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Sample records for ionella agassizi isopoda

  1. Efecto del parasitismo del isópodo bopírido Ionella agassizi (Isopoda: Epicaridea (Bornnier, 1900 sobre la fisiología nutricional del nape Neotrypaea uncinata (M. Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea Effects of parasitism in nutritional physiology of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata parasitized by the isopod Ionella agassizi

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    Lorena P. Astete-Espinoza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El nape Neotrypaea uncinata se encuentra parasitado en sus branquias por el isópodo Ionella agassizi. Trabajos anteriores han señalado que I. agassizi provoca un efecto negativo en la biología reproductiva del nape, afectando significativamente tanto el desarrollo de los órganos reproductores como la expresión de las características sexuales secundarias. Lo anterior podría estar asociado a una disminución de las sustancias de reserva de N. uncinata, afectando de esta manera su metabolismo. En este trabajo se determinaron las concentraciones de metabolitos relacionados con el estado nutricional de N. uncinata (proteínas totales, hemocianina, lactato y glucosa; además se evaluó el porcentaje de lípidos en el tejido del hospedador. Los resultados obtenidos indican una mayor frecuencia de infección en machos adultos, lo que sugiere la existencia de mortalidad diferencial en el hospedador. Se determinó una menor masa corporal en los individuos parasitados en comparación con los no parasitados. En relación con la concentración de metabolitos: se determinó una disminución de los niveles de proteínas totales y de las concentraciones de hemocianina, lo que evidencia un efecto importante del parasitismo a nivel nutricional. Además, se encontró una concentración menor de lactato en individuos parasitados asociado a una alta concentración de glucosa, lo cual sugiere la utilización del lactato como sustrato para la síntesis de glucosa en presencia del parásito. Finalmente la reducción de los lípidos en individuos parasitados evidencia la carencia de sustancias de reserva.The ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata is parasitized in the branchial chamber for the isopod Ionella agassizi. Previous works had indicated that the parasite causes a negative effect in the reproductive biology of the ghost shrimp, influencing seriously the development of reproductive organs and the expression of secondary sexual characteristics. This effect can

  2. Magnetite in Black Sea Turtles (Chelonia agassizi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Garduño, V.; Sanchez, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2004-12-01

    Previous studies have reported experimental evidence for magnetoreception in marine turtles. In order to increase our knowledge about magnetoreception and biogenic mineralization, we have isolated magnetite particles from the brain of specimens of black sea turtles Chelonia agassizi. Our samples come from natural deceased organisms collected the reserve area of Colola Maruata in southern Mexico. The occurrence of magnetite particles in brain tissue of black sea turtles offers the opportunity for further studies to investigate possible function of ferrimagnetic material, its mineralogical composition, grain size, texture and its location and structural arrangement within the host tissue. After sample preparation and microscopic examination, we localized and identified the ultrafine unidimensional particles of magnetite by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Particles present grain sizes between 10.0 to 40.0Mm. Our study provides, for the first time, evidence for biogenic formation of this material in the black sea turtles. The ultrafine particles are apparently superparamagnetic. Preliminary results from rock magnetic measurements are also reported and correlated to the SEM observations. The black turtle story on the Michoacan coast is an example of formerly abundant resource which was utilized as a subsistence level by Nahuatl indigenous group for centuries, but which is collapsing because of intensive illegal commercial exploitation. The most important nesting and breeding grounds for the black sea turtle on any mainland shore are the eastern Pacific coastal areas of Maruata and Colola, in Michoacan. These beaches are characterized by important amounts of magnetic mineral (magnetites and titanomagnetites) mixed in their sediments.

  3. Diferencias en las historias de vida de dos especies de isópodos bopíridos (Isopoda: Epicaridea que parasitan al nape Neotrypaea uncinata (Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea Different life histories of two species of bopyrid isopods (Isopoda, Epicaridea, parasites of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea

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    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En ambientes costeros de Concepción, Chile, se han registrado dos especies de isópodos, Ione ovata Shiino, 1964 e Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900, parásitos en las cámaras branquiales del nape Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. La prevalencia de parasitismo sin embargo, es mucho menor en Ione ovata quien además presenta menor frecuencia de parejas cohabitando una misma branquia, aunque posee una especificidad comparativamente menor que I. agassizi. Esto sugiere que ambas especies poseen historias de vida contrastantes. Para mejorar el entendimiento de las causas de estas diferencias, en este estudio se analizan y comparan algunos rasgos de la historia de vida de los isópodos (fecundidad, tamaño de los huevos, inversión reproductiva, y capacidad de los machos para colonizar napes no parasitados. Ione agassizi tuvo una menor fecundidad, y huevos de mayor tamaño que I. ovata. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias en la inversión reproductiva entre ambas especies, ni en su relación con el tamaño corporal del isópodo. Los machos de I. ovata poseen mayor habilidad que los de I. agassizi para colonizar nuevos napes no parasitados, ya que pudieron permanecer en nuevos hospedadores y rediferenciarse sexualmente en hembras. Se considera que sería necesario estimar la sobrevivencia durante el tiempo total de vida de estos parásitos para mejorar la interpretación de estos resultadosOn coastal habitats near Concepción city, Chile, there are two isopod species Ione ovata Shiino, 1964, and Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900 both occupying the gill chambers of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. However, in I. ovata, the prevalence is smaller, there is a low frequency of coupled isopods in the same gill chamber, and is less host specific than I. agassizi. These observations suggest that both isopod species have different life histories. To improve the understanding of the causes of these differences some life history

  4. Prosobrânquios terrestres do Brasil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda Land prosobranchs of Brazil: Cyclophoridae: Neocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsch & Morrison, 1942 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Mesogastropoda

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    Arnaldo C. dos Santos Coelho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on specimens from Brazil (States of Pernambuco and Alagoas were carried out in order to relate data about morphology of hard and soft parts o Nocyclotus (N. agassizi (Bartsh & Morrison, 1942.

  5. Contribución al conocimiento de los hábitos alimenticios de Lepidochelys olivacea y Chelonia mydas agassizi (Reptilia, Cheloniidae en el Pacífico Mexicano

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    Gustavo Casas-Andreu

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study on the feeding habits of L. olivacea and C. mydas agassizi from the Pacific coast, located at 19ºN and 105ºW, are presented. A preference for feeding on crustacea was observed on L. olivacea, proving to be essentially a carnivorous specie. In the case of C. m. agassizi a certain balance between algae and animal feeding was appreciated, beeing the plants in a greater volume and animals more diversified. Related to animal preying C m. agassizi bucal structure, seems to be adapted toward the retention of animals captured with algae. Apparently there is no competition for food between both species,, given that L. olivacea feeds on organisms from sandy bottoms, while C. m, agassizi feeds on arrecifal or rocky bottoms.

  6. Sensory signals and neuronal groups involved in guiding the sea-ward motor behavior in turtle hatchlings of Chelonia agassizi

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    Fuentes, A. L.; Camarena, V.; Ochoa, G.; Urrutia, J.; Gutierrez, G.

    2007-05-01

    Turtle hatchlings orient display sea-ward oriented movements as soon as they emerge from the nest. Although most studies have emphasized the role of the visual information in this process, less attention has been paid to other sensory modalities. Here, we evaluated the nature of sensory cues used by turtle hatchlings of Chelonia agassizi to orient their movements towards the ocean. We recorded the time they took to crawl from the nest to the beach front (120m long) in control conditions and in visually, olfactory and magnetically deprived circumstances. Visually-deprived hatchlings displayed a high degree of disorientation. Olfactory deprivation and magnetic field distortion impaired, but not abolished, sea-ward oriented movements. With regard to the neuronal mapping experiments, visual deprivation reduced dramatically c-fos expression in the whole brain. Hatchlings with their nares blocked revealed neurons with c-fos expression above control levels principally in the c and d areas, while those subjected to magnetic field distortion had a wide spread activation of neurons throughout the brain predominantly in the dorsal ventricular ridge The present results support that Chelonia agassizi hatchlings use predominantly visual cues to orient their movements towards the sea. Olfactory and magnetic cues may also be use but their influence on hatchlings oriented motor behavior is not as clear as it is for vision. This conclusion is supported by the fact that in the absence of olfactory and magnetic cues, the brain turns on the expression of c- fos in neuronal groups that, in the intact hatchling, are not normally involved in accomplishing the task.

  7. Naamlijst van de Nederlandse landpissebedden (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Checklist of Dutch woodlice (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea). An updated checklist for the terrestrial isopods of The Netherlands is presented. Four species, Armadillo officinalis, Eluma purpurascens, Miktoniscus patiencei, and Trichoniscoides sarsi are new to the woodlice fauna of The Netherlands co

  8. Size composition, monthly condition factor and morphometrics for fishery-dependent samples of Rioraja agassizi (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae, off Santos, Southeast Brazil

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    M. Cristina Oddone

    Full Text Available Specimens of Rioraja agassizi were collected monthly off Santos, Southeast Brazil, between latitudes 23º37'S and 27º40'S, from March, 2005 to March, 2006. A total number of 278 males and 1023 females were captured. Observed depth range was 10-120 m, being the species absent above 120 m. Sex ratio significantly favored females. The entire length range of R. agassizi was observed. Females ranged in length from 16.0 to 59.4 cm and males from 13.0 to 47.2 cm. Mean female length was significantly higher than that of males. For grouped length distributions, asymmetry patterns were observed in both sexes. Length-width functions were sexually dimorphic. Males with lengths 3 (positive allometry. The monthly variation of the condition factor showed significant differences in both sexes.

  9. Eluma purpurascens, nieuw voor de Nederlandse fauna (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelman, D.; Berg, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Eluma purpurascens, new for the Dutch fauna (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscoidea). The first Dutch specimen of Eluma purpurascens was found on 29 April 1994 on the Kaloot, east of Vlissingen, in the south-western province of Zeeland. One year later the species proved to be locally common along the southe

  10. Landpissebedden van de Ooijpolder: deel 1. verspreiding (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H.

    2000-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods of the Ooijpolder: part 1. distribution (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) The distributions and habitats of woodlice were investigated in ‘the Ooijpolder’, also named ‘the Ooij’. The area of approximately 41 square kilometers is located along the river Waal, east of Nijmegen, Provi

  11. Isopoda (Crustacea do complexo estuarino-lagunar Mundaú/Manguaba, Alagoas, Brasil Isopoda (Crustacea from the estuary-lagoon complex Mundaú/Manguaba, Alagoas, Brasil

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    Jayme de Loyola e Silva

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Qualilative and quantitative studies of Isopoda species were made at Mundaú/Manguaba Estuary-Lagoon Complex on the Coast of Alagoas State. Six points were established in order to carry out methodical collections of animals. These collections were made monthly, without interruption, from April, 1990 to March, 1991, in which three families, five genera and seven species of Isopoda were identified. A special key for identification of Isopoda and also diagnosis for each species are presented. Sphaeromatidae Family was the most significant and Cassidinidea fluminensis (Mane-Garzón, 1944, was the species with numerical dominance. Space/time distribution of the species of Isopoda was related to the variation of salinity.

  12. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellioscaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellioscaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellioscaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment.

  13. De pissebedden (Crustacea Isopoda, Oniscoidea) van de ondergrondse kalksteengroeven in Zuid-Limburg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    In the limestone quarries in the southern part of the province of Limburg, Netherlands, 13 species of Isopoda Oniscoidea were found during an intensive exploration (1946-1958) of the obscuricole fauna of these artificial caves. None of the species found is troglobiont, all have to be classed as trog

  14. Hyloniscus riparius: een lang onopgemerkte landpissebed in Nederland (Crustacea, Isopoda: Trichoniscidae)?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, H.

    1993-01-01

    Hyloniscus riparius: an unnoticed terrestrial wood-louse in the Netherlands (Crustacea, Isopoda: Trichoniscidae) ? Until recently Hyloniscus riparius was only recorded from The Netherlands from green-houses in the Botanical Garden at Utrecht. More recently material was collected in the Ooy Polder. I

  15. Porcellium conspersum, een in Nederland zeer zeldzame landpissebed van vochtige bossen (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscoidea)

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    Soesbergen, M.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of recent inundations on the distribution pattern of the isopod Eluma purpurascens in the province of Zeeland (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscoidea) Small scale mapping of Eluma purpurascens Budde-Lund, 1885 in the province of Zeeland revealed a remarkable distribution pattern. The species p

  16. Species of marine Isopoda (Crustacea, Peracarida from southern Brazil

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    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Some species of marine Isopoda collected in southern Brazil mostly in shallow-water and amongst seaweeds are studied. Five species are discussed and illustrated. A diagnosis is given for each species. Idotea metallica and Synidotea marplatensis are new oc currences for the area, and both have had their geographical range extended to off Rio de Janeiro. The presence of Idotea balthica and Erichsonella filiformis in southern Brazil was definitely asserted. Illustrations of both sexes of Rocinela signata and details about its occurrence in the region surveyed were made.O presente trabalho relaciona algumas espécies de isopodes marinhos coletados na região centro-sul do Brasil, em águas razas, em algas, ou entre emaranhados de folhas e raizes. Cinco espécies são ilustradas e discutidas. Uma diagnose é dada para cada espécie. I. metallica e S. marplatensis, constituindo novas ocorrências para a região, tiveram sua distribuição geográfica consideravelmente ampliada ate o Rio de Janeiro. A presença de I. balthica e E. filiformes na região e seguramente confirmada. Finalmente, são figurados o macho e a fêmea da espécie R. signata, ao mesmo tempo em que são fornecidos detalhes sobre sua ocorrência.

  17. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    OpenAIRE

    Damjana Drobne; Samo Drobne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber ( Isopoda , Crustacea ...

  18. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods ( Porcellio scaber , Isopoda , Crustacea )

    OpenAIRE

    Damjana Drobne; Samo Drobne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber ( Isopoda , Crustacea ...

  19. A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS NEROCILA (ISOPODA:CYMOTHOIDAE) FROM THE EAST CHINA SEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海燕; 李新正

    2002-01-01

    A new species of cymothoid Isopoda, Nerocila donghaiensis, collected fr om the b ody of a sciaenid fish, Johnius sp., is described in the present paper. The new species can be distinguished from the other species of genus Nerocila by it s en dopod of uropods with deep notch, sharply serrated on the lateral margin and str ongly serrated on the medial margin; antennule with 1st article swollen; dactyli of pereopods I, II, IV, V swollen.

  20. Hábitos de Vida da Associação “Schuchertella”agassizi – Pthychopteria eschwegei, Formação Maecuru,Devoniano, Bacia do Amazonas, Brasil.

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    Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira Ponciano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The fossils studied came from outcrops of the Maecuru and Curuá rivers, State of Pará, belonging to the upper strata of theMaecuru Formation, Eifelian age. In this formation, two associations of marine benthic invertebrate can be identified, each inferring adistinct paleoenvironment. The association analyzed occurs in medium and coarse sandstones and shows “Schuchertella” agassizi andPtychopeteria eschwegei as predominant organisms. It was idnetified 12 species of brachiopods, 20 species of bivalves, 12 of trilobites,8 of gastropods, 6 of bellerophonts, 3 of crinoids and 3 of tentaculitids in this association. Brachiopods are the most abundant organisms,responsible for approximately 50% of it, followed by tentaculitids and bivalves. Trilobites, gastropods and bellerophonts sum less than10% of the aforementioned association. Crinoids were not included in the quantitative analysis because they are only found as calicinalplates and disarticulated column disks. The brachiopods showed, through their morphofunctional characteristics, suspension feedersrecumbent (free-lying epifaunal life habit or a pedicle attached mode of life. The bivalves showed a predominant suspension feeder semiinfaunalhabit, attached by byssus threads to the substratum, and an infaunal mode of life. All the trilobites showed a predator/scavengerand vagile epifaunal habit. The epifaunal platyceratids represents the gastropods with low mobility (coprophagous/suspension feeders.The bellerophonts showed an epifaunal highly/medium mobility and grazing/predator habit. The tentaculitids having a semi-infaunal,suspension feeder habit. The suspension feeder forms (brachiopods, bivalves and tentaculitids account for over 90% of the organisms, withthe remaining percentage distributed among the predator/scavenger (trilobites, coprophagous/suspension feeders (gastropods, grazers/predators (bellerophonts and deposit feeders (rare bivalves. The predominance of suspension feeder forms

  1. Effects of benzo(a)pyrene on food assimilation and growth efficiency of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straalen, N.M. van; Verweij, R.A. (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1991-01-01

    Although the metabolic effects of benzo(a)pyrene have been investigated extensively in rodents, little is known about its effects in the terrestrial environment and nothing is known about its effects on soil invertebrates. In this study, the authors have chosen the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Latr.) (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a representative from the soil invertebrate community. Experiments were designed to analyze the consequences of benzo(a)pyrene exposure for the energy metabolism. The partitioning of energy between respiration and scope for growth is considered as an ecologically relevant criterion for studying effects of contaminants in the environment. PAH might affect this partitioning by inducing biotransformation reactions that make demands on the assimilated energy.

  2. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana; Drobne, Samo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of Porcellio scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a) to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b) to assess the data quality in each experiment. PMID:25561844

  3. Reference values for feeding parameters of isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Drobne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The advantage of using terrestrial isopods in toxicity studies is that a battery of parameters can be tested at different levels of biological complexity. Feeding parameters for example link organism level response to potential ecological consequences but a problem with using feeding parameters in toxicity tests with terrestrial isopods is their high variability. The aim of our study was to set benchmark values for feeding parameters for isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea in laboratory-controlled experiments. In the work presented here, the daily feeding rate of the central 50% of the control population of P. scaber and a correlation between feeding rate and isopod weight were set. Values outside these ranges need additional evaluation to increase the relevance of test outcomes. We suggest using benchmark values for feeding parameters as well as the coefficient of variation (a to identify animals with altered feeding parameters with respect to controls, and (b to assess the data quality in each experiment.

  4. Phagocytosis mediates specificity in the immune defence of an invertebrate, the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

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    Roth, Olivia; Kurtz, Joachim

    2009-11-01

    Specificity and memory are the hallmarks of the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. However, phenomena of specificity upon priming of immunity have recently been demonstrated also in invertebrates, which rely exclusively on innate immune defence. It has been suggested that phagocytosis might represent a core candidate for such specificity in invertebrates. We here developed in vitro phagocytosis measurements for different bacteria in the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). After immune priming with heat-killed bacteria, hemocytes showed increased phagocytosis of a previously encountered bacterial strain compared to other bacteria. These data support the role of phagocytosis in invertebrate immunological specificity and suggest a high degree of specificity that even enables to differentiate between strains of the same bacterial species.

  5. Livoneca redmanni Leach (Isopoda, Cymothoidae e Rocinela signata Schioedte & Meinert (Isopoda, Aegidae, ectoparasitos de Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin (Ostheichthyes, Scombridae no Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil Livoneca redmanni Leach (Isopoda, Cymothoidae and Rocinelasignata Schioedte & Meinert (Isopoda, Aegidae, ectoparasites of Scomberomorusbrasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin (Ostheichthyes, Scombridae in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    José T. A. X. de Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre Isopodas Crustaceas existem ectoparasitos que são de fácil observação devido ao seu tamanho. Eles causam lesões mecânicas no hospedeiro que podem resultar em morte. Este trabalho verificou a existência de parasitismo por isópodos no peixe serra, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978 das águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Os índices de infestação parasitária dos isópodos foram calculados e relacionados com o tamanho, peso e o estado gonadal do hospedeiro. Livoneca redmanni (Leach, 1818 (Cymothoidae e Rocinela signata (Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Aegidae foram registradas pela primeira vez nas águas costeiras do Rio Grande do Norte. Os locais de fixação de L. redmanni no hospedeiro foram a cavidade bucal e a câmara branquial, enquanto R. signata sempre foi encontrada na câmara branquial. Dos exemplares de S. brasiliensis capturados 31 % estavam parasitados, onde 86 % eram de L. redmanni e 14 % de R. signata. Foi registrado uma intensidade mínima de um e máxima de quatro isópodos por hospedeiro. Os isópodos apresentaram uma preferência pelos hospedeiros imaturos e em maturação de S. brasiliensis.Among the crustacean isopoda there exists ectoparasites which are easy to observe due to their size. They cause lesions on the host that could lead to death. The present study verified the occurrence of parasitic isopods on the fish Serra Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus brasiliensis (Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978 from the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Indices of parasitic infection by isopods were calculated and correlated to the body size, weight and the stage of gonadal maturity of the host. Livoneca redmanni (Leach, 1818 (Cymothoidae and Rocinela signata (Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Aegidae were registered for the first time in the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte. L. redmanni was encountered both in the oral cavity and in the gill chambers of the host

  6. The genus Gnathia Leach (Isopoda) from the Santa Marta area, northern Colombia, with a review of Gnathiidea from the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    1988-01-01

    Six species of the genus Gnathia (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidea) are recorded from the Caribbean Sea of northern Colombia. Gnathia gonzalezi n. sp., Gnathia magdalenensis n. sp., Gnathia samariensis n. sp., and Gnathia vellosa n. sp. are described; Gnathia beethoveni Paul & Menzies, 1971 and Gnathi

  7. Anphira guianensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the gills of Acnodon oligacanthus Eigenmann (Pisces, Serrasalmidae of French Guiana

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Anphira guianensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described from the branchial cavity of a freshwater fish, Acnodon oligacanthus Eigenmann, 1903 from French Guiana. The new species differs from the other known species of the genus in a number of important respects. Adult females are less convex than those of the other two known species and the mouth points downward. The coxal plates are largest posteriorly, unlike those of the other species. The antennule is much stouter and longer than the antenna whereas in the other species these appendages are subequal. Additionally, the dactyls of the new species are much longer.

  8. Toxicity of imidacloprid to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana; Blazic, Mateja; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Leser, Vladka; Zidar, Primoz; Jemec, Anita; Trebse, Polonca

    2008-04-01

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide with neurotoxic action that, as a possible alternative for commonly used organophosphorus pesticides, has gained registration in about 120 countries for use in over 140 agricultural crops. Only few data are available on its toxicity for soil invertebrates. We therefore assessed the effects of imidacloprid on survival, weight gain, feeding rate, total protein content, glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), and digestive gland epithelial thickness in juveniles and adults of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. After two weeks of feeding on imidacloprid-dosed food, weight gain (NOEC 5 microg/g dry food) and feeding rate (NOEC 10 microg/g) in juveniles, and feeding rate (NOECPorcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). Chemosphere 64, 1745-1752]. At actual environmental concentrations, diazinon poses a higher risk to P. scaber. Due to its increasing use in crop protection and higher persistence in soil, imidacloprid might however, be potentially more dangerous after long-term application. We conclude that toxicity testing with P. scaber provides relevant, repeatable, reproducible and comparable toxicity data that is useful for the risk assessment of pesticides in the terrestrial environment.

  9. Brain anatomy of the marine isopod Saduria entomon Linnaeus, 1758 (Valvifera, Isopoda with special emphasis on the olfactory pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthes eKenning

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Representatives of at least six crustacean taxa managed to establish a terrestrial life style during their evolutionary history and the Oniscidea (Isopoda are currently held as the most successfully terrestrialized malacostracan crustaceans. The brain architecture of terrestrial isopods is fairly well understood and studies on this field suggest that the evolutionary transition from sea to land in isopods coincided with a considerable size reduction and functional loss of their first pair of antennae and associated brain areas. This finding suggest that terrestrial isopods may have no or poor abilities to detect volatile substances but that their chemosensory ecology is most likely restricted to contact chemoreception. In this study, we explored how the brain of a marine isopod and particularly its olfactory system compares to that of terrestrial relatives. Using histochemical and immunohistochemical labeling, brightfield and confocal laser-scan microscopy, we show that in the marine isopod Saduria entomon aesthetascs on the first pair of antennae provide input to a well defined deutocerebrum. The deutocerebral chemosensory lobes are divided into spherical neuropil compartments, the olfactory glomeruli. Secondary processing areas in the lateral protocerebrum are supplied by a thin but distinct projection neuron tract with a contralateral connection. Hence, contrary to terrestrial Isopoda, S. entomon has at least the neuronal substrate to perceive and process olfactory stimuli suggesting the originally marine isopod lineage had olfactory abilities comparable to that of other malacostracan crustaceans.

  10. Lysosomal membrane stability in laboratory- and field-exposed terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Natasa; Drobne, Damjana; Valant, Janez; Padovan, Ingrid; Horvat, Milena

    2006-08-01

    Two established methods for assessment of the cytotoxicity of contaminants, the lysosomal latency (LL) assay and the neutral red retention (NRR) assay, were successfully applied to in toto digestive gland tubes (hepatopancreas) of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). In vitro exposure of isolated gland tubes to copper was used as a positive control to determine the performance of the two methods. Lysosomal latency and the NRR assay were then used on in vivo (via food) laboratory-exposed animals and on field populations. Arbitrarily selected criteria for determination of the fitness of P. scaber were set on the basis of lysosomal membrane stability (LMS) as assessed with in toto digestive gland tubes. Decreased LMS was detected in animals from all polluted sites, but cytotoxicity data were not in agreement with concentrations of pollutants. Lysosomal membrane stability in the digestive gland tubes of animals from an environment in Idrija, Slovenia that was highly polluted with mercury (260 microg/g dry wt food and 1,600 microg/g dry wt soil) was less affected than LMS in laboratory animals fed with 5 and 50 microg Hg/g dry weight for 3 d. This probably indicates tolerance of P. scaber to mercury in the mercury-polluted environment and/or lower bioavailability of environmental mercury. In animals from the vicinity of a thermal power plant with environmental mercury concentrations three to four orders of magnitude lower than those in Idrija, LMS was severely affected. In general, the LL assay was more sensitive than the NRR assay. The LMS assay conducted on digestive gland tubes of terrestrial isopods is highly recommended for integrated biomarker studies.

  11. Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the mouths of marine fishes of Pernambuco State, Brazil Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae das bocas de peixes marinhos do Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described from the mouths of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792 and Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832. The fish hosts were caught near Itamaracá and Cabo de Santo Agostinho, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The new species bears a superficial resemblance to Cymothoa oestrum (Linnaeus, 1793 from which it differs in a number of important respects. In the new species, the basal carinae are large on pereopods 4-7 and usually pointed, whereas in C. oestrum the carinae are small on pereopods 4-6, large on 7 and not pointed. In the new species, only pleopod 1 is simple and 2-5 are provided with pockets and folds. In the other species, pleopods 1-4 are simple and only 5 has folds.Cymothoa recifea sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae é descrito das bocas de Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792 e Oligoplites palometa (Cuvier, 1832. Os peixes foram capturados perto de Itamaracá, Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. A nova espécie apresenta uma semelhança superficial à Cymothoa oestrum (Linnaeus, 1793 da qual distingue-se pôr várias características. Na nova espécie, as expansões nas bases dos pereópodos ("carinae" são grandes nos 4-7 e, geralmente, terminam em pontas agudas. Em contraste, em C. oestrum, estas estruturas são pequenas nos pereópodos 4-6, grande somente no sétimo e não têm pontas agudas. Na nova espécie, somente o pleópodo 1 é simples e 2-5 apresentam bolsas e dobras. Na outra espécie, os pleópodos 1-4 são simples e somente 5 tem dobras.

  12. Focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy studies of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) digestive gland epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, Damjana; Milani, Marziale; Zrimec, Alexis; Zrimec, Maja Berden; Tatti, Francesco; Draslar, Kazimir

    2005-01-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) was used to prepare cross sections of precisely selected regions of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod P. scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FIB/SEM system allows ad libitum selection of a region for gross morphologic to ultrastructural investigation, as the repetition of FIB/SEM operations is unrestricted. The milling parameters used in our work proved to be satisfactory to produce serial two-dimensional (2-D) cuts and/or three-dimensional (3-D) shapes on a submicrometer scale. A final, cleaning mill at lower ion currents was employed to minimize the milling artifacts. After cleaning, the milled surface was free of filament- and ridge-like milling artifacts. No other effects of the cleaning mill were observed.

  13. Woodlice (crustacea, isopoda, terrestria recorded by the late K. H. Barnard from the Kruger National Park and its neighbourhood

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    R.F. Lawrence

    1977-08-01

    Full Text Available This short paper represents a list of the woodlice known from the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa, up to the present time, most of them having been collected by R. F. Lawrence in 1962 and 1963. Much more intensive collecting will eventually be carried out in the Park and until this has been done the list of Isopoda given here must of necessity be regarded as incomplete and of a temporary nature. The number of species living in the Park may eventually prove to amount to twice the number known at the present time but in the meanwhile the paper should serve a useful purpose for indicating the genera and families which can be looked for by future collectors.

  14. Lironeca desterroensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the gills of a marine fish, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, of Santa Catarina Island, Brazil

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    Thatcher Vernon E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lironeca desterroensis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described on the basis of 105 females and three males taken from the gill chambers of the marine fish, Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier,1829, obtained near Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. The new species resembles Lironeca redmanni Leach, 1818, in size and general appearance but differs from that species in a number of important respects. In the new species, the pleotelson is larger, the pleonites are laterally produced, the uropods have elongate and slender rami and the larval stage (Pullus II has a prominent frontal projection.

  15. Prolonged feeding of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) on TiO (2) nanoparicles. Absence of toxic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Menard, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are one of most widely used nanomaterials in different products in everyday use and in industry, but very little is known about their effects on non- target cells and tissues. Terrestrial isopods were exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO(2) to give final nominal concentration 1000 and 2000 µg TiO(2)/g dry weight of food. The effects of ingested nano-TiO(2) on the model invertebrate Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3 and 7 days) and prolonged (14 and 28 days) dietary exposure was assessed by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change and mortality. Cell membrane destabilization was also investigated. No severe toxicity effects were observed after 3, 7, 14 or 28 days of dietary exposure to nano-TiO(2), but some animals, particularly those exposed to lower concentrations of nanoparticles, had severely destabilized digestive cell membranes. It was concluded that strong destabilization of the cell membrane was sporadic, and neither concentration- nor time-related. Further research is needed to confirm this sporadic toxic effect of nanoparticles.

  16. Prolonged feeding of terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea on TiO2 nanoparicles. Absence of toxic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Novak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are one of most widely used nanomaterials in different products in everyday use and in industry, but very little is known about their effects on non- target cells and tissues. Terrestrial isopods were exposed to food dosed with nano-TiO2 to give final nominal concentration 1000 and 2000 µg TiO2/g dry weight of food. The effects of ingested nano-TiO2 on the model invertebrate Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea after short-term (3 and 7 days and prolonged (14 and 28 days dietary exposure was assessed by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change and mortality. Cell membrane destabilization was also investigated. No severe toxicity effects were observed after 3, 7, 14 or 28 days of dietary exposure to nano-TiO2, but some animals, particularly those exposed to lower concentrations of nanoparticles, had severely destabilized digestive cell membranes. It was concluded that strong destabilization of the cell membrane was sporadic, and neither concentration- nor time-related. Further research is needed to confirm this sporadic toxic effect of nanoparticles.

  17. Linkage of biomarkers along levels of biological complexity in juvenile and adult diazinon fed terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Katja; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2006-09-01

    In parallel laboratory experiments, we determined the effect of a typical representative of organophosphorous pesticides, diazinon, on AChE activity, lipid, protein and glycogen content, weight change, feeding activity and mortality of juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). Organophosphorous pesticides (OP) are among the most extensively used pesticides, which have replaced organochlorine pesticides. OPs inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in neurotoxicity. They have more widespread effects on non-target organisms than do organochlorine pesticides. The aim of this study was to link effect of diazinon on target enzyme to energy reserves and to integrated biomarker responses in juvenile and adult P. scaber. The non-observed effect concentration (NOEC) for AChE activity after diazinon exposure in two weeks toxicity study with isopods was below 5 microg/g diazinon. There was a good agreement between concentrations at which AChE and survival were affected (10 microg/g diazinon in juveniles, 100 microg/g diazinon in adults). We revealed a link among AChE activity, protein content and mortality. Glycogen and lipid content, feeding activity and weight change were not affected in two weeks diazinon exposure up to 100 microg/g diazinon. Juveniles were affected at concentrations that were an order of magnitude lower than those provoking similar effects on adults. Recommendations are made for future toxicity studies with terrestrial isopods.

  18. "Candidatus Bacilloplasma," a novel lineage of Mollicutes associated with the hindgut wall of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2007-09-01

    Pointed, rod-shaped bacteria colonizing the cuticular surface of the hindgut of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) were investigated by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopy. The results of phylogenetic analysis, and the absence of a cell wall, affiliated these bacteria with the class Mollicutes, within which they represent a novel and deeply branched lineage, sharing less than 82.6% sequence similarity to known Mollicutes. The lineage has been positioned as a sister group to the clade comprising the Spiroplasma group, the Mycoplasma pneumoniae group, and the Mycoplasma hominis group. The specific signature sequence was identified and used as a probe in in situ hybridization, which confirmed that the retrieved sequences originate from the attached rod-shaped bacteria from the hindgut of P. scaber and made it possible to detect these bacteria in their natural environment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed a spherically shaped structure at the tapered end of the rod-shaped bacteria, enabling their specific and exclusive attachment to the tip of the cuticular spines on the inner surface of the gut. Specific adaptation to the gut environment, as well as phylogenetic positioning, indicate the long-term association and probable coevolution of the bacteria and the host. Taking into account their pointed, rod-shaped morphology and their phylogenetic position, the name "Candidatus Bacilloplasma" has been proposed for this new lineage of bacteria specifically associated with the gut surface of P. scaber.

  19. Ultrastructural characterization and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 'Candidatus Rickettsiella isopodorum', a new lineage of intracellular bacteria infecting woodlice (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleespies, Regina G; Federici, Brian A; Leclerque, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The taxonomic genus Rickettsiella (Gammaproteobacteria; Legionellales) comprises intracellular bacteria associated with a wide range of arthropods including insects, arachnids and crustaceans. The present study provides ultrastructural together with genetic evidence for a Rickettsiella bacterium in the common rough woodlouse, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Porcellionidae), occurring in Germany, and shows that this bacterium is very closely related to one of the same genus occurring in California that infects the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Armadillidiidae). Both bacterial isolates displayed the ultrastructural features described previously for crustacean-associated bacteria of the genus Rickettsiella, including the absence of well-defined associated protein crystals; occurrence of the latter is a typical characteristic of infection by this type of bacteria in insects, but has not been reported in crustaceans. A molecular systematic approach combining multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) with likelihood-based significance testing demonstrated that despite their distant geographic origins, both bacteria form a tight sub-clade within the genus Rickettsiella. In the 16S rRNA gene trees, this sub-clade includes other bacterial sequences from woodlice. Moreover, the bacterial specimens from P. scaber and A. vulgare are found genetically or morphologically different from each of the four currently recognized Rickettsiella species. Therefore, the designation 'Candidatus Rickettsiella isopodorum' is introduced for this new lineage of isopod-associated Rickettsiella bacteria.

  20. Avaluació d'una infestació de Gnathia maxillaris (Montagu, 1804) (Crustacea:Isopoda:Gnathiidae), a partir del seguiment i eradicació d'un brot a un sistema d'aquaris de grans dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Hispano Vilaseca, Coral

    2016-01-01

    [eng] Gnathia maxillaris is a haematophagous isopoda ectoparasite that feed on the blood and tissue fluids of marine fish. Several outbreaks of infestations have been described in wild animals and more recently aquaculture production systems or in tanks of aquaria. The control of these outbreaks or measures for eradication are very complex due to its biological cycle has been only partially described, to a limited knowledge about the ecology of this species and to the lack of solid inf...

  1. A review of Epipenaeon ingens Nobili, 1906 (Isopoda: Bopyridae) host species and documentation of a new host, Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Alcock, 1905) (Decapoda: Penaeidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. RAJKUMAR; S.MANOKARAN; SUN Jun; J.P.TRILLES

    2011-01-01

    We collected 3 596 Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from the southeast coast of India between January and December 2007. Sixty three specimens (43 females and 18 males) were parasitized by the bopyrid isopod Epipenaeon ingens (Isopoda: Bopyridae). This is the first report of the occurrence of E. ingens in this host; therefore, it was considered as a new host record. The highest level of infestation (3.2%) occurred in October 2007, coincident with observations of gravid females (9). The total prevalence and presence of gravid females were 17.46% and 28%, respectively. Infestation caused a characteristic bulge of the branchial chamber, growth retardation, and degeneration of the sex organs, but had no effect on the host weight.

  2. A note on the occurrence of praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda on fishes from Northeast of Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection of the estuarine teleost fishes Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, and Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae by praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda was studied in specimens fished off the Atlantic Ocean in Northeast of Pará State, near Bragança, Brazil. The highest infection prevalence value was found in Anableps anableps (42.3% and the lowest in Conodon nobilis (9.1%. The mean intensity varied from 1 parasitein Conodon nobilis to 19.5 in Arius phrygiatus. A description of the larvae is provided. The morphology of the mouthparts is related to the blood sucking activity, and is compared with the characteristics of other gnathiidae species.Foi estudada a parasitose dos peixes estuarinos Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, e Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae por larvas praniza de Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda em exemplares pescados no Oceano Atlântico, no Nordeste do Pará, próximo a Bragança, Brasil. O valor mais elevado da prevalência da infecção foi observado em A. anableps (42,3% e o menor em C. nobilis (9,1%. A intensidade média da parasitose variou entre 1 parasita em C. nobilis até 19,5 em A. phrygiatus. Efetua-se a descrição da larva, verificando-se que a morfologia da armadura bucal está relacionada com a atividade sugadora de sangue, e faz-se a comparação com as características de outras espécies.

  3. Diversity and abundance of deep-sea Isopoda along the Southern Polar Front: Results from the SYSTCO I and II expeditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Löbbecke, A.; Brandt, A.; Brix, S.

    2014-10-01

    For the investigation of the diversity and composition of deep-sea Isopoda in the Polar Front of the Southern Ocean two expeditions were performed, ANtartic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity: colonization history and recent community patterns-SYSTem COupling (ANDEEP-SYSTCO I, 2007/2008) and SYSTCO II (2012). Samples were taken in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Polar Front (52°S) within a depth range between 2752 and 4327 m using an epibenthic sledge. From nine stations, located in four different geographic areas, a total of 107 species from 476 specimens were identified, 99% belonged to the suborder Asellota. Haploniscidae was the most dominant family in terms of abundance, followed by Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae. However, Munnopsidae were the most diverse followed by Desmosomatidae and Haploniscidae. The majority of species (53%) did not occur frequently indicating a patchy distribution; only one species, Haploniscus spinifer Hansen, 1916, was found at almost all stations comprising more than 10% of all sampled specimens. Isopod abundance was generally low in the Polar Front compared to other regions of the Southern Ocean, like the Weddell Sea. Diversity strongly varied between stations even within the same sampling area, it was highest around a depth of 3000 m with 48 species found at station 13-16 at 0°E. Surface chl a concentration, received from satellite images as a measure for food supply, was compared with isopod abundance and diversity, however, no clear pattern could be observed. Analysis of the species composition of Isopoda revealed in general terms that deep-sea stations within the same depth range build one cluster. Also the sampling year, the geographic area or salinity turned out to be possible factors affecting species composition. The deep-sea area along the Southern Polar Front is characterized by low numbers of specimens but shelters a relatively high level of isopod diversity with species also known from other regions of the Atlantic.

  4. Riggia cryptocularis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the body cavity of a freshwater fish of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatcher Vernon E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Riggia cryptocularis sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae is described on the basis of one female and one male specimen from the body cavity of freshwater fish from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The new species is similar in size to R. paranensis Szidat, 1948, but differs from that species in the following respects. The body shapes are different since the widest part of the adult female is more anterior in R. paranensis. The eyes of the new species are covered and non-functional unlike those of the other species. The cephalon of the new species has a postero-dorsal elevation and a rounded and depressed frons which are lacking in the other species. Pereonites 5-7 are subequal in length in the new species and decrease in length in R. paranensis. The pleon/pleotelson tapers in the female of the new species and in the other it is bluntly rounded and with nearly parallel sides. The pleopods of R. cryptocularis sp. nov. also taper while those of R. paranensis are rounded. The recently described species, R. acuticaudata Thatcher, Lopes & Froehlich, 2002, was also obtained in Mato Grosso do Sul State but differs greatly from the presently described species. The body of R. acuticaudata is much smaller, and more rounded. The eyes of this species are large and functional, the dorsum of the cephalon lacks a dorsal prominence and the pleon/pleotelson tapers more abruptly.

  5. Gut bacterial community structure (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) as a measure of community level response to long-term and short-term metal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanje, Ales; Rupnik, Maja; Drobne, Damjana

    2007-04-01

    Prokaryotes are of high importance in the assessment of environmental pollution effects. Due to fast responsiveness of bacterial communities to environmental physicochemical factors, it is difficult to compare results of bacterial community investigations on the temporal and spatial scale. To reduce the effects of variable physicochemical environmental conditions on bacterial microbiota when investigating the specific impact of contaminants on bacterial communities, we investigated the bacterial community in the gut of terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) from clean and metal-polluted environments. Animals were collected from a chronically mercury-polluted site, a chronically multiple metal-(Cd, Pb, Zn) polluted site, and two reference sites. In addition, animals from an unpolluted site were laboratory exposed to 5 microg Hg/g food in order to compare the effect of acute and chronic Hg exposure. The bacterial gut microbiota was investigated by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) and clone library construction based on polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rRNA genes. The major bacterial representatives of the emptied gut microbiota in the animals from the chronically polluted environments seemed not affected when analyzed by TTGE. The detailed bacterial community structure investigated by 16S rRNA clone library construction, however, showed that the community from the Hg-polluted site also was affected severely (242.4 operational taxonomic units [OTU] in the polluted and 650.6 OTU in the unpolluted environment). When animals were acutely exposed to mercury, changes of bacterial community structures already were seen on TTGE profiles and no additional analysis was needed. We suggest the use of P. scaber gut bacterial community structure as a measure of effects caused by both long- and short-term exposure to pollution.

  6. Lead impact on nutrition, energy reserves, respiration and stress protein (hsp 70) level in Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) populations differently preconditioned in their habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, T; Köhler, H R

    2000-05-01

    The impact of lead on food consumption, energy metabolism and the stress protein (hsp 70) level was investigated in the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Isopoda), a common representative of the saprophagous soil macrofauna. To examine possible acclimation or tolerance to lead in woodlice from a contaminated habitat, animals of two populations, one deriving from a lead-contaminated artillery range and one from an uncontaminated control stand, were exposed to a series of lead concentrations under otherwise constant laboratory conditions for a maximum of 80 days. The applied lead concentrations (at a maximum 7945 mg/kg food dry wt) did not have any significant quantitative effect on the food consumption of the isopods, although the population pre-exposed in the artillery range showed a tendency toward a higher food uptake than the control population. After 80 days of exposure, both populations showed an equal trend toward increasing their respiration as lead concentrations, that they had been fed on, were increased. Accordingly, the glycogen content of the body, in both populations, was elevated with increasing lead concentrations in the food. This effect was more pronounced in the pre-exposed isopod population than in the one from the control stand. The non-pre-exposed isopods showed a general tendency toward a lower protein content of their bodies than the pre-exposed ones, although no effect of the lead on this parameter could be statistically proven. The ability of the artillery range isopods to synthesise stress proteins (hsp 70) in response to lead contamination decreased at much lower lead concentrations in their food than in the non-pre-exposed control population, even though the artillery range isopods seemed to be equally or even slightly better equipped with energy storage products. Even though the better nutrient status of these animals might refer to some lead tolerance of the pre-exposed population, the stress protein data suggest that a metal

  7. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Fernando J.; Oromí, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods known from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodive...

  8. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodiversity patterns. Twenty-seven species, belonging to 15 genera and six families, are known, of which 16 species are considered to be exclusively from subterranean ecosystems, i.e., troglobionts. Trichoniscidae is the most diverse family. Seven species in the family Trichoniscidae and one species in the family Styloniscidae are described as new (all with Reboleira & Taiti as authors: Trichoniscoides bellesi sp. nov. from the Montejunto Massif; T. sicoensis sp. nov. from the Sicó Massif; Metatrichoniscoides salirensis sp. nov. from the typhonic valley of Caldas da Rainha; Troglonethes olissipoensis sp. nov. from the Lisbon Peninsula; T. arrabidaensis sp. nov. from the Arrábida Massif; Miktoniscus longispina sp. nov. from the Sicó Massif and Cesaredas Plateau; Moserius inexpectatus sp. nov. from the Estremenho Massif; and Cordioniscus lusitanicus sp. nov. from Alentejo and Algarve, the southernmost provinces of Portugal. The subgenus Trogleluma Vandel, 1946 (Armadillidiidae is raised to genus level. In this geographic region terrestrial isopods are the richest group of cave-adapted animals.

  9. Les Oniscoides halophiles de Madagascar (Isopoda, Oniscoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Marie-Louise

    1977-01-01

    A new genus Vandeloscia and four new species: Vandeloscia orientalis, Anomaloniscus vandeli Tylos ochri , Olibrinus roseus, are described. They originate from various beaches and from the coral-reef in the south-west of Madagascar (Tuléar).

  10. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Fernando J.; Oromí, Pedro;

    2015-01-01

    The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods known from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodive...... provinces of Portugal. The subgenus Trogleluma Vandel, 1946 (Armadillidiidae) is raised to genus level. In this geographic region terrestrial isopods are the richest group of cave-adapted animals....

  11. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Fernando J.; Oromí, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods known from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodive...

  12. Redescription of five gnathiid species from Japan (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    Five gnathiid species from Japan are redescribed based on14 holotypes, their paratypes, topotypes, and new materials. Observations of these specimens revealed that Caecognathia kikuchii (Nunomura, 1992) should be transferred to genus Elaphognathia and Caecognathia nasuta (Nunomura, 1992) to genus Gnathia. Furthermore, Caecognathia amakusaensis Nunomura, 1992, C. saikaiensis Nunomura, 1992, Gnathia azumai Nunomura, 2012a, G. quadricephala Nunomura, 2012a, and G. recticornata Nunomura, 2012a are considered to be junior synonyms of E. kikuchii. Gnathia hirayamai Nunomura, 1992, G. nagasakiensis Nunomura, 2012a, G. shijikiensis Nunomura, 2012a, and G. brevicephala Nunomura, 2012a are considered to be junior synonyms of G. nasuta. Moreover, Gnathia sanrikuensis Nunomura, 1998 and G. mutsuensis Nunomura, 2004 are redescribed. Gnathia bungoensis Nunomura, 1982 is not completely redescribed because the key characteristics were lacking. The geographical records of these species are provided.

  13. Personality affects defensive behaviour of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuf, Ivan Hadrián; Drábková, Lucie; Šipoš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated individual behavioural patterns of isopods expressed as tonic immobility following some intrusive treatments. Common rough woodlice, Porcellio scaber, were kept individually in plastic boxes and tested for tonic immobility repeatedly. Reactivity, sensitivity (number of stimuli needed to respond), and endurance of tonic immobility (TI) according three types of treatments (touch, squeeze, drop) were evaluated. Touch was the weakest treatment and it was necessary to repeat it a number of times to obtain a response; while squeeze and drop induced TI more frequently. Nevertheless, duration of the response persisted for a longer time with the touch treatment. Within each set of the three treatment, the strongest response was the third one, regardless of treatment type. Duration of reaction was affected by the size of the woodlouse, the smallest individuals feigning death for the shortest time. Despite body size, we found a significant individual pattern of endurance of TI among tested woodlice, which was stable across treatments as well as across time (5 repetitions during a 3 week period). Porcellio scaber is one of the first species of terrestrial isopods with documented personality traits. PMID:26261447

  14. Personality affects defensive behaviour of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Hadrián Tuf; Lucie Drábková; Jan Šipoš

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated individual behavioural patterns of isopods expressed as tonic immobility following some intrusive treatments. Common rough woodlice, Porcellio scaber , were kept individually in plastic boxes and tested for tonic immobility repeatedly. Reactivity, sensitivity (number of stimuli needed to respond), and endurance of tonic immobility (TI) according three types of treatments (touch, squeeze, drop) were evaluated. Touch was the weakest treatment and it was necessary to repeat...

  15. Notes on Terretrial Isopoda collected in Dutch Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1945-01-01

    On the initiative of Dr. A. D. J. Meeuse investigations were made on the fauna of the greenhouses of several Botanic Gardens in the Netherlands; material was also collected in greenhouses of other institutions and in those kept for commercial purposes. The isopods contained in the collection afforde

  16. Personality affects defensive behaviour of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Hadrián Tuf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated individual behavioural patterns of isopods expressed as tonic immobility following some intrusive treatments. Common rough woodlice, Porcellio scaber, were kept individually in plastic boxes and tested for tonic immobility repeatedly. Reactivity, sensitivity (number of stimuli needed to respond, and endurance of tonic immobility (TI according three types of treatments (touch, squeeze, drop were evaluated. Touch was the weakest treatment and it was necessary to repeat it a number of times to obtain a response; while squeeze and drop induced TI more frequently. Nevertheless, duration of the response persisted for a longer time with the touch treatment. Within each set of the three treatment, the strongest response was the third one, regardless of treatment type. Duration of reaction was affected by the size of the woodlouse, the smallest individuals feigning death for the shortest time. Despite body size, we found a significant individual pattern of endurance of TI among tested woodlice, which was stable across treatments as well as across time (5 repetitions during a 3 week period. Porcellio scaber is one of the first species of terrestrial isopods with documented personality traits.

  17. An annotated bibliography of parasitic Isopoda (Crustacea of Chondrichthyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio Soares Moreira

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available This annotated bibliography is an attempt to bring together all available published records on the parasitic isopods of Chondrichthian fishes as a basic reference source. An effort was made to synonymise old names according to the presently accepted scientific names.

  18. A new hypogean Cyathura from New Caledonia (Crustacea, Isopoda, Anthuridea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wägele, Johann Wolfgang

    1982-01-01

    Cyathuva numeae n.sp. from New Caledonia is the sixth blind species of the genus Cyathura Norman & Stebbing, 1886, found in hypogean habitats. The new species lives in the interstitia of coastal sand or gravel, like C. milloti Chappuis et al., 1956, from Réunion. A close relationship to the other sp

  19. Notes on Eurydice (Isopoda, Flabellifera) from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION During his investigation of the amphipod fauna of the sandy beaches of the Netherlands, Mr. W. J. M. Vader, formerly of this institute, met with two species of Eurydice Leach, 1815. Besides the common Eurydice pulchra Leach, 1815, he found a second species in smaller numbers. Because Gi

  20. Cymothoa indica (Isopoda; Cymothoidae and Alitropus typus (Isopoda; Aegidae on freshwater fish Tilapia mossambica (Cichlidae in Vellar estuary, Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rameshkumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to establish the extent of double parasitation of two species of isopods Cymothoa indica and Alitropus typus on Tilapia mossambica. Cymothoa indica, a typical Indo-Pacific genus, and A. typus, a common crustacean parasite of fish in Southeast Asia, which feeds by sucking blood species, are reported by the first time in the freshwater fish Tilapia from Vellar estuary.

  1. A new species of Benthana (Crustacea: Isopoda: Philosciidae from southern Brazil Uma nova espécie de Benthana Budde-Lund (Crustacea: Isopoda: Philosciidae sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Benthana Budde-Lund, 1908 is described from southern Brazil. Benthana cairensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the other species in the genus by having 17 aesthetascs on the antennula and the elongated male pleopod 1 exopod with a lobe on the inner lateral margin and up to six setae on the outer lateral margin. The new species most resembles B. olfersii (Brandt, 1833, but may be distinguished by lacking the lobe with six setae on the internal margin of the proximal extremity of the merus of pereiopod 7. Furthermore, we include B. olfersii in the subgenus Benthanoscia based on the examined material as described herein.Uma nova espécie de Benthana Budde-Lund, 1908, é descrita de material coletado no sul do Brasil. B. cairensis sp. nov. distingue-se das outras espécies do gênero por apresentar 17 estetascos na antênula e o exópode do pleópode 1 do macho alongado, com um lobo e portando seis setas na margem lateral externa. A nova espécie assemelha-se a B. olfersii (Brandt, 1833 em várias características, mas pode ser diferenciada pela ausência do lobo com seis setas na margem externa da extremidade proximal do mero do pereiópodo 7. Além disso, B. olfersii é incluída, neste trabalho, no subgênero Benthanoscia, com base no material examinado.

  2. Prevalence of Nerocila depressa (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) on Sardinella albella from a Thai estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printrakoon, Cheewarat; Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2011-02-01

    The isopod Nerocila depressa is present on 54% of the market-sized white sardines ( Sardinella albella) caught from an estuary in the Trat province of Thailand. The ventral part of the body, especially the upper pectoral fin, was the area most frequently infected by this parasite. Parasite length was positively correlated with fish length, which suggests that the parasites attach to the fish at a young age. At the site of attachment, the parasites erode the epidermis, dermis and muscular tissue of the Sardinella. Such pathology may cause mortality in many fish. Infestation of this parasite was proportional to the weight of the fish. This study reports a new host for N. depressa attachment and is the first report of S. albella infestation in the Trat province where other known host fish species are cultured.

  3. Descriptions and revisions of some species of Isopoda Bopyridae of the North Western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markham, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Material reported is: Asymmetrione clibanarii Markham, 1975 ex Clibanarius sp. in Colombia (new host, new locality) and ex C. tricolor (Gibbes, 1850) in Colombia (new locality); A. desultor Markham, 1975 ex Pagurus brevidactylus (Stimpson, 1862) in Colombia and ex Iridopagurus sp. in Belize (new

  4. [Tissular alterations and defence reactions in cymothoids parasited teleosteans (Crustacea - Isopoda - blood sucking) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romestand, B; Janicot, M; Trilles, J P

    1977-01-01

    Some tissual alterations of the parasitic microbiotope are shown in fishes harbouring Cymothoidae (blood-sucking Isopods). These alterations consist mainly in a hypertrophied epidermis and a deeply disturbed conjunctive tissue; moreover, it can be observed an important production of mucus on the tegument surface and a rush of blood cells (lymphocytes, eosenophilic granulated cells) and of cells of histiocytary origin (giant multinucleated cells).

  5. Marine interstitial Amphipoda and Isopoda (Crustacea) from Santiago, Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vonk, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Three species of Amphipoda are recorded from interstices of a marine beach on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago: Cabogidiella littoralis n. gen., n. sp. (Bogidiellidae), Psammogammarus spinosus n. sp. (Melitidae), and Idunella sketi Karaman, 1980 (Liljeborgiidae). The latter, widely dis

  6. Primer registro de Ligia baudiniana (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) para el Caribe colombiano..

    OpenAIRE

    López Orozco, Carlos Mario; Bermúdez, Adriana; Navas S., Gabriel R

    2014-01-01

    The isopod Ligia baudiniana is reported for the first time from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Specimens of this species were collected on a rocky, intertidal substrate on the beaches of Marbella, Cartagena de Indias. A diagnosis is included along with illustrations of main taxonomic characters.

  7. A new species of Cirolana Leach, 1818 (Isopoda, Cymothoidea, Cirolanidae from Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J.C. Paiva

    Full Text Available A new species of Cirolana is described from the Northeast Brazilian coast based on the material previously recorded as Cirolana palifrons and some other material misidentified as C. parva. The new species, C. lemoscastroi sp. nov., belongs to a group of species within the genus that have two dorsal longitudinal carinae on the pleotelson. A key to all Cirolana species recorded from Brazil is provided.

  8. First Record of Cleantioides planicauda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Holognathidae from South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Sik Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleantioides planicauda (Benedict, 1899 has previously been recorded in China and Japan. In the present study, to our knowledge, we report for the first time the occurrence of this species in South Korea. Here, we provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of the diagnostic characteristics of C. planicauda. Further, for the first time, we determined the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene of C. planicauda for molecular characteristic. Additionally, we provide a key to the Korean species and distribution of the genus Cleantioides. As a result of this study, four species of the genus Cleantioides, including C. planicauda, have now been recorded in South Korea.

  9. Growth curve of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name (Crustacea, Isopoda, Philosciidae from a Brazilian Restinga Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Beatriz Araujo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial isopod Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 occurs from the U.S.A. (Florida to Brazil and Argentina. In the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul, the species is recorded in many localities, in urban and in non-urban areas. The growth curve of Atlantoscia floridana based on field data is presented. The specimens were sampled from April, 2000 to October, 2001 at the Reserva Biológica do Lami (RBL, Rio Grande do Sul. Captured individuals were sexed and had their cephalothorax width measured, with the data analyzed with von Bertalanffy's model. The growth curves for males and females are described, respectively, by the equations: Wt = 1.303 [1 - e-0.00941 (t + 50.37] and Wt = 1.682 [1 - e-0.00575 (t + 59.13]. The curves showed differential growth between sexes, where females reach a higher Wµ with a slower growth rate. Based on the growth curves it was also possible to estimate life expectancy for males and females.O isópodo terrestre Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 ocorre desde os Estados Unidos (Flórida até o Brasil e Argentina. No Rio Grande do Sul a espécie é registrada em muitas localidades, em áreas urbanas e não-urbanas. Este trabalho apresenta a curva de crescimento de Atlantoscia floridana, baseada em dados de campo. Os espécimes foram amostrados desde abril, 2000 a outubro, 2001 na Reserva Biológica do Lami (RBL, Rio Grande do Sul. Os indivíduos capturados foram sexados e tiveram o cefalotórax medido. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o modelo de von Bertalanffy. A curva de crescimento para machos e fêmeas são descritas, respectivamente, pelas equações Wt = 1.303 [1 - e-0.00941 (t + 50.37] e Wt = 1.682 [1 - e -0.00575 (t + 59.13]. As curvas mostraram crescimento diferencial entre os sexos, onde as fêmeas atingem o maior Wµ com uma taxa de crescimento menor. Com base nas curvas de crescimento também foi possível estimar a expectativa de vida para machos e fêmeas.

  10. A new species of seagrass-boring Limnoria (Limnoriidae, Isopoda, Crustacea) from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroki; Watabe, Hikari; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2017-02-15

    The marine seagrass-boring isopod, Limnoria rhombipunctata sp. nov. (Limnoriidae) is described from the rhizome of Phyllospadix iwatensis seagrass, in shallow coastal waters off Chiba Prefecture, Japan. L. rhombipunctata sp. nov. is distinguished from other Limnoria species by the unique carinae of pleonite 5 and pleotelson, two branched lacinia mobilis of the right mandible, 3 flagellar articles of antenna 1, and triangular epipod of the maxilliped. Specimens of L. magadanensis, a species similar to L. rhombipunctata sp. nov., are re-examined and compared with L. rhombipunctata sp. nov.

  11. Biogeography of wood-boring crustaceans (Isopoda: Limnoriidae) established in European coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Luísa M S; Merckelbach, Lucas M; Cragg, Simon M

    2014-01-01

    Marine wood-borers of the Limnoriidae cause great destruction to wooden structures exposed in the marine environment. In this study we collated occurrence data obtained from field surveys, spanning over a period of 10 years, and from an extensive literature review. We aimed to determine which wood-boring limnoriid species are established in European coastal waters; to map their past and recent distribution in Europe in order to infer species range extension or contraction; to determine species environmental requirements using climatic envelopes. Of the six species of wood-boring Limnoria previously reported occurring in Europe, only Limnoria lignorum, L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are established in European coastal waters. L. carinata and L. tuberculata have uncertain established status, whereas L. borealis is not established in European waters. The species with the widest distribution in Europe is Limnoria lignorum, which is also the most tolerant species to a range of salinities. L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata appear to be stenohaline. However, the present study shows that both L. quadripunctata and L. tripunctata are more widespread in Europe than previous reports suggested. Both species have been found occurring in Europe since they were described, and their increased distribution is probably the results of a range expansion. On the other hand L. lignorum appears to be retreating poleward with ocean warming. In certain areas (e.g. southern England, and southern Portugal), limnoriids appear to be very abundant and their activity is rivalling that of teredinids. Therefore, it is important to monitor the distribution and destructive activity of these organisms in Europe.

  12. Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Mrak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The hindgut and foregut in terrestrial isopod crustaceans are ectodermal parts of the digestive system and are lined by cuticle, an apical extracellular matrix secreted by epithelial cells. Morphogenesis of the digestive system was reported in previous studies, but differentiation of the gut cuticle was not followed in detail. This study is focused on ultrastructural analyses of hindgut apical matrices and cuticle in selected intramarsupial developmental stages of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in comparison to adult animals to obtain data on the hindgut cuticular lining differentiation. Our results show that in late embryos of stages 16 and 18 the apical matrix in the hindgut consists of loose material overlaid by a thin intensely ruffled electron dense lamina facing the lumen. The ultrastructural resemblance to the embryonic epidermal matrices described in several arthropods suggests a common principle in chitinous matrix differentiation. The hindgut matrix in the prehatching embryo of stage 19 shows characteristics of the hindgut cuticle, specifically alignment to the apical epithelial surface and a prominent electron dense layer of epicuticle. In the preceding embryonic stage – stage 18 – an electron dense lamina, closely apposed to the apical cell membrane, is evident and is considered as the first epicuticle formation. In marsupial mancae the advanced features of the hindgut cuticle and epithelium are evident: a more prominent epicuticular layer, formation of cuticular spines and an extensive apical labyrinth. In comparison to the hindgut cuticle of adults, the hindgut cuticle of marsupial manca and in particular the electron dense epicuticular layer are much thinner and the difference between cuticle architecture in the anterior chamber and in the papillate region is not yet distinguishable. Differences from the hindgut cuticle in adults imply not fully developed structure and function of the hindgut cuticle in marsupial manca, possibly related also to different environments, as mancae develop in marsupial fluid. Bacteria, evenly distributed within the homogenous electron dense material in the hindgut lumen, were observed only in one specimen of early marsupial manca. The morphological features of gut cuticle renewal are evident in the late marsupial mancae, and are similar to those observed in the exoskeleton.

  13. The shallow-water Asellota (Crustacea: Isopoda from the Beagle Channel: Preliminary taxonomic and zoogeographical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Lía Doti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water Asellota from the Beagle Channel were investigated, based on material collected at four localities in 2001-2002. A total of 3,124 asellotes were sorted, and three new species and 12 new records of distribution were reported. The Paramunnidae showed the highest species diversity and abundance (11 species and 1,463 specimens. The present research raises the number of species known from the Beagle Channel to 23; of these, 16 were previously reported from the Magellan Straits, representing 69% of similarity. Based on the present results and published data, the faunistic affinities for the shallow-water Asellota was 30% between the Magellan region and the Scotia Arc, and 26% between the Magellan region and the Antarctic Peninsula.

  14. Descriptions and revisions of some species of Isopoda Bopyridae of the North Western Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markham, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Material reported is: Asymmetrione clibanarii Markham, 1975 ex Clibanarius sp. in Colombia (new host, new locality) and ex C. tricolor (Gibbes, 1850) in Colombia (new locality); A. desultor Markham, 1975 ex Pagurus brevidactylus (Stimpson, 1862) in Colombia and ex Iridopagurus sp. in Belize (new hos

  15. Effect of temperature on toxicity of deltamethrin and oxygen consumption by Porcellio scaber Latr (Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkiewicz-Winiarczyk, Aneta; Gromysz-Kałkowska, Kazimiera

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the toxicity of deltamethrin, in relation to its LD50 value, as well as variation in respiratory metabolism of the isopod species Porcellio scaber Latr kept at 3 temperature values (10, 22 and 30ºC). The low LD50 values obtained indicate that deltamethrin is a highly toxic pyrethroid for the crustacean tested, particularly at 10ºC. We also observed that, in all the 3 experimental temperatures, the deltamethrin toxicity was lower in females than in males. Particularly distinct differences between both sexes were visible at 10 and 30ºC, i.e. temperatures that are too low and too high for the species studied. Oxygen uptake measurement showed an increase in respiratory metabolism directly after intoxication. The most substantial increase, 64% in males and 80% in females, was observed at the temperature 10ºC, whereas at the other temperatures, it did not exceed 20%. During the successive experimental days, the respiratory consumption in P. scaber had a tendency to decrease, which was more visible at 10 and 30ºC, compared to the optimal temperature 22ºC.

  16. Genetic diversity of bacteria associated with the hindgut of the terrestrial crustacean Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2002-06-01

    Molecular approaches were used to examine the genetic diversity of bacteria associated with the gut wall of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber and to determine whether an autochthonous microflora exists in the P. scaber hindgut. 16S ribosomal genes were amplified from the total DNA isolated from thoroughly washed papillate regions of the hindgut, where the highest concentrations of bacteria are commonly found. The amplified genes were cloned, sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. The results implied an unexpectedly large diversity of microflora associated with the cuticle of the hindgut. Almost half of the retrieved sequences were found to be less than 80% homologous with any of the known sequences available at DNA data banks. Most of these sequences were clustered in one of three groups, and were clearly distant from the sequences of other bacterial taxa, indicating that they could represent novel bacterial species or even genera. More than two thirds of the sequences were found to be phylogenetically related to sequences from bacteria typically isolated from human and animal intestines, e.g. streptococci, enterococci, and members of the genus Bacteroides. The majority of the remaining sequences were most closely related to typical soil bacteria, e.g. bacilli and pseudomonads. The facts that a large proportion of the retrieved sequences was related to the sequences of bacteria, which are autochthonous to intestinal ecosystems, and that bacteria, specifically attached to the cuticular spines, were observed, indicate that truly autochthonous bacteria may well be present in the hindgut of P. scaber.

  17. Comparison of Terrestrial Isopod (Isopoda, Oniscidea Assemblages from Two Types of Forests from North Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Ferenţi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 we compared the terrestrial isopod assemblages from two different habitats, a beech forest and a mixed beech and spruce forest, from north western Romania (Huta Certeze locality. The samples were taken from April to September using pitfall traps. We identified a total of 7 species: Ligidium germanicum, Trichoniscus sp., Hyloniscus transsilvanicus, Protracheoniscus politus, Porcellium collicola, Trachelipus difficilis and Porcellio scaber. A greater diversity and species richness were noticed in the beech forest. The poverty of species in the mixed forest was a consequence of the forest type, the anthropogenic impact and the dry environment. High surface activity of individuals was noticed in the summer months. Even if the species compositions of the two compared isopod assemblages were not identical, there weren’t statistically significant differences between them.

  18. Interaction of lead and calcium uptake by the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, porcellionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeby, A.

    1978-01-01

    Lead and calcium nitrate in a potato base were fed to Porcellio scaber; three levels of each cation were used in a 3/sup 2/ factorial design experiment. The amounts accumulated were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis of nitric acid digests of whole animals. Both cations increased markedly in the woodlice with increasng dosage and a clear correlation was found between the rates of uptake of the two.

  19. Prolonged effects of the insecticide dimethoate on locomotor behaviour in the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber Latr. (isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, M

    1995-04-01

    : Beneficial invertebrates living in hedgerows and woodland adjacent to arable land, are almost inevitably exposed to small doses of pesticides. This can present a threat to these invertebrates even at sublethal levels. Locomotor behaviour is intrinsic to many more complex behavioural responses such as predator avoidance, migration, mate seeking, etc., but is also closely related to the physiological status of the animal. Further, locomotor activity is quantifiable with the aid of modern video and computer technology. In the present study, the effect of a 48 h exposure of the woodlouse Porcellio scaber to soil contaminated with one-tenth of the LD20 (96 h) dimethoate dose was quantified using computer-automated video tracking. Dimethoate-exposed woodlice were recorded for one night prior to dimethoate exposure and for two nights on contaminated soil. After a recovery period of 21 days, the woodlice were recorded for a further night. Control animals were recorded in parallel on soil treated with water. Over the 48 h of exposure, dimethoate induced a gradually increasing hyperactivity in terms of time spent in activity, mean velocity and path length and a suppression of turning rate when compared with controls. No recovery was seen after the 21 days on uncontaminated soil. These effects were statistically significant only in male woodlice.

  20. Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, Polona; Bogataj, Urban; Štrus, Jasna; Žnidaršič, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The hindgut and foregut in terrestrial isopod crustaceans are ectodermal parts of the digestive system and are lined by cuticle, an apical extracellular matrix secreted by epithelial cells. Morphogenesis of the digestive system was reported in previous studies, but differentiation of the gut cuticle was not followed in detail. This study is focused on ultrastructural analyses of hindgut apical matrices and cuticle in selected intramarsupial developmental stages of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in comparison to adult animals to obtain data on the hindgut cuticular lining differentiation. Our results show that in late embryos of stages 16 and 18 the apical matrix in the hindgut consists of loose material overlaid by a thin intensely ruffled electron dense lamina facing the lumen. The ultrastructural resemblance to the embryonic epidermal matrices described in several arthropods suggests a common principle in chitinous matrix differentiation. The hindgut matrix in the prehatching embryo of stage 19 shows characteristics of the hindgut cuticle, specifically alignment to the apical epithelial surface and a prominent electron dense layer of epicuticle. In the preceding embryonic stage – stage 18 – an electron dense lamina, closely apposed to the apical cell membrane, is evident and is considered as the first epicuticle formation. In marsupial mancae the advanced features of the hindgut cuticle and epithelium are evident: a more prominent epicuticular layer, formation of cuticular spines and an extensive apical labyrinth. In comparison to the hindgut cuticle of adults, the hindgut cuticle of marsupial manca and in particular the electron dense epicuticular layer are much thinner and the difference between cuticle architecture in the anterior chamber and in the papillate region is not yet distinguishable. Differences from the hindgut cuticle in adults imply not fully developed structure and function of the hindgut cuticle in marsupial manca, possibly related also to different environments, as mancae develop in marsupial fluid. Bacteria, evenly distributed within the homogenous electron dense material in the hindgut lumen, were observed only in one specimen of early marsupial manca. The morphological features of gut cuticle renewal are evident in the late marsupial mancae, and are similar to those observed in the exoskeleton. PMID:26261443

  1. Amorphous and crystalline calcium carbonate distribution in the tergite cuticle of moulting Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neues, Frank; Hild, Sabine; Epple, Matthias; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2011-07-01

    The main mineral components of the isopod cuticle consists of crystalline magnesium calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate. During moulting isopods moult first the posterior and then the anterior half of the body. In terrestrial species calcium carbonate is subject to resorption, storage and recycling in order to retain significant fractions of the mineral during the moulting cycle. We used synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis and Raman spectroscopy to quantify the ACC/calcite ratio, the mineral phase distribution and the composition within the anterior and posterior tergite cuticle during eight different stages of the moulting cycle of Porcellio scaber. The results show that most of the amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is resorbed from the cuticle, whereas calcite remains in the old cuticle and is shed during moulting. During premoult resorption of ACC from the posterior cuticle is accompanied by an increase within the anterior tergites, and mineralization of the new posterior cuticle by resorption of mineral from the anterior cuticle. This suggests that one reason for using ACC in cuticle mineralization is to facilitate resorption and recycling of cuticular calcium carbonate. Furthermore we show that ACC precedes the formation of calcite in distal layers of the tergite cuticle.

  2. Toxicity of abamectin to the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Lucija; Jemec, Anita; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Valant, Janez; Hrzenjak, Rok; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh; Zidar, Primoz

    2010-06-01

    To determine effects of the antiparasitic veterinary drug abamectin on the isopod Porcellio scaber, animals were exposed for 21 days to Lufa 2.2 soil spiked at concentrations of 3-300 mg/kg dry soil. After exposure, abamectin residues in the isopods were analysed using a novel analytical method. Toxicity was evaluated on different levels of biological organisation: biochemical, cellular and the individual organism. Measurements included glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and stability of cell membranes in the digestive gland, animal mass gain or loss, food consumption, behaviour and mortality. LC50 for the effect of abamectin on survival of P. scaber was 71 mg/kg dry soil. The most obvious sublethal effects were reduced food consumption and decreased body mass (NOEC 3 mg/kg dry soil). Additionally, loss of digging activity and reduced GST activity (NOEC 30 mg/kg dry soil) and cell membrane destabilization (NOEC 10 mg/kg dry soil) were recorded. Abamectin only slightly accumulated in the isopods, with bioaccumulation factors always being <0.1. Based on these results and current information on environmental levels of abamectin, it is not likely that isopods will be affected by abamectin, but further studies with exposure through faeces are recommended.

  3. The embryonic development of the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Carsten

    2009-12-01

    To examine the evolution of development and put it into a phylogenetic context, it is important to have, in addition to a model organism like Drosophila, more insights into the huge diversity of arthropod morphologies. In recent years, the malacostracan crustacean Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 has become a popular animal for studies in evolutionary and developmental biology, but a detailed and complete description of its embryonic development is still lacking. Therefore, the embryonic development of the woodlouse P. scaber is described in a series of discrete stages easily identified by examination of living animals and the widely used technique of nuclei staining on fixed specimens. It starts with the first cleavage of the zygote and ends with a hatched manca that eventually leaves the mother's brood pouch. Classical methods like normal light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy are used, in addition to confocal LCM and computer-aided 3D reconstruction in order to visualise important processes during ontogeny. The purpose of these studies is to offer an easy way to define the different degrees of development for future comparative analyses of embryonic development amongst crustaceans in particular, as well as between different arthropod groups. In addition, several aspects of Porcellio embryonic development, such as the mouth formation, limb differentiations and modifications or the formation of the digestive tract, make this species particularly interesting for future studies in evolutionary and developmental biology.

  4. Assimilation of zinc by Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) exposed to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibic, A.; Drobne, D.; Strus, J. [Univ. of Ljubijana (Slovenia)

    1997-05-01

    The ability of terrestrial isopods to accumulate high amounts of metals, to survive in industrially polluted areas and respond to environmental contaminants in a dose-dependent manner makes them one of the most favorite experimental organisms for terrestrial ecotoxicology. Understanding metal uptake, assimilation and loss by these animals is important to explain how they cope with polluted environments. Metal uptake depends on the rate of food consumption, on metal availability in the food, on the pH inside the gut and some other factors. Isopods respond to high metal concentrations in the food in different ways and try to avoid the negative effects of metal poisoning. Zinc is one of the metals present in high concentrations in industrially polluted areas. Zinc poisoning may be avoided by the regulation of the consumption rate, by behavioral response, by storing metals in the hepatopancreas as insoluble granules, and by fecal, and possibly urinary, excretion. Zinc in organisms is a constituent of more than 200 metalloenzymes and other metabolic compounds and assures stability of biological molecules and structures. High Zn levels in food cause a reduction of feeding rate, affect growth and reproduction, cause changes in the structure of the digestive glands and influence the duration of the molting cycle. The present study investigated zinc assimilation by Porcellio scaber exposed to leaves contaminated with radioactively labeled zinc at five different concentrations. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Toxicity of copper to Porcellio scaber Latr. (Isopoda) under different nutritional status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, S.; Fischer, E. [JPTE Univ. Pecs, Ifjusag (Hungary); Hornung, E. [JATE Univ. Szeged, Egyetem (Hungary)

    1996-12-31

    Isopods are members of the soil fauna important in decomposition. Their role in the decomposition of leaf litter in forest soils has been reported for many years. Isopods are reported to contain high concentrations of cooper in their haemolymph (70 mg/ml) and in hepatopancreas (216 mg/g d.w.) (Gunnarson and Hedlund 1987). The role that copper plays in the physiology and ecology of terrestrial isopods was first examined in detail by Wieser, Dallinger and Dallinger and Wieser. Furthermore, Wieser and Wieser et al. showed that copper concentrations of terrestrial isopods reflect the degree of environmental soil and litter contamination. In the last decade, pollution of the environment with heavy metals has led many environmental scientists to search for suitable methods to monitor distribution and effects of such pollution. Laboratory tests using terrestrial isopods are recommended for assessing the ecotoxicological effects of chemicals. Isopods are able to accumulate large amounts of several metals in their hepatopancrea therefore they are useful biological indicators of metal pollution. Because of its worldwide distribution and the high metal accumulation capacity, Hopkin et al. proposed that Porcellio scaber could be a suitable {open_quotes}bioindicator{close_quotes} of metal contaminated soils. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. The effect of Zn on the digestive gland epithelium of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne, D; Strus, J

    1996-01-01

    The effect of zinc (Zn)-contaminated food on the shape of digestive gland epithelium was studied in the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber. In animals fed with 5,000 micrograms Zn g-1 dry wt. of food, the epithelium was flattened in the anterior part of the gland tube. In the posterior part of the gland tube, the shape and size of cells did not change drastically, but they had folded apical surface. In animals fed with more Zn-contaminated food (10,000 micrograms Zn g-1 dry wt.) the epithelium was uniformly flattened and the basal lamina was intensively folded. In both cases, reduction of lipid bodies was evident. The possibility of using the shape of the gland epithelium as a biomarker of toxic chemicals is discussed.

  7. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanje, A; Drobne, D; Nolde, N; Valant, J; Muscet, B; Leser, V; Rupnik, M

    2008-06-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10microg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed.

  8. Surfactants in the gut fluids of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda: Oniscidea), and their interactions with phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M

    1997-10-01

    Fluids from the gut lumen of Porcellio scaber showed significantly reduced surface tension compared to a buffer solution. Tests with several dilutions indicated that the concentration of the surface active substances (surfactants) was about 80-fold higher than the 'critical micelle concentration'. Phenolics, e.g. gallotannins, when ingested in the diet increased the surface tension of the gut fluid, indicating reduced concentrations of free surfactants. The significance of gut surfactants in P. scaber, their role in digestive processes, and their interaction with tannins in this saprophagous soil arthropod are discussed.

  9. Diversity of commensal Bacillus cereus sensu lato isolated from the common sow bug (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Izabela; Mahillon, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    Although Bacillus cereus sensu lato are important both from an ecological and an economical point of view, little is known about their population structure, ecology, and relationships with other organisms. In the present work, the genotypic similarity of arthropod-borne B. cereus s.l. isolates, and their symbiotic relationship with the host are assessed. Bacilli of this group were recovered from the digestive tracts of sow bugs (Porcellio scaber) collected in three closely located sites. Their genotypic diversity was investigated using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) following the whole-genome DNA digestions with NotI and AscI, and PCR amplification of virulence genes. The majority of the sow-bug Bacillus cereus sensu stricto isolates originating from the same but also from different sites displayed identical PFGE patterns, virulence gene content and enterotoxicity, indicating strong genetic and genomic relationships. The sow-bug Bacillus mycoides/Bacillus pseudomycoides strains displayed a higher diversity. The isopod-B. cereus s.l. relationship was also evaluated using antibiotic-resistant derivatives of B. cereus s.s., B. mycoides/B. pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis reintroduced into sow bugs. Both spores and vegetative cells of B. cereus s.l. were recovered from sow bugs over a 30-day period, strongly suggesting that these bacteria are natural residents of terrestrial isopods.

  10. Exoskeletal cuticle differentiation during intramarsupial development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, Polona; Znidaršič, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

    2014-09-01

    Exoskeletal crustacean cuticle is a calcified apical extracellular matrix of epidermal cells, illustrating the chitin-based organic scaffold for biomineralization. Studies of cuticle formation during molting reveal significant dynamics and complexity of the assembly processes, while cuticle formation during embryogenesis is poorly investigated. This study reveals in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, the ultrastructural organization of the differentiating precuticular matrices and exoskeletal cuticles during embryonic and larval intramarsupial development. The composition of the epidermal matrices was obtained by WGA lectin labelling and EDXS analysis. At least two precuticular matrices, consisting of loosely arranged material with overlying electron dense lamina, are secreted by the epidermis in the mid-stage embryo. The prehatching embryo is the earliest developmental stage with a cuticular matrix consisting of an epicuticle and a procuticle, displaying WGA binding and forming cuticular scales. In newly hatched marsupial larva manca, a new cuticle is formed and calcium sequestration in the cuticle is evident. Progression of larval development leads to the cuticle thickening, structural differentiation of cuticular layers and prominent cuticle calcification. Morphological characteristics of exoskeleton renewal in marsupial manca are described. Elaborated cuticle in marsupial larvae indicates the importance of the exoskeleton in protection and support of the larval body in the marsupium and during the release of larvae in the external environment.

  11. Morphological description of bacterial infection of digestive glands in the terrestrial isopod porcellio scaber (Isopoda, crustacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobne; Strus; Znidarsic; Zidar

    1999-01-01

    Morphological studies of the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber revealed bacterial infection. The percentage of infected animals collected from the same site varied from 0 to 10% during the 4 years of study. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and light microscopy revealed that infected glands differed from those in healthy isopods. The most prominent sign was white spots between 100 and 200 &mgr;m in diameter along the entire gland. These spots were aggregations of vacuoles in the cells that were densely filled with bacteria in different phases of the developmental cycle that included the formation of small, dense, rod-shaped infective bacteria and much larger spherical multiplying cells filled with aggregates of polysomes and a chromatin network. Occasionally, large sphericles were filled with homogeneous electron-dense material. Bacteria were not observed in the cell nucleus. Small vacuoles of less than 5 &mgr;m were filled predominately with spherical bacteria but rod-shaped forms were also present in large numbers. Larger vacuoles of 10 to 20 &mgr;m in the main were densely filled with rod-shaped bacteria. According to the literature on the morphological characteristics of bacteria infecting invertebrates, those described in our study would be classified in the genus Rickettsiella. However, most recent investigations show that besides morphological investigations, genetic ones are also needed to define the taxonomic position of bacteria that infect invertebrates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Multiple colonization of the deep sea by the Asellota (Crustacea: Peracarida: Isopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Held, Christoph; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2004-07-01

    Despite its extreme environmental conditions the deep sea harbors a unique and species-rich fauna of mostly unknown age and phylogeny. Asellote isopods have undergone their most impressive radiation in the deep sea, being found at all depths down to the deepest trench. Here we present the first molecular evidence for the phylogenetic origin of this remarkable array of deep-sea crustaceans, based on 30 new DNA-sequences of the complete 18s rRNA gene of specimens collected at depths down to 4543 m in the South Atlantic and South Polar Ocean. The results show that most of these isopod lineages belong to a single ancient clade. They evolved in situ in large oceanic depths and survived several climatic changes, but the lack of fossils and of a suitable molecular clock model prevents a precise dating of this radiation. The monophyly of typical deep-sea families, for example the Haploniscidae, Ischnomesidae or Munnopsidae, is well supported by different methods of analysis, while the monophyly of the Janiridae is rejected.

  13. Checklist of the terrestrial isopods of the new world (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Leistikow

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A check-list of all the American Oniscidea known to the authors and their quotation in literature is presented. The species account comprises notes on species' distribution and a revised synonymy. As far as possible comments on taxonomic problems are given. The species are ascribed to the families which are commonly recognised, despite many of them are paraphyletic constructions. This check-list should support the work of both ecologists and taxonomist when dealing with New World Oniscidea.

  14. New potential host for Ryukyua globosa (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae) from Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshkumar, Ganapathy; Ramesh, Mathan; Ravichandran, Samuthirapandian

    2016-12-01

    In the present study Ryukyua globosa parasitic isopod on the marine fishes of the Parangipettai coast are reported. R. globosa was found attached in the gill chamber of Sardinella gibbosa. The attachment position of Ryukyua species differs from that of other member of this genus. Until now, R. globosa was only reported on Amblygaster sirm and A.leiogaster. S.gibbosa is a new host record for R.globosa. R. globosa, branchial parasites, already known from Japan and is now recorded from the Southeast coast of India.

  15. Reproduction of Cubaris murina (Crustacea: Isopoda under laboratory conditions and its use in ecotoxicity tests

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    JC. Niemeyer

    Full Text Available Reproduction of the isopod Cubaris murina was studied in the laboratory in order to observe the offspring number per brood, the number and duration of the incubation periods, and the influence of repeated mating on number of young per brood. An experiment was conducted with two different groups: female/male pairs and females that were isolated after mating. No significant difference was found between the two reproductive female groups for the mean number of young per brood (x = 25 and the duration of the incubation periods (x = 17 days. One mating was enough for at least five broods, with no reduction in brood size. There was no significant difference between the number of adult males and females. Low-density cultures had a significantly higher growth rate compared to high-density cultures. Furthermore, the experimental results for optimization isopod culture conditions for terrestrial ecotoxicity testing are reported.

  16. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, A. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: ales.lapanje@bf.uni-lj.si; Drobne, D. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nolde, N. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Valant, J. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Muscet, B. [Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, 1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Leser, V. [University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, Vecna pot 111, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, M. [Institute of Public Health, Prvomajska 1, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, Slomskov trg 15, 2000 Maribor (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 {mu}g Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant.

  17. Neohyssura atlantica n.sp. from the Cape Verde Islands (Crustacea: Isopoda: Anthuridea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wägele, Johann Wolfgang

    1987-01-01

    A fourth species of Neohyssura is described from a beach of a lagoon of Ilha do Sal (Cape Verde Islands). The species is blind and can easily be recognized by the oval, spinose outline of the telson and the spines on the uropodal endopod.

  18. Distribution and ecological notes on Dynoides (Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae in the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Espinosa-Pérez

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of the genus Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984 not reported since their description were rediscovered during an intensive sampling program in the intertidal and shallow subtidal of the Mexican Pacific. Both species are abundant in the area and inhabit among the algae Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845, and Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 from Nayarit to OaxacaDurante un programa intensivo de muestreo en la zona intermareal y submareal somera del Pacífico mexicano se redescubrieron dos especies del género Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho y Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho y Haasmann, 1984, no registradas desde su descripción. Ambas especies son abundantes en el área y habitan entre las algas Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845 e Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 desde Nayarit hasta Oaxaca

  19. Life cycle of the fish parasite Gnathia maxillaris (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hispano, Coral; Bultó, Patrici; Blanch, Anicet R

    2014-06-01

    The taxonomic classification of some parasitic isopods of the family Gnathiidae has been revised in the last years. However, their biological cycles have been described only partially or incompletely. Gnathia maxillaris (Montagu, 1804) is one of the most studied species, but certain aspects of its life cycle are still poorly known. A detailed study on the life cycle of G. maxillaris was carried out over several years by sampling larvae from an infestation of large volume aquaria at the Aquarium of Barcelona. At the same time, a system of in vitro cultivation of G. maxillaris was developed, which provided new data to complete the description of its life cycle. Periods of incubation, fertilization, planktonic stages, the attachment site on the fish host and biometric characteristics of larval forms were detailed. The new information may help better control health state of marine fish in aquaculture.

  20. Ligia italica (Isopoda, Oniscidea as bioindicator of mercury pollution of marine rocky coasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Longo

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the possible role of Ligia italica as a bioindicator for the monitoring of heavy metals pollution in the suppralittoral zone of marine rocky coasts. Between 2004 and 2011 specimens of L. italica were collected along the Eastern Sicilian coasts from sites known for their high pollution levels as they are near to an area where in September 2001 a refinery plant discharged into the sea some waste containing Hg. Other specimens were collected from the Vendicari Natural Reserve located about 30 miles from the polluted sites and used as control area. On a consistent number of animals, the concentration in toto of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, V, was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. On other animals, investigations were carried out in order to check for ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas, that is the main metals storage organ in isopods. Results revealed the presence, in the animals collected in 2004 from the polluted sites, of considerable concentrations of Hg and of lower concentrations of other metals such as As, Pb and V. The Hg bioaccumulation resulted in remarkable ultrastructural alterations of the two cellular types (B and S cells in the epithelium of the hepatopancreas. Surprisingly, a moderate amount of Hg was also found in specimens collected in 2004 from the Vendicari Natural Reserve, proving that the Hg pollution can also spread many miles away. Animals collected from the polluted sites in the following years showed a progressively decreasing Hg content, reaching very low levels in those from the last sampling. Also, the ultrastructural alterations found in the hepatopancreas of the animals from the last sample were quite irrelevant. In conclusion, Ligia italica can represent a good bioindicator and the ultrastructure of the hepatopancreas could be used as ultrastructural biomarker of heavy metals pollution in the supralittoral zones.

  1. Survey of Biofouling an Australian Navy Ships: Crustacea; Isopoda and Amphipoda; Caprellidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Chennai , Singapore 11/7/03 S. walkeri Cirolana sp Fremantle Middle East-via Phuket NA Anzac FBW Fremantle 21/5/03 P. sculpta Benalla...in Egypt and to Israel (before 1971) (Carlton & Iverson, 1981). The appearance of S.walkeri in the seaport city of Durban, South Africa is thought

  2. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, with descriptions of two new species

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    Stefano Taiti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscus manuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiioscia rapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered ‘disturbance relicts’ and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species.

  3. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiti, Stefano; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-01-01

    Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscusmanuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiiosciarapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both of these new species are considered 'disturbance relicts' and appear restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A short key to all the oniscidean species presently recorded from Rapa Nui is provided. We also offered conservation and management recommendations for the two new isopod species.

  4. The terrestrial Isopoda (Crustacea, Oniscidea) of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), with descriptions of two new species

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Taiti; Judson Wynne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nine species of terrestrial isopods are reported for the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) based upon museum materials and recent collections from field sampling. Most of these animals are non-native species, but two are new to science: Styloniscus manuvaka sp. n. and Hawaiioscia rapui sp. n. Of these, the former is believed to be a Polynesian endemic as it has been recorded from Rapa Iti, Austral Islands, while the latter is identified as a Rapa Nui island endemic. Both ...

  5. Les Stenasellidae (Crustacea Isopoda Asellota Anophtalmes) des eaux souterraines du sultanat d’Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magniez, Guy J.; Stock, Jan H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of four new species of Stenasellus (Aselloidea: Stenasellidae) from the underflow of temporary streams (wadis) in northern part of Oman Sultanate. S. vermeuleni n.sp. (11.2 mm or more) and S. messanai n.sp. (7.7 mm or more) are probably karstic water species, accidentally or locally

  6. Male dimorphism in the harem-forming gnathiid isopod Elaphognathia discolor (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsuhiko; Nishi, Eijiroh

    2011-08-01

    Previously unreported males of a gnathiid isopod were found in reproductive aggregations of the harem-forming gnathiid Elaphognathia discolor. Although the male gnathiids were small in size and morphologically different from E. discolor males, the male sexual organ, appendix masculina, was similar to that of E. discolor males, and possible conspecific larvae and females of the small male gnathiid were never found. In the laboratory, the small male gnathiids as well as male E. discolor successfully copulated with female E. discolor, and the development of embryos in female brood pouches was observed. Offspring of small male gnathiids develop to adults of E. discolor after molting three times, or small male gnathiids after molting two times. Thus, the small male gnathiid was concluded to be an alternative male form compared to the regular large male form of E. discolor. This male polymorphism was thought to have a genetic basis, since no small male specimens appeared in offspring of regular E. discolor males. Field sampling showed that a regular large male formed a harem composed of one large male and several females and never coexisted with other large males as previously reported. However, small males were often found together with large males. Therefore, small males are thought to be sneakers intruding into harems dominated by large males.

  7. Distribution and ecological notes on Dynoides (Isopoda: Sphaeromatidae) in the Mexican Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Pérez, María del Carmen; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2002-06-01

    Two species of the genus Dynoides Barnard, 1914 (D. crenulatus Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984; D. saldanai Carvacho and Haasmann, 1984) not reported since their description were rediscovered during an intensive sampling program in the intertidal and shallow subtidal of the Mexican Pacific. Both species are abundant in the area and inhabit among the algae Jania adherens Lamouroux, 1816, Amphiroa misakiensis Yendo, 1902, Chaetomorpha linum Kützing, 1845, and Hypnea pannosa Agardh, 1847 from Nayarit to Oaxaca.

  8. Nerocila benrosei n. sp. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), an external parasite of hogfishes from the northern Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkley-Williams, L; Williams, E H

    1999-12-01

    Nerocila benrosei n. sp. is described from the hogfish, Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum), and the Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus (Linnaeus), (Perciformes: Labridae) from the northern Bahamas. Nerocila benrosei differs from all species of Nerocila by having the body of females 1.4-1.9 times as wide as long, instead of 2.0-3.0 times, and pleopods 1 and 2 lacking accessory lamellae. It differs from the only species of Nerocila with which it overlaps geographically, N. lanceolata (Say, 1818), by having the lateral margins of pleonites 1-5 strongly produced ventrally, coxae 5-7 manifestly shorter than the posterolateral projection of the respective pereonite, and a vaulted dorsal surface. The species of Nerocila in the northwestern Atlantic have almost mutually exclusive geographic ranges: New England to Panama, including Bermuda and the northern coast of Cuba (Nerocila lanceolata); Brazil to Trinidad and Tobago (Nerocila fluviatilis Schiödte and Meinert, 1881); and the northern Bahamas and Bermuda (Nerocila benrosei). No species of Nerocila have been reported from the insular Caribbean. Nerocila benrosei appears to be highly host and site specific.

  9. Xenarcturus spinulosus Sheppard, 1957 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera): Redescription of a specimen from the Strait of Magellan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Ja-Yang

    1995-01-01

    A redescription of a primitive arcturid species, Xenarcturus spinulosus, from the Strait of Magellan is presented with discussion of the systematic position of the monotypical subfamily Xenarcturinae.

  10. Acanthaspidia namibia n. sp. (Isopoda, Acanthaspidiidae) from the deep Angola Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandt, Angelika

    2001-01-01

    Acanthaspidia namibia n. sp. was sampled off Namibia on the abyssal plain of the Angola Basin in 5390 m depth from board of the RV ‘Meteor’ in August 2000. Acanthaspidia neonotus (Menzies & George, 1972) is the most similar species, which has also been described from the deep sea, but from the Pacif

  11. The global diversity of parasitic isopods associated with crustacean hosts (Isopoda: Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Williams

    Full Text Available Parasitic isopods of Bopyroidea and Cryptoniscoidea (commonly referred to as epicarideans are unique in using crustaceans as both intermediate and definitive hosts. In total, 795 epicarideans are known, representing ~7.7% of described isopods. The rate of description of parasitic species has not matched that of free-living isopods and this disparity will likely continue due to the more cryptic nature of these parasites. Distribution patterns of epicarideans are influenced by a combination of their definitive (both benthic and pelagic species and intermediate (pelagic copepod host distributions, although host specificity is poorly known for most species. Among epicarideans, nearly all species in Bopyroidea are ectoparasitic on decapod hosts. Bopyrids are the most diverse taxon (605 species, with their highest diversity in the North West Pacific (139 species, East Asian Sea (120 species, and Central Indian Ocean (44 species. The diversity patterns of Cryptoniscoidea (99 species, endoparasites of a diverse assemblage of crustacean hosts are distinct from bopyrids, with the greatest diversity of cryptoniscoids in the North East Atlantic (18 species followed by the Antarctic, Mediterranean, and Arctic regions (13, 12, and 8 species, respectively. Dajidae (54 species, ectoparasites of shrimp, mysids, and euphausids exhibits highest diversity in the Antarctic (7 species with 14 species in the Arctic and North East Atlantic regions combined. Entoniscidae (37 species, endoparasites within anomuran, brachyuran and shrimp hosts show highest diversity in the North West Pacific (10 species and North East Atlantic (8 species. Most epicarideans are known from relatively shallow waters, although some bopyrids are known from depths below 4000 m. Lack of parasitic groups in certain geographic areas is likely a sampling artifact and we predict that the Central Indian Ocean and East Asian Sea (in particular, the Indo-Malay-Philippines Archipelago hold a wealth of undescribed species, reflecting our knowledge of host diversity patterns.

  12. Un nouveau Microcharon (Isopoda, Janiroidea) du Maroc — origine et biogéographie historique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulanouar, M.; Yacoubi, M.; Messouli, M.; Coineau, N.

    1995-01-01

    The interstitial crustacean isopods of the genus Microcharon (Microparasellidae) are relatively well-diversified and widely distributed in Morocco. A new species, M. boutini, is described. The 5-dentate mandibular pars incisiva, the elongated inner lobe of the exopodite, and the reduced armature of

  13. Riggia puyensis n. sp. (Isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Haro, C; Montes, M M; Marcotegui, P; Martorelli, S R

    2017-03-01

    A new isopod was found parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps from the Puyo and Bobonaza rivers. The parasite found belongs to the Cymothoidae family and could be located within the genus Riggia instead of Artystone by the presence of abdominal plates fused with the telson. The specimens found represent a new species, Riggia puyensis n. sp., and could be distinguished from Riggia cryptocularis by the presence of developed eyes. The main difference of the new specie from Riggia nana and Riggia brasiliensis is the size, bigger compared with the first and smaller compared with the last species. Riggia acuticaudata have the maxilliped with simple setae, the palp without spination, and maxillule with five spines (two terminal and three subterminal) instead in R. puyensis n. sp. the maxilliped have plumose setae, the palp have spination (with one apical spine, two setae on middle article and one in the basal article) and the maxillule have five spines: two terminal, two subterminal and other spine lower to the others. Riggia paranaensis have similar size, same number of segments in the antena, and similar maxilla to R. puyensis n. sp., but the antennule in the new specie have seven segments instead 6 in R. paranaensis, the antennule and antenna present spines not mentioned in R. paranaensis. Besides, the relative position of the mandible in R. puyensis n. sp. is different compared with R. paranaensis, the maxillule have the same number of spines but with different disposition, and the maxilliped have simple setae in R. paranaensis but those are plumose in the new specie.

  14. Detection of Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: rickettsiales in three species of terrestrial isopods (crustacea: isopoda: oniscidea in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Laís Zimmermann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial isopods are widely infected with Wolbachia. However, little is known about the presence of bacteria in the Neotropical species. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis of presence of Wolbachia infection in the native species of terrestrial isopods, Atlantoscia floridana and Circoniscus bezzii, and in the introduced species Burmoniscus meeusei.

  15. Registros nuevos de parásitos epicarideos (Crustacea: Isopoda en México y suroeste del golfo de México New records of epicaridean parasites (Crustacea: Isopoda from Mexico, and southwestern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Román-Contreras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anathelges hyptius (Thompson, 1902, Parabopyrella mortenseni (Nierstrasz y Brender á Brandis, 1929 y Metaphrixus carolii Nierstrasz y Brender á Brandis, 1931, son nuevos registros para México. Bopyrione synalphei Bourdon et Markham, 1980, Bopyrinella thorii (Richardson, 1904, Probopyrus pandalicola (Packard, 1879, y Probopyrus bithynis Richardson, 1904 se registraron por primera vez en la laguna de Términos, Campeche. Con la adición de estos registros y otras especies aún no descritas, se estima que el número de epicarideos para el Atlántico mexicano es ahora aproximadamente de 23 especies y de 42 para el país. Alpheus viridari (Armstrong, 1949 y Synalpheus apioceros Coutière, 1909 son nuevos hospederos para P. mortenseni y B. synalphei, respectivamente.Anathelges hyptius (Thompson, 1902, Parabopyrella mortenseni (Nierstrasz et Brender á Brandis, 1929 and Metaphrixus carolii Nierstrasz et Brender á Brandis, 1931, are new records for Mexico. Bopyrione synalphei Bourdon and Markham, 1980, Bopyrinella thorii (Richardson, 1904, Probopyrus pandalicola (Packard, 1879, and Probopyrus bithynis Richardson, 1904, are reported for the first time in Laguna de Terminos, Campeche. With the addition of new registered to a former list the number up approximately to 23 species in the Mexican Atlantic, and 42 species for Mexico. Alpheus viridari (Armstrong, 1949 and Synalpheus apioceros Coutière, 1909 are recorded as new hosts for Parabopyrella mortenseni and Bopyrione synalphei, respectively.

  16. Lista anotada de los isópodos acuáticos epicontinentales de México (Crustacea: Isopoda Annotated list of the aquatic epicontinental isopods of Mexico (Crustacea: Isopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rocha-Ramírez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo integra una lista de especies de crustáceos isópodos acuáticos continentales de México con referencias taxonómicas originales, sinonimias, localidades tipo y distribución. El listado comprende un total 6 familias que agrupan 49 especies, de las cuales sólo 10 son epigeas, mientras que las 39 restantes son hipogeas registradas en manantiales termales y cuevas de los sectores oriental y centro del país, así como en cenotes de los estados de Yucatán y Quintana Roo. Los grupos más diversificados en México son cirolánidos y asélidos, que se encuentran tanto en aguas superficiales como en hábitats hipogeos. La región geográfica con mayor número de especies es el noreste, de Chihuahua a Tamaulipas, en tanto que carecen de registros toda la vertiente del Pacífico y algunos estados del centro y sur del país. Con base en los registros existentes se discute el patrón de distribución y se sugieren 4 áreas de concentración de especies en México. Se hace un análisis del estado de conservación de los isópodos acuáticos de México. Existe una notable asimetría entre la rareza y la vulnerabilidad de la mayoría de las especies y el grado de protección que se les asignó dentro de los instrumentos de conservación del gobierno mexicano.The present contribution integrates a species list of the aquatic isopods found in continental waters of Mexico with original taxonomic references, synonymies, type locality, and distributional data. The list comprises six families and 49 species, ten of which are epigean while the remaining 39 are hypogean, recorded from thermal springs and caves in the central and eastern portions of the country, and from cenotes in the states of Yucatan and Quintana Roo. The cirolanids and asellids are the most diversified groups in Mexico, in both surface and subterranean waters. While the most species rich area is the northeast, from Chihuahua to Tamaulipas, the entire Pacific slope along with some central and southern states lack records of aquatic isopods. Based on the existing records, the distribution pattern is discussed and the existence of four main areas of distribution is proposed. The conservation status of the aquatic isopods in Mexican continental waters is examined. A notable asymmetry is present between the rarity and vulnerability of most species and the level of protection was assigned for them by the Mexican government conservation agencies.

  17. Nuevos registros del parásito Probopyrus pacificensis (Isopoda: Bopyridae en el sur de Nayarit y norte de Jalisco, México New records of the parasite Probopyrus pacificensis (Isopoda: Bopyridae in southern Nayarit and northern Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ocaña-Luna

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan nuevos registros de Probopyrus pacificensis en el arroyo San Francisco, sur de Nayarit y en el arroyo Palo María, norte de Jalisco en el Pacífico mexicano, parasitando a camarones de agua dulce de la especie Macrobrachium tenellum.New observations of Probopyrus pacificensis were recorded in Arroyo San Francisco, southern Nayarit, and Arroyo Palo María, northern Jalisco, in the Mexican Pacific, infesting the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium tenellum.

  18. The terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea of Greece. 27th contribution: The genus Armadillidium (Armadillidiidae on the Ionian islands

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    Schmalfuss, H.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the revision of the literature, the reinvestigation of type material and the investigation of new collections, 21 species of Armadillidium are reported from the Greek Ionian islands. Eleven species were treated in previous contributions of this series. The diagnostic characters of the ten remaining species are described and illustrated, mostly by SEM-photographs, and the Greek records of these species are mapped.

  19. Effects Of Chemical Pesticides On The Gravid Females And Stadia Of The Woodlouse, Porcellio Scaber (Latreille) (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, G. Achuthan [ج. أكيوثان نير; Mohamed, Abdalla I.; Bhuyan, K C

    1991-01-01

    Studies were made on the mortality rates of the gravid females, and on the survival and growth rates of the stadia of the woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Latreille) exposed for a period of 21 days to sub-lethal concentrations of five different pesticides viz: abate, sumithion, pesguard (insecticides), benlate (fungicide) and gramaxon (herbicide). The survival of gravid females was severely affected when they were exposed to gramaxon or sumithion, but only marginally so following exposure to th...

  20. [Progebiophilus bruscai (Isopoda:Bopyridae) parasitizing the shrimp Upogebia dawsoni (Thalassinoidea:Upogebiidae), in Baja California Sur, Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leija-Tristán, A; Salazar-Vallejo, S I

    1991-06-01

    Parasitism of the isopod Progebiophilus bruscai Salazar-Vallejo & Leija-Tristán over the common mud shrimp, Upogebia dawsoni Williams, was analysed in the Ensenada and Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Mud-shrimps were collected in three similar sites that differ in grain size and in the anthropogenic organic matter enrichment. Four-hundred-nine mud-shrimps were collected; the largest abundance was registered in the organically enriched site, but they were significantly smaller and more heavily parasited than the animals from the site lacking such organic enrichment. The size of the parasite is clearly dependent on the size of the mud-shrimp. This is the first study of the upogebiid-bopyris relationship in Mexico.

  1. Two new records of the rare shrimp parasite Zonophryxus quinquedens Barnard, 1913 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Dajidea): ecological and phylogenetic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Raupach, M. J.; Thatje, S

    2006-01-01

    The rare dajid, Zonophryxus quinquedens represents the only known isopod parasiting on shrimps in Antarctic waters. In contrast to the Bopyridae, which typically live in the gill cavity of their crab host, dajid isopods are normally attached to the carapace of the parasited shrimp. Four specimens of Z. quinquedens Barnard, 1913 were collected in the eastern and western Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the expeditions ANT XXI/2 in 2003/2004 and ANT XXII/3 in 2005. Molecular phylogenetic analyse...

  2. Jehaia stocki n.g., n. sp., a new interstitial janiroid isopod from the Dominican Republic, Hispaniola (Crustacea; Isopoda; Janiroidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    A new genus and species of interstitial janiroid isopod is described from the Barahona Province in the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola). It is not clear whether it belongs to the Janiridae or Microparasellidae, although it is provisionally supposed to belong to former family until a thorough revision

  3. Nouvelles données sur les Asellides de la Grèce continentale et insulaire (Crustacea, Isopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesce, Giuseppe L.; Argano, Roberto

    1980-01-01

    Three subterranean asellid isopods from Greece are described: Proasellus ambracicus n.sp. from phreatic waters of Epirus, Proasellus minoicus n.sp. and Proasellus cretensis n.sp. from phreatic systems of the island of Crete. The existence of subterranean species of Proasellus in the island of Crete

  4. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkalec, Ziva Pipan [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vogel-Mikus, Katarina [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pongrac, Paula [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Regvar, Marjana; Strus, Jasna [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI- 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Vavpetic, Primoz; Grlj, Natasa [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Remskar, Maja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence, Advanced Materials and Technologies for the Future (CO NAMASTE), Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-10-15

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  5. The effects of four types of anthropogenic disturbances on composition and abundance of terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana J Magrini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is currently reduced to about 12% of its original range. Among the components that make up its great diversity, there are species with the potential to be bioindicators, which can be very important for conservation-oriented studies. This study compares the species composition, abundance and sex ratio of terrestrial isopods in sites that show different anthropogenic disturbance histories and are located within four reserves in the Atlantic Forest of southwestern Brazil. Our study explores these crustaceans as indicators of anthropogenic disturbance. The influence of one of the following factors was explored in each protected area: 1 history of vegetation harvesting, 2 trail management, 3 Eucalyptus planting, and 4 edge effect. A total of 2,217 individuals of six species (Atlantoscia sp., Benthana werneri Lemos de Castro, 1958, Pseudodiploexochus tabularis (Barnard, 1932, Pudeoniscus obscures Lemos de Castro, 1973, Styloniscus spinosus (Patience, 1907, and Trichorhina sp. were captured in pitfall traps. The composition of isopod species was different between most of the contrasting sites within reserves, and was similar among the less disturbed sites of different reserves. The total number of isopod individuals and the sex ratio were not different between the contrasting sites within most of the reserves and only the sex ratio of Atlantoscia sp. differed between contrasting sites of one protected area. Upon an individual analysis of each species, S. spinosus (an exotic species was most abundant in more disturbed sites. The distributions of B. werneri and Atlantoscia sp. over time were relatively synchronous, except where S. spinosus was abundant. Our results also indicate that the exotic species S. spinosus may benefit from the vegetation mosaic produced by disturbance, so differences in abundance of this species may be useful for bioindication. A change in the spatial and temporal structure of Oniscidea communities caused by anthropogenic disturbance may have a cascade effect on ecological cycles because terrestrial isopods play a fundamental role in nutrient cycling.

  6. The influence of zinc on the uptake and loss of cadmium and lead in the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, B

    2000-09-01

    Uptake of cadmium, lead, and zinc was studied in juvenile Porcellio scaber in feeding experiments over 5 months. The metals were offered separately and in different combinations and concentrations in the food. The ability of P. scaber to eliminate the accumulated metals was studied subsequently for 3 months on uncontaminated food. Characteristic patterns of accumulation are described for the three metals. The combination of lead and zinc resulted in only minor differences in these patterns. On the other hand, the combination of zinc and cadmium at high concentrations completely changed the accumulation patterns for both metals. Not only cadmium but also zinc was excreted by P. scaber exclusively when the animals had been contaminated with both metals. In contrast both metals were stored permanently when offered separately. Possible reasons for the interactions of cadmium and zinc are discussed.

  7. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', an intracellular bacterium from the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana; Avgustin, Gorazd

    2004-03-01

    Intracellular bacteria were observed in the hepatopancreas of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and electron microscopic observations were used to determine the taxonomic position of these intracellular bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis and a complex developmental cycle affiliate these bacteria to the order Chlamydiales, within which they form a distinctive lineage, close to the family Simkaniaceae. They share scaber.

  8. Metallothionein-like proteins and zinc--copper interaction in the hindgut of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) exposed to zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znidarsic, N; Tusek-Znidaric, M; Falnoga, I; Scancar, J; Strus, J

    2005-09-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous low-molecular-weight metal-binding proteins, with a variety of functions in metal metabolism ascribed to them. Among terrestrial invertebrates, MTs have been studied in nematodes, insects, snails, and earthworms. The aim of this study was the characterization of MT-like proteins in the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber in order to analyze their probable role in the metabolism of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Dietary Zn supplementation (793 microg Zn/g dry food, 6 d) was applied to stimulate MT synthesis. After separation of the hindgut post-microsomic supernatant (cytosol) of Zn-exposed animals by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-75 column, a Cu- and Zn-containing peak was detected in the position of Ve/Vo approximately 2, where MTs are expected to elute. Rechromatography of these fractions by size-exclusion chromatography-high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that the 215-nm absorbance peak coincided with the absorbance peak of the rabbit MT II standard. These low-molecular-weight Cu- and Zn-binding compounds, detected in the cytosol of the hindgut cells in Zn-exposed P. scaber, are considered to be Cu, Zn-MT-like proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the characterization of MT-like proteins in isopod crustaceans. These results also indicate that both Zn and Cu dynamics in P. scaber hindgut are affected at the given dietary Zn supplementation and that MT-like proteins are involved in this Zn-Cu interaction.

  9. Micro-PIXE study of Ag in digestive glands of a nano-Ag fed arthropod ( Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalec, Živa Pipan; Drobne, Damjana; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pongrac, Paula; Regvar, Marjana; Štrus, Jasna; Pelicon, Primož; Vavpetič, Primož; Grlj, Nataša; Remškar, Maja

    2011-10-01

    Micro-proton induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) method was applied to study the micro-localization of silver (Ag) in digestive glands of a terrestrial arthropod (Porcellio scaber) after feeding on silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) dosed food. The aim of our work was to assess whether feeding on nano-Ag results in the assimilation of silver (Ag) in digestive gland cells. To study micro-localization and elemental distribution of Ag, the animals were fed on food dosed with nanoparticles for 14 days under controlled laboratory conditions. At the end of the feeding exposure, the animals were dissected and digestive glands prepared for micro-PIXE analyses and TEM investigation. The results obtained by micro-PIXE documented high amounts of Ag inside S-cells of the digestive gland epithelium; however, TEM investigation did not show particle aggregates inside digestive gland cells. Also no adverse effect on feeding behavior was recorded what is a measure of toxic effects. We explain the presence of Ag inside the cells as a result of the assimilation of dissoluted Ag ions from ingested nano-Ag particles. Assimilation of excessive amounts of ingested metal ions in S-cells is a well known metal detoxification mechanism in isopods. We discuss the advantages of using micro-PIXE for the micro-localization of elements in biological tissue in studies of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems.

  10. Endogenous origin of endo-β-1,4-glucanase in common woodlouse Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Milatovič, Maša; Strus, Jasna

    2010-11-01

    Because endogenous cellulases have been observed in arthropods, the potential ability to produce cellulose degrading enzymes was examined in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, an important decomposer of decayed plant material. cDNA fragments encoding portions of two novel endo-β-1,4-glucanase amino acid sequences were amplified by RT-PCR, and the amino acid sequences predicted were affiliated to endo-β-1,4-glucanases from other arthropods, where they cluster with endo-β-1,4-glucanases of decapod crustaceans. Hybridization in situ reveals the hepatopancreas to be the primary site of gene expression and provides direct evidence of the endogenous origin of endo-β-1,4-glucanase in P. scaber. Conservation of catalytically important amino acid residues suggests that both sequences translate into functional cellulases. Cellulolytic activity was detected in hepatopancreatic extract after separation by SDS-PAGE, which included CMC as substrate. This is the first evidence of endogenous cellulases in peracarid crustaceans and gives strong support for the involvement of isopod endo-β-1,4-glucanases in the degradation of cellulose in their diet.

  11. Epithelial thickness and lipid droplets in the hepatopancreas of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda) in different physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Vilhar, Barbara; Kladnik, Ales; Znidarsic, Nada; Strus, Jasna

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the morphometric characteristics of the hepatopancreatic epithelium in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber during acclimatization to laboratory conditions, during the daily cycle, the molt cycle, and fasting. The hepatopancreatic epithelium was analyzed using computer-assisted microscopy of serial sections of the hepatopancreatic tubes. In addition, the abundance, the distribution, and the size of lipid droplets in the hepatopancreatic epithelium were recorded. The experimental animals were collected in the field and transferred to the laboratory. The hepatopancreatic epithelium was thinner and lipid droplets reduced after 2 months of acclimatization to laboratory conditions. The daily cycle and the molt cycle affected neither the epithelial thickness nor the abundance of lipid droplets. But in animals fasted for 2 weeks, these two parameters were significantly reduced. Based on both the epithelial thickness and the abundance of lipid droplets in B cells, we propose criteria for estimating the stress status of the animals. With the possibility to determine the stress status, many studies on isopods gain in relevance.

  12. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-10-15

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation. - Bioaccumulation tests with Porcellio scaber isopods are proposed as a supplement to chemical extraction in assessing metal bioavailability before and after soil remediation.

  13. Abd-B expression in Porcellio scaber Latreille, 1804 (Isopoda: Crustacea): conserved pattern versus novel roles in development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, C; Liu, P Z; Minelli, A; Kaufman, T C

    2005-01-01

    The Hox genes are intimately involved in patterning the animal body during development and are considered to have had a pivotal role in the evolution of different body plans among the metazoans. From this perspective, crustaceans, a group that has evolved an extreme diversity of body structures, represent a choice group in which to study the evolution of these genes and their expression. The expression of one of these genes, Abdominal-B (Abd-B), has only been studied in two distantly related crustaceans, Artemia and Sacculina, where it shows dissimilar patterns, highly differentiated from the one described in other arthropods. Moreover, we have no information for the Malacostraca. Thus, we cloned the gene Abd-B and followed its expression through development by in situ hybridization in the isopod Porcellio scaber. We found a highly dynamic expression pattern of PsAbd-B during embryonic development. In early stages, it is expressed in the posterior-most part of the germ band, in a domain common to several arthropods studied to date, and later it is expressed in the developing limb buds of the pleon and still later in the endopodites of the third to fifth pleopodites. This raises the interesting possibility of the involvement of this gene in the later respiratory specialization of these appendages. In association with the above expression domain, Abd-B appears to be expressed in later stages also in the ventral ectoderm, raising the further suggestion of its possible involvement in patterning the developing nervous system. Moreover, we show that the first pleopod and the endopodite of the second pleopod, whereas present as limb buds in early embryonic stages, are later reduced and actually absent in the first postembryonic stage, although they reappear again in adults. These appendages thus represent an example of Lazarus appendages. Our data show strong plasticity in the use of a key developmental gene and point out the necessity of further research that may end with a revision of the current understanding of its role in animal evolution.

  14. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea in urban areas of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Vilisics

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano. A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind., and 10 millipede species (105 ind. were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi, urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined was similar in Zurich (17 species and Lucerne (16, while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities.This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe (Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. T. alemannicus, C. verhoeffi may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool.

  15. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen

    2009-10-01

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation.

  16. Architecture of the organic matrix in the sternal CaCO3 deposits of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabritius, Helge; Walther, Paul; Ziegler, Andreas

    2005-05-01

    Before the molt terrestrial isopods resorb calcium from the posterior cuticle and store it in large deposits within the first four anterior sternites. In Porcellio scaber the deposits consist of three structurally distinct layers consisting of amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) and an organic matrix that consists of concentric and radial elements. It is thought that the organic matrix plays a role in the structural organization of deposits and in the stabilization of ACC, which is unstable in vitro. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of the ultrastructure of the organic matrix in the CaCO3 deposits using high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The spherules and the homogeneous layer contain an elaborate organic matrix with similar structural organization consisting of concentric reticules and radial strands. The decalcification experiments reveal an inhomogeneous solubility of ACC within the spherules probably caused by variations in the stabilizing properties of matrix components. The transition between the three layers can be explained by changes in the number of spherule nucleation sites.

  17. Single and joint effects of Zn and Cd on Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) exposed to artificially contaminated food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidar, Primoz; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Strus, Jasna

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed at determining effects of Zn, Cd and their equitoxic mixtures on metal assimilation and food consumption of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber, in relation to metal availability in the food. Cd was four times less water-extractable than Zn. Cd or Zn extractability was affected neither by metal concentration nor by the presence of the other metal. In single metal exposures, assimilation efficiency (AE) was up to five times higher for Cd than for Zn. In a mixture, AE of Cd significantly increased at low mixture concentrations and decreased at high mixture concentrations. AE of Zn significantly increased at intermediate mixture concentrations. Effects of the Zn and Cd mixture on food consumption were additive (28-day EC(50,total)=1.10TU; EC(50,water-extractable)=1.18TU) when based on total and water-extractable concentrations but antagonistic when related to internal metal concentrations in the isopods (EC(50,internal)=1.40TU).

  18. Ultrastructure of the digestive system and the fate of midgut during embryonic development in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strus, Jasna; Klepal, Waltraud; Repina, Janja; Tusek-Znidaric, Magda; Milatovic, Masa; Pipan, Ziva

    2008-07-01

    Microscopic anatomy of the digestive system in embryos and larvae of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber was investigated by light bright field, fluorescence and electron microscopy. During marsupial ontogenetic development the event-dependent staging was used to discriminate the various embryonic stages. At the late embryo stage the differentiation of the ectodermal part of the gut into the complex filtering foregut and the hindgut with absorptive and transporting functions is accomplished. The gut of the marsupial manca larva is fully developed and similar to that of the adult. In early embryos the endodermal midgut gland primordia are filled with yolk and lipid globules. In late embryos the epithelium of paired midgut gland tubes is composed of two cell types; one of them exhibits orange autofluorescence. The endodermal cells located between the foregut and the midgut glands of late embryos form the prospective midgut. The cells have electron dense cytoplasm, abundant glycogen fields, endoplasmic reticulum, dictyosomes and numerous vesicles. In the adults the endodermal cells of the midgut remain only in the midgut gland ducts which connect the midgut glands and the foregut. Details of the cellular ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the ectodermal and endodermal parts of the digestive system during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber provide data for further phylogenetic and comparative studies in peracaridan crustaceans and other arthropods.

  19. A novel function of red pigment-concentrating hormone in crustaceans: Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) as a model species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zralá, Jana; Kodrík, Dalibor; Zahradnícková, Helena; Zemek, Rostislav; Socha, Radomír

    2010-04-01

    The RP HPLC and LC/MS QTOF analyses of the methanolic CNS extract from isopod crustacean the woodlouse, Porcellio scaber revealed a presence of the red pigment-concentrating hormone (Panbo-RPCH) in this species. It has been shown that this neuropeptide plays a role in mobilization of energy stores: topical treatments of P. scaber individuals by Panbo-RPCH in a concentration 20 pmol/microl increased the level of glucose in haemolymph about 4 times, while the level of trehalose was only doubled. The results demonstrated that glucose was the main carbohydrate mobilized by the Panbo-RPCH treatment: glucose was responsible for about 97% of total carbohydrate increasing. Despite the demonstration of hyperglycaemic activity of Panbo-RPCH, no stimulatory effect of this hormone on the locomotory activity of P. scaber was observed. The present study is the first discovery of an occurrence of Panbo-RPCH and its hyperglycaemic activity in the representative of the isopod crustaceans. The relationship of the function of Panbo-RPCH in P. scaber to the role of this neuropeptide and adipokinetic hormones in insects is discussed.

  20. Occurrence and assemblage composition of millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda) and terrestrial isopods (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) in urban areas of Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilisics, Ferenc; Bogyó, Dávid; Sattler, Thomas; Moretti, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial isopods and millipedes, members of the invertebrate macro-decomposer guild, were collected through pitfall traps in three Swiss cities (Zurich, Lucerne, Lugano). A total of 7,198 individuals of 17 isopod species (7093 ind.), and 10 millipede species (105 ind.) were captured. Besides the Alpine endemic isopod (Trichoniscus alemannicus) and millipede (Cylindroiulus verhoeffi), urban assemblages were mainly composed of widespread, native European and even cosmopolitan species, which are frequent in anthropogenic areas. Overall species richness (isopods and millipedes combined) was similar in Zurich (17 species) and Lucerne (16), while only 13 species were sampled in Lugano. According to the Sørensen index of similarity, species composition of Zurich and Lucerne were more alike, while the one of Lugano was more distinct from the other two cities. This result can be explained by the spatial proximity of Zurich and Lucerne in the north of the Alps compared to Lugano, which is located more distantly and in the south of the Alps. Dominant isopods and millipedes in Zurich and Lucerne were found to be widespread synanthropic species in temperate Europe(Porcellio scaber, Trachelipus rathkii and Ophyiulus pilosus) while the dominant isopod in Lugano (Trachelipus razzautii) is a species with a north-eastern Mediterranean distribution. Our study reveals that the urban millipede and isopod fauna in Swiss cities mainly consists of widespread species, but species of narrower distribution (e.g. Trichoniscus alemannicus, Cylindroiulus verhoeffi) may also find suitable habitats in cities. Despite some signs of biotic homogenization, our study also found compositional differences of millipede and isopod assemblages between northern and southern cities that suggest geographical effects of the regional species pool. PMID:22536109

  1. Ecologia populacional, estratégias reprodutivas e uso de recursos por isópodos terrestres neotropicais (Crustacea, isopoda)

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Ferreira Quadros

    2009-01-01

    Os isópodos terrestres (Crustacea, Oniscidea) apresentam adaptações únicas à vida terrestre, tanto fisiológicas quanto morfológicas e comportamentais. Habitam uma grande variedade de ambientes e são facilmente capturados e mantidos em laboratório, constituindo assim um ótimo modelo para investigações que contribuam para um melhor entendimento da ecologia de solo. Apesar de sua grande importância para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas através da detritivoria e da posição chave que ocupam nas te...

  2. Rocinela signata (Isopoda: Aegidae parasitizing the gills of the spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus (Actinopterygii: Mullidae in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCAS CARDOSO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parasitic isopods of fishes usually show wide distribution and low host specificity. This study investigated the occurrence of gill parasites in 120 specimens of spotted goatfish Pseudupeneus maculatus, marine fish of great economic importance for fishery community. The fish were captured monthly in the Coast of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, between October 2012 and September 2013. Eleven isopods were found and identified as Rocinela signata. We observed lower infections in the gills of P. maculatus (prevalence 8.3%, mean intensity 1.6±0.3 and mean abundance 0.1±0.3 when compared to other studies of different host fishes from geographically close locations. This parasite has been reported from a wide variety of fish species, not only in Brazil, but also in the eastern Atlantic and the Pacific oceans. This is the first report of R. signata in spotted goatfish.

  3. A new gnathiid (Crustacea: Isopoda) parasitizing two species of requiem sharks from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J

    2008-06-01

    Third-stage juveniles (praniza 3) of Gnathia grandilaris n. sp. were collected from the gill filaments and septa of 5 requiem sharks, including a white tip reef shark, Triaenodon obesus, and 4 grey reef sharks, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, in March 2002. Some juvenile gnathiids were then maintained in fresh sea water until they molted to adults. Adult males appeared 19 days following detachment of juveniles from host fishes, but no juveniles molted successfully into females. The current description is based, therefore, on bright field and scanning electron microscopy observations of adult males and third-stage juveniles. Unique features of the male include the triangular-shaped inferior medio-frontal process, 2 areolae on the dorsal surface of the pylopod, and a slender pleotelson (twice as long as wide) with lateral concavities. The third-stage juvenile has distinctive white pigmentation on the black pereon when alive, while the mandible has 9 triangular backwardly directed teeth. This species has the largest male and third-stage juvenile of any Gnathia spp. from Australia and of any gnathiid isopods associated with elasmobranchs.

  4. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota) from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Niel L

    2015-01-01

    The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota) is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  5. Joeropsididae Nordenstam, 1933 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota from the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niel L. Bruce

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The marine isopod family Joeropsididae (Asellota is documented for the Lizard Island region of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Fifteen species of Joeropsis are recorded, including ten new species; descriptive notes are provided for five species that lacked adequate material for description. A revised family and genus diagnosis is presented together with comments on the most useful characters for species identification and a key to Joeropsis of the Lizard Island region.

  6. Reports on the impact of Caulerpa lentillifera by alien free-living isopod Paracerceis sculpta (Crustacea, Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    太田, 悠造

    2014-01-01

    Unidentified free-living isopods (Crustacea, Sphaeromatidae) occurring in an important commercial seaweed bed of Caulerpa lentillifera at Miyako-jima island, southern Japan, are identified herein Paracerceis sculpta (Holmes, 1904...

  7. The agnarid terrestrial isopods (Isopoda, Oniscidea, Agnaridae) of the province of Qazvin, Iran, with a description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Behjat; Kiabi, Bahram H; Kashani, Ghasem M

    2015-01-01

    Six species of terrestrial isopods from the province of Qazvin, central Iran, are recorded. Three species, Hemilepistusklugii (Brandt, 1833), Protracheoniscusehsani Kashani, 2014 and Mongoloniscuspersicus Kashani, 2014, were previously reported from the province. Hemilepistuselongatus Budde-Lund, 1885 and Protracheoniscusmajor (Dollfus, 1903) are recorded for the first time, and one species, Protracheoniscussarii sp. n., is described as new. The diagnostic characters of the new species are figured.

  8. A new record of Cleantioides emarginata Kwon & Kim,1992 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Valvifera) from Changjiang River estuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenliang; Gary C.B.POORE

    2013-01-01

    At present,descriptions of Cleantioides emarginata Kwon & Kim,1992 have been limited to the type locality of Pusan,Korea.In this study,we discovered this species in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary,China.This represents an extension of the known geographical range of C.emarginata.In addition,we present information of a colour pattern not previously described,along with details on the estuarine habitat of the species.

  9. Effect of the parasitic isopod, Catoessa boscii (Isopoda, Cymothoidae), a buccal cavity parasite of the marine fish, Carangoides malabaricus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ganapathy Rameshkumar; Samuthirapandian Ravichandran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of isopod parasite Catoessa boscii (C. boscii) on Carangoides malabaricus (C. malabaricus). Methods:The host fish C. malabaricus infested by C. boscii were collected directly from the trawlers landed at Parangipettai coast during December 2008 to November 2009. Data regarding the total length, width, weight and sex of the host fish were recorded. Effect of infestation on C. malabaricus, the length and weight data were analysed and host specificity of isopods was also examined. Results:During the sampling period, 585 C. malabaricus were examined. Among them, 218 specimens were found to carry 243 parasites. Three pairs of isopods (one male with one female) were recorded from the host fish and each pair was attached to the tongue in the buccal cavity of the host. Another pair was also found where the male and male, female and female isopod had settled on the tongue in the buccal cavity. Gross lesions observed in the buccal cavity of infested fish showed small pin-holes in the tongue region, through which dactyls of pereopod’s penetrating claws dig into the host tissues. The maximum weight loss was reported in females (5.43%) than in males (3.75%) of C. malabaricus. Due to infestation of different isopod parasites in both male and female fish, the effects on the length-weight relationship of C. malabaricus were compared. The rate of increased growth in weight in uninfested female fish was found to be higher than that of the infested. The weight gain is faster in uninfested fish than in the infested fish. Conclusions:From the above mentioned observations, it is clear that the worst of fish on account of the infestation of isopods are the C. malabaricus succumbed to the attack of isopod parasites. Although, the infestation did not cause immediate death, it had affected the normal growth of the host fish.

  10. Genetic divergence and evolutionary times: calibrating a protein clock for South-European Stenasellus species (Crustacea, Isopoda

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    Valerio Ketmaier

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied genetic divergence in a group of exclusively stygobiont isopods of the family Stenasellidae. In particular, we assessed evolutionary relationships among several populations of Stenasellus racovitzai and Stenasellus virei. To place this study in a phylogenetic context. we used another species of Stenasellus, S. assorgiai, as an outgroup. S. racovitzai occurs in Corsica, Sardinia and in the fossil islands of the Tuscan Archipelago, while S. virei is a polytypic species widely distributed in the central France and Pyrenean area. This vicariant distribution is believed to be the result of the disjunction of the Sardinia-Corsica microplate from the Pyrenean region and its subsequent rotation. Since geological data provide time estimates for these events, we can use the genetic distance data to calibrate a molecular clock for this group of stygobiont isopods. The calibration of the molecular clock reveals a roughly linear relationship (r = 0.753 between the genetic distances and absolute divergence times, with a mean divergence rate (19.269 Myr/DNei, different from those previously reported in the literature and provides an opportunity to shed some light on the evolutionary scenarios of other Stenasellus species.

  11. Redescription and family status of the Magellanic Isopod Janthopsis laevis Menzies, 1962 (Asellota: Acanthaspidiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, Holger

    1992-01-01

    A redescription of Janthopsis laevis Menzies, 1962 (Isopoda: Asellota: Acanthaspidiidae) is presented and new localities are added to literature. The taxonomic status of the genus Janthopsis is discussed.

  12. Ecological traits of two neotropical oniscideans (Crustacea: Isopoda)%新热带区两种潮虫的生态特征(甲壳纲:等足目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aline Ferreira QUADROS; Paula Beatriz ARAUJO

    2007-01-01

    Two terrestrial isopods,Atlantoscia floridana (Philosciidae) and Balloniscus glaber (Balloniscidae) that differ in size,morphology and behaviour were studied with respect to the influence of the environmental variation on their reproduction and population structure.Samples were taken at Parque Estadual de Itapu(a),Brazil from May 2004 to April 2005.Twelve cores of litter and soil were extracted each month,and hand-searched in the lab.All specimens were sexed and measured.Overall,2 540 individuals were captured.Atlantoscia floridana reproductive females were present throughout the year,while B.glaber showed a shorter reproductive period,from early spring to early autumn,and both species showed high numbers of reproductive females and mancas during spring.Mean density of A.floridana was 114 ind./m2 and 133 ind./m2 for B.glaber.The increased dryness observed in the summer of 2005 affected the populations differently,as it reduced population size of A.floridana while B.glaber population remained stable.It seems that the differences in morphology,more specifically body size and presence of pleopodal lungs,confer upon B.glaber a higher tolerance to desiccation.Moreover,B.glaber may rely on behavioral strategies,such as burrowing,to increase the survival of the young,and even the survival of the adults under stressful climatic conditions.It is postulated that the continuous reproduction,lower time to maturity and higher proportion of reproductive females of A.floridana are responses to its high juvenile mortality[Acta Zoologica Sinica 53(2):241-249,2007].%对体型大小不同的两种陆生等足类动物进行形态特征和行为特征研究,探讨环境变化对其繁殖特征和种群结构的影响.自2004年5月至2005年4月,在巴西Parque Estadual de Itapu(a)进行野外采样,其中每月采集12个凋落物和土壤样品,实验室手拣法收集等足类,共获得2 540只,同时进行个体性别鉴定与测量.结果表明,Atlantoscia floridana 平均密度为114只/m2,Balloniscus glaber平均密度为133只/m2.A.floridana 雌性个体全年可育,B.glaber雌性个体只在早春至初夏时段可育,其中春季这两种动物雌性可育个体数量高.2005年夏季干旱,该气候因子对两种动物种群影响存在差异,其中干旱使A.floridana种群减少,而B.glaber种群基本保持稳定,两种动物间形态结构不同是上述差异的主要原因,尤其是B.glaber,特殊的体型和腹肢肺的存在使其更能忍耐干燥.此外,B.glaber可能也依赖行为策略适应环境,例如挖掘活动,在不利气候条件下挖掘活动能够增加年轻个体生存的机会,也可能对成年个体起到保护作用.对于A.floridana来说,它具有连续繁殖、性成熟时间短和高雌性生育比率的特征,这些策略是对其幼体死亡率高的一种反应[动物学报 53(2):241-249,2007].

  13. Description of a new western Atlantic species of Argeia Dana with a proposed new subfamily for this and related genera (Crustacea Isopoda, Bopyridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markham, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Recently, material representing an undescribed species of the genus Argeia Dana in the western Atlantic, the first record of that genus from this ocean, became available to me. The previous records of Argeia are of 4 species in the Pacific, including one whose range extends around the e

  14. A new genus for Cirolana troglexuma Botosaneanu & Iliffe, 1997, an anchialine cave dwelling cirolanid isopod (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae from the Bahamas

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    Niel L. Bruce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cirolana troglexuma Botosaneanu & Iliffe, 1997 is redescribed and a Lucayalana Bruce & Brix, gen. n. established for the species. In total 38 specimens were collected from Hatchet Bay Cave, Eleuthera. Specimens on which previous records of L. troglexuma (from Exuma Cays, Cat Island, and Eleuthera were based have been re-examined when possible. The diagnostic identifying characters and purported apomorphies for Lucayalana gen. n. are: frontal lamina short, narrow, less than 7% width of labrum, not extending to anterior margin of head; pleonite 3 extending posteriorly to posterior of pleonite 5, laterally overlapping pleonites 4 and 5; ventrally broad, forming a strong ventrally directed blade; pereopods 1–3 merus inferior margin RS not molariform. Mitochondrial COI and 16S loci and the nuclear 18S locus data show that all specimens are the one species. Comparison to additional cirolanid COI sequence data (BOLD, GenBank show that Lucayalana troglexuma is genetically distinct to all other cirolanid genera with available COI sequences. The single male and females have shared COI (with three females, 16S (eight females and 18S sequences (two females.

  15. Description of Metacirolana agujae n. sp., and redescription of M. agaricicola Kensley, 1984, from the Caribbean Sea of Colombia (Isopoda: Cirolanidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Hans-Georg

    1991-01-01

    Metacirolana agaricicola Kensley, 1984 from the Caribbean Sea of Colombia is redescribed, with particular reference to its sexual dimorphism. Metacirolana agujae n. sp., known only from Colombia, is decribed. The interspecific affinities of both species are discussed and notes on their habits are gi

  16. Riggia acuticaudata sp. nov. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae from the body cavity of a reshwater fish of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Riggia acuticaudata sp. nov. is described on the basis of 10 female specimens recovered from the body cavity of the freshwater catfish, Ancistrus sp. The fish were caught in a stream called the Corrego Piraputanga, a tributary of the Paraguai River. The new species differs from the others in the genus by being smaller and less convex and by having a pleotelson that tapers abruptly rather than being the same width throughout. Also, the pereopods and dactyls are much smaller, the maxillule has two terminal and three subterminal spines and the first two pleopods are elongate and acute. Additionally, R. acuticaudata sp. nov. is from a different Order of fish host and a new geographic area.

  17. Increased genetic diversity in Greek populations of the genus Ligidium (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) revealed by RFLP analysis of mtDNA segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klossa-Kilia, E.; Kilias, G.; Sfenthourakis, S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated mtDNA genetic differentiation and the phylogenetic relationships of 11 populations of the oniscidean genus Ligidium. We studied nine populations from Greece, assigned to three nominal species (L. euboicum, L. germanicum and L. beieri), and two from central Europe (L. germanicum and L

  18. Functionalization of biomineral reinforcement in crustacean cuticle: Calcite orientation in the partes incisivae of the mandibles of Porcellio scaber and the supralittoral species Tylos europaeus (Oniscidea, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Julia; Griesshaber, Erika; Nindiyasari, Fitriana; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Ziegler, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    In arthropods the cuticle forms an exoskeleton with its physical and chemical properties adapted to functions of distinct skeletal elements. The cuticle of the partes incisivae (PI) in mandibles of terrestrial isopods is a composite of chitin-protein fibrils/fibres and minerals. It consists of an unmineralized tip, a middle region with organic fibrils reinforced mainly with amorphous calcium phosphate and a base region mineralized with amorphous calcium carbonate and calcite. In this study we extend our work on the structure and material properties of the incisive cuticle employing electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and investigate calcite orientation patterns in the PI of two terrestrial isopod species from different habitats. We trace small-scale differences in texture sharpness and calcite microstructure, and compare calcite organization and orientation patterns in the PI with those in the tergites of the same isopod species. We observe that in the PI calcite orientation, the degree of crystal alignment, and mode of crystalline domain assemblage is highly varied within short length scales. This contrasts to calcite organization in the tergite cuticle, where calcite has only one specific texture pattern. Such a large range in the variation of calcite organization has not been observed in other carbonate biological hard tissues, such as shells and teeth, where one specific texture and microstructure prevails. Thus, the investigated isopod species are able to control crystallization of the amorphous carbonate precursor in a differential way, most probably related to the function of the individual skeletal element and the animals' behavior.

  19. Energy reserves and metal-storage granules in the hepatopancreas of Oniscus asellus and Porcellio scaber (Isopoda) from a metal gradient at Avonmouth, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, Ralph O; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2004-11-01

    Isopods taken from populations of Onsicus asellus and Porcellio scaber from long-term polluted sites in the vicinity of metal smelting works at Avonmouth, South West England, and from a control site near Tübingen, South Germany, were examined for the frequency and size of metal-containing granules (spherites), lipid droplets and glycogen in their hepatopancreas. The number and size of spherites in the hepatopancreas of O. asellus increased with decreasing distance to the smelter, but such a trend was not found in P. scaber. A trend towards massive reduction in hepatopancreatic energy reserves (lipid, glycogen) with increasing soil metal pollution was observed for O. asellus while, in contrast, the lipid and glycogen content of P. scaber midgut gland cells was independent of the distance to the smelter. In view of previous reports on metal accumulation and biochemical responses to metal pollution, we propose that the two investigated isopod species, which form stable populations in the Avonmouth metal gradient, use different strategies to survive.

  20. The cationic composition and pH in the moulting fluid of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) during calcium carbonate deposit formation and resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Before moulting, terrestrial isopods resorb calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) from the posterior cuticle and store it in sternal deposits. These consist mainly of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) spherules that develop within the ecdysial space between the anterior sternal epithelium and the old cuticle. Ions that occur in the moulting fluid, including those required for mineral deposition, are transported from the hemolymph into the ecdysial space by the anterior sternal epithelial cells. The cationic composition of the moulting fluid probably affects mineral deposition and may provide information on the ion-transport activity of the sternal epithelial cells. This study presents the concentrations of inorganic cations within the moulting fluid of the anterior sternites during the late premoult and intramoult stages. The most abundant cation is Na(+) followed by Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+). The concentrations of these ions do not change significantly between the stages whereas the mean pH changed from 8.2 to 6.9 units between mineral deposition in late premoult, and resorption in intramoult, respectively. Measurements of the transepithelial potential show that there is little driving force for passive movements of calcium across the anterior sternal epithelium. The results suggest a possible role of magnesium ions in ACC formation, and a contribution of pH changes to CaCO(3) precipitation and dissolution.

  1. Analysis of CaCO3 deposit formation and degradation during the molt cycle of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabritius, Helge; Ziegler, Andreas

    2003-05-01

    Terrestrial isopods store cuticular calcium in large sternal deposits composed of an amorphous CaCO(3) compound. A large part of the deposits consists of numerous small spherules that increase the exposed surface to facilitate resorption of CaCO(3) during cuticle mineralization. It is not known how these spherules are formed and how they are dissolved. This paper presents for the first time an analysis of ultrastructural changes occurring in the sternal CaCO(3) deposits of a terrestrial isopod during their formation and degradation. Our results indicate that formation of the spherules takes place in a specialized aggregation zone, in which 10- to 30-nm-thick granules form agglomerations that then increase in size to form spherules that reveal a concentric growth pattern. Degradation of the deposits occurs in a manner that exposes a maximum of surface area on all levels of their structural organization.

  2. Molecular data reveal a highly diverse species flock within the munnopsoid deep-sea isopod Betamorpha fusiformis (Barnard, 1920) (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellota) in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Malyutina, Marina; Brandt, Angelika; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang

    2007-08-01

    Based on our current knowledge about population genetics, phylogeography and speciation, we begin to understand that the deep sea harbours more species than suggested in the past. Deep-sea soft-sediment environment in particular hosts a diverse and highly endemic invertebrate fauna. Very little is known about evolutionary processes that generate this remarkable species richness, the genetic variability and spatial distribution of deep-sea animals. In this study, phylogeographic patterns and the genetic variability among eight populations of the abundant and widespread deep-sea isopod morphospecies Betamorpha fusiformis [Barnard, K.H., 1920. Contributions to the crustacean fauna of South Africa. 6. Further additions to the list of marine isopods. Annals of the South African Museum 17, 319-438] were examined. A fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of 50 specimens and the complete nuclear 18S rRNA gene of 7 specimens were sequenced. The molecular data reveal high levels of genetic variability of both genes between populations, giving evidence for distinct monophyletic groups of haplotypes with average p-distances ranging from 0.0470 to 0.1440 ( d-distances: 0.0592-0.2850) of the 16S rDNA, and 18S rDNA p-distances ranging between 0.0032 and 0.0174 ( d-distances: 0.0033-0.0195). Intermediate values are absent. Our results show that widely distributed benthic deep-sea organisms of a homogeneous phenotype can be differentiated into genetically highly divergent populations. Sympatry of some genotypes indicates the existence of cryptic speciation. Flocks of closely related but genetically distinct species probably exist in other widespread benthic deep-sea asellotes and other Peracarida. Based on existing data we hypothesize that many widespread morphospecies are complexes of cryptic biological species (patchwork hypothesis).

  3. Gnathia trimaculata n. sp. (Crustacea: Isopoda: Gnathiidae), an ectoparasite found parasitising requiem sharks from off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Maryke L; Smit, Nico J; Grutter, Alexandra S; Davies, Angela J

    2009-02-01

    Gnathia trimaculata n. sp. is described from one black tip reef shark Carcharinus melanopterus Quoy & Gaimard and four grey reef sharks C. amblyrhynchos Bleeker collected off Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Third-stage juveniles (praniza 3) were maintained in fresh seawater until they moulted into adults. Male adults emerged seven days post-removal (d.p.r) of pranizae from host fishes, whereas the female pranizae completed their moult into adult females 24 d.p.r. Distinctive features include the relatively large size of all stages and the unique mediofrontal process of the male, which is divided into two lobes forming a key-hole shape between them. The female frontal border is characterised by paired simple, pappose setae on the sides of the mid-dorsal area, as well as four long, pappose setae on the mid-dorsal region. The pranizae have eight teeth on each mandible. Live pranizae have stripes and three pairs of distinctive black spots within yellow circles on the sides of the pereonites and this pigmentation pattern persists in the adults. This represents the second description of a gnathiid parasitising elasmobranchs off Australia.

  4. A new family Lepidocharontidae with description of Lepidocharon gen. n., from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and redefinition of the Microparasellidae (Isopoda, Asellota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galassi, Diana M P; Bruce, Niel L; Fiasca, Barbara; Dole-Olivier, Marie-José

    2016-01-01

    Lepidocharontidae Galassi & Bruce, fam. n. is erected, containing Lepidocharon Galassi & Bruce, gen. n. and two genera transferred from the family Microparasellidae Karaman, 1934: Microcharon Karaman, 1934 and Janinella Albuquerque, Boulanouar & Coineau, 2014. The genus Angeliera Chappuis & Delamare Deboutteville, 1952 is placed as genus incertae sedis in this family. The Lepidocharontidae is characterised by having rectangular or trapezoidal somites in dorsal view, a single free pleonite, a tendency to reduction of the coxal plates, and the unique uropodal morphology of a large and long uropodal protopod on which the slender uropodal exopod articulates separately and anteriorly to the endopod. Lepidocharon Galassi & Bruce, gen. n. has a 6-segmented antennula, a well-developed antennal scale (rudimentary exopod), long and slender pereiopods 1-7 directed outwards, coxal plates rudimentary, incorporated to the lateral side of the sternites, not discernible in dorsal view, the single pleonite narrower than pereionite 7, scale-like elements bordering the proximal part of male pleopod 1 on posterior side, and stylet-guiding grooves of male pleopod 1 which run parallel to the outer lateral margins of the same pleopod. Lepidocharon priapus Galassi & Bruce, sp. n., type species for the genus, and Lepidocharon lizardensis Galassi & Bruce, sp. n. are described from Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef. The most similar genus is Microcharon, both genera sharing the same general organization of the male pleopods 1 and 2, topology and architecture of the stylet-guiding groove of male pleopod 1, morphology of female operculum, presence of 2 robust claws of different lengths on pereiopodal dactylus 1-7, not sexually dimorphic. Lepidocharon gen. n. differs from Microcharon in the shape of the pereionites, very reduced coxal plates, the presence of imbricate scale-like elements bordering the proximal postero-lateral margins of the male pleopod 1, and the topology of the pereiopods, which are ventro-laterally inserted and directed outwards in Lepidocharon gen. n. and dorso-laterally inserted and directed ventrally in Microcharon. Lepidocharon shares with the genus Janinella the morphology of the tergites and the reduced lacinia mobilis of the left mandible, but differs significantly from Janinella in having a well-developed antennal scale, very reduced coxal plates also in females bearing oostegites, the general morphology and spatial arrangement of the stylet-guiding groove of male pleopod 1 and the possession of a 6-segmented antennula. The family Microparasellidae is redefined as monotypic, the only genus being Microparasellus Karaman, 1933.

  5. A new genus of Stenetriidae Hansen, 1905 (Asellota: Isopoda: Crustacea) from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia and the southwestern Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Niel L; Cumming, R L

    2015-04-02

    Onychatrium gen. nov. is described, with five included species: Onychatrium forceps sp. nov., the type species and Onychatrium torosus sp. nov., both from the Great Barrier Reef; Onychatrium entale (Nordenstam, 1946) comb. nov., from Tapateuen (= Tabiteue Island), Gilbert Islands; Onychatrium thomasi (Bolstad & Kensley, 1999) comb. nov., from Madang, Papua New Guinea; and Onychatrium echiurum (Nobili, 1906) comb. nov., and species inquirenda from the Tumaotu Islands, Eastern French Polynesia. The primary distinguishing characters for Onychatrium gen. nov. are a trapezoid pseudosrostrum, the male pereopod 1 with elongate dactylus (4.7-7.3 as long as proximal width), propodus with strongly produced and acute lobe, carpus with a distally acute, flat, ventrally directed process (except O. torosus sp. nov., which has a short and truncate process) and the merus with a distally directed inferodistal lobe. The genus is known only from the southern Pacific, from the Tuamotus (eastern French Polynesia) to the Great Barrier Reef and northern Papua New Guinea.

  6. A new species of Halacarsantia Wolff, 1989 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota, Santiidae from Wistari Reef, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michitaka Shimomura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Halacarsantia acuta sp. n. is described from Wistari Reef, Capricorn Group, southern Great Barrier Reef, the first record of the genus from Australia. The new species differs from its congeners inantenna flagellum composed of 8 articles; epipod apically acute, without setae, broad maxilliped endite and pereopod 1 basis with a short projection. A key to species of the genus is provided.

  7. Association of Syscenus infelix (Crustacea: Isopoda: Aegidae) with benthopelagic rattail fishes, Nezumia spp. (Macrouridae), along the western North Atlantic continental slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S.W.; Sulak, K.J.; Munroe, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    During submersible surveys along the continental slope (summers of 1991 and 1992, 184-847 m) between False Cape, Virginia, and Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, USA, we observed the aegid isopod, Syscenus infelix Harger, attached to the macrourid Nezumia bairdii (Goode and Bean). This is the first report of S. infelix attached to fishes in the western North Atlantic. The association of this blind isopod with its host appears species specific. The large, conspicuous isopod always attached to a fish in the same location, the dorsal midline, immediately behind the first dorsal fin. Attachment appears to be long term, with the isopod forming a characteristic scar consisting of a distinct discolored oval depression with seven small, dark impressions that coalesce as the fish grows. Only one S. infelix was found on each host fish. The isopod occurred on 23.7% of N. bairdii observed from submersible on the middle continental slope off Virginia and North Carolina, compared with 16.6% of 1236 museum specimens of the same species (based on inspection for scars) collected at latitudes 26??-64??N. Prevalence of the fish-isopod association was not correlated with depth or latitude. We also found identical scars on preserved specimens of N. aequalis (2.6% of 660 specimens), N. sclerorhynchus (1.2% of 86 specimens), and N. suilla (14.3% of 7 specimens), mostly from areas outside the range of N. bairdii. No scars were found on museum specimens of N. atlantica (n = 27), N. cyrano (n = 57), or N. longebarbata (n = 7). The low incidence of isopod attachment on these species suggests that N. bairdii is the preferred host. Infestation by the isopod appears to result in erosion of host fish scales and tissue. We propose that S. infelix is an obligate associate of its host fish and should be considered parasitic.

  8. Cirolana songkhla, a new species of brackish-water cirolanid isopod (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae from the lower Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eknarin Rodcharoen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirolana songkhla sp. n. was collected from brackish-water habitats including lagoons and estuaries in the coastal zone of the lower Gulf of Thailand. C. songkhla sp. n. is described and fully illustrated; C. songkhla sp. n. can be recognized by the presence of abundant chromatophores dorsally, lack of ornamentation on the posterior pereonites, pleonites and pleotelson, the number of robust setae on the uropodal and pleotelson margins (uropod exopod lateral margin with 12–14 RS, mesial margin with 5–8 RS; endopod lateral margin with 8–10 RS, mesial margin with 11–13 RS; pleotelson with 12–15 RS and lack of setae on the endopods of pleopods 3–5. A dichotomous key of brackish Cirolana species in Thailand is given.

  9. Exposure to Bright Light Has Little Effect on Eye Sensitivity and Ultrastructure of Saduria entomon(Crustacea; Isopoda; Valvifera)(Physiology)

    OpenAIRE

    MAGNUS, LINDSTROM; WILHELM, FORIELIUS; V.BENNO, MEYER-ROCNOW; Tvarminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki; School of Science and Technology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Waikato

    1991-01-01

    Specimens of the isopod Saduria entomon were caught during late winter nights in Finland and divided into three groups: one was not at all exposed to any light and served as the control; a second was exposed to midday sunlight of 9.1×10^qu/m^2s for 30min; the third was exposed to artificial white light of 4.2×10^ qu/m^2s during the day for 30 min. The visual sensitivity thresholds as well as V/log I curves of 15 exposed animals from 30 min to 456 h postexposure were recorded at random interva...

  10. Effect of ingested tungsten oxide (WOx) nanofibers on digestive gland tissue of Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea): fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Sara; Drobne, Damjana; Vaccari, Lisa; Kiskinova, Maya; Ferraris, Paolo; Birarda, Giovanni; Remškar, Maja; Hočevar, Matej

    2013-10-01

    Tungsten nanofibers are recognized as biologically potent. We study deviations in molecular composition between normal and digestive gland tissue of WOx nanofibers (nano-WOx) fed invertebrate Porcellio scaber (Iosopda, Crustacea) and revealed mechanisms of nano-WOx effect in vivo. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) imaging performed on digestive gland epithelium was supplemented by toxicity and cytotoxicity analyses as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the surface of the epithelium. The difference in the spectra of the Nano-WOx treated and control cells showed up in the central region of the cells and were related to lipid peroxidation, and structural changes of nucleic acids. The conventional toxicity parameters failed to show toxic effects of nano-WOx, whereas the cytotoxicity biomarkers and SEM investigation of digestive gland epithelium indicated sporadic effects of nanofibers. Since toxicological and cytological measurements did not highlight severe effects, the biochemical alterations evidenced by FTIR imaging have been explained as the result of cell protection (acclimation) mechanisms to unfavorable conditions and indication of a nonhomeostatic state, which can lead to toxic effects.

  11. Presence of troglobitized Janiridae (Isopoda: Asellota: Janiroidea) in anchihaline caves of the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean); description of Trogloianiropsis lloberai n. gen., n. sp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaume, Damià

    1995-01-01

    Trogloianiropsis lloberai n. gen., n. sp. is described from the flooded coastal karst of the Balearic Islands. It superficially resembles Ianiropsis Sars, 1897 and Janaira Moreira & Pires, 1977, but differs from both in some remarkable characters. It seems to be restricted to the deeper layers of

  12. On a small collection of Valvifera (Crustacea Isopoda) from the Magellan Strait, with description of Platidotea magellanica n.gen. n.sp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Ja-Yang; Wägele, J. Wolfgang

    1995-01-01

    Redescriptions of 5 arcturid species from the Strait of Magellan are presented, the validity of the genus Rectarcturus is discussed. Platidotea magellanica n.gen. n.sp. is described. It is a new type of idoteid isopod, with flattened body and antennae, probably adaptated to life in sandy bottoms.

  13. Formulaciones con combinación de ingredientes activos para el control de Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda, plaga en el cultivo de colza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÓPEZ, A.N.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa colza (Brassica napus, B. campestris en siembra directa (SD representa una alternativa en los sistemas de rotación actuales. Armadillidium vulgare es una de las plagas principales de los cultivos en SD. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar cebos de acción combinada como estrategia alternativa de control de dicha especie.Se realizaron ensayos de laboratorio y de campo con los siguientes tratamientos: testigo sin tratamiento químico; testigo químico (4 kg/ha de Carbaryl 8%, MataBiBos Acay; 3, 4 y 5 kg/ha de cebo de acción combinada (Carbaryl 8% + Metaldehído 4%, Dual Acay. Se evaluó el número de individuos de A. vulgare muertos, de plantas dañadas y de plantas sanas. En el laboratorio, a los 2, 3, 7 y 9 días después de la aplicación de los cebos, los tratamientos químicos se diferenciaron del testigo y no mostraron diferencias significativas entre ellos. Los tratamientos con aplicaciones de cebos presentaron un número de plantas sanas y totales mayorcon respecto al testigo. En el campo, se detectaron diferencias en el número de individuos muertos entre los tratamientos químicos y el testigo. No se observaron diferencias en la proporción de individuos muertos ni de plantas dañadas entre los tratamiento químicos, sí respecto al testigo. La presencia del molusquicida en el cebo de acción combinada no interfirió en el control de A. vulgare. Se concluye que el cebo de acción combinada representa una alternativa de control de A. vulgare eficaz, que permite la protección del cultivo de colza. AbstractOilseed rape (Brassica napus, B. campestris under No-Tillage (NT represents an alternative in the current crop rotation systems. Armadillidium vulgare is a principal pest in crops under NT. The aim of this study was to evaluate combined action baits as alternative strategy in the control of that species. Laboratory and fields traits were carried out with five treatments: control treatment without chemicals, positive control (4 kg/ha of Carbaryl 8%, MataBiBos Acay; 3, 4 and 5 kg/ha of baits combined action (Carbaryl 8% + Metaldehyde 4%, Dual Acay. The number of dead A. vulgare individuals and the number of damaged and undamaged plants ere evaluated. In laboratory: all the chemical treatments differed from control and these were similar to each other at 2, 3, 7 and 9 days after application of baits. Number of undamaged and the number of total plants were higher in treatments with baits applications. In the field study, differences in dead individuals between chemical treatments and the control were found. Neither the products nor the doses tested had an effect. The proportion of dead individuals did not differ between chemical treatments. Chemical treatments had a lower number of damaged plants than control. The presence of molluscicide on the combined action bait do not whit control of A. vulgare. We conclude that combined action bait represent an effective alternative of control of A. vulgare, which allows the protection of oilseed rape crop.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common sea slater, Ligia oceanica (Crustacea, Isopoda bears a novel gene order and unusual control region features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podsiadlowski Lars

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence data and other characters from mitochondrial genomes (gene translocations, secondary structure of RNA molecules are useful in phylogenetic studies among metazoan animals from population to phylum level. Moreover, the comparison of complete mitochondrial sequences gives valuable information about the evolution of small genomes, e.g. about different mechanisms of gene translocation, gene duplication and gene loss, or concerning nucleotide frequency biases. The Peracarida (gammarids, isopods, etc. comprise about 21,000 species of crustaceans, living in many environments from deep sea floor to arid terrestrial habitats. Ligia oceanica is a terrestrial isopod living at rocky seashores of the european North Sea and Atlantic coastlines. Results The study reveals the first complete mitochondrial DNA sequence from a peracarid crustacean. The mitochondrial genome of Ligia oceanica is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule, with a size of 15,289 bp. It shows several changes in mitochondrial gene order compared to other crustacean species. An overview about mitochondrial gene order of all crustacean taxa yet sequenced is also presented. The largest non-coding part (the putative mitochondrial control region of the mitochondrial genome of Ligia oceanica is unexpectedly not AT-rich compared to the remainder of the genome. It bears two repeat regions (4× 10 bp and 3× 64 bp, and a GC-rich hairpin-like secondary structure. Some of the transfer RNAs show secondary structures which derive from the usual cloverleaf pattern. While some tRNA genes are putative targets for RNA editing, trnR could not be localized at all. Conclusion Gene order is not conserved among Peracarida, not even among isopods. The two isopod species Ligia oceanica and Idotea baltica show a similarly derived gene order, compared to the arthropod ground pattern and to the amphipod Parhyale hawaiiensis, suggesting that most of the translocation events were already present the last common ancestor of these isopods. Beyond that, the positions of three tRNA genes differ in the two isopod species. Strand bias in nucleotide frequency is reversed in both isopod species compared to other Malacostraca. This is probably due to a reversal of the replication origin, which is further supported by the fact that the hairpin structure typically found in the control region shows a reversed orientation in the isopod species, compared to other crustaceans.

  15. Nouvelles données sur les Asellidae épigés d’Extrême-Orient (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, Jean-Paul; Magniez, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Numerous samples of oculate Asellus from eastern Siberia and the Japanese Islands, one from southern China, and one from Alaska, have been studied. The epigean fresh waters of this large Asiatic region generally harbour populations identified as Asellus (Asellus) hilgendorfii Bovallius, 1886, or

  16. Biological Survey Along the St. Lawrence River for the St. Lawrence Seaway. Additional Locks and other Navigation Improvements Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    goldenrod and milkweed predominated. Shrublands represented a successional intermediary between open fields and deciduous forests and were dominated by...river. Isopoda (aquatic sow bugs ) are usually found among rocks, vegetation, and debris in unpolluted shallows, usually one meter or less. They are...Crustacea Subclass Malacostraca Division Peracarida Order Isopoda (Aquatic sow bugs ) Order Amphipoda (Scuds) Class Arachnoidea Family Hydrachnellae

  17. Growth curve of Balloniscus glaber Araujo & Zardo (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea from Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Curva de crescimento de Balloniscus glaber Araujo & Zardo (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea no Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meinhardt

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on field data, this study presents the growth curve of Balloniscus glaber Araujo & Zardo, 1995, a terrestrial isopod species found in Parque Estadual de Itapuã (PEI, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens were monthly sampled, from May 2004 to April 2005, at PEI. Captured individuals were sexed, their cephalothorax width was measured, and the growth curve was described according to von Bertalanffy's model. Male and female growth curves are described by the equations: Wt = 2.256[1-e-0.00394(t+91.128] and Wt = 2.588[1-e-0.00301(t+101], respectively. Curves show differential growth between males and females, with females reaching higher W¥, and a slower growth rate than males. Based on theses curves, life span was estimated.Esse estudo, baseado em dados de campo, esse estudo apresenta a curva de crescimento de Balloniscus glaber Araujo & Zardo, 1995, um isópodo terrestre encontrado no Parque Estadual de Itapuã (PEI, Rio Grande do Sul. Os espécimes foram coletados mensalmente, de maio de 2004 a abril de 2005, no PEI. Os indivíduos capturados foram sexados e tiveram o cefalotórax mensurado e a curva de crescimento descrita a partir do modelo de von Bertalanffy. As curvas de crescimento para machos e para fêmeas são descritas pelas equações: Lt = 2,256[1-e-0,00394(t+91,128] e Lt = 2,588[1-e-0,00301(t+101], respectivamente. As curvas apresentam crescimento diferencial entre machos e fêmeas, com fêmeas atingindo maior L' mas com uma taxa de crescimento menor do que os machos. Com base na curva foi estimada a longevidade dos animais.

  18. Sphaeromatidae (Isopoda: Flabellifera da zona entre-marés e fundos rasos dos estados de São Paulo e Rio de Janeiro Sphaeromatidae (Isopoda: Flabellifera from the lotertidal zone and shallow botioms or the States or São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

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    Ana Maria Setúbal Pires

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with twelve species of Sphaeromatidae from several substrata in the intertidal and shallow infralittoral zone in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, Brazil. Sand, stones, empty tests of barnacles, empty tubes of polychaete, byssus of mussels, oyster beds, macroscopic algae and sea grass (Spartina alterniflora were collected and analysed. The following nomenclatural changes have been made: Pseudosphaeroma jakobii and Exosphaeroma platense are synonymyzed with Cassidinidea tuberculata; Pseudosphaeroma rhombofrontalis is placed in the genus Tholozodium; Paradynoides brasiliensis antonii with D. tropica. A key to species, the geographical distribution and notes on the habitat of the species are also furnished.

  19. Importance of diet in the growth, survivorship and reproduction of the no-tillage pest Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda Importancia de la dieta en el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la reproducción de Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda plaga en siembra directa

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    ARIEL J FABERI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The studies of Armadillidium vulgare as pest are virtually null worldwide. However under no-tillage systems this species has found an adequate environment for its development and it has become an important pest in some crops in Argentina. It has been shown that the composition of vegetables affects the isopods biology. Our hypothesis was that soybean leaf litter has high nutritive value which allows A. vulgare to grow faster, survive longer, and have higher fecundity favoring the population increase and turning it into a crop pest. Growth and survivorship of juveniles and adults, egg incubation period, offspring number per female and offspring mean body weight were determined in individuals fed with leaf litter of soybean, sunflower, wheat and pasture. The growth rate coefficient, k, in juveniles was higher for soybean, intermediate for pasture and lower for sunflower. Adult growth was faster under the soybean diet. Survivorship under soybean and pasture was longer than under sunflower and wheat in both juveniles and adults. The reproductive parameters were similar in all diets, food did not generate any change in the reproductive aspects of A. vulgare. Results of the present study represent a source of information about the A. vulgare biology under different diets of agricultural origin to establish the basis for Integrated Management of this species as pest. Under soybean litter provision A. vulgare found the best conditions for faster growth, longer survival and relatively higher fecundity. In fields with soybean as preceding crop or in systems with high frequency of soybean in the crop rotation a more abundant population of A. vulgare would be found as well as with larger individuals which could cause more damage to the following crop in the rotation.Los estudios sobre Armadillidium vulgare como plaga son virtualmente nulos a nivel mundial. Sin embargo, en los sistemas bajo siembra directa esta especie ha encontrado un ambiente adecuado para su desarrollo y se ha convertido en una plaga importante en algunos cultivos en Argentina. Se ha demostrado que la composición de los vegetales afecta la biología de los isópodos. Nuestra hipótesis fue que los residuos vegetales de la soja tienen un valor nutritivo alto lo cual permite a A. vulgare crecer más rápido, sobrevivir más y tener una fecundidad elevada favoreciendo el incremento poblacional y convirtiéndolo en plaga de cultivos. El crecimiento y la reproducción de juveniles y adultos, el período de incubación, el número de crías por hembra y el peso medio de las crías fueron determinados en individuos alimentados con residuos de soja, girasol, trigo y pastura. El coeficiente de la tasa de crecimiento, k, en los juveniles fue mayor para la soja, intermedio para la pastura y bajo para el girasol. El crecimiento de los adultos fue mayor con soja. La supervivencia con soja y pastura fue mayor que con girasol y trigo tanto en juveniles como en adultos. Los parámetros reproductivos fueron similares en todas las dietas, el alimento no generó ningún cambio en los aspectos reproductivos de A. vulgare. Los resultados del presente estudio representan una fuente de información acerca de la biología de A. vulgare con diferentes dietas de origen agrícola, lo que permitirá establecer las bases del Manejo Integrado de esta especie como plaga. Con la provisión de residuos de soja, A. vulgare encontró las mejores condiciones para crecer más rápido, sobrevivir por más tiempo y tener una fecundidad relativamente más elevada. En campos con soja como cultivo antecesor o en sistemas con una frecuencia alta de cultivos de soja en la rotación podría encontrarse una población más abundante y con individuos más grandes de A. vulgare los cuales podrían causar mayores daños al cultivo siguiente en la rotación.

  20. Effects of Surface Texture of Articulated Concrete Mattress Blocks on Their Habitat Value. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program Report 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    of trichoptera, chironomidae, ephemeroptera, odonata , collembola, amphipoda, isopoda, hydracarinia, gas- tropoda, bivalvia, naididae, hydrozoa...Ephemeroptera Baetis sp. CaenIs sp. Heptagenia sp. Isonychia sp. Stenocron sp. Odonata Neurocordulia moles ta (Continued) 21 Table 1 (Concluded) .Taxonomic

  1. Effect of marine glycosides on adenosinetriphosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, B A; Gorshkova, I A; Stonik, V A; Elyakov, G B

    1982-01-01

    Marine glycosides from the sea cucumbers Actinopyga agassizi, Holothuria atra, Bohadschia argus, Cucumaria fraudatrix, Astichopus multifidus and Thelenota ananas inhibit both Na+-K+ ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase of rat brain in vitro. The glycoside-cholesterol complex of these compounds does not influence ATPase activity. Asterosaponins from starfishes Linckia guildingi and Linckia laevigata possess a slight inhibiting effect. The triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers are more powerful inhibitors than steroidal glycosides from starfishes.

  2. Temporal variation in population structure of the isopod Urobopyrus processae Richardson, 1904 (Isopoda: Bopyridae infesting the branchial chamber of the night shrimp Ambidexter symmetricus Manning and Chace, 1971 (Decapoda: Processidae

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    Jennifer A. Rasch

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCaridean shrimps are often infested by ectoparasites from the isopod family Bopyridae. Urobopyrus processae is a widespread species of bopyrid parasitizing the branchial (gill chambers of members of the caridean family Processidae, including Ambidexter symmetricus. We examined hypotheses on differential infestation based on gender, castration of the host by the parasite, correlation between host and parasite size, and the fecundity of female parasites. Infestation rates varied from 1.3 to 32.1% between 2010 and 2011. Infested shrimps ranged from 1.26 mm to 6.24 mm carapace length (CL between 2010 and 2011. Female shrimps were infested at a higher rate than males (2010 P = 0.0376; 2011 P = 0.0023. We report for the first time the differential selection between left and right branchial chambers in a caridean shrimp by a bopyrid parasite (P = 0.0209. Female parasite total length (TL increased with host size (CL in both years of sampling (2010 R2adj = 0.6863; 2011 R2adj= 0.8206. The size of male parasite TL was explained by both host CL (2010 R2adj = 0.4591; 2011 R2adj = 0.5490 and parasite female TL (2010 R2adj = 0.5606; 2011 R2adj = 0.6195. The number of embryos in a brood of the female parasite (85-3096 was varied positively with female TL (R2adj = 0.625. Our results show that the bopyrid-shrimp host relationship in processids is typical of those studied in other carideans, indicating similar selective pressures act on bopyrids infesting the branchial chambers of shrimps.

  3. A New Record of Freshwater Isopod Crustacean from Henan (Crustacea:Isopoda:Corallanidae)%河南淡水等足类甲壳动物1新记录一中华急游水虱Tachaea chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程如意; 牛瑶; 郭玉明

    2011-01-01

    A new record of freshwater isopod crustacean, Tachaea chinensis Thielemann, 1910,found in Henan is described in this paper. It is ectoparasites of freshwater fish (Culter erythropterus) and shrimp species (Macrobrachium spp. , Palaemonetes sinensis, Exopalaemon modestus, Neocaridina heteropoda). The specimens are collected from Xinxiang Yellow River Wetland Bird National Nature Reserve of Henan and food markets of Xinxiang City%记述河南新乡地区淡水虾体外寄生等足类1新记录:中华急游水虱Tachaea chinensis Thielemann,1910.标本采自新乡黄河湿地鸟类国家级自然保护区和新乡市区的农贸市场.

  4. A Redescription of Riggia paranensis Szidat, 1948 (Isopoda, Cymothoidae Based on Thirty-two Specimens from Curimatid Fish of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with an Emendation of the Genus

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    Bastos Paula B

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Riggia paranensis Szidat, 1948 is redescribed on the basis of 30 female and 2 male specimens collected from the pericardial cavities of the curimatid fish Cyphocarax (= Curimata gilberti (Quoy & Gaimard. The fishes were caught in the Itabapoana River, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The presence of" dwarf" males, as reported by Szidat, was verified. The fusion of the pleonites and pleotelson in adult females was also confirmed. The generic diagnosis was emended to include details of the mouthparts and pleopods

  5. Braga cigarra comb. nov. for Philostomella cigarra (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae with a redescription of the species based on specimens from Galeocharax kneri, a freshwater fish of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of a cymothoid isopod from a freshwater fish of Minas Gerais State were studied. These were found to be morphologically comparable to Philostomella cigarra Szidat & Schubart, 1960, except for having multilaminate pleopods which is the distinguishing characteristic of the genus Braga Schiödte & Meinert, 1881. The first pleopod is bilaminate while the second is quadrilaminate. Pleopods three to five are trilaminate. It is herein proposed that the generic name Philostomella Szidat & Schubart, 1960, should be considered invalid and that the species P. cigarra should be transferred to Braga. Braga now contains eight species, including B. cigarra comb. nov., all from South American freshwater fishes. The principal difference between this species and the others in the genus is the form of the female which has a narrow pleon and a small pleotelson. A redescription of this species is presented here because previous descriptions in the literature are inaccurate or incomplete.

  6. Comparative morphology of Cymothoa spp.(Isopoda, Cymothoidae from Brazilian fishes, with the description of Cymothoa catarinensis sp. nov. and redescriptions of C. excisa Perty and C. oestrum (Linnaeus

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    Thatcher Vernon E.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cymothoa catarinensis sp. nov. collected at Camboriú, Santa Catarina State, Brazil is described. The new species is of small size, has a cephalon that is little immersed in pereonite 1, anterolateral angles of pereonite 1 that reach or surpass the eyes and a pleon that is deeply immersed in pereonite 7. The pleopods of the new species have small, lobular accessory gills projecting from the bases. Cymothoa excisa Perty, 1830, and Cymothoa oestrum (Linnaeus, 1758 are redescribed. Both are of large size (25-35 mm in length. C. excisa has pointed anterolateral margins of pereonite 1 that reach or surpass the eyes. This species also has trilaminate pleopods in the female and bilaminate pleopods in the male. C. oestrum has rounded anterolateral margins of pereonite 1 and no visible eyes. This is the first time the latter species has been reported from Brazil. These three species are compared to four others that have been reported from Brazilian waters, namely: C. liannae Sartor & Pires, 1988; C. brasiliensis, C. gerris and C. ianuarii, all described by Schiödte & Meinert, 1884. A key is provided to aid in the separation of the Brazilian species of Cymothoa.

  7. ONE NEW RECORD GENUS OF BOPYRIDAE (CRUSTACEA, ISOPODA, EPICARIDEA) FROM CHINA%中国鳃虱科一新纪录属(甲壳动物亚门,等足目,寄生亚目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安建梅; 于海燕; 李新正

    2007-01-01

    记述了中国等足目寄生亚目鳃虱科真虾鳃虱亚科1新纪录属,即深海鳃虱属Bathygyge Hansen,1897,该属唯一的种巨深海鳃虱Bathygyge grandis Hansen,1897是真虾下目镰虾的鳃腔寄生物.标本保存于中国科学院海洋研究所海洋生物标本馆.

  8. Amphibious Shelter-Builder Oniscidea Species from the New World with Description of a New Subfamily, a New Genus and a New Species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  9. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae.

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    Leila A Souza

    Full Text Available The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed.

  10. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites. PMID:22947621

  11. Descriptions of two new species in the genus Macrostylis Sars, 1864 (Isopoda, Asellota, Macrostylidae from the Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean, with a synonymisation of the genus Desmostylis Brandt, 1992 with Macrostylis

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    Torben Riehl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions of Macrostylis antennamagna sp. n. and Macrostylis uniformis sp. n. are presented with notes on intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism. Macrostylis uniformis sp. n. showes differences to Macrostylis antennamagna sp. n. in the length of the antenna 2, the shape of the pleotelson and length of uropods. The genus Desmostylis Brandt, 1992 (formerly including the two species Desmostylis obscurus Brandt, 1992 and Desmostylis gerdesi Brandt, 2002 is synonymised with the genus Macrostylis. Based on type material additional remarks and additions to the original descriptions are provided for both species. Results lead to following nomenclatorial changes: Macrostylis obscurus (Brandt, 1992, comb. n. and Macrostylis gerdesi (Brandt, 2002, comb. n. A setal nomenclature is proposed and the diagnosis for the family is revised.

  12. Dinámica temporal en la relación entre el isópodo parásito Aporobopyrus curtatus (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae y el cangrejo anomuro Petrolisthes armatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae en el sur de Brasil Temporal dynamic of the relationship between the parasitic isopod Aporobopyrus curtatus (Crustacea: Isopoda: Bopyridae and the anomuran crab Petrolisthes armatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Porcellanidae in southern Brazil

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    Ivana Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of the parasite Aporobopyrus curtatus in Petrolisthes armatus from southern Brazil was determined, and the effect the parasite had on host reproduction was evaluated. Of all 775 crabs sampled in Araçá region from March 2005 to July 2006, 3.2% presented bopyrid parasites. All the parasitized individuals had one branchial chamber occupied by two mature parasites, with no preference for the right or left chamber. Male and female hosts were infested in equal proportions. Parasitized juveniles, large individuals and ovigerous females were not found in our study. The absence of parasitized ovigerous females seems to be insufficient evidence to support the hypothesis of parasitic castration and would require a histological study to confirm their reproductive death. The percentage of infestation observed in our study (3.1% is lower than the one found in other studies and it could indicate the existence of factor(s regulating the density of A. curtatus in the Araçá region. At least in this population, the low but constant presence of the bopyrid A. curtatus population did not appear to have a negative effect on the porcellanid population, and parasitized individuals did not play a significant role in the natural history of P. armatus.Se determinó la prevalencia del parásito Aporobopyrus curtatus en Petrolisthes armatus en el sur de Brasil y se evaluó el efecto de su presencia en la reproducción de su huésped. De marzo de 2005 a julio de 2007 se muestreó en la Región de Araçá un total de 775 cangrejos, de los cuales el 3,2% presentó bopíridos parásitos. Todos los individuos parasitados presentaron una cámara branquial ocupada por dos parásitos maduros, sin preferencia por la cámara derecha o izquierda. Machos y hembras hospedadores fueron infectados en la misma proporción. La ausencia de parásitos en hembras ovígeras no es evidencia suficiente para apoyar la hipótesis de castración parasítica, y se necesita un estudio histológico para confirmar la muerte reproductiva. El porcentaje de infectación observado (3,1% es inferior al encontrado en otros estudios y puede ser indicativo de la existencia de factor(es que regulan la densidad de A. curtatus en la región de Araçá. En conclusion, estos resultados sugieren que, al menos en esta población, la baja y constante incidencia del bopírido A. curtatus parece no afectar la población del porcelánido, y los individuos parasitados no tienen un papel significativo en la historia natural de P. armatus.

  13. Une nouvelle espèce de Tanaidacea de Madagascar: Acanthapseudes elegans n. g., n. sp. (Crustacea, Tanaidacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, Marie-Louise

    1976-01-01

    Acanthapseudes elegans n. g., n. sp. is described after a single specimen collected on the outer slope of the coral reef in the vicinity of Tuléar (S.W. of Madagascar): it resembles the Acanthaspidiidae (Isopoda, Asellota) in general aspect and dwells among Hydrozoa and Alcyonaria.

  14. First North American record of the Palaearctic rhinophorid Stevenia deceptoria (Loew) (Diptera: Rhinophoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A

    2015-12-16

    The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998).

  15. Feasibility Study of Shoreline Protection and Lake Level Regulation for Lake Ontario. Reconnaissance Report. Volume II. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    midges) Isopoda, (aquatic sow bug ), Hirudinea (leeches), and Gastropoda (snails) (IJC 1969; Casy, Fisher, Kleveno, 1973). A-2-79 A 0 , 1-a vC C V, a C...also a nondocumented sighting of orange- milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa) (Corps 1975) in this area. It is probable that other protected plants may be

  16. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, report 12. Some new hypogean cirolanid isopod crustaceans from Haiti and Mayaguana (Bahamas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, Jos

    1981-01-01

    A new stygobiont genus of Isopoda Cirolanidae, Haitilana, with two new species, H. radicicola and H. acanthura, are described from groundwaters in Haiti. These are the first hypogean cirolanids recorded from the island of Hispaniola. The new genus is mainly characterized by its pleon segmentation, t

  17. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda

  18. Collection of Groundwater and Freshwater Fauna on the Islands of the South Pacific. Operation Raleigh -- Pacific Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1988-01-01

    During this project about 150 groundwater habitats were sampled on a number of islands in the South Pacific. The main habitats sampled were: wells, springs, caves, beaches and streams. Groundwater fauna was only found on two islands. On Easter Island we found a new species belonging to the Isopoda (

  19. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, report 12. Some new hypogean cirolanid isopod crustaceans from Haiti and Mayaguana (Bahamas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenboom, Jos

    1981-01-01

    A new stygobiont genus of Isopoda Cirolanidae, Haitilana, with two new species, H. radicicola and H. acanthura, are described from groundwaters in Haiti. These are the first hypogean cirolanids recorded from the island of Hispaniola. The new genus is mainly characterized by its pleon segmentation, t

  20. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Fonck, Myrthe; van Hal, Jurgen; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Berg, Matty P.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to macro-detrit

  1. Cymothoide Isopoden van de Nederlandse kust en de Zuidelijke Noordzee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    In het in 1956 uitgegeven deel betreffende de Isopoda in de serie „Fauna van Nederland" (Holthuis, 1956) werden van de familie Cymothoidae twee genera (Aega en Eurydice) voor Nederland genoemd, met drie soorten (Aega rosacea Risso, Aega psora (L.) en Eurydice pulchra Leach). Volgens moderne opvattin

  2. Grupos tróficos de peixes demersais da plataforma continental interna de Ubatuba, Brasil: I. Chondrichthyes Throphic groups of demersal fish community from the continental shelf: Ubatuba, Brazil. I. Chrondrichthyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Satiko Hashimoto Soares

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de detectar grupos tróficos, foram analisadas amostras de conteúdos estomacais de sete espécies de peixes cartilaginosos. Os exemplares foram coletados no período de Outubro/85 a Julho/87 na plataforma interna de Ubatuba, SP, Brasil (da costa, até a isóbata de 50 m. A importância dos itens alimentares foi analisada através da freqüência numérica (FN e da freqüência de ocorrência (FO. As espécies foram agrupadas em três grupos distintos: Piscívoros: Squalus cubensis; comedores de peixes e crustáceos bentônicos: Raja castelnaui, Raja cyclophora, Raja agassizi; comedores de invertebrados bentônicos: Psammobatis glansdissimilis, Rhinobatos horkelii, Zapteryx brevirostris.Stomach contents of seven cartilaginous fish species were analysed with the aim to detect trophic groups. Sampling was effectuated between October/85 and July/87 off the coast of Ubatuba (São Paulo, Brazil in waters up 50 m depth. The relative importance of different components of the diet was expressed as a percentage frequency of occurrence and percentage number. The seven species were grouped in: fish feeders - Squalus cubensis; benthonic crustacean and fish feeders - Raja castelnaui, Raja cyclophora, Raja agassizi; benthonic invertebrate feeders - Rhinobatos horkelii, Zapteryx brevirostris, Psammobatis glansdissimilis.

  3. Control of Legionnaires' disease -- An Australian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, C.R.

    1999-07-01

    Major outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease (causative agent, ionella spp.) occurred in Australia during the 1980s and early 1990s. The putative sources were primarily heat rejection systems of the recirculating cooling water type (cooling towers). These outbreaks prompted engineers to carry out field studies on which to base improved design and maintenance practices for such heat rejection systems. Health authorities introduced regulations and guidelines to encourage owners to establish and maintain hygienic conditions in these and other systems. Central to this progress is the recognition that Legionella is essentially a biofilm organism and that it prefers the surfaces of warmer parts of systems for growth. This is particularly so if there are deadlegs in the system or accumulations of sediment. Biocidal water treatment approaches must therefore take biofilm control into account. A recent Australian innovation is the preparation of a national performance-based regulatory standard to complement earlier standards that are of a prescriptive nature. The aim of this new standard is to allow alternative strategies that may not necessitate system shutdown for regular cleaning yet provide for an equivalent level of system hygiene. The standard requires that a risk assessment strategy be implemented involving identification of performance indicators and control and monitoring of parameters likely to move beyond stipulated limits.

  4. A contribution to the knowledge of the trophic spectrum of the Common toad (Bufo bufo L., 1758 (Amphibia: Anura from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Boyadzhiev

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available During our study we identified 500 prey items in 20 prey categories in the trophic spectrum of Bufo bufo with average number of prey items per stomach 25.00. The most important prey taxon is Formicidae (70.20%, followed by Coleoptera (especially Carabidae – 11.40%, as well as non-insect invertebrates (Isopoda, Gastropoda, Arachnida which also play significant role. The estimated trophic niche breadth is low – 1.96.

  5. Long-Term Effects of Beach Nourishment on the Benthic Fauna of Panama City Beach, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Ervilia concentrica .. .. .. .. 6.41 .. .. .. .. .. Veneridae sp. -. .. .. .. .. 1.62 .. .. .. .. ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA CIACEA Manocuma sp...38.29 - 80.85 13.63 50.78 - 38.06 .. .. .. ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA ISOPODA Chiridotea excavata -- 3.14 -- 3.26 AMPHIPODA Acanthobaustorius sp...Strigilla sp. -- I Tellina sp. -- 1 Unidentified sp. A -- 1 Veneridae -- I ARTHROPODA CRUSTACEA CUIACEA Mancocuma sp. -- 1 Oxyurostylis smithi -- 2

  6. Parasites of the mutton snapper Lutjanus analis (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Alagoas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Margarida; Carvalho, Bruno Ferreira Lyra; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on a sample of sixty mutton snappers (Lutjanus analis) that were caught on the coast of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The parasite diversity and infection levels were low. The ectoparasite Rocinela signata Schioedte & Meinert, 1879 (Isopoda: Aegidae), and larvae of two endoparasites, Trypanorhyncha gen. sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae), were detected. The significance of these parasites is discussed in the context of their transmission pathways and potential impact.

  7. [Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris), the "titi" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti), the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis), the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris) and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi). All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over-exploitation levels. I recommend that this shrimp trawl fishery be completely closed down.

  8. Amazoniana: Limnologia et Oecologia Regionalis Systematis Fluminis Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    ARAUJO, C.S. DE & V.E. THATCHER: Anphira junki n.sp. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) a gill chamber parasite of Triportheus albus and T. flavus (Pisces) in the Brazilian Amazon 283-290 DRAGO, E.C., DRAGO, I.E. DE, OLIVEROS, O.B. & A.R. PAIRA: Aquatic habitats, fish and invertebrate assemblages of the Middle Paraná River 291-341 GOLOVATCH, S.I., HOFFMANN, R.L., MÁRMOL, A. & J. ADIS: A new, apparently arboricolous species of the millipede genus Mestosoma SILVESTRI, 1897 from near...

  9. Amazoniana: Limnologia et Oecologia Regionalis Systematis Fluminis Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    ARAUJO, C.S. DE & V.E. THATCHER: Anphira junki n.sp. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) a gill chamber parasite of Triportheus albus and T. flavus (Pisces) in the Brazilian Amazon 283-290 DRAGO, E.C., DRAGO, I.E. DE, OLIVEROS, O.B. & A.R. PAIRA: Aquatic habitats, fish and invertebrate assemblages of the Middle Paraná River 291-341 GOLOVATCH, S.I., HOFFMANN, R.L., MÁRMOL, A. & J. ADIS: A new, apparently arboricolous species of the millipede genus Mestosoma SILVESTRI, 1897 from near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazo...

  10. FOOD COMPOSITION OF GRAYLING Thymallus thymallus L., FROM THE RIVER KRUŠNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra Bećiraj Bakrač

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Total of 118 specimens of grayling (Thymallus thymallus L. is caught with sport fishing techniques in the river Krušnica. The objectives of this research was to obtain data about the diet composition of these species in natural biotopes. Dominant food of grayling from the river Kru{nica were Amphipoda and Ephemeroptera, while the most abundant number belonging to the group of Diptera. Secondary diet consists of Trichoptera with Hydrop%syche sp. as dominant species, then Gastropoda with Valvata sp., Coleoptera and Formicidae. Grayling occasionally consume Isopoda, Hirudinea, Plecoptera, Oligochaeta, Heteroptera, Aranea, Lepidoptera, Hydracarina and Hymenoptera, as well as plant detritus.

  11. [Parasitic metazoans of Stenella coeruleoalba (Cetacea: Delphinidae) stranded along the coast of Latium, 1985-1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerioni, S; Mariniello, L

    1996-12-01

    The striped dolphin represents the most common species of cetacean stranded along the Italian coasts. A parasitological survey on 17 specimens of Stenella coerulecaiba stranded along coasts of Latium from 1985 to 1991, has been carried out. The morphological study enabled the identification of the following parasites. The sites are reported in brackets. DIGENEA: Campula rochebruni (liver), Campula palliata (liver), Pholeter gastrophilus (pyloric stomach). CESTODA: Tetrabothrium forsteri (intestine), Strobilocephalus triangularis (intestine), Monorygma grimaldii, larvae (abdominal cavity, mesentery, testes), Phyliobothrium delphini, larvae (subcutaneous fat). NEMATODA: Skrjabinalius sp. (lungs). COPEPODA: Pennella sp. (skin). ISOPODA: Ceratothoa parallela (mouth, stomach). AMPHIPODA: Syncyamus aequus (blowhole).

  12. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    private contractor familiar with the taxonomy of San Francisco Bay invertebrates (Susan McCormick, Colfax, CA) (Appendix H). S. McCormick also...0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Unid. Isopoda 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.6667 1.15 0 0 0 0 Unid. Nudibranchia 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

  13. Análise multivariada da fauna edáfica em diferentes sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo Multivariate analysis of soil fauna under different soil tillage and crop management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar Baretta

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de sistemas de preparo e cultivo do solo sobre a diversidade de animais da fauna edáfica, por meio de técnicas de análise multivariada. Na análise canônica discriminante, os preparos conservacionistas com sucessão de culturas foram separados em relação aos tratamentos com rotação de culturas. Os grupos Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda e Collembola, e o índice de Shannon (H foram os atributos que mais contribuíram para separar os tratamentos. A análise de correspondência mostrou forte associação dos grupos Acarina e Hymenoptera com o tratamento semeadura direta com sucessão de culturas, e do grupo Collembola com o preparo convencional.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different soil tillage and crop management systems on soil fauna groups, by means of multivariate analysis. In the canonical discriminant analysis the conservation soil management systems with crop succession were discriminated in relation to other treatments with crop rotation. The groups Acarina, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, and Collembola, and the Shannon index (H showed the highest contribution for the discrimination between treatments. The correspondence analysis showed a strong association between Acarina and Hymenoptera groups with the treatment no-tillage with crop succession, and between Collembola group with the conventional tillage system.

  14. On the origin and evolution of Antarctic Peracarida (Crustacea, Malacostraca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Brandt

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The early separation of Gondwana and the subsequent isolation of Antarctica caused a long evolutionary history of its fauna. Both, long environmental stability over millions of years and habitat heterogeneity, due to an abundance of sessile suspension feeders on the continental shelf, favoured evolutionary processes of preadapted taxa, like for example the Peracarida. This taxon performs brood protection and this might be one of the most important reasons why it is very successful (i.e. abundant and diverse in most terrestrial and aquatic environments, with some species even occupying deserts. The extinction of many decapod crustaceans in the Cenozoic might have allowed the Peracarida to find and use free ecological niches. Therefore the palaeogeographic, palaeoclimatologic, and palaeo-hydrographic changes since the Palaeocene (at least since about 60 Ma ago and the evolutionary success of some peracarid taxa (e.g. Amphipoda, Isopoda led to the evolution of many endemic species in the Antarctic. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic Tanaidacea, Sieg (1988 demonstrated that the tanaid fauna of the Antarctic is mainly represented by phylogenetically younger taxa, and data from other crustacean taxa led Sieg (1988 to conclude that the recent Antarctic crustacean fauna must be comparatively young. His arguments are scrutinized on the basis of more recent data on the phylogeny and biodiversity of crustacean taxa, namely the Ostracoda, Decapoda, Mysidacea, Cumacea, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. This analysis demonstrates that the origin of the Antarctic fauna probably has different roots: an adaptive radiation of descendants from old Gondwanian ancestors was hypothesized for the isopod families Serolidae and Arcturidae, an evolution and radiation of phylogenetically old taxa in Antarctica could also be shown for the Ostracoda and the amphipod family Iphimediidae. A recolonization via the Scotia Arc appears possible for some species, though it is

  15. Temporal variation in Sargassum Biomass, Hypnea epiphytism and associated fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Fosca Pedini Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to investigate the temporal variation in Sargassum biomass, Hypnea epiphytism and associated fauna. There was a marked variation in the biomass of Sargassum and Hypnea among various sampling periods. Low values for Sargassum were recorded in August and November, while the lower value for Hypnea biomass was recorded in August. An inverse relationship was found between Sargassum biomass and the intensity of Hypnea epiphytism. The density of the total fauna associated to Sargassum showed a marked reduction in May. This variation was influenced by the variation patterns of the dominant faunistic groups (Gastropoda, Gammaridea, Isopoda and Caridea. Significant positive relationships were found between the biomass of Sargassum and Sargassum+Hypnea with the total density of all faunistic groups (per macroalgae biomass unit. However, the influence of Hypnea epiphytism on the phytal organisms was not evidenced.

  16. 中国桑树害虫名录(Ⅺ)%Checklist of Mulberry Pests in China (Ⅺ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦冠勤; 孙兴鲁; 毛建萍; 姜德义; 王军; 谭书生

    2010-01-01

    记述了昆虫纲(Insecta)双翅目(Diptera)、缨翅目(Thysanoptera)、等翅目(Isoptera)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、革翅目(Dermaptera)、蜚蠊目(Blattaria)的26种桑树害虫,以及蛛形纲(Arachnida)真螨目(Acariformes)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)等足目(Isopoda)、软体动物门(Mollusca)腹足纲(Gastropoda)柄眼目(Stylommatophora)共28种桑树害虫与危害物种,分别介绍了这些害虫及危害物种的中文名称、学名、寄主种类与主要分布区域,为控制桑树各类有害生物的发生与危害提供相关的基础信息.

  17. OBSERVATION ON THE ENTOMOFAUNA BIODIVERSITY IN SOME CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Mocanu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For gathering the material were used the soil traps type Barber, which were installed in a wheat crop area Tişiţa, Vrancea county. The observations were made in 2013 in May-June. The traps gathering was done on the following dates: 17.05; 29.05; 13.06; 27.06 using three variants: • Option 1 - untreated wheat consumption • Option 2 - treated drinking wheat • Option 3 - treated wheat seed The collected insect species belonging to the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Diptera and Colembolla etc. Were collected in addition to insects, a species belonging to the Subphylum Crustacea, ord. Isopoda and species belonging to the class Arachnida, ord. Araneae.

  18. Metazoan Parasite Infracommunities in Five Sciaenids from the Central Peruvian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliva Marcelo E

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.

  19. Long-term Hg pollution-induced structural shifts of bacterial community in the terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber) gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapanje, Ales; Zrimec, Alexis; Drobne, Damjana; Rupnik, Maja

    2010-10-01

    In previous studies we detected lower species richness and lower Hg sensitivity of the bacteria present in egested guts of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) from chronically Hg polluted than from unpolluted environment. Basis for such results were further investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of mercury-resistant (Hgr) isolates and clone libraries. We observed up to 385 times higher numbers of Hgr bacteria in guts of animals from polluted than from unpolluted environment. The majority of Hgr strains contained merA genes. Sequencing of 16S rRNA clones from egested guts of animals from Hg-polluted environments showed elevated number of bacteria from Pseudomonas, Listeria and Bacteroidetes relatives groups. In animals from pristine environment number of bacteria from Achromobacter relatives, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus, Ochrobactrum relatives, Rhizobium/Agrobacterium, Bacillus and Microbacterium groups were elevated. Such bacterial community shifts in guts of animals from Hg-polluted environment could significantly contribute to P. scaber Hg tolerance.

  20. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber as a biomarker of organophosphorus compounds in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Katja; Gabrijelcic, Elizabeta; Drobne, Damjana; Trebse, Polonca

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon in juvenile and adult terrestrial isopods Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea). The woodlice were exposed to different concentrations of diazinon added to food (5, 10, 50, and 100 or 150 micrograms/g dry food). Weight change and food assimilation efficiency were determined two and four weeks after the exposure. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in surviving animals was measured at the end of the experiment. The results show that woodlice exposed to diazinon do not significantly differ from controls in growth and feeding rate. The reduction of AChE activity was observed at the lowest diazinon exposure (5 and 10 micrograms/g dry food). These results suggest that AChE activity might prove a useful biomarker, indicating low levels of organophosphates in food.

  1. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vieira de Araujo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  2. Biodiversity of macrozoobenthos some running waters of southern Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Sukop

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work gives the results of the research of macrozoobenthos some running waters drai­na­ge areas of the Dyje River (southern Moravia – Czech Republic. Altogether, 762 taxa of macrozoobenthos were determined from the running waters of southern Moravia. Porifera (3, Hydrozoa (3, Turbellaria (8, Nematoda (14, Nematomorpha (1, Oligochaeta (60, Hirudinea (18, Bryozoa (5, Mollusca (44, Isopoda (2, Amphipoda (4, Decapoda (2, Hydracarina (17, Ephemeroptera (65, Plecoptera (55, Odonata (26, Heteroptera (3, Plannipennia (2, Trichoptera (128, Coleoptera (59, Diptera (243. Some taxa of macrozoobenthos are extinct unfortunately in running waters of Southern Moravia at present time. Another ones appear newly, for example snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum from New Zealand or Dreissena polymorpha from Pontic region. The data presented in this paper may serve as a basis for future monitoring of water quality and zoobenthos composition in connection with presumption of climate changes.

  3. The Impact of Geomorphology and Human Disturbances on the Faunal Distributions in Tiquara and Angico Caves of Campo Formoso, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Vieira de Araujo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of fauna is important for the understanding of communities and ecosystems, enabling the design of actions for conservation. In the present piece of work, we identified total 45 morphospecies belonging to the order Acarina, Pseudoscorpionida, Dictyoptera, Araneida, Amblypygi, Isopoda, Plecoptera, Amphipoda, Zygentoma, Spirostreptida, Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Ensifera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Psocoptera from two distinct types of caves of Campo Formoso, state of Bahia in Brazil. It was made to provide subsidies for conservation studies. The targeted caves were Tiquara Cave suffered for many years from saltpeter extraction and Angico Cave less visited cave having high tourist potential. Though the conservation status is much better in Angico cave, but we found comparatively more morphospecies in Tiquara cave.

  4. 南美白对虾养殖一种敌害生物观察及控制初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉佩; 林春友; 崔露文

    2008-01-01

    通过对侵袭南美白对虾一种敌害生物及虫体形态结构观察,初步鉴定该虫为中国急游水虱(Tachaea chinensis Thielemann),隶属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、软甲亚纲(Malacostraca)、等足目(Isopoda)、浪飘水虱亚目(Cymothoidea)、珊瑚水虱科(Corallanidae)、急游水虱属(Tachaea)的种类。首次报道了中国急游水虱对池塘养殖南美白对虾虾苗危害情况,对虫体进行了驱杀试验。

  5. 一种侵袭南美白对虾害虫的形态学观察及其耐受性试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉佩; 林春友

    2008-01-01

    对侵袭南美白对虾的一种虫害进行了首次报道,对虫体进行了形态学描述.初步认定该虫属节肢动物门(Arthropoda)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)、软甲亚纲(Malacostraca)、等足目(Isopoda)、浪飘水虱亚目(Cy-mothoidea)、珊瑚水虱科(Corallanidae)、急游水虱属(Tachaea)、中国急游水虱(Tachaea chinensis Thiele-mann).同时进行了中国急游水虱对盐度、pH及部分药物的耐受性试验,提出了"预防为主"的防治原则.

  6. NOTES ON SOME PREOCCUPIED NAMES IN ARTHROPODA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian F. Kammerer

    2006-01-01

    New replacement names for the preoccupied mite genera Absentia Huang, 2001 and Venilia Kuznetsov, 1979 are proposed (Huangiella nom. nov. and Kuznetsovia nom. nov. , respectively. ). Fourteen further new replacement names are proposed for additional preoccupied generic names in the Arthropoda. These names are: Vailimia nom. nov. , Millidgella nom. nov., and Nolavia nom. nov. in Araneae, Vadumasonium nom. nov. in Hymenoptera, Gridellia nom. nov.,Vanstaronia nom. nov. and Veraniella nom. nov. in Coleoptera, Poletaevega nom. nov. in Trilobita, Vandelia nom. nov.in Isopoda, Gandoa nom. nov. and Vanuachela nom. nov. in Decapoda, and Crasquinia nom. nov. , Oertlia nom. nov. ,and Soleaua nom. nov. in Ostracoda. Additionally, one new annelid replacement name, Omodeodrilus nom. nov., is proposed.

  7. Limnologic-geologic excursion in the territory of the lower Erft River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, G.; Thome, K.N.

    1976-01-01

    The geography and hydrology of the area of the excursion are described. There is much damage due to brown coal strip mining operations. Ground water was drained through a canal leading to the Erft River. The water in nearby springs is rich in Fe which repels plant life. The canal contains only a few blue algae (Oscillatoria splendida) and filamentous green algae (Ulothrix tenerrima) which tolerate high Fe concentrations. The Erft shore plant population includes Sparganium erectum, Potamogeton natans, P. pectinatus and Ranunculus fluitans. On flowering plants and stones, diatoms, various green algae (Cladophora glomerata, Stigeoclonium tenue, Oedogonium capillare) and the tropical red alga Compsopogon hookeri were found. The macrozoobenthos is composed mainly of snails (Bithynia tenaculata, Lumnaea ovata, Physa fontinalis, P. acuta and worms of North American origin (Dugesia tifrina, Dendrocoelum lacteum and Planaria lugubris). The Isopoda included Asellus coxalis and A. aquaticus. Leeches (Herpobdella octoculata) and insect larvae (Chironomids, Limnephilids) were also found.

  8. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  9. MACROZOOBENTHIC COMMUNITIES STRUCTURE CHARACTERISTIC OF CERTAIN TRIBUTARIES OF THE SIRET RIVER FROM HARGHITA, MARAMUREŞ AND VRANCEA MOUNTAINS AND MOLDOVEI PLATEAU

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    Elena-Andreea GHIBUŞI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 35 qualitative macrozoobentonic samples were collected in 2011 from many Siret river tributaries coming from the Harghita Mountains (5 stations, Maramureş Mountains (14 stations, Moldavian Plateau (4 stations and Vrancea Mountains (12 stations. Laboratory analysis of samples revealed the existence of the following 15 groups of benthic invertebrates: Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Oligochaeta, Diptera (Chironomidae, Simuliidae, Ceratopogonidae, Limoniidae, Gastropoda, Bivalva, Coleoptera, Acarina, Odonata, Hirudinea, Isopoda, Heteroptera, Turbellariata and Collembola. Groups that have the highest frequencies were mayflies and dipterans (each with a frequency of 97.1%, followed by caddisflies (80%, amphipods (68.6%, oligochaetes (57.1% and stoneflies (54.3%. Presence of sensitive groups to water quality degradation (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Plecoptera with high frequency shows good quality water at most stations investigated.

  10. Primary Analysis of Sexual Size Dimorphism in Three Species of Pilibug%三种鼠妇两性异型的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴猛; 万洪深; 刘缠民; 孙建梅; 冯照军

    2010-01-01

    球鼠妇(Armadillidium vulgare Latreille)、多霜腊鼠妇(Porcellionides pruinosus Brandt)和光滑鼠妇(Porcellio leavis Latreille)是等足目(Isopoda)动物中不同属的种类.试验分别测定了这三种鼠妇两性之间的体重、体长、体宽、体高、体长/体宽、体长/体高、体宽/体高的数值,统计分析了每种鼠妇两性之间的差异.结果表明,两性球鼠妇差异显著,两性多霜腊鼠妇有一定的差异,两性光滑鼠妇差异不显著.该结果提示等足类动物的两性异型存在多样性.

  11. Terrestrial cave invertebrates of the Vrachanska Planina Mountains

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    PETAR BERON

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern biospeleological research in Bulgaria started in 1921 in the Ledenika Cave. From 65 caves of “Vrachanski Balkan” Nature Park and its surroundings have been recorded a total of 218 species of terrestrial invertebrates, including 32 species of troglobionts, most of them endemic to Vrachanska Planina Mts. (including the caves near Lakatnik: Isopoda Oniscoidea – 4, Chilopoda – 1, Diplopoda – 5, Opiliones – 2, Pseudoscorpiones – 3, Araneae – 3, Collembola – 2, Diplura – 2, Coleoptera, Carabidae – 7, Coleoptera, Leiodidae – 3. Troglobites are known from 51 caves, the richest being the caves near Lakatnik (Temnata dupka - 10, Zidanka - 7, Razhishkata dupka - 5, Svinskata dupka - 6, Kozarskata peshtera - 5, near Vratsa (Ledenika - 11, Barkite 8 - 5, Belyar - 6, Toshova dupka near Glavatsi - 6 and others.

  12. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil

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    D. R. Lammel

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC, organic (OC and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB or Arachis pintoi (IA were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC, microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN, microbial activity (C-CO2, metabolic quotient (qCO2, the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  13. Microbiological and faunal soil attributes of coffee cultivation under different management systems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, D R; Azevedo, L C B; Paula, A M; Armas, R D; Baretta, D; Cardoso, E J B N

    2015-11-01

    Brazil is the biggest coffee producer in the world and different plantation management systems have been applied to improve sustainability and soil quality. Little is known about the environmental effects of these different management systems, therefore, the goal of this study was to use soil biological parameters as indicators of changes. Soils from plantations in Southeastern Brazil with conventional (CC), organic (OC) and integrated management systems containing intercropping of Brachiaria decumbens (IB) or Arachis pintoi (IA) were sampled. Total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), microbial activity (C-CO2), metabolic quotient (qCO2), the enzymes dehydrogenase, urease, acid phosphatase and arylsulphatase, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization and number of spores and soil fauna were evaluated. The greatest difference between the management systems was seen in soil organic matter content. The largest quantity of TOC was found in the OC, and the smallest was found in IA. TOC content influenced soil biological parameters. The use of all combined attributes was necessary to distinguish the four systems. Each management presented distinct faunal structure, and the data obtained with the trap method was more reliable than the TSBF (Tropical Soils) method. A canonic correlation analysis showed that Isopoda was correlated with TOC and the most abundant order with OC. Isoptera was the most abundant faunal order in IA and correlated with MBC. Overall, OC had higher values for most of the biological measurements and higher populations of Oligochaeta and Isopoda, corroborating with the concept that the OC is a more sustainable system.

  14. Monogenoidea (Polyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of marine catfish (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting the Atlantic Amazon Coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Marcus V; Soares, Geusivam B; Watanabe, Alana

    2016-06-23

    A parasitological survey of monogenoids infesting the gills of marine catfish (Ariidae) captured from the Atlantic coastal region of the Amazon Basin was carried out during the 2011-2013 period. The gills of 448 specimens involving twelve ariid species (29 Amphiarius rugispinis (Valenciennes), 52 Aspistor quadriscutis (Valenciennes), 74 Bagre bagre (Linnaeus), 16 Cathorops arenatus (Valenciennes), 13 Cathorops agassizii (Eigenmann & Eigenmann), 17 Cathorops spixii (Agassiz), 3 Cathorops sp., 13 Notarius grandicassis (Valenciennes), 14 Sciades couma (Valenciennes), 64 Sciades herzbergii (Bloch), 48 Sciades parkeri (Traill), 13 Sciades passany (Valenciennes), 92 Sciades proops (Valenciennes) were sampled. No monogenoids were found in Cathorops agassizi, Cathorops arenatus, Cathorops spixii, Cathorops sp. and Sciades parkeri, but the gills of the other sampled species were parasitized by at least one species of monogenoid. We identified four new species of Chauhanellus and one new species of Hamatopeduncularia: Chauhanellus hamatopeduncularoideum n. sp. from Amphiarius rugispinis and Sciades couma; Chauhanellus hypenocleithrum n. sp. from Sciades proops; Chauhanellus susamlimae n. sp. from Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus velum n. sp. from Sciades couma, Sciades herzbergii and Sciades passany; and Hamatopeduncularia cangatae n. sp. from Aspistor quadriscutis and Notarius grandicassis. Four previously described species were reported for the first time parasitizing ariids from Atlantic Amazon: Chauhanellus neotropicalis Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Amphiarius rugispinis, Aspistor quadriscutis, Notarius grandicassis and Sciades passany; Chauhanellus boegeri Domingues & Fehlauer, 2006 from Sciades couma and Sciades herzbergii; Hamatopeduncularia bagre Hargis, 1955 from Bagre bagre; and Neomurraytrematoides proops Zambrano & Añez 1993 from Sciades passany. The monotypic Neomurraytrematoides Zambrano & Añez 1993 was placed in synonymy with

  15. Hábitos de Vida dos Gastropoda e Bellerophontida da Formação Maecuru,Devoniano Médio, Bacia do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Luiza Corral Martins de Oliveira Ponciano

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Maecuru Formation comprises the Devonian-Carboniferous sedimentary sequence of Amazonas Basin and consists of fluvialdeltaics and pelites layers. Its fossiliferous sediments (the uppermost part of the Lontra Member consists of hummocky cross-stratified fine-grained to very coarse sandstones beds.With the purpose of adding more information about the palaeoecology of The Maecuru Formation fossils, the life habits of gastropods and bellerophontids were inferred based on functional analysis and similarities with the living forms. The more significant features used were: (1 total frontal cross-sectional area, (2height and relative positions of pressure point and center of gravity, (3 apertural margin morphology, (4 kind of symmetry and (5surface smoothness. The species Platyceras (Orthonychia steinmanni; Platyceras (Tumbophalus hartti; Platyceras (Platyostomadarwini; Platyceras (Platyostoma (? agassizi; Platyceras (Orthonychia meerwarthi; Platyceras (Orthonychia gracilis; Platyceras (Tumbophalus coutoanus; “Platyceras” tschernischewi; “Platyceras” subconicum; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia hussaki; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia whitii; “Platyceras” (Ortonychia whitii var. curua and “Platyceras” symmetricum var. maecuruensis represent the epifaunal gastropods with low mobility (coprophagous/suspension feeders of the Maecuru Formation, living symbiotically directly over the anus of a crinoid or nearby. This coprophagous mode of life was probably a non-obligate relationship, because only the closest organisms will get all the advantages of using the crinoid host as a nutrient source. The others adult platyceratids would have a broader feeding repertoire, like as suspension feeders. The bellerophonts Plectonotus (Plectonotus derbyi, Plectonotus (? (Plectonotus salteri e Bucanella reissi would have an epifaunal medium to high mobility, showing a predator habit preferably. On the other hand Bucania freitasi, Ptomatis forbesi and

  16. Influence of moisture conditions and mineralization of soil solution on structure of litter macrofauna of the deciduous forests of Ukraine steppe zone

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    V. V. Brygadyrenko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of litter mesofauna was carried out in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhya, Nikolaev,Donetsk regions of Ukrainein the natural forest ecosystems in 2001–2014. 339 forest ecosystems were surveyed; xeromesophilic conditions of moistening were characteristic for 47 trial sites, mesophilic conditions – for 99 sites, hygro-mesophilic conditions – for 50 sites, meso-hygrophilic conditions – for 89 sites, hygrophilic conditions – for 54 sites; trophotope C was represented by 35 trial sites, Dc – by 44, Dac – by 76, Dn – by 128, De – by 37, E – by 19 forest ecosystems, accordingly. The relative number of saprophages reaches maximum values in hygro-mesophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions, and minimum values – in mesophilic conditions of moistening. The share of rare species is maximum in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening. The minimum quantity of mass species is also observed in conditions of hygro-mesophilic and meso-hygrophilic deciduous forests. With the growth of moistening of the soil, quantity of species of Carabidae, Formicidae and other dominant families remains without significant changes. The relative number of Formicidae is maximum in xeromesophilic and mesophilic conditions of soil moistening. In these hygrotopes, as well as in hygro-mesophilic conditions of moistening the Julidae numbers are maximum. The Isopoda percent in mesofauna significantly grows in meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic conditions of moistening. The share of other dominant taxonomical groups in the structure of litter mesofauna remains without significant changes in numbers. In the majority of the analysed hygrotopes 7–8 families are withing the structure of dominants. In the conditions of salinization (trophotopes De and E, and also on light sandy loam soils, the numbers of litter mesofauna decrease. Share of saprophages is minimum in trophotopes Dc and E, while it increases in trophotopes C, Dac, Dn

  17. Field Documentation of Unusual Post-Mortem Arthropod Activity on Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Crippen, Tawni L; Tarone, Aaron M; Singh, Baneshwar; Lenhart, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    During a forensic investigation, the presence of physical marks on human remains can influence the interpretation of events related to the death of an individual. Some tissue injury on human remains can be misinterpreted as ante- or peri-mortem wounds by an investigator when in reality the markings resulted from post-mortem arthropod activity. Unusual entomological data were collected during a study examining the decomposition of a set of human remains in San Marcos, Texas. An adult female Pediodectes haldemani (Girard) (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and an Armadillidium cf. vulgare (Isopoda: Armadilidiidae) were documented feeding on the remains. Both arthropods produced physical marks or artifacts on the remains that could be misinterpreted as attack, abuse, neglect, or torture. Additionally, red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), were observed constructing structures in the mark produced by the P. haldemani feeding. These observations provide insight into the potential of post-mortem arthropod damage to human remains, which previously had not been described for these taxa, and therefore, physical artifacts on any remains found in similar circumstances may result from arthropod activity and not ante- or peri-mortem wounds. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Temporal and spatial changes in the diet of Hyla pulchella (Anura, Hylidae in southern Uruguay

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    Inés da Rosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we report the diet of a population of the hylid frogHyla pulchella from southeastern Uruguay. We collected the specimens in ponds, where we identified microenvironments defined by the invertebrate assemblage, during one year divided into two seasons (warm and cold. We taxonomically determined 10365 invertebrates belonging to 21 categories in the digestive tracts of frogs. Weestimated the diversity of the diet and alimentary preference according to microenvironments and seasons. We estimated the expected richness of both diet and prey availability using a null model based on the hypergeometric distribution. We performed Discriminant Analyses and Kruskal-Wallis tests to detect changes in prey availability among microenvironments and between seasons. The overall diet in terms of frequencies was composed primarily of arthropods (mainly Araneae, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Coleoptera and in terms of volume, by larvae. The most relevantitems to study the microenvironmental and seasonal variation in the available preys were Araneae, Collembola, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and larvae. Based on the null model curves and preference indexes we inferred positive selection by larvae, Isopoda, Dictioptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera, and negative selection by Collembola and Hymenoptera. The diversityof diet and the null model curves indicated that the diet changes among microenvironments and seasons. This frog may be considered as a middle generalist predator, with some selective behavior and a combined search strategy (active and sit-and-wait. We conclude that the knowledge about the availability of preys is a relevant tool for trophic studies.

  19. Taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarid crustaceans in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico

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    Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP, and their relationship with depth. Methods Three reef sites were selected: (1 Bonanza, (2 Bocana, and (3 Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef, 6–8 m (fore-reef, and 10–12 m (fore-reef. Results A total of 8,887 peracarid crustaceans belonging to 200 taxa distributed over five orders and 63 families was obtained; 70% of the taxa were identified to species and 25% to genus level. Fifty species of those collected represent new records for the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Isopoda was the most speciose order while Tanaidacea was the most abundant. Discussion Cryptic peracarid taxonomic richness and abundance were related to depth with higher values of both parameters being found in the shallow (3 m back-reef, possibly due to a higher reef development and a greater accumulation of coral rubble produced during hurricanes. Peracarid data obtained in the present study can be used as a baseline for future monitoring programs in the PMRNP.

  20. Focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in tissue structural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Vladka; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco; Tkalec, Ziva Pipan; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana

    2010-10-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are commonly used in material sciences for imaging and analysis of materials. Over the last decade, the combined FIB/SEM system has proven to be also applicable in the life sciences. We have examined the potential of the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope system for the investigation of biological tissues of the model organism Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Tissue from digestive glands was prepared as for conventional SEM or as for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. FIB-milled regions were secondary electron imaged, back-scattered electron imaged, or energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzed. Our results demonstrated that FIB/SEM enables simultaneous investigation of sample gross morphology, cell surface characteristics, and subsurface structures. The same FIB-exposed regions were analyzed by EDX to provide basic compositional data. When samples were prepared as for TEM, the information obtained with FIB/SEM is comparable, though at limited magnification, to that obtained from TEM. A combination of imaging, micro-manipulation, and compositional analysis appears of particular interest in the investigation of epithelial tissues, which are subjected to various endogenous and exogenous conditions affecting their structure and function. The FIB/SEM is a promising tool for an overall examination of epithelial tissue under normal, stressed, or pathological conditions.

  1. Internalization of Consumed TiO2 Nanoparticles by a Model Invertebrate Organism

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    Sara Novak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little in vivo data concerning the fate of ingested TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2. We report here experiments aimed at assessing if ingested nano-TiO2 accumulates in the digestive gland epithelium or are internalized elsewhere in the body of the terrestrial isopod crustaceans. The animals (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea fed for 3, 7, or 14 days on food dosed with 100 or 1000 μg nano-TiO2 showed no evidence of internalization of Ti measured by microparticle-induced X-ray emission method. The effect of ingested nanoparticles was measured by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change, and mortality and did not indicate any toxicity. However, cell membrane of digestive glands, measured with a modified method for assessing cell membrane stability, was affected already after 3 days of exposure to 1000 μg nano-TiO2 per gram dry weight of food indicating cytotoxic potential of ingested nanoparticles. Our results confirmed hypothesis on low toxic potential and no internalization of consumed TiO2 nanoparticles by a model invertebrate organism. However, cytological marker unequivocally indicated adverse effect of ingested nano-TiO2. We conclude that the isopod model system could be used for studying the fate and effect of ingested nanoparticles.

  2. Composition and abundance of epibenthic-sledge catches in the South Polar Front of the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A.; Havermans, C.; Janussen, D.; Jörger, K. M.; Meyer-Löbbecke, A.; Schnurr, S.; Schüller, M.; Schwabe, E.; Brandão, S. N.; Würzberg, L.

    2014-10-01

    An epibenthic sledge (EBS) was deployed at seven different deep-sea stations along the South Polar Front of the Atlantic in order to explore the composition and abundance of macrofaunal organisms and to identify the most abundant taxa in this transition zone to the Southern Ocean. In total 3,130 specimens were sampled by means of the EBS on board of RV Polarstern during the expedition ANT-XXVIII/3 in the austral summer of 2012. Benthic and suprabenthic Crustacea occurred to be most frequent in the samples. Among those, copepods were by far most numerous, with 1,585 specimens followed by the peracarid taxa Isopoda (236 ind.), Amphipoda (103 ind.), Tanaidacea (78 ind.) and Cumacea (50 ind.). Annelida were represented by a high number of specimens belonging to different polychaete taxa (404 ind.). The molluscan fauna was clearly dominated by Bivalvia (255 ind.), followed in numbers of specimens by Gastropoda (47 ind.). The deep-sea benthos sampled along the Southern Polar Front occurred in surprisingly low abundances, contrasting the largely high surface productivity of the area. Numbers of specimens across different macrofaunal taxa and especially of peracarid crustaceans underscored by far those from South Ocean sites at higher latitudes in the Weddell Sea.

  3. Effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide on terrestrial isopods (Porcellio scaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Remskar, Maja; Sepcić, Kristina; Tisler, Tatjana

    2008-09-01

    The effects of ingested nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2; anatase, 15 nm) on the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) after short-term (3-d) dietary exposure were studied. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), in digestive glands were affected in a dose-independent manner, but higher-level isopod endpoints, including weight change, feeding rate, food assimilation efficiency, and survival, were not affected up to the highest tested concentration of TiO2 in food (3,000 microg/g). Exposure concentrations of 0.5, 2,000, and 3,000 microg nonsonicated TiO2/g food decreased CAT and GST activities, but intermediate concentrations (1, 10, 100, and 1,000 microg/g food) did not result in significant changes of enzyme activities. When the dispersion of TiO2 was sonicated, no effects on enzyme activities or higher-level biomarkers were observed. The experimental setup with terrestrial isopods designed for dissolved chemicals also is suitable for testing the effects of ingested nanoparticles, but the presentation of toxicity data needs to be adapted according to the mode of action of the nanoparticles and their specific characteristics.

  4. A 4D-microscopic analysis of the germ band in the isopod crustacean Porcellio scaber (Malacostraca, Peracarida)-developmental and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejnol, Andreas; Schnabel, Ralf; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    Malacostracan crustaceans have evolved a conserved stereotyped cell division pattern in the post-naupliar germ band. This cleavage pattern is unique in arthropods investigated so far, and allows a combined analysis of gene expression and cell lineage during segmentation and organ development at the level of individual cells. To investigate the cell lineage in the germ band of the isopod Porcellio scaber, we used a 4D-microscopy system, which enables us to analyse every cell event in the living embryo. The study was combined with the analysis of the expression of the gene engrailed (en) at different stages of germ band formation. Our findings confirm the results of earlier investigations of the cell division pattern in the posterior part of the isopod germ band. Furthermore, we can show that in the anterior region, in contrast to the posterior part, cleavage directions are variable and cell sorting takes place-similar to other arthropod germ bands. Additionally, the gene expression pattern of en in this region is not as regular as in the post-naupliar germ band, and only later becomes regulated into its characteristic stripe pattern. The comparison of the cell lineage of P. scaber with that of other malacostracan crustaceans shows an enhancement in the velocity of cell divisions relative to the arrangement of these cells in rows in the isopod germ band. The striking similarity of the formation of the genealogical units in the anterior part suggests a sister group relationship between the peracarid taxa Tanaidacea and Isopoda.

  5. Woodlouse Porcellio scaber as a biological indicator of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkin, S.P.; Hardisty, G.N.; Martin, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper were determined in the hepatopancreas and whole body of the woodlouse. Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) and soil and leaf litter collected from 89 sites in the counties of Avon and Somerset, south-west England. Maps were drawn to compare the regional distribution of concentrations of metals in the samples. The main source of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution was centered on Avonmouth to the north-west of Bristol, the site of a primary zinc, lead, and cadmium smelting works. Concentrations of all four metals in the hepatopancreas, whole woodlice, soil and leaf litter were above background levels over a large area on all maps which, in the case of cadmium in the hepatopancreas, extended for 25 km to the east of the smelting works. The correlation coefficients between the concentrations of each metal in woodlice and soil, and between woodlice and leaf litter, were positive and statistically significant in all cases. At individual sites, however, particularly those associated with disused mining areas, rubbish tips or busy roads, the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper in woodlice could not have been predicted accurately from the levels of metals in leaf litter or soil due to the large scatter of data points along the lines of best fit.

  6. Imaging of intracellular spherical lamellar structures and tissue gross morphology by a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: damjana.drobne@bf.uni-lj.si; Milani, Marziale [Materials Science Department, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Leser, Vladka [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tatti, Francesco [FEI Italia, Via Cervi 40, I-00139 Roma (Italy); Zrimec, Alexis [Institute of Physical Biology, Velika Loka 90, SI-1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia); Znidarsic, Nada; Kostanjsek, Rok; Strus, Jasna [Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    We report the use of a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) for simultaneous investigation of digestive gland epithelium gross morphology and ultrastructure of multilamellar intracellular structures. Digestive glands of a terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea) were examined by FIB/SEM and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained by FIB/SEM and by TEM are comparable and complementary. The FIB/SEM shows the same ultrastructural complexity of multilamellar intracellular structures as indicated by TEM. The term lamellar bodies was used for the multillamellar structures in the digestive glands of P. scaber due to their structural similarity to the lamellar bodies found in vertebrate lungs. Lamellar bodies in digestive glands of different animals vary in their abundance, and number as well as the thickness of concentric lamellae per lamellar body. FIB/SEM revealed a connection between digestive gland gross morphological features and the structure of lamellar bodies. Serial slicing and imaging of cells enables easy identification of the contact between a lamellar body and a lipid droplet. There are frequent reports of multilamellar intracellular structures in different vertebrate as well as invertebrate cells, but laminated cellular structures are still poorly known. The FIB/SEM can significantly contribute to the structural knowledge and is always recommended when a link between gross morphology and ultrastrucutre is investigated, especially when cells or cellular inclusions have a dynamic nature due to normal, stressed or pathological conditions.

  7. Bioavailability of cobalt and iron from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 nanoparticles in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romih, Tea; Drašler, Barbara; Jemec, Anita; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Golobič, Miha; Makovec, Darko; Susič, Robert; Kogej, Ksenija

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether citric acid adsorbed onto cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles (NPs) influences the bioavailability of their constituents Co and Fe. Dissolution of Co and Fe was assessed by two measures: (i) in aqueous suspension using chemical analysis, prior to application onto the food of test organisms; and (ii) in vivo, measuring the bioavailability in the model terrestrial invertebrate (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea). The isopods were exposed to citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs for 2 weeks, and tissue accumulation of Co and Fe was assessed. This was compared to pristine CoFe2O4 NPs, and CoCl2 and Fe(III) salts as positive controls. The combined data shows that citric acid enhances free metal ion concentration from CoFe2O4 NPs in aqueous suspension, although in vivo, very similar amounts of assimilated Co were found in isopods exposed to both types of NPs. Therefore, evaluation of the dissolution in suspension by chemical means is not a good predictor of metal assimilation of this model organism; body assimilation of Co and Fe is rather governed by the physiological capacity of P. scaber for the uptake of these metals. Moreover, we propose that citric acid, due to its chelating properties, may hinder the uptake of Co that dissolves from citric-acid-adsorbed CoFe2O4 NPs, if citric acid is present in sufficient quantity.

  8. Benthic Crustacea from tropical and temperate reef locations: differences in assemblages and their relationship with habitat structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael J.; Bellwood, David R.; Taylor, Richard B.; Bellwood, Orpha

    2017-09-01

    Tropical and temperate marine habitats have long been recognised as fundamentally different system, yet comparative studies are rare, particularly for small organisms such as Crustacea. This study investigates the ecological attributes (abundance, biomass and estimated productivity) of benthic Crustacea in selected microhabitats from a tropical and a temperate location, revealing marked differences in the crustacean assemblages. In general, microhabitats from the tropical location (dead coral, the epilithic algal matrix [algal turfs] and sand) supported high abundances of small individuals (mean length = 0.53 mm vs. 0.96 mm in temperate microhabitats), while temperate microhabitats (the brown seaweed Carpophyllum sp., coralline turf and sand) had substantially greater biomasses of crustaceans and higher estimated productivity rates. In both locations, the most important microhabitats for crustaceans (per unit area) were complex structures: tropical dead coral and temperate Carpophyllum sp. It appears that the differences between microhabitats are largely driven by the size and relative abundance of key crustacean groups. Temperate microhabitats have a higher proportion of relatively large Peracarida (Amphipoda and Isopoda), whereas tropical microhabitats are dominated by small detrital- and microalgal-feeding crustaceans (harpacticoid copepods and ostracods). These differences highlight the vulnerability of tropical and temperate systems to the loss of complex benthic structures and their associated crustacean assemblages.

  9. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  10. Establishment and use of a combined test system for assessing the toxicity of environmentally relevant pollutants in soil.- Optimization of keeping conditions in the laboratory and bionomic investigations. Final report; Etablierung und Anwendung eines kombinierten Testsystems zur Beurteilung der Toxizitaet umweltrelevanter Schadstoffe in Boeden. Optimierung der Laborhaltung und bionomische Untersuchungen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunger, W.; Mattern, D.; Reise, H.; Schulz, H.J.; Barth, V.; Roemer, M.; Voigtlaender, K.; Zimdars, B.

    1997-12-31

    In order to establish how organisms can be kept with low stress or free of stress in the laboratory, test species from the Oberlausitz region were chosen. The species belong to the groups of soil-living organisms Collembola, Isopoda, and Gastropoda. Keeping results may be considered as confirmed and as suitable for stress investigations. Successful optimization of keeping is only possible for a single species in each case (generalists excepted).- As applicable vital parameters both to confirm keeping success and to assess the impact of sublethal doses of stressors (heavy metals, insecticides), the following were established (in this order of sequence): reproductive success, growth (change of biomass, sloughing), mortality and, with restrictions, activity (running and foraging activity).- As expected, the effect of the heavy metals used was found to depend on their concentration. Increased mortality as a rule was only found in the wake of cadmium contaminations; reduced growth and, especially, reduced reproduction was triggered also by lead and zinc contaminations. With this regard, subtle differentiations were established. Use of Lindan in the specified dosage proved to have almost no impact during the (short) test period. (orig./MG)

  11. Different acute toxicity of fipronil baits on invasive Linepithema humile supercolonies and some non-target ground arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Kuwayama, Naoki; Takeo, Azuma; Ishida, Takanobu; Mano, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Maki N; Nagai, Takashi; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi; Sawahata, Takuo

    2015-08-01

    Fipronil is one of the most effective insecticides to control the invasive ant Linepithema humile, but its effectiveness has been assessed without considering the genetic differences among L. humile supercolonies. We hypothesized that the susceptibility of the ant to fipronil might differ among supercolonies. If so, dosage and concentration of fipronil may need to be adjusted for effective eradication of each supercolony. The relative sensitivities of four L. humile supercolonies established in Hyogo (Japan) to fipronil baits were examined based on their acute toxicity (48-h LC(50)). Toxicities of fipronil to seven ground arthropods, including four native ant species, one native isopoda, and two cockroaches were also determined and compared to that of L. humile supercolonies using species sensitivity distributions. Marked differences in susceptibility of fipronil were apparent among the supercolonies (P non-target species (330-2327 μg L(-1)) were in the same range as that of L. humile, and SSDs between the two species groups were not significantly different (t = -1.389, P = 0.180), suggesting that fipronil's insecticidal activity is practically the same for L. humile as for non-target arthropods. Therefore, if the invasive ant is to be controlled using fipronil, this would also affect the local arthropod biodiversity. Only the 'Japanese main supercolony' can be controlled with appropriate bait dosages of fipronil that would have little impact on the other species.

  12. Taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarid crustaceans in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Velázquez, Luz Veronica; Rodríguez-Martínez, Rosa Elisa; Alvarez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP), and their relationship with depth. Three reef sites were selected: (1) Bonanza, (2) Bocana, and (3) Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef), 6-8 m (fore-reef), and 10-12 m (fore-reef). A total of 8,887 peracarid crustaceans belonging to 200 taxa distributed over five orders and 63 families was obtained; 70% of the taxa were identified to species and 25% to genus level. Fifty species of those collected represent new records for the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Isopoda was the most speciose order while Tanaidacea was the most abundant. Cryptic peracarid taxonomic richness and abundance were related to depth with higher values of both parameters being found in the shallow (3 m) back-reef, possibly due to a higher reef development and a greater accumulation of coral rubble produced during hurricanes. Peracarid data obtained in the present study can be used as a baseline for future monitoring programs in the PMRNP.

  13. Stomach contents of the catfishes Osteogeneiosus militaris (Linnaeus, 1758 and Arius maculatus (Thunberg, 1792 in the Songkhla Lake

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    Angsupanich, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The catfishes, Osteogeneiosus militaris and Arius maculatus, were collected from Songkhla Lake, southern Thailand at two sites that varied in the extent to which they were exposed to higher salinity (the Outer Songkhla Lake and which were exposed to lower salinity (the Inner Songkhla Lake. Both fish species were carnivores feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates with regard to its major components of Tanaidacea, Amphipoda, Bivalvia, Polychaeta and Isopoda. Tanaidacean (Apseudes sapensis clearly dominated the diets of O. militaris in both sites ranging from 33.3 to 96.7% by frequency of occurrence and 23.5 to 90.2% by number. Amphipods were the most dominant prey of A. maculatus ranging from 40.0 to 93.3% by frequency of occurrence and 7.0-60.2% by number. Although Polychaeta were less numerically abundantly eaten by catfishes (0.4-6.4%, the frequency of occurrence was high (10.0-86.7% in almost all seasons. Some other large (Alpheidae and fish larvae and fast mobile animals (Mysidacea were much more commonly found in A. maculatus than in O. militaris. This study implies that these catfish species feed opportunistically on a variety of prey in their environment coupled with preferential feeding.

  14. Epifaunal assemblage on morphologically distinct intertidal seaweeds of Kodiyaghat (South Andaman, India

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    I. Anandavelu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macroalgae termed seaweed occupy coastal environments primarily on rocky intertidal areas. However, it has significant role by adding spatial complexity to the substratum and alter accessibility to other faunal and floral community. The studies of potential benefits of seaweeds have encouraged extensively yielding industrial, medicinal, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The present study deals with the quantitative distribution of epifaunal community associated with seaweeds of South Andaman and the influence of conspicuous morphology of seaweed on the assemblage of epifauna were compared. Galaxura sp. and Halimeda tuna supported higher faunal density than other seaweeds, with the respective mean density of 139.2 and 104.5 nos. per 100g of algal wet weight. Sargassum duplicatum held the lowest epifaunal density. Arthropoda was the major group found in this study, dominated by the Amphipoda (35.1%, Mysida (19.4% and Isopoda (2.8% followed by Annelida (20.1% and Mollusca (12%. The result indicated that the distribution and abundance of epifauna differ based on the structural morphology among macroalgal species which forms suitable habitat for these organisms. The present study suggests that the sediment retention capacity of weeds might play an important role on the assemblage of epifaunal community.

  15. Diet of Ctenogobius shufeldti (Jordan and Eigenmann, 1887 (Teleostei, Gobiidae in Guaratuba Bay, subtropical west Atlantic

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    Diego Zanlorenzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The diet composition of the American freshwater goby, Ctenogobius shufeldti, was investigated in an estuarine area and two of its tributaries. 397 individuals, total length from 21 to 70mm, were sampled over a period of 12 months and their stomach contents were analysed by the Frequency of Occurrence and Number of Points methods. According to the Alimentary Index, diet was constituted mainly by Ostracoda (IA=50.51 and Tanaidacea (IA=40.85, and secondarily by Gastropoda (IA=1.21, Amphipoda (IA=0.10, Isopoda (IA=0.01, Cirripedia (IA=0.01, Decapoda larvae (IA=0.01, Insecta (IA=0.01, Chlorophyta (IA=2.15 and Rodophyta (IA=0.15 filamentous algae, and plants (IA=4.99. Diversity of diet was higher in rivers than in the Bay. Except for Decapoda larvae, items found in the two rivers were the same. In the Bay, Amphipoda and Cirripedia were not found. Previous to this research, the filamentous algae Chlorophyta and Rodophyta had not been noted in the diet of this species in estuaries close to Guaratuba. In view of this, and regarding the possible roles played by cryptobenthic fish species in aquatic communities (Depczynski and Bellwood, 2003, it is concluded that C. shufeldti takes part in trophic dynamics feeding on benthic organisms as well as on algae, a behaviour that can result from both marine and continental influences existing in the region.

  16. Wolbachia symbiosis and insect immune response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stefanos Siozios; Panagiotis Sapountzis; Panagiotis Ioannidis; Kostas Bourtzis

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial intracellular symbiosis is very common in insects, having significant consequences in promoting the evolution of life and biodiversity. The bacterial group that has recently attracted particular attention is Wolbachia pipientis which probably represents the most ubiquitous endosymbiont on the planet. W. pipientis is a Gram-negative obligatory intracellular and maternally transmitted α-proteobacterium, that is able to establish symbiotic associations with arthropods and nematodes. In arthropods, Wolbachia pipientis infections have been described in Arachnida, in Isopoda and mainly in Insecta. They have been reported in almost all major insect orders including Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera,Hymenoptera, Orthoptera and Lepidoptera. To enhance its transmission, W. pipientis can manipulate host reproduction by inducing parthenogenesis, feminization, male killing and cytoplasmic incompatibility. Several polymerase chain reaction surveys have indicated that up to 70% of all insect species may be infected with W. pipientis. How does W. pipientis manage to get established in diverse insect host species? How is this intracellular bacterial symbiont species so successful in escaping the host immune response? The present review presents recent advances and ongoing scientific efforts in the field. The current body of knowledge in the field is summarized, revelations from the available genomic information are presented and as yet unanswered questions are discussed in an attempt to present a comprehensive picture of the unique ability of W. pipientis to establish symbiosis and to manipulate reproduction while evading the host's immune system.

  17. Diversity of Southern Ocean deep-sea benthos between cosmopolitism and cryptic speciation: new species from the ANDEEP expeditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Myriam; Brandt, Angelika; Ebbe, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    The richness of life in parts of the earth that to us appear inhospitable and remote never fails to fascinate scientists and non-scientists alike. The largest ecosystem of the planet, the abyssal plains of the world ocean, makes up about 90 percent of the seafloor and thus nearly 78 percent of the Earth’s surface, yet only a minor fraction of this huge environment has been investigated. Authors have questioned repeatedly "how many species would live on earth and in the ocean" (Mora et al. 2011; May 2011), and recent estimations predict ~ 8.7 million (+/- 1.3 million SE) eukaryotic species globally, with 2.2 million of these being marine (Mora et al. 2011). To date, 91 % of all marine species still await description. Other authors concluded that marine biodiversity is grossly underestimated (Bouchet 2006) because so far, only one-third of all species descriptions concerns marine biota (Reaka-Kudla 1997; Groombridge & Jenkins 2000, Grassle 2001, Boltovskoy et al. 2005). We know that marine live thrives even in hadal trenches (Jamieson et al. 2009), that biogeographic ranges in the deep sea are dynamic (McClain & Mincks Hardy 2010) and that the origin of the modern deep-sea fauna is ancient (Thuy et al. 2012). For example, the origin of Isopoda dates back to Permo-Triassic times (232– 314 mya; Lins et al. 2012).

  18. Possible effects of global environmental changes on Antarctic benthos: a synthesis across five major taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, Jeroen; Vanreusel, Ann; Brandt, Angelika; Catarino, Ana I; David, Bruno; De Ridder, Chantal; Dubois, Philippe; Gooday, Andrew J; Martin, Patrick; Pasotti, Francesca; Robert, Henri

    2012-02-01

    Because of the unique conditions that exist around the Antarctic continent, Southern Ocean (SO) ecosystems are very susceptible to the growing impact of global climate change and other anthropogenic influences. Consequently, there is an urgent need to understand how SO marine life will cope with expected future changes in the environment. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity to environmental shifts, making it difficult to predict overall community or ecosystem responses. This emphasizes the need for an improved understanding of the Antarctic benthic ecosystem response to global climate change using a multitaxon approach with consideration of different levels of biological organization. Here, we provide a synthesis of the ability of five important Antarctic benthic taxa (Foraminifera, Nematoda, Amphipoda, Isopoda, and Echinoidea) to cope with changes in the environment (temperature, pH, ice cover, ice scouring, food quantity, and quality) that are linked to climatic changes. Responses from individual to the taxon-specific community level to these drivers will vary with taxon but will include local species extinctions, invasions of warmer-water species, shifts in diversity, dominance, and trophic group composition, all with likely consequences for ecosystem functioning. Limitations in our current knowledge and understanding of climate change effects on the different levels are discussed.

  19. Biodiversity and community structure of zooplankton in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim, Sergipe, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Maria de Souza Nogueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The zooplankton of aquatic environments is composed mostly of protozoans, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods, which play an important role in the food chain, transferring mass and energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. This work was prepared with the objective of contributing to the knowledge of zooplankton biodiversity that occurs in the Sub-basin of Rio Poxim. Water samples were taken at monthly intervals at four sampling stations located along the sub-basin in the period August 2009 to July 2010. To obtain the zooplankton community, 100 L of water were filtered on nylon net with an aperture of 50 mm. Were identified 72 taxa distributed in the following taxonomic categories Rotifera, Protozoa, Porifera, Nematoda, Anellida, Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Isopoda and Insecta. In terms of species richness, the phylum Rotifera followed by the Protoctista were the most relevant with forty and fifteen taxa, respectively. The most representative taxa in numerical terms were Arcella vulgaris, Notholca sp. Rotary sp. and nematodes. Regarding the community diversity index, the community was characterized as low diversity, but the taxa were distributed evenly in all monitoring points.

  20. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú Arthropofauna of forensic importance in pig carcass in Callao, Peru

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    José Iannacone

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758 on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 (Diptera, Calliphoridae (81.62%; Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Dermestidae (16.35%; Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761 (Diptera, Muscidae (0.04%; Saprinus aeneus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Histeridae (1.48%; Necrobia rufipes (De Geer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Cleridae (0.45%; Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (0.02%; Porcellio laevis Latreille, 1804 (Isopoda, Porcellionidae (0.02% and Hadruroides lunatus (L. Koch, 1867 (Scorpionida, Iuridae (0.02%. Larvae accounted for 76%, pupae 14% and adults 10% of the total collected. The arthropods were into three: necrophages (98.01%, predators (1.95% and omnivorous (0.04%. C. macellaria were significantly higher during the decayed stage; by contrast D. maculatus was much higher in dry remains stage. The highest diversity with the Shannon-Weaver (H' and Pielou (J index were found during the advanced decayed stage. The absence of species of genus Chrysomyia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is discussed.

  1. Long-term Hg pollution-induced structural shifts of bacterial community in the terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber) gut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapanje, Ales, E-mail: ales@ifb.s [Institute of Physical Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zrimec, Alexis [Institute of Physical Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Rupnik, Maja [Institute of Public Health Maribor, Maribor (Slovenia)

    2010-10-15

    In previous studies we detected lower species richness and lower Hg sensitivity of the bacteria present in egested guts of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) from chronically Hg polluted than from unpolluted environment. Basis for such results were further investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes of mercury-resistant (Hg{sup r}) isolates and clone libraries. We observed up to 385 times higher numbers of Hg{sup r} bacteria in guts of animals from polluted than from unpolluted environment. The majority of Hg{sup r} strains contained merA genes. Sequencing of 16S rRNA clones from egested guts of animals from Hg-polluted environments showed elevated number of bacteria from Pseudomonas, Listeria and Bacteroidetes relatives groups. In animals from pristine environment number of bacteria from Achromobacter relatives, Alcaligenes, Paracoccus, Ochrobactrum relatives, Rhizobium/Agrobacterium, Bacillus and Microbacterium groups were elevated. Such bacterial community shifts in guts of animals from Hg-polluted environment could significantly contribute to P. scaber Hg tolerance. - Chronic environmental mercury pollution induces bacterial community shifts and presence of elevated number as well as increased diversity of Hg-resistant bacteria in guts of isopods.

  2. Dynamic of epigeous macrofauna under organic soil management in the Brazilian semi-arid regionDinâmica da macrofauna epígea sob manejo orgânico do solo no semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil macrofauna is responsible for soil fertility through cycling of nutrients, tillage and fragmentation of organic matter, as well as through the association between groups of fauna with conserved and/or degraded pedoenvironments. Nevertheless, under the conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, there is little information about this resource. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epigeous macrofauna in successive cropping using previous green manure and subsequent planting of melon (Cucumis melo L. in Juazeiro county, Bahia, Brazil. Sampling dates were undertaken in November 2007 and February, April and July 2008, using traps containing 4 % formaldehyde for seven days in plots of 64 m2. Results obtained indicate that there is no difference among the treatments with mixed cover crops, and epigeous macrofauna is influenced by the time of collection. Diversity and uniformity are inversely correlated with total density of epigeous macrofauna. Diversification of plant species favors the increase of diversity and uniformity of epigeous macrofauna. Formicidae, followed by Isopoda, Coleoptera and Oligochaeta are the groups of fauna most numerous in the areas. A macrofauna do solo é responsável pela melhoria da fertilidade do solo através da ciclagem de nutrientes, revolvimento e fragmentação da matéria orgânica, como também, pela associação entre grupos de fauna com pedoambientes conservados e/ou degradados. No entanto, nas condições de semi-árido brasileiro pouca informação se tem a respeito deste recurso. Neste sentido, na região do sub-médio do Rio São Francisco, pólo de desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada objetivou-se avaliar a macrofauna epígea em sucessão cultural utilizando prévia adubação verde e subseqüente plantio de melão (Cucumis melo L.. As coletas foram realizadas em novembro de 2007 e fevereiro, abril e julho de 2008 no município de Juazeiro, BA, utilizando armadilhas contendo formol 4

  3. Essai d’analyse critique des principales hypothèses concernant la phylogenie des Malacostracés (Crustacea, Malacostraca (2éme partie

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    Ionel Tabacaru

    2012-12-01

    Bathynelacea represents a separate taxon called Podophallocarida (SERBAN, 1970. This decision is based especially on the absence in this group of a cephalotorax and maxillipeds, the lack of petasma, the telson with furcal rami and the 8th thoracopod transformed into a penis. For the sister group of the Podophallocarida we propose a new Infraclass, Cephalothoracarida (nov.. This latter taxon is defined by the first thoracomer fused to the cephalon and forming the cefalothorax, the 1st thoracopod differentiated as maxilliped and the telson without furca. Therefore Anaspidacea remains the solely order within the Superorder Syncarida; (4 considering the lack of a carapace and the direct development without free larval stages, we do not agree with the opinion of those specialists (SIEWING, 1956, 1959; SCHRAM, 1984;WATLING, 1999 who see a close relationship between the Anaspidacea and the Eucarida. Following our cladogramme the Syncarida is the sister-group of the Neocarida. Therefore we propose for them the name Synneocarida; it represents in our phylogenetic classification a new subcohort within which we distinguish two Infracohorts, the Syncarida Packard, 1885 and the Neocarida Ax, 1999; (5 we reject the views following which Amphipoda and Isopoda are either sub-orders within the Order Edriophthalma Leach, 1814 or more recently within the Order Acaridea Schram, 1981, or sister groups at the order level, as it is nowadays widely accepted (SCHRAM, 1984, 1986; WAGNER, 1994; WILLS, 1998; SCHRAM & HOF, 1998; LANGE & SCHRAM, 1999; POORE, 2005; JENNER et al., 2009; WILLS et al., 2009. We consider that the similarities between Amphipoda and Isopoda are due to parallel evolution of several morphological traits like the sessile compound eyes, the lack of exopodites on all thoracopods or the presence of plesiomorphic traits like the absence of a carapace. On the opposite, we noticed that various morphological traits are able to differentiate within the two orders. For the Amphipoda: the

  4. Ecomorphology and food habits of teleost fishes Trachinotus carolinus (Teleostei: Carangidae and Menticirrhus littoralis (Teleostei: Sciaenidae, inhabiting the surf zone off Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Luana Prestrelo Palmeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecomorphology and food habits of juvenile Trachinotus carolinus and Menticirrhus littoralis caught in the surf zone of sandy beaches in Niterói, RJ, were investigated between July 2006 and May 2007. These fish species differ morphologically, but present similarities in their diet composition suggest some slight overlapping in their diet. The importance of food items was assessed using Kawakami and Vazzoler's feeding index. Morphometric variables were recorded to correlate with the diet composition of the different size classes for each species. A total of 210 fishes (Trachinotus carolinus - 122, Menticirrhus littoralis - 88, ranging between 24.2 mm and 112 mm total length, were analyzed, but the stomachs of only 84.8% of them contained food. Trachinotus carolinus presented mysids, Polychaetes and Emerita spp. as the predominant items in their diet. Formicidae and Isopoda were the most important items for class I individuals, whereas mysids and Emerita spp. were important for classes II and III. Class I individuals also showed smaller sized prey (amphipods and isopods and clupeid fish larvae in their diet. Emerita spp. dominated the food items of Menticirrhus littoralis regardless of the size class. Polychaetes, the second most important item was better represented in class sizes II and III. The main morphometric variable correlated with such differences included mouth position and diameter of the eye.A ecomorfologia e os hábitos alimentares de juvenis de Trachinotus carolinus e Menticirrhus littoralis capturados na zona de arrebentação de praias arenosas em Niterói, RJ, foram investigados entre julho de 2006 e Maio de 2007. Ambas as espécies diferem morfologicamente, mas apresentam semelhanças em sua dieta, sugerindo uma possível sobreposição alimentar. A importância dos itens alimentares foi avaliada utilizando o índice alimentar de Kawakami e Vazzoler. Variáveis morfométricas foram correlacionadas à dieta observada para

  5. Ecological study on littoral and infralittoral isopods from Ubatuba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Setubal Pires

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available The isopod species of rocky shores and shallow infralittoral zone from Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, were studied. The sampling was done during Autumn (1965 and during Autumn and Springtime (1975 at six stations classified according to wave exposure. The intensity of the waves and the type of substratum showed to be important factors influencing distribution, abundance and diversity of the fauna. The highest density of isopods occurred in Dictyota ciliolata. A relation between species diversity and the degree of wave action was disclosed. Species diversity rised from exposed to moderately exposed sites and decreased with the increase in shelter.No presente trabalho, foram estudados os padrões de distribuição vertical e horizontal da fauna de Isopoda de costões rochosos, bem como sua abundância relativa nos vários substratos investigados, visando ao conhecimento de alguns aspectos de sua ecologia. As coletas foram realizadas nas zonas litoral e infralitoral da Enseada do Flamengo, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As estações de coleta variaram quanto ao grau de exposição às ondas e profundidade. As amostras do litoral foram coletadas em abril e setembro de 1975 e janeiro de 1976, enquanto que as do infralitoral referem-se a abril e maio de 1965. Verificou-se que a exposição às ondas é um fator muito importante na distribuição das espécies, havendo animais que só foram encontrados nas condições ecológicas oferecidas por locais expostos e semi-expostos, e outros que só o foram em locais abrigados. Entretanto, existem espécies que ocorreram nas três situações, sendo geralmente mais abundantes em uma delas em particular. O tipo de substrato mostrou ser outro fator que exerce grande influência na distribuição das espécies. Substratos diferentes, coletados em um mesmo local e submetidos às mesmas condições ambientais, apresentaram variação na composição e abundância relativa da fauna de Isopoda. Esta varia

  6. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  7. Mercury Concentration in the Tissue of Terrestrial Arthropods from the Central California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Flegal, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The primary goal of this project was to obtain a baseline understanding and investigate the concentration of mercury (Hg) in the tissue of arthropods in coastal California. This region receives significant input of fog which may contain enhanced levels of Hg. Currently there is a lack of data on Hg concentration in the tissue of arthropods (Insecta, Malacostraca, and Arachnida). The sample collection sites were Elkhorn Slough Estuarine Reserve in Moss Landing, and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) campus. Samples collected between February and March, 2012 had total Hg (HgT) concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 27 - 39 ng/g in the Jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera Stenopelmatidae); 80 - 110 ng/g in the camel cricket (Orthoptera Rhaphidophoridae); 21 - 219 ng/g in the ground beetle (Coleoptera Carabidae); 100 - 228 ng/g in the pill bug (Isopoda Armadillidiidae); and 285 - 423 ng/g in the wolf spider (Araneae Lycosidae). Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in dry weight were determine to be 4.3 -28.2 ng/g for the ground beetle; 45.5 - 87.8 ng/g for the pill bug, and 252.3 - 293.7 ng/g for the wolf spider. Samples collected in July, 2012 had HgT concentrations in dry weight that ranged from 110 - 168 ng/g in the camel cricket; 337 - 562 ng/g in the ground beetle; 25 - 227 ng/g in the pill bug; and 228 - 501 ng/g in the wolf spider. The preliminary data revealed an 18% increase in the concentration of HgT for wolf spiders, and a 146% increase for ground beetles in the summer when compared to those concentrations measured in the spring. It is hypothesized that coastal fog may be a contributor to this increase of Hg concentration in coastal California arthropods.

  8. Reproducción y dieta de una población de Mabuya dorsivittata (Squamata, Scincidae en Córdoba, Argentina

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    Liliana Aun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo fueron estudiados los aspectos reproductivos y la dieta de Mabuya dorsivittata, una especie de lagarto vivíparo de la localidad de Alto Alegre (Córdoba. La hembra de menor tamaño, con folículos yemados midió de LHC 41 mm. El tamaño de la camada varió entre 5 – 10 embriones por hembra. Los machos de menor tamaño con espermatozoos en los testículos midieron de LHC 31 mm. Hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el peso de las gónadas versus el estadio reproductivo (b= 0,524, R= 0,254, P< 0,001. En los machos hubo una correlación positiva y significativa entre el volumen testicular y el estadio reproductivo (R2= 0,851, b= 0,929, P< 0,002. El incremento de cuerpos grasos en hembras y machos se relacionó con el periodo de gestación, especialmente en las hembras, decreciendo en las últimas fases, indicando un costo energético alto en los últimos meses del crecimiento embrionario. En cuanto a la dieta, las hembras se alimentaron principalmente de Araneae (suelo como ítem fundamental, y de Scarabeidae, Araneae (otras y Acridiidae como ítem secundario y los machos se alimentaran de Isopoda, Acridiidae y Araneae (otras como ítem fundamental y de Tettigonidae como ítem secundario. Hubo diferencias significativas en la selección trófica entre sexos.

  9. Influence of Asellus aquaticus on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-15

    Water lice, Asellus aquaticus (isopoda), frequently occur in drinking water distribution systems where they are a nuisance to consumers and water utilities. Whether they are solely an aesthetic problem or also affect the microbial water quality is a matter of interest. We studied the influence of A. aquaticus on microbial water quality in non-chlorinated drinking water in controlled laboratory experiments. Pure cultures of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as well as naturally occurring heterotrophic drinking water bacteria (measured as heterotrophic plate counts, HPC) were investigated in microcosms at 7 °C, containing non-sterilised drinking water, drinking water sediment and A. aquaticus collected from a non-chlorinated ground water based drinking water supply system. Concentrations of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni decreased over time, following a first order decay with half lives of 5.3, 18.4 and 1.3 days, respectively. A. aquaticus did not affect survival of indicators and pathogens substantially whereas HPC were influenced by presence of dead A. aquaticus. Growth rates increased with an average of 48% for bacteria grown on R-2A agar and an average of 83% for bacteria grown on yeast extract agar when dead A. aquaticus were present compared to no and living A. aquaticus present. A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were measured (up to 25 per living and 500 per dead A. aquaticus) and so were A. aquaticus associated heterotrophic bacteria (>1.8*10(4) CFU per living and >6*10(4) CFU per dead A. aquaticus). A. aquaticus did not serve as an optimised habitat that increased survival of indicators and pathogens, since A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were only measured as long as the bacteria were also present in the water and sediment.

  10. Notes on the feeding of Blennius cristatus Linnaeus from a rocky pool of Itanhaém, São Paulo State

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    Airton Santo Tararam

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study analyzes the feeding habit of the fish Blennius cristatus inhabiting a rocky pool, in Itanhaém, south littoral of São Paulo State - Brazil. The main food items found were: Alga, Decapoda Reptantia, Mollusca and Amphipoda. The results showed that B. cristatus is an omnivorous species and probably also a trophic specialist preying on Gammaridea, but on Hyale media only, although twelve other species of the group were recorded in the sampling local.O presente estudo constitui-se numa análise preliminar do hábito alimentar do peixe Blennius cristatus Linnaeus, comum nas poças da zona entre-marés do litoral de São Paulo. As coletas foram realizadas na Praia do Poço, Itanhaém (24º12'S -48º47'W, litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo. A poça é rasa e mede 5,0-6,0 m de diâmetro, aproximadamente. O peixe foi capturado com anzol, usando-se, como isca, pedaços de camarão. Os resultados mostraram que B. cristatus utilizou sete ítens alimentares: Alga, Decapoda-Reptantia, Mollusca, Amphipoda, Isopoda, Polychaeta e Bryozoa. Além desses ítens, foram encontrados ainda nos estômagos examinados, areia, muco e fragmentos calcários. B. cristatus mostrou ser uma espécie omnívora, especializada em consumir Hyale media, apesar de, no local de coleta, ocorrerem muitas outras espécies de Gammaridea.

  11. Zinc, among a 'cocktail' of metal pollutants, is responsible for the absence of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber from the vicinity of a primary smelting works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkin, S P; Hames, C A

    1994-03-01

    : Porcellio scaber Latreille (Crustacea: Isopoda) of one month in age were reared for a year on leaf litter of field maple (Acer campestre) contaminated in the laboratory with a range of concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead or zinc. The metals were applied topically to the leaves as nitrates. Growth and survival, numbers of live offspring produced by females that matured, and concentrations of metals in adult isopods at the end of the experiment were measured.'Critical concentrations' of metals in food at which all the isopods died before producing offspring were 100 μg Cd g(-1), 100 μg Cu g(-1), 2000 μg Pb g(-1) and 1000 μg Zn g(-1) (on a dry weight basis). The relative toxicities of the four metals in the laboratory were compared with concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in surface leaf litter in the vicinity of a primary smelting works at Avonmouth, South West England. The results support the hypothesis that the absence of Porcellio scaber from sites in the immediate vicinity of the factory is due to zinc poisoning. Although cadmium is approximately ten times more toxic to isopods than zinc in the laboratory, zinc is most likely to be killing isopods in the field because its concentration is always at least 30 times higher than cadmium in Avonmouth leaf litter, and more than 100 times higher at most sites.Populations of Porcellio scaber survive in field sites where surface leaf litter contains up to 5000 μg Zn g(-1). This is at least five times higher than the 'critical concentration' in laboratory experiments. Thus, the methodology for assessing metal toxicity described in this paper, exaggerates the potential effects of metals to isopods in the field. Such differences between laboratory and field toxicities of metals should be taken into account when environmental protection levels for metals are being proposed for soil invertebrates based on ecotoxicological tests conducted in the laboratory.

  12. Reduction and methylation of mercury in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) and its environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolde, Natasa; Drobne, Damjana; Horvat, Milena; Jereb, Vesna

    2005-07-01

    Reduction and methylation of inorganic mercury in Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea) and its environment were studied, using a purpose-built experimental setup where Hg cycling was followed using 203Hg2+ tracer in experiments without and with isopods. In experiment without isopods, daily reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0 under sterile and nonsterile conditions was measured for three weeks to assess the contribution of bacteria to this process. In experiments with isopods, daily release of 203Hg0 was measured for two weeks. Total mercury (T203Hg) and monomethylmercury (Me203Hg) in whole animals, gut, digestive glands (hepatopancreas), food (hazelnut leaves), and feces were measured to obtain the assimilation and distribution of mercury in the animals, to investigate the origin and fate of Me203Hg, and, finally, to assess the mass balance of mercury in the experimental system. Experiment without isopods showed the important role of bacteria in reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0, especially in the first day of the experiment. Experiments with isopods showed that formation of 203Hg0 depended on the 203Hg2+ concentration in the food. The contribution of the isopod's digestive flora in reduction of 203Hg2+ to 203Hg0 was negligible. Approximately 3% of T203Hg and 2% of Me203Hg consumed was assimilated by the animals. Methylation of 203Hg2+ occurred already in the leaves before they were consumed by the isopods. Assimilation of Me203Hg from the food surprisingly was low. Also, a loss of Me203Hg was noticed when comparing assimilated and excreted Me203Hg versus consumed Me203Hg. This may be explained by the assumption that demethylation of MeHg prevailed over methylation of Hg2+ in the animal's digestive system, leading to excretion of ingested mercury as Hg2+.

  13. The role and contribution of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile organic matter for secondary consumers as revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, S.; Sarà, G.; Michener, R. H.; Mazzola, A.

    2002-08-01

    The δ 13C and δ 15N values of primary producers and consumers were studied to obtain information on the trophic role of Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, the dominant primary producer, in a Mediterranean shallow environment (the Stagnone di Marsala, western Sicily). δ 13C strongly discriminated between pelagic and benthic pathways, with the former based on phytoplankton and the latter on a mixed pool of seagrass detritus, epiphytes and benthic algae as carbon sources. A particularly important trophic role appears to be performed by the vegetal epiphytic community on seagrass leaves (δ 13C = -14.9 ± 0.1‰), which supports most of the faunal seagrass community (i.e. Amphipoda, Isopoda, Tanaidacea; δ 13C = -14.9 ± 0.1‰, -12.5 ± 0.1‰ and -14.8 ± 1.0‰, respectively). Although P. oceanica (δ 13C = -11.3 ± 0.3‰) does not seem to be utilised by consumers via grazing (apart from a few Palaemonidae species with δ 13C value of -10.8 ± 1.8‰), its trophic role may be via detritus. P. oceanica detritus may be exploited as a carbon source by small detritivore invertebrates, and above all seems to be exploited as a nitrogen reservoir by both bottom and water column consumers determining benthic-pelagic coupling. At least three trophic levels were detected in both the pelagic (mixture of phytoplankton and cyanobacteria, zooplankton, juvenile transient fish) and benthic (sedimentary organic matter and epiphytes, small seagrass-associated invertebrates, larger invertebrates and adult resident fish) pathways.

  14. Phylomitogenomics of Malacostraca (Arthropoda:Crustacea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Xin; TIAN Mei; YAN Binlun; CHU Kahou

    2015-01-01

    Along with the sequencing technology development and continual enthusiasm of researchers on the mitochondrial genomes, the number of metazoan mitochondrial genomes reported has a tremendous growth in the past decades. Phylomitogenomics—reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial genomic data—is now possible across large animal groups. Crustaceans in the class Malacostraca display a high diversity of body forms and include large number of ecologically and commercially important species. In this study, comprehensive and systematic analyses of the phylogenetic relationships within Malacostraca were conducted based on 86 mitochondrial genomes available from GenBank. Among 86 malacostracan mitochondrial genomes, 54 species have identical major gene arrangement (excluding tRNAs) to pancrustacean ground pattern, including six species from Stomatopoda, three species from Amphipoda, two krill, seven species from Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda), and 36 species from Pleocyemata (Decapoda). However, the other 32 mitochondrial genomes reported exhibit major gene rearrangements. Phylogenies based on Bayesian analyses of nucleotide sequences of the protein-coding genes produced a robust tree with 100%posterior probability at almost all nodes. The results indicate that Amphipoda and Isopoda cluster together (Edriophthalma) (BPP=100). Phylomitogenomic analyses strong support that Euphausiacea is nested within Decapoda, and closely related to Dendrobranchiata, which is also consistent with the evidence from developmental biology. Yet the taxonomic sampling of mitochondrial genome from Malacostraca is very biased to the order Decapoda, with no complete mitochondrial genomes reported from 11 of the 16 orders. Future researches on sequencing the mitochondrial genomes from a wide variety of malacostracans are necessary to further elucidate the phylogeny of this important group of animals. With the increase in mitochondrial genomes available, phylomitogenomics

  15. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid.

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    Tessa C Van Dijk

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid is one of the most widely used insecticides in the world. Its concentration in surface water exceeds the water quality norms in many parts of the Netherlands. Several studies have demonstrated harmful effects of this neonicotinoid to a wide range of non-target species. Therefore we expected that surface water pollution with imidacloprid would negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. Availability of extensive monitoring data on the abundance of aquatic macro-invertebrate species, and on imidacloprid concentrations in surface water in the Netherlands enabled us to test this hypothesis. Our regression analysis showed a significant negative relationship (P<0.001 between macro-invertebrate abundance and imidacloprid concentration for all species pooled. A significant negative relationship was also found for the orders Amphipoda, Basommatophora, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Isopoda, and for several species separately. The order Odonata had a negative relationship very close to the significance threshold of 0.05 (P = 0.051. However, in accordance with previous research, a positive relationship was found for the order Actinedida. We used the monitoring field data to test whether the existing three water quality norms for imidacloprid in the Netherlands are protective in real conditions. Our data show that macrofauna abundance drops sharply between 13 and 67 ng l(-1. For aquatic ecosystem protection, two of the norms are not protective at all while the strictest norm of 13 ng l(-1 (MTR seems somewhat protective. In addition to the existing experimental evidence on the negative effects of imidacloprid on invertebrate life, our study, based on data from large-scale field monitoring during multiple years, shows that serious concern about the far-reaching consequences of the abundant use of imidacloprid for aquatic ecosystems is justified.

  16. Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ZENETOS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This collaborative effort by many specialists across the Mediterranean presents an updated annotated list of alien marine species in the Mediterranean Sea. Alien species have been grouped into six broad categories namely established, casual, questionable, cryptogenic, excluded and invasive, and presented in lists of major ecofunctional/taxonomic groups. The establishment success within each group is provided while the questionable and excluded records are commented in brief. A total of 963 alien species have been reported from the Mediterranean until December 2005, 218 of which have been classified as excluded (23% leaving 745 of the recorded species as valid aliens. Of these 385 (52% are already well established, 262 (35% are casual records, while 98 species (13% remain “questionable” records. The species cited in this work belong mostly to zoobenthos and in particular to Mollusca and Crustacea, while Fish and Phytobenthos are the next two groups which prevail among alien biota in the Mediterranean. The available information depends greatly on the taxonomic group examined. Thus, besides the three groups explicitly addressed in the CIESM atlas series (Fish, Decapoda/Crustacea and Mollusca, which are however updated in the present work, Polychaeta, Phytobenthos, Phytoplankton and Zooplankton are also addressed in this study. Among other zoobenthic taxa sufficiently covered in this study are Echinodermata, Sipuncula, Bryozoa and Ascidiacea. On the contrary, taxa such as Foraminifera, Amphipoda and Isopoda, that are not well studied in the Mediterranean, are insufficiently covered. A gap of knowledge is also noticed in Parasites, which, although ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, have been relatively unexplored as to their role in marine invasions. Conclusively the lack of funding purely systematic studies in the region has led to underestimation of the number of aliens in the Mediterranean. Emphasis is put on those species that are

  17. Fish parasites in the bathyal zone: The halosaur Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther, 1878) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, S.; Palm, H. W.; Busch, M. W.; Kellermanns, E.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 42 Halosauropsis macrochir from a single position on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) were collected for studies on parasites and feeding ecology. A total of 9 different parasite species were found, with most of them belonging to the Digenea (4 species) and Nematoda (3). The host specific Degeneria halosauri, (Digenea) and Cystidicolidae indet. (Nematoda) were the predominant species, reaching a prevalence of 100.0% and 57.1% with intensities of infection of 1-12 and 1-10, respectively. Less host specific parasites such as Gonocerca phycidis (Digenea) and Tetraphyllidea indet. (Cestoda) occurred at low rates of infection. The parasite fauna of this bathyal fish can be described as predominantly adult and host specific, with larval and less host specific components. A total of 16 different food groups were identified, most of them of benthic origin or associated with the benthopelagial. The predominant prey organisms belonged to the Crustacea (e.g., Copepoda, Gammaridea, Amphipoda and Isopoda), which serve as main parasite vectors for H. macrochir. This deep-sea fish seems to follow a general pattern of fish parasites in the deep sea, with most isolated parasites belonging to the digeneans, nematodes and a cestode. The parasite composition is caused by the narrow depth range of the species and the restricted distribution of the fish family Halosauridae. The species richness was found to be lower than other demersal fish from the deep sea and shallow waters, however, higher than those from deep-sea fish living in the pelagial.

  18. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae.

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    Ana Pérez-Cembranos

    Full Text Available Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  19. Batı Karadeniz Bölgesindeki Bazı Göllerin Malacostraca (Crustacea Faunası.

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    Murat Özbek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Batı Karadeniz Bölgesi ve Sakarya Nehri Havzası’nda yer alan 13 gölün [Poyrazlar, Küçük Akgöl, Taşkısığı, Büyük Akgöl, Acarlar, Melen, Abant, Gölcük (Bolu, Yeniçağa, Karamurat, Sülük, Çubuk ve Sünnet gölleri] Malacostraca faunasını belirlemek amacıyla, 12-16 Ağustos 2002 ve 23-27 Haziran 2003 tarihlerinde iki örnekleme çalışması yapılmıştır. Örneklemelerde 500 µm göz açıklığındaki el kepçeleri ve Ekman grab kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen materyal %4’lük formaldehit solüsyonunda fikse edilmiştir. Örnekleme yapılan lokalitelerin sıcaklık, pH, çözünmüş oksijen, oksijen doygunluğu, tuzluluk, iletkenlik ve berraklık değerleri arazide ölçülmüştür. Çalışma sonucunda Decapoda, Isopoda ve Mysidacea ordolarından 1’er, Amphipoda ordosundan 7 olmak üzere toplam 10 takson tespit edilmiştir

  20. Omnivory of an Insular Lizard: Sources of Variation in the Diet of Podarcis lilfordi (Squamata, Lacertidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cembranos, Ana; León, Alicia; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Through 17 years and from a sample of 7,790 faecal pellets and 26,346 prey items, we studied the diet of the Balearic lizard Podarcis lilfordi in Aire Island (Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain). We analysed the diet in terms of prey frequencies, as well as by their volume and biomass contributions. The diet of the Balearic lizard was extremely variable through the years, months and areas under study. The dominance of small clumped prey, particularly ants, was confirmed. However, the main contribution by volume corresponded to beetles, with a relevant role for Diplopoda and terrestrial Isopoda during some months and at particular areas of the island. Several prey items were probably captured at the base of shrubs, under stones or inside rock crevices. Therefore, our estimations of electivity would only be reliable for epigeal and flying prey. The capacity of the Balearic lizard to include marine subsidies in its diet, such as coastal crustaceans, is noteworthy. Also, its consumption of carrion from carcasses of gulls and rabbits and leftovers from human visitors is remarkable. Juvenile conspecifics can also be a sporadic food resource, especially during the second half of summer, whereas the consumption of vegetal matter is constant for each whole year. The shifts of vegetal exploitation among areas of the island and months take place according to availability of different plant species at each area or during a given period. Thus, lizards are able to conduct a thorough monitoring of plant phenology, exploiting a large variety of plant species. Omnivory does not imply the indiscriminate inclusion of any edible food in its diet. Rather, the inclusion of several food items means the adoption of a wide range of foraging behaviours adapted to the exploitation of each food resource.

  1. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura: evidence for aerial olfaction?

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    Jakob Krieger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the “true crabs” (Brachyura, a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal’s life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  2. Comparative analyses of olfactory systems in terrestrial crabs (Brachyura): evidence for aerial olfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Jakob; Braun, Philipp; Rivera, Nicole T; Schubart, Christoph D; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to a terrestrial lifestyle occurred convergently multiple times during the evolution of the arthropods. This holds also true for the "true crabs" (Brachyura), a taxon that includes several lineages that invaded land independently. During an evolutionary transition from sea to land, animals have to develop a variety of physiological and anatomical adaptations to a terrestrial life style related to respiration, reproduction, development, circulation, ion and water balance. In addition, sensory systems that function in air instead of in water are essential for an animal's life on land. Besides vision and mechanosensory systems, on land, the chemical senses have to be modified substantially in comparison to their function in water. Among arthropods, insects are the most successful ones to evolve aerial olfaction. Various aspects of terrestrial adaptation have also been analyzed in those crustacean lineages that evolved terrestrial representatives including the taxa Anomala, Brachyura, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. We are interested in how the chemical senses of terrestrial crustaceans are modified to function in air. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the brains and more specifically the structure of the olfactory system of representatives of brachyuran crabs that display different degrees of terrestriality, from exclusively marine to mainly terrestrial. The methods we used included immunohistochemistry, detection of autofluorescence- and confocal microscopy, as well as three-dimensional reconstruction and morphometry. Our comparative approach shows that both the peripheral and central olfactory pathways are reduced in terrestrial members in comparison to their marine relatives, suggesting a limited function of their olfactory system on land. We conclude that for arthropod lineages that invaded land, evolving aerial olfaction is no trivial task.

  3. Density-Dependent Effects of an Invasive Ant on a Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, M; Sim, D A; Lester, P J

    2015-02-01

    It is frequently assumed that an invasive species that is ecologically or economically damaging in one region, will typically be so in other environments. The Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) is listed among the world's worst invaders. It commonly displaces resident ant species where it occurs at high population densities, and may also reduce densities of other ground-dwelling arthropods. We investigated the effect of varying Argentine ant abundance on resident ant and nonant arthropod species richness and abundance in seven cities across its range in New Zealand. Pitfall traps were used to compare an invaded and uninvaded site in each city. Invaded sites were selected based on natural varying abundance of Argentine ant populations. Argentine ant density had a significant negative effect on epigaeic ant abundance and species richness, but hypogaeic ant abundance and species richness was unaffected. We observed a significant decrease in Diplopoda abundance with increasing Argentine ant abundance, while Coleoptera abundance increased. The effect on Amphipoda and Isopoda depended strongly on climate. The severity of the impact on negatively affected taxa was reduced in areas where Argentine ant densities were low. Surprisingly, Argentine ants had no effect on the abundance of the other arthropod taxa examined. Morphospecies richness for all nonant arthropod taxa was unaffected by Argentine ant abundance. Species that are established as invasive in one location therefore cannot be assumed to be invasive in other locations based on presence alone. Appropriate management decisions should reflect this knowledge. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C B Poore

    Full Text Available The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species

  5. TAXOCENOSIS DE MOLUSCOS Y CRUSTÁCEOS EN RAÍCES DE Rhizophora mangle (RHIZOPHORACEAE EN LA BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE ALEXANDER QUIRÓS R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del conocimiento existente sobre la ecología de los manglares en la bahía de Cispatá, pocos estudios han sido enfocados en la asociación de invertebrados en las raíces del mangle rojo, por lo que entre diciembre 2010 y septiembre 2011, se caracterizó la taxocenosis de moluscos y crustáceos en raíces de Rhizophora mangle en dos sectores de muestreo de la bahía de Cispatá, Colombia. Para la recolección del material biológico se tomaron al azar tres raíces de mangle rojo con un diámetro homogéneo por estación. Los moluscos y crustáceos fueron obtenidos de la raíz raspando la superficie con un cuchillo, luego fueron separados y fijados en formalina al 10 % para su posterior identificación hasta especie mediante claves taxonómicas especializadas. De los 12289 individuos recolectados en los cuatro muestreos, 10470 pertenecieron al phylum Mollusca (85,2 % y los restantes 1819 al subphylum Crustacea (14,8 %. De moluscos se identificaron 14 especies distribuidas en 11 familias y dos clases; Bivalvia y Gastropoda. De crustáceos se identificaron 24 especies distribuidas en 16 familias y cuatro órdenes; Sessillia, Decapoda, Isopoda y Amphipoda. En los dos sectores de muestreo Mytella charruana, Balanus eburneus y Crassostrea rhizophorae fueron las especies más importantes en términos de abundancia, no obstante se sabe que moluscos como M. charruana y B. eburneus presentan una gran capacidad de adaptación y ajuste a las variaciones hidroclimáticas, lo que se reflejó en la do- minancia de dichas especies en el sector con mayor influencia del río Sinú. La presencia de los crustáceos Petrolisthes armatus y Aratus pisonii en el sector con más cercanía al mar Caribe, indica que son especies de bosques de manglar con gran movilidad y mecanismos de adaptación fisiológicos.

  6. The ecology of saprophagous macroarthropods (millipedes, woodlice) in the context of global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Jean-François; Handa, Ira Tanya

    2010-11-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda) and woodlice (Crustacea, Isopoda), with a total of about 15000 described species worldwide, contribute substantially to invertebrate biodiversity. These saprophagous macroarthropods, which are key regulators of plant litter decomposition, play an important role in the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical and temperate areas. Herein we review current knowledge on the effects of climate, food quality and land cover on millipede and woodlouse species to explore their potential responses to global change. Essentially similar trends are observed in the two taxa. Experiments have shown that climate warming could result in higher rates of population growth and have positive effects on the abundance of some temperate species. This is consistent with signs of northward expansion in Europe, although the mechanisms of dispersal remain unclear. The generality of this finding is evaluated in relation to the life histories and geographical distributions of species. At low latitudes, interactions with more severe droughts are likely and could affect community composition. Elevated atmospheric CO₂ levels and changes in plant community composition are expected to alter leaf litter quality, a major determinant of macroarthropod fertility via the link with female adult body size. Although food quality changes have been shown to influence population growth rates significantly, it is proposed that the effects of warming will be probably more important during the coming decades. Land cover changes, mainly due to deforestation in the tropics and land abandonment in Europe, are critical to habitat specialists and could override any other effect of global change. Habitat destruction by man may be the main threat to macroarthropod species, many of which are narrow endemics. At the landscape scale, habitat heterogeneity could be a good option for conservation, even at the cost of some fragmentation. Two principal areas are identified which require

  7. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  8. Study of microarthropod communities to assess soil quality in different managed vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnarli, Elena; Vignozzi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Corino, Lorenzo; Goggioli, Donatella; Guidi, Silvia; Lottero, Mariarosa; Tarchi, Franca; Simoni, Sauro

    2014-05-01

    conventional/IPM management). The mites represented about 50% of the arthropodofauna recorded, collembolans 30%, and 20% other microarthropods (Blattaria, Chilopoda, Coleoptera, Diplopoda, Diplura, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isopoda, Homoptera, Pauropoda, Protura, Pseudoscopionida, Psocoptera, Symphyla, Thysanoptera). The mesofauna abundance was affected by the type of management (P=0.015) and soil texture (P=0.029). At the identification level considered, the biological indices calculated showed no substantial differences between different crop managements (H'=1.26, D=0.97 in organic vineyard, H'=1.30, D=0.89 in IPM vineyard). The analysis of microarthropod communities by QBSar, however, showed higher values in organic compared to IPM managed vineyards (QBSar 199 vs 98 in 2011 and 205 vs 188 in 2012, respectively) which are close to figures characteristic of preserved soils.

  9. Macrobenthic fauna community in the Middle Songkhla Lake, Southern Thailand

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    Angsupanich, S.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A bimonthly investigation of macrobenthic fauna at the area from Ban Pak Khat to Ban Leam Chong Thanon in the Inner Songkhla Lake from February 1998 to February 1999 was undertaken to determine the species richness and abundance. A total of 7 phyla and 161 species were identified. Annelida (58 species, Arthropoda (64 species and Mollusca (23 species were the major phyla while Nemertea (1 species, Platyhelminthes (1 species, Cnidaria (4 species and Chordata (10 species were the minor. Fifty-seven speciesof Polychaete annelids were found. The highest species richness (14 species was in the Nereididae Family, of which Ceratonereis burmensis and Namalycastis indica were predominant. Nephtys sp. and Heteromastus sp. were not so highly abundant but appeared at almost all stations through every sampling month, while Prionospio cirrifera and Pseudopolydora kempi were found in higher densities but with narrower distribution. Ficopomatus sp. and unidentified Terebellidae were not commonly found, but occasionally reached a high density. Amphipods gave the highest species richness (22 species, with Photis longicaudata distributed widely and in all months. Five species of Tanaidaceans were found with Apseudes sapensis the second most dominant (max. 5044 individuals m-2 in February in the overall fauna. Isopoda were not as densely found as tanaidaceans but there were many species (18 species. Cyathura sp.1 was the most dominant isopod. Brachidontes arcuatulus was the most dominant bivalve (max. 29449 individuals m-2 in April, especially at stations with a sand-gravel substrate. The mean density of total macrobenthic fauna among stations ranged from 920 to 10620 ind. m-2 while the monthly densities ranged from 1520 to 6160 ind.m-2. The mean density of macrobenthic fauna was highest in the dry season (April. The species richness among stations ranged from65 to 105 species while varying from 81 to 112 species during the different months. The highest species

  10. 唐山“三岛”海域小型底栖动物丰度的研究%Abundance of meiobenthos in the sea area of three islands in Tangshan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹英昆; 王小瑞; 夏辉; 王东昕; 申亮; 曾昭春; 郭冉

    2015-01-01

    于2013年5月,8月和10月份对唐山“三岛”海域12个不同站位小型底栖动物进行调查采样。共鉴定出自由生活海洋线虫、桡足类、多毛类、枝角类、端足类、介形类、涡虫类、轮虫类、双壳类及等足类10个类群。最优势类群是线虫,每个站位所占比例基本大于95%,平均丰度大约735.2 ind/10 cm2。其他类群各站位所占比例不同,且都较小。结果表明,小型底栖动物各类群所占比例随月份的变化并没明显变化;不同月份,各类群的丰度有所变化,其中5月份丰度较高,10月次之,8月份丰度最低。%A three-cruise investigation on the meiobenthos in the sea of Tangshan three islands was conducted in May ,August and October 2013 .A total of ten meiobenthic groups were identified . Free-living marine nematodes ,copepoda ,polychaeta ,cladocera ,amphipoda ,ostracoda ,turbel‐laria ,rotifera ,bivalvia and isopoda .Nematodes was the most dominant group in abundance ,about 735 .2 ind/10 cm2 ,with a relative dominance of 95% .Other groups of stations with different pro‐portion ,and the smaller .The results showed that ,meiobenthos in each group had no obvious change in the proportion .The abundance of different months ,each group had the change ,which in May higher abundance ,followed in October ,August the lowest abundance .

  11. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Gary C B; Bruce, Niel L

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa) comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species are known from the

  12. Diversidad trófica de dos especies sintópicas del género Leptodactylus (Anura: Leptodactylidae del sudeste de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina

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    Cuevas, María Fernanda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la diversidad trófica de Leptodactylus gracilis y Leptodactylus latinasus del sudeste de la provincia de Córdoba, Argentina, con la finalidad de describir la composición de la dieta y determinar sus preferencias alimentarias según sexo y tamaño, y comparar la diversidad trófica entre las dos especies sintópicas que comparten el mismo tiempo y espacio. Los muestreos fueron quincenales, desde abril de 1998 hasta junio de 2000. Se determinó que estas especies se alimentaron principalmente de isópodos, arañas y hormigas, siendo los isópodos los que aportaron aproximadamente, la mitad del volumen ingerido. El Índice de Morisita- Horn y la Prueba de Chi-Cuadrado Test de Independencia, mostraron que no existen diferencias significativas entre la selección trófica dentro y entre las especies. Se puede concluir que existe entre estas dos especies un extremado solapamiento trófico tanto entre ellas como entre sexos y tamaños de la misma especie. We studied the trophic diversity of Leptodactylus gracilis and Leptodactylus latinasus from the southeast of Córdoba, Argentina. With the purpose of describing their composition, determining their preference according to sex and size, and comparing the trophic diversity between these two syntopic species that share the same space and time. Biweekly samplings were carried out from April 1998 to June 2000. We determined that these species fed mainly on isopods, spiders and ants (Formicidae, with the Isopoda representing almost 50% of the total volume ingested. The Index of Morisita-Horn and the Chi-Square Test of Independence showed that no significant differences exist in trophic selection either within or between the species. It is possible to conclude that there is considerable trophic overlapping between the two species as well as between sexes and sizes of the same species.

  13. Indicadores de qualidade de solos de área de mineração e metalurgia de chumbo: II - Mesofauna e plantas Soil quality indicators in lead mining and metalurgy area: II - Mesofauna and plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Jurema Barros

    2010-08-01

    riqueza de grupos de organismos e ocorrência de representantes dos grupos Pseudoscorpiones, Mollusca e Isopoda apenas nesse solo. Os grupos Aracnídeos e Psocoptera também foram considerados bons indicadores ambientais, com incremento de suas populações nos solos com maiores teores de metais pesados (solos 2, 3 e 5, possivelmente devido à menor ocorrência de organismos competidores/predadores desses grupos. Os teores de metais pesados nos indivíduos do grupo Formicidae tiveram relação direta com os teores de Pb extraídos com HNO3 0,5 mol L-1 no solo. Quanto ao acúmulo de metais pesados nas plantas coletadas na área, com exceção do solo 1, todas as espécies encontravam-se sob efeito fitotóxico para Pb e Zn, o que sugere a proibição de pastejo na área.The influence of soil management or the contaminant application to the soil, usually induce to a quicker response in the soil mesofauna than in other pedogenic properties; these organisms are therefore good environmental quality indicators. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the organisms groups of the soil mesofauna and determine Pb and Zn contents in plants in the mining and metallurgy plant in Adrianópolis (PR,to originate biological indicators of the quality of these solis. At the selected locations the following contamination forms were analized: site 1 - reference (native wood; site 2 - residue incorporated in the profile; sites 3 and 6 - close to the chimneys of the plant, with potential import of particulate matter; site 5 - great waste volume covering the soil. Berlese funnels were utilized to collect samples from the 0 to 5 cm layer (20 funnels x 5 sites x 1 layer x 4 times = 400 samples. After the separation of the mesofauna, the organisms were selected and identified. Ants samples were microwave digested with concentrated HNO3 and the Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. Plants from Poaceae family were

  14. A Preliminary Study on the Diversity of Micro-and Meso-fauna Communities in the Campus of Xinjiang Normal University%新疆师范大学校园中小型土壤动物群落多样性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽布斯坦·努尔买买提; 吾玛尔·阿布力孜; 努尔夏提·努尔买买提

    2013-01-01

    The communities diversity of micro-and meso-fauna in relation to5 different habitats in campus of Xinjiang Normal University were investigated by Tullgren dry funnel method with emphasis on the composition and diversity from September to November in 2010 . The results showed that a total of 1630 soil animals was extracted and classified into 4 phyla,10 classes,and 18 orders, respectively. Collembola (25. 77%),Acariformes (17. 36%),Coleoptera (11. 53%),Dipterra(11. 17%)were the dominant groups, and they were accounting for 65. 83%, and Lumbricida ( 3 . 8%) , Gastropoda ( 7 . 67%) , Araneae ( 3 . 25%) , Isopoda ( 1 . 16%) , Chilopoda ( 4 . 66%), Orthoptera (1. 47%), Dermaptera (2. 02%), Hemiptera (3. 93%),Hymenoptera(2. 15%),Homoptera (2. 33%) and so on were common groups and they were accounting for 33. 62%., and the Thysanoptera ( 0. 06%),Rotifera(0. 18%),Symphyla(0. 31%) were rare groups, and they were accounting for 0. 55 % of total numbers. The results also suggested that the types of different habitats were affected on the individual density and group number of soil fauna community,and the in order of individual number is Bio-geography building greenland>Dormitory building greenland >Main building greenland >Library greenland >Playground greenland. The order of group number is Bio-geography building greenland >Dormitory building greenland >Main building greenland >Li-brary greenland >Playground greenland. We also analysed the community diversity indices such as diversity index ( H) , evenness index ( E) , and dominant index ( C) , and found that there were significant differences among the different greenlands. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Bio-geography building greenland>Dormitory building greenland >Main building greenland >Library greenland >Playground greenland. The order of evenness index ( E) of Playground Greenland >Library greenland >Main building greenland>Dormitory building greenland>Bio-geogra-phy building greenland. The dominance index of

  15. Taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae at Cispatá Bay, Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alexander Quirós R

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existing knowledge on the ecology of mangroves at Cispatá Bay, few studies have focused on the association of invertebrates on red mangrove roots, so between December 2010 and September 2011, it was characterized taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of Rhizophora mangle in two study sites at Cispatá Bay, Colombia. For the collections of biological material were randomly taken three red mangrove roots with a diameter. Mollusks and crustaceans were obtained from the root surface with a scraping knife then were removed and fixed in 10 % formalin for later identification to species using specialized taxonomic keys. Of the 12289 individuals collected in the four samples, 10470 belonged to the phylumMollusca (85,2 % and the remaining 1819 to subphylum Crustacea (14,8 %. For mollusks were identified 14 species distributed in 11 families and two classes; Bivalvia and Gastropoda. For crustaceans were identified 24 species distributed in 16 families and four orders; Sessillia, Decapoda, Isopoda and Amphipoda. In both sectors sampling Mytella charruana, Balanus eburneusand Crassostrea rhizophorae were the most important species in terms of abundance, however mollusks like M. charruana and B. eburneus have a great ability to adapt and adjust to changing hydroclimatic, which was reflected in the dominance of these species in the sector with the greatest influence Sinu River. The presence of crustaceans Petrolisthes armatus and Aratus pisonii in the sector with more proximity to the Caribbean Sea indicate that are species with great mobility and physiological adaptation mechanisms.TAXOCENOSIS DE MOLUSCOS Y CRUSTÁCEOS EN RAÍCESDE Rhizophora mangle (RHIZOPHORACEAEEN LA BAHÍA DE CISPATÁ, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIAA pesar del conocimiento existente sobre la ecología de los manglares en la bahía de Cispatá, pocos estudios han sido enfocados en invertebrados asociados a las raíces del mangle rojo. Entre diciembre 2010 y

  16. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae: evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger Jakob

    2010-09-01

    suggest that B. latro has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusions In parallel to previous behavioral findings that B. latro has aerial olfaction, our results indicate that their central olfactory pathway is indeed most prominent. Similar findings from the closely related terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus suggest that in Coenobitidae, olfaction is a major sensory modality processed by the brain, and that for these animals, exploring the olfactory landscape is vital for survival in their terrestrial habitat. Future studies on terrestrial members of other crustacean taxa such as Isopoda, Amphipoda, Astacida, and Brachyura will shed light on how frequently the establishment of an aerial sense of olfaction evolved in Crustacea during the transition from sea to land. Amounting to ca. 1,000,000, the numbers of interneurons that analyse the olfactory input in B. latro brains surpasses that in other terrestrial arthropods, as e.g. the honeybee Apis mellifera or the moth Manduca sexta, by two orders of magnitude suggesting that B. latro in fact is a land-living arthropod that has devoted a substantial amount of nervous tissue to the sense of smell.

  17. Host-parasite interactions between the piranha Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Characidae and isopods and branchiurans (Crustacea in the rio Araguaia basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Nobre Carvalho

    2004-06-01

    . e Dolops carvalhoi (Branchiura e Braga patagonica, Anphira branchialis e Asotana sp. (Isopoda. A prevalência e a intensidade média de branquiúros (16,6% e 1,5, respectivamente e isópodos (15,5% e 1,0, respectivamente foram similares. Isópodos foram observados nas brânquias do hospedeiro; os branquiúros foram mais freqüentes na região ventral, base da nadadeira peitoral e região gular. Nessas áreas, a pele é mais fina, facilitando a fixação e alimentação do parasita. As correlações entre o comprimento padrão do hospedeiro e as variáveis intensidade e prevalência de parasitismo foram significativas apenas para branquiúros (rs= 0, 2397, p= 0,0001; chi2 = 7,97; C= 0, 19, respectivamente. Os resultados sugerem que os sítios de alimentação e o tamanho corporal dos ectoparasitos provavelmente têm um papel importante na sua distribuição e abundância.

  18. Distribuição geográfica da fauna e flora da Baía de Guanabara Geographic distribution of the flora and the fauna of the Guanabara Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejeune P. H. de Oliveira

    1947-09-01

    Full Text Available The author studied, the horizontal and vertical distribution of most common part of the flora and fauna of the bay of Guanabara at Rio de Janeiro. In this paper the eulittoral, poly, meso and oligohaline regions were localised and studied; and the first chart of its distribution was presented (fig. 2. The salinity of superficial waters was established through determinations based on 30 trips inside the buy for collecting biological materials. Some often 409 determinations which were previous reported together with the present ones served for the eleboration of a salinity map of the bay of Guanabara (fig. 1. This map of fig. 2 shows the geographic locations of the water regions. EULITTORAL WATER REGIME — Fig. 3 shows the diagram scheme of fauna and flora of this regime. Sea water salinity 34/1.000, density mean 1.027, transparent greenish waters, sea coast with moderate bursting waves. Limpid sea shore with white sand, gneiss with the big barnacle Tetraclita squamosa var. stalactifera (Lam. Pilsbry. Vertical distributions: barna¬cles layers with a green region in which are present the oyster Ostrea pa-rasitica L., the barnacles Tetraclita, Chthamalus, Balanus tintinnabulum var. tintinnabulum (L. e var. antillensis Pilsbry in connection with several mollusca and the sea beatle Isopoda Lygia sp. Covered by water and exposed to air by the tidal ritms, there is a stratum of brown animals that is the layer of mussels Mytilus perna L., with others brown and chestnut animals : the Crustacea Pachygrapsus, the little crab Porcellana sp., the stone crab Me-nippe nodifrons Stimpson, the sea stars Echinaster brasiliensis (Mull. & Tr., Astropecten sp. and the sea anemones Actinia sp. Underneath and never visible there is a subtidal region with green tubular algae of genus Codium and amidst its bunches the sea urchin Lycthchinus variegatus (Agass. walks and more deeply there are numerous sand-dollars Encope emarginata (Leske. The microplancton of this

  19. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON ABUNDANCE AND BIOMASS OF MEIOFAUNA IN THE BERING SEA IN SUMMER 2010%2010年夏季白令海小型底栖动物丰度与生物量初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丁勇; 王建佳; 林荣澄; 田鹏; 郑新庆

    2016-01-01

    Surface sediments were collected from seven stations in the Bering Sea during the fourth Arctic Chinese Nation-al Arctic Research Expedition in summer 201 0.Fourteen groups of meiofauna were detected in 1 0-cm sediment cores:Nematoda,Copepoda,Polycheata,Kinorhyncha,Amphipoda,Bivalvia,Cumacea,Ostracoda,Tanaidacea, Gastropoda,Isopoda,Ophiura,Tardigrada and others.The average abundance and biomass was 2658.89 ±2452. 86 ind·1 0cm -2 and 1 587.56 ±1 452.65 μg·dwt·1 0cm -2 ,respectively.Maximum abundance and biomass of 71 35.1 2 ±429.43 ind·1 0cm -2 and 4056.42 ±721 .33 μg·dwt·1 0cm -2 ,respectively,were both observed in shallow waters of the Bering shelf.At the same time,minimum abundance and biomass of 56.04 ±39.38 ind·1 0 cm -2 and 87.91 ±85.60 μg·dwt·1 0cm -2 ,respectively,were both observed in deep waters of the western Be-ring Sea basin.Nematoda accounted for 94.81 % of average abundance,followed by Copepoda (3.60%),and 93.44% of meiofauna were found in the upper 6 cm of surface sediments.The similarity index between meiofauna communities in shallow and deep waters was only 30.72%.Abundance in deep waters was an order of magnitude lower than abundance in shallow waters.Abundance and biomass were higher in shallow waters of the Bering shelf than in shallow waters of the China Sea and deep waters of the western Bering Sea basin.Pearson correlations anal-ysis between meiofauna and abiotic parameters indicated that abundance and biomass were negatively correlated with depth,sediment nutrient levels,and several diameter parameters.Meiofauna biomass may be more sensitive to environmental changes than abundance.%2010年7月12—18日,中国第4次北极科考队在白令海以箱式或多管取样器采集7个站位10 cm 长的表层沉积物芯样,并在现场进行了分层处理。室内分析时共检出14个小型底栖动物类群:自由生活海洋线虫(free-living Nematoda)、底栖桡足类(Copepoda)、多毛类(Polycheata)

  20. An assessment of arthropod prey resources at Nakula Natural Area Reserve, a potential site of reintroduction for Kiwikiu (Pseudonestor xanthophrys) and Maui `Alauahio (Parareomyza montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Cappadonna, Justin; Steele, Claire; Leonard, David L.; Mounce, Hanna L.; Becker, Dusti; Swinnerton, Kirsty

    2015-01-01

    ), which comprised 90% of all prey items for 50 adult birds and 98% of all prey for two nestlings. Caterpillars were also the most important prey for Maui ‘alauahio (43% for 104 adult birds) although spiders (Araneae, 16%), beetles (12%) and true bugs, planthoppers and psyllids (Hemiptera; 12%) were also important. Caterpillars were generally the most abundant type of arthropod in the foliage of koa and ‘ōhi‘a, although spiders, beetles and hemipterans were also common. Total arthropod biomass and caterpillar biomass at Nakula was as great, or greater, than that observed at Hanawi and Waikamoi per unit of foliage of both koa and ‘ōhi‘a. Spiders generally dominated the bark fauna on both koa and ‘ōhi‘a at all sites although isopods (Isopoda), millipedes (Myriapoda: Millipeda) and lacewings (Neuroptera) were also abundant at Waikamoi and Hanawi. Total arthropod biomass on bark, as well as the biomass of several individual taxa, was significantly lower at Nakula than the other sites. Our measurement of the density of beetle exit holes in dead koa branches found no difference between Nakula and Waikamoi. Finally, no difference existed in the abundance of arthropods (primarily caterpillars and moth pupae) within ‘ākala stems among sites. With the exception of bark surfaces, our results suggest that the arthropod prey base for birds on primary foraging substrates at Nakula is similar to that found at two sites within the current range of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio. However, our results should be viewed with caution because they are limited to the scale of individual branch, tree, or ‘ākala stem. To complete the assessment, our results should be scaled up to the landscape level by determining the density of each substrate within each site. Key arthropod prey of kiwikiu and Maui ‘alauahio are available at Nakula and, as habitat restoration continues, food abundance should increase to the point at which populations of these birds can be supported.