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Sample records for ionic imprinted polymer

  1. Protein imprinted ionic liquid polymer on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes with high binding capacity for lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shifang; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Wu, Jianhua; Li, Wangwang; Wang, Shuo

    2014-06-01

    In this research, ionic liquid as functional monomer to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers for protein recognition was for the first time demonstrated, in which, 1-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium chloride was selected as functional monomer, acrylamide as co-functional monomer and lysozyme (Lyz) as template protein to synthesize imprinted polymers on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes in aqueous medium. The results indicated that ionic liquid was helpful to improve binding capacity of imprinted polymers, which had a maximum binding capacity of 763.36 mg/g in the optimum adsorption conditions. The prepared imprinted polymers had a fast adsorption rate and a much higher adsorption capacity than the corresponding non-imprinted polymers, with the difference in adsorption capacity up to 258.31 mg/g. The obtained polymer was evaluated by Lyz, bovine serum albumin (BSA), bovine hemoglobin (BHb), equine myoglobin (MB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c). The selectivity factor (β) for Lyz/BSA, Lyz/Mb, Lyz/BHb, and Lyz/Cyt c were 7.17, 2.12, 1.76 and 1.57, respectively, indicating the imprinted polymers had a good selectivity. Easy preparation of the imprinted polymers as well as high ability and selectivity to adsorb template proteins makes this polymer attractive and broadly applicable in biomacromolecular separation, biotechnology and sensors.

  2. Synthesis of Ionic Imprinted Polymer Particles for Selective Membrane Transport ofFe(III using Polyeugenol as the Functional Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Cholid Djunaidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of Ionic Imprinted Polymer (IIP particles for selective membrane transport of Fe (III had been done using polyeugenol as functional polymer and PVA (polyvinyl alcohol (Mr 125,000 solution in 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP solvent as membrane base. The membrane was then cut and Fe(III was removed by acid to produce IIP particles membrane. Analysis of the membrane and its constituent was done by IR, SEM and also TOC analysis. Experimental results showed the transport of Fe(III was faster with the decrease of membrane thickness and the higher concentration of template. However, the transport of Fe(III was slower for higher concentration of PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol in the membrane. The selectivity of all IIP particles membrane was confirmed as they were all unable to transport Cr (III, while NIP (Non-imprinted Polymer membrane was able transport Cr (III.

  3. Separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extracts using molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer confined ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-04-06

    Polymer-confined ionic liquids were used for the separation of phenolic acids from natural plant extract by utilizing an anion-exchange mechanism. They were synthesized using molecular imprinting technique to reduce non-directional ion-ion interactions during anion-exchange and other interactions with interference substances that could decrease selectivity. A suitable sorbent for phenolic acid separation could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of phenolic acids on different polymer-confined ionic liquids. Thus, the developed ionic liquid-based molecularly imprinted anion-exchange polymer (IMAP) achieved high recovery rates by solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids from Salicornia herbacea L. extract: 90.1% for protocatechuic acid, 95.5% for ferulic acid and 96.6% for caffeic acid. Moreover, the phenolic acids were separable from each other by repeated solid phase extraction cycles. The proposed method could be used to separate other phenolic acids or organic acids from complex samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ionic liquid molecularly imprinted polymers for application in pipette-tip solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography for rapid screening of dicofol in celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongyuan; Yang, Chen; Sun, Yunyun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2014-09-26

    A new type of ionic liquid molecularly imprinted polymers (IL-MIPs) synthesized by precipitation polymerization using 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as an auxiliary solvent and α-chloro-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (α-chloro-DDT) as the template was applied as a selective sorbent of minimized pipette tip-solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) for rapid isolation and extraction of dicofol (DCF) from celery samples. The pretreatment procedure of celery samples involved only 2.0mg of IL-MIPs, 0.8 mL of acetonitrile-water (ACN-H2O; 1:1, v/v) (washing solvent), and 1.0 mL of acetone-10% acetic acid (HOAc) (elution solvent). Compared with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), ionic liquid-non-imprinted polymers (IL-NIPs) and conventional sorbents such as C18, Si, NH2, and Al2O3-N, IL-MIPs showed higher adsorption and purification capacity to DCF in aqueous solution. Good linearity for DCF was observed in the range from 2.3 to 232.5 ng g(-1) (r(2)=0.9995). The average recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 86.6% to 101.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of ≤ 6.5% (n=3). The presented IL-MIPs-PT-SPE-GC/ECD method combines the advantages of MIPs, IL, and PT-SPE, and can be used in aqueous conditions with high affinity and selectivity to analytes of complex samples.

  5. MOLECULAR IMPRINTED POLYMERS--Novel Polymer Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Haitao; XU Mancai; SHI Zuoqing; HE Binglin

    2001-01-01

    Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are novel functional polymer materials and known as specific adsorbents for the template molecules. These novel functional polymers have promised potential applications in racemic resolution, sensor, chromatography, adsorptive separation and other fields. This review exhibits the approach for preparing MIPs, the features of MIPs obtained by different routes and the characteristics of adsorptive separations with MIPs. The molecular recognition mechanism and the idea of the present possibilities and limitations of molecular imprinting polymerization are discussed as well.

  6. Hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers modified by deep eutectic solvents and ionic liquids with three templates for the rapid simultaneous purification of rutin, scoparone, and quercetin from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Ahn, Wha Seung; Row, Kyung Ho

    2016-12-01

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents based on choline chloride and ionic liquids based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers with the monomer γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane-methacrylic and three templates (rutin, scoparone, and quercetin). The materials were adopted as solid-phase extraction packing agents, and were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers modified by deep eutectic solvents had high recoveries and a strong recognition of rutin, scoparone, and quercetin in Herba Artemisiae Scopariae than those modified by ionic liquids. In the procedure of solid-phase extraction, deep eutectic solvents-2-hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers were obtained with the best recoveries with rutin (92.27%), scoparone (87.51%), and quercetin (80.02%), and the actual extraction yields of rutin (5.6 mg/g), scoparone (2.3 mg/g), and quercetin (3.4 mg/g). Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers might offer a novel method for the purification of complex samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Enantiomeric Resolution on L-Carnitine Selective Polymers Prepared by Molecular Imprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    L-carnitine selective polymers were prepared by molecular imprinting using methacrylic acid as the functional monomer. The acid function of the monomer is expected to form hydrogen bond and ionic interactions with the amine function of the target molecule L-carnitine. The imprinted polymers were used as stationary phases in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was shown that L-carnitine imprinted polymer exhibited a higher affinity to its template molecule, while the non-imprinted polymer had no affinity to the compounds tested. Racemic carnitine hydrochloride was efficiently resolved on the L-carnitine imprinted polymer, and the separation factor is 1.9.

  8. Enantiomeric Resolution on L—Carnitine Selective Polymers Prepared by Molecular Imprinting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoTaoLI; GuangGuangJIANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    L-carnitine selective polymers were prepared by molecular imprinting using methacrylic acid as the functional monomer. The acid function of the monomer is expected to form hydrogen bond and ionic interactions with the amine function of the target molecule L-carnitine.The imprinted polymers were used as stationary phases in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It was shown that L-carnitine imprinted polymer exhibited a higher affinity to its template molecule,while the non-imprinted polymer had no affinity to the compounds tested. Racemic carnitine hydrochloride was efficiently resolved on the L-carnitine imprinted polymer, and the separation factor is 1.9.

  9. Novel Pb2+ ion imprinted polymers based on ionic interaction via synergy of dual functional monomers for selective solid-phase extraction of Pb2+ in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoqiang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Zhong; Yang, Fangfang; Dong, Ruichen; Chen, Lingxin

    2014-01-08

    A novel kind of Pb(2+) ion imprinted polymers (IIPs) was prepared based on ionic interactions via the synergy of dual functional monomers of methacrylic acid and vinyl pyridine for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of Pb(2+) in water samples. Suspension polymerization was employed for the formation of template Pb(2+)/monomer complex by self-assembly in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate cross-linker. The resulted Pb(2+) IIPs showed fast kinetics, high binding capacity, and the adsorption processes obeyed intraparticle diffusion kinetics and Langmuir isotherm models. The IIPs displayed excellent selectivity toward Pb(2+) over other metal ions such as Cu(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Mn(2+) with selective coefficients above 30, as well as high anti-interference ability for Pb(2+) confronting with common coexisting various ions. Through 10 adsorption-desorption cycles, the reusable IIPs exhibited a good recoverability with the standard error within 5%. These features suggested the IIPs were ideal candidates for extraction and removal of Pb(2+) ions. Consequently, the IIPs were utilized as SPE sorbents and related parameters were optimized. An excellent linearity was presented in the range of 0.2-50 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9998), as well as the limits of detection and quantification were achieved of 0.06 and 0.19 μg L(-1), respectively. A good repeatability was obtained with the relative standard deviation of 2.8%. Furthermore, real water samples were successfully analyzed and satisfactory recoveries varying from 95.5 to 104.6% were attained. The IIPs-SPE demonstrated potential application perspectives for rapid and high-effective cleanup and enrichment of trace Pb(2+) ions in complicated matrices.

  10. Astrobiological Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenberg, N. R.; Murray, G. M.; van Houten, K. A.; Hofstra, A. A.

    2005-12-01

    Development of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) sensors for astrobiology is intended to provide a new class of microlaboratory sensors compatible with other life or biomarker detection. Molecular imprinting is a process for making selective binding sites in synthetic polymers. The process may be approached by designing the recognition site or by simply choosing monomers that may have favorable interactions with the imprinting molecule. We are working to apply this methodology to astrobiology for development of a reliable, low cost, low mass, low power consumption sensor technology for quantitative in-situ analysis of biochemistry, biomarkers, and other indicators of astrobiological importance. Specific goals of the project are: 1) To develop a general methodology and specific methods for MIP-based sensor construction. The overall methodology will guide procedures for design and testing of any desired sensor. Specific methods will be applied to key families and specific species of astrobiological interest, i.e., alkanes (and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs), amino acids, steroids, and hopanes; 2) To construct and characterize the general family and specific species sensors. We will test for accuracy, precision, interferences, and limitations of the sensor against blanks, standards, and known terrestrial biological environment samples. Additional testing will determine sturdiness and longevity of sensors after exposure to transit conditions (launch and space environment), and at potential target environments (pressure, temperature, pH, etc.); and 3) To construct and demonstrate the combination of multiple sensors into a viable prototype instrument, and roadmap the expansion of potential instrument capabilities and exploration of the ultimate environmental limitations of the technology, and the necessary changes and additions to create a mission-ready instrument. Initial work has resulted successful detection of aqueous alanine (D and L) with simple MIP

  11. Investigation of imprinting parameters and their recognition nature for quinine-molecularly imprinted polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian-feng; Zhu, Quan-hong; Deng, Qin-ying

    2007-08-01

    A series of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was prepared using quinine as the template molecules by bulk polymerization. The presence of monomer-template solution complexes in non-covalent MIPs systems has been verified by both fluorescence and UV-vis spectrometric detection. The influence of different synthetic conditions (porogen, functional monomer, cross-linkers, initiation methods, monomer-template ratio, etc.) on recognition properties of the polymers was investigated. Scatchard analysis revealed that two classes of binding sites were formed in the imprinted polymer. The corresponding dissociation constants were estimated to be 45.00 μmol l -1 and 1.42 mmol l -1, respectively, by utilizing a multi-site recognition model. The binding characteristics of the imprinted polymers were explored in various solvents using equilibrium binding experiments. In the organic media, results suggested that polar interactions (hydrogen bonding, ionic interactions, etc.) between acidic monomer/polymer and template molecules were mainly responsible for the recognition, whereas in aqueous media, hydrophobic interactions had a remarkable non-specific contribution to the overall binding. The specificity of MIP was evaluated by rebinding the other structurally similar compounds. The results indicated that the imprinted polymers exhibited an excellent stereo-selectivity toward quinine.

  12. Computational Insights on Sulfonamide Imprinted Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Chartchalerm Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya; Chanin Nantasenamat; Prasit Buraparuangsang; Theeraphon Piacham; Leif Bülow; Lei Ye; Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imprinting is one of the most efficient methods for preparing synthetic receptors that possess user defined recognition properties. Despite general success of non-covalent imprinting for a large variety of templates, some groups of compounds remain difficult to tackle due to their structural complexity. In this study we investigate preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers that can bind sulfonamide compounds, which represent important drug candidates. Compared to the biological ...

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymers: synthesis and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormack, Peter A G; Elorza, Amaia Zurutuza

    2004-05-01

    This short review aims to present, in clear English, a summary of the principal synthetic considerations pertaining to good practice in the polymerisation aspects of molecular imprinting, and is primarily aimed at researchers familiar with molecular imprinting methods but with little or no prior experience in polymer synthesis. It is our hope that this will facilitate researchers to plan their own syntheses of molecular imprints in a more logical and structured fashion, and to begin to appreciate the limitations of the present synthetic approaches in this molecularly complex area, as well as the scope for rationally designing improved imprinted materials in the future.

  14. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Present and Future Prospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vasapollo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs, the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting technology, are robust molecular recognition elements able to mimic natural recognition entities, such as antibodies and biological receptors, useful to separate and analyze complicated samples such as biological fluids and environmental samples. The scope of this review is to provide a general overview on MIPs field discussing first general aspects in MIP preparation and then dealing with various application aspects. This review aims to outline the molecularly imprinted process and present a summary of principal application fields of molecularly imprinted polymers, focusing on chemical sensing, separation science, drug delivery and catalysis. Some significant aspects about preparation and application of the molecular imprinting polymers with examples taken from the recent literature will be discussed. Theoretical and experimental parameters for MIPs design in terms of the interaction between template and polymer functionalities will be considered and synthesis methods for the improvement of MIP recognition properties will also be presented.

  15. MOLECULAR IMPRINTED POLYMERS—Novel Polymer Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHaitao; XUMancai; 等

    2001-01-01

    Molecular imprinted polymers(MIPs) are novel functional polymer materials and known as specific adsorbents for the template molecules,These novel functional polymers have promised potential applications in racemic resolution,sensor,chromatography,adsorptive separation and other fields.This review exhibits the approach for preparing MIPs,the features of MIPs obtained by different routes and the characteristics of adsorptive separations with MIPs.The molecular recognition mechanism and the idea of the present possibilities and limitations of molecular imprinting polymerization are discussed as well.

  16. Ionic solvents used in ionic polymer transducers, sensors and actuators

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Ionic liquids are incorporated into transducers, actuators or sensors which employ the ionic polymer membranes. The ionic liquids have superior electrochemical stability, low viscosity and low vapor pressure. The transducers, actuators and sensors which utilize ionic polymer membranes solvated with ionic liquids have long term air stability. Superior results are achieved when a conductive powder and ionomer mixture is applied to the ionic polymer membrane to form the electrodes during or afte...

  17. Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Bradley R.; Talley, Chad E.

    2008-06-10

    Nanoscale molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) having polymer features wherein the size, shape and position are predetermined can be fabricated using an xy piezo stage mounted on an inverted microscope and a laser. Using an AMF controller, a solution containing polymer precursors and a photo initiator are positioned on the xy piezo and hit with a laser beam. The thickness of the polymeric features can be varied from a few nanometers to over a micron.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymers for bioanalytical sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Mariana Roberto; Bottoli, Carla Beatriz Grespan

    2017-02-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are stable polymers with molecular recognition abilities, provided by the presence of a template during their synthesis, and are excellent materials with high selectivity for sample preparation in bioanalytical methods. This short review discusses aspects of MIP preparation and its applications as a sorbent material in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. MIP in different extraction configurations, including classical solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, magnetic molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction, microextraction by packed sorbent and solid-phase extraction in pipette tips, are used to illustrate the good performance of this type of sorbent for sample preparation procedures of complex matrices, especially prior to bioanalytical approaches.

  19. Dynamic assembly of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haiyue; Hajizadeh, Solmaz; Jiang, Lingdong; Ma, Huiting; Ye, Lei

    2017-09-11

    Manipulation of specific binding and recycling of materials are two important aspects for practical applications of molecularly imprinted polymers. In this work, we developed a new approach to control the dynamic assembly of molecularly imprinted nanoparticles by surface functionalization. Molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles with a well-controlled core-shell structure were synthesized using precipitation polymerization. The specific binding sites were created in the core during the first step imprinting reaction. In the second polymerization step, epoxide groups were introduced into the particle shell to act asan intermediate linker to immobilize phenylboronic acids, as well as to introduce cis-diol structures on surface. The imprinted polymer nanoparticles modified with boronic acid and cis-diol structures maintained high molecular binding specificity, and the nanoparticles could be induced to form dynamic particle aggregation that responded to pH variation and chemical stimuli. The possibility of modulating molecular binding and nanoparticle assembly in a mutually independent fashion can be exploited in a number of applications where repeated use of precious nanoparticles is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecularly imprinted polymers for biomedical and biotechnological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, E. V.; Pyshnaya, I. A.; Martyanov, O. N.; Pyshnyi, D. V.

    2016-05-01

    This survey covers main advances in the preparation and application of molecularly imprinted polymers which are capable of specific recognition of biologically active compounds. The principles underlying the production of highly efficient and template-specific molecularly imprinted polymers are discussed. The focus is on the imprinting of highly structured macromolecular and supramolecular templates. The existing and potential applications of molecularly imprinted polymers in various fields of chemistry and molecular biology are considered. The bibliography includes 261 references.

  1. Molecular imprinted polymers as drug delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Shabi Abbas

    2016-09-01

    This review is aimed to discuss the molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)-based drug delivery systems (DDS). Molecular imprinted polymers have proved to possess the potential and also as a suitable material in several areas over a long period of time. However, only recently it has been employed for pharmaceuticals and biomedical applications, particularly as drug delivery vehicles due to properties including selective recognition generated from imprinting the desired analyte, favorable in harsh experimental conditions, and feedback-controlled recognitive drug release. Hence, this review will discuss their synthesis, the reason they are selected as drug delivery vehicles and for their applications in several drug administration routes (i.e. transdermal, ocular and gastrointestinal or stimuli-reactive routes).

  2. Preparation,characterization and properties studies of quinine-imprinted polymer in the aqueous phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jianfeng; Liu Lan; Yang Guilan; Deng Qinying

    2006-01-01

    The uniform-sized spherical molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared through molecular imprinting technology by two-step seed swelling and mini-emulsion polymerization in the aqueous condition using quinine as template molecules and methacrylic acid (MAA)as functional monomer.The polymers were characterized by IR spectra,thermal-weight analysis,scanning electron microscope and laser particle size analysis.The properties of imprinted polymers were investigated in different organic phases and aqueous media.In the organic media,results suggested that polar interactions(hydrogen bonding,ionic interactions)between acidic monomer/polymer and template molecules are mainly responsible for the binding and recognition;whereas in the aqueous medium,a considerable recognition effect was also obtained where the ionic(electrostatic)interaction and hydrophobic interaction play an important role.The experiments of binding different substrates indicated that the MIPs possessed an excellent rebinding ability and inherent selectivity to quinine.

  3. Plastic Antibodies: Molecular Recognition with Imprinted Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Gregory T.; Furmanski, Brian; Shimizu, Ken D.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic polymers are prepared and tested in a study for their molecular recognition properties of an adenine derivative, ethyl adenine-9-acetate (EA9A), within two laboratory periods. The procedure introduces undergraduate chemistry students to noncovalent molecular imprinting as well as the analytical techniques for assessing their recognition…

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymers for some reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutucu, Burcu; Akkaya, Alper; Pazarlioglu, Nurdan Kasikara

    2010-01-01

    Depending upon their structure, azo- and anthraquinonic dyes are the two major classes and together represent 90% of all organic colorants. Adsorption of dye molecules onto a sorbent can be an effective, low-cost method of color removal. Most of the techniques used for removal of dyes are of high production cost, and the regeneration also makes them uneconomical. There is much interest in the development of cheaper and effective newer materials for use as adsorbents. Molecular imprinting is a new kind of materials that can be alternative adsorbents. In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers of three textile dyes (Cibacron Orange P-4R, Cibacron Red P-4B, Cibacron Black PSG) were prepared. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer for red and orange dyes and acrylamide was used for black dye. Methanol:acetonitrile was used as a porogen. The selective recognition ability of the molecularly imprinted polymers was studied by an equilibrium-adsorption batch method. The adsorption data are for Cibacron Black PSG 65% and nonimprinted polymer (NIP) 25%; Cibacron Red P-4B 72% and NIP 18%; and Cibacron Orange P-4R 45% and NIP 10%, respectively. Dye-imprinted polymers were used as a solid-phase extraction material for selective adsorption from wastewater of textile factory.

  5. A Path to Soluble Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilasha Verma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinting is a technique for making a selective binding site for a specific chemical. The technique involves building a polymeric scaffold of molecular complements containing the target molecule. Subsequent removal of the target leaves a cavity with a structural “memory” of the target. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs can be employed as selective adsorbents of specific molecules or molecular functional groups. In addition, sensors for specific molecules can be made using optical transduction through lumiphores residing in the imprinted site. We have found that the use of metal ions as chromophores can improve selectivity due to selective complex formation. The combination of molecular imprinting and spectroscopic selectivity can result in sensors that are highly sensitive and nearly immune to interferences. A weakness of conventional MIPs with regard to processing is the insolubility of crosslinked polymers. Traditional MIPs are prepared either as monoliths and ground into powders or are prepared in situ on a support. This limits the applicability of MIPs by imposing tedious or difficult processes for their inclusion in devices. The size of the particles hinders diffusion and slows response. These weaknesses could be avoided if a means were found to prepare individual macromolecules with crosslinked binding sites with soluble linear polymeric arms. This process has been made possible by controlled free radical polymerization techniques that can form pseudo-living polymers. Modern techniques of controlled free radical polymerization allow the preparation of block copolymers with potentially crosslinkable substituents in specific locations. The inclusion of crosslinkable mers proximate to the binding complex in the core of a star polymer allows the formation of molecularly imprinted macromolecules that are soluble and processable. Due to the much shorter distance for diffusion, the polymers exhibit rapid responses. This paper

  6. Computational Insights on Sulfonamide Imprinted Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chartchalerm Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinting is one of the most efficient methods for preparing synthetic receptors that possess user defined recognition properties. Despite general success of non-covalent imprinting for a large variety of templates, some groups of compounds remain difficult to tackle due to their structural complexity. In this study we investigate preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers that can bind sulfonamide compounds, which represent important drug candidates. Compared to the biological system that utilizes metal coordinated interaction, the imprinted polymer provided pronounced selectivity when hydrogen bond interaction was employed in an organic solvent. Computer simulation of the interaction between the sulfonamide template and functional monomers pointed out that although methacrylic acid had strong interaction energy with the template, it also possessed high non-specific interaction with the solvent molecules of tetrahydrofuran as well as being prone to self-complexation. On the other hand, 1-vinyl-imidazole was suitable for imprinting sulfonamides as it did not cross-react with the solvent molecules or engage in self-complexation structures.

  7. Computational insights on sulfonamide imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Buraparuangsang, Prasit; Piacham, Theeraphon; Ye, Lei; Bülow, Leif; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2008-12-10

    Molecular imprinting is one of the most efficient methods for preparing synthetic receptors that possess user defined recognition properties. Despite general success of non-covalent imprinting for a large variety of templates, some groups of compounds remain difficult to tackle due to their structural complexity. In this study we investigate preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers that can bind sulfonamide compounds, which represent important drug candidates. Compared to the biological system that utilizes metal coordinated interaction, the imprinted polymer provided pronounced selectivity when hydrogen bond interaction was employed in an organic solvent. Computer simulation of the interaction between the sulfonamide template and functional monomers pointed out that although methacrylic acid had strong interaction energy with the template, it also possessed high non-specific interaction with the solvent molecules of tetrahydrofuran as well as being prone to self-complexation. On the other hand, 1-vinyl-imidazole was suitable for imprinting sulfonamides as it did not cross-react with the solvent molecules or engage in self-complexation structures.

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymers as synthetic mimics of bioreceptors. 1. General principles of molecular imprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeyeva T. A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The review is devoted to analysis of the publications in the area of synthesis of artificial mimics of biological receptors using the method of molecular imprinting. General principles of molecular imprinting as well as main types of polymers being used in molecular imprinting are described. The special attention is paid to the polymers-biomimics synthesized using the method of non-covalent molecular imprinting.

  9. Molecularly imprinted polymers as synthetic mimics of bioreceptors. 1. General principles of molecular imprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeyeva T. A.

    2009-01-01

    The review is devoted to analysis of the publications in the area of synthesis of artificial mimics of biological receptors using the method of molecular imprinting. General principles of molecular imprinting as well as main types of polymers being used in molecular imprinting are described. The special attention is paid to the polymers-biomimics synthesized using the method of non-covalent molecular imprinting.

  10. Thermochemical study of amino acid imprinted polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ziyi; BelBruno, Joseph J

    2015-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers provide an alternative to traditional methods of amino acid analysis. The imprinted polymers are more robust and significantly less expensive than, for example, ELISA analysis. Amino acid imprinted nylon-6 thin films were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Endothermic peaks were observed for imprinted films at temperatures higher than that for pure nylon, indicating the formation of a more-ordered, hydrogen bonded polymer. Removal of the amino acid from the imprinted film resulted in reversion to the peak observed for pure nylon-6. Additives, β-cyclodextrin and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, were added to the imprinted polymer solutions as a means to increase the porosity of the films. These studies resulted in alternative morphologies and calorimetric results that provide additional functionalities and applications for imprinted polymers.

  11. Synthesis of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Dioxin

    OpenAIRE

    Magda Brattoli; Vito Sgobba; Giuseppe Ciccarella; Rosaria Anna Picca; Cosimino Malitesta

    2006-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer for recognising selectively 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) was made by a new non-covalent method employing a“dummy†template. The proposed way represents a simplification of a synthetic schemeproposed by Lübke et al.[1] for covalent imprinting. Comparison of extraction yields of thenovel polymer, a non imprinted polymer and an imprinting polymer, prepared by theoriginal procedure demonstrates the binding capacity of the proposed polymer, wh...

  12. Synthesis of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Dioxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Brattoli

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A molecularly imprinted polymer for recognising selectively 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD was made by a new non-covalent method employing a“dummy” template. The proposed way represents a simplification of a synthetic schemeproposed by Lübke et al.[1] for covalent imprinting. Comparison of extraction yields of thenovel polymer, a non imprinted polymer and an imprinting polymer, prepared by theoriginal procedure demonstrates the binding capacity of the proposed polymer, which is inprinciple applicable to solid phase extraction (SPE of dioxin.

  13. Energy Harvesting Applications of Ionic Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Benjamin Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Energy Harvesting Applications of Ionic Polymers Benjamin R. Martin Abstract The purpose of this thesis is the development and analysis of applications for ionic polymers as energy harvesting devices. The specific need is a self-contained energy harvester to supply renewable power harvested from ambient vibrations to a wireless sensor. Ionic polymers were investigated as mechanical to electrical energy transducers. An ionic polymer device was designed to harvest energy from vi...

  14. Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Robert; Szekely, Gyorgy; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Wierzbicka, Celina; Vilela, Filipe; Bauer, David; Sellergren, Börje

    2017-03-01

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers - the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production.

  15. Phospholipid imprinted polymers as selective endotoxin scavengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Robert; Szekely, Gyorgy; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; Wierzbicka, Celina; Vilela, Filipe; Bauer, David; Sellergren, Börje

    2017-01-01

    Herein we explore phospholipid imprinting as a means to design receptors for complex glycolipids comprising the toxic lipopolysaccharide endotoxin. A series of polymerizable bis-imidazolium and urea hosts were evaluated as cationic and neutral hosts for phosphates and phosphonates, the latter used as mimics of the phospholipid head groups. The bis-imidazolium hosts interacted with the guests in a cooperative manner leading to the presence of tight and well defined 1:2 ternary complexes. Optimized monomer combinations were subsequently used for imprinting of phosphatidic acid as an endotoxin dummy template. Presence of the aforementioned ternary complexes during polymerization resulted in imprinting of lipid dimers – the latter believed to crudely mimic the endotoxin Lipid A motif. The polymers were characterized with respect to template rebinding, binding affinity, capacity and common structural properties, leading to the identification of polymers which were thereafter subjected to an industrially validated endotoxin removal test. Two of the polymers were capable of removing endotoxin down to levels well below the accepted threshold (0.005 EU/mg API) in pharmaceutical production. PMID:28303896

  16. [Spectroscopic Study of Salbutamol Molecularly Imprinted Polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hui-peng; Guan, Yu-yu; Dai, Rong-hua; Liu, Guo-yan; Chai, Chun-yan

    2016-02-01

    In order to solve the problem of on-site rapid detection of salbutamol residues in feed and animal products, and develop a new method of fast detection of salbutamol on the basis of the molecular imprinting technology, this article uses the salbutamol (SAL) working as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) working as functional monomer. On this basis, a new type of core-shell type salbutamol molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared with colloidal gold particles as triggering core. Superficial characteristics of the MIPs and the related compounds were investigated by ultraviolet (UV) spectra and infrared (IR) spectra, Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The results indicated that a stable hydrogen bonding complex has been formed between the carboxyl groups of SAL and MA with a matching ratio of 1:1. The complex can be easily eluted by the reagent containing hydrogen bonding. The chemical binding constant K reaches -0.245 x 10⁶ L² · mol⁻². The possible binding sites of the hydrogen bonding was formed between the hydrogen atoms of -COOH in MA and the oxygen atoms of C==O in SAL. IR and Raman spectrum showed that, compared with MA, a significant red shift of -OH absorption peak was manifested in MIPs, which proved that SAL as template molecule occurred a specific bond between MA. Red shift of stretching vibration absorption peak of C==O was also detected in the un-eluted MIPs and obvious energy loss happened, which demonstrated a possible binding sites is SAL intramolecular of C==O atom of oxygen. If the hydrogen atoms of -COOH in MA wanted to generate hydrogen bond. However, the shapes of absorption peak of other functional groups including C==C, C==O, and -OH were very similar both in MIPs and NIPs. Specific cavities were formed after the template molecules in MIPs were removed. It was proved by the adsorption experiment that the specific sites in these cavities highly match with the chemical and space structure of SAL

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymers for alpha-tocopherol delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puoci, Francesco; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Curcio, Manuela; Iemma, Francesca; Parisi, Ortensia Ilaria; Castiglione, Mariarosaria; Picci, Nevio

    2008-05-01

    Biomedical applications of antioxidants have increased dramatically since the link between human diseases and oxidative stress was established. This paper focuses on alpha -tocopherol and on the possibility of employing molecularly imprinted polymers as a controlled release device for alpha-tocopherol in gastrointestinal simulating fluids. Polymers were synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker. Considerable differences in recognition characteristics between imprinted and non-imprinted polymers, both in organic and in aqueous media, were observed. Imprinted polymers bound much more alpha-tocopherol and showed a controlled/sustained drug release capacity in gastrointestinal simulating fluids.

  18. Molecular recognition effects in atomistic models of imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Eduardo M A; Herdes, Carmelo; van Tassel, Paul R; Sarkisov, Lev

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a model for molecularly imprinted polymers, which considers both complexation processes in the pre-polymerization mixture and adsorption in the imprinted structures within a single consistent framework. As a case study we investigate MAA/EGDMA polymers imprinted with pyrazine and pyrimidine. A polymer imprinted with pyrazine shows substantial selectivity towards pyrazine over pyrimidine, thus exhibiting molecular recognition, whereas the pyrimidine imprinted structure shows no preferential adsorption of the template. Binding sites responsible for the molecular recognition of pyrazine involve one MAA molecule and one EGDMA molecule, forming associations with the two functional groups of the pyrazine molecule. Presence of these specific sites in the pyrazine imprinted system and lack of the analogous sites in the pyrimidine imprinted system is directly linked to the complexation processes in the pre-polymerization solution. These processes are quite different for pyrazine and pyrimidine as a result of both enthalpic and entropic effects.

  19. Molecular Recognition Effects in Atomistic Models of Imprinted Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Herdes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a model for molecularly imprinted polymers, which considers both complexation processes in the pre-polymerization mixture and adsorption in the imprinted structures within a single consistent framework. As a case study we investigate MAA/EGDMA polymers imprinted with pyrazine and pyrimidine. A polymer imprinted with pyrazine shows substantial selectivity towards pyrazine over pyrimidine, thus exhibiting molecular recognition, whereas the pyrimidine imprinted structure shows no preferential adsorption of the template. Binding sites responsible for the molecular recognition of pyrazine involve one MAA molecule and one EGDMA molecule, forming associations with the two functional groups of the pyrazine molecule. Presence of these specific sites in the pyrazine imprinted system and lack of the analogous sites in the pyrimidine imprinted system is directly linked to the complexation processes in the pre-polymerization solution. These processes are quite different for pyrazine and pyrimidine as a result of both enthalpic and entropic effects.

  20. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer/Metal Organic Framework Based Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes recent advances in the concept of molecular imprinting using metal organic frameworks (MOF for development of chemical sensors. Two main strategies regarding the fabrication, performance and applications of recent sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers associated with MOF are presented: molecularly imprinted MOF films and molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles using MOF as core. The associated transduction modes are also discussed. A brief conclusion and future expectations are described herein.

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer/Metal Organic Framework Based Chemical Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenzhong Guo; Anca Florea; Mengjuan Jiang; Yong Mei; Weiying Zhang; Aidong Zhang; Robert Săndulescu; Nicole Jaffrezic-Renault

    2016-01-01

    The present review describes recent advances in the concept of molecular imprinting using metal organic frameworks (MOF) for development of chemical sensors. Two main strategies regarding the fabrication, performance and applications of recent sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers associated with MOF are presented: molecularly imprinted MOF films and molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles using MOF as core. The associated transduction modes are also discussed. A brief conclu...

  2. Development of fructosyl valine binding polymers by covalent imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Rajagopal; Warsinke, Axel; Möhwald, Helmuth; Scheller, Frieder W; Katterle, Martin

    2007-06-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) against fructosyl valine (Fru-Val), the N-terminal constituent of hemoglobin A1c beta-chains, were prepared by cross-linking of beta-D-Fru-Val-O-bis(4-vinylphenylboronate) with an excess of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) or trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM). Control MIPs were prepared in analogy by cross-linking the corresponding vinylphenylboronate esters of fructose and pinacol. After template extraction batch rebinding studies were performed using different pH values and buffer compositions. The Fru-Val imprinted TRIM cross-linked polymer binds about 1.4 times more Fru-Val than the fructose imprinted polymer and 2.7 times more Fru-Val than pinacol imprinted polymer. The highest imprinting effect was obtained in 100 mM sodium carbonate/10% methanol (pH 11.4). The TRIM cross-linked Fru-Val imprinted polymer showed a better specificity than the EDMA cross-linked polymer. The binding of valine was very low. Thermo gravimetric analysis indicated that the generated Fru-Val imprinted polymer has high thermo stability. No change in binding was observed after incubation of the polymers in buffer at 80 degrees C for 36 h. Since the functional group of the polymers (phenyl boronic acid) targets the sugar part of Fru-Val the imprint technique used should also be applicable for the development of MIPs against other glycated amino acids and peptides.

  3. Synthetic strategies for the generation of molecularly imprinted organic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, A G; Whitcombe, M J

    2005-12-06

    Molecular imprinting is a method of inducing molecular recognition properties in synthetic polymers in response to the presence of a template species during formation of the three-dimensional structure of the polymer. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) prepared in this way have been termed "plastic antibodies" and combine the robustness of the polymer scaffold with binding properties more readily associated with biological receptors. Smart polymers of this type may find applications in drug delivery, controlled release and monitoring of drug and metabolite concentrations. In this review the main synthetic strategies used in the preparation of imprinted organic polymers are described in terms of the chemical principles used in the templating step. These are illustrated with examples taken from the literature and are classified as covalent, semi-covalent, non-covalent, metal-mediated and non-polar. Finally strategies for the selection of monomers, optimisation and modification of the properties of imprinted polymers are reviewed.

  4. Mercury speciation in seawater by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following solid phase extraction pre-concentration by using an ionic imprinted polymer based on methyl-mercury-phenobarbital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Reino, María Pilar; Rodríguez-Fernández, Roi; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Domínguez-González, Raquel; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    Trace levels of inorganic mercury, methyl-mercury and ethyl-mercury have been assessed in seawater by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-concentration with a novel synthesized ionic imprinted polymer. The adsorbent material was prepared by trapping a non-vinylated chelating ligand (phenobarbital) via imprinting of a ternary mixed ligand complex of the non-vinylated chelating agent, the template (methyl-mercury), and the vinyl ligand (metacrylic acid, MAA). Ethylene dimetacrylate (EDMA) and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were used as cross-linker and initiator reagents, respectively; and the precipitation polymerization technique was used in a porogen of acetonitrile/water (4:1). The best retention properties for methyl-mercury, inorganic mercury and ethyl-mercury species from seawater were obtained when loading 200 mL of sample adjusted to pH 8.0 and at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1) on a column-packed with 200mg of the material. Quantitative mercury species recoveries were obtained using 4 mL of an eluting solution consisting of 0.8% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol and 20% (v/v) methanol (pH adjusted to 4.5) pumped at a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1). Mercury species separation was achieved on a Kinetex C18 column working under isocratic conditions (0.4% (v/v) 2-mercaptoethanol, 10% (v/v) methanol, pH 2.5, flow rate 0.7 mL min(-1)). ICP-MS detection was performed by monitoring the mercury mass to charge ratio of 202. The limits of quantification of the method were 11, 6.7, and 12 ng L(-1), for inorganic mercury, methyl-mercury and ethyl-mercury, respectively (pre-concentration factor of 50); whereas, analytical recoveries ranged from 96 to 106%. The developed method was successfully applied to several seawater samples from unpolluted areas.

  5. Design of molecularly imprinted polymers for diphenylamine sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado, V L V; Rudnitskaya, A; Oliveira, J A B P; Gomes, M T S R

    2012-05-30

    A series of the polymers imprinted with diphenylamine (DPA) and respective non imprinted polymers were synthesized using precipitation polymerization. Synthesized polymers were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy with Total Attenuated Reflectance (FTIR-ATR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and equilibrium batch re-binding experiments. Influence of the synthesis conditions, namely monomer/template ratio and reaction duration, on the polymer binding capacity and selectivity towards aromatic compounds was investigated. Binding behavior of MIP was described using Freundlich isotherm. Significance of the effects of the synthesis conditions on the polymer properties was evaluated using ANOVA. MIPs synthesized at different conditions, which displayed different properties (binding capacity and selectivity), and respective non-imprinted polymers were employed for the fabrication of the potentiometric sensors. While sensors prepared using imprinted polymers had higher sensitivity and selectivity compared to the ones containing non-imprinted polymer, no difference was observed between sensors containing different imprinted polymers. No correspondence between polymers' characteristics obtained in the equilibrium re-binding studies and potentiometric behavior of the sensors based on the same polymers was observed. Therefore, equilibrium re-binding studies cannot be used for predicting sensor behavior.

  6. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe₃O₄/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-06-25

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g-1 and 5.07 mg•g-1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  7. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe3O4/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhen Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES based on choline chloride (ChCl and ionic liquids (ILs based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs, and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE. The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80% as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc (8:2 as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g−1 and 5.07 mg•g−1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymers: synthetic receptors in bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette; Haupt, Karsten

    2010-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are tailor-made synthetic materials possessing specific cavities designed for a target molecule. Since they recognise their target analyte with affinities and selectivities comparable to those of antibody-antigen, enzyme-substrate and ligand-receptor interactions, they are often referred to as synthetic receptors or plastic antibodies. In this review, we describe the great potential and recent developments of MIPs in affinity separations, with emphasis on their application to the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of analytes from complex matrices. Research efforts made in this field to obtain water-compatible polymers for their applicability in aqueous environments are described. We particularly discuss problems encountered in the use of MIPs in SPE and the attempts carried out to improve their efficiency.

  9. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for 5-Fluorouracil Release in Biological Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Puoci; Francesca Iemma; Giuseppe Cirillo; Nevio Picci; Pietro Matricardi; Franco Alhaique

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of employing Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) as a controlled release device for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in biological fluids, especially gastrointestinal ones, compared to Non Imprinted Polymers (NIPs). MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. The capacity of the polymer to recognize and to bind the template selectively in both organic a...

  10. Recognition Interactions of Metal-complexing Imprinted Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying LIU; Guo Sheng DING; Jun De WANG

    2005-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer, exhibiting considerable enantioselectivity for L-mandelic acid, was prepared using metal coordination-chelation interaction. By evaluating the recognition characteristics in the chromatographic mode, the recognition interactions were proposed: specific and nonspecific metal coordination-chelation interaction and hydrophobic interaction were responsible for substrate binding on metal-complexing imprinted polymer; while the selective recognition only came from specific metal coordination-chelation interaction and specific hydrophobic interaction.

  11. Characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles by photon correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Björn; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Ye, Lei; Krozer, Anatol

    2014-12-01

    We follow template-binding induced aggregation of nanoparticles enantioselectively imprinted against (S)-propranolol, and the non-imprinted ones, using photon correlation spectroscopy (dynamic light scattering). The method requires no separation steps. We have characterized binding of (R,S)-propranolol to the imprinted polymers and determined the degree of non-specificity by comparing the specific binding with the results obtained using non-imprinted nanoparticles. Using (S)-propranolol as a template for binding to (S)-imprinted nanoparticle, and (R)-propranolol as a non-specific control, we have determined range of concentrations where chiral recognition can be observed. By studying aggregation induced by three analytes related to propranolol, atenolol, betaxolol, and 1-amino-3-(naphthalen-1-yloxy)propan-2-ol, we were able to determine which parts of the template are involved in the specific binding, discuss several details of specific adsorption, and the structure of the imprinted site.

  12. Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Particles by Suspension Polymerization in Silicon Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Bing WANG; Zhao Hui ZHENG; Xiao Bin DING; Xu CHENG; Xin Hua HU; Yu Xing PENG

    2006-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as templates were prepared by suspension polymerization in silicon oil. The polymer particles exhibited regular shape in the micro-scale range. The adsorbing experiments indicated that the imprinted polymer particles possessed higher affinity to 2,4-D than the non-imprinted polymer particles.

  13. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for 5-Fluorouracil Release in Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alhaique

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of employing Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs as a controlled release device for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU in biological fluids, especially gastrointestinal ones, compared to Non Imprinted Polymers (NIPs. MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid (MAA as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as crosslinking agent. The capacity of the polymer to recognize and to bind the template selectively in both organic and aqueous media was evaluated. An in vitro release study was performed both in gastrointestinal and in plasma simulating fluids. The imprinted polymers bound much more 5-Fu than the corresponding non-imprinted ones and showed a controlled/sustained drug release, with MIPs release rate being indeed much more sustained than that obtained from NIPs. These polymers represent a potential valid system for drug delivery and this study indicates that the selective binding characteristic of molecularly imprinted polymers is promising for the preparation of novel controlled release drug dosage form.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymers for 5-fluorouracil release in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio; Matricardi, Pietro; Alhaiqu, Franco

    2007-04-18

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of employing Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) as a controlled release device for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in biological fluids, especially gastrointestinal ones, compared to Non Imprinted Polymers (NIPs). MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. The capacity of the polymer to recognize and to bind the template selectively in both organic and aqueous media was evaluated. An in vitro release study was performed both in gastrointestinal and in plasma simulating fluids. The imprinted polymers bound much more 5-Fu than the corresponding non-imprinted ones and showed a controlled/sustained drug release, with MIPs release rate being indeed much more sustained than that obtained from NIPs. These polymers represent a potential valid system for drug delivery and this study indicates that the selective binding characteristic of molecularly imprinted polymers is promising for the preparation of novel controlled release drug dosage form.

  15. Molecularly imprinted SPE coupled with HPLC for the selective separation and enrichment of alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Gao; Jing, Fan; Guifen, Zhu; Xiaolong, Wang; Jianji, Wang

    2013-10-01

    A novel 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid surface imprinted solid-phase sorbent was synthesized. The as-prepared material was characterized by SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis and Fourier Transform IR measurements. Then its adsorption properties for alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids, including adsorption capacities, adsorption kinetics, and properties of selective separation and enrichment were studied in detail. It was shown that the ionic liquid surface imprinted polymer exhibited high selective recognition characteristics for the imidazolium chloride ionic liquids with short alkyl chains (C(n)mimCl, n = 2, 4, 6, 8) and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 25 min. Various parameters were optimized for the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid surface imprinted polymer SPE column, such as flow rate, eluent solvent, selectivity, and reusability of the column. Then, the SPE column coupled with HPLC was used for the determination of alkyl imidazolium ionic liquids. Experimental results showed that the existence of their structural analogs and common concomitants in environmental matrices did not affect the enrichment of 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid. The average recoveries of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid in spiked water samples were in the range of 92.0-102.0% with the RSD lower than 5.8%.

  16. Modular Polymer Biosensors by Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jayven S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Grate, Jay W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gratton, Enrico; Vasdekis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a rapid benchtop microsystem prototyping technique, including polymer functionalization, imprinting and bonding. Here, we focus on the realization of planar polymer sensors using SIIL through simple solvent immersion without imprinting. We describe SIIL’s impregnation characteristics, including an inherent mechanism that not only achieves practical doping concentrations, but their unexpected 4-fold enhancement compared to the immersion solution. Subsequently, we developed and characterized optical sensors for detecting molecular O2. To this end, a high dynamic range is reported, including its control through the immersion duration, a manifestation of SIIL’s modularity. Overall, SIIL exhibits the potential of improving the operating characteristics of polymer sensors, while significantly accelerating their prototyping, as it requires a few seconds of processing and no need for substrates or dedicated instrumentation. These are critical for O2 sensing as probed by way of example here, as well as any polymer permeable reactant.

  17. Characteristic and Synthetic Approach of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Row

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP exhibiting high selectivity and affinity tothe predetermined molecule (template are now seeing a fast growing research. However,optimization of the imprinted products is difficult due to the fact that there are manyvariables to consider, some or all of which can potentially impact upon the chemical,morphological and molecular recognition properties of the imprinted materials. This reviewpresent a summary of the principal synthetic considerations pertaining to good practice in thepolymerization aspects of molecular imprinting, and is primarily aimed at researcher familiarwith molecular imprinting methods but with little or no prior experience in polymersynthesis. The synthesis, characteristic, effect of molecular recognition and differentpreparation methods of MIP in recent few years are discussed in this review, unsolvedproblems and possible developments of MIP were also been briefly discussed.

  18. Preparation of hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers for tetracycline antibiotics recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Xiao Fang Fu; Jing Li; Jing Luo; Xiao Ya Zhao; Ming Jun Sun; Yin Zhu Shang; Cheng Ye

    2011-01-01

    Hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared using tetracycline as template, methacrylic acid as monomer and glycidilmethacrylate as pro-hydrophilic co-monomer. Compared with common MIPs, the imprinting effect and adsorption amounts of hydrophilic MIPs for tetracycline (TC) were greatly improved in water media. Furthermore, the electrochemical sensor fabricated by modifying hydrophilic MIPs on glassy carbon electrode was developed for the determination of TC in foodstuff samples.

  19. Chitosan in Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers: Current and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long; Huang, Yun-An; Zhu, Qiu-Jin; Ye, Chun

    2015-08-07

    Chitosan is widely used in molecular imprinting technology (MIT) as a functional monomer or supporting matrix because of its low cost and high contents of amino and hydroxyl functional groups. The various excellent properties of chitosan, which include nontoxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and attractive physical and mechanical performances, make chitosan a promising alternative to conventional functional monomers. Recently, chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers have gained considerable attention and showed significant potential in many fields, such as curbing environmental pollution, medicine, protein separation and identification, and chiral-compound separation. These extensive applications are due to the polymers' desired selectivity, physical robustness, and thermal stability, as well as their low cost and easy preparation. Cross-linkers, which fix the functional groups of chitosan around imprinted molecules, play an important role in chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers. This review summarizes the important cross-linkers of chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers and illustrates the cross-linking mechanism of chitosan and cross-linkers based on the two glucosamine units. Finally, some significant attempts to further develop the application of chitosan in MIT are proposed.

  20. Quantification and confocal imaging of protein specific molecularly imprinted polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, DM; Trache, A; Ellis, EA; Stevenson, D.; Holzenburg, A.; Meininger, GA; Reddy, Subrayal M

    2006-01-01

    We have employed FITC-albumin as the protein template molecule in an aqueous phase molecular imprinted polymer (HydroMIP) strategy. For the first time, the use of a fluorescently labelled template is reported, with subsequent characterisation of the smart material to show that the HydroMIP possess a significant molecular memory in comparison to that of the nonimprinted control polymer (HydroNIP). The imaging of the FITC-albumin imprinted HydroMIP using confocal microscopy is described, with t...

  1. Consequences of Morphology on Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Ligand Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika M. Rosengren

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP morphology and template-rebinding over a series of warfarin-imprinted methacrylic acid co(ethylene dimethacrylate polymers has been explored. Detailed investigations of the nature of template recognition revealed that an optimal template binding was obtained with polymers possessing a narrow population of pores (~3–4 nm in the mesopore size range. Importantly, the warfarin-polymer rebinding analyses suggest strategies for regulating ligand binding capacity and specificity through variation of the degree of cross-linking, where polymers prepared with a lower degree of cross-linking afford higher capacity though non-specific in character. In contrast, the co-existence of specific and non-specific binding was found in conjunction with higher degrees of cross-linking and resultant meso- and macropore size distributions.

  2. Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Amino Acid Derivates by Using Different Functional Monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Scorrano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fmoc-3-nitrotyrosine (Fmoc-3-NT molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were synthesized to understand the influence of several functional monomers on the efficiency of the molecular imprinting process. Acidic, neutral and basic functional monomers, such as acrylic acid (AA, methacrylic acid (MAA, methacrylamide (MAM, 2-vinylpyridine (2-VP, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP, have been used to synthesize five different polymers. In this study, the MIPs were tested in batch experiments by UV-visible spectroscopy in order to evaluate their binding properties. The MIP prepared with 2-VP exhibited the highest binding affinity for Fmoc-3NT, for which Scatchard analysis the highest association constant (2.49 × 104 M−1 was obtained. Furthermore, titration experiments of Fmoc-3NT into acetonitrile solutions of 2-VP revealed a stronger bond to the template, such that a total interaction is observed. Non-imprinted polymers as control were prepared and showed no binding affinities for Fmoc-3NT. The results are indicative of the importance of ionic bonds formed between the –OH residues of the template molecule and the pyridinyl groups of the polymer matrix. In conclusion, 2-VP assists to create a cavity which allows better access to the analytes.

  3. Terminology of Polymers Containing Ionizable or Ionic Groups and of Polymers Containing Ions, VII.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarm, V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of ionic polymers has widespread application in many areas of everyday life, in industrial production, and in the processes of living matter. The properties of ionic polymers depend on the polymer structure, and the nature, content, and location of the ionic groups. To clear differences among various ionic polymers, the IUPAC recommendations present 34 definitionsfor the ionomer, polyacid, polybase, polyampholytic polymer, ion-exchange polymer, polybetaine, polyelectrolyte, intrinsically conducting polymer, solid polymer electrolyte, etc

  4. Chitosan in Molecularly-Imprinted Polymers: Current and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is widely used in molecular imprinting technology (MIT as a functional monomer or supporting matrix because of its low cost and high contents of amino and hydroxyl functional groups. The various excellent properties of chitosan, which include nontoxicity, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and attractive physical and mechanical performances, make chitosan a promising alternative to conventional functional monomers. Recently, chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers have gained considerable attention and showed significant potential in many fields, such as curbing environmental pollution, medicine, protein separation and identification, and chiral-compound separation. These extensive applications are due to the polymers’ desired selectivity, physical robustness, and thermal stability, as well as their low cost and easy preparation. Cross-linkers, which fix the functional groups of chitosan around imprinted molecules, play an important role in chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers. This review summarizes the important cross-linkers of chitosan molecularly-imprinted polymers and illustrates the cross-linking mechanism of chitosan and cross-linkers based on the two glucosamine units. Finally, some significant attempts to further develop the application of chitosan in MIT are proposed.

  5. Quantum-dots-encoded-microbeads based molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yixi; Liu, Le; He, Yonghong; He, Qinghua; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-15

    Quantum dots encoded microbeads have various advantages such as large surface area, superb optical properties and the ability of multiplexing. Molecularly imprinted polymer that can mimic the natural recognition entities has high affinity and selectivity for the specific analyte. Here, the concept of utilizing the quantum dots encoded microbeads as the supporting material and the polydopamine as the functional monomer to form the core-shell molecular imprinted polymer was proposed for the first time. The resulted imprinted polymer can provide various merits: polymerization can complete in aqueous environment; fabrication procedure is facile and universal; the obvious economic advantage; the thickness of the imprinting layer is highly controllable; polydopamine coating can improve the biocompatibility of the quantum dot encoded microbeads. The rabbit IgG binding and flow cytometer experiment result showed the distinct advantages of this strategy: cost-saving, facile and fast preparation procedure. Most importantly, the ability for the multichannel detection, which makes the imprinted polydopamine modified encoded-beads very attractive in protein pre-concentration, recognition, separation and biosensing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Zipper-Like On/Off-Switchable Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Songjun; Ge, Yi; Piletsky, Sergey A.; Turner, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    A zipper-like on/off-switchable molecularly imprinted polymer is reported. This unique imprinted polymer was composed of template-imprinted polymeric networks that incorporate zipper-like interactions between poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) and poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propanesulfonic acid) (PAMPS). This polymer showed marginal recognition ability towards the imprint species under low temperature conditions, due to the interpolymer interaction between PAAm and PAMPS, which inhibited access to the i...

  7. Preparation and Cyclic Voltammetry Characterization Of Cu-dipyridyl Imprinted Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Polymer capable of specific binding to Cu-dipyridyl complex was prepared by molecular imprinting technology.The binding specificity of the polymer to the template (Cu-dipyridyl complex) was investigated by cyclic voltametric scanning using the carbon paste electrode modified by polymer particles in phosphate buffer solution.Factors that influence rebinding of the imprinted polymer were explored.The result demonstrated that the cyclic voltammetry was an efficient approach to explore interactions between template and imprinted polymers.

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs): sensing, an explosive new opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Adam; Holdsworth, Clovia I; Bowyer, Michael C

    2007-10-21

    Our group is currently developing in-field detection systems alongside the Australian Federal Police Forensic Services utilising molecularly imprinted polymers as the recognition elements. This review looks at MIP synthesis and our perceptions of future directions from an Australian and forensic perspective.

  9. Molecular imprinted polymers for separation science: a review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Won Jo; Yang, Song Hee; Ali, Faiz

    2013-02-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer is an artificial receptor made by imprinting molecules of a template in a polymer matrix followed by removing the template molecules via thorough washing to give the permanent template grooves. They show favored affinity to the template molecule compared to other molecules, and this property is the basic driving force for such diverse application of this techniques. Such techniques have been increasingly employed in a wide scope of applications such as chromatography, sample pretreatment, purification, catalysts, sensors, and drug delivery, etc., mostly in bioanalytical areas. A major part of them is related to development of new stationary phases and their application in chromatography and sample pretreatment. Embodiments of molecular imprinted polymer materials have been carried out in a variety of forms such as irregularly ground particles, regular spherical particles, nanoparticles, monoliths in a stainless steel or capillary column, open tubular layers in capillaries, surface attached thin layers, membranes, and composites, etc. There have been numerous review articles on molecular imprinted polymer issues. In this special review, the reviews in recent ca. 10 years will be categorized into several subgroups according to specified topics in separation science, and each review in each subgroup will be introduced in the order of date with brief summaries and comments on new developments and different scopes of prospects. Brief summaries of each categories and conclusive future perspectives are also given.

  10. Binding characteristics of molecularly imprinted polymers based on fungicides in hydroalcoholic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Manal; Bou-Maroun, Elias; Lerbret, Adrien; Ouaini, Naim; Cayot, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    An iprodione-imprinted polymer was prepared by copolymerization of methacrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate using a noncovalent imprinting approach. Methacrylamide was chosen using molecular dynamics simulations. To concentrate iprodione from hydro-alcoholic solutions, batch sorption of iprodione on the imprinted polymer were conducted. The equilibrium time for iprodione sorption is 20 min, and the corresponding kinetic mechanism follows the pseudo-second order indicating a strong interaction between iprodione and the imprinted polymer. Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to fit the isotherm of iprodione sorption. The imprinted polymer was found to be more efficient than the nonimprinted polymer for the uptake of iprodione, as revealed by its higher adsorption energy, affinity, and capacity. Finally, a selectivity study was conducted on the imprinted and the nonimprinted polymers to sorb three fungicides. It shows that the imprinted polymer could be used as a preconcentration phase in a multiresidue analysis of fungicides in hydroalcoholic medium.

  11. Biomimetic estimation of glucose using non-molecular and molecular imprinted polymer nanosponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Kiran; Tanwar, Yuveraj Singh; Shende, Pravin; Cavalli, Roberta

    2015-10-15

    The aim of the present work was to develop biomimetics for glucose estimation using molecularly and non-molecularly imprinted polymers of pyromellitic dianhydride crosslinked β-cyclodextrin based nanosponges. The ionic association of glucose phosphate to nanosponges by polymerization reaction and removal of glucose created molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)-nanosponges with affinity for glucose binding. Particle size, zeta potential, glucose binding studies and FTIR were used to characterize molecular and non-molecular imprinted polymer (NIP) nanosponges. Particle size of the nanosponges was found in the range of 450.81±5.33 nm to 550.63±8.14 nm with low polydispersity index. MIP-nanosponges retained a relatively large population of pores in the nano-range, while NIP was related to the nonporous materials with weak interaction and had poor tendency to aggregate. Nanosponges showed the variation in binding capacities and specificities; and also exhibited a similar degree of swelling. Moreover electrostatic force of attraction and cavities specific fitting of glucose in MIP-nanosponges might be due to advance selectivity and affinity for glucose. FTIR study showed glucose molecules might be entered into the selective binding cavities, which were created by the extraction of template molecules It is concluded that nanosized MIP-nanosponges have advantages over conventional NIP due to diffusion of template in the formed cavity as of its high surface area.

  12. Molecularly imprinted polymers as the future drug delivery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luliński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the investigations of new drug delivery systems have been directed on the development of some "intelligent" drug delivery devices that are able to directly respond to the patient's individual needs. New drug delivery systems should maximize the efficiency of administrated therapeutic agents and improve the patient's quality of life. Introduction of the new drug delivery devices is an important scientific goal, which could be achieved by combining new technologies and intelligent biomaterials. Molecular imprinting technology has a high potential for the preparation of optimized drug delivery forms. Here, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are promising new materials for such purposes, but their application in this field is nowadays at a developing stage. In this review, the principles of molecular imprinting and the recognition-release mechanisms of polymeric matrices are discussed. The potential application of molecularly imprinted materials as the future drug delivery systems with various administering routes (transdermal, ocular or oral) are presented, and some future prospects for the imprinted polymers are outlined.

  13. Synthesis and application of ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the determination of nickel ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Shahryar; Roushani, Mahmoud; Khani, Hossein; Sahraei, Reza; Mansouri, Ghobad

    2015-04-01

    Novel Ni(II) ion-imprinted polymers (Ni-IIP) nanoparticles were prepared by using Ni(II) ion-1,5-diphenyl carbazide (DPC) complex as the template molecule and methacrylic acid, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and 2,2‧-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the functional monomer, cross-linker and the radical initiator, respectively. The synthesized polymer particles were characterized physically and morphologically by using infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. Some parameters such as pH, weight of the polymer, adsorption time, elution time, eluent type and eluent volume which affects the efficiency of the polymer were studied. The preconcentration factor, relative standard deviation, and limit of detection of the method were found to be 100, 1.9%, and 0.002 μg mL-1, respectively. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer particles have an increased selectivity toward Ni(II) ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. The method was applied to the determination of nickel in tomato and some water samples.

  14. A comparison of covalent and non-covalent imprinting strategies for the synthesis of stigmasterol imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Shima N N S; Boysen, Reinhard I; Schwarz, Lachlan J; Danylec, Basil; Hearn, Milton T W

    2014-09-12

    Non-covalent and covalent imprinting strategies have been investigated for the synthesis of stigmasterol imprinted polymers. The synthesized molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were then evaluated for their recognition and selectivity towards stigmasterol via static and dynamic batch-binding assays and their performance measured against control non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). MIPs prepared using the conventional non-covalent imprinting method displayed little to no binding affinity for stigmasterol under various conditions. In contrast, the application of a covalent imprinting approach using the novel post-synthetically cleavable monomer-template composite stigmasteryl-3-O-methacrylate resulted in the fabrication of a MIP that successfully recognized stigmasterol in both organic and partially aqueous environments. The affinity and selectivity of the covalently prepared MIP was enhanced when undertaken in a partially aqueous environment consisting of an acetonitrile/water (9:1, v/v) solvent mixture. These features have been exploited in a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) format, wherein the preferential retention of stigmasterol (with an imprint factor of 12) was demonstrated with 99% recovery in comparison to cholesterol (imprint factor of 6) and ergosterol (imprint factor of 4) while in the presence of several closely related steryl analogues.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Phenoxyacetic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canping Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (2-MPA, 2-methyl-4-chlorophenxyacetic acid (MCPA and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA were imprinted to investigate the cross-selectivities of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs. The result indicates that 2-MPA, which is similar in shape, size and functionality with phenoxyacetic herbicides, are suitable to be used as a suitable template to prepare the MIPs for retaining phenoxyacetic herbicides. To study the ion-pair interactions between template molecules and functional monomer 4-vinylpiridine (4-VP, computational molecular modeling was employed. The data indicate that the cross-selectivities of MIPs for phenoxyacetic acid herbicides depend on the binding energies of complexes.

  16. Applications of ionic liquids in polymer science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the latest knowledge in the science and technology of ionic liquids and polymers in different areas. Ionic liquids (IL) are actively being investigated in polymer science and technology for a number of different applications. In the first part of the book the authors present the particular properties of ionic liquids as speciality solvents. The state-of-the art in the use of ionic liquids in polymer synthesis and modification reactions including polymer recycling is outlined. The second part focuses on the use of ionic liquids as speciality additives such as plasticizers or antistatic agents.  The third part examines the use of ionic liquids in the design of functional polymers (usually called polymeric ionic liquids (PIL) or poly(ionic liquids)). Many important applications in diverse scientific and industrial areas rely on these polymers, like polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, building blocks in materials science, nanocomposites, gas membranes, innovative anion sensitive...

  17. Spherical molecularly imprinted polymer particles : A promising tool for molecular recognition in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, T; Mol, R; de Zeeuw, RA; de Jong, GJ; Sherrington, DC; Cormack, PAG; Ensing, K

    2002-01-01

    Spherical molecularly imprinted polymer particles obtained via precipitation polymerization, were introduced as a pseudostationary phase in capillary electrophoresis (CE) to study molecular recognition. Analyses were performed via a partial filling technique using (+)-ephedrine-imprinted microsphere

  18. Quantitation of drugs via molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: benzodiazepines in human plasma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The association of solid phase extraction with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is applied to the direct extraction and quantitation of benzodiazepines in human plasma. The target analytes are sequestered by MIP and directly analyzed by ESI-MS. Due to the MIP highly selective extraction, ionic suppression during ESI is minimized; hence no separation is necessary prior to ESI-MS, which greatly increases analytical speed. Benzodiazepine...

  19. Critical review and perspective of macromolecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, David R; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2012-02-01

    Molecular recognition is a fundamental and ubiquitous process that is the driving force behind life. Natural recognition elements - including antibodies, enzymes, nucleic acids, and cells - exploit non-covalent interactions to bind to their targets with exceptionally strong affinities. Due to this unparalleled proficiency, scientists have long sought to mimic natural recognition pathways. One promising approach is molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), which are fully synthetic systems formed via the crosslinking of organic polymers in the presence of a template molecule, which results in stereo-specific binding sites for this analyte of interest. Macromolecularly imprinted polymers, those synthesized in the presence of macromolecule templates (>1500 Da), are of particular importance because they open up the field for a whole new set of robust diagnostic tools. Although the specific recognition of small-molecular-weight analytes is now considered routine, extension of these efficacious procedures to the protein regime has, thus far, proved challenging. This paper reviews the main approaches employed, highlights studies of interest with an emphasis on recent work, and offers suggestions for future success in the field of macromolecularly imprinted polymers.

  20. Polymer Catalysts Imprinted with Metal Ions as Biomimics of Metalloenzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czulak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the preparation and properties of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs with catalytic centers that mimic the active sites of metalloenzymes. The MIP synthesis was based on suspension polymerization of functional monomers (4-vinylpyridine and acrylonitrile with trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate as a crosslinker in the presence of transition metal ions and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol as a template. Four metal ions have been chosen for imprinting from among the microelements that are the most essential in the native enzymes: Cu2+, Co2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+. To prepare catalysts, the required loading of metal ions was obtained during sorption process. The catalysts imprinted with Cu2+, Co2+, and Zn2+ were successfully used for hydroquinone oxidation in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The Mn2+-imprinted catalyst showed no activity due to the insufficient metal loading. Cu2+ MIP showed the highest efficiency. In case of Cu- and Co-MIP catalysts, their activity was additionally increased by the use of surface imprinting technique.

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymers for histamine recognition in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikka, Foteini A; Yoshimatsu, Keiichi; Ye, Lei; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2012-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for histamine using methacrylic acid were developed and recognition mechanisms were thoroughly characterized for the first time in this study. The binding affinity of imprinted polymer with structurally related compounds was studied in organic and aqueous media, at various conditions. In organic media, MIP was found to bind histamine two and six times more than ranitidine and fluoxetine, respectively, whereas higher selectivity was observed in the case of dimentidene or disodium cromoglycate. The specific binding sites of MIP recognized histamine over L-histidine in aqueous conditions, while higher affinity for histamine compared to ranitidine, disodium cromoglycate, putrescine and to a putrescine analogue was observed. A combination of NMR and UV spectroscopy analyses for investigation of imprinting and recognition properties revealed that strong specific interactions between the functional monomer and histamine in the prepolymerization and in the aqueous solutions were probably responsible for histamine recognition. The preparation of histamine MIPs and elucidation of imprinting and recognition mechanism may serve as useful insight for future application of MIPs.

  2. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for aspirin recognition and controlled release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xianwen; Geng, Zhirong; Zhao, Yao; Wang, Zhilin; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2009-04-01

    Core-shell structural magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs) with combined properties of molecular recognition and controlled release were prepared and characterized. Magnetic MIPs were synthesized by the co-polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) around aspirin (ASP) at the surface of double-bond-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles in chloroform. The obtained spherical magnetic MIPs with diameters of about 500 nm had obvious superparamagnetism and could be separated quickly by an external magnetic field. Binding experiments were carried out to evaluate the properties of magnetic MIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic NIPs). The results demonstrated that the magnetic MIPs had high adsorption capacity and selectivity to ASP. Moreover, release profiles and release rate of ASP from the ASP-loaded magnetic MIPs indicated that the magnetic MIPs also had potential applications in drug controlled release.

  3. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for aspirin recognition and controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan Xianwen; Geng Zhirong; Zhao Yao; Wang Zhilin; Zhu Junjie [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, MOE Key Lab of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: wangzl@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: jjzhu@nju.edu.cn

    2009-04-22

    Core-shell structural magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic MIPs) with combined properties of molecular recognition and controlled release were prepared and characterized. Magnetic MIPs were synthesized by the co-polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) around aspirin (ASP) at the surface of double-bond-functionalized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in chloroform. The obtained spherical magnetic MIPs with diameters of about 500 nm had obvious superparamagnetism and could be separated quickly by an external magnetic field. Binding experiments were carried out to evaluate the properties of magnetic MIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers (magnetic NIPs). The results demonstrated that the magnetic MIPs had high adsorption capacity and selectivity to ASP. Moreover, release profiles and release rate of ASP from the ASP-loaded magnetic MIPs indicated that the magnetic MIPs also had potential applications in drug controlled release.

  4. Photoconjugation of molecularly imprinted polymer with magnetic nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Changgang; Uddin, Khan Mohammad Ahsan; Shen, Xiantao; Jayawardena, Surangi; Yan, Mingdi; Ye, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Because of their synthetic accessibility, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles are ideal building blocks for preparing multifunctional composites. In this work we developed a general photo-coupling chemistry to enable simple conjugation of MIP nanoparticles with inorganic magnetic nanoparticles. We first synthesized MIP nanoparticles using propranolol as a model template and perfluorophenylazide-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Using a simple photoactivation followe...

  5. Influence of salt ions on binding to molecularly imprinted polymers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kempe, Henrik; Kempe, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Salt ions were found to have an influence on template binding to two model molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), targeted to penicillin G and propranolol, respectively, in water-acetonitrile mixtures. Water was detrimental to rebinding of penicillin G whereas propranolol bound in the entire water-acetonitrile range tested. In 100% aqueous solution, 3-M salt solutions augmented the binding of both templates. The effects followed the Hofmeister series with kosmotropic ions promoting the larges...

  6. Absolute configuration determination using enantiomeric pairs of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Danielle S; Spivak, David A

    2014-03-07

    A new method for determination of absolute configuration (AC) is demonstrated using an enantiomeric pair of molecularly imprinted polymers, referred to as "DuoMIPs". The ratio of HPLC capacity factors (k') for the analyte on each of the DuoMIPs is defined as the γ factor and can be used to determine AC when above 1.2. A mnemonic based on the complementary binding geometry of the DuoMIPs was used to aid in understanding and prediction of AC.

  7. Preparation and adsorption behaviors of Cu(Ⅱ) ion-imprinted polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Shi-an; YUAN Zhou-lv; QIAO Rong; LI Wei

    2008-01-01

    Imprinted polymers were prepared for selective removal of Cu(II) ions from metal solutions. Three ion-imprinted polymers were synthesized with methacrylic acid (MAA), acrylamide (AA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) respectively as the functional monomers, ethleneglycoldimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linking agent, 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator and Cu (II) ion as the imprint ion. The template Cu (II) ion was removed from the polymer by leaching with a liquid of a 1:1 volumetric ratio of HCl to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The capacity and selectivity of Cu(II) ion adsorption were investigated with the three imprinted polymers and their non-imprinted counterparts. The polymers have a maximum adsorption capacity at pH 7.0. The isotherm of their batch adsorption of Cu(II) ions shows a Langmuir adsorption pattern. Imprinted polymers all have a much higher capacity and higher selectivity of Cu(II) adsorption than non-imprinted ones. MAA polymer benefits the most from imprinting. Imprinted MAA polymer has the highest selectivity when used to rebind Cu (II) ion from an aqueous solution in the presence of other metal ions. Ion imprinting can be a promising technique of preparing selective adsorbents to separate and preconcentrate metal in a medium of multiple competitive metal ions through solid phase extraction (SPE).

  8. Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-19

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: ACS Symposium: Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health at Fall 2015 ACS Meeting in Boston, MA The...combination of ionic liquids and polymers has emerged as an active field of exploration in polymer science, where new materials have be realized for...2016 Final Report: Ionic Liquids in Polymer Design: From Energy to Health The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of

  9. Custom synthesis of molecular imprinted polymers for biotechnological application: preparation of a polymer selective for tylosin

    OpenAIRE

    Piletsky, Sergey A.; Piletska, Elena V.; Karim, K.; Foster, G.; Legge, C.; Turner, Anthony P.F.

    2004-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) selective for tylosin was designed and synthesised using a computational method (MIP “dialling”). In re-binding experiments the MIP demonstrated high affinity for tylosin in aqueous solutions and in organic solvents. The synthesised polymer was tested for re-binding with the template and related metabolites such as tylactone, narbomycin and picromycin. The HPLC analysis showed that the computationally designed polymer is specific and cap...

  10. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for selective removal of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Feng; Sun, Daming; Gao, Jinsuo; Zhao, Qian; Wang, Xiaochun; Teng, Fei; Quan, Xie; Chen, Jingwen

    2013-01-15

    In this study, novel molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMCN@MIPs) were prepared by covalent grafting of ofloxacin-imprinted polymer onto the surface of mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs). SEM analyses indicated that the prepared nanoMCN@MIPs were almost uniform, and their geometrical mean diameter was about 230 nm. The sorption behaviors of the nanoMCN@MIPs including sorption kinetics and isotherms, effect of pH, ionic strength, and cross-reactivity were investigated in detail. The adsorption capacity of the nanoparticles for ofloxacin was 40.98 mg/g, with a selectivity factor of 2.6 compared to the nonimprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMCN@NIPs). The feasibility of removing fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) from environmental waters with the nanoMCN@MIPs was demonstrated using sea water spiked with six typical FQs (ofloxacin, gatifloxacin, balofloxcacin, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin and sarafloxacin). The nanoMCN@MIPs could be reused at least five times with removal efficiency more than 90% except for norfloxacin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation and Property Recognition of Nimodipine Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fei-fei

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the application of molecular imprinting technique in the separation and detection of nimodipine. Methods:Methacrylic acid as functional monomer, pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent were used to prepare molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with the feature of specific recognition performance on imprinting molecule nimodipine under condition of template molecule nimodipine. The preparation conditions, recognition performance of MIP on nimodipine, different proportions of template molecule and functional monomer, the selectivity to other substrate, and the relationship between adsorption quantity (Q) and time were observed. Results: MIP was prepared successfully by nimodipine as template and pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent, with the feature of speciifc recognition performance on nimodipine. The static adsorption distribution coefifcient (KD) was 0.2264. The equation of Q and the concentration of substrate of template MIP was y = -0.21x+0.2204. Combining capacity of template molecule at the same concentration enhanced with the increasing proportion of functional monomer. Conclusion:Nimodipine MIP based on molecular imprinting technique may become a new approach to chiral separation for nimodipine.

  12. Preparation and Property Recognition of Nimodipine Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-fei CHEN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of molecular imprinting technique in the separation and detection of nimodipine. Methods: Methacrylic acid as functional monomer, pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent were used to prepare molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP with the feature of specific recognition performance on imprinting molecule nimodipine under condition of template molecule nimodipine. The preparation conditions, recognition performance of MIP on nimodipine, different proportions of template molecule and functional monomer, the selectivity to other substrate, and the relationship between adsorption quantity (Q and time were observed. Results: MIP was prepared successfully bynimodipine as template and pentaerythritol triacrylate as cross-linking agent, with the feature of specific recognition performance on nimodipine. The static adsorption distribution coefficient (KD was 0.2264. The equation of Q and the concentration of substrate of template MIP was y = -0.21x+0.2204. Combining capacity of template molecule at the same concentration enhanced with the increasing proportion of functional monomer.Conclusion: Nimodipine MIP based on molecular imprinting technique may become a new approach to chiral separation for nimodipine.

  13. Ordered macroporous quercetin molecularly imprinted polymers: Preparation, characterization, and separation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yonggang; Liu, Qin; Ye, Lifang; Wu, Quanzhou; He, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    Ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared by a combination of the colloidal crystal templating method and the molecular imprinting technique by using SiO2 colloidal crystal as the macroporogen, quercetin as the imprinting template, acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and tetrahydrofuran as the solvent. Scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements show that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers have a more regular macroporous structure, a narrower pore distribution and a greater porosity compared with the traditional bulk molecularly imprinted polymers. The kinetic and isothermal adsorption behaviors of the polymers were investigated. The results indicate that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers have a faster intraparticle mass transfer process and a higher adsorption capacity than the traditional bulk molecularly imprinted polymers. The ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers were further employed as a sorbent for a solid-phase extraction. The results show that the ordered macroporous molecularly imprinted polymers can effectively separate quercetin from the Gingko hydrolysate.

  14. Configuration control on the shape memory stiffness of molecularly imprinted polymer for specific uptake of creatinine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Qian Yee; Zolkeflay, Muhammad Helmi; Low, Siew Chun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, sol-gel processing was proposed to prepare a creatinine (Cre)-imprinted molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The intermolecular interaction constituted by the cross-linkers, i.e., 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS) and aluminium ion (Al3+), was studied and compared in order to form a confined matrix that promises the effectiveness of molecular imprinting. In view of the shape recognition, the hydrogen bonded Cre-AMPS did not demonstrate good recognition of Cre, with Cre binding found only at 5.70 ± 0.15 mg g-1 of MIP. Whilst, MIP cross-linked using Al3+ was able to attain an excellent Cre adsorption capacity of 19.48 ± 0.64 mg g-1 of MIP via the stronger ionic interaction of Cre-Al3+. Based on the Scatchard analysis, a higher Cre concentration in testing solution required greater driving force to resolve the binding resistance of Cre molecules, so as to have a precise Cre binding with shape factor. The molecular recognition ability of Cre-MIP in present work was shape-specific for Cre as compared to its structural analogue, 2-pyrrolidinone (2-pyr), by an ideal selectivity coefficient of 6.57 ± 0.10. In overall, this study has come up with a practical approach on the preparation of MIP for the detection of renal dysfunction by point-of-care Cre testing.

  15. Fingerprint-imprinted polymer: rational selection of peptide epitope templates for the determination of proteins by molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Alessandra M; Sharma, Piyush S; Montana, Luca; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Laub, Orgad; Levi, Raphael

    2012-05-01

    The pool of peptides composing a protein allows for its distinctive identification in a process named fingerprint (FP) analysis. Here, the FP concept is used to develop a method for the rational preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for protein recognition. The fingerprint imprinting (FIP) is based on the following: (1) the in silico cleavage of the protein sequence of interest with specific agents; (2) the screening of all the peptide sequences generated against the UniProtKB database in order to allow for the rational selection of distinctive and unique peptides (named as epitopes) of the target protein; (3) the selected epitopes are synthesized and used as templates for the molecular imprinting process. To prove the principle, NT-proBNP, a marker of the risk of cardiovascular events, was chosen as an example. The in silico analysis of the NT-proBNP sequence allowed us to individuate the peptide candidates, which were next used as templates for the preparation of NT-pro-BNP-specific FIPs and tested for their ability to bind the NT-proBNP peptides in complex samples. Results indicated an imprinting factor, IF, of ~10, a binding capacity of 0.5-2 mg/g, and the ability to rebind 40% of the template in a complex sample, composed of the whole digests of NT-proBNP.

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Imprinting Polymer Microspheres of Piperine: Extraction of Piperine from Spiked Urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Rachel Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) microspheres for Piperine were synthesized by precipitation polymerization with a noncovalent approach. In this research Piperine was used as a template, acrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, and 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator and acetonitrile as a solvent. The imprinted and nonimprinted polymer particles were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The synthesized polymer particles were further evaluated for their rebinding efficiency by batch binding assay. The highly selected imprinted polymer for Piperine was MIP 3 with a composition (molar ratio) of 0.5 : 3 : 8, template : monomer : cross-linker, respectively. The MIP 3 exhibits highest binding capacity (84.94%) as compared to other imprinted and nonimprinted polymers. The extraction efficiency of highly selected imprinted polymer of Piperine from spiked urine was above 80%. PMID:28018704

  17. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers for strychnine by precipitation polymerization and multistep swelling and polymerization and their application for the selective extraction of strychnine from nux-vomica extract powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yukari; Matsunaga, Hisami; Haginaka, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Monodisperse molecularly imprinted polymers for strychnine were prepared by precipitation polymerization and multistep swelling and polymerization, respectively. In precipitation polymerization, methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene were used as a functional monomer and crosslinker, respectively, while in multistep swelling and polymerization, methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as a functional monomer and crosslinker, respectively. The retention and molecular recognition properties of the molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by both methods for strychnine were evaluated using a mixture of sodium phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by liquid chromatography. In addition to shape recognition, ionic and hydrophobic interactions could affect the retention of strychnine in low acetonitrile content. Furthermore, molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by both methods could selectively recognize strychnine among solutes tested. The retention factors and imprinting factors of strychnine on the molecularly imprinted polymer prepared by precipitation polymerization were 220 and 58, respectively, using 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.0)/acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) as a mobile phase, and those on the molecularly imprinted polymer prepared by multistep swelling and polymerization were 73 and 4.5. These results indicate that precipitation polymerization is suitable for the preparation of a molecularly imprinted polymer for strychnine. Furthermore, the molecularly imprinted polymer could be successfully applied for selective extraction of strychnine in nux-vomica extract powder.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer with Calix[4]arene Derivative for the Recognition of Acetanilide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU, Chun-Yang(卢春阳); HE, Hai-Cheng(何海成); HE, Xi-Wen(何锡文); ZENG, Xian-Shun(曾宪顺)

    2004-01-01

    Two molecularly imprinted polymers binding to analgesic acetanilide were prepared using either dual functional monomers of calix[4]arene derivative and acrylamide or single monomer acrylamide, respectively. The polymers were ground, sieved and investigated by equilibrium binding experiment to evaluate their recognition properties for the template and other substrates. Scatchard analysis showed that homogeneous recognition sites were formed in the imprinted polymer matrix. Our results demonstrated that the polymer using two functional monomers exhibited better selectivity for the template. This study may open new frontiers for the development and application of imprinted polymers, such as drug separation and purification.

  19. Ion imprinted polymers: fundamentals, preparation strategies and applications in analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Diego Marestoni; Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor; Mariana Gava Segatelli; Lucas Rossi Sartori; César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley

    2013-01-01

    Chemical imprinting technology has been widely used as a valuable tool in selective recognition of a given target analyte (molecule or metal ion), yielding a notable advance in the development of new analytical protocols. Since their discovery, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been extensively studied with excellent reviews published. However, studies involving ion imprinted polymers (IIPs), in which metal ions are recognized in the presence of closely related inorganic ions, remain...

  20. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Considerations on the Specific Sorption and Molecular Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kejun Tong; Wuke Li; Mingxia Zheng; Xing Huang; Songjun Li

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a work aiming at thermodynamically and kinetically interpreting the specific sorption and recognition by a molecularly imprinted polymer. Using Boc-L-Phe-OH as a template, the imprinted material was prepared. The result indicates that the prepared polymer can well discriminate the imprint species from its analogue (Boc-D-Phe-OH), so as to adsorb more for the former but less for the latter. Kinetic analysis indicates that this specific sorption, in nature, can be a result...

  1. Computational and experimental studies on oxalic acid imprinted polymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiran Kumar Tadi; R V Motghare

    2013-03-01

    Computational approach plays an important role to pre-evaluate the interactions between template and functional monomer, so that to choose functional monomer having stronger interactions with template during synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Hence template-monomer interactions in pre-polymerization were mainly focused. In this paper, computational chemistry was applied to screen the number of mol of functional monomer that interacts with one mol of template. Intermolecular interactions between oxalic acid and acrylamide have been investigated. The binding energies Ebind were calculated by DFT (B3LYP) level of theory with the 6−31+G(d,p) basis set. It was found that four mol of acrylamide were sufficient to interact with one mol of oxalic acid in the pre-polymerization mixture. Four possible conformations and frequency calculations were performed to locate minima. Oxalic acid specific bulk polymer was obtained by the thermal initiated free radical co-polymerization of acrylamide and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate with oxalic acid as template and acetonitrile as porogen. The synthesized MIP efficiently adsorbed oxalic acid from aqueous solutions. The binding parameters ofMIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were compared by Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms.

  2. Imprinting of Phenylalanine ethyl ester in cyclodextrin polymers in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detcheva, Anna Hr.; Yu, Donghong; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    During the last decades there has been a wide interest of developing molecularly imprinted polymers, which selectively can recognize small molecules. Cyclodextrins offer relatively strong binding site of a wide range of small molecules in water and molecular imprinted polymers of these have previ...

  3. Imprinting of Phenylalanine ethyl ester in cyclodextrin polymers in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detcheva, Anna Hr.; Yu, Donghong; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    During the last decades there has been a wide interest of developing molecularly imprinted polymers, which selectively can recognize small molecules. Cyclodextrins offer relatively strong binding site of a wide range of small molecules in water and molecular imprinted polymers of these have previ...

  4. Fibers coated with molecularly imprinted polymers for solid-phase microextraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.H M; Crescenzi, C; den Hoedt, W; Ensing, K; de Jong, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    The simplicity and flexibility of solid-phase microextraction have been combined with the selectivity of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), Silica fibers were coated reproducible with a 75-mum layer of methacrylate polymer either nonimprinted or imprinted with clenbuterol to compare their extrac

  5. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Coated on Stainless Steel Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu XiaoGang; Dai GuiMei; Huang JiaJing

    2009-01-01

    @@ With characteristics of specific selectivity,good chemical stability and easy preparation,molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been used as the recognition materials m various fields ~([1,2]).Recently,the application of MIP in the sample pre-treatment techniques such as SPME was attractive ~([3,4]).For analysis of complicated samples,the interference matrix would be reduced obviously with the MIP-coated SPME fiber~([5-7]).Because MIPs were coated on the surface of silica fiber through chemical bonding,those fibers could be used for over 80 times without obvious losing of surface quality and extraction performance of MIP coatings.

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymers for on-line extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad M; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as a sorbent for different extraction methods and this is due to its high selectivity. The MIP is designed to show specificity for the analyte of interest. Moreover, MIPs show physical robustness, resistance to high temperatures and pressures, and stability in the presence of acids, bases and a wide range of organic solvents. In the present article, various novel sample preparation techniques which MIPs applied as sorbent and on-line connected with analytical instruments were highlighted and discussed. The future aspects of MIPs as well were described.

  7. Ionic conductivity of polymer gels deriving from alkali metal ionic liquids and negatively charged polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogihara, Wataru; Yoshizawa, Masahiro; Ohno Hiroyuki [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Sun, Jiazeng; Forsyth, M. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia). School of Materials Engineering; MacFarlane, D.R. [Monash University, Clayton (Australia). School of Chemistry

    2004-04-30

    We have prepared polymer gel electrolytes with alkali metal ionic liquids (AMILs) that inherently contain alkali metal ions. The AMIL consisted of sulfate anion, imidazolium cation, and alkali metal cation. AMILs were mixed directly with poly(3-sulfopropyl acrylate) lithium salt or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid) lithium salt to form polymer gels. The ionic conductivity of these gels decreased with increasing polymer fraction, as in general ionic liquid/polymer mixed systems. At low polymer concentrations, these gels displayed excellent ionic conductivity of 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} at room temperature. Gelation was found to cause little change in the {sup 7}Li diffusion coefficient of the ionic liquid, as measured by pulse-field-gradient NMR. These data strongly suggest that the lithium cation migrates in successive pathways provided by the ionic liquids. (author)

  8. Recognizing Amino Acid Chirality with Surface-Imprinted Polymers Prepared in W/O Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Shin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared by a surface molecular imprinting technique in water-in-oil (W/O emulsion. In this technique, the solid polymer, which is molecularly imprinted at the internal cavity surface, is prepared by polymerizing W/O emulsions consisting of a water-soluble imprinted molecule, a functional host molecule, an emulsion stabilizer, and a crosslinking agent. Dioleoyl phosphate was used as an emulsion stabilizer, and this compound also acted as a monomer and a host functional group in the imprinted cavity. Divinylbenzene was used as a crosslinker. Tryptophan methyl ester and phenylalanine methyl ester were used as the target template materials. These imprinted polymers exhibited enantiomeric selectivity in absorption experiments, and the maximum separation factor was 1.58. The enantiomeric selectivity with tryptophan methyl ester was higher than that with phenylalanine methyl ester.

  9. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained.

  10. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube Incorporated Molecular Imprinted Polymer with Binding Affinity towards Testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Augustine, Anju; Mathew, Beena

    2014-01-01

    A novel polymer was synthesised using functionalized carbon nanotube and acrylamide as the polymer support for the separation of testosterone. The developed polymers were characterised using FT-IR, XRD, and SEM techniques. Imprinted polymer showed specificity towards the template testosterone. Among the various polymers, the MWCNT incorporated polymer showed high binding towards the used template. Investigation of the selectivity characteristics revealed that the developed polymer showed sele...

  11. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles for Formaldehyde Sensing with QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munawar Hussain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs for detecting formaldehyde vapors in air streams. A copolymer thin film consisting of styrene, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM yielded a detection limit of 500 ppb formaldehyde in dry air. Surprisingly, these MIPs showed specific behavior when tested against a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, such as acetaldehyde, methanol, formic acid, and dichloromethane. Despite thus being a suitable receptor in principle, the MIPs were not useful for measurements at 50% humidity due to surface saturation by water. This was overcome by introducing primary amino groups into the polymer via allyl amine and by changing the coating morphology from thin film to nanoparticles. This led to the same limit of detection (500 ppb and selectivity as before, but at the real-life conditions of 50% relative humidity.

  12. Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Sterol Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangsawad Ratanaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP was prepared by bulk polymerization in acetone using acrylamide as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker, stigmasterol as a template and benzoyl peroxide as an initiator. The obtained MIPs were characterized using a scanning electron microscope and a fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. Performance in sterol adsorption of MIPs prepared under various conditions was investigated using a model solution of phytosterols in heptane, comparing with a nonimprinted polymer (NIP. Statistical analysis revealed that the amounts of crosslinker and template strongly affected the performance of MIP while the amount of solvent slightly affected the performance of MIP. MIP synthesized under the optimal condition had adsorption capacity of 1.28 mgsterols/gads which were 1.13 times of NIP.

  13. Studies on the synthesis and properties of malachite green imprinted polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiang Su; Shi Qiao; Wei Bing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized with malachite green (MG) as molecular template, methacrylic acid(MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as crosslinker, and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator.Recognition properties of the MG imprinted polymer were studied by equilibrium adsorption and HPLC. The results showed that the imprinted polymer had good affinity and marked selectivity for MG, and can separate MG with its analogue commendably. The new polymer can be used for the enrichment of MG in complex sample, and can work as separation media to separate and detect MG by HPLC.

  14. Detection of Waterborne Viruses Using High Affinity Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Zeynep; Gittens, Micah; Guerreiro, Antonio; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Walker, Jimmy; Piletsky, Sergey; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2015-07-07

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are artificial receptor ligands which can recognize and specifically bind to a target molecule. They are more resistant to chemical and biological damage and inactivation than antibodies. Therefore, target specific-MIP nanoparticles are aimed to develop and implemented to biosensors for the detection of biological toxic agents such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi toxins that cause many diseases and death due to the environmental contamination. For the first time, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) targeting the bacteriophage MS2 as the template was investigated using a novel solid-phase synthesis method to obtain the artificial affinity ligand for the detection and removal of waterborne viruses through optical-based sensors. A high affinity between the artificial ligand and the target was found, and a regenerative MIP-based virus detection assay was successfully developed using a new surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-biosensor which provides an alternative technology for the specific detection and removal of waterborne viruses that lead to high disease and death rates all over the world.

  15. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers simazine as material potentiometric sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bow Yohandri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinting technology is a promising technique for creating recognition elements for selected compounds and has been successfully applied for synthesis of environmental pollutants such as simazine. Simazine is a pesticide ingredient that is commonly used in agriculture, which has devastating effects on the environment if used excessively. Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP provides cavities to form a particular space generated by removing the template when the polymer has formed. In this study, MIP using simazine as template had been made by the cooling-heating method and used as a material potentiometric sensor for detecting simazine. A template (simazine was incorporated into a pre-polymerization solution that contains a methacrylic acid as functional monomer, an ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross linker, and benzoyl peroxide as initiator. Characterization was performed by scanning electron microscope (SEM and fourier transforms infra-red (FTIR. The FTIR spectra of the MIP showed that the peaks of amine group decrease significantly, indicating that the simazine concentration decreases drastically. Characterization by SEM images showing the broadest pore size distribution with the highest number of pores in the MIP prepared under the heating time of 150 min. The MIPs therefore could be applied as a simazine sensor.

  16. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. residues by screening the library of non-imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingxiao; Ji, Wenhua; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Gao, Qianshan; Geng, Yanling; Huang, Luqi

    2014-08-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high selectivity and affinity to glabridin were designed based on the screening results of the library of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). The NIP library contained 48 polymers that were polymerized with the combinations of different functional monomers, cross-linkers, and porogenic solvents. The distribution coefficient (k) values were used to estimate the affinity of NIPs to glabridin. The corresponding MIPs of the best three NIPs were prepared. After evaluating the imprinting effects and selectivity of the three MIPs, the performance of the best MIP as solid phase extraction sorbent was investigated. Glabridin with percent recovery of 83 was obtained from the extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (G. glabra L.) residues by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE). Thus, this material can be successfully used for the extraction and purification of glabridin from G. glabra L. residues.

  17. Selective Solid-phase Extraction of Aloe Emodin from Aloe by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ming-lei; LEE Yu-ri; PARK Dong-wha; ROW Kyung-ho

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and separation of aloe emodin were optimized via selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.Molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared from the functional monomer,methacrylic acid and a mixture of ethanol/dodecanol(90/10,volume ratio) as porogen.It overcomes the common problems of imprinting biological polar compounds and shows high selectivity compared favorably with those of non-imprinted polymer and commercially available C18 and silica cartridges in similar aloe emodin tests.Good linearity was obtained between 0.002 and 2.5 mg/mL(r2=0.998) with relative standard deviations below 3.3%.

  18. Removal of cefalexin using yeast surface-imprinted polymer prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxiu; Pan, Jianming; Dai, Jiangdong; Dai, Xiaohui; Ou, Hongxiang; Xu, Longcheng; Li, Chunxiang; Zhang, Rongxian

    2012-10-01

    The first use of yeast as a support in the molecular imprinting field combined with atom transfer radical polymerization was described. Then, the as-prepared molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis. The obtained imprinted polymers demonstrated elliptical-shaped particles with the thickness of imprinting layer of 0.63 μm. The batch mode experiments were adopted to investigate the adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and selectivity. The kinetic properties of imprinted polymers were well described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic equation, indicating the chemical process was the rate-limiting step for the adsorption of cefalexin (CFX). The equilibrium data were well fitted by the Freundlich isotherm, and the multimolecular layers adsorption capacity of imprinted polymers was 34.07 mg g(-1) at 298 K. The selectivity analysis suggested that the imprinted polymers exhibited excellent selective recognition for CFX in the presence of other compounds with related structure. Finally, the analytical method based on the imprinted polymers extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatograph was successfully used for CFX analysis in spiked pork and water samples.

  19. Characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers using a new polar solvent titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Di; Zhang, Yagang; Geer, Michael F; Shimizu, Ken D

    2014-07-01

    A new method of characterizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was developed and tested, which provides a more accurate means of identifying and measuring the molecular imprinting effect. In the new polar solvent titration method, a series of imprinted and non-imprinted polymers were prepared in solutions containing increasing concentrations of a polar solvent. The polar solvent additives systematically disrupted the templation and monomer aggregation processes in the prepolymerization solutions, and the extent of disruption was captured by the polymerization process. The changes in binding capacity within each series of polymers were measured, providing a quantitative assessment of the templation and monomer aggregation processes in the imprinted and non-imprinted polymers. The new method was tested using three different diphenyl phosphate imprinted polymers made using three different urea functional monomers. Each monomer had varying efficiencies of templation and monomer aggregation. The new MIP characterization method was found to have several advantages. To independently verify the new characterization method, the MIPs were also characterized using traditional binding isotherm analyses. The two methods appeared to give consistent conclusions. First, the polar solvent titration method is less susceptible to false positives in identifying the imprinting effect. Second, the method is able to differentiate and quantify changes in binding capacity, as measured at a fixed guest and polymer concentration, arising from templation or monomer aggregation processes in the prepolymerization solution. Third, the method was also easy to carry out, taking advantage of the ease of preparing MIPs.

  20. Protein imprinted polymer using acryloyl-β-cyclodextrin and acrylamide as monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Qin, Lei; Chen, Run-Run; He, Xi-Wen; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2010-02-01

    A novel protein imprinted polymer was prepared using acryloyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and acrylamide as monomers on the surface of silica gel. The bovine hemoglobin was used as template and β-CD was allowed to self-assemble with the template protein through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction. Polymerization was carried out in the presence of acrylamide as an assistant monomer, which resulted in a novel protein imprinted polymer. After removing the template, imprinted cavities with the shape and spatial distribution of functional groups were formed. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) cytochrome c (Cyt) and lysozyme (Lyz) were employed as non-template proteins to test the imprinting effect and the specific binding of bovine hemoglobin to the polymer. The results of the adsorption experiments indicated that such protein imprinted polymer, which was synthesized with β-CD and acrylamide as monomers, could selectively recognize the template protein.

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Considerations on the Specific Sorption and Molecular Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejun Tong

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a work aiming at thermodynamically and kinetically interpreting the specific sorption and recognition by a molecularly imprinted polymer. Using Boc-L-Phe-OH as a template, the imprinted material was prepared. The result indicates that the prepared polymer can well discriminate the imprint species from its analogue (Boc-D-Phe-OH, so as to adsorb more for the former but less for the latter. Kinetic analysis indicates that this specific sorption, in nature, can be a result of a preferential promotion. The imprint within the polymer causes a larger adsorption rate for the template than for the analogue. Thermodynamic study also implies that the molecular induction from the specific imprint to the template is larger than to the analogue, which thus makes the polymer capable of preferentially alluring the template to bind.

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymers: New molecular recognition materials for selective solid-phase extraction of organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Esteban, A.

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years molecularly imprinted polymers have appeared as new selective sorbents for solid-phase extraction of organic compounds in different samples. Molecular imprinting technology involves the preparation of a polymer with specific recognition sites for certain molecules. Once the polymer has been obtained, it can be used in solid-phase extraction protocols, where a careful selection of the most appropriate solvents to be used in the different steps (sample loading, washing...

  3. Comparison of monofunctional and multifunctional monomers in phosphate binding molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Goswami, Kisholoy; Shimizu, Ken D

    2008-01-01

    In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) prepared using a multifunctional and a monofunctional monomer were compared with respect to their affinities, selectivities, and imprinting efficiencies for organophosphates. This is of interest because multifunctional monomers have higher affinities than traditional monofunctional monomers for their target analytes and thus should yield MIPs with higher affinities and selectivities. However, polymers containing multifunctional monomer may also have a higher number of unselective, non-templated binding sites. This increase in background binding sites could lead to a decrease in the magnitude of the imprinting effect and in the selectivity of the MIP. Therefore, phosphate selective imprinted and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were prepared using a novel multifunctional triurea monomer. The binding properties of these polymers were compared with polymers prepared using a monofunctional monourea monomer. The binding affinities and selectivities of the monomers, imprinted polymers, and NIPs were characterized by NMR titration, binding uptake studies, and binding isotherms. MIPs prepared with the triurea monomer showed higher binding affinity and selectivity for the diphenylphosphate anion in organic solvents than the MIPs prepared with the monofunctional monomer. Surprisingly, the binding properties of the NIPs revealed that the polymers prepared using the multifunctional and monofunctional monomers were very similar in affinity and selectivity. Thus, the multifunctional monomers increase not only the affinity of the MIP but also enhance the imprinting effect.

  4. Removal of toxic mercury from petroleum oil by newly synthesized molecularly-imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Nor Ain Shahera; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Mohammad, Faruq

    2015-05-08

    In recent years, molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) have attracted the attention of several researchers due to their capability for molecular recognition, easiness of preparation, stability and cost-effective production. By taking advantage of these facts, Hg(II) imprinted and non-imprinted copolymers were prepared by polymerizing mercury nitrate stock solution (or without it) with methacrylic acid (MAA), 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (HEMA), methanol and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the monomer, co-monomer solvent (porogen) and cross-linker, respectively. Thus, the formed Hg(II) imprinted polymer was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The separation and preconcentration characteristics of Hg(II) imprinted polymer were investigated by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedures, and an optimal pH of 7 was investigated as ideal. The specific surface area of the Hg(II) imprinted polymer was found to be 19.45 m2/g with a size range from 100 to 140 µm in diameter. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed to be 1.11 mg/g of Hg(II) imprinted beads with 87.54% removal of Hg(II) ions within the first 5 min. The results of the study therefore confirm that the Hg(II) imprinted polymer can be used multiple times without significantly losing its adsorption capacity.

  5. Removal of Toxic Mercury from Petroleum Oil by Newly Synthesized Molecularly-Imprinted Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Ain Shahera Khairi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs have attracted the attention of several researchers due to their capability for molecular recognition, easiness of preparation, stability and cost-effective production. By taking advantage of these facts, Hg(II imprinted and non-imprinted copolymers were prepared by polymerizing mercury nitrate stock solution (or without it with methacrylic acid (MAA, 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (HEMA, methanol and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as the monomer, co-monomer solvent (porogen and cross-linker, respectively. Thus, the formed Hg(II imprinted polymer was characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The separation and preconcentration characteristics of Hg(II imprinted polymer were investigated by solid phase extraction (SPE procedures, and an optimal pH of 7 was investigated as ideal. The specific surface area of the Hg(II imprinted polymer was found to be 19.45 m2/g with a size range from 100 to 140 µm in diameter. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed to be 1.11 mg/g of Hg(II imprinted beads with 87.54% removal of Hg(II ions within the first 5 min. The results of the study therefore confirm that the Hg(II imprinted polymer can be used multiple times without significantly losing its adsorption capacity.

  6. Microcontact imprinting of algae for biofuel systems: the effects of the polymer concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Hwa; Thomas, James L; Lai, Ming-Yuan; Shih, Ching-Ping; Lin, Hung-Yin

    2014-11-25

    Microcontact imprinting of cells often involves the deposition of a polymer solution onto a monolayer cell stamp, followed by solvent evaporation. Thus, the concentration of the polymer may play an important role in the final morphology and efficacy of the imprinted film. In this work, various concentrations of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for the microcontact imprinting of algae on an electrode. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence spectrometry were used to characterize the surface morphology and recognition capacity of algae to the algae-imprinted cavities. The readsorption of algae onto algae-imprinted EVAL thin films was quantified to obtain the EVAL concentration that maximized algal binding. Finally, the power and current density of an algal biofuel cell with the algae-imprinted EVAL-coated electrode were measured and found to be approximately double those of such a cell with a Pt/indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) electrode.

  7. Dielectric electroactive polymers comprising an ionic supramolecular structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an ionic interpenetrating polymer network comprising at least one elastomer and an ionic supramolecular structure comprising the reaction product of at least two chemical compounds wherein each of said compounds has at least two functional groups and wherein said ...... compounds are able to undergo Lewis acid-base reactions. The interpenetrating polymer network may be used as dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) having a high dielectric permittivity....

  8. Review of the recent progress in photoresponsive molecularly imprinted polymers containing azobenzene chromophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-bo; Tang, Qian; Gong, Cheng-bin; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah

    2015-11-05

    Photoresponsive molecularly imprinted polymers (PMIPs) containing azobenzene have received wide research attention in recent years and made notable achievements. This article reviews the recent developments on PMIPs containing azobenzene. Topics include the following: (i) brief introduction of azobenzene, molecularly imprinted polymers, and PMIPs containing azobenzene; (ii) progress in functional monomers, cross-linkers, and polymerization conditions; (iii) preparation methods, properties, applications, as well as advantages and disadvantages of conventional PMIPs; (iv) substrate, preparation method, and applications of photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymers; and (v) some perspectives for further development of PMIPs containing azobenzene.

  9. Removal of Toxic Mercury from Petroleum Oil by Newly Synthesized Molecularly-Imprinted Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Nor Ain Shahera Khairi; Nor Azah Yusof; Abdul Halim Abdullah; Faruq Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) have attracted the attention of several researchers due to their capability for molecular recognition, easiness of preparation, stability and cost-effective production. By taking advantage of these facts, Hg(II) imprinted and non-imprinted copolymers were prepared by polymerizing mercury nitrate stock solution (or without it) with methacrylic acid (MAA), 2-hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate (HEMA), methanol and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (E...

  10. Ionic site imaging in polymer membranes for water filtration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Deborah Ruth

    The morphologies of ionic domains within poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (SAA) copolymers and sulfonated biphenyl sulfone (BPS) copolymers neutralized with Cu(II) were investigated using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and X-ray scattering. The ionic domain size for the SAA copolymers was independent of acid content while the BPS copolymers revealed an increase in ionic aggregate diameter with increasing sulfonate content. STEM imaging revealed large ionic groups in the higher sulfonate-containing polymer. It was the higher sulfonate material which had high water flux but poorer salt rejection properties. Additional analysis of the BPS copolymers with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) did not show a detectable glass transition temperature (Tg), suggesting a distribution of ionic interactions which tethered polymer chains, restricting their mobility and governed thermal behavior. These results suggest the heterogeneous distribution of large ionic domains within the BPS polymer that may facilitate salt transport through the membrane via overlapping ion rich regions.

  11. Molecularly imprinted polymers as recognition materials for electronic tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tan-Phat; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2015-12-15

    For over three decades now, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have successfully been used for selective chemical sensing because the shape and size of their imprinted molecular cavities perfectly matched those of the target analyte molecules. Moreover, orientation of recognizing sites of these cavities corresponded to those of the binding sites of the template molecules. In contrast, electronic tongue (e-tongue) is usually an array of low-affinity recognition units. Its selectivity is based on recognition pattern or multivariate analysis. Merging these two sensing devices led to a synergetic hybrid sensor, an MIP based e-tongue. Fabrication of these e-tongues permitted simultaneous sensing and discriminating several analytes in complex solutions of many components so that these arrays compensated for limitation in cross-reactivity of MIPs. Apparently, analytical signals generated by MIP-based e-tongues, compared to those of ordinary sensor arrays, were more reliable where a unique pattern or 'fingerprint' for each analyte was generated. Additionally, several transduction platforms (from spectroscopic to electrochemical) engaged in constructing MIP-based e-tongues, found their broad and flexible applications. The present review critically evaluates achievements in recent developments of the MIP based e-tongues for chemosensing.

  12. Selective sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shubo DENG; Danmeng SHUAI; Qiang YU; Jun HUANG; Gang YU

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), as a potential persistent organic pollutant, has been widely detected in water environments, and has become a great concern in recent years. PFOS is very stable and difficult to decompose using conventional techniques. Sorption may be an attractive method to remove it from water. In this study, the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents were prepared through the polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine under different preparation conditions in order to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from water. The MIP adsorbents using perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the template had good imprinting effects and could selectively remove PFOS from aqueous solution. The sorption behaviors including sorption kinetics,isotherms, and effect of pH, salt, and competitive anions were investigated. Experimental results showed that the sorption of PFOS On the MIP adsorbents was very fast, pH-dependent, and highly selective. The achieved fast sorption equilibrium within 1 h was attributed to the surface sorption on the fine adsorbents. The sorption isotherms showed that the sorption selectivity of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents decreased at high PFOS concentrations, which may be due to the double-layer sorption and the formation of PFOS micelles on the sorbent surface. The sorption of PFOS on the MIP adsorbents was mainly dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the protonated vinylpyridine on the adsorbent surface and the anionic PFOS. The prepared MIP adsorbents can potentially be applied in water and wastewater treatment for selective removal of PFOS.

  13. Influence of salt ions on binding to molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Henrik; Kempe, Maria

    2010-02-01

    Salt ions were found to have an influence on template binding to two model molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), targeted to penicillin G and propranolol, respectively, in water-acetonitrile mixtures. Water was detrimental to rebinding of penicillin G whereas propranolol bound in the entire water-acetonitrile range tested. In 100% aqueous solution, 3-M salt solutions augmented the binding of both templates. The effects followed the Hofmeister series with kosmotropic ions promoting the largest increase. Binding was mainly of a non-specific nature under these conditions. In acetonitrile containing low amounts of water, the specific binding to the MIPs increased with the addition of salts. Binding of penicillin G followed the Hofmeister series while an ion-exchange mechanism was observed for propranolol. The results suggest that hydration of kosmotropic ions reduces the water activity in water-poor media providing a stabilizing effect on water-sensitive MIP-template interactions. The effects were utilized to develop a procedure for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of penicillin G from milk with a recovery of 87%.

  14. Controlled fabrication of theophylline imprinted polymers on multiwalled carbon nanotubes via atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianxiong; Gao, Yong; Li, Huaming

    2011-02-01

    Theophylline imprinted polymers were synthesized on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes via atom transfer radical polymerization using brominated multiwalled carbon nanotubes as an initiator. The nanotube-based initiator was prepared by directly reacting acyl chloride-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes with 2-hydroxylethyl-2'-bromoisobutyrate. The grafting copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl-2-methyl-2-propenoate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of template theophylline led to thin molecularly imprinted polymer films coating multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The thickness of molecularly imprinted polymer films prepared in this study was about 5 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized to follow the introduction of initiator groups as well as polymers on the carbon nanotube surfaces. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully grown from the carbon nanotube surfaces, with the final products having a polymer weight percentage of ca. 50 wt%. The adsorption properties, such as adsorption dynamics, special binding and selective recognition capacity, of the as-prepared molecularly imprinted polymer films were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the composite of molecularly imprinted polymers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes not only possessed a rapid dynamics but also exhibited a good selectivity toward theophylline, compared to caffeine.

  15. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Ochratoxin A Extraction and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorn C. C. Yu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs are considered as polymeric materials that mimic the functionality of antibodies. MIPs have been utilized for a wide variety of applications in chromatography, solid phase extraction, immunoassays, and sensor recognition. In this article, recent advances of MIPs for the extraction and analysis of ochratoxins are discussed. Selection of functional monomers to bind ochratoxin A (OTA with high affinities, optimization of extraction procedures, and limitations of MIPs are compared from different reports. The most relevant examples in the literature are described to clearly show how useful these materials are. Strategies on MIP preparation and schemes of analytical methods are also reviewed in order to suggest the next step that would make better use of MIPs in the field of ochratoxin research. The review ends by outlining the remaining issues and impediments.

  16. Volatile phenols depletion in red wine using molecular imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Rafaela; Dopico-García, Sonia; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Cela-Pérez, Concepción; Silva, Luís R

    2015-12-01

    Wines can be modified by microorganisms during the ageing process, by producing off-flavours like volatile phenols (VP), leading to their deterioration, with great economic losses. The development of methods to recover wines affected by unwanted VP became an important target. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials with artificially-generated recognition sites for selective extraction of organic compounds from different matrices. In this work, two MIPs to remove unwanted VP from wines were developed and their effects were evaluated. Volatile compounds were determined by GC-FID and GC-IT/MS and phenolic compounds (non-coloured and anthocyanins) by HPLC-DAD. The treatment with MIP-4EG and MIP-4EP significantly reduced the content of 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol, respectively. Nevertheless, the changes observed in wine non-coloured and coloured phenolics and sensorial analysis indicate that their specificity and selectivity regarding off-flavours still needs to be improved.

  17. Rapid Prototyping of Chemical Microsensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Synthesized by Two-Photon Stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Laura Piedad Chia; Spangenberg, Arnaud; Ton, Xuan-Anh; Fuchs, Yannick; Bokeloh, Frank; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette; Thuau, Damien; Ayela, Cédric; Haupt, Karsten; Soppera, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Two-photon stereolithography is used for rapid prototyping of submicrometre molecularly imprinted polymer-based 3D structures. The structures are evaluated as chemical sensing elements and their specific recognition properties for target molecules are confirmed. The 3D design capability is exploited and highlighted through the fabrication of an all-organic molecularly imprinted polymeric microelectromechanical sensor.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymer beads for nicotine recognition prepared by RAFT precipitation polymerization: a step forward towards multifunctionalities

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Tongchang; Jørgensen, Lars; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm; Chronakis, Ioannis S; Ye, Lei

    2014-01-01

    A nicotine imprinted polymer was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer. The resulting molecularly imprinted polymers were monodispersed beads with an average diameter of 1.55 mm. The molecular selectivity of the imprinted polymer beads was evaluated by studying the uptake of nicotine and its structural analogs by the polymer beads. Equilibrium binding results indicate that the amount of nicoti...

  19. Recognition of oxytocin and oxytocin-related peptides in aqueous media using a molecularly imprinted polymer synthesized by the epitope approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachkov, A; Minoura, N

    2000-08-11

    An artificial polymeric receptor prepared by the epitope approach of molecular imprinting was shown to recognize the peptide hormone, oxytocin, in aqueous media. The proposed approach is based on using (as a template) a compound, whose structure represents a small exposed fragment of a larger molecule (as an epitope represents an antigen). A HPLC study has demonstrated the important role of ionic interactions and the N-terminal amino group of oxytocin and oxytocin-related peptides in the process of their recognition by the molecularly imprinted polymer in the aqueous-rich media. However, the specificity of the process is considered to be defined by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Moreover, it was shown that the selectivity of the molecularly imprinted polymer can be attenuated by water content, ionic strength and pH of the chromatographic mobile phase: depending on these factors the template, Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2, or, for example, oxytocin, a larger peptide, which possesses the same three amino-acid C-terminal parts of the structure, can be preferentially retained by the molecularly imprinted polymer.

  20. Miniaturized molecularly imprinted polymer extraction method for the gas chromatographic analysis of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolvachai, Yada; Kulsing, Chadin; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W; Marriott, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    In this study, the use of monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers in a micropipette tip format allowing the simple and fast extraction of flavonoids from standard solutions and a black tea sample is demonstrated. The imprinted polymer employed quercetin, methacrylic acid or 4-vinylpyridine, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. Surface morphologies of the quercetin-imprinted polymers and the corresponding nonimprinted polymers were characterized by SEM. Extraction of flavonoid standards was performed to evaluate the selectivity and recovery with these imprinted and nonimprinted polymers. Flavonoid compositions in aliquots eluted from the tips were identified using fast GC with flame ionization detection. Maximum specific capacities of 0.2, 5.7, and 16.0 mg/g for catechin, morin, and quercetin, respectively, were obtained with the imprinted polymer prepared with methacrylic acid, with the corresponding recoveries of 99.8, 98.8, and 95.4%, respectively. Efficient extraction by the quercetin-imprinted polymer of epicatechin, catechin, and quercetin from an apple-flavored black tea sample was achieved, with GC-MS employed for compound identification for both the tea and extracted samples.

  1. Preparation of melamine molecularly imprinted polymer by computer-aided design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Jun-Bo; Tang, Shan-Shan; Jin, Rui-Fa

    2015-08-01

    Melamine was chosen as template, methacrylic acid was chosen as functional monomer, and divinylbenzene, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate were chosen as cross-linking agents, respectively. The WB97XD/6-31G(d, p) method was used to calculate the geometry optimization of the different imprinting ratios, the action sites, the bonding situation, and the optimization of the cross-linking agents. The nature of the imprinting effect was also studied by the atoms in molecules theory. The theoretical results showed that melamine interacts with methacrylic acid by hydrogen bonding, and the melamine molecularly imprinted polymers with a molar ratio of 1:6 have the most hydrogen bonds and the most stable structure. Divinylbenzene is the best cross-linking agent for the melamine molecularly imprinted polymers. The melamine molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized by precipitation polymerization. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity for molecularly imprinted polymers towards melamine is 19.84 mg/g, and the adsorption quantity of the polymers to melamine is obviously higher than that of cyromazine, cyanuric acid, and trithiocyanuric in milk. This study could provide theoretical and experimental references for the screening of the imprinting ratio and the cross-linking agent for the given template and monomer system.

  2. Preparation of high selective molecularly imprinted polymers for tetracycline by precipitation polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High selective molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for tetracycline have been prepared by precipitation polymerization.Effects of monomer and solvent, the ratio of monomer and template and the characterization of the polymer were investigated by frontal chromatography and selectivity experiment. The results clearly indicated that the polymer, which had the highest molecular recognition abilities for tetracycline antibiotics, had been received.

  3. Density field theory approach to design multi-template imprinted polymers for carcinogenic PAHs sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muntazir S; Krupadam, Reddithota J

    2013-11-01

    Molecular imprinting is an interesting technique for preparation of molecular recognition materials with discriminating similar molecules from complex systems. In particular, imprinting more than one molecule has immense application in remediation of industrial waste. Major difficulty in molecular imprinting is the selection of suitable polymer precursors. In this article, authors have proposed a new computational approach for combinatorial screening of polymer precursor library to select appropriate polymer precursors to prepare imprinted polymer capable of selectively binding carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) models were used to compute interaction energy scores between polymer precursors and PAHs in a simulated solvent box. A self-designed virtual library of functional monomers has been prepared, and then used for MD simulations to screen the best functional monomers. Initially, molecules used in the study were geometrically optimized and then interaction energies were computed using density functional theory (DFT) in Becke 3-Parameter Exchange Correlation Function (B3LYP) level with 6-31G*basis set on Gaussian 4.1 Ver. software. Complimentary to theoretical predictions, selected polymers were prepared in laboratory and compared theoretically computed binding score with the binding capacity of the polymer on spectrofluorimetry. The computer simulations used in this research paper are rapid and reliable for the combinatorial screening of polymer precursors in experimental-free way to design of multi-template imprinted polymers.

  4. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Mingming, E-mail: liumm@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan [Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Shea, Kenneth J., E-mail: kjshea@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2016-08-17

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV–vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0–2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris–HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high adsorption

  5. Effect of Coordinate Bond in Molecular Recognition of Enrofloxacin with Imprinted Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Recilas-mota; J; Jesús; Gracia-mora; Jesús; Bernad-bernad; Josefa

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Molecular imprinting is a technique for the preparation of functional materials with molecular recognition properties.Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) have become an increasingly active field of study for the construction of new material capable of molecular recognition.In general,MIPs are synthesized by polymerization of cross-linking complexes of template molecules and functional monomers.After removing the template molecules from de polymers,binding sites are formed by functional monomer...

  6. Hemoglobin-imprinted polymer gel prepared using modified glucosamine as functional monomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai Li Zhao; Tian Ying Guo; Yong Qing Xia; Mou Dao Song

    2008-01-01

    A new functional glycomonomer was obtained from modified glucosamine.Hemoglobin-imprinted polymer gel was prepared with allyl-bromide modified glucosamine as functional monomer,poly(ethylene-glycol)diaorylate(PEGDA)as cross-linker and ammonium persulfate[(NH4)2S2O8]/sodium hydrogen sulfite(NaHSO3)as initiators in a phosphate buffer.The adsorption capacity and selective adsorption of the molecular imprinting polymer(MIP)were also discussed.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymer dedicated to the extraction of glyphosate in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzio, K; Claude, B; Amalric, L; Berho, C; Grellet, E; Bayoudh, S; Nehmé, R; Morin, Ph

    2014-09-26

    Three molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been synthesized in order to bind efficiently glyphosate (GLY) in natural waters (mineral and underground). Since the target analyte is polar and hydrophilic, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds have been favored with two templates (phenylphosphonic acid and diethyl(α-aminobenzyl)-phosphonic acid) and two functional monomers (1-allyl-2-thiourea and methacrylic acid). MIPs have been assessed by comparison of the recoveries obtained with MIP and NIP (non imprinted polymer) by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The selectivity of MIP versus NIP was satisfactory for the three imprinted polymers with a very straightforward protocol: conditioning of 250 mg of MIP or NIP packed in 3-mL polypropylene cartridges with 3 mL Milli-Q water, loading of Milli-Q water (15 mL) spiked with 5 mg L(-1) of GLY and its metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and elution by 3 mL NH4OH (10mM) or 3 mL HCl (100mM). SPE fractions were directly analyzed by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Thus, the recoveries of both analytes were greater than 80% for all MIPs and less than 25% for most NIPs. Moreover, the MIP prepared with 1-allyl-2-thiourea as functional monomer and phenylphosphonic acid as template displayed a capacity of 0.033 μmol/mg for GLY. However, the substitution of Milli-Q water by mineral water caused the decrease of MIP recoveries, for that, a pretreatment of the sample by ionic exchange resins was set up and succeeded in improving recoveries (about 50% for GLY and 25% for AMPA). Then, groundwaters were spiked with low concentrations of GLY and AMPA (0.5 μgL(-1)) and directly percolated through MIP cartridges. The extractions were carried out by triplicate and the elution fractions were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed no retention of AMPA but a total retention of GLY by MIP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Study on the mechanism of chiral recognition with molecularly imprinted polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Yan; Li Chenxi; Zhang Hesheng; Liu Xiaohang

    2003-08-11

    This study aimed at elucidating the chiral recognition mechanism with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in aqueous environment. The system used ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), methacrylic acid (MAA), and 4-L-phenylalanylamino-pyridine (4-L-PheNHPy) as the cross-linking monomer, functional monomer and template, respectively, to assemble the imprinted polymer. A self-assembly mechanism, which includes the pre-organizing functional monomers around template before polymerization process, was proposed. This mechanism was supported by {sup 1}H NMR titration test. Interactions between functional monomer and template were observed using UV-Vis spectroscopy of solutions of these components as well. These studies indicated a 1:2 molecular complex dominantly formed between 4-L-PheNHPy and MAA. Association constant was estimated to be 97,000 M{sup -2}. Based on these results, a model mainly involving two-spot interaction was proposed evolving from our reported concept of exact placement of functional group. Ionic interaction between the primary amino group of 4-L-PheNHPy and carboxylic acid group inside the microcavity on MIPs was believed to play a predominate role in the enantioselectivity as supported by the observation of the relationship between the retention factor of 4-L-PheNHPy and the pH of mobile phase. While thermodynamic study at different pH revealed that, the interaction between the pyridyl group of 4-L-PheNHPy and the carboxylic acid group on the MIPs is also strong, implying that it also plays a profound role in determining the highly chiral selectivity of MIPs.

  9. Rational preparation of dibenzothiophene-imprinted polymers by surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liu, Lukuan; Zhou, Zhiping; Liu, Hong; Xie, Binze; Xu, Wanzhen

    2013-10-01

    A computational simulation method is introduced to simulate the dibenzothiophene-monomer pre-assembly system of molecular imprinted polymers. The interaction type and intensity between dibenzothiophene and monomer are discussed from the binding energy and spatial position distribution. The simulation and analysis results indicate that the amount of the function monomer is not the more the better in preparing molecular imprinted polymers. Based on the above results, a novel dibenzothiophene-imprinted polymers with the favorable specific adsorption effect was prepared by surface imprinting technique combined with atom transfer radical polymerization. This combined technologies are used for preparing a desulfurization adsorbent for the first time. Various measures were selected to characterize the structure and morphology of the prepared adsorbent. The characterization results show that the adsorbent has suitable features for further adsorption process. A series of static adsorption experiments were conducted to analyze its adsorption performance. The adsorption process follows Elovich model by the kinetic analysis and Sips equation by the isothermal analysis. The approach we described will provide another opportunity in the deep desulfurization field.

  10. Predicting the performance of molecularly imprinted polymers: Selective extraction of caffeine by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrington, Keith [School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Magner, Edmond [Materials and Surface Science Institute, Chemical and Environmental Sciences Department, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Regan, Fiona [School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)]. E-mail: fiona.regan@dcu.ie

    2006-04-27

    A rational design approach was taken to the planning and synthesis of a molecularly imprinted polymer capable of extracting caffeine (the template molecule) from a standard solution of caffeine and further from a food sample containing caffeine. Data from NMR titration experiments in conjunction with a molecular modelling approach was used in predicting the relative ratios of template to functional monomer and furthermore determined both the choice of solvent (porogen) and the amount used for the study. In addition the molecular modelling program yielded information regarding the thermodynamic stability of the pre-polymerisation complex. Post-polymerisation analysis of the polymer itself by analysis of the pore size distribution by BET yielded significant information regarding the nature of the size and distribution of the pores within the polymer matrix. Here is proposed a stepwise procedure for the development and testing of a molecularly imprinted polymer using a well-studied compound-caffeine as a model system. It is shown that both the physical characteristics of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and the analysis of the pre-polymerisation complex can yield vital information, which can predict how well a given MIP will perform.

  11. Developing imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the selective separation of antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Isma; Mujahid, Adnan; Afzal, Adeel; Iqbal, Naseer; Bajwa, Sadia Zafar; Hussain, Tajamal; Shehzad, Khurram; Ashraf, Hadia

    2015-10-01

    In this study, new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles are designed for selective recognition of different drugs used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, i.e. sitagliptin (SG) and metformin (MF). The SG- and MF-imprinted polymer nanoparticles are synthesized by free-radical initiated polymerization of the functional monomers: methacrylic acid and methyl methacrylate; and the crosslinker: ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The surface morphology of resultant MIP nanoparticles is studied by atomic force microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra of MIP nanoparticles suggest the presence of reversible, non-covalent interactions between the template and the polymer. The effect of pH on the rebinding of antidiabetic drugs with SG- and MF-imprinted polymers is investigated to determine the optimal experimental conditions. The molecular recognition characteristics of SG- and MF-imprinted polymers for the respective drug targets are determined at low concentrations of SG (50-150 ppm) and MF (5-100 ppm). In both cases, the MIP nanoparticles exhibit higher binding response compared to non-imprinted polymers. Furthermore, the MIPs demonstrate high selectivity with four fold higher responses toward imprinted drugs targets, respectively. Recycled MIP nanoparticles retain 90% of their drug-binding efficiency, which makes them suitable for successive analyses with significantly preserved recognition features.

  12. Towards analysis of mykotoxins in beverages with molecularly imprinted polymers for deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R; Mizaikoff, B

    2002-03-01

    Due to ease of use and generally cost effective production molecularly imprinted polymers offer the possibility generating highly selective separation and enrichment materials. Therefore, they are considered a serious competitor to conventional biological agents such as antibodies, proteins and cells for affinity separations. Molecular imprinting applied in the present study is based on non-covalent self-assembly of the template with functional monomers prior to polymerization. Free radical polymerization with a cross-linking monomer is stabilizing (freezing) these template-functional monomer complexes, resulting in a mechanically and thermally stable polymer. After template extraction, rebinding may take place via non-covalent interactions.Selective polymeric phases intended for use in solid-phase extraction of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) from beverages have been prepared [1]. Using crystalline deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and quercetin, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been developed by a non-covalent imprinting approach via photo initiated addition polymerization. Prepared polymers are based on 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer and ethylenglycoldimethacrylat (EDMA) as crosslinking monomer. Selectivity of generated molecularly imprinted polymers has been investigated by application of prepared MIPs as stationary phase in high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments. Retention and elution behavior of template compounds were determined and compared. Achieved results promise future application of molecularly imprinted polymers as highly selective matrix for clean-up and enrichment of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone from natural sources such as grains and beer.

  13. Chemically Modified Chitosan Beads as Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Matrix for Adsorptive Separation of Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Ying GUO; Yong Qing XIA; Guang Jie HAO; Bang Hua ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    In a phosphate buffer, a hemoglobin (Hb)-imprinted polymer complex was prepared using maleic anhydride (MAH) modified chitosan beads as matrix, acrylamide (AM) as functional monomer, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as cross-linker and potassiumpersulfate (KPS)/sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO3) as initiators. Langmuir analysis showed that an equal class of adsorption was formed in the molecular imprinting polymer (MIP), and the MIP has high adsorption capacity and selectivity for the imprinted molecule. The MIP can be reused and the recovery was approximately 100% at low concentration.

  14. Thermometric sensing of nitrofurantoin by noncovalently imprinted polymers containing two complementary functional monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athikomrattanakul, Umporn; Gajovic-Eichelmann, Nenad; Scheller, Frieder W

    2011-10-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for nitrofurantoin (NFT) recognition addressing in parallel of two complementary functional groups were created using a noncovalent imprinting approach. Specific tailor-made functional monomers were synthesized: a diaminopyridine derivative as the receptor for the imide residue and three (thio)urea derivatives for the interaction with the nitro group of NFT. A significantly improved binding of NFT to the new MIPs was revealed from the imprinting factor, efficiency of binding, affinity constants and maximum binding number as compared to previously reported MIPs, which addressed either the imide or the nitro residue. Substances possessing only one functionality (either the imide group or nitro group) showed significantly weaker binding to the new imprinted polymers than NFT. However, the compounds lacking both functionalities binds extremely weak to all imprinted polymers. The new imprinted polymers were applied in a flow-through thermistor in organic solvent for the first time. The MIP-thermistor allows the detection of NFT down to a concentration of 5 μM in acetonitrile + 0.2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The imprinting factor of 3.91 at 0.1 mM of NFT as obtained by thermistor measurements is well comparable to the value obtained by batch binding experiments.

  15. Preparation and application of hollow molecularly imprinted polymers with a super-high selectivity to the template protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; He, Xi-Wen; Mao, Jie; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2013-10-01

    Protein-imprinted polymers with hollow cores that have a super-high imprinting factor were prepared by etching the core of the surface-imprinted polymers that used silica particles as the support. Lysozyme as template was modified onto the surface of silica particles by a covalent method, and after polymerization and the removal of template molecules, channels through the polymer layer were formed, which allowed a single-protein molecule to come into the hollow core and attach to the binding sites inside the polymer layer. The adsorption experiments demonstrated that the hollow imprinted polymers had an extremely high binding capacity and selectivity, and thus a super-high imprinting factor was obtained. The as-prepared imprinted polymers were used to separate the template lysozyme from egg white successfully, indicating its high selectivity and potential application in the field of separation of protein from real samples.

  16. Potentiometric detection of chemical vapors using molecularly imprinted polymers as receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rongning; Chen, Lusi; Qin, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Ion-selective electrode (ISE) based potentiometric gas sensors have shown to be promising analytical tools for detection of chemical vapors. However, such sensors are only capable of detecting those vapors which can be converted into ionic species in solution. This paper describes for the first time a polymer membrane ISE based potentiometric sensing system for sensitive and selective determination of neutral vapors in the gas phase. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is incorporated into the ISE membrane and used as the receptor for selective adsorption of the analyte vapor from the gas phase into the sensing membrane phase. An indicator ion with a structure similar to that of the vapor molecule is employed to indicate the change in the MIP binding sites in the membrane induced by the molecular recognition of the vapor. The toluene vapor is used as a model and benzoic acid is chosen as its indicator. Coupled to an apparatus manifold for preparation of vapor samples, the proposed ISE can be utilized to determine volatile toluene in the gas phase and allows potentiometric detection down to parts per million levels. This work demonstrates the possibility of developing a general sensing principle for detection of neutral vapors using ISEs.

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymer beads for nicotine recognition prepared by RAFT precipitation polymerization: a step forward towards multifunctionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Tongchang; Jørgensen, Lars; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm;

    2014-01-01

    A nicotine imprinted polymer was synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer. The resulting molecularly imprinted polymers were monodispersed beads with an average diameter of 1.55 mm. The molecular...... modification of the imprinted polymer beads, we also show that the dithioester end groups on the surface of the polymer beads can be converted into new thiol groups without sacrificing the specific molecular recognition. Through the new terminal thiol groups, a fluorescent dye was conveniently conjugated...... selectivity of the imprinted polymer beads was evaluated by studying the uptake of nicotine and its structural analogs by the polymer beads. Equilibrium binding results indicate that the amount of nicotine bound to the imprinted polymer beads is significantly higher than that bound to the nonimprinted polymer...

  18. Self-Sensing Ionic Polymer Actuators: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Kruusamäe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic electromechanically active polymers (IEAP are laminar composites that can be considered attractive candidates for soft actuators. Their outstanding properties such as low operating voltage, easy miniaturization, and noiseless operation are, however, marred by issues related to the repeatability in the production and operation of these materials. Implementing closed-loop control for IEAP actuators is a viable option for overcoming these issues. Since IEAP laminates also behave as mechanoelectrical sensors, it is advantageous to combine the actuating and sensing functionalities of a single device to create a so-called self-sensing actuator. This review article systematizes the state of the art in producing self-sensing ionic polymer actuators. The IEAPs discussed in this paper are conducting (or conjugated polymers actuators (CPA, ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC, and carbonaceous polymer laminates.

  19. Preparation and characterization of erythromycin molecularly imprinted polymers based on distillation-precipitation polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Li, Le; Tang, Hui; Zhao, Feilang; Ye, Bang-Ce; Li, Yingchun; Yao, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Erythromycin-imprinted polymers with excellent recognition properties were prepared by an innovative strategy called distillation-precipitation polymerization. The interaction between erythromycin and methacrylic acid was studied by ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, and the as-prepared materials were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, their binding performances were evaluated in detail by static, kinetic and selective sorption tests. It was found that the molecularly imprinted polymers afforded good morphology, monodispersity, and high adsorption capacity when the fraction of the monomers was 7 vol% in the whole reaction system, and the adsorption data for imprinted polymers correlated well with the Langmuir model. The maximum capacity of the imprinted and the non-imprinted polymers for adsorbing erythromycin is 44.03 and 19.95 mg/g, respectively. The kinetic studies revealed that the adsorption process fitted a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the imprinted polymers display higher affinity toward erythromycin, compared with its analogue roxithromycin.

  20. Preparation of a novel molecularly imprinted polymer for the highly selective extraction of baicalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2015-12-01

    The selective extraction of baicalin is important to its quality control especially when the matrices are complicated. In this work, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared for the selective extraction of baicalin in herbs. The molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized by the copolymerization of 4-vinyl pyridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of baicalin by a precipitation polymerization method. After the optimization of parameters for molecularly imprinted polymer preparation, including the functional monomer, porogen, sampling solvent, and washing solvent, good selectivity was obtained, with an imprinting factor of about 4, which is much better than that achieved by the bulk-polymerization method. The performances of the prepared molecularly imprinted polymers were systematically investigated, including adsorption kinetics, isotherm experiment, and Scatchard analysis. On the basis of the good adsorptive capability of the prepared molecularly imprinted polymer, it was also applied for the pretreatment of baicalin in Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. The result showed that most of the matrices were removed and baicalin was selectively enriched.

  1. Mechanisms underlying molecularly imprinted polymer molecular memory and the role of crosslinker: resolving debate on the nature of template recognition in phenylalanine anilide imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Gustaf D; Karlsson, Björn C G; Shoravi, Siamak; Wiklander, Jesper G; Nicholls, Ian A

    2012-02-01

    A series of molecular dynamics simulations of prepolymerization mixtures for phenylalanine anilide imprinted co-(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-methacrylic acid) molecularly imprinted polymers have been employed to investigate the mechanistic basis for template selective recognition in these systems. This has provided new insights on the mechanisms underlying template recognition, in particular the significant role played by the crosslinking agent. Importantly, the study supports the occurrence of template self-association events that allows us to resolve debate between the two previously proposed models used to explain this system's underlying recognition mechanisms. Moreover, the complexity of the molecular level events underlying template complexation is highlighted by this study, a factor that should be considered in rational molecularly imprinted polymer design, especially with respect to recognition site heterogeneity.

  2. Synthesis and application of ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the extraction and preconcentration of copper ions in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Abbasi, Shahryar; Khani, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Novel Cu(II) ion-imprinted polymers (Cu-IIP) nanoparticles were prepared by using Cu(II) ion-thiosemicarbazide complex as the template molecule and methacrylic acid, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 2,2'azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the functional monomer, cross-linker, and the radical initiator, respectively. The synthesized polymer nanoparticles were characterized by using infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. Some parameters such as pH, weight of the polymer, adsorption time, elution time, eluent type, and eluent volume which affect the extraction efficiency of the polymer were studied. In the proposed method, the maximum sorbent capacity of the ion-imprinted polymer was calculated to be 38.8 mg g(-1). The preconcentration factor, relative standard deviation, and limit of detection of the method were found to be 80, 1.7%, and 0.003 μg mL(-1), respectively. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles have an increased selectivity toward Cu(II) ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. The method was applied to the determination of ultra trace levels of Cu2+ in environmental water samples with satisfactory results.

  3. Selective adsorption of norfloxacin in aqueous media by an imprinted polymer based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhifeng; Kuang, Daizhi; Liu, Lan; Deng, Qinying

    2007-09-21

    Based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions, a norfloxacin (NOF) imprinted polymer (P1) was prepared by the combined use of bismethacryloyl-beta-cyclodextrin (BMA-beta-CD) and 2-(diethylamino)ethylmethacrylate (DEAEM) as functional monomers. Compared with the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) using only BMA-beta-CD or DEAEM as a functional monomer, P2 and P3, respectively, P1 showed higher binding affinity and specificity for NOF in aqueous media. Scatchard plot analysis revealed that two classes of binding sites were formed in the imprinted polymer with dissociation constants of 0.32 micromol/ml and 1.19 micromol/ml, respectively. It demonstrated that the combination of hydrophobic effect and electrostatic interaction in molecular imprinting was essential for the improvement of the selective ability of the imprinted polymer. Factors that influenced rebinding of the imprinted polymer including pH, water content in the adsorbed solution were explored.

  4. Thermal desorption characterisation of molecularly imprinted polymers. Part I: A novel study using direct-probe GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Wayne; Duggan, Patrick; McLoughlin, Peter

    2008-06-01

    A novel thermal desorption technique using a direct-probe device (Chromatoprobe) attached to a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is presented for the thermal pretreatment, characterisation and analysis of molecularly imprinted polymers. The technique is demonstrated as effective for the removal of volatile materials, including template and unreacted monomers, from methacrylic acid-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymers imprinted with 2-aminopyridine. Mass spectrometry is a powerful technique for polymer bleed characterisation. Thermal desorption studies on reloaded template and related compounds are reported as a means of assessing polymer morphology, specific binding by imprinted polymers compared with reference non-imprinted polymers and selective binding by an imprinted polymer for its template. Calibration studies on the thermal desorption technique using an internal standard are presented with R(2) > 0.999. The technique provides a novel method for assessment of polymer thermal stability, composition and morphology.

  5. Fundamental studies of molecularly imprinted polymers and atropisomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Gregory T.

    Three distinct research goals governed the work presented herein. First, methods for characterizing the binding properties of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were investigated and reported upon. We found that although the heterogeneous nature of these materials produced highly concentration-dependent adsorption behavior, there was a dearth of analytical methods that had been previously applied that accommodated this feature. The merits of the Freundlich Isotherm in describing MIP binding properties was evaluated and found to be useful under most conditions tested. Based on this and other previous work, we also presented a more qualitative approach to analyzing MIPs using log-log isotherms. The advantage of this method was that the most important properties to a researcher, the polymer's capacity and selectivity, were easily evaluated through a visual inspection of the log-log isotherm. This approach avoided the necessity of assuming and applying a particular binding model to the isotherm before a determination of the material's utility could be assessed. When this analysis was applied to a MIP for (+)-cinchonine in aqueous and organic media, the results indicated that diastereoselectivity was achieved under both conditions. Second, host-guest interactions between a N,N'-diaryl naphthalene diimide atropisomer and a variety of organic molecules were investigated to determine the relationship between the strength of the complex formed and the rotational barrier about a Caryl-Nimide bond. We found that the barrier was sensitive to both the identity and the concentration of guest which afforded fine control over the rotational freedom of the system. This control was exploited in the design of a reversible molecular brake. Finally, two laboratory investigations based upon the these research projects were developed for use in undergraduate chemistry courses. The first was designed for a polymer course where the students investigate the binding properties of an ethyl

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Imprinting Polymer Microspheres of Piperine: Extraction of Piperine from Spiked Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Marcella Roland

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP microspheres for Piperine were synthesized by precipitation polymerization with a noncovalent approach. In this research Piperine was used as a template, acrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, and 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator and acetonitrile as a solvent. The imprinted and nonimprinted polymer particles were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The synthesized polymer particles were further evaluated for their rebinding efficiency by batch binding assay. The highly selected imprinted polymer for Piperine was MIP 3 with a composition (molar ratio of 0.5 : 3 : 8, template : monomer : cross-linker, respectively. The MIP 3 exhibits highest binding capacity (84.94% as compared to other imprinted and nonimprinted polymers. The extraction efficiency of highly selected imprinted polymer of Piperine from spiked urine was above 80%.

  7. Validation and application of modeling algorithms for the design of molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Ou, Lulu; Zhang, Fuyuan; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Hongying; Zhu, Mengyu; Wang, Shuo

    2014-12-01

    In the study, four different semiempirical algorithms, modified neglect of diatomic overlap, a reparameterization of Austin Model 1, complete neglect of differential overlap and typed neglect of differential overlap, have been applied for the energy optimization of template, monomer, and template-monomer complexes of imprinted polymers. For phosmet-, estrone-, and metolcarb-imprinted polymers, the binding energies of template-monomer complexes were calculated and the docking configures were assessed in different molar ratio of template/monomer. It was found that two algorithms were not suitable for calculating the binding energy in template-monomers complex system. For the other algorithms, the obtained optimum molar ratio of template and monomers were consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, two algorithms have been selected and applied for the preparation of enrofloxacin-imprinted polymers. Meanwhile using a different molar ratio of template and monomer, we prepared imprinted polymers and nonimprinted polymers, and evaluated the adsorption to template. It was verified that the experimental results were in good agreement with the modeling results. As a result, the semiempirical algorithm had certain feasibility in designing the preparation of imprinted polymers.

  8. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers using anacardic acid monomers derived from cashew nut shell liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Joseph Y N; Buchweishaija, Joseph; Mkayula, Lupituko L; Ye, Lei

    2007-10-31

    The objective of this work was to use monomers from cashew ( Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shells to develop molecularly imprinted polymers. Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is a cheap and renewable agro byproduct consisting of versatile monomers. Solvent-extracted CNSL contains over 80% anacardic acid (AnAc) with more than 90% degree of unsaturation in its C 15 side chain. From AnAc monomer, anacardanyl acrylate (AnAcr) and anacardanyl methacrylate (AnMcr) monomers were synthesized and their chemical structures were characterized by Fourier transform IR and NMR. Different imprinted bulk polymers based on AnAc, AnAcr, and AnMcr functional monomers have been prepared. In the present study, each functional monomer was separately copolymerized in toluene with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and divinylbenzene as cross-linkers, using racemic propranolol as a model template. While the AnAc based polymer revealed a meager rebinding ability, the imprinted polymers made from AnAcr and AnMcr displayed highly specific propranolol binding. At a polymer concentration of 2 mg/mL, AnAcr and AnMcr based imprinted polymers were able to bind over 50% of trace propranolol (initial concentration 1.2 nM). Under the same condition propranolol uptake by the two nonimprinted control polymers was less than 20%. Chiral recognition properties of these polymers were further confirmed using tritium-labeled (S)-propranolol as a tracer in displacement experiments, suggesting that the apparent affinity of the imprinted chiral sites for the correct enantiomer is at least 10 times that of the mismatched (R)-propranolol. Moreover, cross reactivity studies of these polymers showed that the (S)-imprinted sites have higher cross-reactivity toward (R, S)-metoprolol than (R)-propranolol and (R)-timolol.

  9. Preparation of High Selective Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for (S)-4-Phenyl-2-oxazolidinone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong LUO; Lan LIU; Li Hong LI; Qin Ying DENG

    2006-01-01

    (S)-4-Phenyl-2-oxazolidinone imprinted polymers were prepared by using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, and divinylbenzene (DVB) as crosslinker. The factors,which influence the selectivity of the polymers were explored. Effective separation was observed for racemic 4-phenyl-2-oxazolidinone in mobile phase of acetonitrile. The investigation of mobile phase suggested that the hydrogen bonds between template and functional monomer was a primary factor in chiral recognition, while the preparation of polymers implied that the π-π stacking interaction between template and crosslinker played a role in imprinting procedure.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymers prepared using protein-conjugated cleavable monomers followed by site-specific post-imprinting introduction of fluorescent reporter molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Yusuke; Sunayama, Hirobumi; Ooya, Tooru; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2013-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared using a protein-conjugated disulfide cleavable monomer. After removing the protein by disulfide reduction, a thiol-reactive fluorophore was introduced into the thiol residue located only inside the imprinted cavity, resulting in specific transduction of the binding events into fluorescence spectral change.

  11. Synthesis of Homoveratric Acid-Imprinted Polymers and Their Evaluation as Selective Separation Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Dana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A bulk polymerization method was used to easily and efficiently prepare homo-veratric acid (3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid-imprinted polymers from eight basic monomers: 2-vinylpyridine, 4-vinylpyridine, 1-vinylimidazole, N-allylaniline, N-allylpiperazine, allylurea, allylthiourea, and allylamine, in the presence of homoveratric acid as a template in N,N-dimethylformamide as a porogen. The imprinted polymer prepared from allylamine had the highest affinity to the template, showing an imprinting factor of 3.43, and allylamine polymers MIP8/NIP8 were selected for further studies. Their binding properties were analyzed using the Scatchard method. The results showed that the imprinted polymers have two classes of heterogeneous binding sites characterized by two pairs of Kd, Bmax values: Kd(1 = 0.060 μmol/mL, Bmax(1 = 0.093 μmol/mg for the higher affinity binding sites, and Kd(2 = 0.455 μmol/mL, Bmax(2 = 0.248 μmol/mg for the lower affinity binding sites. Non-imprinted polymer has only one class of binding site, with Kd = 0.417 μmol/mL and Bmax = 0.184 μmol/mg. A computational analysis of the energies of the prepolymerization complexes was in agreement with the experimental results. It showed that the selective binding interactions arose from cooperative three point interactions between the carboxylic acid and the two methoxy groups in the template and amino groups in the polymer cavities. Those results were confirmed by the recognition studies performed with the set of structurally related compounds. Allylamine polymer MIP8 had no affinity towards biogenic amines. The obtained imprinted polymer could be used for selective separation of homoveratric acid.

  12. Development and characterisation of molecularly imprinted polymers based on methacrylic acid for selective recognition of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xizhi; Wu, Aibo; Qu, Guorun; Li, Rongxiu; Zhang, Dabing

    2007-09-01

    Specific molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the drug reserpine (RES) using methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer were developed and characterised for the first time in this study. Evaluation of the various polymers by binding assays indicated that the optimum ratio of functional monomer to template was 4:1. Furthermore, the imprinting effect of the MIPs was assessed by the chromatographic method, which demonstrated that the MIPs had better chromatographic behavior and selectivity than those of the corresponding NIPs. A combination of BET, NMR, UV spectroscopy, and MISPE analyses for investigation of the imprinting and recognition properties revealed that strong specific interactions between the functional monomer and RES in the prepolymerization solutions and the aqueous solutions were probably responsible for RES recognition. The preparation of RES MIPs and elucidation of imprinting and recognition mechanisms may serve as useful references for other drug MIPs.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymers based drug delivery devices: a way to application in modern pharmacotherapy. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luliński, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    This review presents the current status of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for drug delivery, in particular the studies that focus on biocompatibility, cytotoxicity, and in vitro or in vivo behavior of MIPs. It also shows the limitations that hamper the introduction of MIPs to pharmacotherapy and prevent this class of polymers from commercialization. MIPs are promising materials in the construction of drug delivery devices because they can provide improved delivery profiles or longer release times and deliver the drugs in the feedback regulated way, which is extremely important in modern pharmacotherapy. Here, a brief overview of the imprinting process and a concise description of drug release mechanisms from the imprinted materials will be presented followed by the discussion of potential MIP drug delivery devices for ocular, dermal, intravenous and oral routes of administration. Finally, future prospects for imprinted drug delivery forms will be outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An optical reflected device using a molecularly imprinted polymer film sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Nan; Feng Liang; Tan Yiyong [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Jiming, E-mail: jmhu@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2009-10-19

    A novel and highly selective optical sensor with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film was fabricated and investigated. The optical sensor head employing a medium finesse molecularly imprinted polymer film has been fabricated and characterised. A blank polymer and formaldehyde imprinted polymer were using methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and the ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker. The transduction mechanism is discussed based on the changes of optical intensity of molecularly imprinted polymer film acting as an optical reflected sensor. Template molecules, which diffused into MIP, could cause film density, and refractive index change, and then induce measurable optical reflective intensity shifts. Based on the reflective intensity shifts, an optical reflection detection of formaldehyde was achieved by illuminating MIP with a laser beam. For the same MIP, the reflective intensity shift was proportional to the amount of template molecule. This optical sensor, based on an artificial recognition system, demonstrates long-time stability and resistance to harsh chemical environments. As the research moves forward gradually, we establish the possibilities of quantitative analysis primly, setting the groundwork to the synthesis of the molecular imprinted optical fiber sensor. The techniques show good reproducibility and sensitivity and will be of significant interest to the MIPcommunity.

  15. Molecularly imprinted polymers with synthetic dummy templates for the preparation of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from chili peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiuli; Ji, Wenhua; Chen, Lingxiao; Wang, Xiao; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xueyong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, dummy molecularly imprinted polymers with high selectivity and affinity to capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin are designed using N-vanillylnonanamide as a dummy template. The performance of dummy molecularly imprinted polymers and nonimprinted polymers was evaluated using adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, and selective recognition capacity. Dummy molecularly imprinted polymers were found to exhibit good site accessibility, taking just 20 min to achieve adsorption equilibrium; they were also highly selective toward capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. We successfully used dummy molecularly imprinted polymers as a specific sorbent for selectively enriching capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin from chili pepper samples. In a scaled-up experiment, the selective recovery of capsaicinoids was calculated to be 77.8% using solid-phase extraction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of the use of N-vanillylnonanamide as a dummy template in molecularly imprinted polymers to simultaneously enrich capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin.

  16. Molecular composites and polymer blends containing ionic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Li-Chun

    1997-11-01

    Polymer blends are generally immiscible due to the unfavorable thermodynamics of mixing. By the introduction of ion-dipole interaction, mechanical properties of the PPTA anion/polar polymers (such as PVP, PEO and PPrO) molecular composites have been investigated in relation to their miscibility and microstructural morphology. Optical clarity observed in the glassy PPTA anion/PVP system suggest the presence of miscibility, since the refractive indices between the two components are quite different, nsb{PVP} = 1.509 and nsb{PPTA} = 1.644. In general, the difference greater than 0.01 is sufficient to make blends opaque. DSC measurements, showing a composition dependent Tsb{g} and a melting temperature depression, also indicate the miscibility achieved at the molecular level, about 50-100 A. By using the Hoffman-Weeks plot, a negative Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, chi = -1.10, is obtained for the PPTA anion/PEO molecular composites. An irregular spherulitic pattern and a reduced crystal size suggest that PPTA anion is intimately mixed with the amorphous PEO, both inter- and intra-spherulitically. Molecular composites exhibit not only an enhanced tensile strength and modulus, but also a greater fracture toughness, Ksb{IC}, e.g., an 80% increase at a 2 wt% PPTA anion addition. An enhanced tensile strength associated with a reduced crystallinity suggests that PPTA anion is the major contributor to the superior tensile properties instead of the crystalline phase. Upon addition of PPTA anion to PPrO, a slower relaxation rate and a better thermal stability are observed. Significant enhancement is found when the monovalent K salt is replaced with a divalent Ca salt. The molecular reinforcement achieved via ion-dipole interactions is more effective than the rigid filler effect obtained in the non-ionic PPTA/PPrO blend: e.g., a modulus enhancement of 814% vs. 286%, as compared with the value for PPrO. Two phase systems with microphase separation are developed since many

  17. Surface plasmon resonance sensor based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers amplification for pesticide recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gui-Hong; Liang, Ru-Ping; Huang, Chun-Fang; Wang, Ying; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2013-12-17

    We reported here a method to enhance detection sensitivity in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy integrated with a surface molecular imprinting recognition system and employing magnetic molecular imprinting polymer nanoparticles for amplifying SPR response. The proposed magnetic molecular imprinting polymer was designed by self-polymerization of dopamine on the Fe3O4 NPs surface in weak base aqueous solution in the presence of template chlorpyrifos (CPF). The imprinted Fe3O4@polydopamine nanoparticles (Fe3O4@PDA NPs) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The biosensor showed a good linear relationship between the SPR angle shift and the chlorpyrifos concentration over a range from 0.001 to 10 μM with a detection limit of 0.76 nM. A significant increase in sensitivity was therefore afforded through the use of imprinted Fe3O4@PDA NPs as an amplifier, and meanwhile, the imprinted Fe3O4@PDA NPs had an excellent recognition capacity to chlorpyrifos over other pesticides. The excellent sensitivity and selectivity and high stability of the designed biosensor make this magnetic imprinted Fe3O4@PDA NP an attractive recognition element for various SPR sensors for detecting pesticide residuals and other environmentally deleterious chemicals.

  18. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  19. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high...... the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given....

  20. Molecularly imprinted polymers with assistant recognition polymer chains for bovine serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new protein molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared with grafting polyvinyl alcohol as assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs). The ARPCs and acrylamide monomers were interpenetrated and then polymerized on the surface of macroporous acrylate adsorbent spheres. The template BSA was removed by treatment with 2.00 mol L-1 potassium chloride (KCl) solution and the adsorbed proteins were detected with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). 0.150, 0.500, and 2.00 mol L-1 KCl solutions were used as eluent to wash the adsorbed proteins. The SDS-PAGE results show that proteins washed out with 2.00 mol L-1KCl solution were from nonspecific adsorption of macroporous acrylate adsorbent spheres, and proteins washed out with 0.500 mol L-1KC1 solution were specific proteins imprinted by MIP resins. MIP resins with ARPCs had better recognition to the target proteins than that without ARPCs. The adsorption capacity of MIP resins immobilized ARPCs to the template BSA was about 80-100 μg g-1 when it was used for the adsorption of proteins mixture, and the specific adsorption of the target protein was obviously increased.

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymers-curcuminoids and its application for solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Meyliana; Amran, M. B.; Lopez, A. B. Descalzo; Urraca, J. L.; Moreno-Bondi, M. C.

    2014-03-01

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) for the selective recognition properties of curcumin (CUR), a cancer chemopreventive agent were obtained by a non-covalent imprinting approach with bisdemetoxycurcumin (BDMC) as the template molecule. The double bond of BDMC has been reduced in order not to be involved in polymerization and make the template molecules easy to be eluted. Several functional monomers have been evaluated to maximize the interactions with the template molecule during polymerization. MIPs prepared by bulk of N-(2-aminoethyl) metacrylamid hydrochlorideas functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker, 2,2'-azobis (2'4-dimethyl valeronitril) as initiator and acetonitrile as porogen. Non-imprinted polymer (NIP) have been also synthesized for reference purposes. UV-vis spectroscopy has been used to predict the template to functional monomer ratio which indicates the formation of 2:1 complexes between monomer and curcumin and the association constants (K11 = 2529 μM and K12 = 1960.75 μM in acetonitrile). The capacity and imprinting factor have been evaluated as stationary phases in high-pressure liquid chromatography to CUR and BDMC. The binding properties and the homogeneity of the binding sites of the different polymers have been studied by Freundlich isotherm modeling and weight average affinity and number of binding sites. One of the foremost applications of molecular imprinting has been in molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction and it has the ability to separate and preconcentrate between closely related compounds in curcuminoids.

  2. Biomimetic sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer with nitroreductase-like activity for metronidazole detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yue; Yan, Xiaoyi; Li, Cong; Zheng, Bo; Li, Yaru; Liu, Weilu; Zhang, Zhiquan; Yang, Ming

    2016-03-15

    The utility of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as electrochemical sensor often suffers from its limited catalytic efficiency. Here, we proposed an alternative approach by combining the concept of MIP with the use of mimetic enzyme. A metronidazole imprinted polymer with nitroreductase-like activity was successfully achieved via an electrochemical method, where melamine served two purposes: functional monomer of MIP and component of mimetic enzyme. During the imprinting process, the redox-active center, which is responsible for catalysis, was introduced into the imprinted cavities. Accordingly, the imprinted polymer, having both catalysis centers and recognition sites, exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. The sensing performances of this metronidazole imprinted biomimetic sensor were evaluated in detail. Results revealed that the response to metronidazole was linear in the concentration range of 0.5-1000 μM, and the detection limit was 0.12 μM (S/N=3). In addition, we applied the proposed sensor to detect metronidazole in an injection solution and the results implied its feasibility for practical application.

  3. Magnetic-graphene based molecularly imprinted polymer nanocomposite for the recognition of bovine hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxia; Wang, Yuzhi; Liu, Yanjin; Zhang, Cenjin; Zhou, Yigang

    2015-11-01

    The protein imprinted technique combining surface imprinting and nanomaterials has been an attractive strategy for recognition and rapid separation of proteins. In this work, magnetic-graphene (MG) was chosen as the supporting substrate for the magnetic nanomaterials, which served to absorb the targeting imprinting molecules, bovine hemoglobin (BHb). Acryl amide (AAm) with a high affinity to BHb and N,N'- methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) were selected as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. After in-situ polymerization, the proposed magnetic-graphene based molecularly imprinted polymer (MG-MIP) was obtained with a further extraction step of imprinted BHb. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), raman spectroscopy(RS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the resulted MG-MIP. The maximum adsorption capability (Qmax) was determined by Langmuir Isotherm Plots and was 186.73 mg/g for imprinted nanomaterials (MIP) with an imprinting factor of 1.96. The selectivity of MG-MIP was investigated by using several proteins that are different in molecular mass and isoelectric points as the reference. The results showed that the shape memory effect of imprinted cavities, the size of proteins and the charge effect of proteins were the major factors for the selective recognition. The proposed method was also employed to specifically capture BHb from a binary protein mixture.

  4. A New Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Solid-phase Extraction of Cotinine from Human Urine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun YANG; Xiao Lan ZHU; Ji Bao CAI; Qing De SU; Yun GAO; Liang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), prepared around a cotinine template, has been synthesized. The feasibility of using the polymer for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of cotinine from biological samples has been investigated. The results show that cotinine can be quantitatively retained and eluted from the polymer. Experiments with human urine samples indicate that clean target analyte is obtained for HPLC with UV detection using the protocol.

  5. Selective recognition in molecularly imprinted polymer and its chromatographic characterization for cinchonine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Shi-an; HUANG Ke-long; LEI Qi-fu; XIANG Hai-yan

    2005-01-01

    A molecularly imprinting polymer (MIP) was synthesized via bulk polymerization under different conditions using anti-ague drug cinchonine (CN) as template. Infrared spectra (IR) results show that the template CNand functional monomer α-methyl acrylic acid (MAA) formed complexes before polymerization and the structure of complexes was simulated by Hyperchem. The results indicate that there are hydrogen bond or ionic bond between functional monomer and template molecule in acetonitrile solution. The MIP made in cold-initiated photo-polymerization has higher separation performance than that in the therm-initiated polymerization. The separation of the isomers CN and cinchonidine (CD) can be successfully obtained when its separate factor α reaches 1.82. Scatchard analysis suggests that the MIP recognizing CN with two classes of binding sites. The partition coefficient Kd, 1 and apparent maximum number nmax, 1 of binding sites with high affinity are 131.43 μmol/L and 58. 90 μmol/g, respectively,while Kd, 2 and nmax, 2 of binding sites with low affinity are 2.32 mmol/L and 169.08 mmol/g, respectively.

  6. Molecularly imprinted polymers--potential and challenges in analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, J.O. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Nolan, K. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Smyth, M.R. [Dublin City University, School of Chemical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Mizaikoff, B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 770 State Street, Boggs Building, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States)]. E-mail: boris.mizaikoff@chemistry.gatech.edu

    2005-04-04

    Among the variety of biomimetic recognition schemes utilizing supramolecular approaches molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have proven their potential as synthetic receptors in numerous applications ranging from liquid chromatography to assays and sensor technology. Their inherent advantages compared to biochemical/biological recognition systems include robustness, storage endurance and lower costs. However, until recently only few contributions throughout the relevant literature describe quantitative analytical applications of MIPs for practically relevant analyte molecules and real-world samples. Increased motivation to thoroughly evaluate the true potential of MIP technology is clearly attributed to the demands of modern analytical chemistry, which include enhanced sensitivity, selectivity and applicability of molecular recognition building blocks at decreasing costs. In particular, the areas of environmental monitoring, food and beverage analysis and industrial process surveillance require analytical tools capable of discriminating chemicals with high molecular specificity considering increasing numbers of complex environmental contaminants, pollution of raw products and rigorous quality control requested by legislation and consumer protection. Furthermore, efficient product improvement and development of new products requires precise qualitative and quantitative analytical methods. Finally, environmental, food and process safety control issues favor the application of on-line in situ analytical methods with high molecular selectivity. While biorecognition schemes frequently suffer from degrading bioactivity and long-term stability when applied in real-world sample environments, MIPs serving as synthetic antibodies have successfully been applied as stationary phase separation matrix (e.g. HPLC and SPE), recognition component in bioassays (e.g. ELISA) or biomimetic recognition layer in chemical sensor systems. Examples such as MIP-based selective analysis of

  7. Characterization of the Binding Properties of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    The defining characteristic of the binding sites of any particular molecularly imprinted material is heterogeneity: that is, they are not all identical. Nonetheless, it is useful to study their fundamental binding properties, and to obtain average properties. In particular, it has been instructive to compare the binding properties of imprinted and non-imprinted materials. This chapter begins by considering the origins of this site heterogeneity. Next, the properties of interest of imprinted binding sites are described in brief: affinity, selectivity, and kinetics. The binding/adsorption isotherm, the graph of concentration of analyte bound to a MIP versus concentration of free analyte at equilibrium, over a range of total concentrations, is described in some detail. Following this, the techniques for studying the imprinted sites are described (batch-binding assays, radioligand binding assays, zonal chromatography, frontal chromatography, calorimetry, and others). Thereafter, the parameters that influence affinity, selectivity and kinetics are discussed (solvent, modifiers of organic solvents, pH of aqueous solvents, temperature). Finally, mathematical attempts to fit the adsorption isotherms for imprinted materials, so as to obtain information about the range of binding affinities characterizing the imprinted sites, are summarized.

  8. Ionic conductivity through thermoresponsive polymer gel: ordering matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Saurabh S; Fadadu, Kishan B; Gibaud, Alain

    2012-01-10

    Thermoreversible polymer gel has been prepared using PEO-PPO-PEO block copolymer (Pluronic F77) which self-assembles into different microcrystalline phases like cubic, 2D-hexagonal, and lamellar. Addition of electrolyte (LiI/I(2)) converts the gel into a polymer gel electrolyte (PGE) which exhibits microphase-dependent ionic conductivity. The crystalline phases have been identified by SAXS as a function of the polymer concentration. It is found that the optimum value for the ionic conductivity (≈1 × 10(-3) S x cm(-1)) is achieved in the Im3m phase due to faster diffusion of ions through the 3D-interconnected micellar nanochannels. This fact is further supported by FTIR study, ionic transference number, and diffusion coefficient measurements.

  9. An easily fabricated high performance ionic polymer based sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Hu, Xiaopin; Sun, Xiaofei; Chang, Longfei; Lu, Pin

    2016-08-01

    Ionic polymer materials can generate an electrical potential from ion migration under an external force. For traditional ionic polymer metal composite sensors, the output voltage is very small (a few millivolts), and the fabrication process is complex and time-consuming. This letter presents an ionic polymer based network of pressure sensors which is easily and quickly constructed, and which can generate high voltage. A 3 × 3 sensor array was prepared by casting Nafion solution directly over copper wires. Under applied pressure, two different levels of voltage response were observed among the nine nodes in the array. For the group producing the higher level, peak voltages reached as high as 25 mV. Computational stress analysis revealed the physical origin of the different responses. High voltages resulting from the stress concentration and asymmetric structure can be further utilized to modify subsequent designs to improve the performance of similar sensors.

  10. [Preparation and evaluation of novel mesoporous molecular sieve of baicalin surface molecularly imprinted polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xia-li; He, Hong-liang; Shi, Li-ying; Gao, Yan-kun; Chen, Li-na

    2015-05-01

    Taking mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 as a substrate, baicalin (BA) as template, acrylamide (AM) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linking agent, ethanol as solvent, under thermal polymerization initiator of azobis isobutyronitrilo (AIBN) , a kind of selective recognition of baicalin surface molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized. The surface morphologies and characteristics of the MIPs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The adsorption properties of polymer microsphere for the template were tested by the dynamic adsorption equilibrium experiments and static adsorption equilibrium experiments. The experiment showed that the imprinting process was successfully and the well-ordered one-dimensional pore structure of MCM-41 was still preserved. Furthermore, molecularly imprinted polymers had higher selective ability for BA, then provided a new method for the efficient separation and enrichment of baicalin active ingredients from medicinal plants Scutellaria baicalensis.

  11. Enantioseparations by high-performance liquid chromatography using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, David A

    2013-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are becoming increasingly useful as chromatographic adsorbents for molecular separations, especially chiral separations, because they can be tailored to specifically recognize the target molecule including its stereochemistry. Traditionally formed MIPs (as described here) are stable under ambient conditions for years, take only days to make, and use relatively inexpensive components, with the possible exception of the template in some cases which can be reused after it is removed from the polymer to keep costs down. In addition to providing experimental details for typical synthetic methods to fabricate MIPs and pack them into HPLC columns, this chapter also gives an overview of the concepts of molecular imprinting method and discusses important factors for designing an effective imprinted polymer.

  12. Ionic conductivity enhancement of polymer electrolytes with ceramic nanowire fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Nian; Sun, Jie; Hsu, Po-Chun; Li, Yuzhang; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Cui, Yi

    2015-04-08

    Solid-state electrolytes provide substantial improvements to safety and electrochemical stability in lithium-ion batteries when compared with conventional liquid electrolytes, which makes them a promising alternative technology for next-generation high-energy batteries. Currently, the low mobility of lithium ions in solid electrolytes limits their practical application. The ongoing research over the past few decades on dispersing of ceramic nanoparticles into polymer matrix has been proved effective to enhance ionic conductivity although it is challenging to form the efficiency networks of ionic conduction with nanoparticles. In this work, we first report that ceramic nanowire fillers can facilitate formation of such ionic conduction networks in polymer-based solid electrolyte to enhance its ionic conductivity by three orders of magnitude. Polyacrylonitrile-LiClO4 incorporated with 15 wt % Li0.33La0.557TiO3 nanowire composite electrolyte exhibits an unprecedented ionic conductivity of 2.4 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) at room temperature, which is attributed to the fast ion transport on the surfaces of ceramic nanowires acting as conductive network in the polymer matrix. In addition, the ceramic-nanowire filled composite polymer electrolyte shows an enlarged electrochemical stability window in comparison to the one without fillers. The discovery in the present work paves the way for the design of solid ion electrolytes with superior performance.

  13. Solid-phase extraction of esculetin from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine by using molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shu-Guo; Li, Li; He, Xi-Wen

    2005-01-07

    A molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction method is used to extract esculetin from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine. Ratio of ethanol and water as washing solution were investigated. Data of accumulative adsorption on molecularly imprinted polymers from the continuous loading experiment suggests that there are two different kinds of recognition sites in molecularly imprinted polymers. By selecting the washing and eluting solution a scheme was designed to separate esculetin and its analogues including esculin, coumarin, 7-methoxylcoumarin and daphnetin. Finally, by applying the revised scheme esculetin was extracted from the ash bark of Chinese traditional medicine that was purchased from two big drugstores, respectively, with both molecularly imprinted polymers and non-molecularly imprinted polymers.

  14. Structure and Conformation of Ionic Conjugated Polymers: Polydots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Naresh; Etampawala, Thusitha; Wijesinghe, Sidath; Perahia, Dvora

    2014-03-01

    Conjugated polymers confining into nano dimension form long-lived highly luminescent tunable organic particles of having enormous potential for intracellular imaging and drug delivery. Even though the chains are not in their thermodynamically stable conformation, the poly-dots remain stable over long period of times. Incorporation of ionic groups into conjugated polymers introduces a configuration control factor that impacts their conformation and their applications as luminescent probes. The current work investigates the structure and stability of poly-dots of di-alkoxy para polyphenyleneethynylene (PPE) conjugated polymer substituted with carboxylate side chain. Our small angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies have shown that ionic PPE forms spherical poly-dots in water. Ionic Poly-dots remain stable up to a temperature of 800C compare to neutral conjugated polymer poly dots. These polymer dots were allowed to assemble at a solid surface and observed by AFM which showed the nano aggregates of different sizes that assembled in different ways depending on the concentration and molecular parameters of the ionic PPEs used.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of hollow molecular imprinted polymer for adsorption of dibenzothiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Wenming [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu Lukuan; Zhou Wei [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Xu Wanzhen, E-mail: xwz09@ujs.edu.cn [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou Zhiping [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang Weihong [School of the Environment, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Hollow molecular imprinted polymer (H-MIP) was prepared using dibenzothiophene as template molecule, 4-vinylpyridine as functional monomer and K{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 9} as carrier by surface imprinting technique combined with removing carrier process. The polymer was characterized by means of nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy. H-MIP was provided with larger surface areas and pore features. The adsorption process was spontaneous by thermodynamic analysis. The adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order model by kinetics analysis and Freundlich equation by isotherm analysis. The selectivity performance of H-MIP was favorable.

  16. A novel method to prepare SPR sensor chips based on photografting molecularly imprinted polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Quan Wei; Tian Xin Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel method to prepare surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips based on grafted imprinted polymer is explored. Benzophenone photografting system is used to grow molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) films from the modified surface of gold substrate. The surface morphology and thickness of MIP films were investigated by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The adsorption properties of sensor chip were studied by SPR spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that nano-MIP films can be constructed on the surface of gold substrate with the good adsorption of template molecules.

  17. Selective extraction of proteins and other macromolecules from biological samples using molecular imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Derek; El-Sharif, Hazim F; Reddy, Subrayal M

    2016-11-01

    The accurate determination of intact macromolecules in biological samples, such as blood, plasma, serum, urine, tissue and feces is a challenging problem. The increased interest in macromolecules both as candidate drugs and as biomarkers for diagnostic purposes means that new method development approaches are needed. This review charts developments in the use of molecularly imprinted polymers first for small-molecular-mass compounds then for proteins and other macromolecules. Examples of the development of molecularly imprinted polymers for macromolecules are highlighted. The two main application areas to date are sensors and separation science, particularly SPE. Examples include peptides and polypeptides, lysozyme, hemoglobin, ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin and viruses.

  18. Development of smart molecularly imprinted polymers for use in sustainable food nanosensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashley, Jon; Sun, Yi

    In this project we aim to develop core shell imprinted polymers for use in microfluidic based biosensors. By combining the magnetic properties of iron oxide for facile sample preparation, the fluorescent properties of quantum dots as the optical transducer, as well as molecularly imprinted polymers....... By incorporating a microfluidic based platform with the developed smart nanomaterials, a handheld sensor capable of multiplex detection will be developed. It can be used within a food manufacturing environment for the routine screening of pork products and provide a more sustainable replacement for animal derived...

  19. Electrochemical sensor for dopamine based on a novel graphene-molecular imprinted polymers composite recognition element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yan; Bao, Yu; Gan, Shiyu

    2011-01-01

    A novel composite of graphene sheets/Congo red-molecular imprinted polymers (GSCR-MIPs) was synthesized through free radical polymerization (FRP) and applied as a molecular recognition element to construct dopamine (DA) electrochemical sensor. The template molecules (DA) were firstly absorbed...... at the GSCR surface due to their excellent affinity, and subsequently, selective copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) was further achieved at the GSCR surface. Potential scanning was presented to extract DA molecules from the imprinted polymers film...

  20. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE PREPARATION OF MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS VIA CONTROLLED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imprinting technique is a simple and efficient method for the preparation of polymer materials (i.e., molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs) with tailor-made recognition sites for certain target molecules. The resulting MIPs have proven to be versatile synthetic receptors due to their high specific recognition ability, favorable mechanical, thermal and chemical stability, and ease of preparation. Recent years have witnessed significant progress in the synthesis and applications of MIPs. This review focus on the recent developments and advances in the preparation of MIPs via various controlled radical polymerization techniques.

  1. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE PREPARATION OF MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS VIA CONTROLLED RADICAL POLYMERIZATION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; ZHANG Huiqi

    2008-01-01

    Molecular imprinting technique is a simple and efficient method for the preparation of polymer materials (i.e., molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs) with tailor-made recognition sites for certain target molecules.The resulting MIPs have proven to be versatile synthetic receptors due to their high specific recognition ability, favorable mechanical, thermal and chemical stability, and ease of preparation.Recent years have witnessed signifwant progress in the synthesis and applications of MIPs.This review focus on the recent developments and advances in the preparation of MIPs via various controlled radical polymerization techniques.

  2. Thin Films Formed from Conjugated Polymers with Ionic, Water-Soluble Backbones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Thomas P; Chiechi, Ryan C

    2015-12-30

    This paper compares the morphologies of films of conjugated polymers in which the backbone (main chain) and pendant groups are varied between ionic/hydrophilic and aliphatic/hydrophobic. We observe that conjugated polymers in which the pendant groups and backbone are matched, either ionic-ionic or hydrophobic-hydrophobic, form smooth, structured, homogeneous films from water (ionic) or tetrahydrofuran (hydrophobic). Mismatched conjugated polymers, by contrast, form inhomogeneous films with rough topologies. The polymers with ionic backbone chains are conjugated polyions (conjugated polymers with closed-shell charges in the backbone), which are semiconducting materials with tunable bad-gaps, not unlike uncharged conjugated polymers.

  3. Micro-Manipulation and Bandwidth Characterization of Ionic Polymer Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Kothera, Curt S.

    2002-01-01

    Ionic polymer materials are a class of electroactive polymers that have been used in recent applications that take advantage of their large bending deflection. Although these materials have been around since the 1960s, it has only been in the last decade that their electromechanical coupling has been discovered. Because their life as a transducer has been relatively short, the underlying mechanisms for their mechanical motion have not yet been fully characterized. Modeling has been perform...

  4. Investigation of the Polyaniline Nanoparticles as the Substrate of Molecular Imprinted Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mobram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research work deals with investigation of the polyaniline nanoparticles as the substrate of the molecular imprinted polymer. Molecular imprinting is an interesting way to emulate the natural molecular identification that will be realized by preparing artificial identification sites with preset election for different target analyses. In this method, the target analyte acts as a template and will be connected to functional monomers through covalent or non-covalent bonding during the process of polymerization. Among all the conducting polymers, polyaniline is known for its unique electrical conductivity which can be controlled by the degree of oxidation of the main chain and protonation. Also, it shows different color changes with respect to the degree of oxidation and the surrounding ph. The results and investigations conducted in this study suggest that molecular imprinted polymers can be successfully developed by using aniline as monomer and preparation of linear polymer, and by using method of conductometry, the presence or absence of imprinted substances can be observed in the polymer according to the changes in conductivity caused by these phenomena.

  5. Synthesis of a nanoporous molecularly imprinted polymers for dibutyl Phthalate extracted from Trichoderma Harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maede Shahiri Tabarestani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized for dibutyl phthalate as a bioactive chemical compound with antifungal activity which produced by Trichoderma Harzianum (JX1738521. The molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized via precipitation polymerization method from methacrylic acid, dibutyl phthalate and trimetylolpropantrimethacrylate as a functional monomer, template and cross-linker, respectively. After removal of the template by the eluent from the MIPs, the leached nanoparticles of the MIPs had a good binding capacity as equal 830 mg/g. The polymer particles have been evaluated by field emission scan electron microscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller  techniques. The excellent specific surface area in the molecularly imprinted polymers as equal to 690.301 m2/g comparatively to non-imprinted polymers (ca. 89.894 m2/g, confirms that the nanoporous MIPs were synthesized, successfully. The results indicated that the nanoporous MIPs can be used in solid phase extraction. This is a novel method for separation of the bioactive compounds from fungi secondary metabolites in biological control.

  6. Selective adsorption of micro ciprofloxacin by molecularly imprinted functionalized polymers appended onto ZnS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Gao, Xiaoyan; Huo, Pengwei; Yan, Yongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for selective removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP) was prepared by a surface imprinting technique. The MIPs was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The selectivity of the sorbent was investigated by a batch competitive binding experiment using aqueous CIP and gatifloxacin, CIP and chloramphenicol, and CIP and tetracycline mixtures, respectively. The static uptake capacity and selectivity coefficient of the MIPs are higher than those of the non-imprinted sorbent. The imprinted functionalized sorbent offered a fast kinetics for the extraction of CIP, which was obtained within 12 min. In a test of five extraction cycles, the adsorption capacity of the sorbent was above 92% of that of the fresh sorbent. Experimental results showed the potential of MIPs for selectivity removal of CIP.

  7. Modeling of ionic transport in solid polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheang, P L; Teo, L L; Lim, T L, E-mail: plcheang@mmu.edu.my [Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education, Multimedia University, Jln Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    A Monte Carlo model describing the ionic trans port in solid polyme relectrolyte is developed. Single cation simulation is carried out using hopping rate to study the transport mechanism of a thermally activated ion in solid polymer electrolyte. In our model, the ion is able to hop along a polymer chain and to jump between different chains, surmounting energy barriers that consist of polymer's activation energy and the externally applied electric field. The model is able to trace the motion of ion across polymer electrolyte. The mean hopping distance is calculated based on the available open bond in the next nearest side. Random numbers are used to determine the hopping distances, free flight times, final energy and direction of the cation after successful hop. Drift velocity and energy of cation are simulated in our work. The model is expected to be able to simulate the lithium-polymer battery in future.

  8. Catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer membranes: development of the biomimetic sensor for phenols detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyeva, T A; Slinchenko, O A; Gorbach, L A; Matyushov, V F; Brovko, O O; Piletsky, S A; Sergeeva, L M; Elska, G V

    2010-02-05

    Portable biomimetic sensor devices for the express control of phenols content in water were developed. The synthetic binding sites mimicking active site of the enzyme tyrosinase were formed in the structure of free-standing molecularly imprinted polymer membranes. Molecularly imprinted polymer membranes with the catalytic activity were obtained by co-polymerization of the complex Cu(II)-catechol-urocanic acid ethyl ester with (tri)ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate, and oligourethaneacrylate. Addition of the elastic component oligourethaneacrylate provided formation of the highly cross-linked polymer with the catalytic activity in a form of thin, flexible, and mechanically stable membrane. High accessibility of the artificial catalytic sites for the interaction with the analyzed phenol molecules was achieved due to addition of linear polymer (polyethyleneglycol Mw 20,000) to the initial monomer mixture before the polymerization. As a result, typical semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPNs) were formed. The cross-linked component of the semi-IPN was represented by the highly cross-linked catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer, while the linear one was represented by polyethyleneglycol Mw 20,000. Extraction of the linear polymer from the fully formed semi-IPN resulted in formation of large pores in the membranes' structure. Concentration of phenols in the analyzed samples was detected using universal portable device oxymeter with the oxygen electrode in a close contact with the catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer membrane as a transducer. The detection limit of phenols detection using the developed sensor system based on polymers-biomimics with the optimized composition comprised 0.063 mM, while the linear range of the sensor comprised 0.063-1 mM. The working characteristics of the portable sensor devices were investigated. Storage stability of sensor systems at room temperature comprised 12 months (87%). As compared to traditional methods of phenols

  9. Molecularly imprinted polymers for highly sensitive detection of morphine using surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xia Hao; Hong Zhou; Jing Chang; Jun Zhu; Tian Xin Wei

    2011-01-01

    Molecular imprinting technology is applied in surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy for highly sensitive and selective detection of morphine (MO). As SPR-based sensor of MO, the preparation of molecular imprinted polymer is as follows: methacrylic acids (MAA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were used as functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. The experiment results showed that morphine imprinted polymer had the performance of high sensitivity and specificity, i.e. the relative signal of SPR response was proportional to the concentration of morphine in acetonitrile in the range of 10-9 mol/L to 10-6mol/L (1 ppb-1 ppm) with LOD of 10-10mol/L, and MO was distinguished from its analogs, such as codeine.

  10. Determination of ractopamine in pork using a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer as adsorbent followed by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yiwei; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Xiuying; Lan, Jianxing; Gao, Xue; Ma, Yong; Li, Min; Li, Jianrong

    2016-06-15

    A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for separation and concentration of ractopamine (RAC) were prepared using surface molecular imprinting technique with methacryloyl chloride as functional monomer and RAC as template. The MMIPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The results of re-binding experiments indicated that the MMIPs had fast adsorption kinetics and could reach binding equilibrium within 20 min, and the adsorption capacity of the MMIPs was 2.87-fold higher than that of the corresponding non-imprinted polymer. The selectivity of the MMIPs was evaluated according to its recognition to RAC and its analogues. The synthesized MMIPs were successfully applied to extraction, followed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine RAC in real food samples. Spiked recoveries ranged from 73.60% to 94.5%, with relative standard deviations of <11.17%.

  11. Convenient solid phase extraction of cephalosporins in milk using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Molina, Carolina; Claude, Bérengère; García-Campaña, Ana M; del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud; Morin, Philippe

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for cephalosporin molecules (cephalexin (CFL) and cephapirin (CFP)), was prepared by non covalent molecular imprinting approach and applied to solid phase extraction (SPE). For MIP synthesis, a tributylammonium cefadroxil salt (TBA-CFD) was used as template with methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as monomer and cross-linker, respectively, in acetone-methanol 92/8 (v/v) mixture. The selectivity of MIP versus non imprinted polymer (NIP) was confirmed for CFL, CFD and CFP in standard solutions as well as in milk samples. The efficiency of the synthesized MIP was evaluated by means of the application of the proposed MIP-SPE procedure to spiked milk samples previous to the HPLC method for the detection of cephalosporins. The MIP-SPE recoveries were higher than 60% for the three target analytes in spiked milk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A morphological study of molecularly imprinted polymers using the scanning electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua Gonzalez, Gema [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: gpaniagua@pas.uned.es; Fernandez Hernando, Pilar [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain); Durand Alegria, J.S. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-31

    Molecular imprinting is an emerging technique for producing polymers with applications in affinity-based separation, in biomimetic sensors, in catalysis, etc. This variety of uses relies upon the production of polymers with different affinities, specificities, sensitivities and loading capacities. Research into the development of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) with new or improved morphologies - which involves modification of the polymerisation process - is therefore underway. This paper reports a comparative study of non-covalent MIPs synthesised by 'bulk' polymerisation using digoxin as template. These were synthesised under different conditions, i.e., changing the functional monomers employed (methacrylic acid or 2-vinylpyridine), the porogens (acetonitrile or dichloromethane) used, and by altering the volume of the latter. The polymerisation process was allowed to proceed either under UV light or in a thermostat-controlled waterbath. The surface morphology (was determined by scanning electron microscopy) and the ability of the different polymers to selectively rebind the template was then evaluated.

  13. Covalently functionalized noble metal nanoparticles for molecular imprinted polymer biosensors: Synthesis, characterization, and SERS detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Anna Allyse

    This dissertation evaluates how gold nanoparticle structure and local environment influence resulting sensor function when using these nanomaterials for complex sample analysis. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs), a class of plastic antibodies, are engineered and incorporated into these nanosensors thereby facilitating the quantitative detection of a variety of small molecules when Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are used for detection. First, homogeneous seeded growth gold nanosphere synthesis is evaluated as a function of ionic double layer composition and thickness. Systematically increasing the citrate concentration during synthesis improves nanomaterial shape homogeneity; however, further elevations of citrate concentration increase the number of internal and/or external atomic defects in the nanomaterials which leads to decreasing solution-phase stability. Next, spherical gold nanoparticles are modified with self-assembled monolayer (SAM), modeled using interfacial energy calculations, and experimental characterized using transmission electron microscopy, NMR, extinction spectroscopy, zeta potential, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and flocculation studies to assess the morphology, surface chemistry, optical properties, surface charge, SAM packing density, and nanoparticle stability, respectively. The number of molecules on the nanostructures increases with increasing ionic strength (by decreasing the electrostatic interfacial energy between assembled molecules) which subsequently promotes nanoparticle stability. Third, plastic antibodies that recognize three drugs commonly used to treat migraines are engineered. These methacrylate-based MIPs are synthesized, extracted, characterized, and used to quantitatively and directly detect over-the-counter drugs in complex samples using Raman microscopy. These results along with numerical approximation methods to estimate drug binding site densities and dissociation constants with

  14. Grafting of molecularly imprinted polymer to porous polyethylene filtration membranes by plasma polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowieson, D; Piletska, E; Moczko, E; Piletsky, S

    2013-08-01

    An application of plasma-induced grafting of polyethylene membranes with a thin layer of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was presented. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) membranes, "Vyon," were used as a substrate for plasma grafting modification. The herbicide atrazine, one of the most popular targets of the molecular imprinting, was chosen as a template. The parameters of the plasma treatment were optimized in order to achieve a good balance between polymerization and ablation processes. Modified HDPE membranes were characterized, and the presence of the grafted polymeric layer was confirmed based on the observed weight gain, pore size measurements, and infrared spectrometry. Since there was no significant change in the porosity of the modified membranes, it was assumed that only a thin layer of the polymer was introduced on the surface. The experiments on the re-binding of the template atrazine to the membranes modified with MIP and blank polymers were performed. HDPE membranes which were grafted with polymer using continuous plasma polymerization demonstrated the best result which was expressed in an imprinted factor equal to 3, suggesting that molecular imprinting was successfully achieved.

  15. Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwanger, A; Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Crecenzi, C; Karlsson, L; Owens, PK; Ensing, K; Cormack, P; Sherrington, D; Sellergren, B

    2001-01-01

    Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was

  16. Preparation of diclofenac-imprinted polymer beads for selective molecular separation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tongchang; Kamra, Tripta; Ye, Lei

    2017-01-13

    Molecular imprinting technique is an attractive strategy to prepare materials for target recognition and rapid separation. In this work, a new type of diclofenac (DFC)-imprinted polymer beads was synthesized by Pickering emulsion polymerization using 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate as the functional monomer. The selectivity and capacity of the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were investigated in aqueous solution. Equilibrium binding results show that the MIPs have a high selectivity to bind DFC in a wide range of pH values. Moreover, in liquid chromatography experiment, the imprinted polymer beads were packed into column to investigate the binding selectivity under nonequilibrium conditions. The retention time of DFC on the MIP column is significantly longer than its structural analogues. Also, retention of DFC on the MIP column was significantly longer than on the nonimprinted polymer column under aqueous condition. As the new MIP beads can be used to achieve direct separation of DFC from water, the synthetic method and the affinity beads developed in this work opened new possibilities for removing toxic chemicals from environmental and drinking water.

  17. First steps towards conformationally selective artificial lectins: the chair-boat discrimination by molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Talancé, Vincent Lemau; Massinon, Olivier; Baati, Rachid; Wagner, Alain; Vincent, Stéphane P

    2012-11-07

    A series of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared in the presence of a synthetic galactoside locked in a (1,4)B boat conformation. This study demonstrates that, depending on the polymerisation technique, an organic material can selectively bind a carbohydrate in a biologically relevant boat conformation.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers on Chloromethyl Polystyrene Resin Prepared via RAFT Polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Surface molecularly imprinted polymers (SMIP) was prepared via the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization on the chloromethyl polystyrene resin (CPR) in the presence of the template D-phenylalanine. The structure of SMIP was characterized by FTIR and SEM. The adsorption behavior of D-phenylalanine of SMIP was preliminarily investigated.

  19. An ion-imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of mercury(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-16

    Feb 16, 2011 ... A double-imprinted polymer exhibiting high sensitivity for mercury(II) in aqueous solution is ... In recent years the release of various harmful heavy metal ions ..... both of the competing ions have the same charge, have com-.

  20. Evaluation of methods aimed at complete removal of template from molecularly imprinted polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellwanger, A; Berggren, C; Bayoudh, S; Crecenzi, C; Karlsson, L; Owens, PK; Ensing, K; Cormack, P; Sherrington, D; Sellergren, B

    2001-01-01

    Polymers imprinted with clenbuterol were used to study the influence of various post-polymerization treatments [e.g., thermal annealing, microwave assisted extraction (MAE), Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid template desorption] on the bleeding of residual template. The aim of the study was

  1. Selective recognition and separation of amino acids by molecularly imprinted polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Trikka, F.A.; Papi, R. M.; Kyriakidis, D A

    2008-01-01

    Journal URL: http://www.springer.at/amino_acids Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are smart tailored-made materials used for the sensitive and selective recognition of small molecules and=or biologically important substances. The target molecule acting as a molecular template is copolymerized with an excess of afunctional monomer and a cross-linker. The template is entrapped in the formed polymer and following its removal complementary cavities in structure and in properties to the ...

  2. Preparation of mixed molecularly imprinted polymer magnetic nanoparticles and its application in separation of Chinese traditional medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yihui; Ma, Yajuan; Bai, Wenting; Zhu, Xiaofang; Liu, Min; Huang, Liping

    2017-08-01

    A mixed imprinted polymer which can rapidly adsorb all flavonoids from raspberry extract was prepared and recycled. The hybrid molecular surface imprinted polymers were prepared by using quercetin as the template molecule and Fe3O4 magnetic nanospheres as the carrier. The molecular imprinting polymer was prepared by using the "initial template molecule, molecularly imprinted polymer, mixed template molecule, molecularly imprint ted polymers (MIPS)". The adsorption performance and durability of the hybrid molecularly imprinted polymers were investigated by using the fingerprints of the ethyl acetate fraction of raspberry as an index. The adsorption of flavonoids from raspberry extract, lindenoside, cis-lindenin, quercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids was completely adsorbed by mixed molecular-imprinted polymer, and the other components were basically adsorbed. When Mix-IMPs were repeatedly used 10 times, the fingerprints showed that the content and content of flavonoids were basically the same. The experimental results show that Mix-IMPs has good adsorption performance, can be recycled and used for rapid enrichment of flavonoids in raspberry.

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers and Highly Porous Materials in Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    microspheres from dilute dispersion polymerization systems (52). MIPs have also been prepared as imprinted membranes by precipitation of linear...and 1200m2/g. Supercritical drying of polysilsesquioxanes results in the formation of aerogels . These very low density materials have been

  4. Rapid and selective detection of viruses using virus-imprinted polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, A; Margulis, K; Ren, K; Zare, R N; Leung, L W

    2015-12-01

    We prepared a nanopatterned polymer film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via virus imprinting. The imprinted surface exhibited nanoscale cavities with the mean size of 120 ± 4 nm. These cavities demonstrated the ability to preferentially capture a target virus from an aqueous suspension of ultralow volume (5 μL) after only 1 minute of contact. Two inactivated viruses with similar shape, Influenza A (HK68) and Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), were employed as model pathogens. The polymer film, which was first imprinted with HK68 and exposed sequentially to suspensions containing fluorescently labeled NDV and HK68, was able to preferentially bind HK68 at a capture ratio of 1 : 8.0. When we reversed the procedure and imprinted with NDV, the capture ratio was 1 : 7.6. These results were obtained within 20 minutes of static exposure. The suspensions contained viruses at concentrations close to those occurring physiologically in influenza infections. The limit of detection was approximately 8 fM. Production of virus-imprinted films can be readily scaled to large quantities and yields a disposable, simple-to-use device that allows for rapid detection of viruses.

  5. Evaluation of electrochemically synthesized sulfadimethoxine-imprinted polymer for solid-phase microextraction of sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Álvarez, Myriam; Mazzotta, Elisabetta; Malitesta, Cosimino; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is widely used in analytical laboratories for the analysis of organic compounds, thanks to its simplicity and versatility. In the present work, the synthesis and evaluation of imprinted films for SPME by electropolymerisation of pyrrole alone or in the presence of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate is proposed. Sulfadimethoxine (SDM), a sulfonamide antibiotic, was used as template molecule. Initially, a molecularly imprinted polymer film was prepared by electropolymerisation of pyrrole onto a platinum foil, using SDM as template. The SDM template was removed by overoxidation. The behaviour of SDM on imprinted and non-imprinted polymers was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry, and a clear imprinting effect was observed, which was confirmed by rebinding experiments using both conventional and electrochemically enhanced-SPME. However, in general, the extraction efficiency was rather low (<6%) and unspecific interactions are too high. Attempts to increase extraction efficiency were unsuccessful, but the incorporation of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate to the films reduced unspecific interactions to a certain extent.

  6. Molecular imprinted polymer for solid-phase extraction of flavonol aglycones from Moringa oleifera extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakade, Vusumzi; Cukrowska, Ewa; Lindahl, Sofia; Turner, Charlotta; Chimuka, Luke

    2013-02-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer produced using quercetin as the imprinting compound was applied for the extraction of flavonol aglycones (quercetin and kaempferol) from Moringa oleifera methanolic extracts obtained using heated reflux extraction method. Identification and quantification of these flavonols in the Moringa extracts was achieved using high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Breakthrough volume and retention capacity of molecular imprinted polymer SPE was investigated using a mixture of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. The calculated theoretical number of plates was found to be 14, 50 and 8 for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. Calculated adsorption capacities were 2.0, 3.4 and 3.7 μmol/g for myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, respectively. No myricetin was observed in Moringa methanol extracts. Recoveries of quercetin and kaempferol from Moringa methanol extracts of leaves and flowers ranged from 77 to 85% and 75 to 86%, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility of using the developed molecularly imprinted SPE method for quantitative clean-up of both of these flavonoids. Using heated reflux extraction combined with molecularly imprinted SPE, quercetin concentrations of 975 ± 58 and 845 ± 32 mg/kg were determined in Moringa leaves and flowers, respectively. However, the concentrations of kaempferol found in leaves and flowers were 2100 ± 176 and 2802 ± 157 mg/kg, respectively. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A micro-reactor for preparing uniform molecularly imprinted polymer beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourob, Mohammed; Mohr, Stephan; Mayes, Andrew G; Macaskill, Alexandra; Pérez-Moral, Natalia; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nicholas J

    2006-02-01

    In this study, uniform spherical molecularly imprinted polymer beads were prepared via controlled suspension polymerization in a spiral-shaped microchannel using mineral oil and perfluorocarbon liquid as continuous phases. Monodisperse droplets containing the monomers, template, initiator, and porogenic solvent were introduced into the microchannel, and particles of uniform size were produced by subsequent UV polymerization, quickly and without wasting polymer materials. The droplet/particle size was varied by changing the flow conditions in the microfluidic device. The diameter of the resulting products typically had a coefficient of variation (CV) below 2%. The specific binding sites that were created during the imprinting process were analysed via radioligand binding analysis. The molecularly imprinted microspheres produced in the liquid perfluorocarbon continuous phase had a higher binding capacity compared with the particles produced in the mineral oil continuous phase, though it should be noted that the aim of this study was not to optimize or maximize imprinting performance, but rather to demonstrate broad applicability and compatibility with known MIP production methods. The successful imprinting against a model compound using two very different continuous phases (one requiring a surfactant to stabilize the droplets the other not) demonstrates the generality of this current simple approach.

  8. A sol-gel derived pH-responsive bovine serum albumin molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Pi, Jiangyan; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Rong; Du, Yamei; Yu, Xiaoyang; Tan, Wenfeng; Liu, Fan; Shea, Kenneth J

    2016-08-17

    A pH-responsive surface molecularly imprinted poly(ionic liquids) (MIPILs) was prepared on the surface of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by a sol-gel technique. The material was synthesized using a 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane modified multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT-APTES) as the substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the template molecule, an alkoxy-functionalized IL 1-(3-trimethoxysilyl propyl)-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([TMSPMIM]Cl) as both the functional monomer and the sol-gel catalyst, and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent. The molecular interaction between BSA and [TMSPMIM]Cl was quantitatively evaluated by UV-vis spectroscopy prior to polymerization so as to identify an optimal template/monomer ratio and the most suitable pH value for the preparation of the MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs. This strategy was found to be effective to overcome the problems of trial-and-error protocol in molecular imprinting. The optimum synthesis conditions were as follows: template/monomer ratio 7:20, crosslinking agent content 2.0-2.5 mL, temperature 4 °C and pH 8.9 Tris-HCl buffer. The influence of incubation pH on adsorption was also studied. The result showed that the imprinting effect and selectivity improved significantly with increasing incubation pH from 7.7 to 9.9. This is mainly because the non-specific binding from electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions decreased greatly with the increase of pH value, which made the specific binding affinity from shape selectivity strengthened instead. The polymers synthesized under the optimal conditions were then characterized by BET surface area measurement, FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption capacity, imprinting effect, selective recognition and reusability were also evaluated. The as-prepared MWCNTs@BSA-MIPILs were also found to have a number of advantages including high surface area (134.2 m(2) g(-1)), high adsorption capacity (55.52

  9. Transfer printing of 3D hierarchical gold structures using a sequentially imprinted polymer stamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengxiang; Low, Hong Yee [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR - Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore)], E-mail: hy-low@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2008-10-15

    Complex three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structures on polymeric materials are fabricated through a process referred to as sequential imprinting. In this work, the sequentially imprinted polystyrene film is used as a soft stamp to replicate hierarchical structures onto gold (Au) films, and the Au structures are then transferred to a substrate by transfer printing at an elevated temperature and pressure. Continuous and isolated 3D structures can be selectively fabricated with the assistance of thermo-mechanical deformation of the polymer stamp. Hierarchical Au structures are achieved without the need for a corresponding three-dimensionally patterned mold.

  10. Preparation of lysozyme molecularly imprinted polymers and purification of lysozyme from egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejiao; Dong, Shaohua; Bai, Quan

    2014-06-01

    Molecular imprinting as a promising and facile separation technique has received much attention because of its high selectivity for target molecules. In this study, lysozyme molecularly imprinted polymers (Lys-MIPs) were successfully prepared by the entrapment method with lysozyme as the template molecule, acrylamide as the functional monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide as the cross-linker. The removal of the template lysozyme from the molecularly imprinted polymers was investigated in detail by two methods. The synthesized Lys-MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared, and the adsorption capacity, selectivity and reproducibility of the Lys-MIPs were also evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity reached 94.8 mg/g, which is twice that of nonmolecularly imprinted polymers, and satisfactory selectivity and reproducibility were achieved. Using the Lys-MIP column, lysozyme could be separated completely from egg white, with purity close to 100% and mass recovery of 98.2%. This illustrated that the synthesized Lys-MIPs had high specific recognition and selectivity to the template lysozyme when they were applied to a mixture of protein standards and a real sample.

  11. A surface acoustic wave sensor functionalized with a polypyrrole molecularly imprinted polymer for selective dopamine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maouche, Naima; Ktari, Nadia; Bakas, Idriss; Fourati, Najla; Zerrouki, Chouki; Seydou, Mahamadou; Maurel, François; Chehimi, Mohammed Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    A surface acoustic wave sensor operating at 104 MHz and functionalized with a polypyrrole molecularly imprinted polymer has been designed for selective detection of dopamine (DA). Optimization of pyrrole/DA ratio, polymerization and immersion times permitted to obtain a highly selective sensor, which has a sensitivity of 0.55°/mM (≈ 550 Hz/mM) and a detection limit of ≈ 10 nM. Morphology and related roughness parameters of molecularly imprinted polymer surfaces, before and after extraction of DA, as well as that of the non imprinted polymer were characterized by atomic force microscopy. The developed chemosensor selectively recognized dopamine over the structurally similar compound 4-hydroxyphenethylamine (referred as tyramine), or ascorbic acid,which co-exists with DA in body fluids at a much higher concentration. Selectivity tests were also carried out with dihydroxybenzene, for which an unexpected phase variation of order of 75% of the DA one was observed. Quantum chemical calculations, based on the density functional theory, were carried out to determine the nature of interactions between each analyte and the PPy matrix and the DA imprinted PPy polypyrrole sensing layer in order to account for the important phase variation observed during dihydroxybenzene injection.

  12. Preparation of Cu(2+)-mediated magnetic imprinted polymers for the selective sorption of bovine hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruixia; Cui, Xihui; Hao, Yi; He, Gaiyan; Zhang, Min; Tang, Yuhai

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a novel Cu(2+)-mediated core-shell bovine hemoglobin imprinted superparamagnetic polymers were synthesized. First, carboxyl group directly-functionalized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were produced by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method. Next, copper ions were introduced to chelate with carboxyl groups and further bonded with template bovine hemoglobin as co-functional monomer. Then, functional monomers 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane and octyltrimethoxysilane were adopted to form the thin polymer layers. Finally, after removal of the templates, the imprinting shells with specific recognition cavities for bovine hemoglobin were obtained on Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The resultant molecularly imprinted polymers have high adsorption capacity and satisfactory selectivity for bovine hemoglobin with the help of copper ions. The obtained magnetic nanomaterials were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The measurements demonstrated that the as-synthesized nanomaterials exhibited good dispersion, high crystallinity, and satisfactory superparamagnetic properties. The feasibility of this method was further confirmed by using the imprinted nanomaterials to specifically extract bovine hemoglobin from real bovine blood samples.

  13. The Application of Template Selectophores for the Preparation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylec, Basil; Schwarz, Lachlan J; Harris, Simon J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-09-23

    Molecularly imprinted polymers are versatile materials with wide application scope for the detection, capture and separation of specific compounds present in complex feed stocks. A major challenge associated with their preparation has been the need to sacrifice one mole equivalent of the template molecule to generate the complementary polymer cavities that selectively bind the target molecule. Moreover, template molecules can often be difficult to synthesise, expensive or lack stability. In this study, we describe a new approach, directed at the use of synthetic selectophores, chosen as readily prepared and low cost structural analogues with recognition groups in similar three-dimensional arrangements as found in the target molecule. To validate the approach, a comparative study of selectophores related to the polyphenolic compound (E)-resveratrol has been undertaken using traditional and green chemical synthetic approaches. These molecular mimic compounds were employed as polymer templates and also as binding analytes to interrogate the recognition sites associated with the molecularly imprinted polymers. Importantly, the study confirms that the use of selectophores has the potential to confer practical advantages, including access to more efficient methods for selection and preparation of suitable template molecules with a broader range of molecular diversity, as well as delivering imprinted polymers capable of recognizing the target compound and structurally related products.

  14. Preparation of bovine hemoglobin-imprinted polymer beads via the photografting surface-modified method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingqing GAI; Qiuye LIU; Wenyou LI; Xiwen HE; Langxing CHEN; Yukui ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), based on photografting surface-modified polystyrene beads as matrices, were prepared with acrylamide as the functional monomer, bovine hemoglobin as the template molecule and N, N'-methylene bisacrylamide as the crosslinker in a phosphate buffer. The results of IR, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and elemental analyses demonstrated the formation of a grafting polymer layer on the polysty-rene-bead surface. Subsequent removal of the template left behind cavities on the surface of the polymer matrix with a shape and an arrangement of functional groups having complementary binding sites with the original tem-plate molecule. The adsorption studies showed that the imprinted polymers have a good adsorption capacity and specific recognition for bovine hemoglobin as the template molecule. Our results demonstrated that the polymer prepared via the photografting surface-modified method exhibited better selectivity for the template. Attempts to employ the new method in molecular imprinting techniques may introduce new applications for MIPs and facilitate probable protein separation and purification.

  15. The Application of Template Selectophores for the Preparation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Danylec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers are versatile materials with wide application scope for the detection, capture and separation of specific compounds present in complex feed stocks. A major challenge associated with their preparation has been the need to sacrifice one mole equivalent of the template molecule to generate the complementary polymer cavities that selectively bind the target molecule. Moreover, template molecules can often be difficult to synthesise, expensive or lack stability. In this study, we describe a new approach, directed at the use of synthetic selectophores, chosen as readily prepared and low cost structural analogues with recognition groups in similar three-dimensional arrangements as found in the target molecule. To validate the approach, a comparative study of selectophores related to the polyphenolic compound (E-resveratrol has been undertaken using traditional and green chemical synthetic approaches. These molecular mimic compounds were employed as polymer templates and also as binding analytes to interrogate the recognition sites associated with the molecularly imprinted polymers. Importantly, the study confirms that the use of selectophores has the potential to confer practical advantages, including access to more efficient methods for selection and preparation of suitable template molecules with a broader range of molecular diversity, as well as delivering imprinted polymers capable of recognizing the target compound and structurally related products.

  16. A novel lead imprinted polymer as the selective solid phase for extraction and trace detection of lead ions by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry: Synthesis, characterization and analytical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeira Ebrahimzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel ion imprinted polymer as the selective solid phase combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS was applied for preconcentration and determination of lead in real samples. In the first step, Pb(II-IIP was synthesized by copolymerization of 2-vinyl pyridine as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator that imprinted with Pb(II as the template ion, 2-amino pyridine as the ligand. Subsequently, the imprinted Pb(II was completely removed by leaching the dried and powdered imprinted polymer with HCl (2 mol L−1. This polymer was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectrometer. The effect of different variables on the extraction efficiency such as type and volume of eluent for extraction, solution’s pH for adsorption, sorption and desorption times was evaluated. Under the optimum conditions: type of eluent, HCl (2 mol L−1; volume of eluent, 5 mL; solution’s pH for sorption, 5; sorption time, 90 min; desorption time, 125 min and breakthrough volume of 750 mL were obtained. Preconcentration factor of the method was about 150. The limit of detection was obtained 0.75 μg L−1 and a dynamic linear range (DLR of 3–150 μg L−1 was found. The maximum sorption retention capacity of Pb(II ions on the imprinted polymer was 85.6 mg g−1. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer particles have an increased selectivity toward Pb(II ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. Performance of the present method was evaluated for extraction and determination of Pb(II in water samples at microgram per liter concentration and satisfactory results were obtained (RSD = 2.7%.

  17. Surface imprinting on nano-TiO2 as sacrificial material for the preparation of hollow chlorogenic acid imprinted polymer and its recognition behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Gui; Li, Zhiping; Lu, Cuimei; Li, Yanan; Tan, Xianzhou

    2013-01-01

    Surface imprinting chlorogenic acid (CGA) on nano-TiO2 particles as sacrificial support material was successfully performed by using 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer to obtain a hollow CGA-imprinted polymer (H-MIP1). Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized for structurally characterizing the polymers obtained and adsorption dynamics and thermodynamic behavior investigated according to different models. Binding selectivity, adsorption capacity and the reusability for this H-MIP1 were also evaluated. This hollow CGA imprinted polymer shows rapid binding dynamics and higher binding capability toward the template molecules. The pseudo first-order kinetic model was shown best to describe the binding process of CGA on the H-MIP1 and Langmuir isotherm model best to fit the experimental adsorption isotherm data. Through adsorption isotherms at different temperatures, thermodynamic parameter values were obtained. Selectivity coefficients for the H-MIP1 toward the template were 2.209, 3.213, 1.746 and 2.353 relative to CA, VA, PCA and GA, respectively. This H-MIP1 was also indicated with a good imprint effect and a high capability to capture CGA from methanol extract of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) leaves. Additionally, a good reusability for this imprinted polymer was exhibited during repeated adsorption-desorption use.

  18. Imprintable, bendable, and shape-conformable polymer electrolytes for versatile-shaped lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Eun-Hye; Choi, Keun-Ho; Ha, Hyo-Jeong; Xu, Sheng; Rogers, John A; Kim, Mi Ri; Lee, Young-Gi; Kim, Kwang Man; Cho, Kuk Young; Lee, Sang-Young

    2013-03-13

    A class of imprintable, bendable, and shape-conformable polymer electrolyte with excellent electrochemical performance in a lithium battery system is reported. The material consists of a UV-cured polymer matrix, high-boiling point liquid electrolyte, and Al2 O3 nanoparticles, formulated for use in lithium-ion batteries with 3D-structured electrodes or flexible characteristics. The unique structural design and well-tuned rheological characteristics of the UV-curable electrolyte mixture, in combination with direct UV-assisted nanoimprint lithography, allow the successful fabrication of polymer electrolytes in geometries not accessible with conventional materials.

  19. FTIR AND IONIC CONDUCTIVITY STUDIES ON BLEND POLYMER ELECTROLYTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Senthil

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on structural and conductivity properties of solid polymer complexes have attracted a high degree of attention. The main applications of solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs are found in varioussecondary batteries and energy conversion units. In view of the abundant resources, low costs and relatively low reactivity of magnesium, solid-state batteries using magnesium metal are worthy of investigations. The polymer electrolytes were prepared using poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA, poly vinyl chloride (PVC and magnesium chloride (MgCl2 by solvent casting technique. The complex formation and ionic conductivity were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy (FTIR and impedance spectroscopy respectively.The FTIR studies provide the evidence of interaction of cation Mg2+ with the polymers. The maximum conductivity found for PMMA-MgCl2 is 0.57 x 10-7 Scm-1 at room temperature.

  20. Examination of the fundamental relation between ionic transport and segmental relaxation in polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yangyang [ORNL; Fan, Fei [ORNL; Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Yang, Jun [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Replacing traditional liquid electrolytes by polymers will significantly improve electrical energy storage technologies. Despite significant advantages for applications in electrochemical devices, the use of solid polymer electrolytes is strongly limited by their poor ionic conductivity. The classical theory predicts that the ionic transport is dictated by the segmental motion of the polymer matrix. As a result, the low mobility of polymer segments is often regarded as the limiting factor for development of polymers with sufficiently high ionic conductivity. Here, we show that the ionic conductivity in many polymers can be strongly decoupled from their segmental dynamics, in terms of both temperature dependence and relative transport rate. Based on this principle, we developed several polymers with superionic conductivity. The observed fast ion transport suggests a fundamental difference between the ionic transport mechanisms in polymers and small molecules and provides a new paradigm for design of highly conductive polymer electrolytes.

  1. imprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindi Rhoades

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This set of poems emerges from the flashpoint at the intersection of art, text, translation, and meaning-making. Several result directly from a class field trip with art educator Terry Barrett’s to the Columbus Museum of Art. We wrote during prolonged interactions with particular pieces. Others result from reflecting on making and remembering. The title of this collection, “imprint,” operates on multiple levels. There is the imprint of the text itself, the prints of the photos, the fictional prints and printmaking referenced, the mental images burned into memory, the lasting impression. There is something magical about trying to translate evanescent ideas, unformed understandings, and ephemeral moments into something more, something lasting, something to keep. These poems represent an attempt to capture something fleeting and slippery also in words. They are an attempt to pause, to contemplate in slower cadence, to ponder the surfeit of signs. They are an attempt to notice, to echo, to share and spark connections. They are an assemblage of images told in fractured pieces, bundled together, and shared.

  2. Thin Films Formed from Conjugated Polymers with Ionic, Water-Soluble Backbones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, Thomas P; Chiechi, Ryan C

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares the morphologies of films of conjugated polymers in which the backbone (main chain) and pendant groups are varied between ionic/hydrophilic and aliphatic/hydrophobic. We observe that conjugated polymers in which the pendant groups and backbone are matched, either ionic-ionic or h

  3. Synthesis of surface molecularly imprinted polymer and the selective solid phase extraction of imidazole from its structural analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guifen; Fan, Jing; Gao, Yanbu; Gao, Xia; Wang, Jianji

    2011-05-30

    A surface molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by using imidazole as the template and modified silica particles as the support material. The static adsorption, solid phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments were performed to investigate the adsorption properties and selective recognition characteristics of the polymer for imidazole and its structural analogs. It was shown that the maximum binding capacities of imidazole on the MIP and the non-imprinted polymer (NIP) were 312 and 169 μmol g(-1), respectively. The adsorption was fast and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 30 min. The binding process could be described by pseudo-second order kinetics. Compared with the corresponding non-imprinted polymer, the molecularly imprinted polymer exhibited much higher adsorption performance and selectivity for imidazole. The selective separation of imidazole from a mixture of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C(6)mim][Br]) and 2,4-dichlorophenol could be achieved on the MIP-SPE column. The recoveries of imidazole and [C(6)mim][Br] were 97.6-102.7% and 12.2-17.3%, respectively, but 2,4-dichlorophenol could not be retained on the column. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer presented here may find useful application as a solid phase absorbent to separate trace imidazole in environmental water samples. This may also form the basis for our research program on the preparation and application of alkyl-imidazolium imprinted polymers.

  4. Theoretical and experimental research on the self-assembled system of molecularly imprinted polymers formed by salbutamol and methacrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-Bo, Liu; Yang, Shi; Shan-Shan, Tang; Rui-Fa, Jin

    2015-03-01

    The quantum chemical method was applied for screening functional monomers in the rational design of salbutamol-imprinted polymers. Salbutamol was the template molecule, and methacrylic acid was the single functional monomer. The LC-WPBE/6-31G(d,p) method was used to investigate the geometry optimization, active sites, natural bond orbital charges, binding energies of the imprinted molecule, and solvation energy. The mechanism of action between salbutamol and methacrylic acid was also discussed. The theoretical results show that salbutamol interacts with functional monomers by hydrogen bonds, and the salbutamol-imprinted polymers with a ratio of 1:4 (salbutamol/methacrylic acid) in acetonitrile had the highest stability. The salbutamol-imprinted polymers were prepared by precipitation polymerization. The experimental results indicated that the maximum adsorption capacity for salbutamol toward molecularly imprinted polymers was 7.33 mg/g, and the molecularly imprinted polymers had a higher selectivity for salbutamol than for norepinephrine and terbutaline sulfate. Herein, the studies can provide theoretical and experimental references for the salbutamol molecular imprinted system.

  5. Highly Stable Sodium Batteries Enabled by Functional Ionic Polymer Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shuya; Choudhury, Snehashis; Xu, Jun; Nath, Pooja; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2017-01-23

    A sodium metal anode protected by an ion-rich polymeric membrane exhibits enhanced stability and high-Columbic efficiency cycling. Formed in situ via electropolymerization of functional imidazolium-type ionic liquid monomers, the polymer membrane protects the metal against parasitic reactions with electrolyte and, for fundamental reasons, inhibits dendrite formation and growth. The effectiveness of the membrane is demonstrated using direct visualization of sodium electrodeposition.

  6. Selective solid-phase extraction using molecular imprinted polymer sorbent for the analysis of florfenicol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Susan; Jahani, Moslem

    2013-11-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the selective solid phase extraction (SPE) of florfenicol (FF) was prepared using FF as template and 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer. For comparison, non-imprinted polymer (NIP) was synthesized in the absence of FF. The synthesized polymers were characterised by infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) procedure was performed in column method by spectrophotometry detection technique. The prepared FF-MIP showed higher adsorption capacity than the non-imprinted polymer (NIP) and the maximum static adsorption capacities of FF on the MIP and the NIP were 4.32 and 2.88mgg(-1), respectively. Kinetics of the adsorption was fast and the adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 30min. The accuracy of the developed method was satisfactory for determination of FF in fish, chicken meat and honey samples.

  7. Molecularly imprinted polymer grafted to porous polyethylene frits: a new selective solid-phase extraction format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2011-10-07

    In this paper, a novel format for selective solid-phase extraction based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is described. A small amount of MIP has been synthesized within the pores of commercial polyethylene (PE) frits and attached to its surface using benzophenone (BP), a photo-initiator capable to start the polymerisation from the surface of the support material. Key properties affecting the obtainment of a proper polymeric layer, such as polymerisation time and kind of cross-linker were optimised. The developed imprinted material has been applied as a selective sorbent for cleaning extracts of thiabendazole (TBZ), as model compound, from citrus samples. The use of different solvents for loading the analyte in the imprinted frits was investigated, as well as the binding capacity of the imprinted polymer. Imprinted frits showed good selectivity when loads were performed using toluene and a linear relationship was obtained for the target analyte up to 1000 ng of loaded analyte. Prepared composite material was applied to the SPE of TBZ in real samples extracts, showing an impressive clean-up ability. Calibrations showed good linearity in the concentration range of 0.05-5.00 μg g(-1), referred to the original solid sample, and the regression coefficients obtained were greater than 0.996. The calculated detection limit was 0.016 μg g(-1), low enough to satisfactory analysis of TBZ in real samples. RSDs at different spiking levels ranged below 15% in all the cases and imprinted frits were reusable without loss in their performance.

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for optical measurement of ultra trace nonfluorescent cyhalothrin in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Li, Xiuying; Zhang, Qi; Dai, Jiangdong; Wei, Xiao; Song, Zhilong; Yan, Yongsheng; Li, Chunxiang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we first present a general protocol for making fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres via precipitation polymerisation. We first prepared the fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres upon copolymerisation of acrylamide with a small quantity of allyl fluorescein in the presence of cyhalothrin to form recognition sites without doping. The as-synthesised microspheres exhibited spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and highly selective recognition. Under optical conditions, polymer microspheres were successfully applied to selectively and sensitively detect cyhalothrin, and a linear relationship could be obtained covering the lower concentration range of 0-1.0nM with a correlation coefficient of 0.9936 described by the Stern-Volmer equation. A lower limit of detection was found to be 0.004nM. The results of practical detection suggested that the developed method was satisfactory for determination of cyhalothrin in honey samples. This study therefore demonstrated the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for detection of cyhalothrin in food.

  9. [Preparation and applications of 4-methyl imidazole magnetic surface molecularly imprinted polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuxia; Zhao, Lijuan; Ma, Meihua; Wei, Chanling; Li, Ya; Li, Wenjing; Gong, Bolin

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic surface molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with specific recognition of 4-methyl imidazole (4-MI) were prepared by using 4-MI as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer and Fe3O4 as magnetic fluid. The polymers were characterized by of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results demonstrated that an imprinted polymer layer was successfully coated onto the surface of modified Fe3O4 nanomaterials, resulting in a narrow diameter distribution and good magnetic responsibility. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was used to demonstrate the interaction between 4-MI and MAA. It was found that one 4-MI molecule was entrapped by one MAA molecule, which was the main existing form of subject and object. By UV spectrophotometric method to study the adsorption performance of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers, the specific adsorption equilibrium and selectivity were evaluated by batch rebinding studies. The Scatchard analysis showed that there were two kinds of binding sites in the Fe3O4 @ (4-MI-MIP). The corresponding maximum adsorption capacities of 4-MI onto Fe3O4 @ (4-MI-MIP) were 40.31 mg/g and 23.07 mg/g, and the dissociation constants were 64.85 mg/L and 30.41 mg/L, respectively. The kinetic experimental data were correlated with second-order kinetic model. The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were used for the adsorption of 4-methyl imidazole in environmental water samples, and good results were obtained.

  10. Triazines based Molecular Imprinted Polymers: As a novel technology for occupational trace pollutants monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koohpaei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Biological adsorbents under undesirable conditions have not suitable performance. Based on this problem, the using of the molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs have been proposed. This study was conducted to adsorption of trace triazinic pesticides with synthesis and optimization of molecular imprinted polymers as a novel solid phase extraction (MISPE. Methods: In this study, atrazine and ametrin polymer and blank were synthesized by central composite design method and optimized based on the amount of functional monomer, template, cross linker, initiator, solvents and polymerization temperature. Then the appropriate cartridge was selected and SPE procedure based on the concentration, sample volume, flow rate and sample pH were optimized with response surface methodology. Concentration factor and as well as reusability of the cartridges were examined finally. Results: Based on the obtained results, for ametryn and atrazine, optimized temperature was calculated equals to 40.86 °c, 6.41 and 5.03 ml for solvent, 27.070 and 21.32 for crosslinker, 2.03 and 2.27 mmol of initiator, 5.41 and 4.73 mmol for monomer and 1.204 and 0.811 for template respectively. Based on the optimization results of the molecular imprinted solid phase extraction, it was revealed that there are recovery rate over 90 percent for the drinking water and urine as spike. Conclusion: The results showed that central composite design can be used as a general tool for polymer synthesis and optimization of molecular imprinted solid phase extraction. Polymers according to theirs high-performance and selectivity also can assume an important role in monitoring the work environment.

  11. Catalytical oxidation of styrene by molecularly imprinted polymer with phenylacetic acid as template and hemin as co-monomer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This letter used the molecular imprinting technology to build up the microenvironment around co-monomer hemin to mimic the cytochrome P450 catalyzing the epoxidation of styrene. The results showed that the conversion rates of products were obviously enhanced by molecularly imprinted polymers, compared to free hemin solution, using three kinds of oxidants. The used axial ligand in polymers synthesis also improved the total conversion rates.

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of nano structure lead (II) ion-imprinted polymer as a new sorbent for selective extraction and preconcentration of ultra trace amounts of lead ions from vegetables, rice, and fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahani, Mohammad; Bagheri, Akbar; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Salarian, Mani; Sadeghi, Omid; Adlnasab, Laleh; Jalali, Kobra

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the preparation of new Pb(II)-imprinted polymeric particles using 2-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, 2,2'- azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, diphenylcarbazone as the ligand, acetonitril as the solvent, and Pb(NO(3))(2) as the template ion, through bulk polymerisation technique. The imprinted lead ions were removed from the polymeric matrix using 5 mL of HCl (2 mol.L(-1)) as the eluting solvent. The lead ion concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Optimum pH for maximum sorption was obtained at 6.0. Sorption and desorption of Pb(II) ions on the IIP particles were quite fast and achieved fully over 5 min. In the proposed method, the maximum sorbent capacity of the ion-imprinted polymer was calculated to be 75.4 mg g(-1). The preconcentration factor, relative standard deviation, and limit of detection of the method were found to be 245, 2.1%, and 0.42 ng mL(-1), respectively. The prepared ion-imprinted polymer particles have an increased selectivity toward Pb(II) ions over a range of competing metal ions with the same charge and similar ionic radius. This ion-imprinted polymer is an efficient solid phase for extraction and preconcentration of lead ions in complex matrixes. For proving that the proposed method is reliable, a wide range of food samples with different and complex matrixes was used.

  13. Molecularly imprinted shells from polymer and xerogel matrices on polystyrene colloidal spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guijian; Liu, Renyong; Mei, Qingsong; Zhang, Zhongping

    2012-04-10

    We have devised a facile and general methodology for the synthesis of various molecularly imprinted shells at the surface of polystyrene (PS) colloidal spheres to recognize the explosive compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). PS spheres with surface-functionalized carboxyl-group layers could direct a selective imprinting polymerization on their surface through the hydrogen-bonding interactions between surface carboxyl groups and amino monomers. Meanwhile, homogeneous polymerization in the solution phase was completely prevented by stepwise polymerization. The overall process led to the formation of monodisperse molecularly imprinted core-shell microspheres, and was very successful in the preparation of organic polymer and inorganic xerogel shells. Furthermore, greater capacity and faster binding kinetics towards target species were achieved, because surface-imprinted sites ensured the complete removal of templates, good accessibility to target molecules, and low mass-transfer resistance. The results reported herein, concerning the production of high-quality molecularly imprinted products, could also form the basis for the formulation of a new strategy for the fabrication of various functional coating layers on colloidal spheres with potential applications in the fields of separations and chemical sensing.

  14. A quartz crystal microbalance sensor based on mussel-inspired molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Hui; Tang, Shui-Fen; Yao, Qiu-Hong; Chen, Fa-Rong; Yang, Huang-Hao; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2010-10-15

    In this work, we describe a simple, inexpensive and fast method for the generation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) crystals using mussel-inspired polymer. Commonly known as a neurotransmitter, dopamine is also a small-molecule mimic of the adhesive proteins of mussels. Polymerization of dopamine in the presence of template molecule (1,3,5-pentanetricarboxylic acid, an analogue of domoic acid, in this case) could produce an adherent molecularly imprinted polydopamine film coating on QCM crystals. Advantages, such as high hydrophilicity, high biocompatibility and controllable thickness, make this molecularly imprinted polydopamine film an attractive recognition element for sensors. Selective rebinding of domoic acid on mussel-inspired molecularly imprinted polymer (m-MIP) coated crystal was observed as a frequency shift quantified by piezoelectric microgravimetry with the QCM system. The decreasing frequency shows a good linear relationship with the concentration of domoic acid. The quantitation limit of domoic acid was 5 ppb with the linear range of 0-100 ppb. The QCM sensor has high selectivity and was able to distinguish domoic acid from its analogous p-phthalic acid and o-phthalic acid owing to the molecular imprinting effect. In addition, the practical analytical performance of the sensor was examined by evaluating the detection of domoic acid in mussel extracts with satisfactory results. It is envisaged that m-MIP could be suitable as recognition element for sensors and the proposed m-MIP QCM sensor could be employed to detect analyte of interest in complex matrices. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Polydopamine-based superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanospheres for efficient protein recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Fang; Ma, Shaohua; Yang, Qi; Xie, Liqin; Wu, Yao; Gu, Zhongwei

    2014-11-01

    A new strategy for synthesis of superparamagnetic molecularly imprinted polymer nanospheres (MIPNSs) for efficient protein recognition is described here. Homogeneous hydroxyl group functionalized Fe3O4/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) composite nanospheres were prepared using improved miniemulsion polymerization. Uniform superparamagnetic MIPNSs were obtained via self-polymerization of dopamine (DA) on the surface of Fe3O4/PMMA composite nanospheres in the presence of lysozyme (lyz) template. The as-synthesized Fe3O4/PMMA/PDA MIPNSs had average diameters of 180 nm, high saturation magnetization and a good magnetic response. The lyz-imprinted Fe3O4/PMMA/PDA MIPNSs exhibited specific recognition and efficient adsorption capacity toward lyz template. The amount of lyz adsorbed onto the lyz-imprinted Fe3O4/PMMA/PDA MIPNSs was about 4 times greater than that of the Fe3O4/PMMA/PDA non-imprinted polymer nanospheres (NIPNSs) and about 14, 5, and 5 times greater than that of BSA, BHb, and cyt C, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PREPARATION OF SURFACE ION-IMPRINTED ATTAPULGITE-SUPPORTED POLYMER AND ITS ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS OF Sr(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new attapulgite-supported organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for selective separation of Sr(II) from aqueous solution. The prepared polymer was characterized with SEM, IR and XRD. The results showed that as a sorbent, it had good configuration and binding sites. Its adsorption behaviors for Sr(II) was investigated by FAAS and ICP-AES. The effects on adsorption capacities, including pH, quiescent time, and adsorbent amount were discussed, and the adsorption isothermal curve was obtained. Then the Kd a parameter estimating relative adsorbability, was conducted to study the selectivity towards Sr(II) of the prepared polymer. Under the optimum conditions, the ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Sr(II) and the maximum capacity was 12.9mg/g. The Kd and K parameters estimating relative adsorbability towards target ion, suggested that selective recognition of the ion-imprinted polymer towards Sr(II) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite. Furthermore, the ion-imprinted polymer is of great regeneration capacity. The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective preseparation and enrichment of trace Sr(II) in environmental samples.

  17. PREPARATION OF SURFACE ION-IMPRINTED ATTAPULGITE-SUPPORTED POLYMER AND ITS ADSORPTION BEHAVIORS OF Sr(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jianming; YAN Yongsheng; LI Chunxiang

    2008-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the preparation of a new attapulgite-supported organic-inorganic hybrid polymer for selective separation of Sr(Ⅱ) from aqueous solution.The prepared polymer was characterized with SEM, IR and XRD.The results showed that as a sorbent, it had good configuration and binding sites.Its adsorption behaviors for Sr(Ⅱ) was investigated by FAAS and ICP-AES.The effects on adsorption capacities, including pH, quiescent time, and adsorbent amount were discussed, and the adsorption isothermal curve was obtained.Then the Kd a parameter estimating relative adsorbability, was conducted to study the selectivity towards Sr(Ⅱ) of the prepared polymer.Under the optimum conditions, the ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Sr(Ⅱ) and the maximum capacity was 12.9mg/g.The Kd and K parameters estimating relative adsorbability towards target ion, suggested that selective recognition of the ion-imprinted polymer towards Sr(Ⅱ) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite.Furthermore, the ion-imprinted polymer is of great regeneration capacity.The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective preseparation and enrichment of trace Sr(Ⅱ) in environmental samples.

  18. Surface imprinted thin polymer film systems with selective recognition for bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryscio, David R; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2012-03-09

    Molecularly imprinted polymers are synthetic antibody mimics formed by the crosslinking of organic or inorganic polymers in the presence of an analyte which yields recognitive polymer networks with specific binding pockets for that biomolecule. Surface imprinted polymers were synthesized via a novel technique for the specific recognition of bovine serum albumin (BSA). Thin films of recognitive networks based on 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) as the functional monomer and varying amounts of either N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) or poly(ethylene glycol) (400) dimethacrylate (PEG400DMA) as the crosslinking agent were synthesized via UV free-radical polymerization and characterized. A clear and reproducible increase in recognition of the template BSA was demonstrated for these systems at 1.6-2.5 times more BSA recognized by the MIP sample relative to the control polymers. Additionally, these polymers exhibited selective recognition of the template relative to competing proteins with up to 2.9 times more BSA adsorbed than either glucose oxidase or bovine hemoglobin. These synthetic antibody mimics hold significant promise as the next generation of robust recognition elements in a wide range of bioassay and biosensor applications.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Magnetic-Graphene Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Selective Recognition of Ltryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel molecular imprinted polymer using L-tryptophan(L-Trp as the template, dopamine(DA as both functional monomer and cross linking agent, magnetic graphene as the supporting matrix was synthesized. The prepared magnetic-graphene molecularly imprinted polymers(Fe3O4@GO-MIPs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer(FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM, respectively. The results showed that when the molar ratio of L- tryptophan and dopamine was 1:4 and the reaction temperature was 60 °C, Fe3O4@GO-MIPs had the best adsorption quantity of 31.9 mg/g. The rebinding experiments indicated that Fe3O4@GO-MIPs not only have outstanding affinity and selectivity towards L-Trp over structurally related compounds but also easily reach the magnetic separation under an external magnetic field.

  20. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers with Stimuli-Responsive Affinity: Progress and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Chen; Yue Ma; Jianmin Pan; Zihui Meng; Guoqing Pan; Börje Sellergren

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent stimuli-responsive molecularly imprinted polymers (SR-MIPs) have attracted considerable research interest in recent years due to the potential applications in drug delivery, biotechnology and separation sciences. This review comprehensively summarizes various SR-MIPs, including the design and applications of thermo-responsive MIPs, pH-responsive MIPs, photo-responsive MIPs, biomolecule-responsive MIPs and ion-responsive MIPs. Besides the development of current SR-MIPs, the advanta...

  1. Microfluidic Approach for the Synthesis of Micro- or Nanosized Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kyung M

    2008-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have specific molecular recognition sites for chemical detection.High affinity receptors can increase the sensitivity of sensors/devices. The synthesis of micro- or nanosized MIP's particles is desirable to improve the sensitivity since MIP's particle sizes are inversely proportional to the affinity between receptors and template molecules. To synthesize nano- or microsized MIPs particles, we demonstrate here a novel microfluidic approach, which p...

  2. Selective removal of diclofenac from contaminated water using molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Chaomeng [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Department of Environmental Technology, Chair of Environmental Process Engineering, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Geissen, Sven-Uwe, E-mail: sven.geissen@tu-berlin.de [Department of Environmental Technology, Chair of Environmental Process Engineering, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Zhang Yalei, E-mail: zhangyalei@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Yongjun [Department of Environmental Technology, Chair of Environmental Process Engineering, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Zhou Xuefei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by precipitation polymerization using diclofenac (DFC) as a template. Binding characteristics of the MIP were evaluated using equilibrium binding experiments. Compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), the MIP showed an outstanding affinity towards DFC in an aqueous solution with a binding site capacity (Q{sub max}) of 324.8 mg/g and a dissociation constant (K{sub d}) of 3.99 mg/L. The feasibility of removing DFC from natural water by the MIP was demonstrated by using river water spiked with DFC. Effects of pH and humic acid on the selectivity and adsorption capacity of MIP were evaluated in detail. MIP had better selectivity and higher adsorption efficiency for DFC as compared to that of powdered activated carbon (PAC). In addition, MIP reusability was demonstrated for at least 12 repeated cycles without significant loss in performance, which is a definite advantage over single-use activated carbon. - Highlights: > A MIP was synthesized by precipitation polymerization using DFC as template. > The MIP had better selectivity and higher adsorption efficiency for DFC. > The MIP is an effective method for selective removal of DFC from complex water. > MIP reusability is a definite advantage over single-use activated carbon. - A diclofenac molecularly imprinted polymer synthesized by precipitation polymerization was used for the selective removal of diclofenac from contaminated water.

  3. Haloperidol imprinted polymer: preparation, evaluation, and application for drug assay in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Aboubakr; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang; Sahebnasagh, Adeleh; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad

    2014-11-01

    Several molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared in the present work, and their binding properties were evaluated in comparison with a nonimprinted polymer (NIP). An optimized MIP was selected and applied for selective extraction and analysis of haloperidol in rabbit brain tissue. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) method was developed for cleanup and preconcentration of haloperidol in brain samples before HPLC-UV analysis. Selectivity of the MISPE procedure was investigated using haloperidol and some structurally different drugs with similar polarity that could exist simultaneously in brain tissue. The extraction and analytical process was calibrated in the range of 0.05-10 ppm. The recovery of haloperidol in this MISPE process was calculated between 79.9 and 90.4%. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the assay were 0.008 and 0.05 ppm, respectively. Intraday precision and interday precision values for haloperidol analysis were less than 5.86 and 7.63%, respectively. The MISPE method could effectively extract and concentrate haloperidol from brain tissue in the presence of clozapine and imipramine. Finally, the imprinted polymer was successfully applied for the determination of haloperidol in a real rabbit brain sample after administration of a toxic dose. Therefore, the proposed MISPE method could be applied in the extraction and preconcentration before HPLC-UV analysis of haloperidol in rabbit brain tissue.

  4. A comparison of the performance of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for small molecule targets and antibodies in the ELISA format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska-Kempisty, Katarzyna; Guerreiro, Antonio; Canfarotta, Francesco; Cáceres, César; Whitcombe, Michael J.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    Here we show that molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles, prepared in aqueous media by solid phase synthesis with immobilised L-thyroxine, glucosamine, fumonisin B2 or biotin as template, can demonstrate comparable or better performance to commercially produced antibodies in enzyme-linked competitive assays. Imprinted nanoparticles-based assays showed detection limits in the pM range and polymer-coated microplates are stable to storage at room temperature for at least 1 month. No response to analyte was detected in control experiments with nanoparticles imprinted with an unrelated template (trypsin) but prepared with the same polymer composition. The ease of preparation, high affinity of solid-phase synthesised imprinted nanoparticles and the lack of requirement for cold chain logistics make them an attractive alternative to traditional antibodies for use in immunoassays.

  5. Surface imprinting on nano-TiO{sub 2} as sacrificial material for the preparation of hollow chlorogenic acid imprinted polymer and its recognition behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hui, E-mail: lihuijsdx@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Hunan 416000, Jishou (China); Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Utilization, Jishou University, Hunan 416000, Jishou (China); Li Gui [Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Utilization, Jishou University, Hunan 416000, Jishou (China); Li Zhiping; Lu Cuimei; Li Yanan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Hunan 416000, Jishou (China); Tan Xianzhou [Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Utilization, Jishou University, Hunan 416000, Jishou (China)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Used surface imprinting technique with nano-TiO{sub 2} as sacrificial support material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved adsorption capability of the H-MIP1 compared with the previous work. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent mass transfer dynamics for the H-MIP1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated adsorption thermodynamic of the H-MIP1. - Abstract: Surface imprinting chlorogenic acid (CGA) on nano-TiO{sub 2} particles as sacrificial support material was successfully performed by using 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) as functional monomer to obtain a hollow CGA-imprinted polymer (H-MIP1). Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were utilized for structurally characterizing the polymers obtained and adsorption dynamics and thermodynamic behavior investigated according to different models. Binding selectivity, adsorption capacity and the reusability for this H-MIP1 were also evaluated. This hollow CGA imprinted polymer shows rapid binding dynamics and higher binding capability toward the template molecules. The pseudo first-order kinetic model was shown best to describe the binding process of CGA on the H-MIP1 and Langmuir isotherm model best to fit the experimental adsorption isotherm data. Through adsorption isotherms at different temperatures, thermodynamic parameter values were obtained. Selectivity coefficients for the H-MIP1 toward the template were 2.209, 3.213, 1.746 and 2.353 relative to CA, VA, PCA and GA, respectively. This H-MIP1 was also indicated with a good imprint effect and a high capability to capture CGA from methanol extract of Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides) leaves. Additionally, a good reusability for this imprinted polymer was exhibited during repeated adsorption-desorption use.

  6. Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

    2006-10-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The

  7. New Results on Plasma Activated Bonding of Imprinted Polymer Features for Bio MEMS Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, P.; Pelzer, R. L.; Glinsner, T.; Farrens, S.; Lee, D.

    2006-04-01

    Nanoimprint Lithography is a well-acknowledged low cost, high resolution, large area 3D patterning process for polymers. It includes the most promising methods: high pressure hot embossing (HE) and UV-Nanoimprint Lithography (UV-NIL). Curing of the imprinted structures is either done by cooling down below the glass transition temperature of the thermoplastic polymer in case of HE or by subsequent UV-light exposure and cross-linking in case of UV-NIL. Both techniques allow rapid prototyping for high volume production of fully patterned substrates for a wide range of materials. The advantages of using polymer substrates over common Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) processing materials like glass, silicon or quartz are: bio-compatible surfaces, easy manufacturability, low cost for high volume production, suitable for use in micro- and nano-fabrication, low conductivity, wide range of optical properties just to name a few. We will present experimental results on HE processes with PMMA as well as UV-NIL imprints in selected UV-curable resists. In the second part of the work we will describe the bonding techniques for packaging of the micro or nano structures. Packaging of the imprinted features is a key technology for a wide variety of field of applications: µ-TAS, biochemistry, micro-mixers, micro-reactors, electrophoresis cells, life science, micro-optical and nano-optical applications (switches) nanofluidics, data storage, etc. for features down to sub-100 nm range. Most bonding techniques for polymer use adhesives as intermediate layers. We will demonstrate a promising technique for dense and very strong bonds using plasma activation of polymers and glass. This bonding technology allows for bonding at low temperatures well below the glass transition temperature of the polymers, which will ensure that the structures are not deformed.

  8. Temperature and humidity dependence of ionic electroactive polymer actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakshatharan, S. Sunjai; Punning, Andres; Aabloo, Alvo

    2017-04-01

    The ionic electroactive polymer (IEAP) actuators with carbonaceous electrodes and ionic liquid electrolytes are distinguished by their ability for operation in open air. Nevertheless, their behavior is influenced by at least two parameters of the ambient environment - temperature and humidity. Both parameters affect many factors of the IEAP materials: viscosity and ionic conductivity of the electrolyte, specific capacitance of the electrodes, stiffness of the polymer, etc. This circumstance makes it difficult to comprehend the actual physical and electrochemical processes occurring in the IEAP materials as well as hinders the control of the actuators in the possible applications. This work is focused on characterizing the temperature and humidity-dependence of the electromechanical and electrochemical response of IEAP actuators. An extensive experiment was performed with several types of IEAP actuators in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. The characterization of electrical and electromechanical response measurements were carried out at temperatures ranging from 0°C to +60°C and relative humidity ranging from 0% to 90%. The result showing that impact of both parameters on IEAP actuators is easily recognizable.

  9. Glucose optical fibre sensor based on a luminescent molecularly imprinted polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua, C.; Wren, S. P.; Sun, T.; Arregui, F. J.; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2015-09-01

    An optrode able to detect glucose dissolved in water has been implemented. The device is based on the luminescence emission of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer synthesized specifically for glucose detection, therefore its intensity changes in presence of glucose. This sensing material is attached onto a cleaved ended polymer-clad optical fibre and it is excited by light via 1x2 fibre coupler. The reflected fluorescence signal increases when it is immersed into glucose solutions and recovers to the baseline when it is dipped in ultrapure water. This reversible behaviour indicates the measurement repeatability of using such a glucose sensor.

  10. Stretching DNA in polymer nanochannels fabricated by thermal imprint in PMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund; Klukowska, A.; Kristensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    ) using a 4 inch diameter two-level hybrid stamp. The fluidic structures were sealed using thermal polymer fusion bonding. The stamp has nanometer-and micrometer-sized protrusions defined in a thermally grown SiO2 layer and the sol - gel process derived duromeric hybrid polymer Ormocomp, respectively....... The stamp is compatible with molecular vapor deposition ( MVD), used for applying a durable chlorosilane based antistiction coating, and allows for imprint up to a temperature of 270 degrees C. The extension of YOYO-1 stained T4 GT7 bacteriophage DNA inside the PMMA nanochannels has been experimentally...

  11. Voltammetric sensor for vanillylmandelic acid based on molecularly imprinted polymer-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-López, M C; Lobo-Castañón, M J; Miranda-Ordieres, A J; Tuñón-Blanco, P

    2003-04-01

    Despite the increasing number of applications of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in analytical chemistry, the construction of a biomimetic voltammetric sensor remains still challenging. This work investigates the development of a voltammetric sensor for vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) based on acrylic MIP-modified electrodes. Thin layers of MIPs for VMA have been prepared by spin coating the surface of a glassy carbon electrode with the monomers mixture (template, methacrylic acid, a cross-linking agent and solvent), followed by in situ photopolymerisation. After extraction of the template molecule, the peak current recorded with the imprinted sensor after rebinding was linear with VMA concentration in the range 19-350 microg ml(-1), whereas the response of the control electrode is independent of incubation concentration, and was about one-tenth of the value recorded with the imprinted sensor at the maximum concentration tested. Under the conditions used, the sensor is able to differentiate between VMA and other closely structural-related compounds, such as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (not detected), or 3,4- and 2,5-dihydroxyphenilacetic acids, which are adsorbed on the bare electrode surface but not at the polymer layer. Homovanillic acid was detected with the imprinted sensors after incubation, indicating that the presence of both methoxy and carboxylic groups in the same position as in VMA is necessary for effective binding in the imprinted sites. Nevertheless, both species can be differentiated by the oxidation potential. It can be concluded that MIP-based voltammetric electrodes are very promising analytical tool for the development of highly selective analytical sensors.

  12. Investigation of polymer electrolyte based on agar and ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use natural polymer as ionic conducting matrix was investigated in this study. Samples of agarbased electrolytes with different ionic liquids were prepared and characterized by physical and chemical analyses. The ionic liquids used in this work were 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate, [C2mim][C2SO4], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C2mim][OAc] and trimethyl-ethanolammonium acetate, [Ch][OAc]. Samples of solvent-free electrolytes were prepared and characterized by ionic conductivity measurements, thermal analysis, electrochemical stability, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. Electrolyte samples are thermally stable up to approximately 190°C. All the materials synthesized are semicrystalline. The electrochemical stability domain of all samples is about 2.0 V versus Li/Li+. The preliminary studies carried out with electrochromic devices (ECDs incorporating optimized compositions have confirmed that these materials may perform as satisfactory multifunctional component layers in the field of ‘smart windows’, as well as ECD-based devices.

  13. Characterization of ionic, dipolar and molecular mobility in polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenrong

    Changes in the ionic and dipolar molecular mobility in a polymer system are the basis for the changes in the dielectric mechanical properties of polymer materials. Frequency Dependent Dielectric Measurements (FDEMS) and Ion Time-of-Flight (ITOF) are two important techniques to investigate ionic and dipolar molecular mobility in polymer systems. The results can be related to the macro- and molecular dielectric, electrical and dynamic properties of polymeric materials. The combination of these two methods provides a full view of electric, dielectric and dynamic behavior for the systems as they undergo chemical and/or physical changes during polymerization crystallization, vitrification, and/or phase separation. The research on microscopic mass mobility in polymer systems was done on three aspects: (1) ion mobility in an epoxy-amine reaction system; (2) dipolar mobility and relaxation during dimethacrylate resin cure and (3) dye molecule migration and diffusion in polymer films. In the ion mobility study, we separately monitor the changes in the ion mobility and the number of charge carriers during the epoxy-amine polymerization with FDEMS and ITOF measurements. The isolation of the number of carriers and their mobility allows significant improvement in monitoring changes in the state and structure of a material as it cures. For the dipolar mobility and relaxation study, FDEMS measurements were used to detect structural evolution and spatial heterogeneity formation during the polymerization process of dimethacrylate resins. The dielectric spectra, glass transition (Tg) profiles and dynamic mechanical measurements were used to investigate the existence of two cooperative regions of sufficient size to create two alpha-relaxation processes representing oligomer rich and polymer microgel regions during the polymerization. For the dye migration research, we tried to develop a visually color changing paper (VCP) due to dye molecule migration in polymer films. The mobility

  14. Development and modeling of novel extensional ionic polymer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akle, Barbar; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Leo, Donald

    2007-04-01

    Ionic polymer transducers (IPT), sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, are known to generate a large bending strain and a moderate stress at low applied voltages. Bending actuators have limited engineering applications due to the low forcing capabilities and the need for complicated external devices to convert the bending action into rotating or linear motion desired in most devices. Recently Akle and Leo (2006) reported extensional actuation in ionic polymer transducers. Model prediction indicates that such actuators can produce strain up to 10% and a blocked stress up to 20MPa under a +/- 2V applied electric potential. Compared to other smart materials, IPT is a flexible membrane and it has a reliability of over one million cycles. In this work novel extensional IPT actuators are developed for the purpose of increasing the overall displacement of the actuator. The electromechanical coupling is measured and a correlation of the experimental data with the active areas model by Akle and Leo (2006) and the numerical electromechanical model by Wallmersperger and Leo (2004) are presented. The coupling between each test case with the model parameters enables further understanding of the physical actuation phenomena as the role of diffusion of ions and diluents and the electrostatic forces between the charged species. In this study the displacement of an extensional ionic polymer transducer is measured and compared to the bending of the same IPT actuator. The bending strain is measured to be approximately 2.5%, while the extensional strain for the same ionomer is in the order of 17.5%. Finally an interesting behavior, reported for the first time is the steady expansion of the IPT sample due to the application of a symmetrical sine wave. This indicates that charge accumulation is occurring at the electrode.

  15. Synthesis of porous molecularly imprinted polymers for selective adsorption of glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Renyuan; Hu, Xiaoling; Guan, Ping; Li, Ji; Qian, Liwei; Wang, Chaoli; Wang, Qiaoli

    2015-03-01

    An effective approach overcome the classical deficiencies of biomolecules molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), that is, low binding capacity and slow mass transfer rate, is proposed. With glutathione (GSH) as target molecule, porous imprinted layers were fabricated according to our newly developed method the introduction of a mixture of acetontrile and dimethylsulfoxide as porogen in surface-initiated polymerization systems. The resultant MIPs particles exhibited a large surface area could remarkably improve the imprinting effect in relation to a significantly increased imprinting factor and mass transfer rate, compared to the MIPs prepared by using aqueous solution as solvent. The batch static binding tests were carried out to evaluate the adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and selective recognition of the MIPs particles. The binding behavior followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model, revealing that the process was chemically carried out. Two binding isotherm models were applied to analyze equilibrium data, obtaining the best description by Langmuir isotherm model. In addition, the selective of separation and extraction of GSH from a mixture of GSH and its structural analogs could be achieved on the MIPs solid-phase extraction cartridge, indicating that the possibility for the separation and enrichment of the template from complicated matrices.

  16. Upconversion fluorescence metal-organic frameworks thermo-sensitive imprinted polymer for enrichment and sensing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Gu, Dahai; Yang, Yukun; Wang, Shuo

    2016-05-15

    A novel fluorescence material with thermo-sensitive for the enrichment and sensing of protein was successfully prepared by combining molecular imprinting technology with upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Herein, the UCNPs acted as signal reporter for composite materials because of its excellent fluorescence property and chemical stability. MOFs were introduced to molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) due to its high specific surface area which increases the rate of mass transfer relative to that of traditional bulk MIP. The thermo-sensitive imprinted material which allows for swelling and shrinking with response to temperature changes was prepared by choosing Bovine hemoglobin (BHB) as the template, N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAAM) as the temperature-sensitive functional monomer and N,N-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as the cross-linker. The recognition characterizations of imprinted material-coated UCNPs/MOFs (UCNPs/MOFs/MIP) were evaluated, and the results showed that the fluorescence intensity of UCNPs/MOFs/MIP reduced gradually with the increase of BHB concentration. The fluorescence material was response to the temperature. The adsorption capacity was as much as 167.6 mg/g at 28°C and 101.2mg/g at 44°C, which was higher than that of traditional MIP. Therefore, this new fluorescence material for enrichment and sensing protein is very promising for future applications.

  17. Polymer composite adsorbents using particles of molecularly imprinted polymers or aluminium oxide nanoparticles for treatment of arsenic contaminated waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önnby, L; Pakade, V; Mattiasson, B; Kirsebom, H

    2012-09-01

    Removal of As(V) by adsorption from water solutions was studied using three different synthetic adsorbents. The adsorbents, (a) aluminium nanoparticles (Alu-NPs, polymers (polymer backbones of pure polyacrylamide (MIP-cryo) were of better stability than the amine containing polymer backbone (Alu-cryo). Both composites worked well in the studied pH range of pH 2-8. Adsorption tested in real wastewater spiked with arsenic showed that co-ions (nitrate, sulphate and phosphate) affected arsenic removal for Alu-cryo more than for MIP-cryo. Both composites still adsorbed well in the presence of counter-ions (copper and zinc) present at low concentrations (μg/l). The unchanged and selective adsorption in realistic water observed for MIP-cryo was concluded to be due to a successful imprinting, here controlled using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). A development of MIP-cryo is needed, considering its low adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymers based on SBA-15 for selective solid-phase extraction of baicalein from plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Gu, Xiaoli; Shi, Liying; Hong, Junli; Zhang, Hongjuan; Gao, Yankun; Du, Shuhu; Chen, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective molecularly imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (SBA-15@MIP) for baicalein (BAI) extraction was synthesized using a surface molecular imprinting technique on the SBA-15 supporter. Computational simulation was used to predict the optimal functional monomer for the rational design of SBA-15@MIP. Meanwhile, high adsorption capacity was obtained when a suitable yield of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) layer was grafted onto the surface of SBA-15. Characterization and performance tests of the obtained polymer revealed that SBA-15@MIP possessed a highly ordered mesoporous structure, reached saturated adsorption within 60 min, and exhibited higher sorption capacity to the target molecule BAI compared with non-imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (SBA-15@NIP) and SBA-15. Finally, SBA-15@MIP was successfully applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) for the determination of trace BAI in plasma samples. Mean recoveries of BAI through the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) sorbent, non-imprinted solid-phase extraction (NISPE) sorbent, and SBA-15 solid-phase extraction (SBA-15-SPE) sorbent were 94.4, 22.7, and 10.7 %, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 2.9, 2.6, and 3.6 %, respectively. These results reveal that SBA-15@MIP as a SPE sorbent has good applicability to selectively separate and enrich trace BAI from complex samples.

  19. Novel molecularly imprinted polymers based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes with bifunctional monomers for solid-phase extraction of rhein from the root of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Zhaohui; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Yunan; Li, Jiaxing; Peng, Mijun; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2012-09-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymers based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized by precipitate polymerization was applied as a selective sorbent for separation and determination of rhein (4,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid) from the root of kiwi fruit samples coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared with methacrylic acid and 4-vinylpyridine as bifunctional monomers. The chemical structure of the molecularly imprinted polymers was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The equilibrium rebinding experiment and competitive adsorption experiment showed that these imprinted polymers exhibited good adsorption ability toward rhein. The Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant, K(m) , and theoretical maximum adsorption capacity, Q(m) , were estimated to be 0.43 and 6.77 mg g(-1) , respectively. Compared with molecularly imprinted polymers prepared with methacrylic acid or 4-vinylpyridine solely, the molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized with bifunctional monomers showed enhanced molecular imprinting effect and higher adsorption capacity for the template rhein. The performances of the molecularly imprinted polymers utilized as solid phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by the method proposed in this work could successfully apply to extraction and determination of rhein from the root of kiwi fruit samples coupled with HPLC.

  20. A novel core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer based on metal-organic frameworks as a matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Fang, Guozhen; Wang, Shuo

    2011-09-28

    A novel core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer is firstly prepared by coating the MIP shell onto the surface of the metal-organic framework, which shows a homogeneous polymer film, cubic shape, thermal stability, and exhibits a higher specific surface area and a faster transfer-mass speed compared with that of the bulk MIP.

  1. Synthesis of metronidazole-imprinted molecularly imprinted polymers by distillation precipitation polymerization and their use as a solid-phase adsorbent and chromatographic filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Lu; Li Han Song, Le; Liu, Yuan; Tang, Hui; Li, Yingchun

    2015-04-01

    Metronidazole-imprinted polymers with superior recognition properties were prepared by a novel strategy called distillation-precipitation polymerization. The as-obtained polymers were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, laser particle size determination and scanning electron microscopy, and their binding performances were evaluated in detail by static, kinetic and dynamic rebinding tests, and Scatchard analysis. The results showed that when the fraction of the monomers was 5 vol% in the whole reaction system, the prepared polymers afforded good morphology, monodispersity, and high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity to the target molecule, metronidazole. The optimal binding performance is 12.41 mg/g for metronidazole just before leakage occurred and 38.51 mg/g at saturation in dynamic rebinding tests. Metronidazole-imprinted polymers were further applied as packing agents in solid-phase extraction and as chromatographic filler, both of which served for the detection of metronidazole in fish tissue. The results illustrated the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 82.97 to 87.83% by using molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction combined with a C18 commercial column and 93.7 to 101.2% by directly using the polymer-packed chromatographic column. The relative standard deviation of both methods was less than 6%.

  2. Characterisation and quality assessment of binding sites on a propazine-imprinted polymer prepared by precipitation polymerisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, C; Turiel, E; Martin-Esteban, A; Pérez-Conde, C; Cámara, C

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm (LF) is used to characterise a propazine-imprinted polymer obtained by precipitation polymerisation (MIP-P). Different rebinding studies were carried out allowing to explain the different interactions taking place between the molecularly imprinted polymer and six triazinic herbicides (desisopropylatrazine, desethylatrazine, simazine, atrazine, propazine and prometryn). The LF fitting parameters obtained (total number of binding sites, heterogeneity index and mean binding affinity) were compared to those obtained in a previous work for a propazine-imprinted polymer prepared by bulk polymerisation (MIP-B). From that study, it was concluded that precipitation polymerisation yielded polymers with a more homogeneous binding site distribution and higher affinity constants.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of MAA-based molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP) with D-glucose template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti; Nurhayati, T.; Royani, I.; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    In this study, molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared by using a D-glucose template and a methacrylic acid (MAA) functional monomer. The obtained MIP was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques to study the template imprinting results. For comparison, similar characterizations were also carried out for the respective non imprinted polymer (NIP). It was found that the polymer has semicrystalline structure, with crystallinity degree of the unleached- polymer, the NIP, and the MIP is 62.40%, 62.97%, and 63.47%, respectively. XRD patterns showed that the intensity peaks increases as D-glucose content decreases. The FTIR spectra of the MIP indicate the detail interaction of template and functional monomer.

  4. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated microbeam MEMS sensor for chemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthoff, Ellen L.; Li, Lily; Hiller, Tobias; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, microcantilever-based technology has emerged as a viable sensing platform due to its many advantages such as small size, high sensitivity, and low cost. However, microcantilevers lack the inherent ability to selectively identify hazardous chemicals (e.g., explosives, chemical warfare agents). The key to overcoming this challenge is to functionalize the top surface of the microcantilever with a receptor material (e.g., a polymer coating) so that selective binding between the cantilever and analyte of interest takes place. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be utilized as artificial recognition elements for target chemical analytes of interest. Molecular imprinting involves arranging polymerizable functional monomers around a template molecule followed by polymerization and template removal. The selectivity for the target analyte is based on the spatial orientation of the binding site and covalent or noncovalent interactions between the functional monomer and the analyte. In this work, thin films of sol-gel-derived xerogels molecularly imprinted for TNT and dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a chemical warfare agent stimulant, have demonstrated selectivity and stability in combination with a fixed-fixed beam microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based gas sensor. The sensor was characterized by parametric bifurcation noise-based tracking.

  5. Preparation of Photoirradiation Molecular Imprinting Polymer for Selective Separation of Branched Cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, photoirradiation molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP with azobenzene was used as a functional monomer for the selective separation of the branched cyclodextrins. The functional monomer 4-methacryloyloxy azobenzene (MAA and the molecular template 6-O-α-d-maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin (G2-β-CD were implemented for the molecular imprinting. The core-shell structure of photoirradiation MIP was visualized by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM. With Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, we identified that G2-β-CD was imprinted into the polymer and removed from the MIP. The binding association constant (Ka and the maximum number of the binding site (Nmax were 1.72 × 104 M−1 and 7.93 μmol·g−1 MIP, respectively. With alternate irradiation at 365 and 440 nm light, the prepared MIP reversibly released and rebound to the G2-β-CD, which resulted in the nearly zero amount of G2-β-CD in the solution. The HPLC results indicated that the purity of G2-β-CD could reach 90.8% after going through MIP. The main finding of our study was that the photoirradiation of MIP was an easy and effective method for the selective separation of the branched cyclodextrins.

  6. Selective removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from contaminated water using molecularly imprinted polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyao QI; Xin LI; Ying LI; Jianhua ZHU; Liangsheng QIANG

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared by noncovalent imprinting technique for the selective removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solutions. In the preparation of imprinted polymer, Cu2+ was used as the template, oleic acid as the functional monomer and divinylbenzene as the cross-linker. The surface morphol-ogies and characteristics of the MIP were determined by BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The proper adsorption and selective recognition ability of the MIP were studied by an equilibrium-adsorption method. In general, the removal efficiency of Cu2+ increased rapidly with pH from 2 to 7 and decreased at a pH 8. The removal efficiency of Cu2+ increased with temperature from 25℃ to 50℃. Competitive adsorption studies showed that the coexisting cations have no obvious influence on the adsorption of Cu2+. In addition, the variation in the adsorption ability of the MIP that was repeatedly used was investigated, and it showed excellent reproducibility.

  7. Ion-exchange molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of negatively charged acesulfame from wastewater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarejousheghani, Mashaalah; Schrader, Steffi; Möder, Monika; Lorenz, Pierre; Borsdorf, Helko

    2015-09-11

    Acesulfame is a known indicator that is used to identify the introduction of domestic wastewater into water systems. It is negatively charged and highly water-soluble at environmental pH values. In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized for negatively charged acesulfame and successfully applied for the selective solid phase extraction (SPE) of acesulfame from influent and effluent wastewater samples. (Vinylbenzyl)trimethylammonium chloride (VBTA) was used as a novel phase transfer reagent, which enhanced the solubility of negatively charged acesulfame in the organic solvent (porogen) and served as a functional monomer in MIP synthesis. Different molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized to optimize the extraction capability of acesulfame. The different materials were evaluated using equilibrium rebinding experiments, selectivity experiments and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The most efficient MIP was used in a molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction (MISPE) protocol to extract acesulfame from wastewater samples. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) analysis, detection and quantification limits were achieved at 0.12μgL(-1) and 0.35μgL(-1), respectively. Certain cross selectivity for the chemical compounds containing negatively charged sulfonamide functional group was observed during selectivity experiments.

  8. Removal of probable human carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated water using molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Khan, Muntazir S; Wate, Satish R

    2010-02-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbent for carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was prepared using a non-covalent templating technique. MIP particles sized from 2 to 5 microm were synthesized in acetonitrile by using six PAHs mix as a template, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. When compared with the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), the MIP showed an excellent affinity towards PAHs in aqueous solution with binding capacity (B(max)) of 687 microg g(-1)MIP, imprinting effect of 6, and a dissociation constant of 24 microM. The MIP exhibited significant binding affinity towards PAHs even in the presence of environmental parameters such as dissolved organic matter (COD) and total dissolved inorganic solids (TDS), suggesting that this material may be appropriate for removal of carcinogenic PAHs. The feasibility of removing PAHs from water by the MIP demonstrated using groundwater spiked with PAHs. In addition, the MIP reusability without any deterioration in performance was demonstrated at least ten repeated cycles.

  9. Microwave Enhanced Synthesis of Chitosan-graft Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP for Selective Extraction of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers have been molecularly imprinted for the purpose of binding specifically to α-tocotrienol (vitamin E. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP material was prepared using α-tocotrienol as the imprinted molecule, acrylamide as functional monomer and macroporous chitosan beads as functional matrix. Chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide was synthesized without any radical initiator or catalyst using microwave (MW irradiation. The representative microwave synthesized graft copolymer was characterized by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, taking chitosan as a reference. Microwave irradiation was exploited for polyacrylamide grafting on the cross-linked chitosan beads to produce MIP, where both time as well as chemicals can be saved. It can be assumed that the chitosan coated polyacrylamide MIP will have better pH stability and enhanced adsorption capacity. The maximum adsorption capacity was observed to be 3.95 mg/g of MIP, which gave removal efficiency of 93%. After 4 h, the change of adsorption capacities for α-tocotrienol did not show notable effects. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were also applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres for solid-phase extraction of protocatechuic acid in Rhizoma homalomenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Wang, Guo-Ying; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) had been prepared by precipitation polymerization method using acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, acetonitrile as the porogen solvent and protocatechuic acid (PA), one of phenolic acids, as the template molecule. The MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared, and their performance relative to non-imprinted polymers was assessed by equilibrium binding experiments. Six structurally similar phenolic acids, including p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, salicylic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid were selected to assess the selectivity and recognition capability of the MIPs. The MIPs were applied to extract PA from the traditional Chinese medicines as a solid-phase extraction sorbent. The resultant cartridge showed that the MIPs have a good extraction performance and were able to selectively extract almost 82% of PA from the extract of Rhizoma homalomenae. Thus, the proposed molecularly imprinted-solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography method can be successfully used to extract and analyse PA in traditional Chinese medicines.

  11. Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers: comparative analysis by far-infrared and ultraviolet induced polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-06

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIP(uv) possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIP(FIR) radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot's of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high- and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%-94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%-97.1% and 94.4%-101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively.

  12. Atrazine Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Far-Infrared and Ultraviolet Induced Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR radiation and ultraviolet (UV-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high- and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF and different selectivity index (SI for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR, and mercury analyzer (MA. Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%, higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively.

  13. A Nanosensor for TNT Detection Based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikella E. Hankus

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on a new sensor strategy that integrates molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs with surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS. The sensor was developed to detect the explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT. Micron thick films of sol gel-derived xerogels were deposited on a SERS-active surface as the sensing layer. Xerogels were molecularly imprinted for TNT using non-covalent interactions with the polymer matrix. Binding of the TNT within the polymer matrix results in unique SERS bands, which allow for detection and identification of the molecule in the MIP. This MIP-SERS sensor exhibits an apparent dissociation constant of (2.3 ± 0.3 × 10−5 M for TNT and a 3 µM detection limit. The response to TNT is reversible and the sensor is stable for at least 6 months. Key challenges, including developing a MIP formulation that is stable and integrated with the SERS substrate, and ensuring the MIP does not mask the spectral features of the target analyte through SERS polymer background, were successfully met. The results also suggest the MIP-SERS protocol can be extended to other target analytes of interest.

  14. Deep Eutectic Solvents Modified Molecular Imprinted Polymers for Optimized Purification of Chlorogenic Acid from Honeysuckle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) were synthesized with choline chloride (ChCl), and DES modified molecular imprinted polymers (DES-MIPs), DES modified non-imprinted polymers (DES-NIPs, without template), MIPs and NIPs were prepared in an identical procedure. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) were used to characterize the obtained polymers. Rebinding experiment and solid-phase extraction (SPE) were used to prove the high selectivity adsorption properties of the polymers. Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three factors was used to optimize the extraction condition of chlorogenic acid (CA) from honeysuckles. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be ultrasonic time optimized (20 min), the volume fraction of ethanol (60%) and ratio of liquid to material (15 mL g(-1)). Under these conditions, the mean extraction yield of CA was 12.57 mg g(-1), which was in good agreement with the predicted BBD model value. Purification of hawthorn extract was achieved by SPE process, and SPE recoveries of CA were 72.56, 64.79, 69.34 and 60.08% by DES-MIPs, DES-NIPs, MIPs and NIPs, respectively. The results showed DES-MIPs had potential for promising functional adsorption material for the purification of bioactive compounds.

  15. Atrazine Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Far-Infrared and Ultraviolet Induced Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high-and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. PMID:24398982

  16. Utilization of theoretical studies of the imprinting ratio to guide experimental research into the molecular imprinted polymers formed using enrofloxacin and methacrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junbo; Dai, Zhengqiang; Li, Bo; Tang, Shanshan; Jin, Ruifa

    2014-10-01

    Computational approaches have been suggested as rational and fast methods for optimizing imprinting ratios. The B3LYP/6-31 g(d,p) level was applied to simulate the self-assembled system of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) formed by enrofloxacin (ENRO) and methacrylic acid (MAA). Geometry optimization, the bonding situation, and the binding energies involved were studied to determine the impact of varying the imprinting ratio on the recognition characteristics. These theoretical results showed that the compound with an ENRO:MAA ratio of 1:7 had the lowest binding energy and the most stable structure. MIPs with different imprinting ratios of ENRO to MAA were then prepared in order to study the binding capacities of the polymers experimentally. The experimental and theoretically calculated results for these polymers were found to be consistent with each other. In dynamic adsorption experiments on the MIPs, the adsorption reaction was observed to reach a balanced state after 120 min. Analysis of the Scatchard plot revealed that the dissociation constant (K d) and the apparent maximum binding capacity (Q max) of MIPs with high-affinity sites were 451.67 mg/L and 42.23 mg/g, respectively, whereas the dissociation constant and apparent maximum binding capacity of MIPs with low-affinity sites were 883.39 mg/L and 73.15 mg/g, respectively. The quantity of ENRO adsorbed onto the MIPs was considerably higher than the quantities of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and ofloxacin (OFL) adsorbed, indicating that these MIPs have a much higher specific absorption capacity than the corresponding non-imprinted polymers.

  17. Automated Protein Biomarker Analysis: on-line extraction of clinical samples by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Cecilia; Świtnicka-Plak, Magdalena A.; Grønhaug Halvorsen, Trine; Cormack, Peter A. G.; Sellergren, Börje; Reubsaet, Léon

    2017-03-01

    Robust biomarker quantification is essential for the accurate diagnosis of diseases and is of great value in cancer management. In this paper, an innovative diagnostic platform is presented which provides automated molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for biomarker determination using ProGastrin Releasing Peptide (ProGRP), a highly sensitive biomarker for Small Cell Lung Cancer, as a model. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and analytical optimization of the most promising material led to the development of an automated quantification method for ProGRP. The method enabled analysis of patient serum samples with elevated ProGRP levels. Particularly low sample volumes were permitted using the automated extraction within a method which was time-efficient, thereby demonstrating the potential of such a strategy in a clinical setting.

  18. Automated Protein Biomarker Analysis: on-line extraction of clinical samples by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Cecilia; Świtnicka-Plak, Magdalena A.; Grønhaug Halvorsen, Trine; Cormack, Peter A.G.; Sellergren, Börje; Reubsaet, Léon

    2017-01-01

    Robust biomarker quantification is essential for the accurate diagnosis of diseases and is of great value in cancer management. In this paper, an innovative diagnostic platform is presented which provides automated molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for biomarker determination using ProGastrin Releasing Peptide (ProGRP), a highly sensitive biomarker for Small Cell Lung Cancer, as a model. Molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and analytical optimization of the most promising material led to the development of an automated quantification method for ProGRP. The method enabled analysis of patient serum samples with elevated ProGRP levels. Particularly low sample volumes were permitted using the automated extraction within a method which was time-efficient, thereby demonstrating the potential of such a strategy in a clinical setting. PMID:28303910

  19. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Histamine Sensor Based on an Electropolymerized Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (E-MIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubilla Frances Adeline D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, histamine sensing by surface plasmon resonance (SPR spectroscopy using an electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer (E-MIP of functionalized polyterthiophene and histamine is reported. The MIP histamine sensor showed good linear relationship (R2 = 0.995 between the SPR angle shift and the logarithm of histamine concentration, ranging from 15 – 500 μg/mL, with a limit of detection (LOD of 2.0 μg/mL and a calibration sensitivity of 44.6 m° per log μg/mL histamine. Results also showed higher binding affinity of histamine for the MIP sensor than for the non-imprinted (NIP sensor indicating excellent specificity. Moreover, the selectivity of the MIP histamine sensor against some of its structural analogues was demonstrated.

  20. STUDY ON THE NON-COVALENT INTERACTION OF APIGENIN MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS BY SPECTROMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Lifei; HE Minqiang; CHEN Yongqiang; SONG Chengcheng; WAN Jincheng; LI Chunxiang

    2008-01-01

    The non-covalent interaction between apigenin (API) and different functional monomers (a-methylacrylic acid (MAA), acrylamide (AM), 2-vinylpyridine (2-Vpy) and combined functional monomers (AM/2-Vpy)) was.determined by UV spectrometry, and a series of apigenin molecularly imprinted polymers (API-MIPs) was synthesized with different functional monomers through molecular imprinting technology.The relationship between the non-covalent interaction of template/functional monomer and absorption of MIPs also was studied The results showed that the order of the strength of the non-covalent interaction between AP1 and different functional monomers in tetrahydrofuran (THF) is as follows: 2-Vpy> AM/2-Vpy>AM>MAA, which is positive correlation to the absorption capability of corresponding MIPs, and 2-Vpy is the optimum functional monomer among the used monomer for preparing API- MIPs.

  1. STUDY ON THE NON-COVALENT INTERACTION OF APIGENIN MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS BY SPECTROMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The non-covalent interaction between apigenin (API) and different functional monomers (α-methylacrylic acid (MAA), acrylamide (AM), 2-vinylpyridine (2-Vpy) and combined functional monomers (AM/2-Vpy)) was determined by UV spectrometry, and a series of apigenin molecularly imprinted polymers (API-MIPs) was synthesized with different functional monomers through molecular imprinting technology. The relationship between the non-covalent interaction of template/functional monomer and absorption of MIPs also was studied. The results showed that the order of the strength of the non-covalent interaction between API and different functional monomers in tetrahydrofuran (THF) is as follows: 2-Vpy> AM/2-Vpy>AM>MAA, which is positive correlation to the absorption capability of corresponding MIPs, and 2-Vpy is the optimum functional monomer among the used monomer for preparing API- MIPs.

  2. Advanced Materials Based on Polymers and Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazawa, Yuzo; Ueno, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2017-09-19

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are ambient temperature molten salts, which have attracted considerable attention owing to their unique properties. In this contribution, we review advanced materials composed of ILs and polymers for the basis of a new design protocol to fabricate novel materials. As electrolytes for electrochemical devices, cross-linked polymers containing ILs (ion gels) are endowed with functional properties inherited from ILs and mechanical consistency derived from polymers. To create such materials, micro-phase separation of block copolymers and colloidal arrays in the ILs are utilized. Based on the molecular design of task-specific ILs, the resultant ion gels are applicable as electrolytes for actuator, fuel cell, and secondary battery applications. Thermo- and photo-responsive polymers in ILs are also highlighted, whereby such stimuli elicit changes in the solubility of the self-assembly of block copolymers and colloidal arrays in the ILs. Further, thermo- and photo-reversible changes in the self-assembled structure can be exploited to demonstrate sol-gel transitions and fabricate photo-healable materials. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Composite Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries: Ionic Liquids in APTES Crosslinked Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Solvent free polymer electrolytes were made consisting of Li(+) and pyrrolidinium salts of trifluoromethanesulfonimide added to a series of hyperbranched poly(ethylene oxide)s (PEO). The polymers were connected by triazine linkages and crosslinked by a sol-gel process to provide mechanical strength. The connecting PEO groups were varied to help understand the effects of polymer structure on electrolyte conductivity in the presence of ionic liquids. Polymers were also made that contain poly(dimethylsiloxane) groups, which provide increased flexibility without interacting with lithium ions. When large amounts of ionic liquid are added, there is little dependence of conductivity on the polymer structure. However, when smaller amounts of ionic liquid are added, the inherent conductivity of the polymer becomes a factor. These electrolytes are more conductive than those made with high molecular weight PEO imbibed with ionic liquids at ambient temperatures, due to the amorphous nature of the polymer.

  4. Photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods for uric acid detection in physiological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Qian [The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education (Hong Kong); Li, Zai-yong; Wei, Yu-bo; Yang, Xia; Liu, Lan-tao [The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Gong, Cheng-bin, E-mail: gongcbtq@swu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Ma, Xue-bing [The Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry of Chongqing Municipality, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Lam, Michael Hon-wah [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chow, Cheuk-fai, E-mail: cfchow@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education (Hong Kong)

    2016-09-01

    A photoresponsive surface molecularly imprinted polymer for uric acid in physiological fluids was fabricated through a facile and effective method using bio-safe and biocompatible ZnO nanorods as a support. The strategy was carried out by introducing double bonds on the surface of the ZnO nanorods with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods was then prepared by surface polymerization using uric acid as template, water-soluble 5-[(4-(methacryloyloxy)phenyl)diazenyl]isophthalic acid as functional monomer, and triethanolamine trimethacryl ester as cross-linker. The surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods showed good photoresponsive properties, high recognition ability, and fast binding kinetics toward uric acid, with a dissociation constant of 3.22 × 10{sup −5} M in aqueous NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} buffer at pH = 7.0 and a maximal adsorption capacity of 1.45 μmol g{sup −1}. Upon alternate irradiation at 365 and 440 nm, the surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods can quantitatively uptake and release uric acid. - Highlights: • Novel surface molecularly imprinted polymer on ZnO nanorods was synthesized. • ZnO-SMIP showed good selectivity toward uric acid in physiological fluids. • ZnO-SMIP displayed good photoresponsive properties.

  5. Selective recognition and discrimination of water-soluble azo dyes by a seven-channel molecularly imprinted polymer sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zerong; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Mingliang; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2014-10-01

    A seven-channel molecularly imprinted polymer sensor array was prepared and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and nitrogen physisorption studies. The results revealed that the imprinted polymers have distinct-binding affinities from those of structurally similar azo dyes. Analysis of the UV-Vis spectral response patterns of the seven dye analytes against the imprinted polymer array suggested that the different selectivity patterns of the array were closely connected to the imprinting process. To evaluate the effectiveness of the array format, the binding of a series of analytes was individually measured for each of the seven polymers, made with different templates (including one control polymer synthesized without the use of a template). The response patterns of the array to the selected azo dyes were processed by canonical discriminant analysis. The results showed that the molecularly imprinted array was able to discriminate each analyte with 100% accuracy. Moreover, the azo dyes in two real samples, spiked chrysoidin in smoked bean curd extract and Fanta lime soda (containing tartrazine), were successfully classified by the array.

  6. Ionic Polymer Microactuator Activated by Photoresponsive Organic Proton Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Al-Aribe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An ionic polymer microactuator driven by an organic photoelectric proton pump transducer is described in this paper. The light responsive transducer is fabricated by using molecular self-assembly to immobilize oriented bacteriorhodopsin purple membrane (PM patches on a bio-functionalized porous anodic alumina (PAA substrate. When exposed to visible light, the PM proton pumps produce a unidirectional flow of ions through the structure’s nano-pores and alter the pH of the working solution in a microfluidic device. The change in pH is sufficient to generate an osmotic pressure difference across a hydroxyethyl methacrylate-acrylic acid (HEMA-AA actuator shell and induce volume expansion or contraction. Experiments show that the transducer can generate an ionic gradient of 2.5 μM and ionic potential of 25 mV, producing a pH increase of 0.42 in the working solution. The ΔpH is sufficient to increase the volume of the HEMA-AA microactuator by 80%. The volumetric transformation of the hydrogel can be used as a valve to close a fluid transport micro-channel or apply minute force to a mechanically flexible microcantilever beam.

  7. A Novel Ionic Polymer Metal ZnO Composite (IPMZC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mun Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented research introduces a new Ionic Polymer-Metal-ZnO Composite (IPMZC demonstrating photoluminescence (PL-quenching on mechanical bending or application of an electric field. The newly fabricated IPMZC integrates the optical properties of ZnO and the electroactive nature of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites (IPMC to enable a non-contact read-out of IPMC response. The electro-mechano-optical response of the IPMZC was measured by observing the PL spectra under mechanical bending and electrical regimes. The working range was measured to be 375–475 nm. It was noted that the PL-quenching increased proportionally with the increase in curvature and applied field at 384 and 468 nm. The maximum quenching of 53.4% was achieved with the membrane curvature of 78.74/m and 3.01% when electric field (12.5 × 103 V/m is applied. Coating IPMC with crystalline ZnO was observed to improve IPMC transduction.

  8. Molecularly imprinted polymer for specific extraction of hypericin from Hypericum perforatum L. herbal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaozhou; Qin, Cuili; Li, Daomin; Hou, Yuze; Li, Songbiao; Sun, Junjie

    2014-09-01

    The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared by an oxidation-reduction polymerization system using a non-covalent molecularly imprinting strategy with hypericin as the template, acrylamide as the functional monomer and pentaerythritol triacrylate as the cross-linker in the porogen of acetone. The UV spectrum revealed that a cooperative hydrogen-bonding complex between hypericin and acrylamide might be formed at the ratio of 1:6 in the prepolymerized system. Two classes of the binding sites were produced in the resulting hypericin-imprinted polymer with the dissociation constants of 16.61μgL(-1) and 69.35μgL(-1), and the affinity binding sites of 456.53μgg(-1) and 603.06μgg(-1), respectively. The synthesized MIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to investigate the adsorption and recognition properties of the MIPs. Selective binding of the template molecule was demonstrated in comparison to the analog pseudohypericin. After the Hypericum perforatum L. plant being air dried and finely ground, an extract was prepared by shaking the powder in a methanol-water solution (80:20, v/v), vacuum filtration though a Büchner funnel, liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl ether and ethyl acetate, and evaporating on a rotary evaporator until dry. With the sorbents of the optimized MIPs, a molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure was developed for enrichment and separation of hypericin from the Hypericum extract in the presence of interfering substances. The selective extraction of hypericin from herbal medicine was achieved with the recovery of 82.30%. The results showed that MISPE can be a useful tool for specific isolation and effective clean-up of target compounds from natural products.

  9. Electroanalysis of myoglobin based on electropolymerized molecularly imprinted polymer poly-o-phenylenediamine and carbon nanotubes/screen printed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumyantseva, V V; Bulko, T V; Sigolaeva, L V; Kuzikov, A V; Archakov, A I

    2016-05-01

    Electroanalysis of myoglobin as a marker of acute myocardial infarction by means of screenprinted electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymeric artificial antibodies is developed. Plastic antibodies to myoglobin (molecularly imprinted polymers, MIPs) based on o-phenylenediamine were produced by electropolymerization. Molecular imprinting technology in biosensor analysis was used as alternative to natural receptors (namely, antibodies) and demonstrated high sensitivity (1.5 × 10(-2) A/nmol of myoglobin) and selectivity.

  10. Chromatographic comparison of bupivacaine imprinted polymers prepared in crushed monolith, microsphere, silica-based composite and capillary monolith formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxelbark, Joakim; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Aureliano, Carla S A; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena; Schillinger, Eric; Sellergren, Börje; Courtois, Julien; Irgum, Knut; Dambies, Laurent; Cormack, Peter A G; Sherrington, David C; De Lorenzi, Ersilia

    2007-08-10

    A comprehensive comparison of five chromatographic stationary phases based on molecularly imprinted polymers is presented. Efficiency, imprinting factors, water compatibility and batch-to-batch reproducibility are discussed for crushed monolith, microspheres, two silica-based composites and capillary monoliths, all imprinted with the local anaesthetic bupivacaine. Synthesis protocol and chromatographic test conditions have been kept fixed within certain limits, in order to provide further insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the different formats. Excluding microparticles, all formats give satisfactory performance, especially in aqueous mobile phases. An assessment of batch-to-batch reproducibility in different mobile phases adds further value to this comparison study.

  11. Development and characterisation of a molecularly imprinted polymer prepared by precipitation polymerisation for the determination of phenylurea herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabias-Martínez, Rita; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarna; Herrero-Hernóndez, Eliseo; Díaz-García, Marta Elena

    2005-03-01

    New materials based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have been developed for use as sorbents in solid phase extraction to preconcentrate some urea herbicides. In the preconcentration step, different molecularly imprinted polymers were tested using methacrylic acid (MAA) and 2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylic acid (TFMAA) as functional monomers, and linuron and isoproturon as templates. The best results were obtained when the polymer was synthesised using MAA with isoproturon as template. Another parameter evaluated was the way in which the polymer was obtained. We observed that the imprinted polymers obtained by precipitation displayed a greater capacity to retain the phenylureas. Studies conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the bulk polymerisation method is far from ideal owing to the random shape and size distribution of the particles obtained, whereas when polymerisation was carried out in precipitation microspheres were obtained. In order to confirm the interaction between the functional monomer and the template, 1H NMR (CD2Cl2) analyses were conducted. The results obtained suggest that the hydrogen and/or nitrogen of the amino group of the template would be involved in the formation of hydrogen bonds with the functional monomer. The imprinted polymer obtained by precipitation polymerisation with MAA as functional monomer and isoproturon as template can be applied to preconcentrate phenylureas when the sample is dissolved in toluene. The proposed methodology was employed to evaluate polymer selectivity towards humic acids and towards other herbicides.

  12. Molecular imprinted polymer with positively charged, assistant recognition polymer chains for adsorption/enrichment of low content target protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yi; SUN Yang; WANG Ying; XING XiaoCui; ZHAO Zhuo; WANG ChunHong; FAN YunGe; MI HuaiFeng

    2008-01-01

    Here, we introduce a new type of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) with immobilized assistant recog-nition polymer chains (ARPCs) to create effective recognition sites and with bacterial cloned protein as template for adsorbing the low content target protein from cell extract. In this work, cloned pig cyclo-philin 18 (pCyP18), a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase, was used as template. The template protein was selectively assembled with ARPCs from their library, which consists of numerous limited length polymer chains with randomly distributed recognition sites of positively charged amino groups and immobilizing sites. These assemblies were adsorbed by porous microsphers and immobilized on them.After removing the template, binding sites complementary to the target protein in size, shape and the position of recognition groups were exposed, and their confirmation was preserved by the cross-linked structure. The synthesized MIP was used to adsorb the cellular pCyP18, and its proportional content was enriched more than hundred times. The extended experiment on imprinting bovine serum albumin (BSA) with ARPCs shows that this method is also suitable for large protein.

  13. Forced and free displacement characterization of ionic polymer transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akle, Barbar J.; Duncan, Andrew; Akle, Etienne; Wallmersperger, Thomas; Leo, Donald J.

    2009-03-01

    Ionic polymer transducers (IPT), sometimes referred to as artificial muscles, are known to generate a large bending strain and a moderate stress at low applied voltages (transducers. In this study, extensional IPTs are characterized under forced and free displacement boundary condition as a function of transducer architecture. The electrode thickness is varied from 10 μm up to 40 μm while three extensional actuators with Lithium, Cesium, and tetraethylammonium (TEA) mobile cations are characterized. Three fixtures are built in order to characterize the extensional actuation response. The first fixture measures the free displacement of an IPT sample sandwiched between two aluminum plates glued using the electrically conductive silver paste. In the second fixture a spring is compressed against the test sample with variable amounts to generate different levels of pre-stress and prevents the bending of the IPT. In the third fixture dead weights are placed on top of the sample in order to prevent bending. In the spring loaded fixture a thermocouple is placed in the proximity of the actuator and temperature is measured. The different transducers are characterized using a step voltage input and an alternating current (AC) sine wave input. The step input resulted in a logarithmic rise like displacement curve, while the low frequency (wave displacement response with a strong first harmonic. The high frequency AC excitation generated a response similar to that of the step input. Comparing the measured temperature for step and AC response demonstrated that the sample is heating up when exited with a high frequency signal; which is leading to the expansion of the sample. Initial experimental results demonstrate a strong correlation between electrode architecture and the peak strain response. Strains on the order of 2% are observed with air stable ionic liquid based transducers. A correlation between the strain and charge buildup in the polymer is also characterized. Cesium

  14. Structure and ionic conductivity of ionic liquid embedded PEO- LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmakar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have reported electrical and other physical properties of polyethylene oxide (PEO - LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolytes embedded with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ionic liquid. The addition of the ionic liquid to PEO- LiCF3SO3 electrolyte increases the amorphous phase content considerably and decreases the glass transition temperature. The relative amounts of different ionic species present in these electrolytes have been determined. It is observed that the fraction of free anions increase with the increase of ionic liquid concentration, whereas the fraction for ion pairs and aggregates show a decreasing trend under the same condition. The ionic conductivity of the PEO- LiCF3SO3 polymer electrolyte embedded with ionic liquid is higher than that of the PEO- LiCF3SO3 electrolyte. The ionic conductivity shows a transition around 323 K. The ionic conductivity above 323 K exhibits Arrhenius behavior with an activation energy, which decreases with the increase of ionic liquid concentration. However, below 323 K the conductivity shows Vogel–Tamman–Fulcher (VTF type behavior.

  15. Selectivity mapping of the binding sites of (E)-resveratrol imprinted polymers using structurally diverse polyphenolic compounds present in Pinot noir grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Shima N N S; Schwarz, Lachlan J; Danylec, Basil; Potdar, Mahesh K; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2016-12-01

    This investigation describes a general procedure for the selectivity mapping of molecularly imprinted polymers, using (E)-resveratrol-imprinted polymers as the exemplar, and polyphenolic compounds present in Pinot noir grape skin extracts as the test compounds. The procedure is based on the analysis of samples generated before and after solid-phase extraction of (E)-resveratrol and other polyphenols contained within the Pinot noir grape skins using (E)-resveratrol-imprinted polymers. Capillary reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI MS/MS) was then employed for compound analysis and identification. Under optimised solid-phase extraction conditions, the (E)-resveratrol-imprinted polymer showed high binding affinity and selectivity towards (E)-resveratrol, whilst no resveratrol was bound by the corresponding non-imprinted polymer. In addition, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and a dimer of catechin-methyl-5-furfuraldehyde, which share some structural features with (E)-resveratrol, were also bound by the (E)-resveratrol-imprinted polymer. Polyphenols that were non-specifically retained by both the imprinted and non-imprinted polymer were (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin and (-)-epicatechin. The compounds that did not bind to the (E)-resveratrol molecularly imprinted polymer had at least one of the following molecular characteristics in comparison to the (E)-resveratrol template: (i) different spatial arrangements of their phenolic hydroxyl groups, (ii) less than three or more than four phenolic hydroxyl groups, or (iii) contained a bulky substituent moiety. The results show that capillary RP-HPLC in conjunction with ESI MS/MS represent very useful techniques for mapping the selectivity of the binding sites of imprinted polymer. Moreover, this procedure permits performance monitoring of the characteristics of molecularly imprinted polymers intended for solid-phase extraction of bioactive and

  16. Selective adsorption behavior of Pb(II) by mesoporous silica SBA-15-supported Pb(II)-imprinted polymer based on surface molecularly imprinting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, XueFu Road 201, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Liu Zhanchao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Gao Jie; Dai Jiangdong; Han Juan; Wang Yun; Xie Jimin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, XueFu Road 201, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan Yongsheng, E-mail: lyan@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, XueFu Road 201, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} The novel surface ion-imprinted polymer based on SBA-15 possessed high ordered mesoporous structure and the graft occurred on the surface of the inner channel. {yields} Kinetics parameters indicated the second-order mechanism and pore diffusion were dominant. {yields} Thermodynamic parameters indicated the adsorption process was spontaneous, exothermic and good affinity nature. {yields} Fast kinetics, high selectivity and satisfied adsorption capacity were obtained. - Abstract: In this study, a new Pb(II) ion-imprinted polymer (Pb(II)-IIP), which can be used for selective adsorption of Pb(II) from aqueous solutions, was successfully prepared based on the supported material of ordered mesoporous silica SBA-15 with the help of surface molecular imprinting technology. The prepared polymer was characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm. The results showed that the synthesized polymer possessed high ordered mesoporous structure. The adsorption behavior of the adsorbents for Pb(II) was investigated using batch experiments. The Pb(II)-IIP showed fast kinetics, high selectivity and satisfied adsorption capacity for adsorption of Pb(II). Under the optimum experimental condition, Pb(II) adsorption process over Pb(II)-IIP follows pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics and follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In addition, the thermodynamic parameters calculated from the adsorption data suggested that the adsorption of Pb(II) onto Pb(II)-IIP was a spontaneous and exothermic nature of the process.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the determination of spiramycin in sheep milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Mayor, M A; Paniagua González, G; Garcinuño Martínez, R M; Fernández Hernando, P; Durand Alegría, J S

    2017-04-15

    A series of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) comprising reactionary sites which are complementary to macrolide antibiotic spiramycin (SPI) were synthetized by noncovalent bulk polymerization technique. MIPs were synthesized under different polymerization process and their recognition efficiency was evaluated in binding studies in comparison with non-imprinted polymers. The best MIP was morphologically characterized and equilibrium assays were carried out. The MIP was evaluated as a sorbent for extraction and preconcentration of SPI from aqueous and sheep milk samples, and an off-line MISPE method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV diode-array detection was established. Good linearity were obtained for SPI in a range of 24-965μgkg(-1) and the average recoveries at three spiked levels in milk samples were higher than 90% (RSDimprinted polymer showed a good selectivity and affinity for SPI, demonstrating the potential of the proposed MISPE for rapid, sensitive and effective sample pretreatment for selective determination of SPI in sheep milk samples.

  18. Molecular imprinted polymer functionalized carbon nanotube sensors for detection of saccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhulika, Sushmee; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we report the synthesis and fabrication of an enzyme-free sugar sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) on the surface of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Electropolymerization of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) in the presence of 10 M d-fructose and fluoride at neutral pH conditions resulted in the formation of a self-doped, molecularly imprinted conducting polymer (MICP) via the formation of a stable anionic boronic ester complex between poly(aniline boronic acid) and d-fructose. Template removal generated binding sites on the polymer matrix that were complementary to d-fructose both in structure, i.e., shape, size, and positioning of functional groups, thus enabling sensing of d-fructose with enhanced affinity and specificity over non-MIP based sensors. Using carbon nanotubes along with MICPs helped to develop an efficient electrochemical sensor by enhancing analyte recognition and signal generation. These sensors could be regenerated and used multiple times unlike conventional affinity based biosensors which suffer from physical and chemical stability.

  19. Optimization of chitosan and β-cyclodextrin molecularly imprinted polymer synthesis for dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyzas, George Z; Lazaridis, Nikolaos K; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2013-01-02

    In this study, two types of novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were prepared, for toxic and carcinogenic dyes adsorption. Substrates of the polymeric matrix of the two MIPs were β-cyclodextrin and chitosan. The conditions in the polymerization/imprinting stage and in the rebinding/adsorption step were optimized. The effect of a range of parameters (polymer, cross-linker, and initiator concentrations, reaction time and pH) on the selectivity and adsorption capacity of the dye-MIPs were investigated. Their dye rebinding properties were demonstrated by equilibrium batch experiments (fitting with Freundlich model) and their kinetic rates were exported by the pseudo-first order model. Additionally, a thermodynamic evaluation was carried out through the determination of enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. The selectivity of MIPs was elucidated by their different rebinding capabilities in a trichromatic mixture (composed of related structurally dyes). Regeneration/reuse of the dye-loaded polymers was evaluated via sequential adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a molecularly imprinted polymer for pyridoxine using an ion-pair as template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher

    2008-08-01

    One of the main challenges in the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) field is the proper MIP design for water-soluble compounds because of appearance of serious drawbacks in polar solvents and insolubility of those compounds in non-polar solvents which are commonly used for MIP synthesis. In this work a novel and simple method for synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers for a water-soluble compound was introduced. Pyridoxine was chosen as a target molecule and the ion-pair complex formed between pyridoxine ion (Py(+)) and dodecyl sulfate ion (DS(-)) was transferred into the chloroform via liquid-liquid extraction. Then polymerization was carried out in chloroform. The molecular mechanics and density functional theory were proposed to screen proper monomer. Binding energy, DeltaE, of a template and a monomer as a measure of their interaction was considered. Ion-pair [Py(+)-DS(-)] was supposed as a template molecule and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, allyamine, vinylpridine and 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate were as tested monomers. The MIP synthesized using acrylic acid showed the highest selectivity to pyridoxine as predicted from the DeltaE calculation. The obtained MIP showed very high affinity against vitamin B6 in comparison to non-imprinted polymers (NIP). It was proved that the obtained MIP with introduced method was much better than that prepared in methanol as porogen. It was showed that the MIP prepared by this new method could be used as an adsorber for extraction and determination of pyridoxine in real and synthetic samples.

  1. Computational prediction and experimental selectivity coefficients for hydroxyzine and cetirizine molecularly imprinted polymer based potentiometric sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, Abolfazl; Javanbakht, Mehran, E-mail: mehranjavanbakht@gmail.com

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Possible configurations template/monomer complexes were designed and optimized. •Effect of the electrostatic force on the selectivity of MIPs was investigated. •A correlation between selectivity of sensors and a charge distribution was obtained. -- Abstract: In spite of the increasing usages number of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in many scientific applications, the theoretical aspects of participating intra molecular forces are not fully understood. This work investigates effects of the electrostatic force, the Mulliken charge and the role of cavity's backbone atoms on the selectivity of MIPs. Moreover, charge distribution, which is a computational parameter, was proposed for the prediction of the selectivity coefficients of MIP-based sensors. In the computational approaches and experimental study, methacrylic acid (MAA) was chosen as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross linker for hydroxyzine and cetirizine imprinted polymers. Ab initio, DFT B3LYP method was carried out on molecular optimization. With regard to results obtained from molecules optimization and hydrogen bonding properties, possible configurations of 1:n (n ≤ 5) template/monomer complexes were designed and optimized. The binding energy for each complex in gas phase was calculated. Depending on the most stable configuration, hydroxyzine and cetirizine imprinted polymer models were designed. The calculations including the porogen were also investigated. The theoretical charge distributions for the template and some potential interfering molecules were calculated. The results showed a correlation between the selectivity coefficients and the theoretical charge distributions. The results surprisingly show that charge distribution based model was able to predict the selectivity coefficients of MIP based potentiometric sensors.

  2. Probing and mapping the binding sites on streptavidin imprinted polymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duman, Memed, E-mail: memi@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2014-10-01

    Molecular imprinting is an effective technique for preparing recognition sites which act as synthetic receptors on polymeric surfaces. Herein, we synthesized MIP surfaces with specific binding sites for streptavidin and characterized them at nanoscale by using two different atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. While the single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) reveals the unbinding kinetics between streptavidin molecule and binding sites, simultaneous topography and recognition imaging (TREC) was employed, for the first time, to directly map the binding sites on streptavidin imprinted polymers. Streptavidin modified AFM cantilever showed specific unbinding events with an unbinding force around 300 pN and the binding probability was calculated as 35.2% at a given loading rate. In order to prove the specificity of the interaction, free streptavidin molecules were added to AFM liquid cell and the binding probability was significantly decreased to 7.6%. Moreover, the recognition maps show that the smallest recognition site with a diameter of around ∼ 21 nm which corresponds to a single streptavidin molecule binding site. We believe that the potential of combining SMFS and TREC opens new possibilities for the characterization of MIP surfaces with single molecule resolution under physiological conditions. - Graphical abstract: Simultaneous Topography and RECognition (TREC) imaging is a novel characterization technique to reveal binding sites on molecularly imprinted polymer surfaces with single molecule resolution under physiological conditions. - Highlights: • Highly specific streptavidin printed polymer surfaces were synthesized. • Unbinding kinetic rate of single streptavidin molecule was studied by SMFS. • The distribution of binding pockets was revealed for the first time by TREC imaging. • TREC showed that the binding pockets formed nano-domains on MIP surface. • SMFS and TREC are powerful AFM techniques for characterization of MIP surfaces.

  3. Separation/enrichment of the low-content high molecular weight natural protein using protein-imprinted polymers with ARPCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA JianJun; LONG Yi; GUO MinJie; WANG Ying; MI HuaiFeng

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for separation/enrichment of the low-content cellular protein in high molecular weight on the basis of molecular imprinting.The template protein,bacterial cloned immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP),was selectively assembled with assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs) from their library,which consists of numerous limited length polymer chains with randomly distributed recognition and immobilizing sites.The assemblies of proteins and ARPCs were adsorbed by porous polymeric beads and immobilized by cross-linking polymerization.After the template was removed,the synthesized imprinted polymer was used to adsorb authentic BiP from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) extract,and its proportional content was enriched 45 times.It is the first time that the low-content cellular natural protein,whose molecular weight reaches 78 kDa,is enrichd by molecular imprinting.

  4. Development of carbon dots modified fluorescent molecular imprinted Polymer@Ag/AgCl nanoparticle for hepatocellular carcinoma marker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfa, Paramita; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a sensitive and selective fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was developed for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarker i.e. alpha feto protein (AFP) using Ag/AgCl as platform. Here, the carbon dots and Ag/AgCl nanoparticles were functionalized with vinyl groups and used as functional monomer for synthesis of AFP-imprinted polymer. The imprinted polymer shows a linear range of 3.96 ng mL-1 to 80.0 ng mL-1 with detection limit of 0.42 ng mL-1.The adsorption property of the MIP@Ag/AgCl was studied and shows the high affinity binding towards their target analyte without any cross-reactivity and false-positive or false-negative results.

  5. Separation/enrichment of the low-content high molecular weight natural protein using protein-imprinted polymers with ARPCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for separation/enrichment of the low-content cellular protein in high mo-lecular weight on the basis of molecular imprinting. The template protein, bacterial cloned immu-noglobulin binding protein (BiP), was selectively assembled with assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs) from their library, which consists of numerous limited length polymer chains with randomly distributed recognition and immobilizing sites. The assemblies of proteins and ARPCs were adsorbed by porous polymeric beads and immobilized by cross-linking polymerization. After the template was removed, the synthesized imprinted polymer was used to adsorb authentic BiP from endoplasmic re-ticulum (ER) extract, and its proportional content was enriched 45 times. It is the first time that the low-content cellular natural protein, whose molecular weight reaches 78 kDa, is enriched by molecular imprinting.

  6. Adsorption characteristics, recognition properties, and preliminary application of nordihydroguaiaretic acid molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by sol–gel surface imprinting technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Sen; Zhang, Wen; Long, Wei; Hou, Dan; Yang, Xuechun; Tan, Ni, E-mail: tannii@21cn.com

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nordihydroguaiaretic acid imprinted polymer with imprinting factor 2.12 was prepared for the first time through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between the template molecules and the bifunctional monomers. • The obtained surface molecularly imprinting polymers exhibited high affinity and selectivity to the template molecules. • The prepared surface molecularly imprinted polymers were used in separation the natural active component nordihydroguaiaretic acid from medicinal plants. - Abstract: In this paper, a new core-shell composite of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) molecularly imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (MIP@SiO{sub 2}) was prepared through sol–gel technique and applied as a material for extraction of NDGA from Ephedra. It was synthesized using NDGA as the template molecule, γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTEOS) as the functional monomers, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the cross-linker and ethanol as the porogenic solvent in the surface of silica. The non-imprinted polymers layer-coated silica gel (NIP@SiO{sub 2}) were prepared with the same procedure, but with the absence of template molecule. In addition, the optimum adsorption affinity occurred when the molar ratio of NDGA:APTS:MTEOS:TEOS was 1:6:2:80. The prepared MIP@SiO{sub 2} and NIP@SiO{sub 2} were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Their affinity properties to NDGA were evaluated through dynamic adsorption, static adsorption, and selective recognition experiments, and the results showed the saturated adsorption capacity of MIP@SiO{sub 2} could reach to 5.90 mg g{sup −1}, which was two times more than that of NIP@SiO{sub 2}. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the extraction of NDGA from the medicinal plant ephedra by the above prepared materials, and the results

  7. Optimisation and production of a molecular-imprinted-polymer for the electrochemical determination of triacetone triperoxide (TATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, S. K.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.

    2014-10-01

    Triacetone triperoxide (TATP) explosive is one of the most common components of improvised explosive devices which can be prepared from commercially readily available reagents with easier synthetic procedure that is available over the internet. Molecularly imprinted polymer electrochemical sensors can offer highly selective determination of several classes of compounds from wide range of sample matrices in parts per billion levels. Highly sensitive and selective molecularly imprinted polymer electrochemical sensor has been developed for determination of TATP in acetonitrile. Molecular imprinting has been performed via electro-polymerization on to glassy carbon, gold, silver and platinum electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry from a solution of pyrrole functional monomer, TATP template, and LiClO4 supporting electrolyte. Quantitative differential pulse voltammetric measurements of TATP, with LiClO4 supporting electrolyte, were performed using the molecularly imprinted polymer modified and bare glassy carbon electrodes in a potential range of -2.0V to +1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Three-factor two-level factorial design has been used to optimize the monomer concentration at 0.1 mol L-1, template concentration at 100 mmol L-1, and the number of cyclic voltammetry scan cycles to 10 cycles, using differential pulse voltammetric current intensity as response variable. The molecularly imprinted polymer modified glassy carbon electrode demonstrated superior selectivity for TATP in the presence of PETN, RDX, HMX, and TNT.

  8. Development of sulfamethoxazole-imprinted polymers for the selective extraction from waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtchev, Martin; Palm, Barbara S; Schiller, Marion; Steinfeld, Ute

    2009-10-30

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is an antibiotic of growing environmental concern. As specific filter material for the extraction of SMX from waters, a series of SMX-imprinted polymers have been synthesised varying their composition parameters, and their efficiency to selectively remove the contaminant SMX from complex polluted water was tested. Most of the developed materials exhibited an excellent uptake of the target pollutant SMX of more than 80% or even 90% and effective separation from selected easily degradable accompanying substances even in complex wastewater mixtures. All the results for SMX uptake and release were compared to the commonly used adsorbent activated carbon (AC).

  9. Fabrication of polymer-based multimode interference optical splitters by UV-based soft imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yuxin; Han, Xiuyou; Luo, Yuqing; Gu, Yiying; Wu, Zhenlin; Zhao, Mingshan

    2016-10-01

    A polymer-based multimode interference (MMI) optical splitter chip has been fabricated through UV-based soft imprint lithography (Soft UV-NIL) technique. Propagation loss and bending loss are considered during the chip design in order to decrease the insertion loss. UV curable fluorinated acrylate resin is used due to its low material absorbing loss. 1×4 cascaded MMI splitter is fabricated and measured at 1550 nm optical wavelength and an average 12.38 dB insertion loss is obtained together with an 1.23 dB uniformity.

  10. Synthesis of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the solid-phase extraction of betulin and betulinic acid from plane bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Berengere; Viron-Lamy, Cecile; Haupt, Karsten; Morin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Plant extracts are usually complex mixtures of various polarity compounds and their study often includes a purification step, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to isolate interest compounds prior analytical investigations. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are a new promising type of SPE material which offer tailor-made selectivity for the extraction of trace active components in complex matrices. Numerous specific cavities that are sterically and chemically complementary of the target molecules, are formed in imprinted polymers. A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesised in order to trap a specific class of triterpene, including betulin and betulinic acid from a methanolic extract of plane bark. Imprinted polymers were synthesised by thermal polymerisation of betulin as template, methacrylic acid (MAA) or acrylamide (AA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent and chloroform as porogen. Afterwards, MAA- and AA-MIPs were compared with their non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) in order to assess the selectivity vs betulin and its derivatives. Recovered triterpenes were analysed by HPLC during MIP-SPE protocol. After SPE optimisation, the MAA-imprinted polymer exhibited highest selectivity and recovery (better than 70%) for betulin and best affinity for its structural analogues. Thus, a selective washing step (chloroform, acetonitrile) removed unwanted matrix compounds (fatty acids) from the SPE cartridge. The elution solvent was methanol. Finally, the MAA-MIP was applied to fractionate a plane bark methanolic extract containing betulin and betulinic acid. This study demonstrated the possibility of direct extraction of betulin and its structural analogues from plant extracts by MIP technology.

  11. An ion-imprinted polymer supported by attapulgite with a chitosan incorporated sol-gel process for selective separation of Ce(Ⅲ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xiang Li; Jian Ming Pan; Jie Gao; Yong Sheng Yan; Gan Qing Zhao

    2009-01-01

    The surface ion-imprinting concept and chitosan incorporated sol-gel process were applied to the synthesis of a new attapulgite-supported polymer for selective separation of Ce(Ⅲ) from aqueous solution. The imprinting mechanism of prepared ion-imprinted polymer were discussed with the Characteristics of FT-IR and SEM. Results from the experiments of adsorption capacity and selectivity suggested that ion-imprinted polymer offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Ce(Ⅲ) under the optimum conditions. Its maximum adsorption capacity was 38.02 mg/g, and the selective recognition towards Ce(Ⅲ) was much higher than that of the non-imprinted polymer and attapulgite. The prepared functional polymer was shown to be promising for selective separation and enrichment of trace Ce(Ⅲ) in environmental samples.

  12. Preparation of novel curcumin-imprinted polymers based on magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the rapid extraction of curcumin from ginger powder and kiwi fruit root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Chen, Xing; Rao, Wei; Long, Fang; Yan, Liang; Yin, Yuli

    2015-01-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted polymer based on magnetic phenyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes was synthesized using curcumin as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The phenyl groups contained in the magnetic imprinted polymers acted as the assisting functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. Adsorption studies demonstrated that the magnetic imprinted polymers possessed excellent selectivity toward curcumin with a maximum capacity of 16.80 mg/g. Combining magnetic extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography technology, the magnetic imprinted polymer based on magnetic phenyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes was applied for the rapid separation and enrichment of curcumin from ginger powder and kiwi fruit root successfully.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymers for sample preparation and biosensing in food analysis: Progress and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Jon; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Kant, Krishna; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Wolff, Anders; Bang, Dang Duong; Sun, Yi

    2017-05-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are biomimetics which can selectively bind to analytes of interest. One of the most interesting areas where MIPs have shown the biggest potential is food analysis. MIPs have found use as sorbents in sample preparation attributed to the high selectivity and high loading capacity. MIPs have been intensively employed in classical solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction. More recently, MIPs have been combined with magnetic bead extraction, which greatly simplifies sample handling procedures. Studies have consistently shown that MIPs can effectively minimize complex food matrix effects, and improve recoveries and detection limits. In addition to sample preparation, MIPs have also been viewed as promising alternatives to bio-receptors due to the inherent molecular recognition abilities and the high stability in harsh chemical and physical conditions. MIPs have been utilized as receptors in biosensing platforms such as electrochemical, optical and mass biosensors to detect various analytes in food. In this review, we will discuss the current state-of-the-art of MIP synthesis and applications in the context of food analysis. We will highlight the imprinting methods which are applicable for imprinting food templates, summarize the recent progress in using MIPs for preparing and analysing food samples, and discuss the current limitations in the commercialisation of MIPs technology. Finally, future perspectives will be given.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of molecularly imprinted polymer liquid chromatography column for the separation of ephedrine enantiomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy balamurugan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study molecular imprinting technology was employed to prepare a specific affinity sorbent for the resolution of Ephedrine, a chiral drug. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP was prepared by non-covalent molecular imprinting with either (+ or (--Ephedrine ((R∗,S∗-2-(methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol as the template. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol di-methacrylate were copolymerized in the presence of the template molecule. The bulk polymerization was carried out in chloroform with 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator, at 5°C and under UV radiation. The resulting MIP was ground into powders, which were slurry packed into analytical columns. After removal of template molecules, the MIP-packed columns were found to be effective for the resolution of (±-Ephedrine racemates. The separation factor for the enantiomers ranged between 1.3 and 2.1 when the column was packed with MIP prepared with (+-Ephedrine as the template. A separation factor ranging from 1.3 to 2.6 could be achieved from the column packed with MIP, prepared with (--Ephedrine as the template. Although the separation factor was higher with that previously obtained from reversed-phase column chromatography following derivatization with a chiral agent, elution peaks were broader due to the heterogeneity of binding sites on the MIP particles and the possible non-specific interaction.

  15. Implementation of molecularly imprinted polymer beads for surface enhanced Raman detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamra, Tripta; Zhou, Tongchang; Montelius, Lars; Schnadt, Joachim; Ye, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have a predesigned molecular recognition capability that can be used to build robust chemical sensors. MIP-based chemical sensors allow label-free detection and are particularly interesting due to their simple operation. In this work we report the use of thiol-terminated MIP microspheres to construct surfaces for detection of a model organic analyte, nicotine, by surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The nicotine-imprinted microspheres are synthesized by RAFT precipitation polymerization and converted into thiol-terminated microspheres through aminolysis. The thiol groups on the MIP surface allow the microspheres to be immobilized on a gold-coated substrate. Three different strategies are investigated to achieve surface enhanced Raman scattering in the vicinity of the imprinted sites: (1) direct sputtering of gold nanoparticles, (2) immobilization of gold colloids through the MIP's thiol groups, and (3) trapping of the MIP microspheres in a patterned SERS substrate. For the first time we show that large MIP microspheres can be turned into selective SERS surfaces through the three different approaches of assembly. The MIP-based sensing surfaces are used to detect nicotine to demonstrate the proof of concept. As synthesis and surface functionalization of MIP microspheres and nanoparticles are well established, the methods reported in this work are handy and efficient for constructing label-free chemical sensors, in particular for those based on SERS detection.

  16. Fullerene derived molecularly imprinted polymer for chemosensing of adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Piyush S; Dabrowski, Marcin; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Huynh, Tan-Phat; Kc, Chandra B; Sobczak, Janusz W; Pieta, Piotr; D'Souza, Francis; Kutner, Wlodzimierz

    2014-09-24

    For molecular imprinting of oxidatively electroactive analytes by electropolymerization, we used herein reductively electroactive functional monomers. As a proof of concept, we applied C60 fullerene adducts as such for the first time. For that, we derivatized C60 to bear either an uracil or an amide, or a carboxy addend for recognition of the adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) oxidizable analyte with the ATP-templated molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP-ATP). Accordingly, the ATP complex with all of the functional monomers formed in solution was potentiodynamically electropolymerized to deposit an MIP-ATP film either on an Au electrode of the quartz crystal resonator or on a Pt disk electrode for the piezoelectric microgravimetry (PM) or capacitive impedimetry (CI) determination of ATP, respectively, under the flow-injection analysis (FIA) conditions. The apparent imprinting factor for ATP was ∼4.0. After extraction of the ATP template, analytical performance of the resulting chemosensors, including detectability, sensitivity, and selectivity, was characterized. The limit of detection was 0.3 and 0.03mM ATP for the PM and CI chemosensor, respectively. The MIP-ATP film discriminated structural analogues of ATP quite well. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms were fitted to the experimental data of the ATP sorption and sorption stability constants appeared to be nearly independent of the adopted sorption model.

  17. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization for the enrichment and determination of synthetic estrogens in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Minjun; Kong, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers have attracted significant interest because of their multifunctionality of selective recognition of target molecules and rapid magnetic response. In this contribution, magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized via surface-initiated reversible addition addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using diethylstilbestrol as the template for the enrichment of synthetic estrogens. The uniform imprinted surface layer and the magnetic property of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers favored a fast binding kinetics and rapid analysis of target molecules. The static and selective binding experiments demonstrated a desirable adsorption capacity and good selectivity of the magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers in comparison to magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers. Accordingly, a corresponding analytical method was developed in which magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were employed as magnetic solid-phase extraction materials for the concentration and determination of four synthetic estrogens (diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, dienestrol, and bisphenol A) in fish pond water. The recoveries of these synthetic estrogens in spiked fish pond water samples ranged from 61.2 to 99.1% with a relative standard deviation of lower than 6.3%. This study provides a versatile approach to prepare well-defined magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers sorbents for the analysis of synthetic estrogens in water solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Electromechanical modelling of tapered ionic polymer metal composites transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesha Chandra Dash

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs are relatively new smart materials that exhibit a bidirectional electromechanical coupling. IPMCs have large number of important engineering applications such as micro robotics, biomedical devices, biomimetic robotics etc. This paper presents a comparison between tapered and uniform cantilevered Nafion based IPMCs transducer. Electromechanical modelling is done for the tapered beam. Thickness can be varied according to the requirement of force and deflection. Numerical results pertaining to the force and deflection characteristics of both type IPMCs transducer are obtained. It is shown that the desired amount of force and deflections for tapered IPMCs can be achieved for a given voltage. Different fixed end (t0 and free end (t1 thickness values have been taken to justify the results using MATLAB.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecular Imprinting Polymer Microspheres of Cinnamic Acid: Extraction of Cinnamic Acid from Spiked Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Leong Joke Chow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular imprinting technique is used to create the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs with higher binding capacity towards the template. In this research precipitation polymerization method with noncovalent approach was used to synthesize imprinted polymer microspheres. The polymerization reaction was conducted in a flask containing acetonitrile as a porogen, cinnamic acid as a template (T, acrylic acid (AA as a monomer, divinylbenzene (DVB as a cross-linker, and azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The polymer particles were characterized by using SEM and FTIR. The rebinding efficiency was conducted by batch binding assay and the results were monitored by using HPLC. The batch binding results suggested MIP1 (T : AA : DVB, 1 : 6 : 20 molar ratio is most suitable composition for the rebinding of cinnamic acid. The highly selective polymer (MIP1 was used for the extraction of cinnamic acid from human plasma. The extraction efficiency of imprinted polymer of cinnamic acid from spiked plasma was above 75%.

  20. Electrical conductivity, ionic conductivity, optical absorption, and gas separation properties of ionically conductive polymer membranes embedded with Si microwire arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Walter, Michael G.; Zhou, Junfeng; Kohl, Paul A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2011-01-01

    The optical absorption, ionic conductivity, electronic conductivity, and gas separation properties have been evaluated for flexible composite films of ionically conductive polymers that contain partially embedded arrays of ordered, crystalline, p-type Si microwires. The cation exchange ionomer Nafion, and a recently developed anion exchange ionomer, poly(arylene ether sulfone) that contains quaternary ammonium groups (QAPSF), produced composite microwire array/ionomer membrane films that were...

  1. Chiral resolution of derivatized amino acids using uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers in hydro-organic mobile phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haginaka, Jun; Kagawa, Chino

    2004-04-01

    Uniformly sized molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for Boc-L-Trp were prepared using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross-linker, and methacylic acid (MAA) and/or 4-vinylpyridine (4-VPY) as the functional monomers or without use of a functional monomer. The MIPs prepared were evaluated using acetonitrile or a mixture of phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The Boc-L-Trp-imprinted EDMA polymers can recognize Boc-L-Trp by its molecular shape, and can thus afford the enantioseparation of Boc-Trp. Besides the molecular shape recognition, the hydrophobic interactions with the polymer backbones as well as the hydrogen-bonding interactions of Boc-L-Trp with carboxyl and pyridyl groups in the polymers should work for the retention and recognition of Boc-L-Trp on the imprinted MAA- co-EDMA and 4-VPY- co-EDMA polymers, respectively, in the hydro-organic mobile phase. The hydrogen-bonding interactions seem to become dominant when only acetonitrile is used as the mobile phase. The Boc-L-Trp-imprinted 4-VPY- co-EDMA polymers gave the highest retentivity and enantioselectivity for Boc-Trp among the MIPs prepared. However, the simultaneous use of MAA and 4-VPY was not effective for the enantioseparation of Boc-Trp in a hydro-organic mobile phase. Furthermore, the baseline separation of Boc-Trp enantiomers was attained within 10 min on the Boc-L-Trp-imprinted 4-VPY- co-EDMA polymers under the optimized HPLC conditions.

  2. Improved gate effect enantioselectivity of phenylalanine-imprinted polymers in water by blending crosslinkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimi, Yasuo, E-mail: yosimi@sic.shibaura-it.ac.jp; Ishii, Noriyuki

    2015-03-03

    Highlights: • We tried amperometric sensing by gate effect of molecularly imprinted polymer. • Chiral-selective sensing in water by gate effect was performed successfully. • The success was realized by blending hydrophobic and hydrophilic crosslinkers. • The blending effect is probably based on the regulation of flexibility of the site. - Abstract: In this work, the anodic current at an electrode grafted with a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) crosslinked via a combination of hydrophobic ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) and hydrophilic methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) was found to exhibit enantioselective sensitivity to the phenylalanine template in aqueous solution. An MIP-grafted electrode crosslinked with a 2:1 mixture of EDMA and MBAA was observed to respond to the template with the highest enantioselectivity, such that the change in current induced by the imprinted template was more than four times that induced by the enantiomer of the template. The contact angle of a water droplet on an MIP-coated electrode prepared using the optimal crosslinker blending ratio was also sensitive to the template and again exhibited chiral selectivity. The change in the contact angle induced by the template was more than twice as large as that obtained from the template’s enantiomer. Atomic force microscopy showed that the surface of the MIP layer fabricated using a mixture of crosslinkers was rougher than that made with a single crosslinking agent, although there was no apparent correlation between the roughness and the enantioselectivity of the layer. These results indicate that the appropriate combination of crosslinkers enables the chiral-selective gate effect by modulating the flexibility and hydrophilicity of the MIP layer. The approach described herein therefore represents a new means of improving the selectivity of MIPs by blending crosslinkers having different chemical properties.

  3. Tailoring molecularly imprinted polymer beads for alternariol recognition and analysis by a screening with mycotoxin surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Hany, Rahma A G; Urraca, Javier L; Descalzo, Ana B; Gómez-Arribas, Lidia N; Moreno-Bondi, María C; Orellana, Guillermo

    2015-12-18

    Molecularly imprinted porous polymer microspheres have been prepared for selective binding of alternariol (AOH), a phenolic mycotoxin produced by Alternaria fungi. In order to lead the synthesis of recognition materials, four original AOH surrogates have been designed, prepared and characterized. They bear different number of phenol groups in various positions and different degree of O-methylation on the dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one skeleton. A comprehensive library of mixtures of basic, acidic or neutral monomers, with divinylbenzene or ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as cross-linkers, were polymerized at a small scale in the presence of the four molecular mimics of the toxin molecule. This polymer screening has allowed selection of the optimal composition of the microbeads (N-(2-aminoethyl)methacrylamide, EAMA, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate). The latter are able to bind AOH in water-acetonitrile (80:20, v/v) with an affinity constant of 109±10mM(-1) and a total number of binding sites of 35±2μmolg(-1), being alternariol monomethylether the only competitor species. Moreover, (1)H NMR titrations have unveiled a 1:2 surrogate-to-EAMA stoichiometry, the exact interaction sites and a binding constant of 1.5×10(4)M(-2). A molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method has been optimized for selective isolation of the mycotoxin from aqueous samples upon a discriminating wash with 3mL of acetonitrile/water (20:80, v/v) followed by determination by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The method has been applied, in combination to ultrasound-assisted extraction, to the analysis of AOH in tomato samples fortified with the mycotoxin at five concentration levels (33-110μgkg(-1)), with recoveries in the range of 81-103% (RSD n=6). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first imprinted material capable of molecularly recognizing this widespread food contaminant.

  4. Preparation of Magnetic Hollow Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Detection of Triazines in Food Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aixiang; Lu, Hongzhi; Xu, Shoufang

    2016-06-22

    Novel magnetic hollow molecularly imprinted polymers (M-H-MIPs) were proposed for highly selective recognition and fast enrichment of triazines in food samples. M-H-MIPs were prepared on the basis of multi-step swelling polymerization, followed by in situ growth of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of hollow molecularly imprinted polymers (H-MIPs). Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the successful immobilization of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on the surface of H-MIPs. M-H-MIPs could be separated simply using an external magnet. The binding adsorption results indicated that M-H-MIPs displayed high binding capacity and fast mass transfer property and class selective property for triazines. Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic models fitted the best adsorption models for M-H-MIPs. M-H-MIPs were used to analyze atrazine, simazine, propazine, and terbuthylazine in corn, wheat, and soybean samples. Satisfactory recoveries were in the range of 80.62-101.69%, and relative standard deviation was lower than 5.2%. Limits of detection from 0.16 to 0.39 μg L(-1) were obtained. When the method was applied to test positive samples that were contaminated with triazines, the results agree well with those obtained from an accredited method. Thus, the M-H-MIP-based dispersive solid-phase extraction method proved to be a convenient and practical platform for detection of triazines in food samples.

  5. Preparation and selective adsorption of organic pollutants by an inorganic molecular imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jiaobo; Song, Yanqun; Rong, Chuan; Wang, Yinghui; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Kefu

    A novel inorganic molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by adding Al(3+) to the Fe/SiO2 gel with Acid Orange II (AO II) as the template. The MIP was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. Compared with the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), the MIP enhanced the adsorption capacity of the target pollutants AO II. The selective adsorption capacity study indicated that the MIP adsorbed more AO II than the interferent Bisphenol A (BPA), which also has the structure of a benzene ring, thus proving the selective adsorption capacity of the MIP for template molecules AO II. In addition, the adsorption of AO II over MIP belonged to the Langmuir type and pseudo-second adsorption kinetics, and Dubinin-Radushkevich model indicates that the adsorption process of AO II over MIP and NIP are both given priority to chemical adsorption. The MIP reusability in performance was demonstrated in at least six repeated cycles.

  6. Sol-gel molecularly imprinted polymer for selective solid phase microextraction of organophosphorous pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Long; Gao, Yuan-Li; Wang, Pei-Pei; Shang, Huan; Pan, Si-Yi; Li, Xiu-Juan

    2013-10-15

    A sol-gel technique was applied for the preparation of water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for solid phase microextraction (SPME) using diazinon as template and polyethylene glycol as functional monomer. The MIP-coated fiber demonstrated much better selectivity to diazinon and its structural analogs in aqueous cucumber sample than in distilled water, indicating its potential in real samples. Thanks to its specific adsorption as well as rough and porous surface, the coating revealed rather larger extraction capability than the non-imprinted polymer and commercial fibers. In addition, the fiber exhibited excellent thermal (about 350°C) and chemical stability (organic and inorganic). After optimization of several parameters affecting extraction efficiency, a method based on MIP-SPME combined with gas chromatography was developed for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in vegetable samples. The limits of detection for the tested OPPs were in the range of 0.017-0.77 μg kg(-1). The proposed method was applied to evaluate OPPs in spiked cucumber, green pepper, Chinese cabbage, eggplant and lettuce samples, and recoveries of 81.2-113.5% were obtained by the standard addition method with three spiking levels in each kind of vegetable.

  7. Quantum dots coated with molecularly imprinted polymer as fluorescence probe for detection of cyphenothrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaohui; Chen, Ligang

    2015-02-15

    A newly designed molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) material was fabricated and successfully utilized as recognition element to develop a quantum dots (QDs) based MIP-coated composite for selective recognition of the template cyphenothrin. The MIP-coated QDs were characterized by fluorescence spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering and X-ray powder diffraction. The fluorescence of the coated QDs is quenched on loading the MIP with cyphenothrin, and the effect is much stronger for the MIP than for the non-imprinted polymer, which indicates the MIP could as a recognition template composite. This method can detect down to 9.0 nmol L(-1) of cyphenothrin in water, and a linear relationship has been obtained covering the concentration range of 0.1-80.0 μmol L(-1). The method has been used in the determination of cyphenothrin in water samples and gave recoveries in the range from 88.5% to 97.1% with relative standard deviations in the range of 3.1-6.2%. The present study provides a new and general strategy to fabricate inorganic-organic MIP-coated QDs with highly selective recognition ability in aqueous media and is desirable for chemical probe application.

  8. Nano-imprint lithography using poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS) polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Yung-Chiang; Shy, Shyi-Long

    2016-04-01

    Nano-imprinting lithography (NIL) technology, as one of the most promising fabrication technologies, has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for large-area replication up to wafer-level, with features down to nanometer scale. The cost of resists used for NIL is important for wafer-level large-area replication. This study aims to develop capabilities in patterning larger area structure using thermal NIL. The commercial available Poly (Methyl Methacrylate) (PMMA) and Polystyrene (PS) polymers possess a variety of characteristics desirable for NIL, such as low material cost, low bulkvolumetric shrinkage, high spin coating thickness uniformity, high process stability, and acceptable dry-etch resistance. PMMA materials have been utilized for positive electron beam lithography for many years, offering high resolution capability and wide process latitude. In addition, it is preferable to have a negative resist like PMMA, which is a simple polymer with low cost and practically unlimited shelf life, and can be dissolved easily using commercial available Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (PGMEA) safer solvent to give the preferred film thickness. PS is such a resist, as it undergoes crosslinking when exposed to deep UV light or an electron beam and can be used for NIL. The result is a cost effective patterning larger area structure using thermal nano-imprint lithography (NIL) by using commercial available PMMA and PS ploymers as NIL resists.

  9. Molecularly imprinted polymer diffraction grating as label-free optical bio(mimetic)sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, C A; Zhenhe, C; Navarro-Villoslada, F; López-Romero, D; Moreno-Bondi, M C

    2011-01-15

    Micropatterned molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) transmissive 2D diffraction gratings (DGs) are fabricated and evaluated as label-free antibiotic bio(mimetic)sensors. Polymeric gratings are prepared by using microtransfer molding based on SiO(2)/Si molds. The morphology of the MIP gratings is studied by optical and atomic force microscopes. MIP 2D-DGs exhibit 2D optical diffraction patterns, and measurement of changes in diffraction efficiency is used as sensor response. The refractive index of the micropatterned MIP material was estimated, via solvent index matching experiments, to be 1.486. Immersion of a MIP 2D-DG in different solutions of target-antibiotic enrofloxacin leads to significant variations in diffraction efficiency, demonstrating target-molecule detection. On the other hand, no significant response is observed for both control experiments: MIP grating exposed to a non-retained analyte and an equivalent non-imprinted polymer grating exposed to the target analyte, showing highly specific antibiotic label-free optical recognition.

  10. Application of molecularly imprinted polymers to selective removal of clofibric acid from water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaomeng Dai

    Full Text Available A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP adsorbent for clofibric acid (CA was prepared by a non-covalent protocol. Characterization of the obtained MIP was achieved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and nitrogen sorption. Sorption experimental results showed that the MIP had excellent binding affinity for CA and the adsorption of CA by MIP was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Scatchard plot analysis revealed that two classes of binding sites were formed in the MIP with dissociation constants of 7.52 ± 0.46 mg L(-1 and 114 ± 4.2 mg L(-1, respectively. The selectivity of MIP demonstrated higher affinity for CA over competitive compound than that of non-imprinted polymers (NIP. The MIP synthesized was used to remove CA from spiked surface water and exhibited significant binding affinity towards CA in the presence of total dissolved solids (TDS. In addition, MIP reusability was demonstrated for at least 12 repeated cycles without significant loss in performance.

  11. Selective removal of diclofenac from contaminated water using molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chao-Meng; Geissen, Sven-Uwe; Zhang, Ya-Lei; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2011-06-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized by precipitation polymerization using diclofenac (DFC) as a template. Binding characteristics of the MIP were evaluated using equilibrium binding experiments. Compared to the non-imprinted polymer (NIP), the MIP showed an outstanding affinity towards DFC in an aqueous solution with a binding site capacity (Q(max)) of 324.8 mg/g and a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 3.99 mg/L. The feasibility of removing DFC from natural water by the MIP was demonstrated by using river water spiked with DFC. Effects of pH and humic acid on the selectivity and adsorption capacity of MIP were evaluated in detail. MIP had better selectivity and higher adsorption efficiency for DFC as compared to that of powdered activated carbon (PAC). In addition, MIP reusability was demonstrated for at least 12 repeated cycles without significant loss in performance, which is a definite advantage over single-use activated carbon. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Preparation, characterization and selective recognition for vanillic acid imprinted mesoporous silica polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui, E-mail: lihuijsdx@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou 416000 (China); Key laboratory of plant resource and utilization, Jishou University, Hunan Jishou 416000 (China); Xu, Miaomiao; Wang, Susu; Lu, Cuimei; Li, Zhiping [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jishou University, Jishou 416000 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of a vanillic acid imprinted mesoporous silica polymers. • Improved selectivity and adsorption capability of this MIPs. • Excellent mass transfer dynamics for the MIPs. • High solid phase extraction applicability toward real sample. - Abstract: A vanillic acid imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (MIPs) was prepared by copolymerizing a modified mesoporous silica molecular sieve with template molecule, functional monomer and cross-linker in present work. Interaction between the template and functional monomer was investigated by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. These MIPs were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorption dynamics and thermodynamic behavior of MIPs was explored and the selective recognition capability evaluated. Also, the applicability for the MIPs as solid phase extraction media was tested. Results indicated the 1:1 (mole ratio) complex of vanillic acid-4-vinylpyridine might predominate in the pre-polymerization mixture and the MIPs obtained possessed rapid binding dynamics and higher affinity toward template molecules, reaching adsorption equilibrium within 230 min with the highest adsorption amount of 50.7 mg g{sup −1}. Freundlich model was shown best to describe isotherm adsorption for the MIPs. The MIPs could selectively bind template molecule with selectivity coefficients of 1.36–1.50. In addition, a higher enrichment capability when using it for gathering target compound from methanol extract of Artemisia stelleriana and a good reusability during adsorption–desorption recycling use could be observed.

  13. Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

    2014-06-15

    Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation.

  14. A selective molecularly imprinted polymer for immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE): an active enzyme targeted and efficient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Gökhan; Doğaç, Yasemin İspirli; Teke, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we immobilized acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme onto acetylcholine removed imprinted polymer and acetylcholine containing polymer. First, the polymers were produced with acetylcholine, substrate of AChE, by dispersion polymerization. Then, the enzyme was immobilized onto the polymers by using two different methods: In the first method (method A), acetylcholine was removed from the polymer, and then AChE was immobilized onto this polymer (acetylcholine removed imprinted polymer). In the second method (method B), AChE was immobilized onto acetylcholine containing polymer by affinity. In method A, enzyme-specific species (binding sites) occurred by removing acetylcholine from the polymer. The immobilized AChE reached 240% relative specific activity comparison with free AChE because the active enzyme molecules bounded onto the polymer. Transmission electron microscopy results were taken before and after immobilization of AChE for the assessment of morphological structure of polymer. Also, the experiments, which include optimum temperature (25-65 °C), optimum pH (3-10), thermal stability (4-70 °C), kinetic parameters, operational stability and reusability, were performed to determine the characteristic of the immobilized AChE.

  15. Enhanced electrical transport in ionic liquid dispersed TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Neha [Physics Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan, India and Department of Physics, JECRC University, Jaipur-303905, Rajasthan (India); Rathore, Munesh, E-mail: adalvi@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Dalvi, Anshuman, E-mail: adalvi@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [Physics Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan (India); Kumar, Anil [Chemistry Department, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031, Rajasthan (India)

    2014-04-24

    A polymer composite is prepared by dispersing ionic liquid [Bmim][BF{sub 4}] in Polyethylene oxide-tetra methyl ammonium iodide composite and subsequent microwave treatment. X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the composite nature. To explore possibility of proton conductivity in these films, electrical transport is studied by impedance spectroscopy and DC polarization. It is revealed that addition of ionic liquid in host TMAI-PEO solid polymer electrolyte enhances the conductivity by ∼ 2 orders of magnitude. Polarization measurements suggest that composites are essentially ion conducting in nature. The maximum ionic conductivity is found to be ∼2 × 10{sup −5} for 10 wt % ionic liquid.

  16. Synthetic approaches to parabens molecularly imprinted polymers and their applications to the solid-phase extraction of river water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, A; Marcé, R M; Cormack, P A G; Borrull, F

    2010-09-10

    In this paper we describe the synthesis, characterisation and use of two distinct molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) prepared using esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) as templates: one MIP was synthesised by precipitation polymerisation using a semi-covalent molecularly imprinting strategy with methyl paraben as the template/target (MIP 1); the second MIP was prepared in monolithic form through a conventional non-covalent molecular imprinting strategy, with butyl paraben as the template (MIP 2). MIP 1 recognized methyl paraben, showed cross-selectivity for other parabens analytes used in the study and higher affinity towards these compounds than did a non-imprinted control polymer. Similarly, MIP 2 demonstrated higher affinity towards paraben analytes than a non-imprinted control polymer. For the analysis of environmental water samples, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) protocol was developed using MIP 2 as sorbent, and results were compared to a SPE using a commercial sorbent (Oasis HLB). With MIP 2 as sorbent and butyl paraben as target, when percolating 500 mL of river water spiked at 1 μg L(-1) through the SPE cartridge, and using 1 mL of isopropanol as cleaning solvent, a higher recovery of butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (butyl paraben) and a cleaner chromatogram where achievable when using the MIP compared to the commercial sorbent.

  17. Design of biomimetic catalysts by molecular imprinting in synthetic polymers: the role of transition state stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulff, Günter; Liu, Junqiu

    2012-02-21

    The impressive efficiency and selectivity of biological catalysts has engendered a long-standing effort to understand the details of enzyme action. It is widely accepted that enzymes accelerate reactions through their steric and electronic complementarity to the reactants in the rate-determining transition states. Thus, tight binding to the transition state of a reactant (rather than to the corresponding substrate) lowers the activation energy of the reaction, providing strong catalytic activity. Debates concerning the fundamentals of enzyme catalysis continue, however, and non-natural enzyme mimics offer important additional insight in this area. Molecular structures that mimic enzymes through the design of a predetermined binding site that stabilizes the transition state of a desired reaction are invaluable in this regard. Catalytic antibodies, which can be quite active when raised against stable transition state analogues of the corresponding reaction, represent particularly successful examples. Recently, synthetic chemistry has begun to match nature's ability to produce antibody-like binding sites with high affinities for the transition state. Thus, synthetic, molecularly imprinted polymers have been engineered to provide enzyme-like specificity and activity, and they now represent a powerful tool for creating highly efficient catalysts. In this Account, we review recent efforts to develop enzyme models through the concept of transition state stabilization. In particular, models for carboxypeptidase A were prepared through the molecular imprinting of synthetic polymers. On the basis of successful experiments with phosphonic esters as templates to arrange amidinium groups in the active site, the method was further improved by combining the concept of transition state stabilization with the introduction of special catalytic moieties, such as metal ions in a defined orientation in the active site. In this way, the imprinted polymers were able to provide both an

  18. Determination of donepezil in serum samples using molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Mehdi Rajabnia; Bikloo, Shahrzad; Shahreza, Sara

    2016-03-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer designed for the selective extraction of donepezil from serum samples was synthesized using a noncovalent molecular imprinting approach. The molecularly imprinted polymer was evaluated chromatographically and then its affinity for donepezil was confirmed by solid-phase extraction. The optimal conditions for solid-phase extraction were provided by cartridge conditioning using acidified water purified from a Milli-Q system, sample loading under basic aqueous conditions, clean-up using acetonitrile, and elution with methanol/tetrahydrofuran. Desirable molecular recognition properties of the molecularly imprinted polymer led to good donepezil recoveries (90-102%). The data indicated that the imprinted polymer has a perfect selectivity and affinity for donepezil and could be used for selective extraction and analysis of donepezil in human serum.

  19. Selective separation and enrichment of glibenclamide in health foods using surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared via dendritic grafting of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruoyu; Wang, Yang; Xue, Cheng; Wen, Tingting; Wu, Jinhua; Hong, Junli; Zhou, Xuemin

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the novel surface molecularly imprinted polymers based on dendritic-grafting magnetic nanoparticles were developed to enrich and separate glibenclamide in health foods. The density functional theory method was used to give theoretical directions to the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers. The polymers were prepared by using magnetic nanoparticles as supporting materials, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles and polymers were measured by transmission electron microscope and SEM, respectively. The enriching ability of molecularly imprinted polymers was measured by Freundlich Isotherm. The molecularly imprinted polymers were used as dispersive SPE materials to enrich, separate, and detect glibenclamide in health foods by HPLC. The average recoveries of glibenclamide in spiked health foods were 81.46-93.53% with the RSD < 4.07%.

  20. Removal and destruction of endocrine disrupting contaminants by adsorption with molecularly imprinted polymers followed by simultaneous extraction and phototreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Alvarez, Paula [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden); University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Chemical Engineering, Instituto de Investigaciones Tecnologicas, C/Constantino Candeira, s/n. E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Le Noir, Mathieu [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Guieysse, Benoit [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden); School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Block N1, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)], E-mail: bjguieysse@ntu.edu.sg

    2009-04-30

    This study presents a method to regenerate molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) used for the selective removal of endocrine disrupting compounds from aqueous effluents. Regeneration was based on solvent extraction under UV irradiation to regenerate the polymer and the solvent while destroying the contaminants. Acetone was selected as the best solvent for irradiation of estrone (E1), 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) using either UVC (254 nm) or UV-vis. A MIP synthesized with E2 as template was then tested for the extraction of this compound from a 2 {mu}g/L loaded aqueous solution. E2 was recovered by 73 {+-} 11% and 46 {+-} 13% from the MIPs and a non-imprinted control polymer synthesized under the same conditions, respectively, after a single step elution with acetone. The irradiated polymers and acetone were reused for an additional extraction-regeneration cycle and showed no capacity decrease.

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers with Bi-functional Monomers of Polymerizable Cyclodextrin Derivatives and 2-(Diethylamino)-ethyl Methacrylate for Recognition of Norfloxacin in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Feng XU; Lan LIU; Qin Ying DENG

    2006-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer was synthesized using 2-(diethylamino)ethylmethacry -late(DEM) and bismethacryloyl-β-cyclodextrin(BMA-β-CD) as bi-functional monomers and norfloxacin(NOF) as a template. The results of equilibrium binding experiments indicated that the polymer has affinity and specificity for NOF in aqueous media, and that its selective recognition ability for the template was higher than that of the imprinted polymers synthesized with a single functional monomer (BMA-β-CD or DEM).

  2. Development of molecularly imprinted polymers as tailored templates for the solid-state [2+2] photodimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Shimizu, Ken D

    2009-11-15

    In this study, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared to selectively template the [2+2] photodimerization of trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene. First, an MIP selective for rctt-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)cyclobutane, which is the [2+2] photodimerization product of trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, was prepared from methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). The non-covalent MIP showed enhanced affinity for both the templating agent, rctt-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)cyclobutane, and the alkene precursor, trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene. The solid-state photodimerization reaction proceeded in significantly higher yields in the presence of the MIP. Control reactions carried out in the absence of polymer gave no product, and reactions carried out in the presence of a non-imprinted polymer and an MIP imprinted with a different template, 3-hydroxymethylpyridine, gave much lower yields of the cyclobutane photodimerization product. The outcome of the MIP-templated photodimerization reaction was strongly influenced by the binding site heterogeneity of the non-covalently imprinted polymers. For example, higher yields were observed with decreasing olefin loadings levels on the MIPs. This binding site heterogeneity was characterized via application of the Freundlich binding model to the experimentally measured binding isotherms. These confirmed that the non-covalent MIPs had very few high-affinity binding sites, which greatly limits the capacity and ultimately the utility of these materials as templates in synthetic organic applications.

  3. 4-nitrophenol surface molecularly imprinted polymers based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the elimination of paraoxon pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Wenhao; Shi, Heguang; Shi, Wang; Guo, Yong; Guo, Tianying

    2012-08-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers were grafted on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) using the hydrolysis product of paraoxon 4-nitrophenol as template, 4-vinyl pyridine (4-VPy) as the functional monomer and divinylbenzen (DVB) as the crosslinker. The binding experiments of 4-nitrophenol indicated that the MWCNT based molecularly imprinted polymers (MWCNT-MIP) have much higher adsorption ability than the MWCNT based non-imprinted polymers (MWCNT-NIP). At the same time we found that the adsorption of 4-nitrophenol can help to increase the hydrolytic rate of paraoxon, which indicates that there is an obvious catalyzing effect on the hydrolysis of paraoxon for this kind of materials. Furthermore, the 4-nitrophenol left in the paraoxon hydrolysis medium is only 0.01056 mM for MWCNT-MIP in the catalytic experiment of paraoxon we made (the initial concentration of paraoxon is 0.5 mM and MWCNT-MIP is 4 mg), which indicates that this kind of MWCNT based imprinted polymers can not only catalyze the hydrolysis of paraoxon but also eliminate the poisonous organism product 4-nitrophenol.

  4. Determination of Parathion-methyl in Vegetables by Fluorescent-Labeled Molecular Imprinted Polymer%Determination of Parathion-methyl in Vegetables by Fluorescent-Labeled Molecular Imprinted Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙倩; 姚倩倩; 孙琳; 周天舒; 聂冬霞; 施国跃; 金利通

    2011-01-01

    A novel sensor for the determination of parathion-methyl based on couple grafting of functional molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) was fabricated which is developed by anchoring the MIP layer on surfaces of silica particles embedded CdSe quantum dots by surface imprinting technology. The synthesized molecular imprinted silica nanospheres (CdSe@SiO2@MIP) allow a high selectivity and sensitivity of parathion-methyl via fluorescence intensity decreasing when the MIP material rebinding the parathion-methyl molecule. Compared with the MIP fabri- cated in traditional method, the template of parathion-methyl was easier to remove from the CdSe@SiO2@MIP imprinted material. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity of parathion-methyl at the imprinted sensor was detected by spectrofluorophotometer. The relative fluorescence intensity of CdSe@SiO2@MIP decreased linearly with the increasing concentration of parathion-methyl ranging from 0.013 mg·kg^-1 to 2.63mg·kg^-1 with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.004 mg·kg^-1 (S/N=3), which is lower than the MIP in tradition. The imprinted film sensor was applied to detect parathion-methyl in vegetable samples without the interference of other organophosphate pesticides and showed a prosperous application in the field of food safety.

  5. Molecular Imprinted Polymer of Methacrylic Acid Functionalised β-Cyclodextrin for Selective Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    OpenAIRE

    Hemavathy Surikumaran; Sharifah Mohamad; Norazilawati Muhamad Sarih

    2014-01-01

    This work describes methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-βCD) as a novel functional monomer in the preparation of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP MAA-βCD) for the selective removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The polymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The influence of parameters such as solution pH, contact time, temperature and initia...

  6. Biomimetic piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor with chloramphenicol-imprinted polymer sensing layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebarvia, Benilda S; Ubando, Isaiah E; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2015-11-01

    The measurement of banned antibiotic like chloramphenicol is significant for customer protection and safety. The presence of residual antibiotics in foods and food products of animal origin could pose as health hazards and affect food quality for global acceptance. In this study, the potential of a chloramphenicol sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) coupled with a piezoelectric quartz crystal was explored. The MIP was prepared by precipitation polymerization at 60 °C. Methacrylic acid was used as monomer, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as crosslinker, and chloramphenicol as the template. Template removal on the resulting polymer was done by extraction using methanol-acetic acid. Characterization of the MIP and NIP were conducted by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. These further supported the imprinting and rebinding process of chloramphenicol to the polymer matrix. The chloramphenicol sensor was devised by spin-coating onto one side of the 10 MHz AT-cut quartz crystal the MIP suspension in polyvinylchloride-tetrahydrofuran (6:2:1 w/w/v) solution. Optimization of sensor response was performed by varying the type of cross-linker, amount of MIP sensing layer, curing time, and pH. The sensor exhibited good sensitivity of about 73 Hz/log (conc., µg mL(-1)) and good repeatability (rsd<10%). A linear relationship (r(2)=0.9901) between frequency shift and chloramphenicol concentration in the range of 1×10(-6) up to 1×10(-1) µg/mL was obtained. The sensor response was highly selective to chloramphenicol than with other compounds of similar chemical structures. Acceptable percent recovery was obtained for real sample analysis using the sensor. The proposed sensor could be a promising low cost and highly sensitive approach for residual chloramphenicol quantification in food products.

  7. Highly selective and sensitive analysis of dopamine by molecularly imprinted stir bar sorptive extraction technique coupled with complementary molecularly imprinted polymer sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Srivastava, Amrita; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad

    2013-04-15

    This paper reports a combination of molecularly imprinted stir bar sorptive extraction and complementary molecularly imprinted polymer-sensor for the analysis of dopamine as a biomarker of several neurodegenerative diseases occurred at ultra trace level. This exploited iniferter initiated polymerization via "surface grafting-from" approach onto magnetic stir bar (for sorptive extraction) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes-ceramic electrode (for detection). Such hyphenation helped dual pre-concentration of dopamine in aqueous, biological and pharmaceutical samples. This enabled high sensitivity to achieve the stringent limit [limit of detection: 4.9ngL(-1), RSD=2.4%, S/N=3, cerebrospinal fluid] of clinical detection, without any problems of non-specific contributions and cross-reactivity.

  8. Synthesis and Ionic Conductivity of Network Polymer Electrolytes with Internal Plasticizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Jie KANG; Shi Bi FANG

    2004-01-01

    Network polymer electrolytes with free oligo(oxyethylene) chains as internal plasticizers were prepared by cross-linking poly(ethylene glycol) acrylates. The effects of salt concentration and properties of internal plasticizers on ionic conductivity were studied.

  9. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li i...

  10. Heat-transfer-method-based cell culture quality assay through cell detection by surface imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eersels, Kasper; van Grinsven, Bart; Khorshid, Mehran; Somers, Veerle; Püttmann, Christiane; Stein, Christoph; Barth, Stefan; Diliën, Hanne; Bos, Gerard M J; Germeraad, Wilfred T V; Cleij, Thomas J; Thoelen, Ronald; De Ceuninck, Ward; Wagner, Patrick

    2015-02-17

    Previous work has indicated that surface imprinted polymers (SIPs) allow for highly specific cell detection through macromolecular cell imprints. The combination of SIPs with a heat-transfer-based read-out technique has led to the development of a selective, label-free, low-cost, and user-friendly cell detection assay. In this study, the breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1 is used to assess the potential of the platform for monitoring the quality of a cell culture in time. For this purpose, we show that the proposed methodology is able to discriminate between the original cell line (adherent growth, ZR-75-1a) and a descendant cell line (suspension growth, ZR-75-1s). Moreover, ZR-75-1a cells were cultured for a prolonged period of time and analyzed using the heat-transfer method (HTM) at regular time intervals. The results of these experiments demonstrate that the thermal resistance (Rth) signal decays after a certain number of cell culture passages. This can likely be attributed to a compromised quality of the cell culture due to cross-contamination with the ZR-75-1s cell line, a finding that was confirmed by classical STR DNA profiling. The cells do not express the same functional groups on their membrane, resulting in a weaker bond between cell and imprint, enabling cell removal by mechanical friction, provided by flushing the measuring chamber with buffer solution. These findings were further confirmed by HTM and illustrate that the biomimetic sensor platform can be used as an assay for monitoring the quality of cell cultures in time.

  11. Paclitaxel molecularly imprinted polymer-PEG-folate nanoparticles for targeting anticancer delivery: Characterization and cellular cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi; Darvishi, Behrad; Ishkuh, Fatemeh Azizi; Shahmoradi, Elnaz; Mohammadi, Ali; Javanbakht, Mehran; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Atyabi, Fatemeh

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer-poly ethylene glycol-folic acid (MIP-PEG-FA) nanoparticles for use as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. MIP nanoparticles were synthesized by a mini-emulsion polymerization technique and then PEG-FA was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles showed high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, 15.6 ± 0.8 and 100%, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was evaluated by binding experiments in human serum. Good selective binding and recognition were found in MIP nanoparticles. In vitro drug release studies showed that MIP-PEG-FA have a controlled release of PTX, because of the presence of imprinted sites in the polymeric structure, which makes it is suitable for sustained drug delivery. The drug release from polymeric nanoparticles was indeed higher at acidic pH. The molecular structure of MIP-PEG-FA was confirmed by Hydrogen-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR), and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, and their thermal behaviors by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) results showed that nanoparticles have a smooth surface and spherical shape with an average size of 181 nm. MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles showed a greater amount of intracellular uptake in folate receptor-positive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) in comparison with the non-folate nanoparticles and free PTX, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4.9 ± 0.9, 7.4 ± 0.5 and 32.8 ± 3.8 nM, respectively. These results suggest that MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles could be a potentially useful drug carrier for targeting drug delivery to cancer cells.

  12. Ultratrace Detection of Histamine Using a Molecularly-Imprinted Polymer-Based Voltammetric Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhoundian, Maedeh; Rüter, Axel; Shinde, Sudhirkumar

    2017-03-21

    Rapid and cost-effective analysis of histamine, in food, environmental, and diagnostics research has been of interest recently. However, for certain applications, the already-existing biological receptor-based sensing methods have usage limits in terms of stability and costs. As a result, robust and cost-effective imprinted polymeric receptors can be the best alternative. In the present work, molecularly-imprinted polymers (MIPs) for histamine were synthesized using methacrylic acid in chloroform and acetonitrile as two different porogens. The binding affinity of the MIPs with histamine was evaluated in aqueous media. MIPs synthesized in chloroform displayed better imprinting properties for histamine. We demonstrate here histamine MIPs incorporated into a carbon paste (CP) electrode as a MIP-CP electrode sensor platforms for detection of histamine. This simple sensor format allows accurate determination of histamine in the sub-nanomolar range using an electrochemical method. The sensor exhibited two distinct linear response ranges of 1 × 10(-10)-7 × 10(-9) M and 7 × 10(-9)-4 × 10(-7) M. The detection limit of the sensor was calculated equal to 7.4 × 10(-11) M. The specificity of the proposed electrode for histamine is demonstrated by using the analogous molecules and other neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, etc. The MIP sensor was investigated with success on spiked serum samples. The easy preparation, simple procedure, and low production cost make the MIP sensor attractive for selective and sensitive detection of analytes, even in less-equipped laboratories with minimal training.

  13. Electrochemical sensor for catechol and dopamine based on a catalytic molecularly imprinted polymer-conducting polymer hybrid recognition element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, Dhana; Bossi, Alessandra; Whitcombe, Michael J; Chianella, Iva; Fowler, Steven A; Subrahmanyam, Sreenath; Piletska, Elena V; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2009-05-01

    One of the difficulties with using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) and other electrically insulating materials as the recognition element in electrochemical sensors is the lack of a direct path for the conduction of electrons from the active sites to the electrode. We have sought to address this problem through the preparation and characterization of novel hybrid materials combining a catalytic MIP, capable of oxidizing the template, catechol, with an electrically conducting polymer. In this way a network of "molecular wires" assists in the conduction of electrons from the active sites within the MIP to the electrode surface. This was made possible by the design of a new monomer that combines orthogonal polymerizable functionality; comprising an aniline group and a methacrylamide. Conducting films were prepared on the surface of electrodes (Au on glass) by electropolymerization of the aniline moiety. A layer of MIP was photochemically grafted over the polyaniline, via N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamic acid benzyl ester (iniferter) activation of the methacrylamide groups. Detection of catechol by the hybrid-MIP sensor was found to be specific, and catechol oxidation was detected by cyclic voltammetry at the optimized operating conditions: potential range -0.6 V to +0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl), scan rate 50 mV/s, PBS pH 7.4. The calibration curve for catechol was found to be linear to 144 microM, with a limit of detection of 228 nM. Catechol and dopamine were detected by the sensor, whereas analogues and potentially interfering compounds, including phenol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, serotonin, and ascorbic acid, had minimal effect (< or = 3%) on the detection of either analyte. Non-imprinted hybrid electrodes and bare gold electrodes failed to give any response to catechol at concentrations below 0.5 mM. Finally, the catalytic properties of the sensor were characterized by chronoamperometry and were found to be consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  14. Optimal design of 850 nm 2×2 multimode interference polymer waveguide coupler by imprint technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuchen; Han, Xiuyou; Han, Xiaonan; Lu, Zhili; Wu, Zhenlin; Teng, Jie; Wang, Jinyan; Morthier, Geert; Zhao, Mingshan

    2016-09-01

    A 2×2 optical waveguide coupler at 850 nm based on the multimode interference (MMI) structure with the polysilsesquioxanes liquid series (PSQ-Ls) polymer material and the imprint technique is presented. The influence of the structural parameters, such as the single mode condition, the waveguide spacing of input/output ports, and the width and length of the multimode waveguide, on the optical splitting performance including the excess loss and the uniformity is simulated by the beam propagation method. By inserting a taper section of isosceles trapezoid between the single mode and multimode waveguides, the optimized structural parameters for low excess loss and high uniformity are obtained with the excess loss of‒0.040 dB and the uniformity of‒0.007 dB. The effect of the structure deviations induced during the imprint process on the optical splitting performance at different residual layer thicknesses is also investigated. The analysis results provide useful instructions for the waveguide device fabrication.

  15. Molecular imprinted polymer-coated optical fiber sensor for the identification of low molecular weight molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépinay, Sandrine; Ianoul, Anatoli; Albert, Jacques

    2014-10-01

    A biomimetic optical probe for detecting low molecular weight molecules (maltol, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one, molecular weight of 126.11 g/mol), was designed, fabricated, and characterized. The sensor couples a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) and the Bragg grating refractometry technology into an optical fiber. The probe is fabricated first by inscribing tilted grating planes in the core of the fiber, and then by photopolymerization to immobilize a maltol imprinted MIP on the fiber cladding surface over the Bragg grating. The sensor response to the presence of maltol in different media is obtained by spectral interrogation of the fiber transmission signal. The results showed that the limit of detection of the sensor reached 1 ng/mL in pure water with a sensitivity of 6.3 × 10(8)pm/M. The selectivity of the sensor against other compounds and its reusability were also studied experimentally. Finally, the unambiguous detection of concentrations as little as 10nM of maltol in complex media (real food samples) by the MIP-coated tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor was demonstrated.

  16. Study on Dicyandiamide-Imprinted Polymers with Computer-Aided Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadong Liang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With the aid of theoretical calculations, a series of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were designed and prepared for the recognition of dicyandiamide (DCD via precipitation polymerization using acetonitrile as the solvent at 333 K. On the basis of the long-range correction method of M062X/6-31G(d,p, we simulated the bonding sites, bonding situations, binding energies, imprinted molar ratios, and the mechanisms of interaction between DCD and the functional monomers. Among acrylamide (AM, N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA, itaconic acid (IA, and methacrylic acid (MAA, MAA was confirmed as the best functional monomer, because the strongest interaction (the maximum number of hydrogen bonds and the lowest binding energy occurs between DCD and MAA, when the optimal molar ratios for DCD to the functional monomers were used, respectively. Additionally, pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA was confirmed to be the best cross-linker among divinylbenzene (DVB, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate (TRIM, and PETA. This is due to the facts that the weakest interaction (the highest binding energy occurs between PETA and DCD, and the strongest interaction (the lowest binding energy occurs between PETA and MAA. Depending on the results of theoretical calculations, a series of MIPs were prepared. Among them, the ones prepared using DCD, MAA, and PETA as the template, the functional monomer, and the cross-linker, respectively, exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for DCD. The apparent maximum absorption quantity of DCD on the MIP was 17.45 mg/g.

  17. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for the Detection of Deoxynivalenol Using a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyang Sook Chun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the feasibility of applying the molecular imprinting polymer technique to the detection of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR transducer. A molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPPy film was prepared via electropolymerization of pyrrole onto a bare Au chip in the presence of a template DON molecule. Atomic force microscope SPR analysis showed that the MIPPy film was deposited homogeneously on the Au surface, with a thickness of 5 nm. The MIPPy–SPR sensor exhibited a linear response for the detection of DON in the range of 0.1–100 ng/mL (R2 = 0.988. The selectivity efficiency of the MIPPy film for DON and its acetylated analogs 3-ADON and 15-ADON was 100, 19, and 44%, respectively. The limit of detection for DON with the MIPPy–SPR for a standard solution was estimated at >1 ng/mL. These results suggest that the combination of SPR sensing with a MIPPy film as a synthetic receptor can be used to detect DON.

  18. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for the Identification and Separation of Chiral Drugs and Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinting polymers (MIPs have been extensively applied in chromatography for the separation of chiral drugs. In this review, we mainly summarize recent developments of various MIPs used as chiral stationary phases (CSPs in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, capillary electrochromatography (CEC, and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC. Among them, HPLC has the advantages of straightforward operation and high selectivity. However, the low separation efficiency, due to slow interaction kinetics and heavy peak broadening, is the main challenge for the application of MIPs in HPLC. On the other hand, CEC possesses both the high selectivity of HPLC and the high efficiency of capillary electrophoresis. In CEC, electroosmotic flow is formed across the entire column and reduces the heavy peak broadening observed in HPLC mode. SFC can modify the low interaction kinetics in HPLC when supercritical fluids are utilized as mobile phases. If SFC and MIP-based CSPs can be well combined, better separation performance can be achieved. Particles, monoliths and membrane are typical formats of MIPs. Traditional MIP particles produced by bulk polymerization have been replaced by MIP particles by surface imprinting technology, which are highly consistent in size and shape. Monolithic MIPs are prepared by in situ method in a column, greatly shortening the pre-preparation time. Some novel materials, such as magnetic nanoparticles, are integrated into the MIPs to enhance the controllability and efficiency of the polymerization. This review will be helpful to guide the preparation, development, and application of MIPs in chromatographic and electrophoretic enantioseparation.

  19. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-03-01

    A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract.

  20. Study of the molecularly imprinted polymers for selective binding of the mono-substituted sulfonylurea herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengli; Dong, Xiangchao; Wang, Bo; Fan, Zhijin; Luan, Linbo; Li, Yanni

    2013-04-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized for the selective extraction of mono-substituted sulfonylurea herbicides, with monosulfuron as the template and acrylamide as the functional monomer. The recognition property and affinity of the MIP for monosulfuron and its analog, monosulfuron-ester, were evaluated by equilibrium adsorption and a chromatographic study. Computer modeling, including simulated annealing and semi-empirical quantum calculation, was employed to study the recognition mechanism. The computer modeling demonstrated that monosulfuron can form multiple hydrogen bonds with methacrylic acid and acrylamide, whereas monosulfuron-ester cannot form a stable complex with these two functional monomers, which aligns with the results of the rebinding experiment. The selectivity study further demonstrated that binding sites in the MIP interact with the hydrogen in the acylamino group of mono-substituted sulfonylurea. A comparison experiment also showed that monosulfuron-imprinted MIP offers better selectivity for monosulfuron-ester than the commercial C18 high-performance liquid chromatography stationary phase material.

  1. Reduced graphene oxide/molecular imprinted polymer-organic thin film transistor for amino acid detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Nurul Farhanah AB.; Musa, Nur Hazwani; Zakaria, Zulkhairi; Von Schleusingen, Mubaraq; Ahmad, Mohd Noor; Derman, Nazree; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md.

    2017-03-01

    This works reports the electrical performance of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP)- organic thin film transistor (OTFT) for amino-acid detection, serine. These biomimetic sensors consider MIP as man-tailored biomimetic recognition sites that play an important role in signal transduction. MIP provides recognition sites compatible with serine molecules was developed by dispersing serine with methylacrylate acid (MAA) as functional monomer and Ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linker. The imprinted polymeric were mixed with reduced graphene oxide to produced sensing layer for the sensor. RGO-MIP layer was introduced between source and drain of OTFT via spin coating as a detecting layer for serine molecules. RGO was introduced into MIP, to allow a highly conductive sensing material thus enhanced selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor. By analyzing the electrical performance of the sensors, the performances of OTFT sensor enhanced with RGO/MIP interlayer and OTFT sensor with MIP interlayer when exposed to serine analyte were obtained. The results showed that there were remarkable shifts of drain current (ID) obtained from OTFT sensor with RGO/MIP interlayer after exposed to serine analyte. Moreover, the sensitivity of OTFT sensor with RGO/MIP interlayer was nearly higher than the OTFT sensor with MIP interlayer. Hence, it proved that RGO successfully enhanced the sensing performance of OTFT sensor.

  2. Encapsulation of ionic electroactive polymers: reducing the interaction with environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakson, P.; Aabloo, A.; Tamm, T.

    2016-04-01

    Ionic electro-active polymer (iEAP) actuators are composite materials that change their mechanical properties in response to external electrical stimulus. The interest in these devices is mainly driven by their capability to generate biomimetic movements, and their potential use in soft robotics. The driving voltage of an iEAP-actuator (0.5… 3 V) is at least an order of magnitude lower than that needed for other types of electroactive polymers. To apply iEAP-actuators in potential real-world applications, the capability of operating in different environments (open air, different solvents) must be available. In their natural form, the iEAP-actuators are capable of interacting with the surrounding environment (evaporation of solvent from the electrolyte solution, ion or solvent exchange, humidity effects), therefore, for prevention of unpredictable behavior of the actuator and the contamination of the environment, encapsulation of the actuator is needed. The environmental contamination aspect of the encapsulation material is substantial when selecting an applicable encapsulant. The suitable encapsulant should form thin films, be light in weight, elastic, fit tightly, low cost, and easily reproducible. The main goal of the present study is to identify and evaluate the best potential encapsulation techniques for iEAPactuators. Various techniques like thin film on liquid coating, dip coating, hot pressing, hot rolling; and several materials like polydimethylsiloxane, polyurethane, nitrocellulose, paraffin-composite-films were investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of the combinations of the above mentioned techniques and materials are discussed. Successfully encapsulated iEAP-actuators gained durability and were stably operable for long periods of time under ambient conditions. The encapsulation process also increased the stability of the iEAP-actuator by minimizing the environment effects. This makes controlling iEAP-actuators more straight-forward and

  3. Preparation of magnetic TNT-imprinted polymer nanoparticles and their accumulation onto magnetic carbon paste electrode for TNT determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher

    2014-11-15

    In this study, the TNT-imprinted polymer shell was created on nano-sized Fe3O4 cores in order to construct the nano-sized magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (nano-MMIP). For this purpose, the surface of the synthesized magnetic nanoparticles was modified with methacrylic acid. The modified particles were then utilized as the core on which the TNT-imprinted polymeric shell was synthesized. The synthesized materials were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The resulting nano-MMIP particles were suspended in TNT solution and then collected on the surface of a carbon paste electrode via a permanent magnet, situated within the CP electrode. The extracted TNT was analyzed on the CP electrode by applying square wave voltammetry (SWV). It was found that the oxidative signal of TNT is much favorable for TNT detection on the resulting magnetic carbon paste electrode. The electrode with nano-MMIP showed distinctly higher signal to TNT, compared to that containing magnetic non-imprinted polymer (MNIP) nanoparticles. All parameters influencing the method performance including extraction pH, extraction time and sorbent amount were evaluated and optimized. The developed method showed a dynamic linear concentration range of 1.0-130.0 nM for TNT measurement. The detection limit of the method was calculated to be 0.5 nM. The method showed appropriate capability for TNT analysis in real water samples.

  4. Stretching DNA in polymer nanochannels fabricated by thermal imprint in PMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamdrup, Lasse H; Kristensen, Anders [NanoDTU, MIC-Department of Micro and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Klukowska, Anna [micro resist technology GmbH, D-12555 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: ak@mic.dtu.dk

    2008-03-26

    We present results regarding the fast and inexpensive fabrication of polymer biochips for investigating the statics and dynamics of DNA confined in nanochannels. The biochips have been fabricated by means of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in low molecular weight polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) using a 4 inch diameter two-level hybrid stamp. The fluidic structures were sealed using thermal polymer fusion bonding. The stamp has nanometer- and micrometer-sized protrusions defined in a thermally grown SiO{sub 2} layer and the sol-gel process derived duromeric hybrid polymer Ormocomp, respectively. The stamp is compatible with molecular vapor deposition (MVD), used for applying a durable chlorosilane based antistiction coating, and allows for imprint up to a temperature of 270 deg. C. The extension of YOYO-1 stained T4 GT7 bacteriophage DNA inside the PMMA nanochannels has been experimentally investigated using epi-fluorescence microscopy. The measured average extension length amounts to 20% of the full contour length with a standard deviation of 4%. These results are in good agreement with results obtained by stretching DNA in conventional fused silica nanochannels.

  5. Design, preparation, surface recognition properties, and characteristics of icariin molecularly imprinted polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohe Jia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Icariin molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were prepared by precipitation polymerization. Prior to the polymerization, computer simulation was performed to sketchily choose the suitable functional monomer and the corresponding polymerization solvent. The optimized synthesis parameters, including the functional monomer acrylamide, the mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (V:V = 3:1 as the polymerization solvent, and the reaction molar ratio (1:6:80 of template molecule, functional monomer and cross-linker, were respectively obtained by single factor analysis and orthogonal design methods. The results of the adsorption experiments showed that the resultant MIPs exhibited good adsorption and recognition abilities to icariin. Scatchard analysis illustrated that the homogeneous binding sites only for icariin molecules were formed in the prepared MIPs.

  6. Characterization of an atrazine molecularly imprinted polymer prepared by a cooling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royani, Idha; Widayani, Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2014-03-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for atrazine was successfully prepared. Atrazine molecules as templates were incorporated into the pre-polymerization solution containing a functional monomer (methacrylic acid), a cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), and an initiator (benzoyl peroxide). The placement of a tube containing the pre-polymerization solution into a freezer was done to replace nitrogen pouring into the pre-polymerization solution. The sensing characteristic of the obtained MIP was examined and it was found that the amount of atrazine bound to the cavities in the MIP increases with increasing the initial concentration of atrazine. From Scatchard plots, it was found that the equilibrium dissociation constant KD and the apparent maximum number of binding sites Bmax, which are written as (KD, Bmax), are (6.4 μM, 13.41 mmol/g) and (6.5 μM, 4.55 mmol/g) for the 10 and 30 mg of MIP, respectively.

  7. Optimisation of the synthesis of vancomycin-selective molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles using automatic photoreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Kateryna; Karim, Khalku; Guerreiro, Antonio; Poma, Alessandro; Piletsky, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    A novel optimized protocol for solid-state synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) with specificity for antibiotic vancomycin is described. The experimental objective was optimization of the synthesis parameters (factors) affecting the yield of obtained nanoparticles which have been synthesized using the first prototype of an automated solid-phase synthesizer. Applications of experimental design (or design of experiments) in optimization of nanoMIP yield were carried out using MODDE 9.0 software. The factors chosen in the model were the amount of functional monomers in the polymerization mixture, irradiation time, temperature during polymerization, and elution temperature. In general, it could be concluded that the irradiation time is the most important and the temperature was the least important factor which influences the yield of nanoparticles. Overall, the response surface methodology proved to be an effective tool in reducing time required for optimization of complex experimental conditions.

  8. Development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based surface plasmon resonance sensor for theophylline monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Cameron, Brent D.

    2011-03-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) thin films and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing technologies were combined to develop a novel sensing platform for monitoring real-time theophylline concentration, which is a compound of interest in environmental monitoring and a molecular probe for phenotyping certain cytochrome P450 enzymes. The MIPs hydrogel is easy to synthesize and provides shape-selective recognition with high affinity to specific target molecules. Different polymerization formulas were tested and optimized. The influence of the monomer sensitive factors were addressed by SPR. SPR is an evanescent wave optics based sensing technique that is suitable for real-time and label free sensing purposes. Gold nanorods (Au NRs) were uniformly immobilized onto a SPR sensing surface for the construction of a fiber optics based prism-free localized SPR (LSPR) measurement. This technique can be also applied to assess the activities of other small organic molecules by adjusting the polymerization formula, thus, this approach also has many other potential applications.

  9. Ultrasensitive Detection of Testosterone Using Microring Resonator with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangqing Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report ultrasensitive and highly selective detection of testosterone based on microring resonance sensor using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI micoring resonator was modified by MIP films (MIPs on a surface. The MIPs was synthesized by thermopolymerization using methacrylic acid as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent. The concentration of detected testosterone varies from 0.05 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. The detection limit reaches 48.7 pg/mL. Ultrahigh sensitivity, good specificity and reproducibility have been demonstrated, indicating the great potential of making a cost effective and easy to operate lab-on-Chip and down scaling micro-fluidics devices in biosensing.

  10. A Molecularly Imprinted Polymer with Incorporated Graphene Oxide for Electrochemical Determination of Quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen He

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The molecularly imprinted polymer based on polypyrrole film with incorporated graphene oxide was fabricated and used for electrochemical determination of quercetin. The electrochemical behavior of quercetin on the modified electrode was studied in detail using differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak current of quercetin in B-R buffer solution (pH = 3.5 at the modified electrode was regressed with the concentration in the range from 6.0 × 10−7 to 1.5 × 10−5 mol/L (r2 = 0.997 with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10−8 mol/L (S/N = 3. This electrode showed good stability and reproducibility. In the above mentioned range, rutin or morin which has similar structures and at the same concentration as quercetin did not interfere with the determination of quercetin. The applicability of the method for complex matrix analysis was also evaluated.

  11. Biomimetic insulin-imprinted polymer nanoparticles as a potential oral drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Pijush Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs, which form a three-dimensional image of the region at and around the active binding sites of pharmaceutically active insulin or are analogous to b cells bound to insulin. This approach was employed to create a welldefined structure within the nanospace cavities that make up functional monomers by cross-linking. The obtained MIPs exhibited a high adsorption capacity for the target insulin, which showed a significantly higher release of insulin in solution at pH 7.4 than at pH 1.2. In vivo studies on diabetic Wistar rats showed that the fast onset within 2 h is similar to subcutaneous injection with a maximum at 4 h, giving an engaged function responsible for the duration of glucose reduction for up to 24 h. These MIPs, prepared as nanosized material, may open a new horizon for oral insulin delivery.

  12. A molecularly imprinted polymer with incorporated graphene oxide for electrochemical determination of quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Si; Zhang, Mengqi; Li, Yijun; He, Xiwen

    2013-04-25

    The molecularly imprinted polymer based on polypyrrole film with incorporated graphene oxide was fabricated and used for electrochemical determination of quercetin. The electrochemical behavior of quercetin on the modified electrode was studied in detail using differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak current of quercetin in B-R buffer solution (pH = 3.5) at the modified electrode was regressed with the concentration in the range from 6.0 × 10(-7) to 1.5 × 10(-5) mol/L (r2 = 0.997) with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10(-8) mol/L (S/N = 3). This electrode showed good stability and reproducibility. In the above mentioned range, rutin or morin which has similar structures and at the same concentration as quercetin did not interfere with the determination of quercetin. The applicability of the method for complex matrix analysis was also evaluated.

  13. Fluid flow sensing with ionic polymer-metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalbaum, Tyler; Trabia, Sarah; Shen, Qi; Kim, Kwang J.

    2016-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuators and sensors have been developed and modeled over the last two decades for use as soft-robotic deformable actuators and sensors. IPMC devices have been suggested for application as underwater actuators, energy harvesting devices, and medical devices such as in guided catheter insertion. Another interesting application of IPMCs in flow sensing is presented in this study. IPMC interaction with fluid flow is of interest to investigate the use of IPMC actuators as flow control devices and IPMC sensors as flow sensing devices. An organized array of IPMCs acting as interchanging sensors and actuators could potentially be designed for both flow measurement and control, providing an unparalleled tool in maritime operations. The underlying physics for this system include the IPMC ion transport and charge fundamental framework along with fluid dynamics to describe the flow around IPMCs. An experimental setup for an individual rectangular IPMC sensor with an externally controlled fluid flow has been developed to investigate this phenomenon and provide further insight into the design and application of this type of device. The results from this portion of the study include recommendations for IPMC device designs in flow control.

  14. Bio-applications of ionic polymer metal composite transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, K. C.; McDaid, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Traditional robotic actuators have advanced performance which in some aspects can surpass that of humans, however they are lacking when it comes to developing devices which are capable of operating together with humans. Bio-inspired transducers, for example ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), which have similar properties to human tissue and muscle, demonstrate much future promise as candidates for replacing traditional robotic actuators in medical robotics applications. This paper outlines four biomedical robotics applications, an IPMC stepper motor, an assistive glove exoskeleton/prosthetic hand, a surgical robotic tool and a micromanipulation system. These applications have been developed using mechanical design/modelling techniques with IPMC ‘artificial muscle’ as the actuation system. The systems are designed by first simulating the performance using an IPMC model and dynamic models of the mechanical system; the appropriate advanced adaptive control schemes are then implemented to ensure that the IPMCs operate in the correct manner, robustly over time. This paper serves as an overview of the applications and concludes with some discussion on the future challenges of developing real-world IPMC applications.

  15. Ionic Liquid based polymer electrolytes for electrochemical sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Altšmíd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Amperometric NO2 printed sensor with a new type of solid polymer electrolyte and a carbon working electrode has been developed. The electrolytes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide [EMIM][N(Tf2], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [EMIM][BF4] ionic liquids were immobilized in poly(vinylidene fluoride matrix [PVDF]. The analyte, gaseous nitrogen dioxide, was detected by reduction at -500 mV vs. platinum pseudoreference electrode. The sensors showed a linear behavior in the whole tested range, i.e., 0 - 5 ppm and their sensitivities were in order of 0.3 x∙10-6 A/ppm. The sensor sensitivity was influenced by the electric conductivity of printing formulation; the higher the conductivity, the higher the sensor sensitivity. The rise/recovery times were in order of tens of seconds. The use of  screen printing technology and platinum pseudoreference electrode simplify the sensor fabrication and it does not have any negative effect on the sensor stability.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.3.7371

  16. Paclitaxel molecularly imprinted polymer-PEG-folate nanoparticles for targeting anticancer delivery: Characterization and cellular cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfandyari-Manesh, Mehdi [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Darvishi, Behrad [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ishkuh, Fatemeh Azizi [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmoradi, Elnaz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Ali [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Javanbakht, Mehran [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Atyabi, Fatemeh, E-mail: atyabifa@tums.ac.ir [Nanotechnology Research Center,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize molecularly imprinted polymer-poly ethylene glycol-folic acid (MIP-PEG-FA) nanoparticles for use as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to cancer cells. MIP nanoparticles were synthesized by a mini-emulsion polymerization technique and then PEG-FA was conjugated to the surface of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles showed high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency, 15.6 ± 0.8 and 100%, respectively. The imprinting efficiency of MIPs was evaluated by binding experiments in human serum. Good selective binding and recognition were found in MIP nanoparticles. In vitro drug release studies showed that MIP-PEG-FA have a controlled release of PTX, because of the presence of imprinted sites in the polymeric structure, which makes it is suitable for sustained drug delivery. The drug release from polymeric nanoparticles was indeed higher at acidic pH. The molecular structure of MIP-PEG-FA was confirmed by Hydrogen-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H NMR), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FT-IR), and Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) spectroscopy, and their thermal behaviors by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) results showed that nanoparticles have a smooth surface and spherical shape with an average size of 181 nm. MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles showed a greater amount of intracellular uptake in folate receptor-positive cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) in comparison with the non-folate nanoparticles and free PTX, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of 4.9 ± 0.9, 7.4 ± 0.5 and 32.8 ± 3.8 nM, respectively. These results suggest that MIP-PEG-FA nanoparticles could be a potentially useful drug carrier for targeting drug delivery to cancer cells. - Highlights: • MIP-PEG-FA was synthesized as a controlled release carrier for targeting delivery to cancerous cells. • Nanoparticles

  17. Preparation of a Selective L-Phenylalanine Imprinted Polymer Implicated in Patients with Phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Najafizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular imprinting is a method for synthesizing polymers with structure-selective adsorption properties with applications such as, selectivity binding, drug delivery systems and anti-bodies. The present study aims at optimizing the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP against l-phenylalanine, in order to increase phenylalanine-binding in Enzymatic Intestinal Simulated Fluid (ESIF. Methods: The MIP for l-phenylalanine, as a water-soluble template, was successfully synthesized without derivatization. Synthesization was done by a UV polymerization method in which methacrylic acid (MAA, as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, as a cross-linker, were used in the presence of five different porogenic solvents including; acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF, chloroform, toluene and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The selectivity of the MIP was examined using 19 different amino acids in human serum and was evaluated by HPLC. In addition, morphological studies were conducted using SEM. Results: The results showed that the obtained MIP with acetonitrile had the highest capacity and selectivity compared with other solvents. The data indicated that Phe-binding to MIP was significantly more than the former binding to NIP in EISF (P≤0.05. Moreover, in comparison with NIP and control group, MIP showed a better selectivity and binding for Phe. This could be used for the reduction of Phe in human serum samples of Phenylketonuria. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the MIP against Phe prepared with acetonitrile, showed a good selectivity and binding, which caused a reduction of blood Phe concentration in enzymatic simulated intestinal fluid and human serum sample of Phenylketonuria.

  18. Analysis of smoke PAHs from selected Taiwanese cigarettes by using molecular imprinting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wei L; Lin, Ta C; Liu, Yu Y; Chen, Jiun A

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives are common trace pollutants produced during incomplete combustion of organic substances, such as tobacco. After sampling cigarette smoke, PAH collators must undergo pretreatment processes such as extraction, cleanup and concentration before instrument analysis. This study combines molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) to create a novel sample pretreatment technique. Experimental results demonstrate that MIPs have good selectivity for benz[a]pyrene (BaP) from a mixture of 16 PAH solvents. The MIPs were applied to a sample taken from mainstream smoke from a cigarette. Based on functional monomers and crosslinkers, this study investigated two groups of MIPs. After the template was removed, various tests, including capacity, selectivity, recovery, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and real environmental sample tests, were conducted. Experimental results show that MIP-1 is the best MIP, with a capacity of 20.78 +/- 1.7 (micro g/g), BaP selectivity and recovery exceeding 93%. In environmental sample tests, i.e., mainstream smoke from S and M brand cigarettes, 80% of BaP was absorbed by the MIP compared with absorbed by the filters. All experimental results suggest that MIPs effectively adsorbed BaP among 16 different PAHs, reduced background interference and increased signal resolution compared with traditional extraction techniques. Additionally, using MIPs for sample pretreatment is less time-consuming than traditional sample pretreatments and also reduces the amount of organic solvent used. Using molecular imprinted polymers solid extraction (MISPE) may separate target analytes from a complex sample more effectively than traditional Soxhlet extraction. Future toxicity tests should contribute to the understanding of toxic compounds emitted from specific pollution sources.

  19. Molecularly imprinted polymers as selective adsorbents for ambient plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegłowski, Michał; Smoluch, Marek; Reszke, Edward; Silberring, Jerzy; Schroeder, Grzegorz

    2017-05-01

    The application of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as molecular scavengers for ambient plasma ionization mass spectrometry has been reported for the first time. MIPs were synthesized using methacrylic acid as functional monomer; nicotine, propyphenazone, or methylparaben as templates; ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker; and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as polymerization initiator. To perform ambient plasma ionization experiments, a setup consisting of the heated crucible, a flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) plasma ion source, and a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer has been used. The heated crucible with programmable temperature allows for desorption of the analytes from MIPs structure which results in their direct introduction into the ion stream. Limits of detection, linearity of the proposed analytical procedure, and selectivities have been determined for three analytes: nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben. The analytes used were chosen from various classes of organic compounds to show the feasibility of the analytical procedure. The limits of detections (LODs) were 10 nM, 10, and 0.5 μM for nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben, respectively. In comparison with the measurements performed for the non-imprinted polymers, the values of LODs were improved for at least one order of magnitude due to preconcentration of the sample and reduction of background noise, contributing to signal suppression. The described procedure has shown linearity in a broad range of concentrations. The overall time of single analysis is short and requires ca. 5 min. The developed technique was applied for the determination of nicotine, propyphenazone, and methylparaben in spiked real-life samples, with recovery of 94.6-98.4%. The proposed method is rapid, sensitive, and accurate which provides a new option for the detection of small organic compounds in various samples. Graphical abstract The experimental setup used for analysis.

  20. Chromatographic characterisation, under highly aqueous conditions, of a molecularly imprinted polymer binding the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legido-Quigley, C; Oxelbark, J; De Lorenzi, E; Zurutuza-Elorza, A; Cormack, P A G

    2007-05-15

    The affinity of a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), which was synthesised directly in an aqueous organic solvent, for its template (2,4-D) was studied and compared with the affinity exhibited by two other reference (control) polymers, NIPA and NIPB, for the same analyte. Zonal chromatography was performed to establish the optimal selectivity, expressed as imprinting factor (IF), under chromatographic conditions more aqueous than those described so far in the literature. Frontal analysis (FA) was performed on columns packed with these polymers, using an optimized mobile phase composed of methanol/phosphate buffer (50/50, v/v), to extract adsorption isotherm data and retrieve binding parameters from the best isotherm model. Surprisingly, the template had comparable and strong affinity for both MIP (K = 3.8x10(4) M(-1)) and NIPA (K = 1.9x10(4) M(-1)), although there was a marked difference in the saturation capacities of selective and non-selective sites, as one would expect for an imprinted polymer. NIPB acts as a true control polymer in the sense that it has relatively low affinity for the template (K = 8.0x10(2) M(-1)). This work provides the first frontal chromatographic characterization of such a polymer in a water-rich environment over a wide concentration range. The significance of this work stems from the fact that the chromatographic approach used is generic and can be applied readily to other analytes, but also because there is an increasing demand for well-characterised imprinted materials that function effectively in aqueous media and are thus well-suited for analytical science applications involving, for example, biofluids and environmental water samples.

  1. Rational design and synthesis of water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers for selective solid phase extraction of amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Turghun; Cui, Liu; Jide, Wang; Piletska, Elena V; Guerreiro, Antonio R; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2012-01-04

    Novel water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) selective for amiodarone (AD) were designed via a new methodology which relies on screening library of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). The NIP library consisted of eighteen cross-linked co-polymers synthesized from monomers commonly used in molecular imprinting. The binding capacity of each polymer in the library was analyzed in two different solvents. Binding in water was used to assess non-specific (hydrophobic) interactions and binding in an appropriate organic solvent was used to assess specific interactions. A good correlation was found between the screening tests and modeling of monomer-template interactions performed using computational approach. Additionally, analysis of template-monomer interactions was performed using UV-vis spectroscopy. As the result, 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP) was selected as the best monomer for developing MIP for AD. The 4-VP-based polymers demonstrated imprinting factor equal 3.9. The polymers performance in SPE was evaluated using AD and its structural analogues. The recovery of AD was as high as 96% when extracted from spiked phosphate buffer (pH 4.5) solution and 82.1% from spiked serum samples. The developed MIP shown as a material with specific binding to AD, comparing to its structural analogues, 1-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)-2,6-diiodo-4-nitrobenzene and lidocaine, which shown 9.9% and 25.4% of recovery from the buffer solution, correspondingly. We believe that the screening of NIP library could be proposed as an alternative to commonly used computational and combinatorial approaches.

  2. Water-compatible 'aspartame'-imprinted polymer grafted on silica surface for selective recognition in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Kumar, Abhishek; Tarannum, Nazia

    2013-05-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers selective for aspartame have been prepared using N-[2-ammonium-ethyl-piperazinium) maleimidopropane sulfonate copolymer bearing zwitterionic centres along the backbone via a surface-confined grafting procedure. Aspartame, a dipeptide, is commonly used as an artificial sweetener. Polymerisation on the surface was propagated by means of Michael addition reaction on amino-grafted silica surface. Electrostatic interactions along with complementary H-bonding and other hydrophobic interactions inducing additional synergetic effect between the template (aspartame) and the imprinted surface led to the formation of imprinted sites. The MIP was able to selectively and specifically take up aspartame from aqueous solution and certain pharmaceutical samples quantitatively. Hence, a facile, specific and selective technique using surface-grafted specific molecular contours developed for specific and selective uptake of aspartame in the presence of various interferrants, in different kinds of matrices is presented.

  3. Recovery of ergosterol from the medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma tsugae var. Janniae, with a molecularly imprinted polymer derived from a cleavable monomer-template composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Shima N N S; Schwarz, Lachlan J; Danylec, Basil; Mitri, Khosse; Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2016-10-14

    A semi-covalent imprinting strategy has been developed for the synthesis of molecularly-imprinted polymers specific for the fungal sterol, ergosterol, a biological precursor of vitamin D2. This imprinting approach involved a novel post-synthesis cleavable monomer-template composite, namely ergosteryl methacrylate, and resulted in the formation of an imprinted polymer that selectively and efficiently recognized ergosterol through non-covalent interactions. The derived molecularly-imprinted polymer and the corresponding non-imprinted polymer were systematically evaluated for their selectivity towards ergosterol via static and dynamic binding studies using various ergosteryl esters (e.g. ergosteryl-cinnamate, -ferulate, -coumarate, -ferulate acetate and -acetate, respectively) as competitors. Moreover, the binding capacity of the molecularly imprinted polymer for ergosterol was enhanced when the sample loading conditions involved the use of partially aqueous solvent mixtures, such as acetonitrile/water (9:1 (v/v) or 8:2 (v/v)). These attributes were exploited in a solid-phase extraction format, whereby ergosterol was obtained with excellent recoveries from an extract of the fruiting body powder of the medicinal fungus Ganoderma tsugae var. Janniae.

  4. Polydopamine-coated magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid-phase extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuli; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Jing; Luo, Ningjing

    2016-04-01

    We describe novel cinnamic acid polydopamine-coated magnetic imprinted polymers for the simultaneous selective extraction of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid from radix scrophulariae sample. The novel magnetic imprinted polymers were synthesized by surface imprinting polymerization using magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes as the support material, cinnamic acid as the template and dopamine as the functional monomer. The magnetic imprinted polymers were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry. The results revealed that the magnetic imprinted polymers had outstanding magnetic properties, high adsorption capacity, selectivity and fast kinetic binding toward cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid. Coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography, the extraction conditions of the magnetic imprinted polymers as a magnetic solid-phase extraction sorbent were investigated in detail. The proposed imprinted magnetic solid phase extraction procedure has been used for the purification and enrichment of cinnamic acid, ferulic acid and caffeic acid successfully from radix scrophulariae extraction sample with recoveries of 92.4-115.0% for cinnamic acid, 89.4-103.0% for ferulic acid and 86.6-96.0% for caffeic acid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G

    2007-09-21

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P(13)TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P(13)TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more "conventional" rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries.

  6. Li Ion Conducting Polymer Gel Electrolytes Based on Ionic Liquid/PVDF-HFP Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Huang, Jian; Xu, Jun John; Khalfan, Amish; Greenbaum, Steve G.

    2009-01-01

    Ionic liquids thermodynamically compatible with Li metal are very promising for applications to rechargeable lithium batteries. 1-methyl-3-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (P13TFSI) is screened out as a particularly promising ionic liquid in this study. Dimensionally stable, elastic, flexible, nonvolatile polymer gel electrolytes (PGEs) with high electrochemical stabilities, high ionic conductivities and other desirable properties have been synthesized by dissolving Li imide salt (LiTFSI) in P13TFSI ionic liquid and then mixing the electrolyte solution with poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. Adding small amounts of ethylene carbonate to the polymer gel electrolytes dramatically improves the ionic conductivity, net Li ion transport concentration, and Li ion transport kinetics of these electrolytes. They are thus favorable and offer good prospects in the application to rechargeable Li batteries including open systems like Li/air batteries, as well as more “conventional” rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. PMID:20354587

  7. Molecular dynamics approaches to the design and synthesis of PCB targeting molecularly imprinted polymers: interference to monomer-template interactions in imprinting of 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Dougal; Olsson, Gustaf D; Karlsson, Björn C G; Nicholls, Ian A; McCluskey, Adam

    2014-02-07

    The interactions between each component of the pre-polymerisation mixtures used in the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) specific for 1,2,3,4,5-pentachlorobenzene (1) and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (2) were examined in four molecular dynamics simulations. These simulations revealed that the relative frequency of functional monomer-template (FM-T) interactions was consistent with results obtained by the synthesis and evaluation of the actual MIPs. The higher frequency of 1 interaction with trimethylstyrene (TMS; 54.7%) than 1 interaction with pentafluorostyrene (PFS; 44.7%) correlated with a higher imprinting factor (IF) of 2.1 vs. 1.7 for each functional monomer respectively. The higher frequency of PFS interactions with 2 (29.6%) than TMS interactions with 2 (1.9%) also correlated well with the observed differences in IF (3.7) of 2 MIPs imprinted using PFS as the FM than the IF (2.8) of 2 MIPs imprinted using TMS as the FM. The TMS-1 interaction dominated the molecular simulation due to high interaction energies, but the weaker TMS-2 resulted in low interaction maintenance, and thus lower IF values. Examination of the other pre-polymerisation mixture components revealed that the low levels of TMS-2 interaction was, in part, due to interference caused by the cross linker (CL) ethyleneglycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) interactions with TMS. The main reason was, however, attributed to MeOH interactions with TMS in both a hydrogen bond and perpendicular configuration. This positioned a MeOH directly above the π-orbital of all TMS for an average of 63.8% of MD2 creating significant interference to π-π stacking interactions between 2 and TMS. These findings are consistent with the deviation from the 'normal' molecularly imprinted polymer synthesis ratio of 1 : 4 : 20 (T : FM : CL) of 20 : 1 : 29 and 15 : 6 : 29 observed with 2 and TMS and PFS respectively. Our molecular dynamics simulations correctly predicted the high level

  8. BER OPTIC SENSOR MODIFIED BY GRAFTING OF THE MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMER FOR THE DETECTION OF AMMONIUM IN AQUEOUS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lopes,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The paper deals with novel chemical sensors based on the polymeric optical fibers modified by grafting of the molecularly imprinted polymer for the detection of ammonium in aqueous solutions. Elevated concentrations of ammonium in surface waters lead to their eutrophication, that’s why, monitoring of the content of this ion is very important for the evaluation of surface water quality. However, currently in situ monitoring of relevant parameters in surface waters is constrained by the availability and cost of commercial sensors. Attractive approach to the development of chemical sensors for remote controls is the use of polymeric optical fibers. Polymer optical fibers have high mechanical resistance and low cost, and give the possibility for multiplexing and remote sensing. Method. Polymeric layer imprinted with ammonium ions was grafted on the surface of the methylmethacrylate fiber. Methacrylic acid was used as a monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacylate as a cross-linker, 2.2'-Azobis (2-ethylpropionamidine dihydrochloride as a radical initiator, ammonium as a template and water:ethanol 4:1 mixture as a solvent. Optimization of the imprinted polymer synthesis conditions was carried out using intensity of transmitted light, uniformity of the grafted polymeric layer and response in the aqueous ammonium solutions as optimization criteria. Main Results. Chemical sensors based on the polymeric optical fibers modified by grafting of the molecularly imprinted polymer for the detection of ammonium in aqueous solutions have been developed. New method of the grafting of the molecularly imprinted polymer on the surface of the methylmethacrylate optical fiber has been developed. It was found out, that high concentrations of the monomer and cross-linker in the polymerization solutions cause optical fiber damage while longer polymerization times result in the decrease of the intensity of transmitted light. Optical sensor demonstrating

  9. Molecularly imprinted polymers as biomimetic receptors for fluorescence-based optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bondi, María C.; Urraca, Javier L.; Benito-Peña, Elena; Navarro-Villoslada, Fernando; Martins, Sofía A.; Orellana, Guillermo; Sellergren, Börje

    2007-07-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), human-made polymers capable of recognizing a particular molecule in the presence of others due to the selective cavities of the material, have been successfully applied to the development of chromatographic and solid phase extraction methods. They have also been applied to the development of electrochemical, piezoelectrical and optical sensors. In parallel with the classification of biosensors, MIP-based devices can work according to two different detection schemes: (1) affinity sensors ("plastic-bodies") and, (2) catalytic sensors ("plastic-enzymes"). In the first case the change in a characteristic optical property, most frequently fluorescence, of the analyte or of the polymer is monitored, upon their mutual interaction. Alternatively, a fluorescent analogue of the target analyte can also be used to develop sensors based on competitive assays (MIAs). Optimization of the polymer composition and, in particular, a proper choice of the nature of the functional monomers involved in the polymerization process, is critical to prepare materials able to selectively interact with the analyte in aqueous media and with the fast kinetics required for analytical applications. Moreover, a rational design of fluorescent analogues of non-naturally fluorescent templates or of fluorescent monomers able to change its property upon interaction with the analyte, is also a bottle neck for wide application of this recognition elements in optical sensing. In this paper we present several approaches to address these issues namely the optimization of MIP composition and the design and synthesis of novel fluorophores for the analysis of antibiotics and mycotoxins in real samples.

  10. Surface hydrophilic modification with a sugar moiety for a uniform-sized polymer molecularly imprinted for phenobarbital in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Kuichang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Zhenhui; Guo, Yong; Guo, Tianying

    2011-08-01

    A uniform-sized polymer molecularly imprinted for phenobarbital, which is surface modified by a sugar moiety, has been prepared through a two-step swelling polymerization method using polystyrene beads as seeds, phenobarbital as the template, 4-vinylpyridine as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and 2-O-meth-acryloyloxyethoxyl-(2,3,4,6- tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-galactopyranosyl)-(1-4)-2,3,6-tri-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as a surface-modifying glycomonomer, respectively. After deprotecting the glycopolymer, a surface sugar moiety-modified, hydrophilic, molecularly imprinted polymer for phenobarbital (glyco-MIP) was obtained. The resulting polymer beads were packed into a stainless steel column to evaluate their chromatographic characteristics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Good selectivity for phenobarbital was obtained with the glyco-MIP compared to the unmodified molecularly imprinted polymer, which revealed that the recognition sites of phenobarbital were unchanged with sugar moiety surface modification. Furthermore, bovine serum albumin was almost completely recovered from the glyco-MIP column, which indicates that the glyco-MIP materials can be used to separate and analyze drugs in complex samples, such as biological samples. The results of pretreatment with and analysis of phenobarbital in serum suggest that this material can be used to analyze phenobarbital in serum through a pretreatment and reverse-phase HPLC analysis process. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer in Porous Film Format for Binding of Phenol and Alkylphenols from Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy O. Gryshchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were fabricated on glass slides with a “sandwich” technique giving ~20 µm thick films. Methanol/water as a solvent, and polyethyleneglycol and polyvinylacetate as solvent modifiers, were used to give a porous morphology, which was studied with scanning electron microscopy and gravimetric analysis. Various MIPs were synthesized through non-covalent imprinting with phenol as the template; itaconic acid, 4-vinylpyridine, and styrene as monomers; ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA as cross-linkers. Binding and imprinting properties of the MIPs were evaluated based on phenol adsorption isotherms. Since phenol has only one weakly acidic hydroxyl group and lacks unique structural characteristics necessary for binding specificity, the preparation of selective MIPs was challenging. The recognition of phenol via hydrogen bonding is suppressed in water, while hydrophobic interactions, though promoted, are not specific enough for highly-selective phenol recognition. Nevertheless, the styrene-PETA MIP gave modest imprinting effects, which were higher at lower concentrations (Imprinting Factor (IF = 1.16 at 0.5 mg·L−1. The isotherm was of a Freundlich type over 0.1–40 mg·L−1 and there was broad cross-reactivity towards other structurally similar phenols. This shows that phenol MIPs or simple adsorbents can be developed based on styrene for hydrophobic binding, and PETA to form a tighter, hydrophilic network.

  12. Polymer electrolytes based on room temperature ionic liquid: 2,3-dimethyl-1-octylimidazolium triflate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Boor; Sekhon, S S

    2005-09-01

    Room temperature ionic liquid (DMOImTf) based upon 2,3-dimethyl-1-octylimidazolium cation and trifluoromethanesulfonate or triflate (CF(3)SO(3))(-) anion has been synthesized and shows conductivity of 5.68 mS/cm and viscosity of 26.4 cP at 25 degrees C. Ion conducting polymer electrolytes based on polymers (poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and polyvinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene (PVdF-HFP)) and ionic liquid (DMOImTf) were prepared in film form by the casting technique. The conductivity of polymer electrolytes containing 0.5 M LiCF(3)SO(3) in PEO:DMOImTf taken in equal weight ratio increases with the addition of propylene carbonate (PC) while its mechanical stability improved by dispersing nanosize fumed silica. However, polymer electrolytes containing PVdF-HFP and ionic liquid show a high value of conductivity (10(-4)-10(-3) S/cm) alongwith better mechanical stability.

  13. Millimeter thick ionic polymer membrane-based IPMCs with bimetallic Pd-Pt electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmre, Viljar; Kim, Sung Jun; Kim, Kwang

    2011-04-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC) are a low-voltage driven Electroactive Polymers (EAP) that can be used as actuators or sensors. This paper presents a comparative study of millimeter thick ionic polymer membrane-based IPMCs with high-performance Pd-Pt electrodes and conventional Pt electrodes. IPMCs assembled with different electrodes are characterized in terms of electromechanical, -chemical and mechanolelectrical properties. The SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis are used to investigate the distribution of deposited electrode metals in the cross-section of Pd-Pt IPMCs. The study shows that IPMCs assembled with millimeter thick ionic polymer membranes and bimetallic Pd-Pt electrodes are superior in mechanoelectrical sensing and, also, show considerably higher blocking forces compared to the conventional type of IPMCs. Blocking forces more than 30 grams are measured under 4V DC. However, the actuation response is slower than conventional IPMCs having approximately 0.2-0.3 mm thickness.

  14. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin, E-mail: txwei@bit.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10{sup −12}–1 × 10{sup −8} mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10{sup −12} mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  15. Molecular Imprinted Polymer Used as An Additive for High Performance Capillary Electrophoresis%分子烙印聚合物作为高效毛细管电泳添加剂的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游静; 劳文剑; 陈淑莲; 欧庆瑜

    2001-01-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer is a kind of host molecules with highselectivity of molecular recognition. Usually such polymers are prepared and applied only in nonpolar solvents. Nevertheless, the authors, making use of the non-covalent interaction-hydrophobic and ionic interaction between the template and the functional monomer, succeeded to prepare a non-covalent molecular imprinted polymer in the presence of the polar solvent. It was used as an additive in the mobile phase of high performance capillary electrophoresis. Effects of monomer species, particle size and content of the molecular imprinted polymer, buffer pH value, and applied voltage on the ability of molecular recognition of the synthesized molecular imprinted polymer have been studied in aqueous buffer media. The results showed that it was possible to prepare non-covalent molecular imprinted polymers in polar solvents, and to use them in polar solvents as well.%分子烙印聚合物(molecularimprintedpolymer)是一种高选择的有分子记忆效应的主体分子,通常在非极性环境中制备和应用。该文在极性溶剂中利用离子化作用和疏水作用制备了非共价的分子烙印聚合物,并将其作为高效毛细管电泳流动相添加剂;在含水缓冲溶液条件下,研究了单体种类、分子烙印聚合物颗粒度和含量、缓冲溶液pH值以及分离电压对分子烙印聚合物识别模板分子的影响。结果证明了在质子化溶剂中制备和应用非共价分子烙印聚合物是可行的。

  16. Modelling compression sensing in ionic polymer metal composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpini, Valentina; Bardella, Lorenzo; Rodella, Andrea; Cha, Youngsu; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-03-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) consist of an ionomeric membrane, including mobile counterions, sandwiched between two thin noble metal electrodes. IPMCs find application as sensors and actuators, where an imposed mechanical loading generates a voltage across the electrodes, and, vice versa, an imposed electric field causes deformation. Here, we present a predictive modelling approach to elucidate the dynamic sensing response of IPMCs subject to a time-varying through-the-thickness compression (‘compression sensing’). The model relies on the continuum theory recently developed by Porfiri and co-workers, which couples finite deformations to the modified Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) system governing the IPMC electrochemistry. For the ‘compression sensing’ problem we establish a perturbative closed-form solution along with a finite element (FE) solution. The systematic comparison between these two solutions is a central contribution of this study, offering insight on accuracy and mathematical complexity. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed to find the analytical solution. To this end, we uncouple the force balance from the modified PNP system and separately linearise the PNP equations in the ionomer bulk and in the boundary layers at the ionomer–electrode interfaces. Comparison with FE results for the fully coupled nonlinear system demonstrates the accuracy of the analytical solution to describe IPMC sensing for moderate deformation levels. We finally demonstrate the potential of the modelling scheme to accurately reproduce experimental results from the literature. The proposed model is expected to aid in the design of IPMC sensors, contribute to an improved understanding of IPMC electrochemomechanical response, and offer insight into the role of nonlinear phenomena across mechanics and electrochemistry.

  17. Novel dummy molecularly imprinted polymers for matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction of eight fluoroquinolones from fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Jincheng; Li, Yun; Yang, Jiajia; Jin, Jing; Shah, Syed Mazhar; Chen, Jiping

    2014-09-12

    A series of novel dummy molecularly imprinted polymers (DMIPs) were prepared as highly class-selective sorbents for fluoroquinolones. A non-poisonous dummy template, daidzein, was used for the first time to create specific molecular recognition sites for fluoroquinolones in the synthesized polymers. The influence of porogen polarity on dummy molecular imprinting effect was studied. The DMIP prepared using dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile (1:1.8, v/v) as porogen achieved the highest imprinting factors (IF) for fluoroquinolones over a range of IF 13.4-84.0. This DMIP was then used for selective extraction of eight fluoroquinolones (fleroxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, enrofloxacin and gatifloxacin) from fish samples based on dummy molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (DMI-MSPD). The extracted fluoroquinolones were subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector (FLD). The developed method had acceptable recoveries (64.4-102.7%) and precision (RSDs: 1.7-8.5%, n=5) for determination of fluoroquinolones in fish samples fortified at levels of 10 and 100ngg(-1). The limits of detection (LODs) for identification of eight fluoroquinolones ranged between 0.06 and 0.22ngg(-1). The results demonstrated great potential of the optimized method for sample preparation in routine analysis of trace fluoroquinolones in fish samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers on carbon quantum dots for fluorescent sensing of tetracycline in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Juan; Li, Huiyu; Wang, Long; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Tianyu; Ding, Hong; Ding, Lan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel, selective and eco-friendly sensor for the detection of tetracycline was developed by grafting imprinted polymers onto the surface of carbon quantum dots. A simple microwave-assisted approach was utilized to fabricate the fluorescent imprinted composites rapidly for the first time, which could shorten the polymerization time and simplify the experimental procedure dramatically. The novel composites not only demonstrated excellent fluorescence stability and special binding sites, but also could selectively accumulate target analytes. Under optimal conditions, the relative fluorescence intensity of the composites decreased linearly with increasing the concentration of tetracycline from 20 nM to 14 µM. The detection limit of tetracycline was 5.48 nM. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed sensor were also acceptable. Significantly, the practicality of this ultrasensitive sensor for tetracycline detection in milk was further validated, revealing the advantages of simplicity, sensitivity, selectivity and low cost. This approach combines the high selective adsorption property of molecular imprinted polymers and the sensitivity of fluorescence detection. It is envisioned that the development of fluorescent molecularly imprinted composites will offer a new way of thinking for rapid analysis in complex samples.

  19. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin

    2015-07-01

    This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10-12-1 × 10-8 mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R2 = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10-12 mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  20. Selective solid-phase extraction of a triterpene acid from a plant extract by molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Bérengère; Morin, Philippe; Lafosse, Michel; Belmont, Anne-Sophie; Haupt, Karsten

    2008-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been prepared by a thermal polymerisation method using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent, chloroform as porogenic solvent and an oleanane triterpene compound (18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid) as imprinted molecule (template). Equilibrium ligand binding experiments were done to assess the performance of the MIP relative to non-imprinted polymer (NIP). After optimisation of SPE protocol (CHCl3 as washing solvent and MeOH as elution solvent), successful imprinting was confirmed by comparison of the recoveries between NIP (5%) and MIP (97%) cartridges. The binding capacity of the MIP for 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid was determined to be 0.94 mg g(-1). Four structurally related oleanane triterpenes (18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, erythrodiol) were selected to assess the MIP selectivity. Experimental data illustrated the influence of functional groups on the triterpene skeleton. The MIP was applied to the solid-phase extraction of triterpenoids from a plant extract prior HPLC analysis. However, CHCl3 was replaced by ACN during the washing step in order to suppress non-specific interactions due to polar matrix components. A selective extraction of 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid from hydrolyzed extract of liquorice roots was achieved with a good extraction yield (98%).

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymer/cryogel composites for solid-phase extraction of bisphenol A from river water and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggiani, Claudio; Baravalle, Patrizia; Giovannoli, Cristina; Anfossi, Laura; Giraudi, Gianfranco

    2010-05-01

    Superporous monolithic hydrogels (cryogel monoliths) are elastic, sponge-like materials that can be prepared in an aqueous medium through a cryotropic gelation technique. These monoliths show interesting properties for the development of high-throughput solid-phase extraction supports to treat large volumes of aqueous samples. In this work, a cryogel-supported molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction approach for the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) from river water and wine samples is presented. An imprinted polymer with molecular recognition properties for BPA was prepared in acetonitrile by thermal polymerization of a mixture of 4,4'-dihydroxy-2,2-diphenyl-1,1,1,3,3,3-trifluoropropane as a mimic template of BPA, 4-vinylpyridine and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate in a molar ratio of 1 + 6 + 6. Fine imprinted particles (extraction approach to recover BPA from dilute aqueous samples with minimum pre-loading work-up. The optimized extraction protocol resulted in a reliable MISPE method suitable to selectively extract and preconcentrate BPA from river water and red wine samples, demonstrating the practical feasibility of cryogel-trapped imprinted polymers as solid-phase extraction materials.

  2. Selective solid-phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer as a sorbent for the analysis of fenarimol in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shagufta; Bhatia, Tejasvi; Trivedi, Purushottam; Satyanarayana, G N V; Mandrah, Kapil; Saxena, Prem Narayan; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Roy, Somendu Kumar

    2016-05-15

    In the present communication, a non-covalent fenarimol-imprinted polymer was synthesized by precipitation polymerization technique using methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker, and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as an initiator in different porogenic solvent. Binding study of molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted polymer (MIP and NIP) showed that MIP possesses a higher affinity towards this analyte compared to NIP. The binding affinity of MIP was calculated by static and kinetic adsorption study. Further, a MIP based cartridge was designed to use in extraction process, necessary for specific determination and quantification of the fungicide in food matrices. Under the optimum conditions, developed method was found to be linear (R(2)=0.9999-0.9994). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) in samples were 0.03-0.06 and 0.12-0.21 μg mL(-1), respectively. The rate of recovery of fenarimol was 91.16-99.52% on MIPs. The validated method of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) cartridge was successfully applied to the food matrices and compared with commercial sorbent (RP18 and Oasis HLB). However we feel, this method has promising applications in the routine analysis of food samples in industry.

  3. Novel hybrid structure silica/CdTe/molecularly imprinted polymer: synthesis, specific recognition, and quantitative fluorescence detection of bovine hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Yan; He, Xi-Wen; Chen, Yang; Li, Wen-You; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2013-12-11

    This work presented a novel strategy for the synthesis of the hybrid structure silica/CdTe/molecularly imprinted polymer (Si-NP/CdTe/MIP) to recognize and detect the template bovine hemoglobin (BHb). First, amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (Si-NP) and carboxyl-terminated CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were assembled into composite nanoparticles (Si-NP/CdTe) using the EDC (1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride) chemistry. Next, Si-NP/CdTe/MIP was synthesized by anchoring molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) layer on the surface of Si-NP/CdTe through the sol-gel technique and surface imprinting technique. The hybrid structure possessed the selectivity of molecular imprinting technique and the sensitivity of CdTe QDs as well as well-defined morphology. The binding experiment and fluorescence method demonstrated its special recognition performance toward the template BHb. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the Si-NP/CdTe/MIP decreased linearly with the increase of BHb in the concentration range 0.02-2.1 μM, and the detection limit was 9.4 nM. Moreover, the reusability and reproducibility and the successful applications in practical samples indicated the synthesis of Si-NP/CdTe/MIP provided an alternative solution for special recognition and determination of protein from real samples.

  4. Fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymer film binds glucose with a concomitant changes in fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manju, S; Hari, P R; Sreenivasan, K

    2010-10-15

    A fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymeric formulation capable of picking up glucose from aqueous media is reported. The fluorescence intensity of the polymer film was found to reduce proportionally with the concentration of glucose facilitating its use as a glucose sensing element. We used commercially available tear fluid to demonstrate the ability of the film to recognize glucose among other sugar molecules. Fluorescence was measured after equilibrating the film in tear fluid in the presence of a mixture of different sugars. We observed a reduction in fluorescence intensity due to the nonspecific binding of the sugars. The intensity remains the same even if we added additional quantities of the sugars. Interestingly, the fluorescence intensity of the film was found to decrease proportionally when varied concentrations of glucose was added indicating the ability of the film to recognize and bind glucose from a mixture of other sugars. Detectable changes in fluorescence intensity were observed with a concentration of 10 μg/mL of glucose. The results show that the polymer film could be used for detecting glucose in aqueous fluids such as tear. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers for recognition of ciprofloxacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pengyan LIU; Lei LIU; Li ZHANG; Ning JIANG; Zhanli LIU; Yun WANG

    2008-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), with special molecule recognition properties of ciprofloxacin (CIP), was prepared by thermal polymerization in which ciprofloxacin acted as template molecule, α-methacrylic acid (MAA) acted as functional monomer and trimethy-lolpropane trimethylacrylate (TRIM) acted as crosslin-ker. The optimized ratio was determined to be n(CIP): n (MMA):n(TRIM) = 1:6:16 by investigation of the effects of different concentrations of functional monomer and the crosslinker on the MIP's recognition properties. Equilibrium binding experiment was used to investigate the adsorption dynamics, the binding ability to template molecule and the substrate selectivity. Scatchard analysis was used to study the MIP's binding characteristic to tem-plate molecule. The results indicated that MIP has higher adsorption ability and selectivity. The equilibrium distri-bution coefficient KD was 41.64 and the separation factor α was 1.62. Scatchard analysis showed that two different kinds of binding sites were produced in the polymer matrix and their dissociation constants were calculated to be Kd1= 5.249×10-5 mol·L-1, Kd2=2.237×10-3mol·L-1.

  6. A NOVEL MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMER:SYNTHESIS AND ADSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF GATIFLOXACIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Yanru; MO Chuanjie; CHEN Zhixian; YAN Yongsheng; XU Wanzhen

    2008-01-01

    A kind of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) with high selectivity was prepared using methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as crosslinker and Gatifloxacin as template.The effect of various parameters such as volume of solvent, functional monomer dosage, crosslinker dosage and polymerization time were investigated.The selective binding experiment for substrates show that the affinity and selectivity for Gatifloxacin were higher than that for blank polymer.Scatchard analysis show that the MIPs recognized template with two kinds of binding sites.The dissociation constant Kd and maximum adsorption quantity Qmax of these two kinds of binding sites were calculated: Kd1 and Qmax1 of the binding sites with high affinity were 8.67×10-4mol/L and 28.19μmol/g, while Kd2 and Qmax2 of the binding sites with low affinity were 1.05×10-3 mol/L and 33.20μmol/g respectively.

  7. Preparation of a magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for selective recognition of rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuying; Yu, Dan; Yu, Yingchao; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-11-01

    A novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) was developed as an adsorbent to selectively remove rhodamine B from real samples. The polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Static adsorption, kinetic adsorption, and selective recognition experiments were also performed to investigate the specific adsorption equilibrium, kinetics, and selective recognition ability of the MMIP. The MMIPs had outstanding thermal stability, large adsorption capacity, and high competitive selectivity. When they were used as dispersed solid-phase extraction adsorbents in real samples, rhodamine B recovery was 79.97-81.88% and 75.56-79.74% in intra-day and inter-day reproducibility experiments with relative standard deviations lower than 2.62% and 4.28%, respectively. Extraction was optimized for yield and efficiency. Precision, accuracy, and linear working range were determined under optimal experimental conditions. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.05 and 3.49 μg L-1, respectively. These results suggest MMIPs may be used for determination of rhodamine B in real samples.

  8. Determination of histamine in canned tuna by molecularly imprinted polymers-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Grant, Edward; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-12-11

    We introduce a rapid, cost effective and reliable approach to determine histamine level in canned tuna. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized as artificial antibodies towards histamine by utilizing the interaction between histamine and a functional monomer (methacrylic acid) to impress specific binding sites on polymer particles after polymerization. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was used to immobilize the MIPs, yielding a MIPs-PVC film that functioned as a recognition element to specifically separate histamine from tuna extract. A gold colloid solution served both as an eluting solvent to extract histamine from MIPs-PVC film and furnish a substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) detection of histamine signals. Principal component analysis together with a partial least square regression (PLSR) model (R(2) = 0.947, RMSECV = 3.526) verified the reliability of MIPs-PVC-SERS approach for the detection and spectral analysis of histamine. Linear regression models were also constructed to relate the intensity of different histamine SERS bands with the corresponding spiking levels. One such model (using a band at 1576 cm(-1)) performed slightly better in predicting histamine content in tuna than the PLSR model. We conclude that our new MIPs-PVC-SERS approach can rapidly and reliably determine histamine at levels from 3 to 90 ppm in canned tuna meat.

  9. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the detection of rhaponticin in Chinese patent medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Xie, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2012-08-24

    The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) had been synthesized for the selective extraction and clean-up of rhaponticin in Chinese patent medicines (CPM). The MMIPs were prepared via suspension polymerization, using Fe(3)O(4) as magnetically component, rhaponticin as template molecule, acrylamide (AM) as functional monomers, styrene (St) as copolymer monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as a cross-linker in dimethyl sulfoxide porogen. The obtained MMIPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for analysis the target analytes. The polymers were evaluated further by batch rebinding experiments. From the derived Freundlich isotherm (FI) equation their binding capacity and binding strength were determined. Structurally similar compound resveratrol and a reference compound kirenol were used for investing the selective recognition capability of MMIPs. The MMIPs were used as sorbents for selective pre-concentration of rhaponticin from CPM samples. The contents of rhaponticin for the four CPM samples were found to be 11.84, 3.35, 4.47, and 7.57μg g(-1), respectively, and the recoveries of spiked samples ranged from 77.82% to 91.00%. The prepared MMIPs could be applied to selectively pre-concentrate and determine rhaponticin in CPM samples.

  10. Bioremediation of Waste Water Containing Hazardous Cadmium Ion with Ion Imprinted Interpenetrating Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girija Parameswaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Cd(II ion imprinted interpenetrating polymer network (Cd(IIIIP was prepared by free radical polymerization using alginic acid and NNMBA-crosslinked polyacrylamide in presence of initiator potassium persulphate. Cd(IIIIP showed higher capacity and selectivity than the nonimprinted polymer (NIP. The sorption capacities of Cd(IIIIP and NIP for Cd(II ions were 0.886 and 0.663 meqmole-1, respectively. Kinetics studies showed that the sorption process closely agreed with a pseudosecond-order model. The thermodynamic data suggest that the sorption is a spontaneous endothermic process. Equilibrium experiments showed very good fit with the Langmuir isotherm equation for the monolayer sorption process. Cd(IIIIP exhibited good reusability, and the sorption capacity of Cd(IIIIP was stable within the first 4 cycles without obvious decrease. Also Cd(IIIIP showed almost 100% removal efficiency for Cd(II ions in real environmental water samples, indicating that Cd(IIIIP could have wide application prospects in Cd(II ion removal.

  11. A NOVEL MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMER:SYNTHESIS AND ADSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF GATIFLOXACIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A kind of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPs) with high selectivity was prepared using methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as crosslinker and Gatifloxacin as template. The effect of various parameters such as volume of solvent, functional monomer dosage, crosslinker dosage and polymerization time were investigated. The selective binding experiment for substrates show that the affinity and selectivity for Gatifloxacin were higher than that for blank polymer. Scatchard analysis show that the MIPs recognized template with two kinds of binding sites. The dissociation constant Kd and maximum adsorption quantity Qmax of these two kinds of binding sites were calculated: Kd1 and Qmax1 of the binding sites with high affinity were 8.67×10-4 mol/L and 28.19μmol/g, while Kd2 and Qmax2 of the binding sites with low affinity were1.05×10-3 mol/L and 33.20μmol/g respectively.

  12. Water-compatible molecularly imprinted polymer as a sorbent for the selective extraction and purification of adefovir from human serum and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourfarzib, Mojgan; Dinarvand, Rasoul; Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Mehramizi, Ali; Rastegar, Hossein; Shekarchi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer has been synthesized to specifically extract adefovir, an antiviral drug, from serum and urine by dispersive solid-phase extraction before high-performance liquid chromatography with UV analysis. The imprinted polymers were prepared by bulk polymerization by a noncovalent imprinting method that involved the use of adefovir (template molecule) and functional monomer (methacrylic acid) complex prior to polymerization, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, and chloroform as porogen. Molecular recognition properties, binding capacity, and selectivity of the molecularly imprinted polymers were evaluated and the results show that the obtained polymers have high specific retention and enrichment for adefovir in aqueous medium. The new imprinted polymer was utilized as a molecular sorbent for the separation of adefovir from human serum and urine. The serum and urine extraction of adefovir by the molecularly imprinted polymer followed by high-performance liquid chromatography showed a linear calibration curve in the range of 20-100 μg/L with excellent precisions (2.5 and 2.8% for 50 μg/L), respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantization were determined in serum (7.62 and 15.1 μg/L), and urine (5.45 and 16 μg/L). The recoveries for serum and urine samples were found to be 88.2-93.5 and 84.3-90.2%, respectively.

  13. Ternary choline chloride/caffeic acid/ethylene glycol deep eutectic solvent as both a monomer and template in a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Najing; Liu, Xiao; Li, Liteng; Tang, Baokun; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-05-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer based on a ternary deep eutectic solvent comprised of choline chloride/caffeic acid/ethylene glycol was prepared. The caffeic acid in the ternary deep eutectic solvent was used as both a monomer and template. The molecularly imprinted polymer based on the ternary deep eutectic solvent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis, atomic force microscopy, and elemental analysis. A series of molecularly imprinted polymers based on choline chloride/caffeic acid/ethylene glycol with different molar ratios was prepared and applied to the molecular recognition of polyphenols. A comparison of the recognition ability of molecularly imprinted polymers to polyphenols revealed that the choline chloride/caffeic acid/ethylene glycol (1:0.4:1, molar ratio) molecularly imprinted polymer had the best molecular recognition effect with 132 μg/g of protocatechuic acid, 104 μg/g of catechins, 80 μg/g of epicatechin, and 123 μg/g of caffeic acid in 6 h, as well as good molecular recognition ability for polyphenols from a Radix Asteris sample. These results show that the ternary deep eutectic solvent based molecularly imprinted polymer is a potential medium that can be applied to drug purification, drug delivery, and drug analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Development of a pH-responsive imprinted polymer for diclofenac and study of its binding properties in organic and aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Sadegh, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    Three different molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for drug delivery of diclofenac in gastrointestinal tract were synthesized employing bulk polymerization method and their binding and release properties were studied in different pH values. Methacrylic acid (MAA), methacrylamide (MAAM) and 4-vinyl pyridine (4VP) were tested as functional monomers and ethylene glycole dimethacrylate (EDMA) was used as a cross-linker monomer in polymeric feed. Binding properties and imprinting factor (IF) of MIPs were studied in comparison with their non-imprinted ones (Blank) in organic and aqueous media. Diclofenac release in aqueous solvents at pH values of 1.5, 6.0 and 8.0, simulating gastrointestinal fluids, were also studied. The results indicated the specific binding of diclofenac to imprinted polymers. Duo to the stronger non-specific bounds in aqueous solutions, IF values decreased in water compared to acetonitrile as an organic medium. Our results proved that all polymers represented pH-responsive diclofenac delivery at above conditions. The data showed that imprinted polymer, prepared by MAA had superior properties, in comparison with other polymers, for minimum release (14%) of drug in gastric acid and maximum release (90%) in basic condition. The results indicated that diclofenac imprinted polymer could be used as a pH-responsive matrix in preparation of a new drug delivery system for diclofenac.

  15. Facile preparation of polydopamine-coated imprinted polymers on the surface of SiO2 for estrone capture in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Penglei; Zhang, Bilin; Luo, Zhimin; Du, Wei; Guo, Pengqi; Zhou, Yulan; Chang, Ruimiao; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang

    2016-10-05

    Estrone molecularly imprinted polymers were synthesized through the self-polymerization of dopamine on the surface of silica gels, which had the characteristics of mild polymerization conditions, simple reaction procedure and good specific recognition ability for estrone. The estrone molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption tests. The characterization confirmed that the imprinted polymers were successfully grafted on the surface of silica gels. Through investigating the adsorption performance, the prepared estrone molecularly imprinted polymers exhibited high adsorption capacity, fast mass transfer, as well as excellent selectivity toward estrone. The estrone molecularly imprinted polymers as the solid-phase extraction adsorbent coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was developed to determine estrone from the milk samples. The developed estrone molecularly imprinted polymer solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography method exhibited satisfactory specificity, precision, accuracy and good linearity relationship in the range of 0.2-20 μg/mL. The developed method is simple, fast, effective and high specificity method and it provides a new method to detect the residues of estrone in animal foods. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis, recognition and evaluation of molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticle using miniemulsion polymerization for controlled release and analysis of risperidone in human plasma samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Ebadullah; Azodi-Deilami, Saman; Abdouss, Majid [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kordestani, Davood [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi, Alireza [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadi, Somayeh [Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    We prepared high selective imprinted nanoparticle polymers by a miniemulsion polymerization technique, using risperidone as the template, MAA as the functional monomers, and TRIM as the cross-linker in acetonitrile as solvent. The morphology of the nanoparticles determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and drug release, binding properties and dynamic light scattering (DLS) of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were studied. Controlled release of risperidone from nanoparticles was investigated through in 1% wt sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous solution and by measuring the absorbance by HPLC-UV. The results showed that the imprinted nanoparticles exhibited a higher binding level and slower release rate than non-imprinted nanoparticles, which contributed to interaction of risperidone with imprinted cavities within nanoparticles. Furthermore, the results from HPLC showed good precision (5% for 50.0 µg L{sup -1}) and recoveries (between 86-91) using MIP from human plasma samples.

  17. Biomimicry issues: the quest for sensing molecules at the origin of life using molecularly imprinter polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnier, Benjamin; Chehimi, Mohamed M.; Bakas, Idriss; Salmi, Zakaria; Mazerie, Isabelle; Floner, Didier; Geneste, Florence; Guerrouache, Mohamed

    The use of real time sensing analysis is becoming very popular in many applications and research areas such as, environment and agriculture for in situ monitoring of contaminants and food safety analysis, fundamental biology for studying for example protein-membrane interactions or drug discovery, health research for clinical diagnosis.[1] More recently, chip technology involving antibody-based detection system has been envisioned to search for life outside the Earth with a specific focus on Mars. [2] Sensors using such natural receptors are usually costly and suffer from the unstability of the surface-immobilized receptors. In this respect, the use of synthetic receptors appears as a very promising approach. Molecularly imprinting is undoubtedly one of the most promising approaches for designing biomimetic materials. In this respect, sensing microdevices based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have attracted a great deal of interest over the recent years given their ability to recognize specifically and selectively molecules, proteins and even microorganisms, with excellent detection limits. MIPs can be prepared as powders, colloids and ultrathin films. The latter option is particularly interesting because it limits diffusion of the analytes to the artificial receptor sites within the sensing layers [3] and facilitates the making of nanostructured MIP grafts [4]. In addition, MIP sensing ultrathin layers are amenable to the detection of the analytes with varied transducing methods among which electrochemistry, a simple, versatile and easy to implement technique is very appealing to detect analytes concentrations in the picomolar or sub-picomolar range [5]. In this contribution, the important parameters in obtaining molecularly imprinted polymer layers grafted on gold working electrodes and exhibiting high sensitivity towards acid and base molecules are addressed. Square wave voltammetry is demonstrated to be a very powerful electroanalytical while the limit

  18. 一种新兴的印迹聚合物制备方法─表面印迹法%A New Preparation Method of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers--Surface Molecular Imprinting Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩霜

    2015-01-01

    The surface molecular imprinting technique is a molecularly imprinted polymer preparation method based on original preparation method of molecular imprinting technology. Surface imprinting method mainly includes three kinds of methods: sacrificial carrier method, chemical grafting method and active controlled radical polymerization. This method can overcome two shortcomings: nonuniform polymer particle size and dig embedding depth of the imprinted molecule. Using the surface imprinting method can effectively reduce the embedding, so the elution of the imprinted molecule is easy, and the efficiency of application can be improved.%表面分子印迹法是在分子印迹技术原有的制备方法的基础上,最新兴起的一种聚合形成印迹聚合物的一种方法。表面印迹法主要包括牺牲载法、化学接枝法和活性可控自由基聚合三种方法。此法解决了原始方法中的制备的聚合物粒径不够均匀、印迹分子包埋过深不易洗脱的缺点,利用表面印迹法有效的减少包埋、容易洗脱印迹分子、加速反应进行、提高了应用效率。

  19. Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning of electro-optic polymer modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaohui; Ling, Tao; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhang, Xingyu; Byun, Kwangsub; Guo, L Jay; Chen, Ray T

    2013-05-15

    The present work demonstrates an electro-optic polymer-based Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulator fabricated utilizing advanced ultraviolet (UV) imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing technologies for patterning and layer deposition. The bottom electrode layer is designed and directly ink-jet printed on the substrate to form the patterned layer. The waveguide structure is formed into a bottom cladding polymer using a transparent flexible mold-based UV imprinting method. All other layers can be ink-jet printed. The top electrode is aligned and printed over the MZ arm. The modulator demonstrates a V-pi of 8 V at 3 kHz. This technology shows great potential in minimizing the fabrication complexity and roll-to-roll compatibility for manufacturing low cost, lightweight, and conformal modulators at high throughput.

  20. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of sildenafil, vardenafil and their analogs from herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang-Fang; Xie, Xiao-Yu; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2013-10-15

    The successfully developed magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) toward six synthetic phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors were described. Sildenafil was used as template for the preparation of MMIPs using superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as supporter. The obtained MMIPs were characterized using transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometer. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detector (DAD) was used for the analysis of target analytes. The application of MMIPs as selective sorbent in the cleanup of herbal medicine samples prior to HPLC offered simple sample preparation. The adsorption capacity and selectivity of prepared MMIPs and magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymers were investigated. The binding isotherms were obtained for sildenafil and fitted by Freundlich isotherm model. Structurally similar compound of sildenafil and a reference compound protocatechuic acid were used for investing the selective recognition of MMIPs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational and experimental investigation of molecular imprinted polymers for selective extraction of dimethoate and its metabolite omethoate from olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Idriss; Oujji, Najwa Ben; Moczko, Ewa; Istamboulie, Georges; Piletsky, Sergey; Piletska, Elena; Ait-Addi, Elhabib; Ait-Ichou, Ihya; Noguer, Thierry; Rouillon, Régis

    2013-01-25

    This work presents the development of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective extraction of dimethoate from olive oil. Computational simulations allowed selecting itaconic acid as the monomer showing the highest affinity towards dimethoate. Experimental validation confirmed modelling predictions and showed that the polymer based on IA as functional monomer and omethoate as template molecule displays the highest selectivity for the structurally similar pesticides dimethoate, omethoate and monocrotophos. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) method was developed and applied to the clean-up of olive oil extracts. It was found that the most suitable solvents for loading, washing and elution step were respectively hexane, hexane-dichloromethane (85:15%) and methanol. The developed MIPSE was successfully applied to extraction of dimethoate from olive oil, with recovery rates up to 94%. The limits of detection and quantification of the described method were respectively 0.012 and 0.05 μg g(-1).

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymer based micromechanical cantilever sensor system for the selective determination of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okan, Meltem; Sari, Esma; Duman, Memed

    2017-02-15

    The main objective of this study is to develop molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based micromechanical cantilever sensor system that has high specificity, fast response time and is easily applicable by user for the detection of ciprofloxacin (CPX) molecule in water resources. Highly specific CPX imprinted nanoparticles were synthesized by miniemulsion polymerization technique. The average size of the synthesized nanoparticles was measured about 160nm with high monodispersivity. Covalent and monolayer binding of the MIP nanoparticles on cantilevers was provided by EDC/NHS activation. Validation of the developed cantilever nanosensor was performed in air with dip-and-dry technique by employing the dynamic sensing mode. According to the results obtained, micromechanical cantilever sensor system worked linearly for the concentration range of 1.5-150.9μM. This concentration range resulted with 18.4-48.9pg mass load on the MIP modified cantilever. The sensitivity of the developed sensor was calculated as 2.6Hz/pg. To control the specificity of MIPs, a different antibiotic enrofloxacin (ENF), with a similar physical and chemical structure with CPX, was used, which showed 7 folds low binding affinity. The developed highly specific microcantilever sensor has a response time of approximately 2min and is reusable up to 4 times. The results indicate that the MIP based AFM nanosensor has high sensitivity for the CPX molecule. This combination of MIP nanoparticles with micromechanical sensors is one of the pioneer studies in the mass sensing applications. This fast, low cost and highly sensitive CPX specific MIP nanoparticle based nanosensor developed in this research have the potential to pave the way for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In Vitro Toxicity Evaluation of Caffeine Imprinted Polymer (CAF-MIP) for Decaffeination Method on Normal Chang Liver Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Hashim; Faizatul Shimal Mehamod; Naizatul Akmal Nawi

    2017-01-01

    Over consuming of caffeine is one of the factors to a few health problems such as insomnia, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the Caffeine-Imprinted Polymer (CAF-MIP) toxicity that was synthesized for a new alternative method for decaffeination. It is crucial to evaluate the toxicity of CAF-MIP as this product is potential to be used as complimentary with any drinks containing caffeine. In this study, the CAF-MIP toxicity potential was ...

  4. Direct Replacement of Antibodies with Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles in ELISA-Development of a Novel Assay for Vancomycin

    OpenAIRE

    Chianella, Iva; Guerreiro, Antonio; Moczko, Ewa; Caygill, J. Sarah; Piletska, Elena V.; Perez De Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel M.; Whitcombe, Michael J.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    2013-01-01

    A simple and straightforward technique for coating microplate wells with molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) to develop ELISA type assays is presented here for the first time. NanoMIPs were synthesized by a solid phase approach with immobilized vancomycin (template) and characterized using Biacore 3000, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Immobilization, blocking and washing conditions were optimized in microplate format. The detection of vancomycin was achiev...

  5. Semi-Empirical Quantum Chemistry Method for Pre-Polymerization Rational Design of Ciprofloxacin Imprinted Polymer and Adsorption Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Marestoni,Luiz D.; Wong,Ademar; Feliciano, Gustavo T.; Marchi,Mary R. R.; Tarley, César R. T.; Sotomayor,Maria D. P. T.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that selectivity of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) depends on adequate choice of functional monomer before the experimental synthesis. Computational simulation seems to be an ideal way to produce selective MIPs. In this work, we have proposed the use of semi-empirical simulation to obtain the best monomer able to strongly interact with ciprofloxacin. Twenty functional monomers were evaluated through semi-empirical quantum chemistry method and three MIPs were synthesize...

  6. Use of peak sharpening effects to improve the separation of chiral compounds with molecularly imprinted porous polymer layer open-tubular capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsing, Chadin; Yang, Yuanzhong; Chowdhury, Jamil M; Boysen, Reinhard I; Hearn, Milton T W

    2017-02-17

    This investigation demonstrates the application of a new peak sharpening technique to improve the separation of difficult-to-resolve racemic mixtures in capillary electro-chromatography. Molecularly imprinted porous layer open tubular (MIP-PLOT) capillaries, prepared by a layer-on-layer polymerization approach with Z-l-Asp-OH as the template, were selected to validate the approach. SEM revealed that the polymer film thickness can be varied by changes in both the polymer composition and the layer-on-layer regime. Capillaries made with methacrylic acid as the functional monomer could not separate the Z-Asp-OH racemate, due to weak interactions between the MIP-PLOT material and the target analytes. In contrast, MIP-PLOT capillaries prepared with 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer resulted in increased ionic interactions with the target analytes. Separation of the enantiomers could be enhanced when a peak zone sharpening effect was exploited through the use of specific BGE compositions and by taking advantage of eigenpeak phenomena. In this manner, the position of a sharpening zone and the peak shape of the sample analytes could be fine-tuned, so that when the sharpening zone and the target analyte co-migrated the separation of the Z-l-Asp-OH enantiomer from its d-enantiomer in a racemic mixture could be achieved under overloading conditions.

  7. Evaluation of a molecularly imprinted polymer for determination of steroids in goat milk by matrix solid phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán, Judith; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Gallego-Picó, Alejandrina; Garcinuño, Rosa María; Fernández-Hernando, Pilar; Sierra, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix solid-phase dispersion methodology for simultaneous determination of five steroids in goat milk samples was proposed. Factors affecting the extraction recovery such as sample/dispersant ratio and washing and elution solvents were investigated. The molecularly imprinted polymer used as dispersant in the matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure showed high affinity to steroids, and the obtained extracts were sufficiently cleaned to be directly analyzed. Analytical separation was performed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography using a capillary electrophoresis system equipped with a diode array detector. A background electrolyte composed of borate buffer (25mM, pH 9.3), sodium dodecyl sulfate (10mM) and acetonitrile (20%) was used. The developed MIP-MSPD methodology was applied for direct determination of testosterone (T), estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and progesterone (P) in different goat milk samples. Mean recoveries obtained ranged from 81% to 110%, with relative standard deviations (RSD)≤12%. The molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix solid-phase dispersion method is fast, selective, cost-effective and environment-friendly compared with other pretreatment methods used for extraction of steroids in milk.

  8. Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer with double templates for rapid simultaneous determination of melamine and dicyandiamide in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Song, Han; Liu, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Li, Le; Tang, Hui; Li, Yingchun

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a rapid and accurate determination strategy was established for simultaneous measurement of melamine (MLM) and dicyandiamide (DCD) directly in powdered milk by coupling molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A novel double-template technique was adopted for preparing SPE packing agent and the obtained double-templated (MLM and DCD) molecularly imprinted polymers (MD-MIPs) was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The molecular recognition ability and the binding capability of the as-prepared polymers towards MLM and DCD were evaluated via static and dynamic binding tests, and it was found that the MD-MIPs showed better affinity and selectivity for both templates compared with single-templated MIPs and non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). An approach based on MISPE and HPLC was then developed and optimized to detect MLM and DCD in powdered milk. The detection limit of the method (S/N=3) were 0.13 μg/g for MLM and 0.07 μg/g for DCD, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day determination for MLM was 3.3% and 4.7%, and 3.5% and 5.9% for DCD. The recoveries in MLM and DCD analysis at three spiked levels were 93.1-100.1% and 75.7-82.5%, respectively, with all RSD less than 5.2%.

  9. Selective and sensitive fluorimetric determination of carbendazim in apple and orange after preconcentration with magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlktaç, Raif; Aksuner, Nur; Henden, Emur

    2017-03-01

    In this study, magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer has been used for the first time as selective adsorbent before the fluorimetric determination of carbendazim. Adsorption capacity of the magnetite-molecularly imprinted polymer was found to be 2.31 ± 0.63 mg g- 1 (n = 3). Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method were found to be 2.3 and 7.8 μg L- 1, respectively. Calibration graph was linear in the range of 10-1000 μg L- 1. Rapidity is an important advantage of the method where re-binding and recovery processes of carbendazim can be completed within an hour. The same imprinted polymer can be used for the determination of carbendazim without any capacity loss repeatedly for at least ten times. Proposed method has been successfully applied to determine carbendazim residues in apple and orange, where the recoveries of the spiked samples were found to be in the range of 95.7-103%. Characterization of the adsorbent and the effects of some potential interferences were also evaluated. With the reasonably high capacity and reusability of the adsorbent, dynamic calibration range, rapidity, simplicity, cost-effectiveness and with suitable LOD and LOQ, the proposed method is an ideal method for the determination of carbendazim.

  10. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides from food samples based on a combination of a liquid membrane and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaka, Byron; Cukrowska, Ewa; Bui, Bernadette Tse Sum; Ramström, Olof; Haupt, Karsten; Tutu, Hlanganani; Chimuka, Luke

    2009-10-02

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of liquid membrane (microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) was applied to triazines herbicides in food samples. Simazine, atrazine and propazine were extracted from aqueous food samples through the hydrophobic porous membrane that was impregnated with toluene, which also formed part of the acceptor phase. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time, and type of organic acceptor solvent and desorption solvent. An extraction time of 90 min and 50mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazines binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and combinations of diethyl ether and hexane. 90% methanol in water was found to be the best desorption solvent compared to acetonitrile, methanol and water. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked lettuce and apple extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to liquid membrane extraction alone or to the microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction - non-imprinted polymer combination. The MIP showed a certain degree of group specificity and the extraction efficiency in lettuce extract was 79% (0.72) for simazine, 98% (1.55) for atrazine and 86% (3.08) for propazine.

  11. Selective Removal of Perfluorooctanoic Acid Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Modified TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunbo Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorinated chemicals have attracted worldwide concern owing to their wide occurrence and resistance to most conventional treatment processes. In this work, a novel photocatalyst was fabricated by modifying TiO2 nanotube arrays with molecularly imprinted polymers. The molecularly imprinted polymer-modified TiO2 nanotubes (MIP-TiO2 NTs were characterized and tested for the selective removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA from water. The amount of PFOA adsorbed by the MIP-TiO2 NTs was as high as 0.8125 μg/cm2. PFOA decomposition and defluorination by the MIP-TiO2 NTs reached 84% and 30.2% after 8 h reaction, respectively. The Freundlich model and pseudo-first-order kinetics were used to describe the observed adsorption and decomposition of PFOA, respectively. Compared with TiO2 NTs and nonmolecularly imprinted polymer-modified TiO2 NTs, the MIP-TiO2 NTs exhibited not only a higher PFOA degradation rate but also enhanced selectivity for target chemicals. The MIP-TiO2 NTs could also selectively and rapidly remove PFOA from secondary effluent, exhibiting a decomposition of 81.1%, almost as high as that observed in pure water. Investigation of the effects of scavengers on the photocatalytic reaction indicated that photogenerated holes were the main oxidant for PFOA decomposition, and the PFOA degradation mechanism and pathway were proposed.

  12. Molecular Imprinted Polymer of Methacrylic Acid Functionalised β-Cyclodextrin for Selective Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemavathy Surikumaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-βCD as a novel functional monomer in the preparation of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP MAA-βCD for the selective removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP. The polymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM techniques. The influence of parameters such as solution pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentrations towards removal of 2,4-DCP using MIP MAA-βCD have been evaluated. The imprinted material shows fast kinetics and the optimum pH for removal of 2,4-DCP is pH 7. Compared with the corresponding non-imprinted polymer (NIP MAA-βCD, the MIP MAA-βCD exhibited higher adsorption capacity and outstanding selectivity towards 2,4-DCP. Freundlich isotherm best fitted the adsorption equilibrium data of MIP MAA-βCD and the kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4-DCP was spontaneous and exothermic under the examined conditions.

  13. Molecular Imprinted Polymer of Methacrylic Acid Functionalised β-Cyclodextrin for Selective Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surikumaran, Hemavathy; Mohamad, Sharifah; Sarih, Norazilawati Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    This work describes methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-βCD) as a novel functional monomer in the preparation of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP MAA-βCD) for the selective removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The polymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The influence of parameters such as solution pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentrations towards removal of 2,4-DCP using MIP MAA-βCD have been evaluated. The imprinted material shows fast kinetics and the optimum pH for removal of 2,4-DCP is pH 7. Compared with the corresponding non-imprinted polymer (NIP MAA-βCD), the MIP MAA-βCD exhibited higher adsorption capacity and outstanding selectivity towards 2,4-DCP. Freundlich isotherm best fitted the adsorption equilibrium data of MIP MAA-βCD and the kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4-DCP was spontaneous and exothermic under the examined conditions. PMID:24727378

  14. Synthesis And Characterization Of An Ion Imprinted Polymer For Cadmium Using Quinaldic Acid As Complexing Agent And Applying By Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A Cd2 Ion Imprinted Polymer Cd-IIP has been synthesized by copolymerizaton of cadmium ion quinaldic acid complexing agent 4-vynil pyridine monomer dimethyl sulfoxide solvent ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate EGDMA cross-linker and 22-azobis-isobutyronitrile AIBN initiator. Polymerization was conducted using a microwave at a temperature of 70 oC with heating times of 45 minutes. The template Cd2 was removed by leaching the template with ethanol and 4 M HCl washed by aquabidest and dried in an oven at the temperature of 60oC. The polymer particles imprinted and nonimprinted were characterized using fourir transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy scanning electron microscopy SEM and energy dispersive spectroscopy EDS. The result showed that using heating time 45 minutes at temperature 70 oC the particle morphology is viewed like as the large homogeneous. So the imprinted polymer had bands at 3483 cm-1 1726 cm-1 and 1155 cm-1 indicating the presence of OH CO and C-O respectively.

  15. Evaluation of molecularly imprinted anion-functionalized poly(ionic liquid)s by multi-phase dispersive extraction of flavonoids from plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-01-15

    Molecularly imprinted anion-functionalized poly(ionic liquid)s (MAPILs) were prepared by radical polymerization for the multi-phase dispersive extraction (MPDE) of flavonoids from plants. Poly(ionic liquid)s were functionalized with different anions via anion metathesis to enhance their separation efficiency, called anion-functionalized poly(ionic liquid)s (APILs). A molecularly imprinting technique was introduced to produce specific recognition sites by forming complexes between the template molecules and anion-functionalized ionic liquid monomers to reduce the interactions with the interference substances and increase the selectivity. Multi-phase dispersive extraction (MPDE) was applied for separation instead of the traditional solid phase extraction method. The target compounds were first extracted by three-phase (sample-solvent-sorbent) dispersive extraction and cleaned up after removing the sample matrix. This method significantly decrease in the interference and analysis cost. A suitable sorbent for MPDE could be identified based on the adsorption behaviors of flavonoids on different MAPILs. The mean recovery yields of quercitrin, myricetin, and amentoflavone from Chamaecyparis obtusa under the optimized conditions were 88.07, 93.59, and 95.13%. This is a promising method for the extraction, separation and determination of flavonoids or other polyphenolic compounds from natural and other sources. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recognition Properties and Competitive Assays of a Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Selective Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatcharee Seechamnanturakit

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP with dual dopamine/serotonin-like binding sites (DS-MIP was synthesized for use as a receptor model of study the druginteraction of biological mixed receptors at a molecular level. The polymer material was produced using methacrylic acid (MAA and acrylamide (ACM as functional monomers, N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA as cross-linker, methanol/water mixture (4:1, v/v as porogen and a mixture of dopamine (D and serotonin (S as templates. The prepared DS-MIP exhibited the greatest rebinding of the template(s in aqueous methanol solution with decreased recognition in acetonitrile, water and methanol solvent. The binding affinity and binding capacity of DS-MIP with S were found to be higher than those of DS-MIP with D. The selectivity profiles of DS-MIP suggest that the D binding site of DS-MIP has sufficient integrity to discriminate between species of non-optimal functional group orientation, whilst the S binding site of DS-MIP is less selective toward species having structural features and functional group orientations different from S. The ligand binding activities of a series of ergot derivatives (ergocryptine, ergocornine, ergocristine, ergonovine, agroclavine, pergolide and terguride have been studied with the DS-MIP using a competitive ligand binding assay protocol. The binding affinities of DSMIP were demonstrated in the micro- or submicro-molar range for a series of ergot derivatives, whereas the binding affinities were considerably greater to natural receptors derived from the rat hypothalamus. The DS-MIP afforded the same pattern of differentiation as the natural receptors, i.e. affinity for the clavines > lysergic acid derivatives > ergopeptines. The results suggest that the discrimination for the ergot derivatives by the dopamine and serotonin sites of DS-MIP is due to the structural features and functional orientation of the phenylethylamine and indolylethylamine entities at the

  17. Determination of haloperidol in biological samples using molecular imprinted polymer nanoparticles followed by HPLC-DAD detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Dehghani, Zahra; Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Shekari, Nafiseh; Molaei, Karam

    2013-09-10

    In this study an extraction procedure using molecular imprinted polymer nanoparticles for the determination of haloperidol in biological samples is proposed. The haloperidol imprinted polymer nanoparticles were synthesized successfully by precipitation polymerization in a flask containing haloperidol as a template, ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate as a crosslinking agent, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile as an initiator. The leached and unleached polymer nanoparticles have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of different variables such as the pH of solution, uptake and elution time, type, and the least amount of eluent for elution of haloperidol from polymer was evaluated. Extraction efficiencies more than 97% were obtained by elution of the polymer with 1.5 mL of methanol-acetic acid-trifluoroacetic acid 79.9:20:0.1. Under optimal conditions maximum adsorption capacity was obtained 153.84 mg g(-1). The detection limit of the proposed procedure was between 0.2 and 0.35 μg L(-1). Finally this method was applied to the determination of haloperidol in plasma and urine samples and satisfactory results were achieved (RSD<6.9%).

  18. Microextraction by packed sorbent liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry of triazines employing a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Felipe Nascimento; Santos-Neto, Álvaro José; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers for the determination of triazines were synthesized by precipitation using atrazine as template, methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinker, and 2,2'-azobisisobutrynitrile as initiator. The polymers were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy and packed in a device for microextraction by packed sorbent aiming for the preconcentration/cleanup of herbicides, such as atrazine, simazine, simetryn, ametryn, and terbutryn in corn samples. Liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for the separation and determination of the herbicides. The selectivity coefficient of molecularly imprinted polymers was compared with that of nonimprinted polymer for the binary mixtures of atrazine/propanil and atrazine/picloram, and the values obtained were 15.6 and 2.96, respectively. The analytical curve ranged from 10 to 80 μg/kg (r = 0.989) and the limits of detection and quantification in the corn matrices were 3.3 and 10 μg/kg, respectively. Intra- and interday precisions were Polymer synthesis was successfully applied to the cleanup and preconcentration of triazines from fortified corn samples with 91.1-109.1% of recovery.

  19. High ionic conductivity P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO blended polymer electrolytes for solid electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Chien A; Xiong, Shanxin; Ma, Jan; Lu, Xuehong; Lee, Pooi See

    2011-08-07

    Solid polymer electrolytes with excellent ionic conductivity (above 10(-4) S cm(-1)), which result in high optical modulation for solid electrochromic (EC) devices are presented. The combination of a polar host matrix poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDF-TrFE) and a solid plasticized of a low molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (M(w)≤ 20,000) blended polymer electrolyte serves to enhance both the dissolution of lithium salt and the ionic transport. Calorimetric measurement shows a reduced crystallization due to a better intermixing of the polymers with small molecular weight PEO. Vibrational spectroscopy identifies the presence of free ions and ion pairs in the electrolytes with PEO of M(w)≤ 8000. The ionic dissolution is improved using PEO as a plasticizer when compared to liquid propylene carbonate, evidently shown in the transference number analysis. Ionic transport follows the Arrhenius equation with a low activation energy (0.16-0.2 eV), leading to high ionic conductivities. Solid electrochromic devices fabricated with the blended P(VDF-TrFE)/PEO electrolytes and polyaniline show good spectroelectrochemical performance in the visible (300-800 nm) and near-infrared (0.9-2.4 μm) regions with a modulation up to 60% and fast switching speed of below 20 seconds. The successful introduction of the solid polymer electrolytes with its best harnessed qualities helps to expedite the application of various electrochemical devices. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  20. Development of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer-Based Sensor for the Electrochemical Determination of Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kassahun Mamo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The explosive triacetone triperoxide (TATP, which can be prepared from commercially readily available reagents following an easy synthetic procedure, is one of the most common components of improvised explosive devices (IEDs. Molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP electrochemical sensors have proved useful for the determination of different compounds in different matrices with the required sensitivity and selectivity. In this work, a highly sensitive and selective molecularly imprinted polymer with electrochemical capabilities for the determination of TATP has been developed. The molecular imprinting has been performed via electropolymerisation onto a glassy carbon electrode surface by cyclic voltammetry from a solution of pyrrole functional monomer, TATP template and LiClO4. Differential Pulse Voltammetry of TATP, with LiClO4 as supporting electrolyte, was performed in a potential range of −2.0 V to +1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl. Three-factor two-level factorial design was used to optimise the monomer concentration at 0.1 mol∙L−1, template concentration at 100 mmol∙L−1 and the number of cyclic voltammetry scan cycles to 10. The molecularly imprinted polymer-modified glassy carbon electrode demonstrated good performance at low concentrations for a linear range of 82–44,300 µg∙L−1 and a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.996. The limits of detection (LoD and quantification (LoQ achieved were 26.9 μg∙L−1 and 81.6 μg∙L−1, respectively. The sensor demonstrated very good repeatability with precision values (n = 6, expressed as %RSD of 1.098% and 0.55% for 1108 and 2216 µg∙L−1, respectively. It also proved selective for TATP in the presence of other explosive substances such as PETN, RDX, HMX, and TNT.

  1. Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Battery Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Irene; de Vries, Henrik; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano

    2016-01-11

    The advent of solid-state polymer electrolytes for application in lithium batteries took place more than four decades ago when the ability of polyethylene oxide (PEO) to dissolve suitable lithium salts was demonstrated. Since then, many modifications of this basic system have been proposed and tested, involving the addition of conventional, carbonate-based electrolytes, low molecular weight polymers, ceramic fillers, and others. This Review focuses on ternary polymer electrolytes, that is, ion-conducting systems consisting of a polymer incorporating two salts, one bearing the lithium cation and the other introducing additional anions capable of plasticizing the polymer chains. Assessing the state of the research field of solid-state, ternary polymer electrolytes, while giving background on the whole field of polymer electrolytes, this Review is expected to stimulate new thoughts and ideas on the challenges and opportunities of lithium-metal batteries.

  2. Ionic conductivity and transport properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene)-based solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreha, Merhawi; Subrahmanyam, A. R.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2016-08-01

    Polymer electrolytes containing poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) and various concentrations of lithium triflate were prepared to determine the optimal polymer-salt composition for maximum ionic conductivity. Complex formation was ascertained from X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies. The conductivity measurements reveal that the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolytes containing various salt concentrations increases with temperature and obeys the Arrhenius rule. It is found that the electrolyte containing 25 wt.% of lithium triflate exhibits the highest room temperature conductivity. Moreover, Ionic transference measurements show predominance of ionic motion.

  3. Boronate affinity-based surface molecularly imprinted polymers using glucose as fragment template for excellent recognition of glucosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mijun; Xiang, Haiyan; Hu, Xin; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2016-11-25

    Rapid and efficient extraction of bioactive glycosides from complex natural origins poses a difficult challenge, and then is often inherent bottleneck for their highly utilization. Herein, we propose a strategy to fabricate boronate affinity based surface molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for excellent recognition of glucosides. d-glucose was used as fragment template. Boronic acid, dynamic covalent binding with d-glucose under different pH conditions, was selected as functional monomer to improve specificity. Fe3O4 solid core for surface imprinting using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as crosslinker could control imprinted shell thickness for favorable adsorption capacity and satisfactory mass transfer rate, improve hydrophilicity, separate easily by a magnet. Model adsorption studies showed that the resulting MIPs show specific recognition of glucosides. The equilibrium data fitted well to Langmuir equation and the adsorption process could be described by pseudo-second order model. Furthermore, the MIPs were successfully applied for selective extraction of three flavonoid glucosides (daidzin, glycitin, and genistin) from soybean. Results indicated that selective extraction of glucosides from complex aqueous media based on the prepared MIPs is simple, rapid, efficient and specific. Moreover, this method opens up a universal route for imprinting saccharide with cis-diol group for glycosides recognition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymer based electrochemical detection of L-cysteine at carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, K K; Vinu Mohan, A M; Biju, V M

    2014-04-01

    A methacrylic acid (MAA) based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified carbon paste electrode (CPE) was developed for electrochemical detection of L-cysteine (Cys). Characterisation of MIP was done with FTIR and the modified electrode with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CV, DPV and impedance analysis demonstrated that the modified electrode is responsive towards the target molecule. The optimum percentage composition of MIP for MIP/CPE and the effect of pH towards the electrode response for Cys were studied. The detection of Cys in the range of 2×10(-8) to 18×10(-8)M at MIP/CPE was monitored by DPV with a limit of detection of 9.6nM and R(2) of 0.9974. Also, various physiological interferents such as ascorbic acid, L-tryptophan, D-glucose, D-cysteine and L-cysteine were found to have little effect on DPV response at MIP/CPE. The utility of the electrode was proved by the effective detection of Cys from tap water and human blood plasma samples with reproducible results.

  5. Selectivity Enhancement in Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Binding of Bisphenol A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noof A. Alenazi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an estrogen-mimicking chemical that can be selectively detected in water using a chemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs. However, the utility of BPA-MIPs in sensor applications is limited by the presence of non-specific binding sites. This study explored a dual approach to eliminating these sites: optimizing the molar ratio of the template (bisphenol A to functional monomer (methacrylic acid to cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and esterifying the carboxylic acid residues outside of specific binding sites by treatment with diazomethane. The binding selectivity of treated MIPs and non-treated MIPs for BPA and several potential interferents was compared by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection. Baclofen, diclofenac and metformin were demonstrated to be good model interferents to test all MIPs for selective binding of BPA. Treated MIPs demonstrated a significant decrease in binding of the interferents while offering high selectivity toward BPA. These results demonstrate that conventional optimization of the molar ratio, together with advanced esterification of non-specific binding sites, effectively minimizes the residual binding of interferents with MIPs to facilitate BPA sensing.

  6. Capacitive sensing of N-formylamphetamine based on immobilized molecular imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graniczkowska, Kinga; Pütz, Michael; Hauser, Frank M; De Saeger, Sarah; Beloglazova, Natalia V

    2017-06-15

    A highly sensitive, capacitive biosensor was developed to monitor trace amounts of an amphetamine precursor in aqueous samples. The sensing element is a gold electrode with molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) immobilized on its surface. A continuous-flow system with timed injections was used to simulate flowing waterways, such as sewers, springs, rivers, etc., ensuring wide applicability of the developed product. MIPs, implemented as a recognition element due to their stability under harsh environmental conditions, were synthesized using thermo- and UV-initiated polymerization techniques. The obtained particles were compared against commercially available MIPs according to specificity and selectivity metrics; commercial MIPs were characterized by quite broad cross-reactivity to other structurally related amphetamine-type stimulants. After the best batch of MIPs was chosen, different strategies for immobilizing them on the gold electrode's surface were evaluated, and their stability was also verified. The complete, developed system was validated through analysis of spiked samples. The limit of detection (LOD) for N-formyl amphetamine was determined to be 10μM in this capacitive biosensor system. The obtained results indicate future possible applications of this MIPs-based capacitive biosensor for environmental and forensic analysis. To the best of our knowledge there are no existing MIPs-based sensors toward amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS).

  7. Application of multivariate analysis to the screening of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for ametryn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpaei, A R; Shahtaheri, S J; Ganjali, M R; Forushani, A Rahimi; Golbabaei, F

    2008-05-30

    Among the solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques, a novel system for a triazine herbicide named ametryn, has been developed based on a molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) phase. Through this method, the synthesis of the complementary to ametryn MIP was accomplished and the factors influencing its efficiency have been optimized. Through the optimization process, the type and the amounts of functional monomer and solvents, template amount, cross-linker, initiator as well as the polymerization temperature were considered to be evaluated. Based on the obtained results, the optimum conditions for the efficient polymerized sorbent, considering the recovery efficiency were solvent: acetonitrile, 6.41 mL; monomer: methacrylic acid, 5.41 mmol; template: 1.204 mmol; cross-linker: 27.070 mmol; initiator: 2.03 mmol; temperature: 40.86 degrees C. The optimum molar ratio among the template, monomer and cross-linker for ametryn was 1:4.49:22.48. The reversed-phase HPLC-UV was used for the ametryn determination, using an isocratic solvent delivery system (acetonitrile: H(2)O, 60:40), flow-rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) and a UV wavelength of 220 nm. In line with the obtained results, using central composite design (CCD) can increase the precision and accuracy of synthesis and optimization of MIP to ametryn and possibly other similar analogues.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Membrane for the Removal of 2,4-Dinitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Jelas Haron

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs were prepared by bulk polymerization in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide, as the template, functional monomer, cross-linker, and initiator, respectively. The MIP membrane was prepared by hybridization of MIP particles with cellulose acetate (CA and polystyrene (PS after being ground and sieved. The prepared MIP membrane was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The parameters studied for the removal of 2,4-dinitrophenol included the effect of pH, sorption kinetics, and the selectivity of the MIP membrane. Maximum sorption of 2,4-nitrophenol by the fabricated CA membrane with MIP (CA-MIP and the PS membrane with MIP (PS-MIP was observed at pH 7.0 and pH 5.0, respectively. The sorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by CA-MIP and PS-MIP followed a pseudo–second-order kinetic model. For a selectivity study, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, and phenol were selected as potential interferences. The sorption capability of CA-MIP and PS-MIP towards 2,4-dinitrophenol was observed to be higher than that of 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, or phenol.

  9. Selectivity Enhancement in Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Binding of Bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenazi, Noof A; Manthorpe, Jeffrey M; Lai, Edward P C

    2016-10-14

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogen-mimicking chemical that can be selectively detected in water using a chemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). However, the utility of BPA-MIPs in sensor applications is limited by the presence of non-specific binding sites. This study explored a dual approach to eliminating these sites: optimizing the molar ratio of the template (bisphenol A) to functional monomer (methacrylic acid) to cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), and esterifying the carboxylic acid residues outside of specific binding sites by treatment with diazomethane. The binding selectivity of treated MIPs and non-treated MIPs for BPA and several potential interferents was compared by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection. Baclofen, diclofenac and metformin were demonstrated to be good model interferents to test all MIPs for selective binding of BPA. Treated MIPs demonstrated a significant decrease in binding of the interferents while offering high selectivity toward BPA. These results demonstrate that conventional optimization of the molar ratio, together with advanced esterification of non-specific binding sites, effectively minimizes the residual binding of interferents with MIPs to facilitate BPA sensing.

  10. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for 2,4-Dinitrophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Dyana Zakaria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular imprinted polymers (MIP are considered one of the most promising selective and novel separation methods for removal phenolic compound in wastewater treatment. MIP are crosslinked polymeric materials that exhibit high binding capacity and selectivity towards a target molecule (template, purposely present during the synthesis process. In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. An adsorption process for removal of nitrophenol using the fabricated MIP was evaluated under various pH and time conditions. The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was found effective at pH 6.0. A kinetics study showed that nitrophenol adsorption follows a second order adsorption rate and the adsorption isotherm data is explained well by the Langmuir model.

  11. Preparation, characterization and selective recognition for vanillic acid imprinted mesoporous silica polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Xu, Miaomiao; Wang, Susu; Lu, Cuimei; Li, Zhiping

    2015-02-01

    A vanillic acid imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (MIPs) was prepared by copolymerizing a modified mesoporous silica molecular sieve with template molecule, functional monomer and cross-linker in present work. Interaction between the template and functional monomer was investigated by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. These MIPs were characterized by Fourier transmission infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Adsorption dynamics and thermodynamic behavior of MIPs was explored and the selective recognition capability evaluated. Also, the applicability for the MIPs as solid phase extraction media was tested. Results indicated the 1:1 (mole ratio) complex of vanillic acid-4-vinylpyridine might predominate in the pre-polymerization mixture and the MIPs obtained possessed rapid binding dynamics and higher affinity toward template molecules, reaching adsorption equilibrium within 230 min with the highest adsorption amount of 50.7 mg g-1. Freundlich model was shown best to describe isotherm adsorption for the MIPs. The MIPs could selectively bind template molecule with selectivity coefficients of 1.36-1.50. In addition, a higher enrichment capability when using it for gathering target compound from methanol extract of Artemisia stelleriana and a good reusability during adsorption-desorption recycling use could be observed.

  12. Selectivity Enhancement in Molecularly Imprinted Polymers for Binding of Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenazi, Noof A.; Manthorpe, Jeffrey M.; Lai, Edward P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogen-mimicking chemical that can be selectively detected in water using a chemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). However, the utility of BPA-MIPs in sensor applications is limited by the presence of non-specific binding sites. This study explored a dual approach to eliminating these sites: optimizing the molar ratio of the template (bisphenol A) to functional monomer (methacrylic acid) to cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), and esterifying the carboxylic acid residues outside of specific binding sites by treatment with diazomethane. The binding selectivity of treated MIPs and non-treated MIPs for BPA and several potential interferents was compared by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection. Baclofen, diclofenac and metformin were demonstrated to be good model interferents to test all MIPs for selective binding of BPA. Treated MIPs demonstrated a significant decrease in binding of the interferents while offering high selectivity toward BPA. These results demonstrate that conventional optimization of the molar ratio, together with advanced esterification of non-specific binding sites, effectively minimizes the residual binding of interferents with MIPs to facilitate BPA sensing. PMID:27754429

  13. Orientations of Chromonic Liquid Crystals by Imprinted or Rubbed Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youngwoo; McGuire, Aya; Clark, Noel

    2014-03-01

    A variety of novel alignment effects of chromonic liquid crystal phases of sunset yellow (SSY)/water, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG)/water, and their mixtures by thiol-ene polymer films topographically imprinted with linear channels are observed using polarizing optical microscopy. Nematic DSCG and SSY at low concentration and their nematic mixtures orient with the long axes of stacked chromonic aggregates on average parallel to the channels, that is, with the molecular planes normal to the channel axis. On the contrary, nematic SSY in contact with the rubbed polyimide films orients with the long axes on average in-plane perpendicular to the rubbing direction, arguably, due to a tongue-groove interaction between SSY and the stretched PI chains. Furthermore, multi-stable alignments are observed in SSY solutions of sufficiently high concentration, including preferential in-plane orientation of the long axes of the aggregates parallel to, perpendicular to, and 45° rotated from the channels. This work was supported by NSF grant DMR 1207606, NSF MRSEC grant DMR 0820579, and NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate programs.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymer for 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid prepared by a sol-gel method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanli Sun

    2014-07-01

    Based on a sol-gel procedure, a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) was synthesized, using phenyltrimethoxysilane (PTMOS), aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as monomers and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as cross-linking agent. In addition to the amount of the template, some factors in the sol-gel process: TEOS/APTES/PTMOS molar ratio, H2O/Si molar ratio, CH3CH2OH/Si molar ratio, etc. were investigated in detail. Results show that the optimum conditions for the preparation of the MIPs were 20:1.5:1 (TEOS: APTES: PTMOS), ca. 4 (H2O/Si), ca. 4 (CH3CH2OH/Si), respectively. Effects of various parameters involved in the adsorption process of 2, 4-D on MIP such as incubation time, pH, etc. were also evaluated. It is found that the adsorption attained equilibrium within 3 h, the optimum pH for adsorption was about 7 and the adsorption obeyed Langmuir model. Test results also demonstrated that the present MIP for 2, 4-D had large adsorption capacity (the maximum adsorption concluded from Langmuir model reached 243.3 mg/g) and good selectivity.

  15. Development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer as potentiometry sensor of uric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, Miratul; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Widayanti, Nesti; Kadmi, Yassine; Elmsellem, Hicham; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    The development of carbon paste electrodes modified by molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the potentiometric analysis of uric acid was carried out in this study. The aim of the study was to determine the optimum composition of the electrode constituent material, the optimum pH of the uric acid solution, and the performance of the electrode, which was measured by its response time, measurement range, Nernst factor, detection limits, selectivity coefficient, precision, accuracy, and life time. MIP was made from methyl methacrylate as the monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker, and uric acid as the template. Electrodes that give optimum performance were produced from carbon, MIP, and paraffin with a ratio of 40:25:35 (% w/w). The obtained results show that the measurement of uric acid solution gives optimum results at pH 5, Nernst factor of 30.19 mV/decade, and a measurement range of 10-6-10-3 M. The minimum detection limit of this method was 3.03.10-6 M, and the precision and accuracy toward uric acid with concentration of 10-6-10-3 M ranged between 1.36-2.03% and 63.9-166%. The selectivity coefficient value was less than 1, which indicated that the electrode was selective against uric acid and not interfered with by urea. This electrode has a response time of less than 2 min; its life time is 8 weeks with 104 usage times.

  16. Active food packaging based on molecularly imprinted polymers: study of the release kinetics of ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Pazos, Pablo; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana; Sendón, Raquel; Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Moreno-Bondi, M Cruz; Angulo, Immaculada; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2014-11-19

    A novel active packaging based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was developed for the controlled release of ferulic acid. The release kinetics of ferulic acid from the active system to food simulants (10, 20, and 50% ethanol (v/v), 3% acetic acid (w/v), and vegetable oil), substitutes (95% ethanol (v/v) and isooctane), and real food samples at different temperatures were studied. The key parameters of the diffusion process were calculated by using a mathematical modeling based on Fick's second law. The ferulic acid release was affected by the temperature as well as the percentage of ethanol of the simulant. The fastest release occurred in 95% ethanol (v/v) at 20 °C. The diffusion coefficients (D) obtained ranged between 1.8 × 10(-11) and 4.2 × 10(-9) cm(2)/s. A very good correlation between experimental and estimated data was obtained, and consequently the model could be used to predict the release of ferulic acid into food simulants and real food samples.

  17. Determination of malachite green in fish based on magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer extraction followed by electrochemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baomei; Zhou, Xibin; Chen, Jing; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2015-09-01

    A novel procedure for selective extraction of malachite green (MG) from fish samples was set up by using magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIP) as the solid phase extraction material followed by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) determination. MMIP was prepared by using Fe3O4 magnetite as magnetic component, MG as template molecule, methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agent. MMIP was characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR, VSM and XRD. Leucomalachite green (LMG) was oxidized in situ to MG by 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). And then MMIP was successfully used to selectively enrich MG from fish samples. Adsorbed MG was desorbed and determined by ECL. Under the optimal conditions, calibration curve was good linear in the range of 0.29-290 μg/kg and the limit of detection (LOD) was 7.3 ng/kg (S/N=3). The recoveries of MMIP extraction were 77.1-101.2%. In addition, MMIP could be regenerated. To the best of our knowledge, MMIP coupling with ECL quenching of Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA for the determination of MG has not yet been developed.

  18. Detection of melamine in milk using molecularly imprinted polymers-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxi; Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Grant, Edward; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-06-01

    A novel biosensor combining molecularly imprinted polymers and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MIPs-SERS) determines melamine in whole milk. MIPs were synthesized by bulk polymerization of melamine (template), methacrylic acid (functional monomer), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (cross-linking agent) and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (initiator). Static and kinetic adsorption tests validated the use of MIPs to efficiently separate and enrich melamine from whole milk. Silver dendrite nanostructure served as SERS-active substrate for signal collection. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis segregated Raman signatures of whole milk samples with different melamine concentrations. Regression models showed a good linear relationship (R(2)=0.93) between the height of melamine SERS band (at 703cm(-1)) and melamine concentration in the range from 0.005mmolL(-1) to 0.05mmolL(-1). The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.012mmolL(-1) and 0.039mmolL(-1), confirming the high sensitivity of this biosensor to accurately determine melamine in whole milk. Simple sample pretreatment reduced full analysis time to determine melamine in whole milk to less than 20min.

  19. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the isolation and detection of biotin and biotinylated biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Aissa, A; Herrera-Chacon, A; Pupin, R R; Sotomayor, M D P T; Pividori, M I

    2017-02-15

    Magnetic separation based on biologically-modified magnetic particles is a preconcentration procedure commonly integrated in magneto actuated platforms for the detection of a huge range of targets. However, the main drawback of this material is the low stability and high cost. In this work, a novel hybrid molecularly-imprinted polymer with magnetic properties is presented with affinity towards biotin and biotinylated biomolecules. During the synthesis of the magneto core-shell particles, biotin was used as a template. The characterization of this material by microscopy techniques including SEM, TEM and confocal microscopy is presented. The application of the magnetic-MIPs for the detection of biotin and biotinylated DNA in magneto-actuated platforms is also described for the first time. The magnetic-MIP showed a significant immobilization capacity of biotinylated molecules, giving rise to a cheaper and a robust method (it is not required to be stored at 4°C) with high binding capacity for the separation and purification under magnetic actuation of a wide range of biotinylated molecules, and their downstream application including determination of their specific targets.

  20. Development of molecularly imprinted polymer-based field effect transistor for sugar chain sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Shoichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we developed a molecularly imprinted polymer-based field-effect transistor (MIP-gate FET) for selectively detecting sugar chains in aqueous media, focusing on 3‧-sialyllactose (3SLac) and 6‧-sialyllactose (6SLac). The FET biosensor enables the detection of small molecules as long as they have intrinsic charges. Additionally, the MIP gels include the template for the target molecule, which is selectively trapped without requiring enzyme-target molecule reaction. The MIP gels were synthesized on the gate surface of the FET device, including phenylboronic acid (PBA), which enables binding to sugar chains. Firstly, the 3SLac-MIP-gate FET quantitatively detected 3SLac at µM levels. This is because the FET device recognized the change in molecular charges on the basis of PBA-3SLac binding in the MIP gel. Moreover, 3SLac was selectively detected using the 3SLac- and 6SLac-MIP-gate FETs to some extent, where the detecting signal from the competent was suppressed by 40% at maximum. Therefore, a platform based on the MIP-coupled FET biosensor is suitable for a selective biosensing system in an enzyme-free manner, which can be applied widely in medical fields. However, we need to further improve the selectivity of MIP-gate FETs to discriminate more clearly between similar structures of sugar chains such as 3SLac and 6SLac.

  1. A novel electrochemical sensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer for the determination of epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanrui; Zhu, Lili; Hu, Yue; Peng, Xinsheng; Du, Jiangyan

    2017-04-15

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was fabricated by electrochemical polymerization of β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) and epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) on the graphene oxide (GO) modified glassy carbon (GO/GC) electrode for the first time. The MIP/GO/GC electrode exhibits an excellent ability of specific binding of EGCG and a rapid electrochemical response, high sensitivity and selectivity for determination of EGCG. This prepared MIP sensor presents distinct advantages over conventional electrochemical methods for EGCG determination because it is a one-step preparation and the template molecule can be easily removed by cyclic voltammetry scans, and no elution reagent is required. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the linear response range for EGCG concentrations by the sensor was 3×10(-8)mol/L to 1×10(-5)mol/L and the detection limit was 8.78×10(-9)mol/L(S/N=3). The results demonstrate that the proposed MIP sensor can be a potential alternative for the determination of EGCG in tea samples.

  2. Preparation and characterization of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for the extraction of hexamethylenetetramine in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Duhoranimana, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-01-15

    Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (M-MIPs) were synthesized as the sorbents for extracting hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) from milk samples. Molecular simulations were used to calculate the interaction energies of the template monomers. The physical properties of M-MIPs were characterized. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics were investigated. Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was applied to determine the amount of HMT residue in milk samples. In the optimized method, a linear calibration curve was obtained using a matrix-matched standard in the range of 1.0-50.0μgL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.3μgkg(-1) and 1.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra-day assay ranged from 2.6% to 5.2%, while that of the inter-day assay ranged from 3.6% to 11.5%. The recovery of HMT in milk samples ranged from 88.7% to 111.4%.

  3. Molecularly imprinted polymer decorated nanoporous gold for highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingchun; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Jie; Liu, Jiang; Tang, Hui; Cao, Cong; Zhao, Dongsheng; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical nanosensors based on nanoporous gold leaf (NPGL) and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) are developed for pharmaceutical analysis by using metronidazole (MNZ) as a model analyte. NPGL, serving as the loading platform for MIP immobilization, possesses large accessible surface area with superb electric conductivity, while electrochemically synthesized MIP thin layer affords selectivity for specific recognition of MNZ molecules. For MNZ determination, the hybrid electrode shows two dynamic linear range of 5 × 10-11 to 1 × 10-9 mol L-1 and 1 × 10-9 to 1.4 × 10-6 mol L-1 with a remarkably low detection limit of 1.8 × 10-11 mol L-1 (S/N = 3). In addition, the sensor exhibits high binding affinity and selectivity towards MNZ with excellent reproducibility and stability. Finally, the reliability of MIP-NPGL for MNZ detection is proved in real fish tissue samples, demonstrating the potential for the proposed electrochemical sensors in monitoring drug and biological samples.

  4. High-capacity thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of curcuminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qingping; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Guo, Junfang; Huang, Weihua; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2014-08-08

    Thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) for selective recognition of curcuminoids with high capacity and selectivity have firstly been developed. The resulting TMMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, VSM and UV, which indicated that TMMIPs showed thermo-responsiveness [lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 33.71°C] and rapid magnetic separation (5s). The polymerization, adsorption and release conditions were optimized in detail to obtain the highest binding capacity, selectivity and release ratio. We found that the adopted thermo-responsive monomer [N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)] could be considered not only as inert polymer backbone for thermo-responsiveness but also as functional co-monomers combination with basic monomer (4-VP) for more specific binding sites when ethanol was added in binding solution. The maximum adsorption capacity with highest selectivity of curcumin was 440.3μg/g (1.93 times that on MMIPs with no thermosensitivity) at 45°C (above LCST) in 20% (v/v) ethanol solution on shrunk TMMIPs, and the maximum release proportion was about 98% at 20°C (below LCST) in methanol-acetic acid (9/1, v/v) solution on swelled TMMIPs. The adsorption process between curcumin and TMMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The prepared TMMIPs also showed high reproducibility (RSD<6% for batch-to-batch evaluation) and stability (only 7% decrease after five cycles). Subsequently, the TMMIPs were successfully applied for selective extraction of curcuminoids from complex natural product, Curcuma longa.

  5. Enantioselective piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor for d-methamphetamine based on a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Leveriza F; Ebarvia, Benilda S; Sevilla, Fortunato B

    2010-08-01

    A piezoelectric quartz crystal (PQC) sensor based on a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been developed for enantioselective and quantitative analysis of d-(+)-methamphetamine (d(+)-MA). The sensor was produced by bulk polymerization and the resulting MIP was then coated on the gold electrode of an AT-cut quartz crystal. Conditions such as volume of polymer coating, curing time, type of PQC, baseline solvent, pH, and buffer type were found to affect the sensor response and were therefore optimized. The PQC-MIP gave a stable response to different concentrations of d(+)-MA standard solutions (response time = 10 to 100 s) with good repeatability (RSD = 0.03 to 3.09%; n = 3), good reproducibility (RSD = 3.55%; n = 5), and good reversibility (RSD = 0.36%; n = 3). The linear range of the sensor covered five orders of magnitude of analyte concentration, ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-1) microg mL(-1), and the limit of detection was calculated as 11.9 pg d(+)-MA mL(-1) . The sensor had a highly enantioselective response to d(+)-MA compared with its response to l(-)-MA, racemic MA, and phentermine. The developed sensor was validated by applying it to human urine samples from drug-free individuals spiked with standard d(+)-MA and from a confirmed MA user. Use of the standard addition method (SAM) and samples spiked with d(+)-MA at levels ranging from 1 x 10(-3) to 1 x 10(-2) microg mL(-1) showed recovery was good (95.3 to 110.9%).

  6. Dual Imprinted Polymer Thin Films via Pattern Directed Self-Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolman, Danielle; Bandyopadhyay, Diya; Al-Enizi, Abdullah; Elzatahry, Ahmed; Karim, Alamgir

    2017-06-21

    Synthetic topographically patterned films and coatings are typically contoured on one side, yet many of nature's surfaces have distinct textures on different surfaces of the same object. Common examples are the top and bottom sides of the butterfly wing or lotus leaf, onion shells, and the inside versus outside of the stem of a flower. Inspired by nature, we create dual (top and bottom) channel patterned polymer films. To this end, we first develop a novel fabrication method to create ceramic line channel relief structures by converting the oligomeric residue of stamped poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) nanopatterns on silicon substrates to glass (SiOx, silica) by ultraviolet-ozone (UVO) exposure. These silica patterned substrates are flow coated with polystyrene (PS) films and confined within an identically patterned top confining soft PDMS elastomer film. Annealing of the sandwich structures drives the PS to rapidly mold fill the top PDMS pattern in conjunction with a dewetting tendency of the PS on the silica pattern. Varying the film thickness h, from less than to greater than the pattern height, and varying the relative angle between the top-down and bottom-up patterned confinement surfaces create interesting uniform and nonuniform digitized defects in PS channel patterns, as also a defect-free channel regime. Our dual patterned polymer channels provide a novel fabrication route to topographically imprinted Moiré patterns (whose applications range from security encrypting holograms to sensitive strain gauges), and their basic laser light diffractions properties are illustrated and compared to graphical simulations and 2D-FFT of real-space AFM channel patterns. While traditional "geometrical" and "fringe" Moiré patterns function by superposition of two misaligned optical patterned transmittance gratings, our topographic pattern gratings are quite distinct and may allow for more unique holographic optical characteristics with further development.

  7. Application of molecularly imprinted and non-imprinted polymers for removal of emerging contaminants in water and wastewater treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Audrey; Ormeci, Banu

    2012-11-01

    Over the past decade, several studies have reported trace levels of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in surface waters, drinking water, and wastewater effluents. There has also been an increased concern about the ecological and human health impact of these contaminants, and their removal from water and wastewater has become a priority. Traditional treatment processes are limited in their ability to remove emerging contaminants from water, and there is a need for new technologies that are effective and feasible. This paper presents a review on recent research results on molecularly imprinted (MIP) and non-imprinted (NIP) polymers and evaluates their potential as a treatment method for the removal of emerging contaminants from water and wastewater. It also discusses the relative benefits and limitations of using MIP or NIP for water and wastewater treatment. MIP, and in particular NIP, offer promising applications for wastewater treatment, but their toxicity and possible health effects should be carefully studied before they are considered for drinking water treatment. More research is also required to determine how best to incorporate MIP and NIP in treatment plants.

  8. Nano-sponge ionic liquid-polymer composite electrolytes for solid-state lithium power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Kang-Shyang; Andreoli, Enrico; Curran, Seamus A. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Sutto, Thomas E. [Naval Research Labs-DC, Materials Science and Technology Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ajayan, Pulickel [Department of Materials Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); McGrady, Karen A. [Marine Corps System Command, 50 Tech Parkway, Garrisonville, VA 22463 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Solid polymer gel electrolytes composed of 75 wt.% of the ionic liquid, 1-n-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis-trifluoromethanesulfonylimide with 1.0 M lithium bis-trifluoromethanesulfonylimide and 25 wt.% poly(vinylidenedifluoro-hexafluoropropene) are characterized as the electrolyte/separator in solid-state lithium batteries. The ionic conductivity of these gels ranges from 1.5 to 2.0 mS cm{sup -1}, which is several orders of magnitude more conductive than any of the more commonly used solid polymers, and comparable to the best solid gel electrolytes currently used in industry. TGA indicates that these polymer gel electrolytes are thermally stable to over 280 C, and do not begin to thermally decompose until over 300 C; exhibiting a significant advancement in the safety of lithium batteries. Atomic force microscopy images of these solid thin films indicate that these polymer gel electrolytes have the structure of nano-sponges, with a sub-micron pore size. For these thin film batteries, 150 charge-discharge cycles are run for Li{sub x}CoO{sub 2} where x is cycled between 0.95 down to 0.55. Minimal internal resistance effects are observed over the charging cycles, indicating the high ionic conductivity of the ionic liquid solid polymer gel electrolyte. The overall cell efficiency is approximately 98%, and no significant loss in battery efficiency is observed over the 150 cycles. (author)

  9. Influence of ionic strength on the viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions containing polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Viana Amorim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the influence of ionic strength (S on the apparent (AV and plastic (PV viscosities and water loss (WL of sodium bentonite suspension with polymers. Na-bentonite was dispersed in water (4.86% w/w of different ionic strengths (S = 0.0, 0.015, 0.030 and 0.045 M followed by the addition of polymer. Three polymer samples were studied, i.e., low viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC BV, polyanionic cellulose (PAC, and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM. The results indicated that the presence of salts and increased salinity greatly influence the apparent and plastic viscosities and water loss of bentonite suspensions with polymer.

  10. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chen [ORNL; Sun, Xiao-Guang [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A