According to a NATPOL PLU study, every third adult Pole is dependent on nicotine. Tobacco smoke contains about 5,000 components, of which over 1,000 are very toxic chemical substances (3,4-benzopyrene, heavy metals, free radicals, hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides and N-nitrosamines). Exposure to tobacco smoke is an example of a complex, with a significant number of interactions. To assess the concentration of copper in the urine of smokers. Based on the results, an attempt was made to determine whether smoking can affect the level of copper in the body. The study involved 170 healthy volunteers, 99 smokers and 71 non-smokers (control group). The age of patients in both groups were in the range of 20-60 years. The mean age for men and women was 41 years. The average length of cigarette smoking was 18 years for women and 21 years for men, and the number of cigarettes smoked 1-40 ⁄ 24. The urine concentrations of Cu were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and serum creatinine kinetic method using a set of BIOLAB. Cu concentration in urine was expressed in mg / g creatinine. Smokers were found to have reduced levels of copper in the urine, depending on sex, age and brand of cigarettes. In male smokers, copper concentration in the urine was dependent on age and time of smoking, whereas among women this relationship was not observed. Cigarette smoking significantly influences the level of copper in the urine. Both female and male smokers showed reduced levels of copper in the urine, which may indicate its increased accumulation in the body. Excessive accumulation of copper is very dangerous since it may exhibit toxic effects towards many organs and systems.

  18. Residual urine output and postoperative mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chao, Anne; Huang, Tao-Min; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Shih-I; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Hu, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between residual urine output and postoperative survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients is unknown. To explore the relationship between amount of urine before surgery and postoperative mortality and differences between postoperative nonanuria and anuria in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A total of 109 maintenance hemodialysis patients underwent major operations. Anuria was defined as urine output <30 mL in the 8 hours before the first session of postoperative dialysis. Propensity scores for postoperative anuria were developed. Postoperative residual urine output was 159.2 mL/8 h (SD, 115.1) in 33 patients; 76 patients were anuric. Preoperative residual urine output and adequate perioperative blood transfusion were positively related to postoperative urine output. Propensity-adjusted 30-day mortality was associated with postoperative anuria (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-17.96; P = .03), prior stroke (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.43-13.89; P = .01) and higher disease severity (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = .049) at the first postoperative dialysis. OR of 30-day mortality was 5.38 for nonanuria to anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .03) and 5.13 for preoperative anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 30-day mortality differed significantly among patients for nonanuria to nonanuria, anuria, and nonanuria to anuria (log rank, P = .045). Patients with preoperative nonanuria and postoperative anuria had higher mortality than did patients with no anuria before and after surgery and patients with anuria before surgery. Postoperative residual urine output is an important surrogate marker for disease severity.

  19. Optimizing Urine Processing Protocols for Protein and Metabolite Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nazema Y; DuBois, Laura G; St John-Williams, Lisa; Will, Thompson J; Grenier, Carole; Burke, Emily; Fraser, Matthew O; Amundsen, Cindy L; Murphy, Susan K

    In urine, factors such as timing of voids, and duration at room temperature (RT) may affect the quality of recovered protein and metabolite data. Additives may aid with detection, but can add more complexity in sample collection or analysis. We aimed to identify the optimal urine processing protocol for clinically-obtained urine samples that allows for the highest protein and metabolite yields with minimal degradation. Healthy women provided multiple urine samples during the same day. Women collected their first morning (1 st AM) void and another "random void". Random voids were aliquotted with: 1) no additive; 2) boric acid (BA); 3) protease inhibitor (PI); or 4) both BA + PI. Of these aliquots, some were immediately stored at 4°C, and some were left at RT for 4 hours. Proteins and individual metabolites were quantified, normalized to creatinine concentrations, and compared across processing conditions. Sample pools corresponding to each processing condition were analyzed using mass spectrometry to assess protein degradation. Ten Caucasian women between 35-65 years of age provided paired 1 st morning and random voided urine samples. Normalized protein concentrations were slightly higher in 1 st AM compared to random "spot" voids. The addition of BA did not significantly change proteins, while PI significantly improved normalized protein concentrations, regardless of whether samples were immediately cooled or left at RT for 4 hours. In pooled samples, there were minimal differences in protein degradation under the various conditions we tested. In metabolite analyses, there were significant differences in individual amino acids based on the timing of the void. For comparative translational research using urine, information about void timing should be collected and standardized. For urine samples processed in the same day, BA does not appear to be necessary while the addition of PI enhances protein yields, regardless of 4°C or RT storage temperature.

  20. Mining the human urine proteome for monitoring renal transplant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigdel, Tara K.; Gao, Yuqian; He, Jintang; Wang, Anyou; Nicora, Carrie D.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Shi, Tujin; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Salvatierra, Oscar; Camp, David G.; Sarwal, Minnie M.

    2016-06-01

    The human urinary proteome reflects systemic and inherent renal injury perturbations and can be analyzed to harness specific biomarkers for different kidney transplant injury states. 396 unique urine samples were collected contemporaneously with an allograft biopsy from 396 unique kidney transplant recipients. Centralized, blinded histology on the graft was used to classify matched urine samples into categories of acute rejection (AR), chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), BK virus nephritis (BKVN), and stable graft (STA). Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics using iTRAQ based discovery (n=108) and global label-free LC-MS analyses of individual samples (n=137) for quantitative proteome assessment were used in the discovery step. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was applied to identify and validate minimal urine protein/peptide biomarkers to accurately segregate organ injury causation and pathology on unique urine samples (n=151). A total of 958 proteins were initially quantified by iTRAQ, 87% of which were also identified among 1574 urine proteins detected in LC-MS validation. 103 urine proteins were significantly (p<0.05) perturbed in injury and enriched for humoral immunity, complement activation, and lymphocyte trafficking. A set of 131 peptides corresponding to 78 proteins were assessed by SRM for their significance in an independent sample cohort. A minimal set of 35 peptides mapping to 33 proteins, were modeled to segregate different injury groups (AUC =93% for AR, 99% for CAN, 83% for BKVN). Urinary proteome discovery and targeted validation identified urine protein fingerprints for non-invasive differentiation of kidney transplant injuries, thus opening the door for personalized immune risk assessment and therapy.

  1. Detection of dopamine in non-treated urine samples using glassy carbon electrodes modified with PAMAM dendrimer-Pt composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.G.; Armendariz, G.M.E.; Godinez, Luis A.; Torres, J.; Sepulveda-Guzman, S.; Bustos, E.

    2011-01-01

    Composites of hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers, generation 4.0 (64 peripheral OH groups) containing Pt nanoparticles were synthesized at different reaction times using a microwave reactor. The synthetic procedure resulted in dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles of Pt (DENs-Pt) of 1.53 ± 0.17 nm diameter that was calculated from transmission electron microscopy, and the Pt nanoparticles had single crystal plane in (1 1 1) orientation determinate by selective area diffraction. Each composite was electrochemically immobilized on a pre-functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode that was incorporated as a flow injection amperometric (FIA) detector, for the selective detection and quantification of dopamine (DA) in untreated urine samples. Comparison of the analytical performance of the novel electrochemical detector revealed that the DENs-Pt modified GC electrode with the composite synthesized for 30 min in the microwave reactor, showed the best response for the detection of DA in samples of non-treated urine, being the detection and quantification limits smaller (19 and 9 ppb, respectively) than those corresponding to the naked a GC electrode (846 and 423 ppb, respectively) using the FIA detector. In addition, it was found that this electroanalytical approach suffers minimal matrix effects that arise in the analysis of DA in untreated samples of urine.

  2. Detection of dopamine in non-treated urine samples using glassy carbon electrodes modified with PAMAM dendrimer-Pt composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.G. [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, Universidad de Guanajuato, Cerro de la Venada S/N Col. Pueblito de Rocha, 36040 Guanajuato, Gto (Mexico); Armendariz, G.M.E.; Godinez, Luis A.; Torres, J. [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico); Sepulveda-Guzman, S. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Universidad, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, 66451 Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Bustos, E., E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx [Laboratory of Bioelectrochemistry, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Parque Tecnologico, Queretaro, Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo 76703, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2011-09-01

    Composites of hydroxyl-terminated PAMAM dendrimers, generation 4.0 (64 peripheral OH groups) containing Pt nanoparticles were synthesized at different reaction times using a microwave reactor. The synthetic procedure resulted in dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles of Pt (DENs-Pt) of 1.53 {+-} 0.17 nm diameter that was calculated from transmission electron microscopy, and the Pt nanoparticles had single crystal plane in (1 1 1) orientation determinate by selective area diffraction. Each composite was electrochemically immobilized on a pre-functionalized glassy carbon (GC) electrode that was incorporated as a flow injection amperometric (FIA) detector, for the selective detection and quantification of dopamine (DA) in untreated urine samples. Comparison of the analytical performance of the novel electrochemical detector revealed that the DENs-Pt modified GC electrode with the composite synthesized for 30 min in the microwave reactor, showed the best response for the detection of DA in samples of non-treated urine, being the detection and quantification limits smaller (19 and 9 ppb, respectively) than those corresponding to the naked a GC electrode (846 and 423 ppb, respectively) using the FIA detector. In addition, it was found that this electroanalytical approach suffers minimal matrix effects that arise in the analysis of DA in untreated samples of urine.

  3. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  4. Illuminating Electron Microscopy of Photocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalca, Filippo

    Photocatalysts are of fundamental interest for sustainable energy research because of their wide range of applications and great potential for state of the art and future usages [1]. By means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) it is possible to give a deep insight in the structure, composi...

  5. Light Microscopy at Maximal Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Bierbaum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microscopy is the workhorse of the physical and life sciences, producing crisp images of everything from atoms to cells well beyond the capabilities of the human eye. However, the analysis of these images is frequently little more accurate than manual marking. Here, we revolutionize the analysis of microscopy images, extracting all the useful information theoretically contained in a complex microscope image. Using a generic, methodological approach, we extract the information by fitting experimental images with a detailed optical model of the microscope, a method we call parameter extraction from reconstructing images (PERI. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate this approach with a confocal image of colloidal spheres, improving measurements of particle positions and radii by 10–100 times over current methods and attaining the maximum possible accuracy. With this unprecedented accuracy, we measure nanometer-scale colloidal interactions in dense suspensions solely with light microscopy, a previously impossible feat. Our approach is generic and applicable to imaging methods from brightfield to electron microscopy, where we expect accuracies of 1 nm and 0.1 pm, respectively.

  6. Mechanics in Steels through Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tirumalasetty, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study consolidated in this thesis is to understand the mechanics in steels using microscopy. In particular, the mechanical response of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels is correlated with their microstructures. Chapter 1 introduces the current state of the art of TRIP

  7. Light Microscopy at Maximal Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Leahy, Brian D.; Alemi, Alexander A.; Cohen, Itai; Sethna, James P.

    2017-10-01

    Microscopy is the workhorse of the physical and life sciences, producing crisp images of everything from atoms to cells well beyond the capabilities of the human eye. However, the analysis of these images is frequently little more accurate than manual marking. Here, we revolutionize the analysis of microscopy images, extracting all the useful information theoretically contained in a complex microscope image. Using a generic, methodological approach, we extract the information by fitting experimental images with a detailed optical model of the microscope, a method we call parameter extraction from reconstructing images (PERI). As a proof of principle, we demonstrate this approach with a confocal image of colloidal spheres, improving measurements of particle positions and radii by 10-100 times over current methods and attaining the maximum possible accuracy. With this unprecedented accuracy, we measure nanometer-scale colloidal interactions in dense suspensions solely with light microscopy, a previously impossible feat. Our approach is generic and applicable to imaging methods from brightfield to electron microscopy, where we expect accuracies of 1 nm and 0.1 pm, respectively.

  8. Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianquan; Ma, Hongqiang; Liu, Yang

    2017-07-05

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy, a class of optical microscopy techniques at a spatial resolution below the diffraction limit, has revolutionized the way we study biology, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2014. Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), a widely used SR technique, is based on the principle of single molecule localization. STORM routinely achieves a spatial resolution of 20 to 30 nm, a ten-fold improvement compared to conventional optical microscopy. Among all SR techniques, STORM offers a high spatial resolution with simple optical instrumentation and standard organic fluorescent dyes, but it is also prone to image artifacts and degraded image resolution due to improper sample preparation or imaging conditions. It requires careful optimization of all three aspects-sample preparation, image acquisition, and image reconstruction-to ensure a high-quality STORM image, which will be extensively discussed in this unit. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Transmission electron microscopy of bone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, Vincent; Niehof, Anneke; Tigchelaar-Gutter, Wikky; Beertsen, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes procedures to process mineralized tissues obtained from different sources for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Methods for fixation, resin embedding, staining of semi-thin sections and ultrathin sections are presented. In addition, attention will be paid to processing

  10. Comparison of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron concentrations of elements in 24-h urine and spot urine in hypertensive patients with healthy renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianjing; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Wanlu; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Faxuan; Huang, Liping; Liao, Sha; Liu, Xiuying; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron are associated with the sequela of hypertension. The most reliable method for testing those elements is by collecting 24-h urine samples. However, this is cumbersome and collection of spot urine is more convenient in some circumstance. The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of different elements in 24-h urine and spot urine. Data was collected from a sub-study of China Salt Substitute and Stroke Study. 240 participants were recruited randomly from 12 villages in two counties in Ningxia, China. Both spot and 24-h urine specimens were collected from each patient. Routine urine test was conducted, and concentration of elements was measured using microwave digestion and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Partial correlation analysis and Spearman correlation analysis were used to investigate the concentration of different elements and the relationship between 24- h urine and spot urine. A partial correlation in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron was found between paired 24-h urine and spot urine samples except copper and zinc: 0.430, 0.426, 0.550, 0.221 and 0.191 respectively. Spot urine can replace 24-h urine for estimating some of the elements in hypertensive patients with normal renal function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection and quantification of rituximab in the human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Roland; Langer-Jacobus, Thais; Duong, Michelle; Stahl, Klaus; Haller, Hermann; Schmidt, Reinhold E; Schiffer, Mario

    2017-12-01

    B cell depletion by rituximab treatment might be inefficient in patients suffering from nephrotic syndrome. Due to the impaired glomerular filtration barrier a significant portion of the therapeutic antibody might be lost into the urinary space. In order to determine the amount of rituximab in the urine of such patients, CD20+ Daudi cells were stained with the patients' urine followed by a fluorochrome-labeled secondary antibody. Mean fluorescence intensity of that way labeled Daudi cells was determined by flow cytometry. Control samples with defined rituximab concentrations were used to create standard curves. The analyses revealed that all nephelometric IgG+ urine samples tested also manifested rituximab at concentrations between 100 and 46,707μg/L. The flow cytometry-based approach is an easy and reliable method to assess rituximab in patients' urine samples for monitoring individual rituximab treatment courses in all patients co-presenting impaired renal filtration. Presence of such antibodies in the urine could be considered as criteria to modify the formulation or modality of rituximab delivery in order to prevent the loss of the therapeutic antibodies and thereby ensuring efficacy of the therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reverse osmosis brine for phosphorus recovery from source separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiujun; Wang, Guotian; Guan, Detian; Li, Jiuyi; Wang, Aimin; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhe; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Zhongguo

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) recovery from waste streams has recently been recognized as a key step in the sustainable supply of this indispensable and non-renewable resource. The feasibility of using brine from a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane unit treating cooling water as a precipitant for P recovery from source separated urine was evaluated in the present study. P removal efficiency, process parameters and precipitate properties were investigated in batch and continuous flow experiments. More than 90% of P removal was obtained from both undiluted fresh and hydrolyzed urines by mixing with RO brine (1:1, v/v) at a pH over 9.0. Around 2.58 and 1.24 Kg of precipitates could be recovered from 1 m 3 hydrolyzed and fresh urine, respectively, and the precipitated solids contain 8.1-19.0% of P, 10.3-15.2% of Ca, 3.7-5.0% of Mg and 0.1-3.5% of ammonium nitrogen. Satisfactory P removal performance was also achieved in a continuous flow precipitation reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 3-6 h. RO brine could be considered as urinal and toilet flush water despite of a marginally higher precipitation tendency than tap water. This study provides a widely available, low - cost and efficient precipitant for P recovery in urban areas, which will make P recovery from urine more economically attractive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Recovery of Water and Nitrogen from Urine in BLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Beizhen; Liu, Hong; Deng, Shengda

    The recycle and reuse of the wastewater is one of the main factors for realizing a higher closure degree of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS), and the treatment and recovery of the crew’s urine are the most difficult and critical issues. Urine contains a lot of water and high concentrations of urea and salts. Water can be used for the irrigation of the plants in BLSS, and the nitrogen is also the necessary nutrient for plant growth. Therefore, if the nitrogen could be recycled simultaneously while desalting the urine, the substance circulation and the closure of BLSS could be improved significantly. In this study, two-step method was conducted to treat the urine and recycle the water and nitrogen. The urea was hydrolyzed firstly, and then the water vapor and ammonia gas were cooled and collected by using reduced pressure distillation in alkaline condition. High temperature acidification and urease processing methods were studied during the urea hydrolysis step. The treatment conditions of both methods were optimized and the degrees of hydrolysis were compared. This investigation may provide a reference for the establishment of the urine recycle in BLSS.

  14. Amphetamine Positive Urine Toxicology Screen Secondary to Atomoxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua L. Fenderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to report the first case of atomoxetine leading to false-positive urine drug screen. An otherwise healthy 27-year-old female with a history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with atomoxetine had an acute onset tonic-clonic seizure. On arrival to the hospital, a urine toxicological drug screen with immunochemical cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA was performed. Results were positive for amphetamines; however, the presence of these substances could not be confirmed with urine gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. She denied any illicit drug use, herbal medications, or supplements, and her other prescription medications have not been previously known to cause a false-positive result for amphetamines. While stimulant treatments for ADHD could certainly result in a positive result on urine screen for amphetamines, there have been no reports of false-positive results for amphetamines secondary to patients using atomoxetine. We implicate atomoxetine, and/or its metabolites, as a compound or compounds which may interfere with urine drug immunoassays leading to false-positive results for amphetamines CEDIA assays.

  15. Ultrasonic-based membrane aided sample preparation of urine proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; Santos, Hugo M; López-Fernández, H; Lodeiro, Carlos; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Capelo, J L

    2018-02-01

    A new ultrafast ultrasonic-based method for shotgun proteomics as well as label-free protein quantification in urine samples is developed. The method first separates the urine proteins using nitrocellulose-based membranes and then proteins are in-membrane digested using trypsin. The enzymatic digestion process is accelerated from overnight to four minutes using a sonoreactor ultrasonic device. Overall, the sample treatment pipeline comprising protein separation, digestion and identification is done in just 3h. The process is assessed using urine of healthy volunteers. The method shows that male can be differentiated from female using the protein content of urine in a fast, easy and straightforward way. 232 and 226 proteins are identified in urine of male and female, respectively. From this, 162 are common to both genders, whilst 70 are unique to male and 64 to female. From the 162 common proteins, 13 are present at levels statistically different (p minimalism concept as outlined by Halls, as each stage of this analysis is evaluated to minimize the time, cost, sample requirement, reagent consumption, energy requirements and production of waste products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of Urine Flow in Three Different Ureter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Wuk Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ureter provides a way for urine to flow from the kidney to the bladder. Peristalsis in the ureter partially forces the urine flow, along with hydrostatic pressure. Ureteral diseases and a double J stent, which is commonly inserted in a ureteral stenosis or occlusion, disturb normal peristalsis. Ineffective or no peristalsis could make the contour of the ureter a tube, a funnel, or a combination of the two. In this study, we investigated urine flow in the abnormal situation. We made three different, curved tubular, funnel-shaped, and undulated ureter models that were based on human anatomy. A numerical analysis of the urine flow rate and pattern in the ureter was performed for a combination of the three different ureters, with and without a ureteral stenosis and with four different types of double J stents. The three ureters showed a difference in urine flow rate and pattern. Luminal flow rate was affected by ureter shape. The side holes of a double J stent played a different role in detour, which depended on ureter geometry.

  17. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  18. MICROBIOTA URINE BEFORE AND AFTER LITHOTRIPSY FOR RENAL STONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Naboka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL in spite of the low invasiveness and high efficiency is accompanied by an infectious- inflammatory complications and renal parenchymal injury . Dynamics of microbial spectrum urine and the impact of postoperative antibiotic therapy currently remains unexplored. The study included 30 patients subjected to ESWL. Bacteriological study was midstream morning urine before ESWL, 1, 3 days after ESWL, and midstream urine in the first urination after ESWL. All patients were divided into 2 groups. Group I consisted of patients (46.7% with antibiotic therapy . Group II patients (53.3 % antibiotic therapy was performed. In most cases (97.8 % were bacteriuria , while in 75% of cases highlighted in the various options bacterial associations representation aerobic- anaerobic mixed infection, among which was dominated by non-clostridial anaerobic bacteria in all samples. Revealed that after ESWL microbial spectrum urine does not change in any case within 3 days , except for Enterobacteriaceae, but the frequency of occurrence and level of bacteriuria vary for different periods after surgery and fees or absence of antibiotic therapy.

  19. High-resolution intravital microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Andresen

    Full Text Available Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy--the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and

  20. High-Resolution Intravital Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Volker; Pollok, Karolin; Rinnenthal, Jan-Leo; Oehme, Laura; Günther, Robert; Spiecker, Heinrich; Radbruch, Helena; Gerhard, Jenny; Sporbert, Anje; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Hauser, Anja E.; Niesner, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    Cellular communication constitutes a fundamental mechanism of life, for instance by permitting transfer of information through synapses in the nervous system and by leading to activation of cells during the course of immune responses. Monitoring cell-cell interactions within living adult organisms is crucial in order to draw conclusions on their behavior with respect to the fate of cells, tissues and organs. Until now, there is no technology available that enables dynamic imaging deep within the tissue of living adult organisms at sub-cellular resolution, i.e. detection at the level of few protein molecules. Here we present a novel approach called multi-beam striped-illumination which applies for the first time the principle and advantages of structured-illumination, spatial modulation of the excitation pattern, to laser-scanning-microscopy. We use this approach in two-photon-microscopy - the most adequate optical deep-tissue imaging-technique. As compared to standard two-photon-microscopy, it achieves significant contrast enhancement and up to 3-fold improved axial resolution (optical sectioning) while photobleaching, photodamage and acquisition speed are similar. Its imaging depth is comparable to multifocal two-photon-microscopy and only slightly less than in standard single-beam two-photon-microscopy. Precisely, our studies within mouse lymph nodes demonstrated 216% improved axial and 23% improved lateral resolutions at a depth of 80 µm below the surface. Thus, we are for the first time able to visualize the dynamic interactions between B cells and immune complex deposits on follicular dendritic cells within germinal centers (GCs) of live mice. These interactions play a decisive role in the process of clonal selection, leading to affinity maturation of the humoral immune response. This novel high-resolution intravital microscopy method has a huge potential for numerous applications in neurosciences, immunology, cancer research and developmental biology

  1. Monitoring and comparison of tritium content in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Feng; Hua Wei; Zheng Chuancheng; Wang Xu; Wen Wanxin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ensure the health of staff engaged in tritium, the purpose of experiment is to find out a fast, convenient and reliable sample preparation and measurement methods for such routine monitoring. Methods: We use the conventional distillation decolorization and non-decoloration quenching correction methods dealing with urine sample, and then carried out the urine sample liquid scintillation measurements, statistical analysis between the two measurements. Results: By using above two different methods of sample pretreatment, the results that we measure tritium in urine sample are not obviously different in comparison. Conclusion: The above two different methods can be used for nuclear facilities staff and staff related to conventional tritium detection. However, non-decoloration quenching correction method is simpler and less in time and manpower than the conventional distillation method in operation. It is suitable for a large number of samples prepared, measured, and analyzed in a short period of time. (authors)

  2. Urine Proteomics in the Era of Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Beasley-Green

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available With the technological advances of mass spectrometry (MS-based platforms, clinical proteomics is one of the most rapidly growing areas in biomedical research. Urine proteomics has become a popular subdiscipline of clinical proteomics because it is an ideal source for the discovery of noninvasive disease biomarkers. The urine proteome offers a comprehensive view of the local and systemic physiology since the proteome is primarily composed of proteins/peptides from the kidneys and plasma. The emergence of MS-based proteomic platforms as prominent bioanalytical tools in clinical applications has enhanced the identification of protein-based urinary biomarkers. This review highlights the characteristics of urine that make it an attractive biofluid for biomarker discovery and the impact of MS-based technologies on the clinical assessment of urinary protein biomarkers.

  3. From darkening urine to early diagnosis of alkaptonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peker Erdal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is a rare disorder of metabolism characterized by deficiency of homogentisic acid oxidase. Characteristic features include darkening of urine, ochronosis, and arthropathy. Darkening of urine is the only sign of the disorder in the pediatric age group, and it occurs at very early stage of the disorder, as reported by the parents. A 4-year-old boy presented to our clinic with the complaint of dark urine and bluish black staining of clothes. This darkening pointed to a positive physical history of bluish discoloration of sclerae which occurred off and on. We initiated treatment with ascorbic acid and a protein diet with restriction of phenylalanine and tyrosine (1.6 g/kg/d. This case report is significant because of the early diagnosis made.

  4. Direct detection of glucuronide metabolites of lidocaine in sheep urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Gregory S; Smith, Alistair K; Rothwell, Jim T; Edwards, Scott H

    2018-02-15

    The anaesthetic lidocaine is metabolised quickly to produce a series of metabolites, including several hydroxylated metabolites, which are further metabolised by addition of a glucuronic acid moiety. Analysis of these glucuronide metabolites in urine is performed indirectly by cleaving the glucuronic acid group using β-glucuronidase. However, direct analysis of intact glucuronide conjugates is a more straightforward approach as it negates the need for long hydrolysis incubations, and minimises the oxidation of sensitive hydrolysis products, while also distinguishing between the two forms of hydroxylated metabolites. A method was developed to identify three intact glucuronides of lidocaine in sheep urine using LC-MS/MS, which was further confirmed by the synthesis of glucuronide derivatives of 3OH-MEGX and 4OH-LIDO. Direct analysis of urine allowed the detection of the glucuronide metabolites of hydroxylidocaine (OH-LIDO), hydroxyl-monoethylglycinexylidide (OH-MEGX), and hydroxy-2,6-xylidine (OH-XYL). Analysis of urine before and after β-glucuronidase digestion showed that the efficiency of hydrolysis of these glucuronide metabolites may be underestimated in some studies. Analysis of urine in the current study from three different sheep with similar glucuronide metabolite concentrations resulted in different hydrolysis efficiencies, which may have been a result of different levels of substrate binding by matrix components, preventing enzyme cleavage. The use of direct analysis of intact glucuronides has the benefit of being less influenced by these matrix effects, while also allowing analysis of unstable metabolites like 4OH-XYL, which rapidly oxidises after hydrolysis. Additionally, direct analysis is less expensive and less time consuming, while providing more information about the status of hydroxylated metabolites in urine. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lateral spread affects nitrogen leaching from urine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichota, Rogerio; Vogeler, Iris; Snow, Val; Shepherd, Mark; McAuliffe, Russell; Welten, Brendon

    2018-09-01

    Nitrate leaching from urine deposited by grazing animals is a critical constraint for sustainable dairy farming in New Zealand. While considerable progress has been made to understand the fate of nitrogen (N) under urine patches, little consideration has been given to the spread of urinary N beyond the wetted area. In this study, we modelled the lateral spread of nitrogen from the wetted area of a urine patch to the soil outside the patch using a combination of two process-based models (HYDRUS and APSIM). The simulations provided insights on the extent and temporal pattern for the redistribution of N in the soil following a urine deposition and enabled investigating the effect of lateral spread of urinary N on plant growth and N leaching. The APSIM simulation, using an implementation of a dispersion-diffusion function, was tested against experimental data from a field experiment conducted in spring on a well-drained soil. Depending on the geometry considered for the dispersion-diffusion function (plate or cylindrical) the area-averaged N leaching decreased by 8 and 37% compared with simulations without lateral N spread; this was due to additional N uptake from pasture on the edge area. A sensitivity analysis showed that area-averaged pasture growth was not greatly affected by the value of the dispersion factor used in the model, whereas N leaching was very sensitive. Thus, the need to account for the edge effect may depend on the objective of the simulations. The modelling results also showed that considering lateral spread of urinary N was sufficient to describe the experimental data, but plant root uptake across urine patch zones may still be relevant in other conditions. Although further work is needed for improving accuracy, the simulated and experimental results demonstrate that accounting for the edge effect is important for determining N leaching from urine-affected areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Immunoreactive LH in long-term frozen human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet Kaur Surindar; Jimenez, Mark; Newman, Ron; Handelsman, David J

    2014-04-01

    Urine provides a convenient non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for measurement of certain hormones. Urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) measurements have been used for endocrinology research and anti-doping testing. However, the commercially available LH immunoassays are developed and validated for human blood samples but not urine so that LH assays intended for use with urine samples need thorough validation. Therefore, the present study evaluated the measurement of urinary LH immunoreactivity using previously validated immunofluorometric (IF) and immunochemiluminometric (ICL) LH assays after prolonged frozen storage. LH was measured in serial urine samples following administration of a single injection of one of two doses of recombinant human chorionic hormone (rhCG) with assays run at the end of study (2008) and again after four years of frozen (-20 °C) storage where samples were stored without adding preservatives. The ICL assay showed quantitatively reproducible LH measurements after prolonged -20 °C storage. However, the IF immunoassay gave consistently lower LH levels relative to ICL (2008) with a further proportionate reduction after four years of sample storage (2012). Yet, both the assays displayed similar patterns of the time-course of urine LH measurement both before and after four years of frozen storage. In conclusion, we found that both immunoassays are suitable for urinary LH measurements with ICL assay being more robust for quantitative urinary LH measurement such as for anti-doping purposes, whereas the IF could be applicable for research studies where urine LH levels are compared within-study but not in absolute terms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Do Mixed-Flora Preoperative Urine Cultures Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Michael R; Kawasaki, Amie; Amundsen, Cindy L; Weidner, Alison C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether mixed-flora preoperative urine cultures, as compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, are associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs). This was a retrospective cohort study. Women who underwent urogynecologic surgery were included if their preoperative clean-catch urine culture result was mixed flora or no growth. Women were excluded if they received postoperative antibiotics for reasons other than treatment of a UTI. Women were divided into two cohorts based on preoperative urine culture results-mixed flora or no growth; the prevalence of postoperative UTI was compared between cohorts. Baseline characteristics were compared using χ 2 or Student t tests. A logistic regression analysis then was performed. We included 282 women who were predominantly postmenopausal, white, and overweight. There were many concomitant procedures; 46% underwent a midurethral sling procedure and 68% underwent pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Preoperative urine cultures resulted as mixed flora in 192 (68%) and no growth in 90 (32%) patients. Overall, 14% were treated for a UTI postoperatively. There was no difference in the proportion of patients treated for a postoperative UTI between the two cohorts (25 mixed flora vs 13 no growth, P = 0.77). These results remained when controlling for potentially confounding variables in a logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.43-1.96). In women with mixed-flora compared with no-growth preoperative urine cultures, there were no differences in the prevalence of postoperative UTI. The clinical practice of interpreting mixed-flora cultures as negative is appropriate.

  8. Doping control container for urine stabilization: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsivou, Maria; Giannadaki, Evangelia; Hooghe, Fiona; Roels, Kris; Van Gansbeke, Wim; Garribba, Flaminia; Lyris, Emmanouil; Deventer, Koen; Mazzarino, Monica; Donati, Francesco; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Van Eenoo, Peter; Georgakopoulos, Costas G; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Urine collection containers used in the doping control collection procedure do not provide a protective environment for urine, against degradation by microorganisms and proteolytic enzymes. An in-house chemical stabilization mixture was developed to tackle urine degradation problems encountered in human sport samples, in cases of microbial contamination or proteolytic activity. The mixture consists of antimicrobial substances and protease inhibitors for the simultaneous inactivation of a wide range of proteolytic enzymes. It has already been tested in lab-scale, as part of World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) funded research project, in terms of efficiency against microbial and proteolytic activity. The present work, funded also by WADA, is a follow-up study on the improvement of chemical stabilization mixture composition, application mode and limitation of interferences, using pilot urine collection containers, spray-coated in their internal surface with the chemical stabilization mixture. Urine in plastic stabilized collection containers have been gone through various incubation cycles to test for stabilization efficiency and analytical matrix interferences by three WADA accredited Laboratories (Athens, Ghent, and Rome). The spray-coated chemical stabilization mixture was tested against microorganism elimination and steroid glucuronide degradation, as well as enzymatic breakdown of proteins, such as intact hCG, recombinant erythropoietin and small peptides (GHRPs, ipamorelin), induced by proteolytic enzymes. Potential analytical interferences, observed in the presence of spray-coated chemical stabilization mixture, were recorded using routine screening procedures. The results of the current study support the application of the spray-coated plastic urine container, in the doping control collection procedure. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Does apricot seeds consumption cause changes in human urine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Tušimová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural substances, such as amygdalin, used in alternative medicine gained high popularity. Common people as well as patients with different diseases have almost unlimited access to various natural supplements. To protect human health, it is very important to study effect of these substances. Amygdalin is a cyanogenic glucoside derived from seeds of rosaceous plants, for example seeds of bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis, or apricot, cherry, apple, peach, plum, etc. It is a natural product that owns antitumor activity, it has also been used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, leprosy and diabetes and produces a kind of antitussive and antiasthmatic effects. The present in vivo study was designed to reveal whether amygdalin in apricot seeds has got an effect on human urine composition, pH value and urine associated health status after six weeks of oral administration. The study group finally consisted of 34 healthy adult volunteers (21 females and 13 males. All participants were asked to consume 60 mg.kg-1 body weight of bitter apricot seeds daily (approximately 3.0 mg.kg-1 of amygdalin during 6 weeks. During the experiment, three urine collections were carried out (first collection - at the beginning of the experiment; second collection - after 21 days; third collection - after 42 days. Quantification of urine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, phosphorus (P, sodium (Na, potassium (K, chlorides (Cl-, urea and pH value after apricot seeds supplementation was performed. Statistical analysis of variance showed, that consumption of bitter apricot seeds during 42 days had a significant (p <0.01 effect on amount of calcium excreted in urine, though this decrease shifted its level from elevated mean value in control collection into normal physiological range. Significant changes were observed in urea (p <0.05 and phosphorus (p <0.01 levels in urine after apricot seed ingestion, but gender was also considered to be a source of their variation.

  10. Contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.

    1985-10-01

    Soft x-ray contact microscopy with synchrotron radiation offers the biologist and especially the microscopist, a way to morphologically study specimens that could not be imaged by conventional TEM, STEM or SEM methods (i.e. hydrated samples, samples easily damaged by an electron beam, electron dense samples, thick specimens, unstained low contrast specimens) at spatial resolutions approaching those of the TEM, with the additional possibility to obtain compositional (elemental) information about the sample as well. Although flash x-ray sources offer faster exposure times, synchrotron radiation provides a highly collimated, intense radiation that can be tuned to select specific discrete ranges of x-ray wavelengths or specific individual wavelengths which optimize imaging or microanalysis of a specific sample. This paper presents an overview of the applications of x-ray contact microscopy to biological research and some current research results using monochromatic synchrotron radiation to image biological samples. 24 refs., 10 figs

  11. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  12. Selective sensitivity in Kerr microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, I V; Schäfer, R

    2017-07-01

    A new technique for contrast separation in wide-field magneto-optical Kerr microscopy is introduced. Utilizing the light from eight light emitting diodes, guided to the microscope by glass fibers and being switched synchronously with the camera exposure, domain images with orthogonal in-plane sensitivity can be displayed simultaneously at real-time, and images with pure in-plane or polar contrast can be obtained. The benefit of this new method of contrast separation is demonstrated for Permalloy films, a NdFeB sinter magnet, and a cobalt crystal. Moreover, the new technique is shown to strongly enhance the sensitivity of Kerr microscopy by eliminating parasitic contrast contributions occurring in conventional setups. A doubling of the in-plane domain contrast and a sensitivity to Kerr rotations as low as 0.6 mdeg is demonstrated.

  13. Selective sensitivity in Kerr microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, I. V.; Schäfer, R.

    2017-07-01

    A new technique for contrast separation in wide-field magneto-optical Kerr microscopy is introduced. Utilizing the light from eight light emitting diodes, guided to the microscope by glass fibers and being switched synchronously with the camera exposure, domain images with orthogonal in-plane sensitivity can be displayed simultaneously at real-time, and images with pure in-plane or polar contrast can be obtained. The benefit of this new method of contrast separation is demonstrated for Permalloy films, a NdFeB sinter magnet, and a cobalt crystal. Moreover, the new technique is shown to strongly enhance the sensitivity of Kerr microscopy by eliminating parasitic contrast contributions occurring in conventional setups. A doubling of the in-plane domain contrast and a sensitivity to Kerr rotations as low as 0.6 mdeg is demonstrated.

  14. Limits to magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Paul; Mansfield, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The last quarter of the twentieth century saw the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grow from a laboratory demonstration to a multi-billion dollar worldwide industry. There is a clinical body scanner in almost every hospital of the developed nations. The field of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), after mostly being abandoned by researchers in the first decade of MRI, has become an established branch of the science. This paper reviews the development of MRM over the last decade with an emphasis on the current state of the art. The fundamental principles of imaging and signal detection are examined to determine the physical principles which limit the available resolution. The limits are discussed with reference to liquid, solid and gas phase microscopy. In each area, the novel approaches employed by researchers to push back the limits of resolution are discussed. Although the limits to resolution are well known, the developments and applications of MRM have not reached their limit. (author)

  15. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  16. Computers in field ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorov, A.L.; Razinkova, T.L.; Sokolov, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of computer applications in field ion microscopy (FIM). The following topics are discussed in detail: (1) modeling field ion images in perfect crystals, (2) a general scheme of modeling, (3) modeling of the process of field evaporation, (4) crystal structure defects, (5) alloys, and (6) automation of FIM experiments and computer-assisted processing of real images. 146 references are given

  17. CNNs for electron microscopy segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    García-Amorena García, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of Biomedicine, mitochondria are known to play an important role in neural function. Recent studies show mitochondrial morphology to be crucial to cellular physiology and synaptic function, and a link between mitochondrial defects and neuro-degenerative diseases is strongly suspected. Electron microscopy (EM), with its very high resolution in all three directions, is one of the key tools to look more closely into these tissues, but the huge amounts of data it produces m...

  18. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  19. X-ray fluorescent analysis of iodin traces in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, I.F.; Baturin, A.A.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Borisova, S.S.; Reshetnyak, M.V.; Shlyakhova, N.V.; Budrejko, E.A.; Galata, D.I.

    2015-01-01

    Using XFA method, determination of iodine concentration in urine for 35 children of 10-15 with endocrine pathology (delay of sexual development, diffuse goiter, obesity) and 10 practically healthy children being observed under conditions of the consultative polyclinic and the department of endocrinology of SI ''ISHCJ NAMSU''. The proposed optimized XFA method allows by 1-2 orders increasing detection sensitivity for micro-elements measurements in biology objects and attaining the iodine trace contents in urine in the range from 50 to 200 gg/dm 3

  20. Development of rapid urine analysis method for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, J.; Noguchi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    ICP-MS has begun to spread in the field of individual monitoring for internal exposure as a very effective machine for uranium analysis. Although the ICP-MS has very high sensitivity, it requires longer time than conventional analysis, such as fluorescence analysis, because it is necessary to remove matrix from a urine sample sufficiently. To shorten time required for the urine bioassay by ICP-MS, a rapid uranium analysis method using the ICP-MS connected with a flow injection system was developed. Since this method does not involve chemical separation steps, the time required is equivalent to the conventional analysis. A measurement test was carried out using 10 urine solutions prepared from a urine sample. Required volume of urine solution is 5 ml. Main chemical treatment is only the digestion with 5 ml of nitric acid using a microwave oven to decompose organic matter and to dissolve suspended or precipitated matter. The microwave oven can digest 10 samples at once within an hour. Volume of digested sample solution was adjusted to 10 ml. The prepared sample solutions were directly introduced to the ICP-MS without any chemical separation procedure. The ICP-MS was connected with a flow injection system and an auto sampler. The flow injection system can minimize the matrix effects caused from salt dissolved in high matrix solution, such as non chemical separated urine sample, because it can introduce micro volume of sample solution into the ICP-MS. The ICP-MS detected uranium within 2 min/sample using the auto sampler. The 10 solutions prepared from a urine sample showed an average of 7.5 ng/l of uranium concentration in urine with 10 % standard deviation. A detection limit is about 1 ng/l. The total time required was less than 4 hours for 10 sample analysis. In the series of measurement, any memory effect was not observed. The present analysis method using the ICP-MS equipped with the flow injection system demonstrated that the shortening of time required on high

  1. History of PUQFUA: plutonium body burden (Q) from urine assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.N.P.

    1978-10-01

    PUQFUA is a FORTRAN computer program that calculates plutonium body burdens (Q) from urine assay data. This report describes the historical development of the program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since 1959. After a review of the basic techniques used in the original PUQFUA, its deficiencies are listed. The procedures used to improve the program and correct the deficiencies are described. Appendixes provide a detailed discussion of the evaluation made of the analytical errors in the plutonium urine assay program at LASL from 1944 to 1978

  2. The optimization of the analysis of chlorine-36 in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, S.; Kramer, G.H.

    1982-02-01

    A method has been developed and optimized for the analysis of chlorine-36 in urine. Problems such as sample size, photodecomposition of silver chloride and anion interferences have been solved and are discussed in detail. The analysis is performed by first removing interfering phosphates and sulphates from an untreated urine sample and isolating the chlorine-36 as silver chloride. The precipitate is counted in a planchet counter. Recoveries are estimated to be 90 +- 5% with a detection limit of 3 pCi (0.1 Bq) for a routine sample (counting time 10 minutes, counting efficiency 10%, sample size 100 mL)

  3. Study of nominal daily output of urine from workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marina F.; Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Todo, Alberto S.

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study of the 24-hour urine volumes from workers selected for the internal individual monitoring compares the average volume collected by sample and the average volume per individual with the nominal daily output of urine from 'Reference Man'. This work considers 134 registers of urine samples from 18 male workers, with semester routine sampling, between the years of 2000 and 2005. For this group, the average volume per collection was (971±371)mL and (962±376)mL per individual. In a cohort group of 9 male workers, which supplied at least 10 samples in this period, it was observed that the average volume per collection decreased to (955±308)mL and the average volume per individual increased to (1027±400)mL. For the female group, composed by 11 individuals, the 29 urine samples supplied between 1999 and 2005 were considered. The average volume per sampling and for worker was, respectively, (1122±337)mL and (1105±337)mL. Another cohort group of only 4 female workers with at least one annual collection during five years, of the seven years considered, the values decreased to (1112±336)mL per collection and the average volume per individual was maintained. The major variability of the volume among all the individuals was 927%, and for the same individual was 562%. This difference can be indicative of the individual differences of retention and excretion, alimentary diet interferences and for lack of awareness by the individual to collect urine during a period of 24-hour. The radionuclides clearance does not occur in constant rates and for the purpose of assessing intakes, in our routine analysis, the total volume of urine from worker is corrected for 1,4 L. Based in the results obtained over the years, and to minimize the errors of the nominal daily excretion rate in urine, actions about the aware of the individual in carrying out an accurately sampling and/or the implementation of the measurements of creatinine levels in urine are suggested

  4. Estimation of 239Pu in urine, influence of Sulkowich reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaiselvan, S.; Prasad, M.V.R.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Plutonium is known to be co-precipitated with Sulkowich reagent as calcium ammonium oxalate. In adopting this technique for bio-assay of plutonium, its accuracy depends on the self-absorption of the resulting precipitate in each urine sample. Pu recovery experiments were carried out with varying concentration of Ca and Mg, using different volumes of Sulkowich reagent. When the sample volume is 500 ml, Pu in urine can be estimated with an accuracy and precision of 74.38%+-7.4%, with a detection limit of 0.06 Bq (1.6 pCi) per dm 3 . (author) 3 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  5. Infecções do trato urinário

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Susana; Cambão, Marta; Vieira, Sandra; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2005-01-01

    O sistema urinário é uma das quatro vias de excreção existentes no corpo humano. A sua exposição a factores exteriores e/ou interiores torna-o sensível a diversas infecções, pelo que, actualmente, em termos de quadro clínico. as patologias relacionadas com as infecções do tracto urinário (ITU), nomeadamente, a uretrite, cistite, síndroma uretral agudo e pielonefrite, são bastantes comuns.

  6. Serum and Urine Copper – Contamination and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova Ivanova I.; Atanasova B.; Dragneva S.; Vladimirova L.; Krastev Z.; Kostadinova A.; Ivanova A.; Tzatchev K.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-analytical factors of variation need to be carefully considered and investigated in efforts to harmonize all aspects of the total testing process. This study aimed to evaluate contamination and stability in copper (Cu) analysis of serum and urine by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) and to compare the stability of urine Cu in controls and in D-penicillamine (D-PA) administration. Cu was measured by AAnalyst 400, Perkin Elmer, USA. Blood was collected in BD Vacutainer®SSTTM II Ad...

  7. Development of rapid urine analysis method for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, J.; Noguchi, H.

    2000-01-01

    ICP-MS has begun to spread in the field of individual monitoring for internal exposure as a very effective machine for uranium analysis. Although the ICP-MS has very high sensitivity, it requires longer time than conventional analysis, such as fluorescence analysis, because it is necessary to remove matrix from a urine sample sufficiently. To shorten time required for the urine bioassay by ICP-MS, a rapid uranium analysis method using the ICP-MS connected with a flow injection system was developed. Since this method does not involve chemical separation steps, the time required is equivalent to the conventional analysis. A measurement test was carried out using 10 urine solutions prepared from a urine sample. Required volume of urine solution is 5 ml. Main chemical treatment is only the digestion with 5 ml of nitric acid using a microwave oven to decompose organic matter and to dissolve suspended or precipitated matter. The microwave oven can digest 10 samples at once within an hour. Volume of digested sample solution was adjusted to 10 ml. The prepared sample solutions were directly introduced to the ICP-MS without any chemical separation procedure. The ICP-MS was connected with a flow injection system and an auto sampler. The flow injection system can minimize the matrix effects caused from salt dissolved in high matrix solution, such as non chemical separated urine sample, because it can introduce micro volume of sample solution into the ICP-MS. The ICP-MS detected uranium within 2 min/sample using the auto sampler. The 10 solutions prepared from a urine sample showed an average of 7.5 ng/l of uranium concentration in urine with 10 % standard deviation. A detection limit is about 1 ng/l. The total time required was less than 4 hours for 10 sample analysis. In the series of measurement, any memory effect was not observed. The present analysis method using the ICP-MS equipped with the flow injection system demonstrated that the shortening of time required on high

  8. The optimization of the analysis of nickel-63 in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.

    1981-05-01

    A method has been developed that separates nickel-63 from urine. The subsequent estimation of activity is by liquid scintillation counting. The urine is wet ashed by a new procedure which is much faster than conventional ashing methods. Interfering phosphates are removed prior to a precipitation of Ni as the dimethylglyoxime complex. The effects of the carrier weight, the pH of the phosphate removal step and the pH of the dimethylglyoxime precipiation have been investigated and optimized to give a mean recovery of 97 +- 8% for nickel-63. The detection limit is estimated to be 1.5 pCi (55 mBq) per sample. (author)

  9. Impact of cleaning before obtaining midstream urine samples from children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Ladelund, Steen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Microbiological documentation of one uropathogenic bacterium in significant numbers in urine from patients with typical symptoms is the gold standard for diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI). Cleaning before collecting midstream urine (MSU) is reported not to reduce the risk...... of contaminating the sample and was therefore omitted at Hvidovre Hospital as from the autumn of 2006. We evaluate if no cleaning increased the risk of contamination in the Department of Paediatrics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,858 patients aged 0-15 years who were suspected of UTI delivered two MSUs within...

  10. Paleomagnetic Analysis Using SQUID Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Lima, Eduardo A.; Fong, Luis E.; Baudenbacher, Franz J.

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopes are a new generation of instruments that map magnetic fields with unprecedented spatial resolution and moment sensitivity. Unlike standard rock magnetometers, SQUID microscopes map magnetic fields rather than measuring magnetic moments such that the sample magnetization pattern must be retrieved from source model fits to the measured field data. In this paper, we presented the first direct comparison between paleomagnetic analyses on natural samples using joint measurements from SQUID microscopy and moment magnetometry. We demonstrated that in combination with apriori geologic and petrographic data, SQUID microscopy can accurately characterize the magnetization of lunar glass spherules and Hawaiian basalt. The bulk moment magnitude and direction of these samples inferred from inversions of SQUID microscopy data match direct measurements on the same samples using moment magnetometry. In addition, these inversions provide unique constraints on the magnetization distribution within the sample. These measurements are among the most sensitive and highest resolution quantitative paleomagnetic studies of natural remanent magnetization to date. We expect that this technique will be able to extend many other standard paleomagnetic techniques to previously inaccessible microscale samples.

  11. Urine Galactomannan-to-Creatinine Ratio for Detection of Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reischies, Frederike M J; Raggam, Reinhard B; Prattes, Juergen; Krause, Robert; Eigl, Susanne; List, Agnes; Quehenberger, Franz; Strenger, Volker; Wölfler, Albert; Hoenigl, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Galactomannan (GM) testing of urine specimens may provide important advantages, compared to serum testing, such as easy noninvasive sample collection. We evaluated a total of 632 serial urine samples from 71 patients with underlying hematological malignancies and found that the urine GM/creatinine ratio, i.e., (urine GM level × 100)/urine creatinine level, which takes urine dilution into account, reliably detected invasive aspergillosis and may be a promising diagnostic tool for patients with hematological malignancies. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01576653.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Comparison between the urine dipstick and the pH-meter to assess urine pH in sheep and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Labrini V; Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Katsogiannou, Eleni G; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Diamantaki, Myrto; Kamatsos, Constantinos; Christodoulopoulos, Georgios

    2018-02-06

    Urine pH is an integral part of a complete urinalysis, and is commonly measured in veterinary practice using semiquantitative reagent strips. The aim of this study was to compare the urine pH of dogs and sheep, using visual interpretation of dipstick reactions, and using a pH-meter as the reference method. Agreement between the 2 methods was also assessed. An additional objective was to compare the urine pH before and after centrifugation. A total of 50 voided urine samples from sheep and 52 from dogs were collected into sterile containers. For pH measurements, 2 methods were used, a pH-meter and urine dipstick reagent pads. Measurements were performed using urine samples before (whole urine) and after centrifugation (urine supernatant). For comparison of the 2 methods, Passing and Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used. The equation created to assess agreement between the 2 methods in dogs showed a constant bias at -0.14 and a positive proportional bias at 0.98. From a clinical standpoint, total bias was below and above the maximum acceptable bias in sheep and dogs, respectively. Clinically acceptable bias was also found using centrifuged urine samples in sheep, but the urine pH values before and after centrifugation were nearly identical in dogs. Urine dipstick reagent pads and pH-meters can be used interchangeably to determine urine pH in sheep without needing centrifugation. In contrast, pH-meters provide more accurate pH measurements than urine dipstick pads in canine urine, which is not improved by centrifugation. © 2018 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. X-ray microscopy in Aarhus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uggerhoej, Erik; Abraham-Peskir, Joanna V.

    2000-01-01

    The Aarhus imaging soft X-ray microscope is now a busy multi-user facility. The optical set-up will be described and project highlights discussed. a) Metal-induced structural changes in whole cells in solution. The effects of aluminum, copper, nickel and zinc on protozoa investigated by using a combination of light microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy and X-ray microscopy. b) Botanical studies by X-ray microscopy used to compliment electron microscopy studies. c) Sludge morphology and iron precipitation in Danish freshwater plants by combining X-ray, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy

  14. French Society of Microscopy, 10. conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault-Penisson, J.; Cremer, Ch.; Susini, J.; Kirklanda, A.I.; Rigneault, H.; Renault, O.; Bailly, A.; Zagonel, L.F.; Barrett, N.; Bogner, A.; Gauthier, C.; Jouneau, P.H.; Thollet, G.; Fuchs, G.; Basset, D.; Deconihout, B.; Vurpillot, F.; Vella, A.; Matthieu, G.; Cadel, E.; Bostel, A.; Blavette, D.; Baumeister, W.; Usson, Y.; Zaefferer, St.; Laffont, L.; Weyland, M.; Thomas, J.M.; Midgley, P.; Benlekbir, S.; Epicier, Th.; Diop, B.N.; Roux, St.; Ou, M.; Perriat, P.; Bausach, M.; Aouine, M.; Berhault, G.; Idrissi, H.; Cottevieille, M.; Jonic, S.; Larquet, E.; Svergun, D.; Vannoni, M.A.; Boisset, N.; Ersena, O.; Werckmann, J.; Ulhaq, C.; Hirlimann, Ch.; Tihay, F.; Cuong, Pham-Huu; Crucifix, C.; Schultz, P.; Jornsanoha, P.; Thollet, G.; Masenelli-Varlot, K.; Gauthier, C.; Ludwig, W.; King, A.; Johnson, G.; Gonzalves-Hoennicke, M.; Reischig, P.; Messaoudi, C.; Ibrahim, R.; Marco, S.; Klie, R.F.; Zhao, Y.; Yang, G.; Zhu, Y.; Hue, F.; Hytch, M.; Hartmann, J.M.; Bogumilowicz, Y.; Claverie, A.; Klein, H.; Alloyeau, D.; Ricolleau, C.; Langlois, C.; Le Bouar, Y.; Loiseau, A.; Colliex, C.; Stephan, O.; Kociak, M.; Tence, M.; Gloter, A.; Imhoff, D.; Walls, M.; Nelayah, J.; March, K.; Couillard, M.; Ailliot, C.; Bertin, F.; Cooper, D.; Rivallin, P.; Dumelie, N.; Benhayoune, H.; Balossier, G.; Cheynet, M.; Pokrant, S.; Tichelaar, F.; Rouviere, J.L.; Cooper, D.; Truche, R.; Chabli, A.; Debili, M.Y.; Houdellier, F.; Warot-Fonrose, B.; Hytch, M.J.; Snoeck, E.; Calmels, L.; Serin, V.; Schattschneider, P.; Jacob, D.; Cordier, P.

    2007-01-01

    This document gathers the resumes of some of the presentations made at this conference whose aim was to present the last developments and achievements of the 3 complementary microscopies: optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy. The contributions have been organized around the following 12 topics: 1) new technical developments, 2) 3-dimensional imaging, 3) quantitative microscopy, 4) technical progress in photon microscopy, 5) synchrotron radiation, 6) measurements of patterns, deformations and strains, 7) materials for energy and transports, 8) nano-structures, 9) virus: structure and infection mechanisms, 10) 3-dimensional imaging for molecules, cells and cellular tissues, 11) nano-particles and colloids, and 12) liquid crystals

  15. The optical nature of methylsuccinic acid in human urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitman, B.; Lawless, J. G.

    1975-01-01

    Methylsuccinic acid was isolated from human urine, derivatized as the di-S-(+)-2-butyl ester, and analyzed using a gas chromatographic system capable of separating the enantiomers of the derivative. The R-(+)-isomer was found to be present. Methylsuccinic acid is potentially important as a criterion for abiogenicity, having been obtained as a racemic mixture from sources known to be abiotic.

  16. Urine management after treatment with ''153 Sm-EDTMP (QUADRAMET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, A.; Diaz, J. P.; Carrasco, J. L.; Jimenez-Hoyuela, J. M.; Rebollo, A. C.; Martinez del Valle, M. D.; Ortega, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose was to establish and to evaluate a new protocol of individualized treatment of patient urine after ''153 Sm-EDTMP injection, with a more efficient management of the wastes. Excreted urine was collected in an appropriate container form which, previous to sealing it, an aliquot of 10 ml was obtained. Experimental half-life (t1/2) of the isotope was then determined by measuring the activity at different times, besides the minimum time necessary for disposing of the radioactive wastes as regular trash. The measured half-life adjusted well to the theoretical value of the isotope. The time of considered storage oscillated between 19 and 26 days, based on the activity excreted by each patient. The main idea is the consideration of the set container-urine as solid waste: the evaluation of the minimum storage time necessary to its elimination is made in terms of legal limitation of specific activity by mass unit. The immediate advantages ares: the elimination of disagreeable scents by the storage of urine, it is not necessary a liquid waste disposal to eliminate it, and a more accurate knowledge of the specific activity at the moment of the elimination (dilution factor is not used). (Author) 10 refs

  17. Radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone in human urine. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebidi, Abdelkrim.

    1977-10-01

    This work is devoted mainly to the development of a radioimmunological system of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) determination in the urine and its physiological and pathological applications. The radioimmunological method thus replaces the biological measurement of antidiuretic hormone in the urine. This new technique was not possible until specific arginine vasopressin antibodies were obtained and a labelled hormone was prepared according to the criteria set for a radioimmunoassay. The labelled hormone is lysine vasopressin (greater stability). Although 125 I-LVP has lost most of its biological activity the molecule keeps all its immunological properties, behaving in the same way as non-iodinated synthetic LVP towards anti-LVP antibodies. Once specific antivasopressin antibodies and immunologically competent labelled hormone were available, conditions were defined for the radioimmunological ADH test in the urine. This technique, relatively easy to use, allows twenty samples to be measured simultaneously. With this sensitive, specific and reproducible method, it is thus possible to estimate the urinary ADH excretion rates from a 20 ml volume of urine after previous extraction on amberlite CG 50. This extraction method is aimed at both concentrating the hormone and eliminating non-specific interferences. The hormone extraction yield is about 92%+-8 [fr

  18. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Case Report | Gandhi | Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon phenomenon reported mostly in chronically constipated, institutionalized females on an indwelling catheter. It can often cause tremendous distress among health care providers. Though the condition is generally described as benign, it should draw immediate attention to ...

  19. effect of chronic consumption of cow's urine concoction on gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The effect of chronic consumption of cow's urine concoction (CUC) and the role of tobacco leaves was studied on the gastric ... CUC-T fed group showed 80% reduction but the pyloric glands in group fed with CUC-NT were not reduced. ... The concoction was given orally through a plastic tube as reported by other authors.

  20. Measurement of purine derivatives and creatinine in urine by HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piani, B.; Fabro, C.; Susmel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Two HPLC methods to measure the purine derivatives (PD, including allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine) and creatinine content in urine are described. PD separation and quantification were achieved using two Spherisorb ODS 2 reversed phase columns connected in series (4.6 x 250 mm) and a Spherisorb ODS 2 Waters pre-column and a Perkin Elmer pump with an auto sampler. The mobile phase was NH 4 H 2 PO 4 :NH 4 H 2 PO 4 -acetonitrile (80:20), which was used at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min and the detection wavelength was at 190 nm. The average recoveries of standard compounds added to urine samples were satisfactory (92-106%) and the low detection limits (0.7-3.4 μM) permitted the precise determination of these compounds in urine. Separation and quantification of creatinine was achieved using one Spherisorb ODS 2 reversed phase column (4.6 x 250 mm) and one Spherisorb ODS 2 Waters pre-column and a Perkin Elmer pump with an auto sampler. The mobile phase was NH 4 H 2 PO 4 :NH 4 H 2 PO 4 -acetonitrile (80:20), used at a flow rate of 1.00 ml/min and the detection was at 190 nm. The mean recovery (3 measurements) of standard solution added to urine samples was 101%; detection limit was 7.9 μM. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial activity of photo-activated cow urine against certain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... cow urine has shown 32 to 36 mm inhibition zone diameter homogeneously against all bacterial strains. It proves very high antimicrobial ... For control of microbial infections and diseases, various synthetic drugs and chemical ..... Protein and amino acid metabolism in the intestinal tract of growing bulls.

  2. Terbutaline accumulates in blood and urine following daily therapeutic inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nanna; Rzeppa, Sebastian; Dyreborg, Anders

    2017-01-01

    ×d) of inhaled terbutaline. After inhalation of terbutaline at each trial, subjects performed 90 min of bike ergometer exercise at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption after which they stayed inactive. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after inhalation of terbutaline. Samples were analyzed by high...

  3. A girl with headache, confusion and green urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmidt, Andreas; Krisch, Alexandra; Peschen, I

    2009-07-01

    The case of a 17-year-old girl with a history of headache, blurred vision, confusion, ataxia and syncope is presented. On admission, she had already recovered except for a slurring of speech. Her urine was found to be green. Screening for illegal drugs was negative, but gas chromatography with subsequent mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed an extremely high concentration of flupirtine.

  4. Natural levels of 210Po in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J.; Manjon, G.

    2013-01-01

    The daily activity of 2 10Po concentrations in the urine of a volunteer for a month analyzed studies show a high variability with a difference of up to an order of magnitude between the maximum and minimum values obtained, and a clear dependence on the type of diet followed in the various phases of the experiment. (Author)

  5. Patient Specific Dosimetry based in excreted urine measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquero, R.; Nunez, C.; Ruiz, A.; Valverde, J.; Basurto, F.

    2006-07-01

    One of the limiting factors in utilising therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in the I-131 thyroid therapy is the potential hazard to the bone marrow, kidneys, and other internal organs. In this work, by means of daily dose rate measurements at a point in contact of the can with the urine excreted by the patient undergoing radio-iodine therapy, activities and associated absorbed doses in total body are calculated. The urine can is characterised by a geometric and materials model for MC simulation with MCNP. Knowing the conversion factor from activity in urine to dose rate in the measurement point of the can for each filling volume, the urine and patient activity can be obtained at each measurement time. From the fitting of these activities, the time evolution, the effective half life in the patient and the cumulative whole body activity are calculated. The emission characteristics of I-131 are using after to estimate the maximum whole body absorbed dose. The results for 2 hyperthyroidism and 4 carcinoma treatments are presented. The maximum total body absorbed dose are 673 and 149 Gy for the carcinoma and hyperthyroidism. The corresponding range of T1/2 eff is o.2 to 2.5 days (carcinoma) and 5.4 to 6.6 days (hyperthyroidism). (Author)

  6. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... could interfere with test results. Be sure to review all your child's medications with your doctor. The Procedure Your child will be asked to urinate (pee) into a clean sample cup in the doctor's office or at home. Collecting the specimen should only take a few minutes. If your child isn' ...

  7. Fetal urine biochemistry in antenatal Bartter syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Myriam L; Dreux, Sophie; Czerkiewicz, Isabelle; Deschênes, Georges; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa; Mahieu-Caputo, Dominique; Oury, Jean-François; Muller, Françoise

    2016-09-01

    Bartter syndrome is a severe inherited tubulopathy responsible for renal salt wasting, and hence electrolyte disorders and dehydration. Prenatally, it is characterized by severe polyhydramnios caused by fetal polyuria. We studied for the first time fetal urine in a Bartter syndrome case and demonstrated that the tubulopathy is already present at 24 weeks of gestation.

  8. Antibiotics susceptibility patterns of urine bacterial isolates in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Ps aeruginosa, Staph aureus and E. coli are highly prevalent in urine of the residents of Zaria investigated. The high multiple antibiotics resistance identified makes it necessary for antibiotic susceptibility testing to be conducted prior to antibiotics prescription in in Zaria. Key words: Antibiotics resistance; bacteria; ...

  9. Analysis of Urine for Pure Beta Emitters: Methods and Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay for individual radionuclides is an essential and first step in estimation of radiation risk to nuclear facilities workers and people who are exposed to the contaminated environment in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological attack. Urine is a frequently used biological sample for...

  10. Lactic acid fermentation of human urine to improve its fertilizing value and reduce odour emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N; Ronteltap, M; Boincean, B; Wernli, M; Zubcov, E; Bagrin, N; Borodin, N; Lens, P N L

    2017-08-01

    During storage of urine, urea is biologically decomposed to ammonia, which can be lost through volatilization and in turn causes significant unpleasant smell. In response, lactic acid fermentation of urine is a cost-effective technique to decrease nitrogen volatilization and reduce odour emissions. Fresh urine (pH = 5.2-5.3 and NH 4 + -N = 1.2-1.3 g L -1 ) was lacto-fermented for 36 days in closed glass jars with a lactic acid bacterial inoculum from sauerkraut juice and compared to untreated, stored urine. In the lacto-fermented urine, the pH was reduced to 3.8-4.7 and the ammonium content by 22-30%, while the pH of the untreated urine rose to 6.1 and its ammonium content increased by 32% due to urea hydrolysis. The concentration of lactic acid bacteria in lacto-fermented urine was 7.3 CFU ml -1 , suggesting that urine is a suitable growth medium for lactic acid bacteria. The odour of the stored urine was subjectively perceived by four people to be twice as strong as that of lacto-fermented samples. Lacto-fermented urine induced increased radish germination compared to stored urine (74-86% versus 2-31%). Adding a lactic acid bacterial inoculum to one week old urine in the storage tanks in a urine-diverting dry toilet reduced the pH from 8.9 to 7.7 after one month, while the ammonium content increased by 35%, probably due to the high initial pH of the urine. Given that the hydrolyzed stale urine has a high buffering capacity, the lactic acid bacterial inoculum should be added to the urine storage tank of a UDDT before urine starts to accumulate there to increase the efficiency of the lactic acid fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Morphological characteristics of urine erythrocytes in children with erythrocyturia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Minakova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nephropathies with erythrocyturia make up about 1/3 of all diseases of the kidneys and the urinary system, and they have some difficulties in differential diagnostics. Quite often, erythrocyturia is the only symptom of these diseases. In connection with this, determination of its origin is an important task in forming the correct diagnosis. Erythrocyturia in most diseases of the lower urinary tract is not accompanied by proteinuria or the presence of cylinders in the urine. The presence of proteinuria (more than 0.3 g/l or 1 g protein in urine per day, along with the appearance of erythrocytic cylinder in the urine sediment, raises suspicion in favor of glomerular or tubular diseases. Glomerular erythrocytes may be detected by means of urea concentration factor (UCF in the urinary sediment as a preliminary test for the determination of the erythrocyturia site. Erythrocytes that pass through the glomerular membrane have a changed form (dysmorphic. Determination of acanthocytes in the urine (ring-shaped erythrocytes with one or several bulges in the form of bubbles of different sizes and types is a more precise criterion of glomerular nephropathy than the presence of dysmorphic erythrocytes. The purpose of the study was to determine the morphological characteristics of urine erythrocytes in children with erythrocyturia, to improve the quality of differential diagnosis. Materials and methods. Determination of the morphological characteristics of urinary erythrocytes using UCF in 73 patients aged 1 to 18 years, of which 45 (61.6 % are patients with hematuric form of glomerulonephritis, 23 (31.5 % — with hereditary nephritis, and 5 (6.8 % — with dysmetabolic nephropathy. Detection of 50 to 80 % of dysmorphic erythrocytes in the urine sediment and finding in urine of more than 5 % of acanthocytes is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic criterion for glomerular hematuria. Results. In children with a clinical diagnosis

  12. Cooperation of phosphates and carboxylates controls calcium oxalate crystallization in ultrafiltered urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohe, Bernd; Chan, Brian P H; Sørensen, Esben S; Lajoie, Gilles; Goldberg, Harvey A; Hunter, Graeme K

    2011-10-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is one of a group of proteins found in urine that are believed to limit the formation of kidney stones. In the present study, we investigate the roles of phosphate and carboxylate groups in the OPN-mediated modulation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), the principal mineral phase found in kidney stones. To this end, crystallization was induced by addition of CaOx solution to ultrafiltered human urine containing either human kidney OPN (kOPN; 7 consecutive carboxylates, 8 phosphates) or synthesized peptides corresponding to residues 65-80 (pSHDHMDDDDDDDDDGD; pOPAR) or 220-235 (pSHEpSTEQSDAIDpSAEK; P3) of rat bone OPN. Sequence 65-80 was also synthesized without the phosphate group (OPAR). Effects on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) formation were studied by scanning electron microscopy. We found that controls form large, partly intergrown COM platelets; COD was never observed. Adding any of the polyelectrolytes was sufficient to prevent intergrowth of COM platelets entirely, inhibiting formation of these platelets strongly, and inducing formation of the COD phase. Strongest effects on COM formation were found for pOPAR and OPAR followed by kOPN and then P3, showing that acidity and hydrophilicity are crucial in polyelectrolyte-affected COM crystallization. At higher concentrations, OPAR also inhibited COD formation, while P3, kOPN and, in particular, pOPAR promoted COD, a difference explainable by the variations of carboxylate and phosphate groups present in the molecules. Thus, we conclude that carboxylate groups play a primary role in inhibiting COM formation, but phosphate and carboxylate groups are both important in initiating and promoting COD formation.

  13. Visual-servoing optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Daniel E.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-06-09

    The present invention provides methods and devices for the knowledge-based discovery and optimization of differences between cell types. In particular, the present invention provides visual servoing optical microscopy, as well as analysis methods. The present invention provides means for the close monitoring of hundreds of individual, living cells over time: quantification of dynamic physiological responses in multiple channels; real-time digital image segmentation and analysis; intelligent, repetitive computer-applied cell stress and cell stimulation; and the ability to return to the same field of cells for long-term studies and observation. The present invention further provides means to optimize culture conditions for specific subpopulations of cells.

  14. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-20

    Classification) " ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF INTRACELLULAR PROTOZOA 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Aikawa, Masamichi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT I13b. TIME COVERED 114...authors suggest that anti-CS protein antibody is important in reducing the prevalence of malaria with increasing age among persons in such areas and... Hygine 33, 220-226. 0Giudice, G.D., Engers, H.D., Tougne, C., Biro, S.S., Weiss, N., Verdini, A.S., Pessi, A., Degremont, A.A., Freyvogel, T.A., Lambert

  15. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C.; Keller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab. PMID:26677255

  16. Role of Urine Drug Testing in the Current Opioid Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Gagan

    2017-12-01

    While the evidence for urine drug testing for patients on chronic opioid therapy is weak, the guidelines created by numerous medical societies and state and federal regulatory agencies recommend that it be included as one of the tools used to monitor patients for compliance with chronic opioid therapy. To get the most comprehensive results, clinicians should order both an immunoassay screen and confirmatory urine drug test. The immunoassay screen, which can be performed as an in-office point-of-care test or as a laboratory-based test, is a cheap and convenient study to order. Limitations of an immunoassay screen, however, include having a high threshold of detectability and only providing qualitative information about a select number of drug classes. Because of these restrictions, clinicians should understand that immunoassay screens have high false-positive and false-negative rates. Despite these limitations, though, the results can assist the clinician with making preliminary treatment decisions. In comparison, a confirmatory urine drug test, which can only be performed as a laboratory-based test, has a lower threshold of detectability and provides both qualitative and quantitative information. A urine drug test's greater degree of specificity allows for a relatively low false-negative and false-positive rate in contrast to an immunoassay screen. Like any other diagnostic test, an immunoassay screen and a confirmatory urine drug test both possess limitations. Clinicians must keep this in mind when interpreting an unexpected test result and consult with their laboratory when in doubt about the meaning of the test result to avoid making erroneous decisions that negatively impact both the patient and clinician.

  17. Elevated CXC chemokines in urine noninvasively discriminate OAB from UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas; Qu, Xianggui; Chuang, Yao Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Chancellor, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Overlapping symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) often complicate the diagnosis and contribute to overprescription of antibiotics. Inflammatory response is a shared characteristic of both UTI and OAB and here we hypothesized that molecular differences in inflammatory response seen in urine can help discriminate OAB from UTI. Subjects in the age range of (20-88 yr) of either sex were recruited for this urine analysis study. Urine specimens were available from 62 UTI patients with positive dipstick test before antibiotic treatment. Six of these patients also provided urine after completion of antibiotic treatment. Subjects in cohorts of OAB (n = 59) and asymptomatic controls (n = 26) were negative for dipstick test. Urinary chemokines were measured by MILLIPLEX MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Immunoassay and their association with UTI and OAB was determined by univariate and multivariate statistics. Significant elevation of CXCL-1, CXCL-8 (IL-8), and CXCL-10 together with reduced levels for a receptor antagonist of IL-1A (sIL-1RA) were seen in UTI relative to OAB and asymptomatic controls. Elevated CXCL-1 urine levels predicted UTI with odds ratio of 1.018 and showed a specificity of 80.77% and sensitivity of 59.68%. Postantibiotic treatment, reduction was seen in all CXC chemokines with a significant reduction for CXCL-10. Strong association of CXCL-1 and CXCL-10 for UTI over OAB indicates mechanistic differences in signaling pathways driving inflammation secondary of infection in UTI compared with a lack of infection in OAB. Urinary chemokines highlight molecular differences in the paracrine signaling driving the overlapping symptoms of UTI and OAB. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. NICHD Microscopy and Imaging Core (MIC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NICHD Microscopy and Imaging Core (MIC) is designed as a multi-user research facility providing training and instrumentation for high resolution microscopy and...

  19. Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Robert; Georgi, Fanny

    2018-01-01

    Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections. We discuss advantages and opportunities of confocal and multi-photon microscopy, selective plane illumination microscopy, and super-resolution microscopy. We emphasize the prevalent concepts in image processing and data analyses, and provide an outlook into label-free digital holographic microscopy for virus research. PMID:29670029

  20. Electron Microscopy Society of Southern Africa : proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyman, H.C.; Coetzee, J.; Coubrough, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The proceedings of the 26th annual conference of the Electron Microscopy Society of Southern Africa are presented. Papers were presented on the following topics: techniques and instrumentation used in electron microscopy, and applications of electron microscopy in the life sciences, including applications in medicine, zoology, botany and microbiology. The use of electron microscopy in the physical sciences was also discussed. Separate abstracts were prepared for seven of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  1. Use of Urine Testing in Outpatients Treated for Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H.; Smith, Alexandria; Hanley, Janet; Saigal, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize urine test use in ambulatory, antibiotic-treated pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). METHODS: We studied children UTI and a temporally associated antibiotic prescription from 2002 through 2007 by using a large claims database, Innovus i3. We evaluated urine-testing trends and performed multivariable logistic regression to assess for factors associated with urine culture use. RESULTS: Of 40 603 treated UTI episodes in 28 678 children, urinalysis was performed in 76%, and urine culture in 57%; 32% of children UTI episode. Urine culture use decreased during the study period from 60% to 54% (P UTI and urologic anomalies were not. CONCLUSIONS: Providers often do not obtain urine tests when prescribing antibiotics for outpatient pediatric UTI. Variation in urine culture use was observed based on age, gender, and physician specialty. Additional research is necessary to determine the implications of empirical antibiotic prescription for pediatric UTI without confirmatory urine testing. PMID:23918886

  2. Plasmonics Enhanced Smartphone Fluorescence Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Qingshan; Acuna, Guillermo; Kim, Seungkyeum; Vietz, Carolin; Tseng, Derek; Chae, Jongjae; Shir, Daniel; Luo, Wei; Tinnefeld, Philip; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2017-01-01

    Smartphone fluorescence microscopy has various applications in point-of-care (POC) testing and diagnostics, ranging from e.g., quantification of immunoassays, detection of microorganisms, to sensing of viruses. An important need in smartphone-based microscopy and sensing techniques is to improve the detection sensitivity to enable quantification of extremely low concentrations of target molecules. Here, we demonstrate a general strategy to enhance the detection sensitivity of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope by using surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) created by a thin metal-film. In this plasmonic design, the samples are placed on a silver-coated glass slide with a thin spacer, and excited by a laser-diode from the backside through a glass hemisphere, generating surface plasmon polaritons. We optimized this mobile SEF system by tuning the metal-film thickness, spacer distance, excitation angle and polarization, and achieved ~10-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity compared to a bare glass substrate, which enabled us to image single fluorescent particles as small as 50 nm in diameter and single quantum-dots. Furthermore, we quantified the detection limit of this platform by using DNA origami-based brightness standards, demonstrating that ~80 fluorophores per diffraction-limited spot can be readily detected by our mobile microscope, which opens up new opportunities for POC diagnostics and sensing applications in resource-limited-settings.

  3. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential–time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science. PMID:28484332

  4. Plasmonics Enhanced Smartphone Fluorescence Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Qingshan

    2017-05-12

    Smartphone fluorescence microscopy has various applications in point-of-care (POC) testing and diagnostics, ranging from e.g., quantification of immunoassays, detection of microorganisms, to sensing of viruses. An important need in smartphone-based microscopy and sensing techniques is to improve the detection sensitivity to enable quantification of extremely low concentrations of target molecules. Here, we demonstrate a general strategy to enhance the detection sensitivity of a smartphone-based fluorescence microscope by using surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) created by a thin metal-film. In this plasmonic design, the samples are placed on a silver-coated glass slide with a thin spacer, and excited by a laser-diode from the backside through a glass hemisphere, generating surface plasmon polaritons. We optimized this mobile SEF system by tuning the metal-film thickness, spacer distance, excitation angle and polarization, and achieved ~10-fold enhancement in fluorescence intensity compared to a bare glass substrate, which enabled us to image single fluorescent particles as small as 50 nm in diameter and single quantum-dots. Furthermore, we quantified the detection limit of this platform by using DNA origami-based brightness standards, demonstrating that ~80 fluorophores per diffraction-limited spot can be readily detected by our mobile microscope, which opens up new opportunities for POC diagnostics and sensing applications in resource-limited-settings.

  5. Kelvin probe force microscopy in liquid using electrochemical force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Collins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional closed loop-Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM has emerged as a powerful technique for probing electric and transport phenomena at the solid–gas interface. The extension of KPFM capabilities to probe electrostatic and electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is of interest for a broad range of applications from energy storage to biological systems. However, the operation of KPFM implicitly relies on the presence of a linear lossless dielectric in the probe–sample gap, a condition which is violated for ionically-active liquids (e.g., when diffuse charge dynamics are present. Here, electrostatic and electrochemical measurements are demonstrated in ionically-active (polar isopropanol, milli-Q water and aqueous NaCl and ionically-inactive (non-polar decane liquids by electrochemical force microscopy (EcFM, a multidimensional (i.e., bias- and time-resolved spectroscopy method. In the absence of mobile charges (ambient and non-polar liquids, KPFM and EcFM are both feasible, yielding comparable contact potential difference (CPD values. In ionically-active liquids, KPFM is not possible and EcFM can be used to measure the dynamic CPD and a rich spectrum of information pertaining to charge screening, ion diffusion, and electrochemical processes (e.g., Faradaic reactions. EcFM measurements conducted in isopropanol and milli-Q water over Au and highly ordered pyrolytic graphite electrodes demonstrate both sample- and solvent-dependent features. Finally, the feasibility of using EcFM as a local force-based mapping technique of material-dependent electrostatic and electrochemical response is investigated. The resultant high dimensional dataset is visualized using a purely statistical approach that does not require a priori physical models, allowing for qualitative mapping of electrostatic and electrochemical material properties at the solid–liquid interface.

  6. Natural levels of {sup 210}Po in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Frances, I.; Manjon, G.; Mantero, J.; Diaz, J. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, R. [Departament of Applied Phisic II, University of Seville, P.O. Box 41012 Seville (Spain); National Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Since the secret agent Alexander Litvinenko was murdered in 2006 by a {sup 210}Po lethal dose, presumably ingested, there is renovated interest on the toxicity of this radionuclide in humans. {sup 210}Po is a radioactive isotope naturally found in nature, mainly incorporated by humans via food and water ingestion, as well as inhaled through its progenitor, the {sup 222}Rn. The total amount of natural {sup 210}Po in the human body can vary from person to person depending on their lifestyle: dietary habits, drinking water source, place of residence (associated with exposure to {sup 222}Rn), etc- and therefore in the concentrations of this element to be found in urine. To analyze the influence of dietary habits on the amount of {sup 210}Po excreted in urine, two volunteers in Seville had a well-defined and time-varying diet for a month, following a daily collection of their urine and determination of the concentrations therein of this radionuclide. The results obtained and the conclusions derived from them form the core of this communication. {sup 210}Po determinations were performed daily in 200 ml aliquots of urine using the technique of high resolution alpha spectrometry. This has involved the application of a single radiochemical method for the concentration and isolation {sup 210}Po, followed by its auto-deposition on copper planchets for proper measure. Daily {sup 210}Po activity concentrations in voluntary urine analyzed during the month of study show high variability with a difference of up to an order of magnitude between maximum and minimum values obtained, and a clear dependence on the diet type followed in the various stages of the experiment. The lowest concentrations obtained are associated with a diet rich in carbohydrates and proteins 'terrestrial' (pork, beef,...), while the highest concentrations were obtained in the final phase of the experiment when the diet was enriched with presence of marine products in fair correspondence with the

  7. Potential semiochemicals in urine from free ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo Pallas, 1780)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. Wood; Jeffrey P. Copeland; Richard E. Yates; Iman K. Horsey; Lynne R. McGreevy

    2009-01-01

    Urine deposition has been observed as an important scent-marking behaviour among wolverines (Gulo gulo, Mustelinae, Mustelidae). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) of headspace volatiles of the urine from free ranging wolverines were examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Urine samples were collected directly from the bladder of live-trapped animals...

  8. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-01

    Mar 1, 2017 ... a significant association between urine osmolality and body mass index (BMI), creatinine clearance, as well as serum .... approved by the Ethics Research Committee of the hospital. With the help of a questionnaire, .... SD=standard deviation, SUOsm=spot urine osmolality,. 24UOsm=24-h urine osmolality, ...

  9. Reliable laboratory urinalysis results using a new standardised urine collection device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs-Thijssen, M.A.; Schreuder, M.F.; Hogeveen, M.; Herwaarden, A.E. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: While urine sampling is necessary in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection and electrolyte disturbances, the collection of urine in neonates and non-toilet-trained children is often difficult. A universal urine collection method providing representative urinalyses results is needed.

  10. Survival of enteric bacteria in source-separated human urine used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAKAYA

    Urine in Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Cultivation. Agric. Food Sci. 18:57-68. Pronk W, Koné D (2010). Options for urine treatment in developing countries. Desalination 251:360-368. Schönning C, Leeming R, Stenström TA (2002). Faecal contamination of source-separated human urine based on the content of faecal sterols ...

  11. Filter paper saturated by urine sample in metabolic disorders detection by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Hélène; Garrigue, Marie-Ange; De Vos, Aymeric; Antar, Catherine; Labarthe, François; Maillot, François; Andres, Christian R; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie

    2010-02-01

    NMR spectroscopy of urine samples is able to diagnose many inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). However, urinary metabolites have a poor stability, requiring special care for routine analysis (storage of urine at -20 or -80 degrees C, fast transport). The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability of dried urine filter paper for urine storage and transport and to evaluate the ability of NMR to detect several IEM using this method. Urine samples from five healthy subjects were analyzed by (1)H NMR following different storage conditions (-20 vs 4 degrees C vs dried on filter paper) and at different time points (24 h, 48 h, 96 h, and 7 days). Urine pattern of fresh urine was considered as a reference. We analyzed the conservation of some amino acids and organic acids using Bland and Altman plot with intraclass correlation coefficient determination. Then, we evaluated the use of filter paper to detect four different IEM (methylmalonic and isovaleric acidurias, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, and cystinuria). Analysis of urine samples from healthy subjects revealed a high stability of studied molecules (ICC > 0.8) even after 7 days of storage on filter paper. Moreover, an excellent preservation of metabolites specifically accumulated in IEM was observed when analysis of dried urine filter paper was compared to fresh urine (coefficient of variation storage of dried urine on filter paper is reliable for (1)H NMR spectroscopy analysis. Preservation of urine molecules over time using that method is convenient for routine clinical practice.

  12. 21 CFR 876.1800 - Urine flow or volume measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... volume measuring system. (a) Identification. A urine flow or volume measuring system is a device that measures directly or indirectly the volume or flow of urine from a patient, either during the course of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urine flow or volume measuring system. 876.1800...

  13. Positive Urine Cultures: A Major Cause of Inappropriate Antimicrobial Use in Hospitals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Silver

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urine specimens are among the most common samples submitted for culture to microbiology laboratories. The objectives of the present study were to describe the indications for obtaining urine cultures in a cohort of hospitalized patients, and to determine the appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy in response to urine culture results.

  14. Selenium speciation in pretreated human urine by ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-MS detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Jons, O.; Bendahl, L.

    2001-01-01

    Urine samples were extracted by benzo-15-crown-5-ether to remove sodium and potassium. More than 90% of the sodium and potassium content of the urine was removed with this extraction. In a cation-exchange system based on oxalic acid at pH 3, chromatography of an untreated urine pool resulted...

  15. Urine osmolality in treatment-naïve HIV-positive subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine osmolality is not commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subjects. The factors that influence urine osmolality have not been completely identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate urine osmolality in treatment‑naïve HIV subjects and to identify the factors that may ...

  16. Urine interleukin-8 is a marker for urinary tract infection in postoperative patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszyna, D. P.; Vermeulen, H.; Baan, A. H.; Speelman, P.; van Deventer, S. J.; Gouma, D. J.; van der Poll, T.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine of patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) contains high levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. However, knowledge of the kinetics of their release in urine is limited. We therefore compared the appearance of IL-6 and IL-8 in urine after uncomplicated surgery and surgery

  17. The migration of drugs-of-abuse from Europe to Denmark – Analysis of pooled anonymous urine from urinals at Roskilde Festival 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christiansen, Cecilie; Soe, Jesper

    or through police seizures [2]. We carried out a cross-sectional study of collected pooled anonymous urine, sampled from urinals at the biggest music festival during the year, Roskilde Festival, with the aim to detect classic recreational drugs and NPS. The aim of this study was to identify recreational...... drugs currently used and predict the emergence of NPS by comparing study data with seizure data from the previous year published by EMCDDA [1]. Methods: In total 44 urine samples were collected from three urinals at Roskilde Festival 2016. Two urinals were placed at music stages with late-night concerts...... drugs were identified in pooled urine samples. While the widespread use of these drugs at the festival was confirmed, the prevalence of NPS was not as comprehensive as expected based on the EMCDDA report [1] and the Danish report on illegal drugs [2]. The limited use of NPS and the substantial dilution...

  18. Antibiotic prescribing practices for catheter urine culture results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jonathan; Thompson, G William; Austin, Thomas W; Hussain, Zafar; John, Michael; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Connelly, Sarah E; Elsayed, Sameer

    2013-01-01

    The literature suggests that positive results of catheter urine cultures frequently lead to unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing, which therefore represents an important target for stewardship. To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing in response to the results of urine cultures from patients with indwelling urinary catheters. This retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care centre and involved adults with indwelling urinary catheters from whom urine specimens were obtained for culture. Patients with positive or negative culture results were identified from microbiology laboratory reports. The medical records of consecutive patients were screened to select a sample of 80 inpatients (40 per group). Abstracted patient histories were independently evaluated by an expert panel of 3 infectious diseases consultants blinded to the decisions of prescribers and of fellow panelists. The primary end point was concordance of each patient's treatment decision (with respect to the indication) between the expert panel (based on majority agreement, i.e., at least 2 of the 3 expert panelists) and the prescriber. The secondary end points were unnecessary days of therapy and selected outcomes over a predefined period after urine was obtained for culture. A total of 591 charts were screened to generate the targeted number of patients. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable for the 2 groups, except antibiotic exposure before urine collection was significantly more frequent for the group with negative culture results. The treatment decision was concordant in 40% (16/40) of the patients with a positive culture result and 85% (34/40) of those with a negative culture result (p < 0.001). The most common reason for discordance was administration of antibiotics when not indicated (23 of 24 patients with a positive result and 5 of 6 patients with a negative result), which accounted for 165 and 32 unnecessary days of therapy per 1000 inpatient

  19. Ore microscopy applied to beneficiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagni, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Ore microscopy can be an important adjunct to beneficiation, because it can be used not only to predict mill problems of undeveloped ore deposits but to identify the causes for the loss of minerals in the products of operating mines and mills. Mineral distribution among various mill products can be determined by examining polished sections prepared from samples obtained from each step of the beneficiation process. The degree of liberation of each mineral can be quantitatively determined for each mill product by counting locked vs. free particles. For many beneficiation problems, the preparation of a few polished sections of carefully selected mill products can yield useful information, which the mill dressing engineer can effectively use to alleviate those problems

  20. Lensfree microscopy on a cellphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Derek; Mudanyali, Onur; Oztoprak, Cetin; Isikman, Serhan O.; Sencan, Ikbal; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate lensfree digital microscopy on a cellphone. This compact and light-weight holographic microscope installed on a cellphone does not utilize any lenses, lasers or other bulky optical components and it may offer a cost-effective tool for telemedicine applications to address various global health challenges. Weighing ~38 grams (cellphone where the samples are loaded from the side, and are vertically illuminated by a simple light-emitting diode (LED). This incoherent LED light is then scattered from each micro-object to coherently interfere with the background light, creating the lensfree hologram of each object on the detector array of the cellphone. These holographic signatures captured by the cellphone permit reconstruction of microscopic images of the objects through rapid digital processing. We report the performance of this lensfree cellphone microscope by imaging various sized micro-particles, as well as red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and a waterborne parasite (Giardia lamblia). PMID:20445943

  1. Superresolution microscopy with transient binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Julia; Raab, Mario; Holzmeister, Susanne; Schmitt-Monreal, Daniel; Grohmann, Dina; He, Zhike; Tinnefeld, Philip

    2016-06-01

    For single-molecule localization based superresolution, the concentration of fluorescent labels has to be thinned out. This is commonly achieved by photophysically or photochemically deactivating subsets of molecules. Alternatively, apparent switching of molecules can be achieved by transient binding of fluorescent labels. Here, a diffusing dye yields bright fluorescent spots when binding to the structure of interest. As the binding interaction is weak, the labeling is reversible and the dye ligand construct diffuses back into solution. This approach of achieving superresolution by transient binding (STB) is reviewed in this manuscript. Different realizations of STB are discussed and compared to other localization-based superresolution modalities. We propose the development of labeling strategies that will make STB a highly versatile tool for superresolution microscopy at highest resolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electron holography for polymer microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Electron holography provides a radically new approach to the problem of imaging objects such as macromolecules, which exhibit little or no contrast when viewed in the conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM). This is overcome in electron holography by using the macromolecule as a phase object. Computer reconstruction of the hologram then allows the phase to be viewed as an image, and amplified. Holography requires a TEM with a field emission gun, and with an electro-static biprism to produce the interference pattern. The hologram requires a similar radiation dose to conventional microscopy but many different images (e.g. a through focal series) can be extracted from the same hologram. Further developments of the technique promise to combine high contrast imaging of the bulk of the macromolecule together with high spatial resolution imaging of surface detail

  3. Resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Christoph; Masters, Barry R.

    2013-05-01

    We survey the history of resolution enhancement techniques in microscopy and their impact on current research in biomedicine. Often these techniques are labeled superresolution, or enhanced resolution microscopy, or light-optical nanoscopy. First, we introduce the development of diffraction theory in its relation to enhanced resolution; then we explore the foundations of resolution as expounded by the astronomers and the physicists and describe the conditions for which they apply. Then we elucidate Ernst Abbe's theory of optical formation in the microscope, and its experimental verification and dissemination to the world wide microscope communities. Second, we describe and compare the early techniques that can enhance the resolution of the microscope. Third, we present the historical development of various techniques that substantially enhance the optical resolution of the light microscope. These enhanced resolution techniques in their modern form constitute an active area of research with seminal applications in biology and medicine. Our historical survey of the field of resolution enhancement uncovers many examples of reinvention, rediscovery, and independent invention and development of similar proposals, concepts, techniques, and instruments. Attribution of credit is therefore confounded by the fact that for understandable reasons authors stress the achievements from their own research groups and sometimes obfuscate their contributions and the prior art of others. In some cases, attribution of credit is also made more complex by the fact that long term developments are difficult to allocate to a specific individual because of the many mutual connections often existing between sometimes fiercely competing, sometimes strongly collaborating groups. Since applications in biology and medicine have been a major driving force in the development of resolution enhancing approaches, we focus on the contribution of enhanced resolution to these fields.

  4. Urine-Based Nested PCR for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Comparative Study Between HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi Makiani, Mahin; Davoodian, Parivash; Baghershiroodi, Mahnaz; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Fakkhar, Farideh; Zangeneh, Mehrangiz; Jahangiri, Nadia

    2016-08-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) can be diagnosed by microscopy and culture, the sensitivity of Ziehl-Neelsen staining is variable and culture results require 4 - 8 weeks to be determined. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its modifications, including nested PCR, might be promising methods for the rapid diagnosis of TB. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of nested PCR on urine samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and -negative patients with different manifestations of clinical TB. In a prospective study, three early-morning urine samples from 100 patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) or extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) were evaluated using a molecular target with insertion element IS6110, specific to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome, and nested PCR was performed. The results were analyzed with SPSS version 22. A total of 100 patients, including 74 (74%) with PTB and 26 (26%) with EPTB, were enrolled. Positive smears were seen in 38 patients (38%). Lymph nodes were the most commonly involved organ in 14 of the 26 (53.8%) EPTB patients (13.5%). Seven (23.1%) of the EPTB patients were HIV-positive. Urine PCR was positive in only 28 patients (28%). Seven HIV-positive patients with PTB showed positive urine PCR results. Moreover, PCR results were positive in only one of the seven HIV-positive subjects with EPTB. Positive PCR results were found in 20 of the 73 HIV-negative patients (27.4%) and in 8 of the 27 HIV-positive patients (29.6%). Therefore, there was no significant difference between the HIV-negative and HIV-positive patients for urine PCR (sensitivity 29.6%, specificity 72.6%; positive and negative predictive values 28% and 72%, respectively; P = 0.138). Nested PCR showed the same sensitivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. It can be applied as a rapid technique for the diagnosis of TB.

  5. Performance of Urinary Markers for Detection of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma: Is Upper Tract Urine More Accurate than Urine from the Bladder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the performance of urine markers determined in urine samples from the bladder compared to samples collected from the upper urinary tract (UUT for diagnosis of UUT urothelial carcinoma (UC. Patients and Methods. The study comprised 758 urine samples either collected from the bladder (n=373 or UUT (n=385. All patients underwent urethrocystoscopy and UUT imaging or ureterorenoscopy. Cytology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, immunocytology (uCyt+, and nuclear matrix protein 22 (NMP22 were performed. Results. UUT UC was diagnosed in 59 patients (19.1% (UUT urine and 27 patients (7.2% (bladder-derived urine. For UUT-derived samples, sensitivities for cytology, FISH, NMP22, and uCyt+ were 74.6, 79.0, 100.0, and 100.0, while specificities were 66.6, 50.7, 5.9, and 66.7%, respectively. In bladder-derived samples, sensitivities were 59.3, 52.9, 62.5, and 50.0% whereas specificities were 82.9, 85.0, 31.3, and 69.8%. In UUT-derived samples, concomitant bladder cancer led to increased false-positive rates of cytology and FISH. Conclusions. Urine markers determined in urine collected from the UUT exhibit better sensitivity but lower specificity compared to markers determined in bladder-derived urine. Concomitant or recent diagnosis of UC of the bladder can further influence markers determined in UUT urine.

  6. Intra-individual variability in the urine concentrations of inhaled salmeterol in male subjects with reference to doping analysis – impact of urine specific gravity correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Hemmersbach, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and a-hydroxysalmeterol during visits one and two were 12.6 and 21.8%, respectively. The intra-individual variability of salmeterol and a-hydroxysalmeterol in the urine concentrations were significantly higher when uncorrected for USG with 43.0 and 43.7% versus 20.4% (p...Since 2010, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has introduced urinary thresholds for some beta2-agonists. In doping analysis urine samples of beta2-agonists are not corrected for the Urine Specific Gravity (USG) by the WADA laboratories. Several studies have observed high differences in the urine...

  7. Proteinuria: The diagnostic strategy based on urine proteins differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojimirović Biljana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal glomerular membrane represents mechanical and electrical barrier for passing of the plasma proteins. Mechanical barrier is composed of cylindrical pores and filtration fissure, and negative layer charge in exterior and interior side of basal glomerular membrane, made of heparan sulphate and sialoglicoproteine, provides certain electrical barrier. Diagnostic strategy based on different serum and urine proteins enables the differentiation of various types of proteinuria. Depending on etiology of proteinuria it can be prerenal, renal and postrenal. By analyzing albumin, armicroglobulin, immunoglobulin G and armacroglobulin, together with total protein in urine, it is possible to detect and differentiate causes of prerenal, renal (glomerular, tubular, glomerulo-tubular and postrenal proteinuria. The adequate and early differentiation of proteinuria type is of an immense diagnostic and therapeutic importance.

  8. Crystallization processes derived from the interaction of urine and dolostone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Beatriz; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    The increase in the number of pets (mostly dogs), homeless people and the more recent open-air drinking sessions organized by young people in historical centers of European cities, derive on the augmentation of urinations on stone façades of the built cultural heritage. Up to now this process has been considered only under an undesirable aesthetical point of view and the insalubrious conditions it creates, together with the cleaning costs that the local governments have to assume. This study aims to confirm urine as a real source of soluble salts that can trigger the decay of building materials, especially of those of built cultural heritage of the historical centers of the cities, which are suffering the new social scenario described above. For this purpose, an experimental setup was designed and performed in the laboratory to simulate this process. 5 cm side cubic specimens of dolostone were subjected to 100 testing cycles of urine absorption by capillarity. The necessary amount of urine was collected by donors and stored following clinical protocol conditions. Each cycle consisted of imbibitions of the specimens in 3 mm high urine sheet for 3 hours, drying at 40°C in an oven for 20 hours and 1 hour cooling in a dessicator. At the end of the 100 cycles, small pieces of the specimens were cut, observed and analyzed with the aid of an environmental scanning electron microscope, which presents the advantage of no sample preparation. The sampled pieces were selected considering there were different sections in height in the specimens: a) a bottom section that corresponds to the section that has been immersed in the urine solution (3 mm); b) an interface section, immediately above the immersed area, which is the area most affected by the urine capillarity process, characterized by a strong yellowish color; c) the section that we have named as section of influence, which is subjected to the capillary absorption, although not so strongly than the interface section

  9. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Dilraj S; Ward, Joel; Lee, Regent; Handa, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs) where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  10. Detection of a reactive metabolite of misonidazole in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, A.J.; Whitmore, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical studies have indicated that, following reduction of misonidazole to the hydroxylamine derivative, reaction with guanosine leads to the formation of a 2-carbon addition product of guanosine. In this study, the formation of the guanosine product is used to detect the presence of a reactive metabolite of misonidazole in the urine of patients treated with misonidazole. Urine samples were incubated with [ 14 C]guanosine and the guanosine product was separated by HPLC analysis. The quantities of product vary as much as 10-fold from patient to patient and it is suggested that the assay be useful as a predictor of patients susceptible to the development of peripheral neuropathy or other effects of misonidazole

  11. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome: A Rare Spot Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj S. Kalsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS is a complication of urinary tract infections (UTIs where catheter bags and tubing turn purple. It is alarming for patients, families, and clinicians; however, it is in itself a benign phenomenon. PUBS is the result of UTIs with specific bacteria that produce sulphatases and phosphatases which lead tryptophan metabolism to produce indigo (blue and indirubin (red pigments, a mixture of which becomes purple. Risk factors include female gender, immobility, constipation, chronic catheterisation, and renal disease. Management involves reassurance, antibiotics, and regular changing of catheters, although there are debates regarding how aggressively to treat and no official guidelines. Prognosis is good, but PUBS is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to the backgrounds of patients. Here, we review the literature available on PUBS, present a summary of case studies from the last five years, and propose the Oxford Urine Chart as a tool to aid such diagnoses.

  12. GC/MS confirmatory method for etorphine in horse urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnaire, Y.; Plou, P. (Laboratoire de la Federation Nationale des Societes de Courses, Chatenay-Malabry (France)); Pages, N.; Boudene, C. (Universite de Paris XI (France)); Jouany, J.M. (Universite de Rouen (France))

    A highly sensitive procedure for GC/MS determine of etorphine in horse urine is described. This assay provides both specificity and reliability and is particularly well suited for the confirmation of radioimmunoassay screening procedures usually used for etorphine. After solvent extraction and purifications, the etorphine is characterized as a pentafluoroacetic derivative (PFAA) by using mass fragmentography. The detection limit is O.1 ng/mLin urine; the coefficient of variation of the estimations is 10.9%. The procedure has been validated after on-field administration of 5 to 90 {mu}g of etorphine to five thoroughbred horses of 5 to 90 {mu}g of etorphine to five thoroughbred horses (10 to 180 ng/kg).

  13. GC/MS confirmatory method for etorphine in horse urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaire, Y.; Plou, P.; Pages, N.; Boudene, C.; Jouany, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A highly sensitive procedure for GC/MS determine of etorphine in horse urine is described. This assay provides both specificity and reliability and is particularly well suited for the confirmation of radioimmunoassay screening procedures usually used for etorphine. After solvent extraction and purifications, the etorphine is characterized as a pentafluoroacetic derivative (PFAA) by using mass fragmentography. The detection limit is O.1 ng/mLin urine; the coefficient of variation of the estimations is 10.9%. The procedure has been validated after on-field administration of 5 to 90 μg of etorphine to five thoroughbred horses of 5 to 90 μg of etorphine to five thoroughbred horses (10 to 180 ng/kg)

  14. Metabolomic biomarkers in serum and urine in women with preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Austdal, Marie; Skråstad, Ragnhild; Gundersen, Astrid; Austgulen, Rigmor; Iversen, Ann-Charlotte; Bathen, Tone Frost

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the potential of magnetic resonance (MR) metabolomics for study of preeclampsia, for improved phenotyping and elucidating potential clues to etiology and pathogenesis. Methods Urine and serum samples from pregnant women with preeclampsia (n = 10), normal pregnancies (n = 10) and non-pregnant women (n = 10) matched by age and gestational age were analyzed with MR spectroscopy and subjected to multivariate analysis. Metabolites were then quantified and compared ...

  15. Effect of hygiene communication on emptying of urine diversion toilets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moilwa, N

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available is dependent on microbial species present and their count per gram. According to Austin (2000) pathogens die-off in a urine diversion toilet in South Africa, in other words the presence of microbial species and their count per gram is determined by storage... during the implementation of this project. The purpose was to determine the effectiveness of the vault emptying education given during the health and hygiene education programme. The external consultant that implemented the health and hygiene...

  16. Variability in the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy after urine infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Uren, R.; Irwig, L.; Bernard, E.; Knight, J.; Sureshkumar, P.; Roy, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: This study investigated the extent of and potential reasons for interpretation disagreement of 99m Tc-DMSA scans after urine infection in children. Methods: 441 scans were selected from children with first urine infection (UTI) from 1993-1995. 294 scans were performed at a median time of seven days after UTI and 147 in children free from infection over one year follow-up. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reported according to whether renal abnormality was present or absent and used the four level grading system described by Goldraich: grade 1-no more than two cortical defects; grade 2 -more than 2 defects; grade 3-diffuse reduction in uptake with or without defects; grade 4 -shrunken kidney <10% function. Indices for variability used were the percentage of agreement and kappa statistic, expressed as a percentage. For the grading scale used, both measures were weighted with integers representing the number of categories from perfect agreement. Disagreement was analysed for children, kidneys and kidney zones. Results: There was agreement in 86 per cent (kappa 69%) for the normal-abnormal DMSA scan dichotomy, the weighted agreement was 94 per cent (kappa 82%) for the grading scale. Disagreement of DMSA scan interpretation ≥ two grades was present in three cases (0.7%). The same level of agreement was present for the patient, kidney and kidney zones comparisons. Agreement was not influenced by age or the timing of scintigraphy after urine infection. Conclusion: Two experienced physicians showed good agreement in the interpretation DMSA scintigraphy in children after urine infection and using the grading system of Goldraich

  17. Determination of uranium, plutonium and transplutonium elements in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zablotskaya, I.D.; Vorob'ev, G.V.; Golutvina, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    An extraction-coprecipitation method is proposed for determining enriched U, Pu and transplutonium elements (Am, Cm, Cf) in urine of people having contact with these substances. The nuclides were extracted from HDEHP sulfuri.c acid solutions with a subsequent reextraction by ammonium carbonate and HCl. The reliability of the developed method is confirmed by semiconductor α-spectrometry. The nuclide yields are shown to equal 70-90%

  18. Determination of natural uranium in urine (233U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, L.; Jammet, H.

    1959-01-01

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of uranium in urine is described. The residue obtained by mineralization is dissolved in diluted hydrochloric acid. Uranium is separated by fixation on a permutit 50 column, elution with 0,2 M oxalic acid and electrodeposition on nickel. Uranium is then measured by α counting. It is thus possible to detect less than 1 pico-curie of uranium in the sample. (author) [fr

  19. ENAA of iodine in standard reference material lyophilized human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongbao; Wang Ke; Wang Ganfeng

    1997-01-01

    The contents of iodine in two kinds of standard reference materials lyophilized human urine are determined by ENAA. The sensitivity of this method is ten times higher than that of TNAA, and the relative standard deviations of ten measurements are 2.9% and 3.3%, respectively. Two certificated reference samples are used for verification of the analysis. The analytical results are in agreement with the recommended values, and the relative error is less than 3%

  20. Estimation of creatinine in Urine sample by Jaffe's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wankhede, Sonal; Arunkumar, Suja; Sawant, Pramilla D.; Rao, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    In-vitro bioassay monitoring is based on the determination of activity concentrations in biological samples excreted from the body and is most suitable for alpha and beta emitters. A truly representative bioassay sample is the one having all the voids collected during a 24-h period however, this being technically difficult, overnight urine samples collected by the workers are analyzed. These overnight urine samples are collected for 10-16 h, however in the absence of any specific information, 12 h duration is assumed and the observed results are then corrected accordingly obtain the daily excretion rate. To reduce the uncertainty due to unknown duration of sample collection, IAEA has recommended two methods viz., measurement of specific gravity and creatinine excretion rate in urine sample. Creatinine is a final metabolic product creatinine phosphate in the body and is excreted at a steady rate for people with normally functioning kidneys. It is, therefore, often used as a normalization factor for estimation of duration of sample collection. The present study reports the chemical procedure standardized and its application for the estimation of creatinine in urine samples collected from occupational workers. Chemical procedure for estimation of creatinine in bioassay samples was standardized and applied successfully for its estimation in bioassay samples collected from the workers. The creatinine excretion rate observed for these workers is lower than observed in literature. Further, work is in progress to generate a data bank of creatinine excretion rate for most of the workers and also to study the variability in creatinine coefficient for the same individual based on the analysis of samples collected for different duration

  1. Analysis of trace uranium in human urine by using the fission track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huailu; Yang Huazhang; Zhao Dongzhi; Wang Kaixue

    1988-01-01

    In order to know the contents of uranium in human urine, urine samples from 10 healthy persons with different ages and sexes in Lanzhou area were analysed with the fisson track method. The results, in contrast with the contents of uranium in Yellow River water (in Lanzhou section), tap-water and rainwater, indicated that the content of uranium in human urine was lower than that in tap-water. From the ratio of uranium in human urine to that in tap-water, the maximum excreted rate of uranium from urine is evaluated to be 42.2%

  2. Urine creatinine in treatment-naïve HIV subjects in eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyabolu, Ernest Ndukaife

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a global healthcare problem. Some diseases and physiological states may be altered in HIV-infected individuals. Our objective was to evaluate urine creatinine and factors that influence urine creatinine in treatment-naïve HIV subjects in Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving treatment-naïve HIV subjects in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Creatinine in spot and 24-hour urine samples and other relevant investigations were performed. Low urine creatinine or dilute urine was defined as 24-hour urine creatinine (24HUCr) creatinine as 24HUCr 300-3000mg and high urine creatinine or concentrated urine as 24HUCr>3000mg.Theassociation of low urine creatinine and high urine creatinine with potential risk factors was determined. The mean spot urine creatinine (SUCr) of the treatment-naïve HIV subjects was 137.21± 98.47(mg/dl), minimum value 13.3mg/dl, maximum value 533.3mg/dl and range of values 520.0mg/dl. The mean 24HUCr was 1507±781mg, minimum value 206mg, maximum value 4849mg and range of values 4643mg. Twenty four-hour urine creatinine3000mg in 24(6.4%) subjects. There was significant association between 24HUCr and serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL),serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL). There was high correlation between 24HUCr>3000mg and 24-hour urine osmolality (24HUOsm) (r=0.95), body mass index (BMI) (r=0.74), CD4 cells count (r=-0.71), serum HDL (r=-0.73). The prevalence of dilute urine and concentrated urine was low. Twenty-four hour urine osmolality. BMI, CD4 cells count and HDL were strong correlates of high urine creatinine. Lipid abnormalities were common in treatment-naïve HIV subjects with high urine creatinine. There is need for clinicians to routinely conduct urine creatinine and further search for abnormalities of serum lipids, weight changes, depressed immunity and anemia in HIV subjects with dilute or concentrated urine in the early stages of the infection.

  3. Investigating consumer attitudes towards the new technology of urine separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl-Wostl, C; Schönborn, A; Willi, N; Muncke, J; Larsen, T A

    2003-01-01

    The technology of urine separation and the recycling of anthropogenic nutrients as fertilizer in agriculture are considered as major innovations to improve the sustainability of today's urban wastewater management. The acceptance of consumers will be key for the introduction of the new technology. Citizens will have to make important decisions in their role as tenants and owners of houses and as consumers buying products fertilized with urine. Consumer attitudes towards the new technology were explored in a number of citizen focus groups in Switzerland. Focus groups are deliberate, moderated group discussions with informed citizens on a certain topic. The information was provided by a computer based information system specifically designed for this purpose. The acceptance of individual citizens for the new technology proved to be quite high. The majority of the citizens expressed their willingness to move into an apartment with NoMix toilets and to buy food fertilized with urine. However, they were not willing to accept additional financial costs or efforts. Arguments related to long-term sustainability (closing nutrient cycles) were of less importance than arguments that relate directly to the effects of micropollutants on human and ecosystem health. For the introduction of the new technology on a wide scale it will thus be crucial to explore the fate and effects of micropollutants.

  4. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  5. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Wells

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1 in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians (t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day.

  6. Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo H. Belloso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop (TALH is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney’s ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz’ test. Material & Methods. Chaimowitz’ test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir.

  7. Determination of 131I and thorium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomida, Rute Miwa

    1978-01-01

    Methods for the determination of 131 I and Thorium in urine have been developed taking into account the monitoring needs for people who handle with these radioisotopes. The method for determining 131 I is based in the use of silver chloride to separate iodine by precipitation from the sample; the detection was carried out in a Nal (Tl) well type scintillator connected to a single channel analyser. This method has the following advantages; it is easy and relatively fast as well as selective, showing a separation yield higher than 80%. Thorium in urine was determined by colorimetry after the mineralization of the sample using nitric acid, and sulphuric acid, and then oxygen peroxide. The chromophore reagent used was Thoron (disodium salt of 2-(2-hydroxy-3,6-disulfo-l-naphthylazo) benzenearsonic acid).The absorbance was measured in a spectro colorimeter at a fixed wavelength (530 nm). The method proved to be simple allowing a separation yield of about 80%. The most representative sample for a monitoring program in a 131 I production laboratory has been established. The 131 I concentration in urine of individuals with chronic contamination have also been measured; an interpretation of these results is discussed. (author)

  8. Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakelam Michael JO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both techniques provide information predominantly on the low molecular weight proteome ( Results We collected urine from 67 patients with colorectal cancer and 72 non-cancer control subjects, diluted to a constant protein concentration and generated MALDI and SELDI spectra. The intensities of 19 peaks differed significantly between cancer and non-cancer patients by both t-tests and after adjusting for confounders using multiple linear regressions. Logistic regression classifiers based on peak intensities identified colorectal cancer with up to 78% sensitivity at 87% specificity. We identified and independently quantified 3 of the discriminatory peaks using synthetic stable isotope peptides (an 1885 Da fragment of fibrinogen and hepcidin-20 or ELISA (β2-microglobulin. Conclusion Changes in the urine proteome may aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer.

  9. Radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin releasing hormone in plasma and urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shiro; Musa, Kimitaka; Yamamoto, Suzuyo; Oshima, Ichiyo; Funato, Toyohiko

    1975-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay has been developed capable of measuring thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in extracted human plasma and urine. All of three TRH analogues tested had little cross-reactivity to antibody. Luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, lysine vasopressin, rat growth hormone and bovine albumin were without effect, but rat hypothalamic extract produced a displacement curve which was parallel to that obtained with the synthetic TRH. Sensitivity of the radioimmunoassay was 4 pg per tube with intraassay coefficient of variation of 6.2-9.7%. Synthetic TRH could be quantitatively extracted by methanol when added to human plasma in concentration of 25, 50 and 100 pg/ml. TRH immunoreactivity was rapidly reduced in plasma at 20 0 C than at 0 0 C, but addition of peptidase inhibitors, FOY-007 and BAL, prevented the inactivation of TRH for 3 hr at 0 0 C. The TRH in urine was more stable at 0 0 C than 20 0 C, and recovered 75+-4.6% at 24 hr after being added. The plasma levels of TRH were 19 pg/ml or less in normal adults and no sex difference was observed. The rate of disappearance of TRH administered i.v. from the blood could be represented as half-times of 4-12 min. Between 5.3-12.3% of the injected dose was excreted into urine within 1 hr as an immunoreactive TRH. These results indicate the usefulness of TRH radioimmunoassay for clinical investigation. (auth.)

  10. Peptidomics of urine and other biofluids for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauça, Josep Miquel; Martínez-Morillo, Eduardo; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. The low diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of most current cancer biomarkers make early cancer diagnosis a challenging task. The comprehensive study of peptides and small proteins in a living system, known as "peptidomics," represents an alternative technological approach to the discovery of potential biomarkers for the assessment of a wide variety of pathologies. This review examines the current status of peptidomics for several body fluids, with a focus on urine, for cancer diagnostics applications. Several studies have used high-throughput technologies to characterize the peptide content of different body fluids. Because of its noninvasive collection and high stability, urine is a valuable source of candidate cancer biomarkers. A wide variety of preanalytical issues concerning patient selection and sample handling need to be considered, because not doing so can affect the quality of the results by introducing bias and artifacts. Optimization of both the analytical strategies and the processing of bioinformatics data is also essential to minimize the false-discovery rate. Peptidomics-based studies of urine and other body fluids have yielded a number of biomolecules and peptide panels with potential for diagnosing different types of cancer, especially of the ovary, prostate, and bladder. Large-scale studies are needed to validate these molecules as cancer biomarkers. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  11. Caesium transfer to placenta, urine and human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risica, S.; Rogani, A.; Tancredi, F.; Grisanti, A.; Grisanti, G.; Baronciani, D.; Del Prete, A.; Zanini, R.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident few measurements on radioactive contamination of maternal milk, placenta and urine of nursing mothers were carried out. Two previous studies on breast milk contamination were conducted in different Italian areas by the Physics Department of the National Institute of Health (Laboratorio di Fisica, Istituto Superiore di Sanita). In the first study conducted in collaboration with the Epidemiological Unit of the Lazio District, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 concentrations were measured in mixed breast milk samples pooled from 5-10 women in the first week after delivery, from May 1986 to December 1987, in the Rome area. The second research was conducted, in collaboration with the Lecco Hospital, in 1989 on a group of women living in the Como Lake area (Lombardia), which was one of the areas of Northern Italy most heavily affected by Chernobyl fallout, because of intensive rainfall in the first few days after the accident. The specific diet and caesium content in maternal milk were studied recruiting pregnant women at the ''respiratory autogen training'' course. In this case, Cs-l37, Cs-134 and K-40 concentration in placenta and urine of the mothers under study had also been measured. Aim of this paper is to discuss these data and investigate the relationship between Cs-137 contamination of maternal milk, placenta and urine as a contribution to a better understanding of caesium metabolism in pregnant and nursing women

  12. Malignant atypical cell in urine cytology: a diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkar Nandita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to find out the characteristic morphology of malignant atypical cells which were missed on routine cytology of urine. Materials and methods In this retrospective study, we examined detailed cytomorphology of 18 cases of atypical urinary cytology which were missed on routine examination and were further proved on histopathology as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of bladder. The cytological features of these cases were compared with 10 cases of benign urine samples. Results There were 11 cases of high grade TCC and 7 cases of low grade TCC on histopathology of the atypical urine samples. Necrosis in the background and necrosed papillae were mostly seen in malignant atypical cells. The comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei (single cells with deep black structure-less nuclei were only observed in malignant atypical cells. The most consistent features in malignant atypical cells were: i high nuclear and cytoplasmic (N/C ratio ii nuclear pleomorphism iii nuclear margin irregularity iv hyperchromasia and v chromatin abnormalities Conclusion The present study emphasizes that nuclear features such as high N/C ratio, hyperchromasia and chromatin abnormalities are particularly useful for assessing the malignant atypical cells. Other cytological features such as comet cells and cells with India ink nuclei are also helpful for diagnosis but have limited value because they are less frequently seen.

  13. Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in the Urine of UK Vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Liz; Hardie, Laura; Williams, Courtney; White, Kay; Liu, Yunru; De Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; Moretti, Georgio; Greetham, Stephanie; Brera, Carlo; Papageorgiou, Maria; Thatcher, Natalie J; Rigby, Alan; Atkin, Stephen L; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat

    2017-06-22

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is produced by Fusarium graminearum and is one of the most commonly occurring trichothecenes. Vegetarians are alleged to be a high-risk group for DON exposure due to high intakes of cereals susceptible to the growth of the mycotoxin. This study provides the levels of DON and de-epoxi Deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) in urine analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in UK vegetarians. Over two consecutive days, morning urine samples were collected from 32 vegetarians and 31 UK adult volunteers, and associated food consumption 24 h prior to the sample was recorded. Statistically significant differences between the weight of the UK adults and vegetarians ( t = 3.15. df = 61, p ≤ 0.005 two-tailed) were observed. The mean levels of DON in urine for adults on day 1 was 3.05 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 2.98 ng free DON/mg creatinine. Even though high mean levels were observed, most adults were within the tolerable daily intake. However, for vegetarians, the mean level of urinary DON on day 1 was 6.69 ng free DON/mg creatinine, and on day 2 was 3.42 ng free DON/mg creatinine. These levels equate to up to 32% of vegetarians exceeding recommended tolerable daily intakes (TDI) of exposure (1 µg/kg b.w./day).

  14. Dubowitz syndrome: common findings and peculiar urine odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chehade C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia Chehade,1 Johnny Awwad,2 Nadine Yazbeck,1 Marianne Majdalani,1 Rima Wakim,1 Hala Tfayli,1 Chantal Farra1,31Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Dubowitz syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, hyperactivity, eczema, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features. Although many cases have been reported, the cause of this disease is still unknown.Case: We present here the case of a Lebanese girl with Dubowitz syndrome in whom an unpleasant urine odor was persistently reported since birth.Conclusion: Although Dubowitz syndrome has been largely described in the medical literature, this is the first time that a peculiar urine odor was reported. This case report adds a new and unusual feature to the numerous findings related to this rare polymorphous syndrome.Keywords: Dubowitz syndrome, autosomal recessive, developmental delay, odorous urine

  15. Radioimmunoassay of methaqualone in human urine compared with chromatographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mule, S.J.; Kogan, M.; Jukofsky, D.

    1978-01-01

    The 125 I-radioimmunoassay for methaqualone in human urine was evaluated by a comparison with newly modified gas-liquid chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic methods. The statistically significant sensitivity value for the radioimmunoassay was at 2 μg of methaqualone per liter of urine. The coefficient of variation was 2.88 -+ 0.16% intraassay. There was cross-reactivity only with metabolites of methaqualone, 4'-hydroxymethaqualone being twice as sensitively measured as methaqualone. There was complete agreement between results by radioimmunoassay and by gas-liquid chromatography in 96.7% of the samples analyzed. Only 1.2% of the radioimmunoassay values were false positives, and 2.1% false negatives (phi = 0.8917, P < 0.001). Comparisons between the thin-layer chromatographic data and the gas--liquid chromatographic or radioimmunoassay data showed less agreement because of the 50- to 200-fold higher sensitivity of the latter techniques. Gas--liquid chromatography therefore appears to represent the best reference method for the evaluation of the radioimmunoassay, which appears to be a very sensitive and reliable technique for detecting methaqualone and its metabolites in human urine

  16. Urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases: current status and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Jian; Gao, Youhe

    2018-02-01

    As a noninvasive and easily available biological fluid, the urine is becoming an important source for disease biomarker study. Change is essential for the usefulness of a biomarker. Without homeostasis mechanisms, urine can accommodate more changes, especially in the early stages of diseases. In this review, we summarize current status and discuss perspectives on the discovery of urine biomarkers in the early stages of diseases. We emphasize the advantages of urine biomarkers compared to plasma biomarkers for the diagnosis of diseases at early stages, propose a urine biomarker research roadmap, and highlight a novel membrane storage technique that enables large-scale urine sample collection and storage efficiently and economically. It is anticipated that urine biomarker studies will greatly promote early diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of a variety of diseases, and provide strong support for translational and precision medicine.

  17. The effect of substrate composition and storage time on urine specific gravity in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, E; Drobatz, K; Aronson, L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of substrate composition and storage time on urine specific gravity in dogs. A descriptive cohort study of 15 dogs. The urine specific gravity of free catch urine samples was analysed during a 5-hour time period using three separate storage methods; a closed syringe, a diaper pad and non-absorbable cat litter. The urine specific gravity increased over time in all three substrates. The syringe sample had the least change from baseline and the diaper sample had the greatest change from baseline. The urine specific gravity for the litter and diaper samples had a statistically significant increase from the 1-hour to the 5-hour time point. The urine specific gravity from canine urine stored either on a diaper or in a non-absorbable litter increased over time. Although the change was found to be statistically significant over the 5-hour study period it is unlikely to be clinically significant.

  18. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Attas, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  19. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically tunneling current

  20. Importance of Urine Dipstick in Evaluation of Young Febrile Infants With Positive Urine Culture: A Spanish Pediatric Emergency Research Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Roberto; Benito, Helvia; Mozun, Rebeca; Trujillo, Juan E; Merino, Pedro A; de la Torre, Mercedes; Gomez, Borja; Mintegi, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics define urinary tract infection (UTI) as the growth of greater than 50,000 ufc/mL of a single bacterium in a urine culture with a positive urine dipstick or with a urinalysis associated. Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of this cutoff point for the diagnosis of UTI in young febrile infants. Subanalysis of a prospective multicenter study developed in RISeuP-SPERG Network between October 11 and September 13. To carry out the study, it was performed a comparison of analytical and microbiological characteristics of patients younger than 90 days with fever without focus, taking into account the results of urine dipstick and urine culture. Of a total of 3333 infants younger than 90 days with fever without focus which were included in the study, 538 were classified as UTI in accordance with American Academy of Pediatrics' guidelines. These patients were similar to those who had a positive urine dipstick and a urine culture yielding of 10,000 to 50,000 ufc/mL, and they were different from those who had a normal urine dipstick and a urine culture >50,000 ufc/mL, being focused on the isolated bacteria and blood biomarkers values. Forty-five invasive bacterial infections were diagnosed (5.9% of the 756 with a urine culture >10,000 ufc/mL). Half of the infants with a normal urine dipstick diagnosed with invasive bacterial infections were younger than 15 days. It might be inadequate to use a threshold of 50,000 cfu/mL to consider a urine culture as positive in young febrile infants given the fact that it would misdiagnose several UTIs.

  1. Urine stability studies for novel biomarkers of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Chirag R; Butrymowicz, Isabel; Yu, Angela; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Park, Meyeon; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Reeves, W Brian; Devarajan, Prasad; Kimmel, Paul L; Siew, Edward D; Liu, Kathleen D

    2014-04-01

    The study of novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury has expanded exponentially. Effective interpretation of data and meaningful comparisons between studies require awareness of factors that can adversely affect measurement. We examined how variations in short-term storage and processing might affect the measurement of urine biomarkers. Cross-sectional prospective. Hospitalized patients from 2 sites: Yale New Haven Hospital (n=50) and University of California, San Francisco Medical Center (n=36). We tested the impact of 3 urine processing conditions on these biomarkers: (1) centrifugation and storage at 4°C for 48 hours before freezing at -80°C, (2) centrifugation and storage at 25°C for 48 hours before freezing at -80°C, and (3) uncentrifuged samples immediately frozen at -80°C. Urine concentrations of 5 biomarkers: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), interleukin 18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), and cystatin C. We measured urine biomarkers by established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Biomarker values were log-transformed, and agreement with a reference standard of immediate centrifugation and storage at -80°C was compared using concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs). Neither storing samples at 4°C for 48 hours nor centrifugation had a significant effect on measured levels, with CCCs higher than 0.9 for all biomarkers tested. For samples stored at 25°C for 48 hours, excellent CCC values (>0.9) also were noted between the test sample and the reference standard for NGAL, cystatin C, L-FABP and KIM-1. However, the CCC for IL-18 between samples stored at 25°C for 48 hours and the reference standard was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.66-0.96). No comparisons to fresh, unfrozen samples; no evaluation of the effect of protease inhibitors. All candidate markers tested using the specified assays showed high stability with both short-term storage at 4°C and without centrifugation

  2. Preparation of a molecularly imprinted sensor based on quartz crystal microbalance for specific recognition of sialic acid in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiuzhen; Xu, Xian-Yan; Chen, Xuncai; Wu, Yiyong; Guo, Huishi

    2018-05-08

    A novel molecularly imprinted quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor was successfully prepared for selective determination of sialic acid (SA) in human urine samples. To obtain the QCM sensor, we first modified the gold surface of the QCM chip by self-assembling of allylmercaptane to introduce polymerizable double bonds on the chip surface. Then, SA molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanofilm was attached to the modified QCM chip surface. For comparison, we have also characterized the nonmodified and improved surfaces of the QCM sensor by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We then tested the selectivity and detection limit of the imprinted QCM sensor via a series of adsorption experiments. The results show a linear response in the range of 0.025-0.50 μmol L -1 for sialic acid. Moreover, the limit of detection (LOD) of the prepared imprinted QCM sensor was found to be 1.0 nmol L -1 for sialic acid, and high recovery values range from 87.6 to 108.5% with RSD sensor was developed and used to detect sialic acid in human urine samples. Graphical abstract Specific recognition of sialic acid by the MIP-QCM sensor system.

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIP for Selective Solid Phase Extraction of Celecoxib in Urine Samples Followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ansari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the analysis of human urine samples, a novel method explained for the determination of celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The synthesis of the MIP was performed by precipitation polymerization in methacrylic acid (MAA, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, chloroform, 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and celecoxib as the functional monomer, cross-linker monomer, solvent, initiator and target drug, respectively. The celecoxib imprinted polymer was utilized as a specific sorbent for the solid phase extraction (SPE of celecoxib from samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP performance was compared with the synthesized non-molecularly imprinted polymer (NIP. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-VIS spectrophotometry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG were used for characterizing the synthesized polymers. Moreover, the MISPE procedure parameters such as pH, eluent solvent flow rate, eluent volume and sorbent mass that probably influence the extraction process have been optimized to achieve the highest celecoxib extraction efficiency. The relative standard deviation (RSD %, recovery percent, limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ of this proposed method were 1.12%, 96%, 8 µg L-1 and 26.7 µg L-1, respectively. The proposed MISPE-HPLC-UV method can be used for the separation and enrichment of trace amounts of celecoxib in human urine and biological samples.

  4. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961); Les mecanismes de concentration et de dilution de l'urine (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [French] Cette revue de question est consacree l'analyse d'un probleme de physiologie renale qui, au cours des dernieres annees, a subi un developpement et un renouveau remarquables. Sont successivement exposes: a) les donnees fournies par les mesures de clearance de l'eau libre et leur interpretation; b) les donnees fournies par la morphologie des nephrons et l'anatomie comparee du rein; c) les donnees concernant l'existence d'un gradient osmotique intrarenal; d) le principe de multiplication de concentration par contrecourant; e) la theorie actuelle de concentration de l'urine par contre-courant, et f) le controle physiologique des mecanismes de dilution et de concentration de l'urine. Les avantages de la theorie moderne et les obscurites qui subsistent sont enfin discutes. (auteurs)

  5. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961); Les mecanismes de concentration et de dilution de l'urine (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F; Guinnebault, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [French] Cette revue de question est consacree l'analyse d'un probleme de physiologie renale qui, au cours des dernieres annees, a subi un developpement et un renouveau remarquables. Sont successivement exposes: a) les donnees fournies par les mesures de clearance de l'eau libre et leur interpretation; b) les donnees fournies par la morphologie des nephrons et l'anatomie comparee du rein; c) les donnees concernant l'existence d'un gradient osmotique intrarenal; d) le principe de multiplication de concentration par contrecourant; e) la theorie actuelle de concentration de l'urine par contre-courant, et f) le controle physiologique des mecanismes de dilution et de concentration de l'urine. Les avantages de la theorie moderne et les obscurites qui subsistent sont enfin discutes. (auteurs)

  6. Oral Fluid vs. Urine Analysis to Monitor Synthetic Cannabinoids and Classic Drugs Recent Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Vincent; Wetzel, Jillian; Kim, Jiyoung; Haxhi, Petrit; Curtis, Richard; Concheiro, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Urine is a common biological sample to monitor recent drug exposure, and oral fluid is an alternative matrix of increasing interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. Limited data are available about oral fluid vs. urine drug disposition, especially for synthetic cannabinoids. To compare urine and oral fluid as biological matrices to monitor recent drug exposure among HIV-infected homeless individuals. Seventy matched urine and oral fluid samples were collected from 13 participants. Cannabis, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and opiates were analyzed in urine by the enzyme-multipliedimmunoassay- technique and in oral fluid by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Eleven synthetic cannabinoids were analyzed in urine and in oral fluid by LC-MSMS. Five oral fluid samples were positive for AB-FUBINACA. In urine, 4 samples tested positive for synthetic cannabinoids PB-22, 5-Fluoro-PB-22, AB-FUBINACA, and metabolites UR-144 5-pentanoic acid and UR-144 4-hydroxypentyl. In only one case, oral fluid and urine results matched, both specimens being AB-FUBINACA positive. For cannabis, 40 samples tested positive in urine and 30 in oral fluid (85.7% match). For cocaine, 37 urine and 52 oral fluid samples were positive (75.7% match). Twenty-four urine samples were positive for opiates, and 25 in oral fluid (81.4% match). For benzodiazepines, 23 samples were positive in urine and 25 in oral fluid (85.7% match). These results offer new information about drugs disposition between urine and oral fluid. Oral fluid is a good alternative matrix to urine for monitoring cannabis, cocaine, opiates and benzodiazepines recent use; however, synthetic cannabinoids showed mixed results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Synthesis of molecular imprinting polymers for extraction of gallic acid from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawani, Showkat Ahmad; Sen, Tham Soon; Ibrahim, Mohammad Nasir Mohammad

    2018-02-21

    The molecularly imprinted polymers for gallic acid were synthesized by precipitation polymerization. During the process of synthesis a non-covalent approach was used for the interaction of template and monomer. In the polymerization process, gallic acid was used as a template, acrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator and acetonitrile as a solvent. The synthesized imprinted and non-imprinted polymer particles were characterized by using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The rebinding efficiency of synthesized polymer particles was evaluated by batch binding assay. The highly selective imprinted polymer for gallic acid was MIPI1 with a composition (molar ratio) of 1:4:20, template: monomer: cross-linker, respectively. The MIPI1 showed highest binding efficiency (79.50%) as compared to other imprinted and non-imprinted polymers. The highly selective imprinted polymers have successfully extracted about 80% of gallic acid from spiked urine sample.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Imprinting Polymer Microspheres of Piperine: Extraction of Piperine from Spiked Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Marcella Roland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP microspheres for Piperine were synthesized by precipitation polymerization with a noncovalent approach. In this research Piperine was used as a template, acrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, and 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator and acetonitrile as a solvent. The imprinted and nonimprinted polymer particles were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The synthesized polymer particles were further evaluated for their rebinding efficiency by batch binding assay. The highly selected imprinted polymer for Piperine was MIP 3 with a composition (molar ratio of 0.5 : 3 : 8, template : monomer : cross-linker, respectively. The MIP 3 exhibits highest binding capacity (84.94% as compared to other imprinted and nonimprinted polymers. The extraction efficiency of highly selected imprinted polymer of Piperine from spiked urine was above 80%.

  9. Electron microscopy and forensic practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2013-05-01

    Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

  10. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. French Society of Microscopy, 10. conference; Societe Francaise des Microscopies, 10. colloque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibault-Penisson, J; Cremer, Ch; Susini, J; Kirklanda, A I; Rigneault, H; Renault, O; Bailly, A; Zagonel, L F; Barrett, N; Bogner, A; Gauthier, C; Jouneau, P H; Thollet, G; Fuchs, G; Basset, D; Deconihout, B; Vurpillot, F; Vella, A; Matthieu, G; Cadel, E; Bostel, A; Blavette, D; Baumeister, W; Usson, Y; Zaefferer, St; Laffont, L; Weyland, M; Thomas, J M; Midgley, P; Benlekbir, S; Epicier, Th; Diop, B N; Roux, St; Ou, M; Perriat, P; Bausach, M; Aouine, M; Berhault, G; Idrissi, H; Cottevieille, M; Jonic, S; Larquet, E; Svergun, D; Vannoni, M A; Boisset, N; Ersena, O; Werckmann, J; Ulhaq, C; Hirlimann, Ch; Tihay, F; Cuong, Pham-Huu; Crucifix, C; Schultz, P; Jornsanoha, P; Thollet, G; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Gauthier, C; Ludwig, W; King, A; Johnson, G; Gonzalves-Hoennicke, M; Reischig, P; Messaoudi, C; Ibrahim, R; Marco, S; Klie, R F; Zhao, Y; Yang, G; Zhu, Y; Hue, F; Hytch, M; Hartmann, J M; Bogumilowicz, Y; Claverie, A; Klein, H; Alloyeau, D; Ricolleau, C; Langlois, C; Le Bouar, Y; Loiseau, A; Colliex, C; Stephan, O; Kociak, M; Tence, M; Gloter, A; Imhoff, D; Walls, M; Nelayah, J; March, K; Couillard, M; Ailliot, C; Bertin, F; Cooper, D; Rivallin, P; Dumelie, N; Benhayoune, H; Balossier, G; Cheynet, M; Pokrant, S; Tichelaar, F; Rouviere, J L; Cooper, D; Truche, R; Chabli, A; Debili, M Y; Houdellier, F; Warot-Fonrose, B; Hytch, M J; Snoeck, E; Calmels, L; Serin, V; Schattschneider, P; Jacob, D; Cordier, P

    2007-07-01

    This document gathers the resumes of some of the presentations made at this conference whose aim was to present the last developments and achievements of the 3 complementary microscopies: optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy. The contributions have been organized around the following 12 topics: 1) new technical developments, 2) 3-dimensional imaging, 3) quantitative microscopy, 4) technical progress in photon microscopy, 5) synchrotron radiation, 6) measurements of patterns, deformations and strains, 7) materials for energy and transports, 8) nano-structures, 9) virus: structure and infection mechanisms, 10) 3-dimensional imaging for molecules, cells and cellular tissues, 11) nano-particles and colloids, and 12) liquid crystals.

  12. Urine stability and steroid profile: towards a screening index of urine sample degradation for anti-doping purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Monica; Abate, Maria Gabriella; Alocci, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Stinchelli, Raffaella; Molaioni, Francesco; de la Torre, Xavier; Botrè, Francesco

    2011-01-10

    The presence of microorganisms in urine samples, under favourable conditions of storage and transportation, may alter the concentration of steroid hormones, thus altering the correct evaluation of the urinary steroid profile in doping control analysis. According to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA technical document TD2004 EAAS), a testosterone deconjugation higher than 5% and the presence of 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione in the deconjugated fraction, are reliable indicators of urine degradation. The determination of these markers would require an additional quantitative analysis since the steroids screening analysis, in anti-doping laboratories, is performed in the total (free+conjugated) fraction. The aim of this work is therefore to establish reliable threshold values for some representative compounds (namely 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione) in the total fraction in order to predict directly at the screening stage the potential microbial degradation of the urine samples. Preliminary evidence on the most suitable degradation indexes has been obtained by measuring the urinary concentration of testosterone, epitestosterone, 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric every day for 15 days in the deconjugated, glucuronide and total fraction of 10 pools of urines from 60 healthy subjects, stored under different pH and temperature conditions, and isolating the samples with one or more markers of degradation according to the WADA technical document TD2004EAAS. The threshold values for 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione were therefore obtained correlating the testosterone deconjugation rate with the urinary concentrations of 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and 5β-androstane-3,17-dione in the total fraction. The threshold values suggested as indexes of urine degradation in the total fraction were: 10 ng mL(-1) for 5α-androstane-3,17-dione

  13. The migration of drugs-of-abuse from Europe to Denmark – Analysis of pooled anonymous urine from urinals at Roskilde Festival 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christiansen, Cecilie; Soe, Jesper

    of NPS, traditional treatment guidelines are challenged. Thus, information of the emergence of new arrivals is of great value. Our knowledge on the actual range of drugs used and NPS available in Denmark is limited as identification is possible only when consumers become patients in the healthcare system...... or through police seizures [2]. We carried out a cross-sectional study of collected pooled anonymous urine, sampled from urinals at the biggest music festival during the year, Roskilde Festival, with the aim to detect classic recreational drugs and NPS. The aim of this study was to identify recreational...... drugs currently used and predict the emergence of NPS by comparing study data with seizure data from the previous year published by EMCDDA [1]. Methods: In total 44 urine samples were collected from three urinals at Roskilde Festival 2016. Two urinals were placed at music stages with late-night concerts...

  14. The 2015 super-resolution microscopy roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hell, Stefan W; Sahl, Steffen J; Bates, Mark; Jakobs, Stefan; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Heintzmann, Rainer; Booth, Martin J; Bewersdorf, Joerg; Shtengel, Gleb; Hess, Harald; Tinnefeld, Philip; Honigmann, Alf; Testa, Ilaria; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ewers, Helge; Davis, Simon J; Eggeling, Christian; Klenerman, David; Willig, Katrin I

    2015-01-01

    Far-field optical microscopy using focused light is an important tool in a number of scientific disciplines including chemical, (bio)physical and biomedical research, particularly with respect to the study of living cells and organisms. Unfortunately, the applicability of the optical microscope is limited, since the diffraction of light imposes limitations on the spatial resolution of the image. Consequently the details of, for example, cellular protein distributions, can be visualized only to a certain extent. Fortunately, recent years have witnessed the development of ‘super-resolution’ far-field optical microscopy (nanoscopy) techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED), ground state depletion (GSD), reversible saturated optical (fluorescence) transitions (RESOLFT), photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM), stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), structured illumination microscopy (SIM) or saturated structured illumination microscopy (SSIM), all in one way or another addressing the problem of the limited spatial resolution of far-field optical microscopy. While SIM achieves a two-fold improvement in spatial resolution compared to conventional optical microscopy, STED, RESOLFT, PALM/STORM, or SSIM have all gone beyond, pushing the limits of optical image resolution to the nanometer scale. Consequently, all super-resolution techniques open new avenues of biomedical research. Because the field is so young, the potential capabilities of different super-resolution microscopy approaches have yet to be fully explored, and uncertainties remain when considering the best choice of methodology. Thus, even for experts, the road to the future is sometimes shrouded in mist. The super-resolution optical microscopy roadmap of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics addresses this need for clarity. It provides guidance to the outstanding questions through a collection of short review articles from experts in the field, giving a thorough

  15. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  16. An exploratory study on seawater-catalysed urine phosphorus recovery (SUPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ji; Tang, Wen-Tao; Zheng, Yi-Se; Mackey, Hamish R; Chui, Ho Kwong; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a crucial and non-renewable resource, while it is excessively discharged via sewage, significant amounts originating from human urine. Recovery of P from source-separated urine presents an opportunity not only to recover this precious resource but also to improve downstream sewage treatment works. This paper proposes a simple and economic method to recover urine derived P by using seawater as a low-cost precipitant to form struvite, as Hong Kong has practised seawater toilet flushing as an alternative water resource since 1958. Chemical reactions, process conditions and precipitate composition for P precipitation in urine have been investigated to develop this new urine P recovery approach. This study concluded that ureolysis extent in a urine-seawater mixture determines the reaction pH that in turn influences the P recovery efficiency significantly; 98% of urine P can precipitate with seawater within 10 min when 40-75% of the urea in urine is ureolysed; the urine to seawater ratio alters the composition of the precipitates. The P content in the precipitates was found to be more than 9% when the urine fraction was 40% or higher. Magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) was confirmed to be the predominant component of the precipitates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An evaluation of an organically bound tritium measurement method in artificial and natural urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Duong, T.

    1993-03-01

    The accurate measurement of tritium in urine in the form of tritiated water (HTO) as well as in organic forms (organically bound tritium (OBT)) is an essential step in assessing tritium exposures correctly. Exchange between HTO and OBT, arising intrinsically in the separation of HTO from urine samples, is a source of error in determining the concentration of OBT using the low-temperature distillation (LTD) bioassay method. The accuracy and precision of OBT measurements using the LTD method was investigated using spiked natural and artificial urine samples. The relative bias for most of the measurements was less than 25%. The choice of testing matrix, artificial urine versus human urine, made little difference: the precisions for each urine type were similar. The appropriateness of the use of artificial urine for testing purposes was judged using a ratio of performance indices. Based on this evaluation, the artificial urine is a suitable test matrix for intercomparisons of OBT in urine measurements. It is further concluded that the LTD method is reliable for measuring OBT in urine samples. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs

  18. An evaluation of an organically bound tritium measurement method in artificial and natural urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A; Duong, T

    1993-03-01

    The accurate measurement of tritium in urine in the form of tritiated water (HTO) as well as in organic forms (organically bound tritium (OBT)) is an essential step in assessing tritium exposures correctly. Exchange between HTO and OBT, arising intrinsically in the separation of HTO from urine samples, is a source of error in determining the concentration of OBT using the low-temperature distillation (LTD) bioassay method. The accuracy and precision of OBT measurements using the LTD method was investigated using spiked natural and artificial urine samples. The relative bias for most of the measurements was less than 25%. The choice of testing matrix, artificial urine versus human urine, made little difference: the precisions for each urine type were similar. The appropriateness of the use of artificial urine for testing purposes was judged using a ratio of performance indices. Based on this evaluation, the artificial urine is a suitable test matrix for intercomparisons of OBT in urine measurements. It is further concluded that the LTD method is reliable for measuring OBT in urine samples. (author). 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Urine mutagenicity of steel workers exposed to coke oven emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Meo, M.P.; Dumenil, G.; Botta, A.H.; Laget, M.; Zabaloueff, V.; Mathias, A.

    1987-03-01

    Urine mutagenicity of 19 individuals was investigated at a steel mill. All the subjects worked on the coal processing unit. Urine samples were collected at the end of a working day. Urine samples of two exposed workers were collected at the end of two periods of rest and two periods of working. Mutagens were extracted on XAD-2 resin and tested by the Salmonella microsomal assay and the SOS spot test. Mutagenic potencies of exposed smokers and exposed non-smokers were 8.62 +/- 6.56 and 1.1 +/- 0.48 revertants/mg creatinine respectively with Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 + S9. Both values were significantly higher than those of unexposed smokers and non-smokers (5.07 +/- 3.33 and 0.47 +/- 0.72 revertants/mg creatinine respectively). The urinary mutagenic potency of the two exposed individuals increased at the end of periods of working (15.97 +/- 2.57 revertants/mg creatinine) and decreased at the end of periods of rest (12.31 +/- 2.45 revertants/mg creatinine). Urinary mutagens were detected with S. typhimurium strain TA100 + S9 to a lesser extent. No direct-acting mutagens were detected by the SOS spot test. Atmospheric benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also measured by h.p.l.c. on the coke battery. BaP concentrations ranged between 0.01 and 0.6 microgram/m3 air at the different working sites. Biological monitoring with short-term tests is discussed.

  20. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  1. Confocal Raman Microscopy; applications in tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, Aart A.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation describes the use of confocal Raman microscopy and spectroscopy in the field of tissue engineering. Moreover, it describes the combination of two already existing technologies, namely scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy in one apparatus for the enhancement

  2. Scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Provides the first comprehensive treatment of the physics and applications of this mainstream technique for imaging and analysis at the atomic level Presents applications of STEM in condensed matter physics, materials science, catalysis, and nanoscience Suitable for graduate students learning microscopy, researchers wishing to utilize STEM, as well as for specialists in other areas of microscopy Edited and written by leading researchers and practitioners

  3. Magnetic force microscopy : Quantitative issues in biomaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passeri, D.; Dong, C.; Reggente, M.; Angeloni, L.; Barteri, M.; Scaramuzzo, F.A.; De Angelis, F.; Marinelli, F.; Antonelli, F.; Rinaldi, F.; Marianecci, C.; Carafa, M.; Sorbo, A.; Sordi, D.; Arends, I.W.C.E.; Rossi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based technique in which an AFM tip with a magnetic coating is used to probe local magnetic fields with the typical AFM spatial resolution, thus allowing one to acquire images reflecting the local magnetic properties of the samples

  4. Multiphoton microscopy imaging of developing tooth germs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yu Pan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, a novel multiphoton microscopy database of images from developing tooth germs in mice was set up. We confirmed that multiphoton laser microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating the development of tooth germ and is worthy for further application in the study of tooth regeneration.

  5. Scanning Capacitance Microscopy | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy. Top Right: Image of p-type and n-type material, obtained 'fingers' of light-colored n-type material on a yellow and blue background representing p-type material material, obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy, in a sample semiconductor device; the image shows

  6. Carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles as a novel magnetic solid phase extraction adsorbent for simultaneous extraction of methamphetamine and ephedrine from urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvimi, Arezou; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-01-15

    This paper develops a highly selective, specific and efficient method for simultaneous determination of ephedrine and methamphetamine by a new carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles (C/MNPs) as a magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent in biological urine medium. The characterization of synthesized magnetic nano adsorbent was completely carried out by various characterization techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Nine important parameters influencing extraction efficiency including amount of adsorbent, amounts of sample volume, pH, type and amount of extraction organic solvent, time of extraction and desorption, agitation rate and ionic strength of extraction medium, were studied and optimized. Under optimized extraction conditions, a good linearity was observed in the concentration range of 100-2000ng/mL for ephedrine and 100-2500ng/mL for methamphetamine. Analysis of positive urine samples was carried out by proposed method with the recovery of 98.71 and 97.87% for ephedrine and methamphetamine, respectively. The results indicated that carbon coated magnetic nanoparticles could be applied in clinical and forensic laboratories for simultaneous determination of abused drugs in urine media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The measurement of natural uranium in urine by fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Johnson, J.R.; Green, W.

    1984-02-01

    The fluorometric method of measuring natural uranium in urine that is currently used by the Bioassay Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories has been tested, optimized and documented. The method, which measures the fluorescence of uranium in a fused sodium fluoride pellet, has been shown to be quench independent and is routinely used to measure uranium concentrations in the range of 1 μg/L to 90 μg/L. The fluorimeter has a dynamic range of 0.2 μg/L to 200 μg/L

  8. Uncertainty estimation of uranium determination in urine by fluorometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Al-Khateeb, S.

    2003-11-01

    In this study an applicable mathematical model is proposed for the estimation of uncertainty in uranium determination by fluorometry in urine sample. The study based on EURACHEM guide for uncertainty estimation. This model was tested on a sample containing 0.02 μg/ml uranium, where calculated uncertainty was 0.007 μg/ml. The sources of uncertainty were shown on fish-bone plane as the following: In addition, the weight of each uncertainty parameter was shown in a histogram: Finally, it was found that the estimated uncertainty by the proposed model was 3 to 4 time more that the usually reported standard deviation. (author)

  9. The effect of sleep on nocturnal urine output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2005-01-01

    sleep and the sequence was randomized. During these nights with sleep deprivation, participants were in lying position in a dimly lit room and physical activities, food and fluid intake were not allowed. Smoking was not allowed throughout the entire experimental protocol. Determinations of electrolytes...... sleep related physiological mechanisms into consideration. In the present study we report that acute sleep deprivation has a dramatic effect on the volume of nocturnal urine production in both genders although the effect is more pronounced in males. Natriuresis and kaliuresis were observed on nights...

  10. [Purple urine bag syndrome in elderly woman with nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alegría, A R; Vélez Díaz-Pallares, M; Moreno Cobo, Ma A; Arrieta Blanco, F; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2012-01-01

    The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare entity which typically affects elderly women with prolonged urinary catheterization and weakening chronic diseases. Other predisposing factors are previous urologic pathology, immobility syndrome and chronic constipation. The purple color is due to the presence of high loads of bacteria with sulphatase--phosphatase activity which develop in an alkaline environment as well as the presence of other factors. In the case we present the administration of nutritional supplements containing tryptophan conditioned the generation of this syndrome.

  11. Estimation of uptake from censored urine excretion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, J.W.; Birchall, A.

    1994-01-01

    The estimation of radionuclide uptake often involves consideration of measurements of urine excretion which may include some values reported as below the limit of detection (LOD). Data sets which contain below LOD data as well as positive results are known as censored data sets. A simple method which uses the information contained in censored data to estimate uptake is described. A Monte Carlo technique has been used to investigate the accuracy and the efficiency of the method using simulated data sets with increasing numbers of LOD data points. (author)

  12. Determination of uranium in urine by 2-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Szeles, M.S.-M.F.

    1989-07-01

    A comparative study is presented for two technics of preparation sources for the determination of uranium isotopes by α - spectrometry: electrodeposition and chemical stripping with polymeric membrane containing trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). A method is described for separation of uranium from urine with an ion-exchange column Dowex 1x8 (chloride form). The mean yield obtained for electrodeposition and TOPO deposition was 74% and 8,5% respectively. The TOPO deposition presented better resolution for 238 U and 234 U than electrodeposition. The global yield of the method obtained was 50%. (author) [pt

  13. Electron microscopy of atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Fu

    Electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EM/EDS) is a powerful tool for single particle analysis. However, the accuracy with which atmospheric particle compositions can be quantitatively determined by EDS is often hampered by substrate-particle interactions, volatilization losses in the low pressure microscope chamber, electron beam irradiation and use of inaccurate quantitation factors. A pseudo-analytical solution was derived to calculate the temperature rise due to the dissipation of the electron energy on a particle-substrate system. Evaporative mass loss for a spherical cap-shaped sulfuric acid particle resting on a thin film supported by a TEM grid during electron beam impingement has been studied. Measured volatilization rates were found to be in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. The method proposed can also be used to estimate the vapor pressure of a species by measuring the decay of X-ray intensities. Several types of substrates were studied. We found that silver-coated silicon monoxide substrates give carbon detection limits comparable to commercially available substrates. An advantage of these substrates is that the high thermal conductivity of the silver reduces heating due to electron beam impingement. In addition, exposure of sulfuric acid samples to ammonia overnight substantially reduces sulfur loss in the electron beam. Use of size-dependent k-factors determined from particles of known compositions shows promise for improving the accuracy of atmospheric particle compositions measured by EM/EDS. Knowledge accumulated during the course of this thesis has been used to analyze atmospheric particles (Minneapolis, MN) selected by the TDMA and collected by an aerodynamic focusing impactor. 'Less' hygroscopic particles, which do not grow to any measurable extent when humidified to ~90% relative humidity, included chain agglomerates, spheres, flakes, and irregular shapes. Carbon was the predominant element detected in

  14. Structured illumination microscopy and its new developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianling Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy allows us to observe the biological structures and processes within living cells. However, the spatial resolution of the optical microscopy is limited to about half of the wavelength by the light diffraction. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM, a type of new emerging super-resolution microscopy, doubles the spatial resolution by illuminating the specimen with a patterned light, and the sample and light source requirements of SIM are not as strict as the other super-resolution microscopy. In addition, SIM is easier to combine with the other imaging techniques to improve their imaging resolution, leading to the developments of diverse types of SIM. SIM has great potential to meet the various requirements of living cells imaging. Here, we review the recent developments of SIM and its combination with other imaging techniques.

  15. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Ali Sadjadi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Seyed-Ali Sadjadi1,2, Navin Jaipaul1,21Jerry L Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center, 2Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USAAbstract: Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01 in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS] and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001, and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001 and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01 in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS and r = 0.54 (P = NS in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02 and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05 in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and

  16. Antibiotic Screening of Urine Culture for Internal Quality Audit at Amrita Hospital, Kochi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Aswathy; Gopinathan, Anusha; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Kumar, Anil

    2017-07-01

    Urine antimicrobial activity is a seldom analysed laboratory test which greatly impacts the quantification of urine specimens. Presence of antimicrobial activity in the urine reduces the bacterial load in these specimens. Hence, the chances of erroneously reporting insignificant bacteriuria can be reduced on analysis of the antimicrobial activity in urine. The aim of the study was to measure the antimicrobial activity of urine samples obtained from patients in a tertiary care hospital. A total of 100 urine specimens were collected from the study group. Tests like wet mount, Gram staining and culture were performed. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done on the bacteria isolated from each specimen. The urine specimens were reported as significant bacteriuria (>105 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/ml) and insignificant bacteriuria (<105 CFU/ml - clean catch midstream urine; <102 CFU/ml - catheterized urine sample) according to the CFU/ml. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC ® 25923 ™ and Escherichia coli ATCC ® 25922 ™ were used to identify the presence of antimicrobial activity in the urine sample by Urine Anti-Bacterial substance Assay (UABA). McNemar test was used for statistical analysis using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. On analysis of the antimicrobial activity of urine sample with the prior antibiotic history of the patients, 17 were true positives and 43 were true negatives. Twenty six of samples with UABA positivity were culture negative and 28 samples with UABA positivity were culture positive. Sensitivity and specificity of the test was 85% and 53.8% respectively. Accuracy of the test was 60%. The p-value of UABA was <0.001. Enterobacteriaceae was the most common bacterial family isolated from the urine specimens. A total of 85% patients responded to treatment. Presence of antimicrobial activity in urine has a great impact on the interpretation of urine culture reports. Identification of urine antimicrobial activity helps

  17. Normalisation of spot urine samples to 24-h collection for assessment of exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, R.; Katorza, E.; Gonen, R.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.; Pelled, O.; Paz-tal, O.; Adout, A.; Karpas, Z.

    2008-01-01

    For dose assessment of workers at Nuclear Research Center Negev exposed to natural uranium, spot urine samples are analysed and the results are normalised to 24-h urine excretion based on 'standard' man urine volume of 1.6 l d -1 . In the present work, the urine volume, uranium level and creatinine concentration were determined in two or three 24-h urine collections from 133 male workers (319 samples) and 33 female workers (88 samples). Three volunteers provided urine spot samples from each voiding during a 24-h period and a good correlation was found between the relative level of creatinine and uranium in spot samples collected from the same individual. The results show that normalisation of uranium concentration to creatinine in a spot sample represents the 24-h content of uranium better than normalisation to the standard volume and may be used to reduce the uncertainty of dose assessment based on spot samples. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of storage conditions for tritiated thymidine as reference organically-bound tritium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, T.; Trivedi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Interlaboratory intercomparison exercises have used tritiated thymidine as a reference material for organically-bound tritium (OBT) measurements in urine. We have examined the effects of storage conditions on the degradation behavior of tritium from OBT to tritiated water (HTO) in artificial and natural human urine samples. Tritiated thymidine decomposed less readily in artificial urine than natural urine samples. The degradation rate of tritiated thymidine in artificial urine, at -20 deg C, is about 10% for the first month. The rate of tritium conversion from OBT to HTO is the same at 4 deg C, but this storage temperature is less preferable, because of the danger of microbial contamination in the reference samples. The storage of the reference urine samples beyond three months after the preparation date is not recommended for quality control measurement data. (author)

  19. Substitution of human for horse urine disproves an accusation of doping*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Silvina; Kienast, Mariana E; Villegas-Castagnasso, Egle E; Pena, Natalia L; Manganare, Marcos M; Posik, Diego; Peral-García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2008-09-01

    In order to detect switching and/or manipulation of samples, the owner of a stallion asked our lab to perform a DNA test on a positive doping urine sample. The objective was to compare the urine DNA profile versus blood and hair DNA profiles from the same stallion. At first, 10 microsatellite markers were investigated to determine the horse identity. No results were obtained when horse specific markers were typed in the urine sample. In order to confirm the species origin of this sample we analyzed the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. This analysis from blood and hair samples produced reproducible and clear PCR-RFLP patterns and DNA sequence match with those expected for horse, while the urine sample results were coincident with human. These results allowed us to exclude the urine sample from the questioned stallion and determine its human species origin, confirming the manipulation of urine sample.

  20. The Utilization of Urine Processing for the Advancement of Life Support Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-Soyster, Elysse; Hogan, John; Flynn, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The success of long-duration missions will depend on resource recovery and the self-sustainability of life support technologies. Current technologies used on the International Space Station (ISS) utilize chemical and mechanical processes, such as filtration, to recover potable water from urine produced by crewmembers. Such technologies have significantly reduced the need for water resupply through closed-loop resource recovery and recycling. Harvesting the important components of urine requires selectivity, whether through the use of membranes or other physical barriers, or by chemical or biological processes. Given the chemical composition of urine, the downstream benefits of urine processing for resource recovery will be critical for many aspects of life support, such as food production and the synthesis of biofuels. This paper discusses the beneficial components of urine and their potential applications, and the challenges associated with using urine for nutrient recycling for space application.

  1. Timing of specimen collection is crucial in urine screening of drug dependent mothers and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, A C; Godolphin, W; Lockitch, G; Segal, S

    1988-01-01

    We compared results of urine drug analysis with clinical data and history to test the usefulness of peripartum drug screening and to establish guidelines for optimal testing. Urine from 28 mothers and 52 babies was analysed. Drugs not suspected by history were found in 10 mothers and six babies. Results assisted in the management of neonatal withdrawal in three babies. Drugs suspected by history were not found in 11/22 mothers and 23/35 babies. About half of these results were associated with delayed urine collection. In 12/28 mothers, drugs administered in hospital could have confused interpretation of screen results. We conclude that urine drug screening without strict protocols for specimen collection is of limited usefulness for management of drug abuse in pregnancy and neonatal drug withdrawal. We favour testing of maternal urine obtained before drugs are administered in hospital. Neonatal urine, if used, should be collected in the first day of life.

  2. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tubes compared with nonpreservative urine samples stored at 4°C and room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Stephen W; Schwartz, Matthew; Dam, Lisa; Riedel, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    The stability of urine specimens submitted for culture remains a challenge for many laboratories because of delays in specimen transport. We evaluated the usefulness of BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube in ensuring specimen stability. Clinical urine specimens collected in sterile collection cups (n = 110) were plated onto sheep blood and MacConkey agar following standard laboratory procedures guidelines. Thereafter, specimens were divided into 3 storage conditions: nonpreservative, refrigerated; nonpreservative, room temperature (RT); BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube, RT. For each sample type, additional cultures were set up at 2, 4, 24, and 48 hours. Initially, 18 specimens had no growth, 32 showed mixed skin flora, and 60 yielded at least 1 uropathogen. Increased colony counts of uropathogens were observed for nonpreserved urine samples stored at RT; these changes were statistically significant. Minor differences between refrigerated urine samples and BD Vacutainer Plus Urine C&S Preservative Tube samples were seen but were not statistically significant. The use of preservative-containing collection tubes is desirable to ensure specimen stability when prompt processing or refrigeration is not feasible.

  3. Importance of Sample Preparation for Molecular Diagnosis of Lyme Borreliosis from Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, A. R.; Schmidt, B. L.; Derler, A.-M.; Aberer, E.

    2002-01-01

    Urine PCR has been used for the diagnosis of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in recent years but has been abandoned because of its low sensitivity and the irreproducibility of the results. Our study aimed to analyze technical details related to sample preparation and detection methods. Crucial for a successful urine PCR were (i) avoidance of the first morning urine sample; (ii) centrifugation at 36,000 × g; and (iii) the extraction method, with only DNAzol of the seven different extraction met...

  4. Lack of clinical utility of urine gram stain for suspected urinary tract infection in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Joseph B; Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Doern, Christopher D

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in children. Urine culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but the utility of urine Gram stain relative to urinalysis (UA) is unclear. We reviewed 312 pediatric patients with suspected UTI who had urine culture, UA, and urine Gram stain performed from a single urine specimen. UA was considered positive if ≥10 leukocytes per oil immersion field were seen or if either nitrates or leukocyte esterase testing was positive. Urine Gram stain was considered positive if any organisms were seen. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated using urine culture as the gold standard. Thirty-seven (12%) patients had a culture-proven UTI. Compared to urine Gram stain, UA had equal sensitivity (97.3% versus 97.5%) and higher specificity (85% versus 74%). Empirical therapy was prescribed before the Gram stain result was known in 40 (49%) patients and after in 42 (51%) patients. The antibiotics chosen did not differ between the two groups (P=0.81), nor did they differ for patients with Gram-negative rods on urine Gram stain compared to those with Gram-positive cocci (P=0.67). From these data, we conclude that UA has excellent negative predictive value that is not enhanced by urine Gram stain and that antibiotic selection did not vary based on the urine Gram stain result. In conclusion, the clinical utility of urine Gram stain does not warrant the time or cost it requires. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Quantification of Urine Elimination Behaviors in Cats with a Video Recording System

    OpenAIRE

    R. Dulaney, D.; Hopfensperger, M.; Malinowski, R.; Hauptman, J.; Kruger, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Urinary disorders in cats often require subjective caregiver quantification of clinical signs to establish a diagnosis and monitor therapeutic outcomes. Objective To investigate use of a video recording system (VRS) to better assess and quantify urination behaviors in cats. Animals Eleven healthy cats and 8 cats with disorders potentially associated with abnormal urination patterns. Methods Prospective study design. Litter box urination behaviors were quantified with a VRS for 14 d...

  6. Estimation of paracetamol in urine to assess the diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Chandro Bhowmik

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diurnal variation of the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol by estimating the urinary free paracetamol level after single oral administration of paracetamol (500 mg tablet to 24 healthy male volunteers (students of a Medical College. The volunteers were given paracetamol tablet at 0800, 1400 and 2000 hours in three different days (two weeks apart and the urine samples of the volunteers were collected at just before and four hours after paracetamol administration. The samples were analyzed for free paracetamol using HPLC. The mean age was 21.1 ± 1.3 years and the body weight was 63.9 ± 10.9 kg. Three peaks were detected in the HPLC and one of them was identified for free paracetamol (RT= 4.7 min. The urine volume was nearly similar in all three times. After administration at 0800 hour, total free paracetamol excretion was significantly more than at 1400 and 2000 hours (p<0.001. The present study indicates that the dose reduction of paracetamol is required at morning than the afternoon or evening dose. 

  7. Cysteinyl leukotrienes in the urine of patients with liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, M; Buchholz, U; Kojima, H; Keppler, A; Hafkemeyer, P; Fukui, H; Tsujii, T; Keppler, D

    1994-10-01

    The significance of cysteinyl leukotrienes was investigated in patients with liver diseases by measurements of leukotriene E4 and N-acetyl-leukotriene E4 in urine. A marked increase of renal cysteinyl leukotriene excretion was observed in patients with cirrhosis without and with ascites, intrahepatic cholestasis, and obstructive jaundice as compared with healthy subjects (leukotriene E4: means 82, 264, 221 and 142 versus 40 nmol/mol creatinine, respectively; N-acetyl-leukotriene E4: means 25, 64, 61 and 47 versus 13 nmol/mol creatinine, respectively). The urinary concentration of leukotriene E4 was positively correlated with the one of N-acetyl-leukotriene E4 (r = 0.81, p jaundice, the excretion of leukotriene E4 plus N-acetyl-leukotriene E4 was positively correlated with total serum bilirubin. In patients with cirrhosis and in those with obstructive jaundice, the cysteinyl leukotrienes in urine were negatively correlated with creatinine clearance. The elevated renal excretion of cysteinyl leukotrienes decreased after biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice. These data support the concept that increased urinary excretion of cysteinyl leukotrienes in patients with cirrhosis is due to a reduced functional liver mass and that in patients with cholestasis it is mainly due to an impaired elimination into the biliary tract that results in a diversion to renal excretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Urine Metabonomics Reveals Early Biomarkers in Diabetic Cognitive Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lili; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lin, Mengya; Kang, Mingqin; Liu, Hongyue; Zhang, Yuping; Yang, Zhen; Chen, Yunlong; Zhang, Yanjun

    2017-09-01

    Recently, increasing attention has been paid to diabetic encephalopathy, which is a frequent diabetic complication and affects nearly 30% of diabetics. Because cognitive dysfunction from diabetic encephalopathy might develop into irreversible dementia, early diagnosis and detection of this disease is of great significance for its prevention and treatment. This study is to investigate the early specific metabolites biomarkers in urine prior to the onset of diabetic cognitive dysfunction (DCD) by using metabolomics technology. An ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) platform was used to analyze the urine samples from diabetic mice that were associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and nonassociated with MCI in the stage of diabetes (prior to the onset of DCD). We then screened and validated the early biomarkers using OPLS-DA model and support vector machine (SVM) method. Following multivariate statistical and integration analysis, we found that seven metabolites could be accepted as early biomarkers of DCD, and the SVM results showed that the prediction accuracy is as high as 91.66%. The identities of four biomarkers were determined by mass spectrometry. The identified biomarkers were largely involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, glutathione metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism. The present study first revealed reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis of DCD. It provides new insight and strategy for the early diagnosis and treatment of DCD.

  9. Role of the brain in the regulation process of urination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Berdichevskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of positron emission tomography of the brain with glucose isotope 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in healthy men and women during the period of accumulation and emptying of the bladder revealed no gender-specific brain activity. The men and women during the accumulation and storage of urine occurs at a standard activity of the brain with the dominance of the left hemisphere. Zone hyperactivity of the brain during this period is the region of the back of the cingulate gyrus.During urination in both men and women have the increased activity of the cortex of the brain. Preserved the dominance of the left hemisphere. Hyperactivity zone of the brain during this period is the region of the anterior cingulate gyrus.Thus, the cortical control of the act of accumulation and bladder emptying in healthy people in our studies did not reveal gender differences. However, security features neurohumoral response of spinal centers and peripheral neuroregulation function of the lower urinary tract, may have a man and a woman significant differences.

  10. Electricity and catholyte production from ceramic MFCs treating urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino Jimenez, Irene; Greenman, John; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2017-01-19

    The use of ceramics as low cost membrane materials for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) has gained increasing interest, due to improved performance levels in terms of power and catholyte production. The catholyte production in ceramic MFCs can be attributed to a combination of water or hydrogen peroxide formation from the oxygen reduction reaction in the cathode, water diffusion and electroosmotic drag through the ion exchange membrane. This study aims to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of ceramic wall/membrane thickness, in terms of power, as well as catholyte production from MFCs using urine as a feedstock. Cylindrical MFCs were assembled with fine fire clay of different thicknesses (2.5, 5 and 10 mm) as structural and membrane materials. The power generated increased when the membrane thickness decreased, reaching 2.1 ± 0.19 mW per single MFC (2.5 mm), which was 50% higher than that from the MFCs with the thickest membrane (10 mm). The amount of catholyte collected also decreased with the wall thickness, whereas the pH increased. Evidence shows that the catholyte composition varies with the wall thickness of the ceramic membrane. The possibility of producing different quality of catholyte from urine opens a new field of study in water reuse and resource recovery for practical implementation.

  11. Biofilm antifungal susceptibility of Candida urine isolated from ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Luz Becker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the association between the biofilm formations an antifungal resistance has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of several Candida species. Besides, studies have included invasive candidiasis from hospitalized patients; however there are few studies that evaluated the species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and biofilm formation of Candida species isolated from ambulatory patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether biofilm producing contributes to antifungal resistance in Candida isolates from urine sample obtained from ambulatory patients. Methods: During one year, 25 urine samples positive for yeast were collected, stored and plated on agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and Sabouread left at room temperature for 5 days for subsequent: 52% (13/25 were C. albicans, 36% (9/25 C. tropicalis, 8% (2/25 C. krusei and 4% (1/25 C. parapsilosis. Results: The ability to form biofilm was detected in 23 (92% of the yeast studied and 15.4% (2/13 of C. albicans were fluconazole (FLU and ketoconazole (KET resistant, while 11.1% (1/9 of C. tropicalis were ketoconazole resistant and were anidulafungin (ANI non-susceptible. Conclusion: our results showed the high capacity for biofilm formation among Candida isolates from ambulatory patients.

  12. Urine Telomerase for Diagnosis and Surveillance of Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Lamarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bladder cancer has increased incidence during last decades. For those patients with nonmuscle involved tumors, noninvasive diagnosis test and surveillance methods must be designed to avoid current cystoscopies that nowadays are done regularly in a lot of patients. Novel urine biomarkers have been developed during last years. Telomerase is important in cancer biology, improving the division capacity of cancer cells. Even urinary telomerase could be a potentially useful urinary tumor marker; its use for diagnosis of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients or its impact during surveillance is still unknown. Moreover, there will need to be uniformity and standardization in the assays before it can become useful in clinical practice. It does not seem to exist a real difference between the most classical assays for the detection of urine telomerase (TRAP and hTERT. However, the new detection methods with modified TeloTAGGG telomerase or with gold nanoparticles must also be taken into consideration for the correct development of this diagnosis method. Maybe the target population would be the high-risk groups within screening programs. To date there is no enough evidence to use it alone and to eliminate cystoscopies from the diagnosis and surveillance of these patients. The combination with cytology or FISH is still preferred.

  13. Urine metabolomics in rats after administration of ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Congcong Wen,1 Meiling Zhang,2 Jianshe Ma,2 Lufeng Hu,3 Xianqin Wang,2 Guanyang Lin31Laboratory Animal Centre, 2Analytical and Testing Center, 3First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this study, we developed a urine metabonomic method, based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, to evaluate the effect of ketamine on rats. Pattern recognition analysis, including both principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis revealed that ketamine (50 mg/kg induced metabolic perturbations. Compared with the control group, at day 7, the level of alanine, butanoic acid, glutamine, butanedioic, trimethylsiloxy, L-aspartic acid, D-glucose, cholesterol, acetamide, and oleic acid of the ketamine group was increased, while the level of 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzene­acetic acid, threitol, ribitol, xylitol, and glycine decreased. At day 14, the level of alanine, ethanedioic acid, L-proline, glycerol, tetradecanoic acid, l-serine, l-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, d-glucose, cholesterol, heptadecanoic acid, and acetamide in rat urine of the ketamine group was increased, while the 2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acid, benzeneacetic acid, d-ribose, threitol, ribitol, glycine, pyrazine, and oleic acid levels decreased. Our results indicate that metabonomic methods based on GC-MS may be useful to elucidate ketamine abuse, through the exploration of biomarkers.Keywords: GC-MS, abuse, biomarker, metabolite

  14. Elemental sulfur identified in urine of cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ben V; Visser, Runine; Moses, Alvira; Le Roux, Maritha

    2006-06-01

    The urine of the cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is almost odorless, and probably for this reason, it has not attracted much attention from scientists. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified 27 and 37 constituents in the headspace vapor of the urine of male and female cheetah, respectively. These constituents, composed of hydrocarbons, short-chain ethers, aldehydes, saturated and unsaturated cyclic and acyclic ketones, 2-acetylfuran, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfone, phenol, myristic acid (tetradecanoic acid), urea, and elemental sulfur, are all present in the headspace vapor in very small quantities; dimethyl disulfide is present in such a low concentration that it cannot be detected by the human nose. This is only the second example of elemental sulfur being secreted or excreted by an animal. It is hypothesized that the conversion of sulfur-containing compounds in the cheetah's diet to elemental sulfur and to practically odorless dimethyl sulfone enables this carnivore to operate as if "invisible" to the olfactory world of its predators as well as its prey, which would increase its chances of survival.

  15. Prenatal lignan exposures, pregnancy urine estrogen profiles and birth outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rong; Chen, Minjian; Zhou, Kun; Chen, Daozhen; Yu, Jing; Hu, Weiyue; Song, Ling; Hang, Bo; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, human exposure to endogenous estrogens and xenoestrogens (such as lignans) may comprehensively impact the gestational maintenance and fetal growth. We measured the concentrations of 5 lignans and the profile of 13 estrogen metabolites (EMs) in the urine samples of 328 pregnant women and examined their associations with birth outcomes. We found significantly positive associations between gestational age and urinary matairesinol (MAT), enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), as well as 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs. There were consistently positive relationships between END and the 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs. The positive relationships of MAT, END and ENL exposures with the length of gestation were mainly in the low exposure strata of the levels of these EMs. This study reveals that MAT, END and ENL as well as 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs are associated with birth outcomes, and that there are interactive relationships between lignans and 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs with birth outcomes. - Highlights: • We examined relations between prenatal lignan exposures and birth outcomes. • We examined relations between pregnancy urine estrogen profiles and birth outcomes. • MAT, END and ENL are associated with birth outcomes. • 16-hydroxylation pathway EMs are associated with birth outcomes. • There are interactive relationships between ligans and EMs with birth outcomes. - Prenatal lignan exposures and EM levels were interactively related to birth outcomes

  16. Analysis of fentanyl in urine by DLLME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Michael A; Sampsel, Sheena; Jenkins, Werner W; Owens, Janel E

    2015-03-01

    Fentanyl is a synthetic narcotic anesthetic ∼80-100 times more potent than morphine. Owing to the potential for its abuse, the drug may be included in a forensic toxicology work-up, which requires fast, precise and accurate measurements. Here, the stability of fentanyl was assessed when stored at three different temperatures (-20, 4 and 25°C) in synthetic urine. Stability at those three temperatures was demonstrated over 12 weeks upon analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a deuterated internal standard (fentanyl-D5) utilizing three different extraction techniques: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction and dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The DLLME method was then optimized before use in the analysis of fentanyl in urine samples obtained from autopsy cases at the El Paso County Coroner's Office. Accuracy of the DLLME method was assessed by completing spike and recovery studies at three different fortification levels (10, 100 and 250 ng/mL) with excellent recovery (89.9-102.6%). The excellent comparability between DLLME and LLE is demonstrated (Bland-Altman difference plot with a mean difference of 4.9 ng/mL) and the use of this methodology in the analysis of forensically relevant samples is discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The Urine Proteome as a Biomarker of Radiation Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D.; Wakim, Bassam T.; Savin, Virginia J.; Cohen, Eric P.; Moulder, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Terrorist attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation, and early biomarkers of radiation injury would be critical for triage, treatment and follow-up of such individuals. However, no such biomarkers have yet been proven to exist. We tested the potential of high throughput proteomics to identify protein biomarkers of radiation injury after total body X-ray irradiation in a rat model. Subtle functional changes in the kidney are suggested by an increased glomerular permeability for macromolecules measured within 24 hours after TBI. Ultrastructural changes in glomerular podocytes include partial loss of the interdigitating organization of foot processes. Analysis of urine by LC-MS/MS and 2D-GE showed significant changes in the urine proteome within 24 hours after TBI. Tissue kallikrein 1-related peptidase, cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C and oxidized histidine were found to be increased while a number of proteinase inhibitors including kallikrein-binding protein and albumin were found to be decreased post-irradiation. Thus, TBI causes immediately detectable changes in renal structure and function and in the urinary protein profile. This suggests that both systemic and renal changes are induced by radiation and it may be possible to identify a set of biomarkers unique to radiation injury. PMID:19746194

  18. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C) ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Jaipaul, Navin

    2010-09-07

    Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C) ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r) between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P r = 0.99 (P r = 0.95 (P bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS]) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS) and r = 0.58 (P 3500 mg/day) and non-nephrotic (r = 0.84; P r = 0.99 (P r = 0.92 (P bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and following proteinuria, but its precision and accuracy may be affected by the level of patient physical activity.

  19. Correlation between dietary nitrogen, level of plasma urea and urea excretion in urine of buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted with 6 male buffalo calves of Murrah breed, aged 1.5 years, to determine whether blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in urine were associated with protein intake. The animals were fed different amounts of crude protein in their diet. The levels of urea-N in the blood, excretion of 14 C from urea and urea-N in the urine were estimated. Close relationships were observed between nitrogen intake, blood urea nitrogen and urea excretion in the urine. The observations indicated that blood urea-N and urea excretion in urine could be quantitated with the protein intake. (author)

  20. Optimization of HPV DNA detection in urine by improving collection, storage, and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorsters, A; Van den Bergh, J; Micalessi, I; Biesmans, S; Bogers, J; Hens, A; De Coster, I; Ieven, M; Van Damme, P

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of using urine for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA have been evaluated in disease surveillance, epidemiological studies, and screening for cervical cancers in specific subgroups. HPV DNA testing in urine is being considered for important purposes, notably the monitoring of HPV vaccination in adolescent girls and young women who do not wish to have a vaginal examination. The need to optimize and standardize sampling, storage, and processing has been reported.In this paper, we examined the impact of a DNA-conservation buffer, the extraction method, and urine sampling on the detection of HPV DNA and human DNA in urine provided by 44 women with a cytologically normal but HPV DNA-positive cervical sample. Ten women provided first-void and midstream urine samples. DNA analysis was performed using real-time PCR to allow quantification of HPV and human DNA.The results showed that an optimized method for HPV DNA detection in urine should (a) prevent DNA degradation during extraction and storage, (b) recover cell-free HPV DNA in addition to cell-associated DNA, (c) process a sufficient volume of urine, and (d) use a first-void sample.In addition, we found that detectable human DNA in urine may not be a good internal control for sample validity. HPV prevalence data that are based on urine samples collected, stored, and/or processed under suboptimal conditions may underestimate infection rates.

  1. Comparison of overnight, morning and 24-hour urine collections in the assessment of diabetic microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshøj, O; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Larsen, M L

    1987-01-01

    With the aim of comparing different urine collection periods in the assessment of micro-albuminuria, urinary albumin excretion rates (AERs) were measured in samples from 24 h, overnight, and morning urine collections in 54 patients aged 17 to 62 years with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...... overnight and morning urine samples. These values were slightly improved by relating AER to the excretion of creatinine and it is concluded that overnight as well as morning urine collections can be used when diagnosing microalbuminuria in insulin-dependent diabetics. Furthermore the results show...

  2. An approach to standardization of urine sediment analysis via suggestion of a common manual protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Sollip; Cho, Eun-Jung; Lee, Woochang; Yun, Yeo-Min; Chun, Sail; Min, Won-Ki

    2016-01-01

    The results of urine sediment analysis have been reported semiquantitatively. However, as recent guidelines recommend quantitative reporting of urine sediment, and with the development of automated urine sediment analyzers, there is an increasing need for quantitative analysis of urine sediment. Here, we developed a protocol for urine sediment analysis and quantified the results. Based on questionnaires, various reports, guidelines, and experimental results, we developed a protocol for urine sediment analysis. The results of this new protocol were compared with those obtained with a standardized chamber and an automated sediment analyzer. Reference intervals were also estimated using new protocol. We developed a protocol with centrifugation at 400 g for 5 min, with the average concentration factor of 30. The correlation between quantitative results of urine sediment analysis, the standardized chamber, and the automated sediment analyzer were generally good. The conversion factor derived from the new protocol showed a better fit with the results of manual count than the default conversion factor in the automated sediment analyzer. We developed a protocol for manual urine sediment analysis to quantitatively report the results. This protocol may provide a mean for standardization of urine sediment analysis.

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization for selective solid-phase extraction of eight bisphenols from human urine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jiajia; Li, Yun; Wang, Jincheng; Sun, Xiaoli; Cao, Rong; Sun, Hao; Huang, Chaonan; Chen, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • BPA imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by Pickering emulsion polymerization. • Regular spherical shape and narrow diameter distribution. • Good specific adsorption capacity for BPA. • Good class-selectivity and clean-up efficiency for bisphenols in human urine under SPE mode. • Good recoveries and sensitivity for bisphenols using the MIPMS-SPE coupled with HPLC-DAD method. - Abstract: The bisphenol A (BPA) imprinted polymer microspheres were prepared by simple Pickering emulsion polymerization. Compared to traditional bulk polymerization, both high yields of polymer and good control of particle sizes were achieved. The characterization results of scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurements showed that the obtained molecularly imprinted polymer microsphere (MIPMS) particles possessed regular spherical shape, narrow diameter distribution (30–60 μm), a specific surface area (S BET ) of 281.26 m 2 g −1 and a total pore volume (V t ) of 0.459 cm 3 g −1 . Good specific adsorption capacity for BPA was obtained in the sorption experiment and good class selectivity for BPA and its seven structural analogs (bisphenol F, bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol AF, bisphenol S, bisphenol AP and bisphenol Z) was demonstrated by the chromatographic evaluation experiment. The MIPMS as solid-phase extraction (SPE) packing material was then evaluated for extraction and clean-up of these bisphenols (BPs) from human urine samples. An accurate and sensitive analytical method based on the MIPMS-SPE coupled with HPLC-DAD has been successfully established for simultaneous determination of eight BPs from human urine samples with detection limits of 1.2–2.2 ng mL −1 . The recoveries of BPs for urine samples at two spiking levels (100 and 500 ng mL −1 for each BP) were in the range of 81.3–106.7% with RSD values below 8.3%

  4. Microscopy of the hair and trichogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Dicle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair microscopy is a fast and simple method for the diagnosis of various disorders affecting the hair in daily practice. For the microscopy of the hair, samples are collected by either clipping or plucking. The trichogram technique which the hair sample is collected by a standardized plucking method is used for the diagnosis of hair shedding and of alopecia via hair root pattern. In this review, the examination techniques and details are discussed and the most common indications for the hair microscopy including hair abnormalities as a part of genodermatosis and, infections and infestations affecting the hair are highlighted.

  5. Chemical differences between voided and bladder urine in the aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis): implications for olfactory communication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Harelimana, Innocent H; Goodwin, Thomas E; Drea, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    Urine serves a communicative function in many mammalian species. In some species, the signaling function of urine can be enhanced by the addition of chemical compounds from glands along the distal portion of the urogenital tract. Although urine marking is the main mode of chemical communication in many primate species, there has been no study of the contribution of urogenital secretions to the chemical complexity of primate urine. Here, we compared the chemical composition of bladder urine versus voided urine in the aye-aye, Daubentonia madagascariensis, a strepsirrhine primate that relies on urine in intraspecific communication. Both types of urine, collected from each of 11 aye-ayes representing both sexes of varying adult ages, underwent headspace analysis via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Although the average number of compounds was similar in bladder and voided urine, 17% of the compounds detected occurred exclusively in voided urine (but only in a subset of individuals). An overall measure of chemical complexity (using a nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis) showed that both types of urine were chemically different at the individual level. There was no apparent sex or age differences in the chemical components found in aye-aye urine. Nonetheless, the individual dissimilarities between bladder urine and voided urine indicate chemical contributions from structures along the urogenital tract and offer further support for the relevance of urinary communication in the aye-aye. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Nanoscale surface characterization using laser interference microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Pavel S.; Skrynnik, Andrey A.; Melnik, Yury A.

    2018-03-01

    Nanoscale surface characterization is one of the most significant parts of modern materials development and application. The modern microscopes are expensive and complicated tools, and its use for industrial tasks is limited due to laborious sample preparation, measurement procedures, and low operation speed. The laser modulation interference microscopy method (MIM) for real-time quantitative and qualitative analysis of glass, metals, ceramics, and various coatings has a spatial resolution of 0.1 nm for vertical and up to 100 nm for lateral. It is proposed as an alternative to traditional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods. It is demonstrated that in the cases of roughness metrology for super smooth (Ra >1 nm) surfaces the application of a laser interference microscopy techniques is more optimal than conventional SEM and AFM. The comparison of semiconductor test structure for lateral dimensions measurements obtained with SEM and AFM and white light interferometer also demonstrates the advantages of MIM technique.

  7. Scanning probe microscopy experiments in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobek, Tanja; Reiter, Michael; Heckl, Wolfgang M.

    2004-01-01

    The scanning probe microscopy setups are small, lightweight and do not require vacuum or high voltage supply. In addition, samples can be investigated directly without further preparation. Therefore, these techniques are well-suited for applications in space, in particular, for operation on the International Space Station (ISS) or for high resolution microscopy on planetary missions. A feasibility study for a scanning tunneling microscopy setup was carried out on a parabolic flight campaign in November 2001 in order to test the technical setup for microgravity applications. With a pocket-size design microscope, a graphite surface was imaged under ambient conditions. Atomic resolution was achieved although the quality of the images was inferior in comparison to laboratory conditions. Improvements for future scanning probe microscopy experiments in microgravity are suggested

  8. Physicists bag Chemistry Nobel for microscopy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2017-11-01

    The 2017 Nobel Prize for Chemistry has been given to Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson “for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution”.

  9. Analysis of urobilinogen and urine bilirubin for intra-abdominal injury in blunt trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorchynski, Julie; Dean, Kevin; Anderson, Craig L

    2009-05-01

    To determine the point prevalence of urine bilirubin, urine hemoglobin and urobilinogen in blunt trauma patients, and to evaluate its utility as a screening tool for intra-abdominal injury. Data analysis of 986 consecutive trauma patients of which 698 were adult blunt trauma patients. Five-hundred sixteen subjects had a urinalysis and a CT scan of the abdomen/pelvis or exploratory laparotomy. We reviewed initial urinalysis results from trauma patients in the emergency department (ED) for the presence of urine hemoglobin, uroblinogen and urine bilirubin. Computed tomography (CT) scan results and operative reports were reviewed from the trauma registry for evidence of liver laceration, spleen laceration, bowel or mesenteric injuries. There were 73 injuries and 57/516 patients (11%) with intra-abdominal injury. Urinalysis was positive for urobilinogen in 28/516 (5.4%) patients, urine bilirubin in 15/516 (2.9%) patients and urine hemoglobin in 313/516 (61%) patients. Nineteen/forty-seven (4%) subjects had liver lacerations, 28/56 (5%) splenic lacerations, and 15/5 (3%) bowel or mesenteric injury. Comparing the proportion of patients that had urobilinogen detected in the group with and without intra-abdominal injury, 8/28 (29%) subjects with urobilinogen, 5/15 (33%) subjects with bilirubin and 47/313 (15%) subjects with urine hemoglobin were found to have liver lacerations, spleen lacerations, or bowel/mesenteric injuries. Preexisting liver or biliary conditions were not statistically associated with elevation of urine bilirubin, urine hemoglobin or urobilinogen on initial urinalysis after blunt abdominal trauma. Point prevalence for urobilinogen, urine bilirubin and urine hemoglobin are 5.43% (28/516), 2.91% (15/516) and 60.7% (313/516) respectively. The utility of the initial routine urinalysis in the ED for adult blunt abdominal trauma patients should not be used as a screening tool for the evaluation of intra-abdominal injury.

  10. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR FAST AND SAFE COLLECTION OF URINE IN NEW BORNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Clean urine samples are necessary to accurately diagnose several diseases in new-borns, especially Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs. A wide range of clinical interventions for urine collection is described in the literature including non-invasive and invasive methods. The most common non-invasive technique is urine collection using sterile bags, which is associated with significant patient discomfort and contamination of samples. Obtaining a clean-catch urine sample is the recommended method for urine collection in children able to co-operate. However, in children lacking sphincter control, urine catch is more difficult and time-consuming and invasive methods (catheterization and needle aspiration of urine from the bladder are sometimes needed. There are some stimulation techniques that facilitate emptying of the bladder in situations of bladder dysfunction. We hypothesized that the use of such methods in new-borns could facilitate the collection of a clean-catch urine sample. The aim of this study was to determine the success rate and safety of a new non-invasive technique to obtain clean-catch urine samples in newborns. AIM To describe and test a new technique to obtain midstream urine samples in newborns. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective, feasible and safety study conducted in Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Warangal, (A secondary centre with a 20-bed neonatal unit, a 130-beded pediatric ward. This study was carried out over 7 months (January-July 2015. Patients consisted of 100 consecutively admitted infants aged less than 30 days who needed a urine analysis according to their attending physician. RESULTS This technique was successful in 72% of newborns. Mean time to sample collection was 56.99 Sec. No complications other than controlled crying were observed. CONCLUSION A new, quick and safe technique with a high success rate is described, whereby the discomfort and waste of time usually associated with bag

  11. Resolution improvement by nonconfocal theta microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindek, S; Stelzer, E H

    1999-11-01

    We present a novel scanning fluorescence microscopy technique, nonconfocal theta microscopy (NCTM), that provides almost isotropic resolution. In NCTM, multiphoton absorption from two orthogonal illumination directions is used to induce fluorescence emission. Therefore the point-spread function of the microscope is described by the product of illumination point-spread functions with reduced spatial overlap, which provides the resolution improvement and the more isotropic observation volume. We discuss the technical details of this new method.

  12. Sample preparation method for scanning force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jankov, I R; Szente, R N; Carreno, M N P; Swart, J W; Landers, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a method of sample preparation for studies of ion implantation on metal surfaces. The method, employing a mechanical mask, is specially adapted for samples analysed by Scanning Force Microscopy. It was successfully tested on polycrystalline copper substrates implanted with phosphorus ions at an acceleration voltage of 39 keV. The changes of the electrical properties of the surface were measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and the surface composition was analysed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy.

  13. Single spin stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Pfender, Matthias; Aslam, Nabeel; Waldherr, Gerald; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate precision addressing of single quantum emitters by combined optical microscopy and spin resonance techniques. To this end we utilize nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond confined within a few ten nanometers as individually resolvable quantum systems. By developing a stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) technique for NV centers we are able to simultaneously perform sub diffraction-limit imaging and optically detected spin resonance (ODMR)...

  14. Integrated Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Maslov, Konstantin; Kim, Chulhong; Hu, Song; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a dual-modality imaging system by integrating optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy and fluorescence confocal microscopy to provide optical absorption and fluorescence contrasts simultaneously. By sharing the same laser source and objective lens, intrinsically registered photoacoustic and fluorescence images are acquired in a single scan. The micrometer resolution allows imaging of both blood and lymphatic vessels down to the capillary level. Simultaneous photoacoustic...

  15. [Delayed testing for the diagnosis of fungi in the urines. Evaluation of the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes for the storage of urine samples at room temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixench, M T; Al-Sheikh, M; Paugam, A

    2005-01-01

    The study included 37 urine samples which have been artificially infected with low levels (10(3) CFU/mL) of various fungi strains. We compared the effects of sample storage, up to 48 hours, at room temperature, in a urine evacuated tube containing specific additives with storage at + 4 degrees C, for the same length of time, in a urine evacuated tube without any additives. There have been no differences of results (speed of growth and colony size) between the 2 modes of storage. However, the experience has shown that samples needed a careful mixing before seeding to avoid underdetection of the strains. Based on the study results, the BD Vacutainer C&S tubes are suitable for delayed testing for the diagnosis of urine fungal infection.

  16. The value of urine specific gravity in detecting diabetes insipidus in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: urine specific gravity in differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Ersin; Buyukhatipoglu, Hakan; Aktaran, Sebnem; Geyik, Ramazan

    2006-11-01

    When a patient with diabetes mellitus presents with worsening polyuria and polydipsia, what is a sensible, cost-effective approach? We report the unique coincidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. A 46-year-old woman with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes complained of polyuria with a daily output of 5 L. Although urinalysis demonstrated significant glucosuria, diabetes insipidus was suspected owing to a low urine specific gravity (1.008). The low specific gravity persisted during a water deprivation test. Ultimately, diabetes insipidus was confirmed when urine specific gravity and urine osmolality normalized following desmopressin administration. This case emphasizes the importance of accurately interpreting the urine specific gravity in patients with polyuria and diabetes mellitus to detect diabetes insipidus.

  17. Cell reactions with biomaterials: the microscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A. S.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods and results of optical microscopy that can be used to observe cell reactions to biomaterials are Interference Reflection Microscopy (IRM, Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM, Surface Plasmon Resonance Microscopy (SPRM and Forster Resonance Energy Transfer Microscopy (FRETM and Standing Wave Fluorescence Microscopy. The last three are new developments, which have not yet been fully perfected. TIRFM and SPRM are evanescent wave methods. The physics of these methods depend upon optical phenomena at interfaces. All these methods give information on the dimensions of the gap between cell and the substratum to which it is adhering and thus are especially suited to work with biomaterials. IRM and FRETM can be used on opaque surfaces though image interpretation is especially difficult for IRM on a reflecting opaque surface. These methods are compared with several electron microscopical methods for studying cell adhesion to substrata. These methods all yield fairly consistent results and show that the cell to substratum distance on many materials is in the range 5 to 30 nm. The area of contact relative to the total projected area of the cell may vary from a few per cent to close to 100% depending on the cell type and substratum. These methods show that those discrete contact areas well known as focal contacts are frequently present. The results of FRETM suggest that the separation from the substratum even in a focal contact is about 5 nm.

  18. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  19. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Andersen, Jens Hinge

    2017-01-01

    and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested......After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase...... with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid...

  20. Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irnberger, T.; Ploechl, E.; Rittinger, O.; Bachmann, C.; Pilz, P.; Walter, G.F.; Wendel, U.; Landeskrankenanstalten Salzburg; Bern Univ.; Landesnervenklinik Salzburg; Graz Univ.; Dudley Observatory, Albany, NY; Duesseldorf Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.) [de