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Sample records for ion-exchange resins catalysts

  1. Esterification of Palmitic Acid with Methanol in the Presence of Macroporous Ion Exchange Resin as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Qarina Yaakob and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of palmitic acid with methanol was studied in a batch reactor using macro porous ion exchange resin Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. Methyl palmitate was produced from the reaction between palmitic acid and methanol in the presence of catalyst. The effects of processing parameters, molar ratio of alcohol to acid M, (4-10, catalyst loading (0-10 g cat/liter, water inhibition (0-2 mol/liter, agitator speed (200-800 rpm and reaction temperature (343-373K were studied. The experimental kinetic data were correlated using homogenous as well as heterogeneous models (based on single as well as dual site mechanisms. The activation energy of the reaction was 11.552 kJ/mol for forward reaction whilst 5.464 kJ/mol for backward reaction. The experimental data fitted well with the simulated data obtained from the kinetic models. Keywords: Palmitic Acid, Methanol, Esterification, Ion Exchange Resin, Kinetics.

  2. Synthesis of biodiesel from pongamia oil using heterogeneous ion-exchange resin catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N; Selvan, B Karpanai; Vennison, S John

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning renewable substitute fuel for petroleum. Biodiesel could be effectively produced by transesterification reaction of triglycerides of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts. Conventionally, biodiesel manufacturing processes employ strong acids or bases as catalysts. But, separation of the catalyst and the by-product glycerol from the product ester is too expensive to justify the product use as an automobile fuel. Hence heterogeneous catalysts are preferred. In this study, transesterification of pongamia oil with ethanol was performed using a solid ion-exchange resin catalyst. It is a macro porous strongly basic anion exchange resin. The process parameters affecting the ethyl ester yield were investigated. The reaction conditions were optimized for the maximum yield of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) of pongamia oil. The properties of FAEE were compared with accepted standards of biodiesel. Engine performance was also studied with pongamia oil diesel blend and engine emission characteristics were observed.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF 2—HYDROXYETHYL ACRYLATE BY USING STRONG ACIDIC CATION ION EXCHANGE RESIN AS CATALYST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAODabin

    1992-01-01

    2-Hydroxyethyl acrylate is synthesized from acrylic acid and ethylene glycol under a simple and mild condition by using strong acidic cation ion exchange resin as a catalyst,which could be recycled as long as 10 times with high activation.

  4. Improved and selective platinum recovery from spent alpha-alumina supported catalysts using pretreated anionic ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, K; Goodarzi, F

    2006-04-17

    Improved and selective recovery of platinum from a spent dehydrogenation platinum alpha-alumina supported catalyst using a strong basic ion exchange resin is reported. Platinum and other precious metal group (PMG) complexes are leached using concentrated hydrochloric acid along with about 0.20 vol.% nitric acid as an oxidizing agent from de-coked and crushed spent catalyst. Effects of hydrochloric acid concentration, time, and temperature in leaching stage are investigated. The strong basic anionic resin is treated by sodium hydroxide solution to replace chloride anion by hydroxyl group ion. The supernatant of the leaching process is passed through a fixed column of hydroxylated strong base anionic resin. The treated resin on which the platinum complex is adsorbed is dried and burned in an oxidizing atmosphere at 750-800 degrees C. The recovered gray metallic powder is mainly platinum. Results compared with those obtained from untreated anionic resin show that adsorption of platinum complexes onto the treated anionic resin is more selective and the yield of separation is considerably improved. The breakthrough curves of the pretreated anion exchanger and that of untreated exchange resin reveals that the capacity of the hyroxilated resin is decreased by about 14%. These breakthrough curves can be used for calculation of height of a practical exchange plate (HPEP) for design purposes.

  5. Optimizing the Synthesis of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether in Continuous Catalytic Distillation Column Using New Ion Exchange Resin Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Umar; Yahia Abubakar Al-Hamed; Abdulraheem Al-Zahrani; Hisham Saeed Bamufleh

    2013-01-01

    Liquid phase synthesis of one of the important fuel oxygenate, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), from etha-nol and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has been studied in catalytic distillation column (CDC) using ion exchange resin catalyst CT-145H. A packed CDC of 1.2 m height and 50 mm diameter with indigenously developed reactive sec-tion packing was used to generate experimental data. Effect of different key variables on product purity in distillate, was investigated to find the optimum operating conditions for ETBE synthesis. The optimum conditions for 0.2 kg·s-1 of ethanol feed were found:reboiler duty of 375 W, molar feed ratio of 1︰1.3 of reactants, and reflux ratio of 7. Concentration profiles for each component along each column section at optimum conditions were also drawn. Neither output nor input multiplicity was observed at experimental conditions.

  6. Pharmaceutical Applications of Ion-Exchange Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, David

    2005-01-01

    The historical uses of ion-exchanged resins and a summary of the basic chemical principles involved in the ion-exchanged process are discussed. Specific applications of ion-exchange are provided that include drug stabilization, pharmaceutical excipients, taste-masking agents, oral sustained-release products, topical products for local application…

  7. Metal nanoparticles immobilized on ion-exchange resins:A versatile and effective catalyst platform for sustainable chemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca Liguori; Carmen Moreno-Marrodan; Pierluigi Barbaro

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent achievements in the immobilization of metal nanoparticles on ion-exchange resins and the related catalytic application. The focus is on the production processes for fine and commodity chemicals for which a low environmental impact has been demonstrated. The most significant papers that appeared in the literature from January 2010 to July 2014 have been covered. Their uses in unselective processes, bulk chemicals production, fuel cells compo-nents, as well as the use of metal-free ion-exchange resins in acid/base-catalysed reactions, were not included.

  8. Recycling asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts by their immobilisation onto ion-exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Pierluigi; Bianchini, Claudio; Giambastiani, Giuliano; Oberhauser, Werner; Bonzi, Laura Morassi; Rossi, Filippo; Dal Santo, Vladimiro

    2004-06-21

    New systems based on cationic chiral phosphine-rhodium complexes anchored to a commercial cation-exchange gel-type resin showed high efficiency and easy recycling in the asymmetric hydrogenation of prochiral olefins.

  9. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Eichrom`s highly successful Diphonixo resin resembles a conventional ion exchange resin in its use of sulfonic acid ligands on a styrene- divinylbenzene matrix. Diphonix resin exhibits rapid exchange kinetics that allow economical operation of ion exchange systems. Unlike conventional resins, Diphonix resin contains chelating ligands that are diphosphonic acid groups that recognize and remove the targeted metals and reject the more common elements such as sodium, calcium and magnesium. This latter property makes Diphonix ideal for many industrial scale applications, including those involving waste treatment. For treatment of low-level, transuranic (TRU) and high- level radioactive wastes, Diphonix`s polystyrene backbone hinders its application due to radiolytic stability of the carbon-hydrogen bonds and lack of compatibility with expected vitrification schemes. Polystyrene-based Diphonix is approximately 60% carbon- hydrogen. In response to an identified need within the Department of Energy for a resin with the positive attributes of Diphonix that also exhibits greater radiolytic stability and final waste form compatibility, Eichrom has successfully developed a new, silica-based resin version of Diphonix. Target application for this new resin is for use in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving the processing of low-level, transuranic and high-level radioactive wastes. The resin can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste (waste that contains low level radioactivity and hazardous constituents) including mixed wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Silica-based Diphonix is only 10% carbon-hydrogen, with the bulk of the matrix silica.

  10. Novel silica-based ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gula, M.; Harvey, J.

    1996-12-31

    Shortcomings of chelating resins have been addressed by a new class of ion exchange resins called dual mechanism bifunctional polymers (DMBPs). DMBPs use hydrophilic cation exchange ligands with rapid uptake kinetics and use chelating ligands for selectivity for one or more metals; result is a resin that quickly recognizes and removes targeted metals from waste, remediation, and process streams. Eichrom`s Diphonix {reg_sign} resin is the first DMBP to be widely released as a commercial product; it is polystyrene based. Objective of this work is to synthesize commercial quantities of a silica-based ion exchange resin with the same or better metal ion selectivity, metal uptake kinetics, and acid stability as Diphonix. Feasibility was determined, however the process needs to be optimized. Studies at Eichrom and ANL of the performance of Diphonix resin over a broad range of HNO3 and HCl conditions and inorganic salt loadings are discussed together with the proposed method of incorporating similar characteristics into a silica-based resin. The new, silica-based resin functionalized with diphosphonic acid ligands can be used in environmental restoration and waste management situations involving processing of low-level, transuranic, and high-level radioactive wastes; it can also be used for processing liquid mixed waste including wastes contaminated with organic compounds.

  11. Scintillating 99Tc Selective Ion Exchange Resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell Greenhalgh; Richard D. Tillotson

    2012-07-01

    Scintillating technetium (99Tc) selective ion exchange resins have been developed and evaluated for equilibrium capacities and detection efficiencies. These resins can be utilized for the in-situ concentration and detection of low levels of pertechnetate anions (99TcO4-) in natural waters. Three different polystyrene type resin support materials were impregnated with varying amounts of tricaprylmethylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) extractant, several different scintillating fluors and wavelength shifters. The prepared resins were contacted batch-wise to equilibrium over a wide range of 99TcO4- concentrations in natural water. The measured capacities were used to develop Langmuir adsorption isotherms for each resin. 99Tc detection efficiencies were determined and up to 71.4 ± 2.6% was achieved with some resins. The results demonstrate that a low level detection limit for 99TcO4- in natural waters can be realized.

  12. Dimerisation of isobutene on acidic ion-exchange resins

    OpenAIRE

    Honkela, Maija

    2005-01-01

    Dimerisation of isobutene produces diisobutenes that can be hydrogenated to isooctane (2,2,4-trimethyl pentane). Isooctane can be used as a high octane gasoline component. The aim of this work was to study the selective production of diisobutenes through the dimerisation of isobutene on ion-exchange resin catalysts and to construct kinetic models for the reactions in the system for reactor design purposes. High selectivities for diisobutenes were obtained in the presence of polar componen...

  13. Microbial treatment of ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouznetsov, A.; Kniazev, O. [D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Dept. Biotechnology, Mocow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    A bioavailability of ion exchange resins to a microbial destruction as one of the alternative methods of compacting used ionites from the nuclear fuel manufacturing cycle enterprises has been investigated. The bio-destruction was studied after a preliminary chemical treatment or without it. A sensitivity of the ion exchange resins (including highly acidic cationite KU-2-8) to the microbial destruction by heterotrophic and chemo-litho-trophic microorganisms under aerobic conditions was shown in principle. The biodegradation of the original polymer is possible in the presence of the water soluble fraction of the resin obtained after its treatment by Fenton reagent and accelerated in the presence of Mn-ions in optimal concentration 1-2 g of Mn per liter of medium. Thus, the process of bio-destruction of ionite polymer by heterotrophic microorganisms can be compared with the bio-destruction of lignin or humic substances. The optimum parameters of bio-destruction and microorganisms used must be different for resins with different functional groups. (authors)

  14. Tc-99 Ion Exchange Resin Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Parker, Kent E.; Pierce, Eric M.

    2010-08-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was contracted by CHPRC to evaluate the release of 99Tc from spent resin used to treat water from well 299-W15-765 and stored for several years. The key questions to be answered are: 1) does 99Tc readily release from the spent ion exchange resin after being in storage for several years; 2) if hot water stripping is used to remove the co-contaminant carbon tetrachloride, will 99Tc that has been sequestered by the resin be released; and 3) can spent resin be encapsulated into a cementitious waste form; if so, how much 99Tc would be released from the weathering of the monolith waste form? The results from the long term stability leach test results confirm that the resin is not releasing a significant amount of the sequestered 99Tc, evident by the less than 0.02% of the total 99Tc loaded being identified in the solution. Furthermore, it is possible that the measured 99Tc concentration is the result of 99Tc contained in the pore spaces of the resin. In addition to these results, analyses conducted to examine the impact of hot water on the release of 99Tc suggest that only a small percentage of the total is being released. This suggest that hot water stripping to remove carbon tetrachloride will not have a significant affect on the resin’s ability to hold-on to sequestered 99Tc. Finally, encapsulation of spent resin in a cementitious material may be a viable disposal option, but additional tests are needed to examine the extent of physical degradation caused by moisture loss and the effect this degradation process can have on the release of 99Tc.

  15. The modification of ion exchange heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, R.; Mulia, B.; Sahlan, M.; Utami, T. S.; Wijanarko, Anondho; Hermansyah, Heri

    2017-03-01

    Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by using the homogeneous catalyst which has difficulty in high cost of the separation process. The heterogeneous catalysts ion exchange resin by its Solid phase can make an easier separation process, able to be reactivated and used repeatedly. In this research, the heterogeneous catalyst from various source such as Lewatit macro porous resin, Amberlite gel resin and natural zeolite bayah was investigated their performance to produced biodiesel from used cooking oil. Initially, the preparation of the ion exchange process with variations in time, temperature, the concentration of HCl and NaOH solution was investigated. Then, the activity of heterogeneous catalyst to produced biodiesel under the variation of stirring rate, zeolite particle size, and comparison of different ion exchange catalysts were also investigated. Finally, the stability test and regeneration treatment were also investigated. The optimum operating conditions of biodiesel synthesis process is at the temperature of 60 °C for 2 h with a stirring speed of 700 rpm. Natural zeolite Bayah with 6 M of NaOH solution produced 16.19%, Amberlite gel with 6 M HCL produced 65.22% of biodiesel yield and material Lewatit macro porous with 6 M of NaOH solution produced 85.94% as the maximum result. As the best result, Material Lewatit macro porous selected as the material which was used in the variation of stirring speed, temperature, and reaction time, the concentration of base and stability test. According to the results of analysis, calculations yield methyl oleic HPLC produced by Lewatit macro porous with 6 M NaOH at 62.95%.

  16. Simultaneous production of high quality biodiesel and glycerin from Jatropha oil using ion-exchange resins as catalysts and adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, Naomi; Kanagawa, Keiichi; Nakashima, Kazunori; Yonemoto, Toshikuni

    2013-08-01

    The simultaneous production of high quality biodiesel and glycerin was realized by a bench-scale process using expanded-bed reactors packed with cation- and anion-exchange resins. The mixed-solution of crude Jatropha oil and methanol at a stoichiometric molar ratio was supplied to the process. The free fatty acid as well as triglyceride was completely converted to biodiesel. All by-products were adsorbed on the resin and the effluent from the process was free from them. The effluent fully met the international biodiesel standard specifications without any downstream purification processes except for removing methanol. The glycerin adsorbed on the resin was completely recovered as a transparent methanol solution during regeneration of the resin.

  17. Kinetics Studies on Esterification Reaction of Acetic acid with Iso-amyl Alcohol over Ion Exchange Resin as Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar D. Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The low molecular weight organic esters have pleasing smell and are found in applications in the food industry for synthetic essence and perfume. Esterification reactions are ubiquitous reactions especially in pharmaceutical, perfumery and polymer industries, wherein; both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts have been extensively used. Iso-amyl acetate (or Iso-pentyl acetate is often called as banana oil, since it has the recognizable odor of this fruit. Iso-amyl acetate is synthesized by esterification of acetic acid with iso-amyl alcohol. (Eq.1. Since the equilibrium does not help the formation of the ester, it must be shifted to the right, in favor of the product, by using a surplus of one of the starting materials. Iso-amyl acetate is a kind of flavor reagent with fruit taste. The use of H2SO4 often originates the problems such as corrosion for equipments and pollution for environment.

  18. MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

    2011-01-03

    Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

  19. Cementation of residue ion exchange resins at Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dustin, D.F.; Beckman, T.D.; Madore, C.M.

    1998-03-03

    Ion exchange resins have been used to purify nitric acid solutions of plutonium at Rocky Flats since the 1950s. Spent ion exchange resins were retained for eventual recovery of residual plutonium, typically by incineration followed by the aqueous extraction of plutonium from the resultant ash. The elimination of incineration as a recovery process in the late 1980s and the absence of a suitable alternative process for plutonium recovery from resins led to a situation where spent ion exchange resins were simply placed into temporary storage. This report describes the method that Rocky Flats is currently using to stabilize residue ion exchange resins. The objective of the resin stabilization program is: (1) to ensure their safety during interim storage at the site, and (2) to prepare them for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Included in the discussion is a description of the safety concerns associated with ion exchange resins, alternatives considered for their stabilization, the selection of the preferred treatment method, the means of implementing the preferred option, and the progress to date.

  20. Advanced ion exchange resins for PWR condensate polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, B. [Rohm and Haas Co. (United States); Tsuzuki, S. [Rohm and Haas Co. (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The severe chemical and mechanical requirements of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) condensate polishing plant (CPP) present a major challenge to the design of ion exchange resins. This paper describes the development and initial operating experience of improved cation and anion exchange resins that were specifically designed to meet PWR CPP needs. Although this paper focuses specifically on the ion exchange resins and their role in plant performance, it is also recognized and acknowledged that excellent mechanical design and operation of the CPP system are equally essential to obtaining good results. (authors)

  1. A conditioning process for ion exchanger resins contaminated with radioactive elements. Procede de conditionnement de resines echangeuses d'ions contaminees par des elements radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, R.; Wiegert, B.; Zeh, J.L.

    1993-08-20

    Ion exchanger resins are embedded in a pre-polymer syrup prepared from acrylic monomers having high boiling point. A curing catalyst (a peroxide) and an activation agent (a tertiary amine) are added. 12 examples are given. 9 p.

  2. Separation of organic ion exchange resins from sludge -- engineering study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1998-08-25

    This engineering study evaluates the use of physical separation technologies to separate organic ion exchange resin from KE Basin sludge prior to nitric acid dissolution. This separation is necessitate to prevent nitration of the organics in the acid dissolver. The technologies under consideration are: screening, sedimentation, elutriation. The recommended approach is to first screen the Sludge and resin 300 microns then subject the 300 microns plus material to elutriation.

  3. Modified ion exchange resins - synthesis and properties. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doescher, F.; Klein, J.; Pohl, F.; Widdecke, H.

    1982-01-22

    Sulfomethylated resins are prepared by polymer analogous reactions, starting from macroporous poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) matrices. Different reaction paths are discussed and used in the synthesis. Sulfomethylation can be achieved by reaction of a chloromethylated resin with dimethyl sulfide and sodium sulfonate or alternatively by oxidation of polymer-bound thiol groups. Both methods give high conversions as shown by IR spectra and titration of the sulfonic acid groups. Poly(1-(4-hydroxysulfomethylphenyl)ethylene) (3) is obtained by reaction of poly(1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene) (2) resin with formaldehyde/sodium sulfonate. The thermal stability, catalytic activity, and ion exchange equilibria of the sulfomethylated resin are investigated.

  4. Ultrafiltration Membrane Fouling and the Effect of Ion Exchange Resins

    KAUST Repository

    Jamaly, Sanaa

    2011-12-01

    Membrane fouling is a challenging process for the ultrafiltration membrane during wastewater treatment. This research paper determines the organic character of foulants of different kinds of wastewater before and after adding some ion exchange resins. Two advanced organic characterization methods are compared in terms of concentration of dissolved organic carbons: The liquid chromatography with organic carbon (LC-OCD) and Shimadzu total organic carbon (TOC). In this study, two secondary wastewater effluents were treated using ultrafiltration membrane. To reduce fouling, pretreatment using some adsorbents were used in the study. Six ion exchange resins out of twenty were chosen to compare the effect of adsorbents on fouling membrane. Based on the percent of dissolved organic carbon’s removal, three adsorbents were determined to be the most efficient (DOWEX Marathon 11 anion exchange resin, DOWEX Optipore SD2 polymeric adsorbent, and DOWEX PSR2 anion exchange), and three other ones were determined to the least efficient (DOWEX Marathon A2 anion exchange resin, DOWEX SAR anion exchange resin, and DOWEX Optipore L493 polymeric adsorbent). Organic characterization for feed, permeate, and backwash samples were tested using LC-OCD and TOC to better understand the characteristics of foulants to prevent ultrafiltration membrane fouling. The results suggested that the polymeric ion exchange resin, DOWEX SD2, reduced fouling potential for both treated wastewaters. All the six ion exchange resins removed more humic fraction than other organic fractions in different percent, so this fraction is not the main for cause for UF membrane fouling. The fouling of colloids was tested before and after adding calcium. There is a severe fouling after adding Ca2+ to effluent colloids.

  5. Phosphorus-contained polycondensation type ion-exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulkun Tursunov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes synthesis and research of new polycondensation type phosphorus-contained ion-exchange polymers by phosphorylation of polymers received through the interaction of furfural (accessible and cheap product of hydrolytic and cotton scraping industry of Uzbekistan with benzyl bromide (chloride. Furfural and its derivatives possess high reactionary ability thanks to presence of carbonyl groups, and presence of a heterocyclic cycle gives to the received polymers high thermal and chemical stability. Polycondensation reaction kinetics of furfural and benzyl bromide, and phosphorylation reaction of the received benzyl bromide-furfural polymer were studied. Sorption, kinetic and thermo-chemical properties of received ion-exchange resins were studied using physico-chemical and chemical analyses to find out specific objects of practical application. Particularly, sorption and selective properties of received ion-exchange resins to ions of such metals as copper, nickel, calcium, magnesium, and uranyl ion were studied. Received results support the application of the investigated ion-exchange resins in processes of clearing of industrial and waste waters of hydrometallurgical manufactures.

  6. Adsorption of Rh(III) complexes from chloride solutions obtained by leaching chlorinated spent automotive catalysts on ion-exchange resin Diaion WA21J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Shaobo, E-mail: shaoboshen@metall.ustb.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ecological and Recycling Metallurgy, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Pan Tonglin; Liu Xinqiang; Yuan Lei [Key Laboratory of Ecological and Recycling Metallurgy, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Jinchao [Key Laboratory of Ecological and Recycling Metallurgy, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physical Chemistry, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Yongjian; Guo Zhanchen [Key Laboratory of Ecological and Recycling Metallurgy, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-07-15

    It was found that Rh, Pd and Pt contained in the spent ceramic automotive catalysts could be effectively extracted by dry chlorination with chlorine. In order to concentrate Rh(III) ions contained in the chloride solutions obtained, thermodynamic and kinetics studies for adsorption of Rh(III) complexes from the chloride solutions on an anionic exchange resin Diaion WA21J were carried out. Rh, Pd, Pt, Al, Fe, Si, Zn and Pb from the chloride solution could be adsorbed on the resin. The distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) of Rh(III) decreased with the increase in initial Rh(III) concentration or in adsorption temperature. The isothermal adsorption of Rh(III) was found to fit Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich models under the adsorption conditions. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities Q{sub max} based on Langmuir adsorption isotherms were 6.39, 6.61 and 5.81 mg/g for temperatures 18, 28 and 40 deg. C, respectively. The apparent adsorption energy of Rh was about -7.6 kJ/mol and thus Rh(III) adsorption was a physical type. The experimental data obtained could be better simulated by pseudo-first-order kinetic model and the activation energy obtained was 6.54 J/mol. The adsorption rate of Rh(III) was controlled by intraparticle diffusion in most of time of adsorption process.

  7. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-06-11

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.0 , which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590 PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590 PTF TEF RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  8. Technological aspects of vegetable oils epoxidation in the presence of ion exchange resins: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milchert Eugeniusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review paper of the technology basics of vegetable oils epoxidation by means of peracetic or performic acid in the presence of acidic ion exchange resins has been presented. The influence of the following parameters: temperature, molar ratio of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to ethylenic unsaturation, catalyst loading, stirring intensity and the reaction time on a conversion of ethylenic unsaturation, the relative percentage conversion to oxirane and the iodine number was discussed. Optimal technological parameters, mechanism of epoxidation by carboxylic peracids and the possibilities of catalyst recycling have been also discussed. This review paper shows the application of epoxidized oils.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF CYCLED SPHERICAL RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.; Duignan, M.

    2010-02-23

    This report presents characterization data for two spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (sRF) resin beds that had processed cesium in non-radioactive and radioactive cycles. All column cycle operations for the resin beds including loading, displacements, elution, regeneration, breakthroughs, and solution analyses are reported in Nash and Duignan, 2009a. That report covered four ion exchange (IX) campaigns using the two {approx}11 mL beds in columns in a lead-lag arrangement. The first two campaigns used Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 2F nonradioactive simulant while the latter two were fed with actual dissolved salt in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells. Both radioactive cycles ran to cesium breakthrough of the lead column. The resin beds saw in excess of 400 bed volumes of feed in each cycle. Resin disposal plans in tank farm processing depend on characterizations of resin used with actual tank feed. Following a final 30 bed volume (BV) elution with nitric acid, the resin beds were found to contain detectable chromium, barium, boron, aluminum, iron, sodium, sulfur, plutonium, cesium, and mercury. Resin affinity for plutonium is important in criticality safety considerations. Cesium-137 was found to be less than 10E+7 dpm/g of resin, similar to past work with sRF resin. Sulfur levels are reasonably consistent with other work and are expected to represent sulfur chemistry used in the resin manufacture. There were low but detectable levels of technetium, americium, and curium. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) work on the used (eluted) resin samples showed significant contents of mercury, barium, and chromium. One resin sample exceeded the TCLP level for mercury while the other metals were below TCLP levels. TCLP organics measurements indicated measurable benzene in one case, though the source was unknown. Results of this work were compared with other work on similar sRF resin characterizations in this report. This is the first

  10. Ion Exchange Column Tests Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Morse, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-12-20

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the soluble properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. SuperLig® 639 is an elutable ion exchange resin. In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate (TcO4-). Perrhenate (ReO4-) has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient and column resin maturation kinetics testing using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from simulated LAW. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range. Loading tests were performed at 45°C, and the computer modeling was updated to include the temperature effects. Equilibrium contact testing indicated that this batch of

  11. Gold Loading on Ion Exchange Resins in Non-Ammoniacal Resin-Solution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abrar Muslim

    2010-01-01

    The loading of gold using strong base anion exchange resin in non-ammoniac resin-solution (NARS) systems has been studied. The loading of gold onto ion exchange resins is affected by polythionate concentration, and trithionate can be used as the baseline in the system. The results also show that resin capacity on gold loading increases due to the increase in the equilibrium thiosulfate concentration in the NARS system. Gold loading performances show the need of optimization the equilibrium co...

  12. Solidification of Spent Ion Exchange Resin Using ASC Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀中; 云桂春; 叶裕才

    2002-01-01

    Ion exchange resins (IERs) have been widely used in nuclear facilities. However, the spent radioactive IERs result in major quantities of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. This article describes a laboratory experimental study on solidification processing of IERs using a new type of cement named ASC cement. The strength of the cementation matrix is in the range of 18-20 MPa (28 d); the loading of the spent IER in the cement-resin matrix is over 45% and leaching rates of 137Cs, 90Sr and 60Co are 7.92×10-5, 5.7×10-6, and 1.19×10-8 cm/d. The results show that ASC cement can be a preferable cementation material for immobilization of radioactive spent IER.

  13. Ion Exchange Testing with SRF Resin FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-07-02

    Ion exchange using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin has been selected by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) for use in the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and for potential application in at-tank deployment. Numerous studies have shown SRF resin to be effective for removing 137Cs from a wide variety of actual and simulated tank waste supernatants (Adamson et al. 2006; Blanchard et al. 2008; Burgeson et al. 2004; Duignan and Nash 2009; Fiskum et al. 2006a; Fiskum et al. 2006b; Fiskum et al. 2006c; Fiskum et al. 2007; Hassan and Adu-Wusu 2003; King et al. 2004; Nash et al. 2006). Prior work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has focused primarily on the loading behavior for 4 to 6 M Na solutions at 25 to 45°C. Recent proposed changes to the WTP ion exchange process baseline indicate that loading may include a broader range of sodium molarities (0.1 to 8 M) and higher temperatures (50°C) to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues. This report discusses ion exchange loading kinetics testing activities performed in accordance with Test Plan TP-WTPSP-002, Rev. 3.01, which was prepared and approved in response to the Test Specification 24590-PTF-TSP-RT-09-002, Rev. 0 (Lehrman 2010) and Test Exception 24590-PTF-TEF-RT-11-00003, Rev. 0 (Meehan 2011). This testing focused on column tests evaluating the impact of elevated temperature on resin degradation over an extended period of time and batch contacts evaluating the impact on Cs loading over a broad range of sodium concentrations (0.1 to 5 M). These changes may be required to alleviate post-filtration precipitation issues and broaden the data range of SRF resin loading under the conditions expected with the new equipment and process changes.

  14. Recovery of tetrachloroaurate through ion exchange with Dowex 11 resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of the tetrachloroaurate complex by the anionic ion exchange resin Dowex 11 has been studied. The kinetics of gold adsorption were dependent of both gold and resin concentrations and temperature. The adsorption isotherm can be described by the expression Q = kCn. The loaded resin could be eluted by an acidic thiourea solution at 20°C. After several adsorption-elution cycles there is not any apparent loss in the adsorption properties of the resin.

    Se estudia la recuperación del ion tetracloroaurato mediante la resina aniónica Dowex 11. La extracción de oro depende tanto de las concentraciones del metal y la resina como de la temperatura. La isoterma de adsorción responde a la ecuación Q = kCn. La resina cargada con oro puede ser eluida con una disolución acida de tiourea a 20°C. Después de varios ciclos de adsorción-desorción no hay pérdida de carga por parte de la resina.

  15. Esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oils (WCO): Role of ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalan Ozbay; Nuray Oktar; N. Alper Tapan [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    Although WCO plays a crucial role for the economical production of biodiesel, free fatty acid (FFA) level in the nature of WCO cause saponification problems during transesterification. Acidic ion-exchange resins can be used to decrease WCO free fatty acid level. In this study, activities of resins (Amberlyst-15 (A-15), Amberlyst-35 (A-35), Amberlyst-16 (A-16) and Dowex HCR-W2) in direct FFA esterification were examined in the temperature range of 50-60{sup o}C and the effect of catalyst amount (1-2 wt%) on FFA conversion was also analyzed. FFA conversion increased with increasing reaction temperature and catalyst amount. Order of catalytic activities was found as A-15 > A-35 > A-16 > Dowex HCR-W2. This was related to the size of average pore diameters and magnitude of BET surface area. 44 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cation immobilization in pyrolyzed simulated spent ion exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luca, Vittorio, E-mail: vluca@cnea.gov.ar [Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General, Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bianchi, Hugo L. [Gerencia de Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. General, Paz 1499, 1650 San Martin, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, Universidad Nacional de General San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Ed. Tornavias, Martin de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martin (Argentina); Conicet, Av. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Manzini, Alberto C. [Programa Nacional de Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-05-15

    Significant quantities of spent ion exchange resins that are contaminated by an assortment of radioactive elements are produced by the nuclear industry each year. The baseline technology for the conditioning of these spent resins is encapsulation in ordinary Portland cement which has various shortcomings none the least of which is the relatively low loading of resin in the cement and the poor immobilization of highly mobile elements such as cesium. The present study was conducted with cationic resin samples (Lewatit S100) loaded with Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} in roughly equimolar proportions at levels at or below 30% of the total cation exchange capacity. Low temperature thermal treatment of the resins was conducted in inert (Ar), or reducing (CH{sub 4}) gas atmospheres, or supercritical ethanol to convert the hydrated polymeric resin beads into carbonaceous materials that contained no water. This pyrolytic treatment resulted in at least a 50% volume reduction to give mechanically robust spherical materials. Scanning electron microscope investigations of cross-sections of the beads combined with energy dispersive analysis showed that initially all elements were uniformly distributed through the resin matrix but that at higher temperatures the distribution of Cs became inhomogeneous. Although Cs was found in the entire cross-section, a significant proportion of the Cs occurred within internal rings while a proportion migrated toward the outer surfaces to form a crustal deposit. Leaching experiments conducted in water at 25 Degree-Sign C showed that the divalent contaminant elements were very difficult to leach from the beads heated in inert atmospheres in the range 200-600 Degree-Sign C. Cumulative fractional loses of the order of 0.001 were observed for these divalent elements for temperatures below 500 Degree-Sign C. Regardless of the processing temperature, the cumulative fractional loss of Cs in water at 25 Degree-Sign C reached a plateau or

  17. Porous metal oxide microspheres from ion exchange resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picart, S.; Parant, P.; Caisso, M.; Remy, E.; Mokhtari, H.; Jobelin, I.; Bayle, J. P.; Martin, C. L.; Blanchart, P.; Ayral, A.; Delahaye, T.

    2015-07-01

    This study is devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of porous metal oxide microsphere from metal loaded ion exchange resin. Their application concerns the fabrication of uranium-americium oxide pellets using the powder-free process called Calcined Resin Microsphere Pelletization (CRMP). Those mixed oxide ceramics are one of the materials envisaged for americium transmutation in sodium fast neutron reactors. The advantage of such microsphere precursor compared to classical oxide powder is the diminution of the risk of fine dissemination which can be critical for the handling of highly radioactive powders such as americium based oxides and the improvement of flowability for the filling of compaction chamber. Those millimetric oxide microspheres incorporating uranium and americium were synthesized and characterizations showed a very porous microstructure very brittle in nature which occurred to be adapted to shaping by compaction. Studies allowed to determine an optimal heat treatment with calcination temperature comprised between 700-800 °C and temperature rate lower than 2 °C/min. Oxide Precursors were die-pressed into pellets and then sintered under air to form regular ceramic pellets of 95% of theoretical density (TD) and of homogeneous microstructure. This study validated thus the scientific feasibility of the CRMP process to prepare bearing americium target in a powder free manner.

  18. HIGH ASPECT RATIO ION EXCHANGE RESIN BED - HYDRAULIC RESULTS FOR SPERICAL RESIN BEADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M; Charles Nash, C; Timothy Punch, T

    2007-09-27

    A principal role of the DOE Savannah River Site is to safely dispose of a large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. An in-tank ion exchange unit is being considered for cesium removal to accelerate waste processing. This unit is planned to have a relatively high bed height to diameter ratio (10:1). Complicating the design is the need to cool the ion exchange media; therefore, the ion exchange column will have a central cooling core making the flow path annular. To separate cesium from waste the media being considered is made of resorcinol formaldehyde resin deposited on spherical plastic beads and is a substitute for a previously tested resin made of crystalline silicotitanate. This spherical media not only has an advantage of being mechanically robust, but, unlike its predecessor, it is also reusable, that is, loaded cesium can be removed through elution and regeneration. Resin regeneration leads to more efficient operation and less spent resin waste, but its hydraulic performance in the planned ion exchange column was unknown. Moreover, the recycling process of this spherical resorcinol formaldehyde causes its volume to significantly shrink and swell. To determine the spherical media's hydraulic demand a linearly scaled column was designed and tested. The waste simulant used was prototypic of the wastes' viscosity and density. This paper discusses the hydraulic performance of the media that will be used to assist in the design of a full-scale unit.

  19. INTERACTION OF AMINO ACID WITH ION EXCHANGE RESIN Ⅲ.FURTHER INVESTIGA TION OF SUPEREQUIVALENT ADSORPTION MECHANISM OF AMINO ACID ON ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHui; SHAOTong; 等

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption isotherms of glycine,alanine and oxidized glutathion on strong acid cation and strong base anion exchange resins from aqueous solutions were measured and the superequivalent adsorptions of glycine and alanine observed.The infrared spectra of glycine adsorbed on the cation and the anion exchange resins,001×7 and 201×7,were measured.From these results,it is concluded that the amino acid adsorption on the ion exchange resin proceeds not only through ion exchange and proton transfer mechanisms,but also through aminecarboxylate interaction between the adsorbed amino acid molecules,and the formation of second layer of amino acid molecules is the mechanism of superequivalent adsorption of amino acid,the carboxylate or amine groups of the first layer of amino acid molecules on the ion exchange resin act as the exchange sites for the second layer of amino acid molecules.

  20. Reducing ion exchange resins rad-wastes, experience at EDF PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fene, G. [Rohm and Haas Co. (France); Hoffman, B. [Rohm and Haas Co. (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Life time of an ion exchange resin in a Nuclear Power Station (EDF PWR). At the end of its life, an ion exchange resin which has been used to treat radioactive streams becomes a radwaste itself. Its level of radioactivity depends on the point of use and consequently on the circuit where it was used. Roughly speaking, in a Nuclear Power Station PWR we can consider two types of radwaste families: High radioactive family Ion exchange resins which come from primary circuit: reactor control and storage pools. Ion exchange resins which have worked in a decontamination circuit: waste water treatment. Low radioactive family Ion exchange resins which come from secondary circuit: Steam Generator Blowdown By understanding and carefully applying some critical properties of ion exchange resins, such as total capacity, selectivity, and physical structure, it is possible for nuclear power stations to minimize radwaste volumes, while at the same time improving plant performance. This type of improvement can be facilitated by close cooperation and communication between the resin producer and the nuclear power user. (authors)

  1. Local structures of ions at ion-exchange resin/solution interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Makoto; Okada, Tetsuo

    2005-08-26

    The local structures of Cl- and Br- in anion-exchange resins have been studied by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), and separation selectivity is discussed on the basis of results. When two different anion-exchange resins having trimethylammonium and dimethylammonium groups as anion-exchange groups are employed for ion-exchange experiments, slightly higher Br- selectivity has been obtained with the former. XAFS has indicated that the average hydration numbers for a given anion is not affected by the structure of the ion-exchange group, but that the extent of ion-association between the anion and the ion-exchange groups depends on the type of the ion-exchange group. Shorter interaction distance (and in turn stronger ion-association) has been confirmed for the dimethylammonium-type resin, and is consistent with lower Br- selectivity of this resin.

  2. Lawps ion exchange column gravity drain of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Herman, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-28

    Experiments at several different scales were performed to understand the removal of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) ion exchange resin using a gravity drain system with a valve located above the resin screen in the ion exchange column (IXC). This is being considered as part of the design for the Low Activity Waste Pretreatment System (LAWPS) to be constructed at the DOE Hanford Site.

  3. Processing of indium (III) solutions via ion exchange with Lewatit K-2621 resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Diaz-Pavon, A.; Cerpa, A.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    The processing of indium(III)-hydrochloric acid solutions by the cationic ion exchange Lewatit K-2621 resin has been investigated. The influence of several variables such as the hydrochloric acid and metal concentrations in the aqueous solution and the variation of the amount of resin added has been studied. Moreover, a kinetic study performed in the uptake of indium(III) by Lewatit K-2621, shows that either the film-diffusion and the particle-diffusion models fit the ion exchange process onto the resin, depending upon the initial metal concentration in the aqueous solution. The loaded resin could be eluted by HCl solutions at 20 degree centigrade. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of a hybrid ion exchange-catalyst treatment technology for nitrate removal from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist, Allison M; Choe, Jong Kwon; Strathmann, Timothy J; Werth, Charles J

    2016-06-01

    Ion exchange (IX) is the most common approach to treating nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources, but the cost of salt to make regeneration brine, as well as the cost and environmental burden of waste brine disposal, are major disadvantages. A hybrid ion exchange-catalyst treatment system, in which waste brine is catalytically treated for reuse, shows promise for reducing costs and environmental burdens of the conventional IX system. An IX model with separate treatment and regeneration cycles was developed, and ion selectivity coefficients for each cycle were separately calibrated by fitting experimental data. Of note, selectivity coefficients for the regeneration cycle required fitting the second treatment cycle after incomplete resin regeneration. The calibrated and validated model was used to simulate many cycles of treatment and regeneration using the hybrid system. Simulated waste brines and a real brine obtained from a California utility were also evaluated for catalytic nitrate treatment in a packed-bed, flow-through column with 0.5 wt%Pd-0.05 wt%In/activated carbon support (PdIn/AC). Consistent nitrate removal and no apparent catalyst deactivation were observed over 23 d (synthetic brine) and 45 d (real waste brine) of continuous-flow treatment. Ion exchange and catalyst results were used to evaluate treatment of 1 billion gallons of nitrate-contaminated source water at a 0.5 MGD water treatment plant. Switching from a conventional IX system with a two bed volume regeneration to a hybrid system with the same regeneration length and sequencing batch catalytic reactor treatment would save 76% in salt cost. The results suggest the hybrid system has the potential to address the disadvantages of a conventional IX treatment systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anion selective membrane. [ion exchange resins and ion exchange membrane electrolytes for electrolytic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, S. S.; Geoffroy, R. R.; Hodgdon, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental anion permselective membranes were prepared and tested for their suitability as cell separators in a chemical redox power storage system being developed at NASA-Lewis Research Center. The goals of long-term (1000 hr) oxidative and thermal stability at 80 C in FeCl3 and CrCl3 electrolytes were met by most of the weak base and strong base amino exchange groups considered in the program. Good stability is exhibited by several of the membrane substrate resins. These are 'styrene' divinylbenzene copolymer and PVC film. At least four membrane systems produce strong flexible films with electrochemical properties (resistivity, cation transfer) superior to those of the 103QZL, the most promising commercial membrane. The physical and chemical properties of the resins are listed.

  6. Resin Catalyst Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Asaoka

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction: What are resin catalyst hybrids? There are typically two types of resin catalyst. One is acidic resin which representative is polystyrene sulfonic acid. The other is basic resin which is availed as metal complex support. The objective items of this study on resin catalyst are consisting of pellet hybrid, equilibrium hybrid and function hybrid of acid and base,as shown in Fig. 1[1-5].

  7. POTENTIOMETRIC BEHAVIOR OF CHELATING ION EXCHANGE RESIN IN WATER AND IN ETHANOL—WATER MIXTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOUHuiyuan; WANGChangshou; 等

    1993-01-01

    The potentiometric behavior of the chelating ion exchange resin D751 containing iminodiacetic acid groups has been studied at 25℃ by batch titration with alkali and acid in water and in ethanol-water mixture solvent.The titrtion curves,the amount of chemically bound counter-ions and invasive electrolytes in the resin phase,and the solvent contents the resin have been investigated.

  8. Influence of the Functionalization Degree of Acidic Ion-Exchange Resins on Ethyl Octyl Ether Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Guilera, J.; Hanková, L. (Libuše); Jeřábek, K.; E Ramírez; Tejero, J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl octyl ether (EOE) can be obtained by the ethylation of 1-octanol by means of ethanol or diethyl carbonate over acidic ion-exchange resins. However, EOE formation has to compete with the less steric demanding formation of diethyl ether, by-product obtained from ethanol dehydration or diethyl carbonate decomposition. In the present work, the influence of the resin functionalization degree on EOE formation has been evaluated. A series of partially sulfonated resins were prepared by the sul...

  9. Vitrification of spent ion exchange resin from Korean NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Jiawei [Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Choi, Kwan Sik; Yang, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Myung Chan; Song, Myung Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-07-01

    Spent resin is the main wet waste generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs). Vitrification is conceptually attractive because of the potential durability of the final product and the large volume reduction. The vitrification of spent resin from NPPs is examined. There is a large amount of sulfate in spent resin ash. However, the limited solubility of sulfate in glass resulted in the low waste loading of spent resin. High sulfate in glass led to the phase separation. Some well-developed glasses frits have been used to vitrify spent resin from Korean NPPs. The waste loading is less than 5 wt percent of resin ash. Spent resin also was added to the borate waste glasses, 20 g of dry resin could be vitrified in 100 g of borate waste glass without phase separation and final waste from has good durability. (author). 12 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Tungsten Recovery from Spent SCR Catalyst Using Alkaline Leaching and Ion Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of tungsten (W from a honeycomb-type spent selective catalytic reduction (SCR catalyst using an alkaline leaching–ion exchange method was investigated. Spent SCR catalyst mainly consists of TiO2 and other oxides (6.37% W, 1.57% vanadium (V, and 2.81% silicon (Si, etc.. The ground catalyst was leached at the optimal conditions, as follows: NaOH concentration of 0.3 kg/kg of catalyst, pulp density of 3%, leaching temperature of 70 °C, particle size of −74 μm, and leaching time of 30 min. In this study, the leaching rate values of V and W under the above conditions were 87 wt %, and 91 wt %, respectively. The pregnant solution was then passed through a strong base anion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA900. At high pH conditions, the use of strong base anion exchange resin led to selective loading of divalent WO42− from the solution, because the fraction of two adjacent positively-charged sites on the IRA900 resin was higher and separate from the coexisting VO43−. The adsorbed W could then be eluted with 1 M NaCl + 0.5 M NaOH. The final concentrated W solution had 8.4 g/L of W with 98% purity. The application of this process in industry is expected to have an important impact on the recovery of W from secondary sources of these metals.

  11. Commercial Ion Exchange Resin Vitrification in Borosilicate Glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.; Workman, P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Poole, K.; Erich, D.; Harden, J. [Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory, Anderson, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Bench-scale studies were performed to determine the feasibility of vitrification treatment of six resins representative of those used in the commercial nuclear industry. Each resin was successfully immobilized using the same proprietary borosilicate glass formulation. Waste loadings varied from 38 to 70 g of resin/100 g of glass produced depending on the particular resin, with volume reductions of 28 percent to 68 percent. The bench-scale results were used to perform a melter demonstration with one of the resins at the Clemson Environmental Technologies Laboratory (CETL). The resin used was a weakly acidic meth acrylic cation exchange resin. The vitrification process utilized represented a approximately 64 percent volume reduction. Glass characterization, radionuclide retention, offgas analyses, and system compatibility results will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Uranium Adsorption on Ion-Exchange Resins - Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of five resins (Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 [fresh], Dowex 21K 16-30 [regenerated], Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200) were tested using unspiked, nitrate-spiked, and nitrate-spiked/pH adjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests were conducted in support of a resin selection process in which the best resin to use for uranium treatment in the 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system will be identified. The results from these tests are as follows: • The data from the high-nitrate (1331 mg/L) tests indicated that Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 all adsorbed uranium similarly well with Kd values ranging from ~15,000 to 95,000 ml/g. All four resins would be considered suitable for use in the treatment system based on uranium adsorption characteristics. • Lowering the pH of the high nitrate test conditions from 8.2 to 7.5 did not significantly change the uranium adsorption isotherms for the four tested resins. The Kd values for these four resins under high nitrate (1338 mg/L), lower pH (7.5) ranged from ~15,000 to 80,000 ml/g. • Higher nitrate concentrations greatly reduced the uranium adsorption on all four resins. Tests conducted with unspiked (no amendments; nitrate at 337 mg/L and pH at 8.2) source water yielded Kd values for Dowex 1, Dowex 21K 16-30 (fresh), Purofine PFA600/4740, and ResinTech SIR-1200 resins ranging from ~800,000 to >3,000,000 ml/g. These values are about two orders of magnitude higher than the Kd values noted from tests conducted using amended source water. • Compared to the fresh resin, the regenerated Dowex 21K 16-30 resin exhibited significantly lower uranium-adsorption performance under all test conditions. The calculated Kd values for the regenerated resin were typically an order of magnitude lower than the values calculated for the fresh resin. • Additional testing using laboratory columns is recommended to better

  13. Removal of chromium from electroplating industry effluents by ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaco, Sofia A; Fernandes, Sandra; Quina, Margarida M; Ferreira, Licínio M

    2007-06-18

    Effluent discharged from the chromium electroplating industry contains a large number of metals, including chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, manganese and lead. The ion exchange process is an alternative technique for application in the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals and indeed it has proven to be very promising in the removal and recovery of valuable species. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of commercial ion exchange resins for removing chromium trivalent from industrial effluents, and for this purpose two resins were tested: a chelating exchange resin (Diaion CR11) and a weak cationic resin (Amberlite IRC86). In order to evaluate the sorption capacity of the resins some equilibrium experiments were carried out, being the temperature and pH the main variables considered. The chromium solutions employed in the experiments were synthetic solutions and industrial effluents. In addition, a transient test was also performed as an attempt to understand the kinetic behaviour of the process.

  14. Ion Exchange Extraction of Boron from Aqueous Fluids by Amberlite IRA 743 Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖应凯; 廖步勇; 刘卫国; 肖云; SWIHART,GeorgeH.

    2003-01-01

    The ion exchange characteristics d Amherlite IRA 743 resin for extracting boron from aqueous fluids have been investigated in detail. The results show that AmherHte IRA 743 resin, a boron specific ion exchange resin, can quantitatively extract boron as the B (OH)4- spedes from weakly basle solution. Some exchangeable anions such as CI- and SO42- are present, resulting in an increase in pH value of the loeded solution within the nan, and the boron in natural aqueous fluids with low nH is also extracted by Amberlite IRA 743 resin. However, the voiume of loaded solution must be restricted. The maximum voiume of loaded solution giving quantitative extraction of boron decreases for sample soh.,tiom of lower pH value. Warm HCI solution is more effective than room temperature HCI solution for eluting boron from Amberllte IRA 743 resin.

  15. Storage and Aging Effects on Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Ion Exchange Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Arm, Stuart T.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Steele, Marilyn J.; Thomas, Kathie K.

    2007-09-10

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) is evaluating the alternate Cs ion exchanger, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), for use in the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP).( ) Previous test activities with spherical RF indicate that it has adequate capacity, selectivity, and kinetics to perform in the plant according to the flowsheet needs. It appears to have better elution and hydraulic properties than the existing alternatives: ground-gel RF and SuperLig® 644 (SL 644).( ) To date, the spherical RF performance testing has been conducted on freshly manufactured resin (within ~2 months of manufacture). The ion exchange resins will be manufactured and shipped to the WTP up to 1 year before being used in the plant. Changes in the resin properties during storage could reduce the capacity of the resin to remove Cs from low-activity waste solutions. Active sites on organic SL-644 resin have been shown to degrade during storage (Arm et al. 2004). Additional testing was needed to study the effects of storage conditions and aging on spherical RF ion exchange performance. Variables that could have a significant impact on ion exchange resins during storage include storage temperature, medium, and time. Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted to test the effects of various storage conditions on spherical RF resin. Data obtained from the testing will be used by the WTP operations to provide direction for suitable storage conditions and manage the spherical RF resin stock. Storage test conditions included wet and dry resin configurations under nitrogen at three temperatures. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004 satisfying the needs defined in Appendix C of the Research and Technology Plan( ) TSS A-219 to evaluate the impact of storage conditions on RF resin performance. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Operating Contract DE-AC05-76RL

  16. Ion Exchange Study of Some New Copolymer Resins Derived from 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic Acid, Biuret and Formaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Dhakite

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Copolymer resins (8-HQSABF were synthesized by the condensation of 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and biuret with formaldehyde in the presence of hydrochloric acid as catalyst, proved to be selective chelation ion exchange copolymer resins for certain metals. Chelation ion exchange properties to these polymers were studied for Cu2+, Cd2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ ions. A batch equilibrium method was employed in the study of the selectivity of the distribution of a given metal ions between the polymer sample and a solution containing the metal ion. The study was carried out over a wide pH range and in a media of various ions strengths. The polymer showed a higher selectivity for Cu2+ ions than for Cd2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ ions. Hence on the basis of above studies these copolymer may be used as semiconductors, surface coating, ion-exchangers, materials for rechargeable battery cell in various electronic industries, plastic materials, elastomers and in boiler plants

  17. Denitration of Rocky Flats Ion-Exchange Resins: Recommendation of Denitration Processes, October 19, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob Espinoza; Mary Barr; Wayne Smith

    1998-12-01

    Resin denitration via anion-exchange is an implementable process that can effectively mitigate the hazards associated with stored resins in which the bulk of the nitrate consists of an "exchangeable nitrate" ionically bound to the cationic sites of the anion-exchange resins. Salicylate has been selected as the exchange anion of choice because of its superior selectivity for the Rocky Flats resins and its unique potential for comprehensive recovery and recycle. This report outlines a single recommended resin denigration procedure that is reasonably independent of the resin composition and the current stored form. This procedure is not optimized but rather seeks to `over-treat' the resins so that a single procedure works for the variety of stored resins. The recommended treatment with sodium salicylate reduces resins by 95-99+% the measured exothermic behavior of the ion-exchange.

  18. Corrosion of steel drums containing cemented ion-exchange resins as intermediate level nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffó, G.S. [Departamento de Materiales, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas – CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Farina, S.B., E-mail: farina@cnea.gov.ar [Departamento de Materiales, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas – CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Schulz, F.M. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas – CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • There are no works related to the corrosion of drums containing radioactive waste. • Chloride induces high corrosion rate and after 1 year it drops abruptly. • Decrease in the corrosion rate is due to the lack of water to sustain the process. • Cementated ion-exchange resins do not pose risks of corrosion of the steel drums. -- Abstract: Exhausted ion-exchange resins used in nuclear reactors are immobilized by cementation before being stored. They are contained in steel drums that may undergo internal corrosion depending on the presence of certain contaminants. The objective of this work is to evaluate the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins with different aggressive species. The corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, and the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored for 900 days. Results show that the cementation of ion-exchange resins seems not to pose special risks regarding the corrosion of the steel drums.

  19. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahida, Nurul [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Irwan, M. N. [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 65}Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs were leached out from the spent resin while {sup 60}Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  20. Repeated use of ion-exchange resin membranes in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, S.K.; Belnap, J.; Miller, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the consistency of nutrient extraction among repeated cycles of ion-exchange resin membrane use. Two sandy calcareous soils and different equilibration temperatures were tested. No single nutrient retained consistent values from cycle to cycle in all treatments, although both soil source and temperature conferred some influence. It was concluded that the most conservative use of resin membranes is single-use.

  1. Design of Ion-Exchange Resins Through EDTA and DTPA Modified Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    Catechol, resorcinol, and their admixtures with EDTA and DTPA moieties were converted into polymeric resins by alkaline polycondensation with formaldehyde. The resins were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, ion-exchange capacity, and distribution coefficient (D for heavy metal and radionuclide such as Cs and Sr. 137Cs and 90Sr constitutes a major source of heat in nuclear waste streams and in regards to recent nuclear event their remediation in complex solution – sea water - represent an important issue.

  2. DIFFUSIVITY OF ARRE EARTH ION IN POROUS ION EXCHANGE RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LingDaren; LiuYucheng; 等

    1997-01-01

    The self-diffusion of Eu3+ ion in porous resins D72 and D751 was studied by isotope exchange reaction.Applying Kataoka's bidisperse pore model,the intraparticle effective diffusivity De were resolved into a solid diffusivity Dg and a macropore diffusivity Dp.The experiments show that De.Dp and Dg all increase with the increase of reaction temperature;the response Dp and Dg of D751 resin is smaller than that of D72 resin;the diffusivity of Eu3+ ion in solution is larger than Dp,which leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of ion in the pore of resin can not completely be equal to that in solution.

  3. Demonstration of New, Highly Perchlorate-Selective Ion Exchange Resin Coupled with Resin-Optimized, Single-Vessel Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    area), this flow rate is about 500 gpm. If the linear velocity is too low and fluidization of the ion exchange bed occurs, poor contact between the...mitigate the effects. This backwashing can fluidize the ion exchange bed and disturb the resin loading profile. In this manner, some of the resin...area. For an 8-ft-diameter vessel (50 ft2 cross-sectional area), this flow rate is about 500 gpm. If the linear velocity is too low and fluidization

  4. Synthesis of Anomeric Methyl Fructofuranosides and Their Separation on an Ion-Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurminen, Erkki; Poijarvi, Paivi; Koskua, Katja; Hovinen, Jari

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of d-fructose with methanol in the presence of acid as a catalyst gives a mixture of methyl-[beta]-d-fructopyranoside, methyl-[alpha]-D-fructofuranoside, and methyl-[beta]-d-fructofuranoside, which were separated on an ion exchange column and characterized polarimetrically.

  5. Development of treatment process by pyrolysis of low level radioactive spent ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagahara, Satoshi; Kidoguchi, Akira; Ushikoshi, Juntaro; Kanda, Nobuyasu [Mitsui Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co., Ltd. has been successfully developing a continuous treatment process by pyrolysis under reduction condition for low level radioactive ion-exchange resin used in nuclear power plants, for the purpose of reducing its volume with excellent decontamination performance. Pyrolysis experiments with labo-scale and bench-scale test equipments were carried out, followed by the continuous pyrolysis treatment test in the full-scale test equipment with feed rate at 7 liter/hour which was composed of a rotary kiln pyrolysis drum and an after-burner. Results showed an excellent performance of pyrolysis for the treatment of the spent resin. The properties of cement immobilization of residue sufficiently meet the governmental regulations, and we are confident that the continuous treatment process of the disposal for the low level radioactive ion-exchange resin used in nuclear power plants is established. (author)

  6. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results.

  7. ELECTRIC REGENERATION METHOD OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN IN THE MIXED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangFang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper,the self-regeneration process of the mixed resins consisting of cation and anion ion exchangers in the electrolialyser of the packed bed is analyzed,and an electric regeneration method is put forward to supply the desalinated water by mixed bed.The electric regeneration technology is a new one used for regeneration of the exhausted ion exchangers in the mixed bed,instead of the traditional regenerating process by using acid and alkali liquor.Electric energy is consumed to regenerate the ion exchangers loaded by salts from water treatment without any chemicals-acid and alkali.The advantage of the electric regeneration process exhibited convenient operation,no discharge any waste,and therefore no pollution to the receiving water body and the environmental ground.

  8. Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

    2012-09-19

    The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

  9. Ion-exchange Resin Catalyzed Esterification of Lactic Acid with Isopropanol: a Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit P. Toor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic behavior of esterification of lactic acid with isopropanol over an acidic cation exchange resin, Amberlyst 15, was studied under isothermal condition. Isopropyl lactate synthesized in this reaction is an important pharmaceutical intermediate. The experiments were carried out in a stirred batch reactor in the temperature range of 323.15 to 353.15 K. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, molar ratio and catalyst loading was studied. Variation in parameters on rate of reaction demonstrated that the reaction was intrinsically controlled. Kinetic modeling was performed using Eley-Rideal model which acceptably fits the experimental data. The activation energy was found to be 22.007 kJ/mol and frequency factor was 0.036809 l2 g-1 mol-1 min-1 for forward reaction. The value of entropy for the forward reaction was found to be 182.317 J K-1 mol-1 . © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 19th January 2011, Revised: 16th March 2011; Accepted: 16th March 2011[How to Cite: A.P. Toor, M. Sharma, S. Thakur, and R. K. Wanchoo. (2011. Ion-exchange Resin Catalyzed Esterification of Lactic Acid with Isopropanol: a Kinetic Study. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 39-45. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.791.39-45][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.791.39-45 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/791 ] | View in  

  10. New ion exchange resin designs and regeneration procedures yield improved performance for various condensate polishing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najmy, S.W. [Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Condensate polishing is an application with many different design and operational aspects. The past decade has brought new challenges for improved water quality with respect to both soluble and insoluble contaminants. Nonetheless, the endeavors to understand the compositional complexities of the ion exchange resin bead and the convoluted dynamics of ion exchange chemistry and chemical engineering mechanisms occurring within the mixed bed condensate polisher have brought new ideas and expectations for ion exchange resin in deep-bed condensate polishers than ever before. The new products and procedures presented here are a collaboration of a great deal of effort on the part of researchers, consultants, system engineers, station chemists, lab technicians and others. The studies discussed in this paper unequivocally demonstrate the merits of: 1. A specially designed cation resin to achieve greater than 95% insoluble iron removal efficiency, 2. A less-separable mixed resin for improved control of reactor water sulfate in BWR primary cycles, 3. Applying increased levels of regeneration chemicals and retrofitting the service vessels with re-mixing capability to improve the operation of deep-bed condensate polishers in PWR secondary cycles. (authors)

  11. Investigation of the Ion-Exchange Behavior of Zeolite Y in the Presence of Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yi; Zheng Jinyu; Liu Zhongqing; Gao Xiuzhi; Luo Yibin; Zong Baoning

    2015-01-01

    Ion-exchange process of zeolite Y using ammonium-type resin as an exchange reagent was successfully carried out. The effect of temperature, space velocity and ion concentration on the breakthrough curves was carefully investigated. At the ifrst exchange section, the maximum proportion of qualiifed zeolites (QR) was obtained at a temperature of 70℃, a weight hourly space velocity of 0.61 h-1, and an ion concentration of 197 mg/L. The minimum length of mass-transfer zone (MTZ) of the resin bed was achieved at a temperature of 70℃, a space velocity of 0.61 h-1, and an ion concentration of 423 mg/L. At the second exchange section, the length of MTZ of the resin bed was signiifcantly increased, and the exchange of Na+ions contained in zeolite Y was more dififcult than that achieved at the ifrst exchange section. In both the ifrst and the second exchange sections, the zeolite Y subjected to ion exchange with the resin maintained the similar physical and chemi-cal properties as compared to those exchanged by the conventional approaches, but the zeolite Y, which was obtained after ion exchange, contained a signiifcantly lower content of Na2O.

  12. Permissible radionuclide loading for organic ion exchange resins from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, D.R.; Lin, M.; Barletta, R.E.

    1983-10-01

    A questionnaire on the use of ion exchange resins in nuclear power plants was sent to all operating reactors in the US. Responses were received from 23 of the 48 utilities approached. Information was sought concerning the amounts of radionuclides held by the resins, and the effects of its radiation on the resins both during operation and after removal from service. Relevant information from the questionnaires is summarized and discussed. Available literature on the effects of ionizing radiation on organic ion exchange resins has been reviewed. On the basis of published data on damage to resins by radiation, the technical rationale is given to support NRC's draft branch technical position on a maximum permissible radionuclide loading. It is considered advisable to formulate the rule in terms of a delivered dose rather than a curie loading. A maximum permissible dose of 10/sup 8/ rad is chosen because, while it is large enough that a measurable amount of damage will be done to the resin, it is small enough that the damage will be negligible at a power plant or disposal site. A test procedure has been written which a generator could use to qualify a specific resin for service at a higher dose than permitted by the general rule.

  13. Separation of hemicellulose-derived saccharides from wood hydrolysate by lime and ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Zhuang, Jingshun; Fu, Yingjuan; Tian, Guoyu; Wang, Zhaojiang; Qin, Menghua

    2016-04-01

    A combined process of lime treatment and mixed bed ion exchange was proposed to separate hemicellulose-derived saccharides (HDS) from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of lignocellulose as value added products. The optimization of lime treatment achieved up to 44.2% removal of non-saccharide organic compounds (NSOC), mainly colloidal substances, with negligible HDS degradation at 0.5% lime level and subsequent neutralization by phosphoric acid. The residual NSOC and calcium ions in lime-treated PHL were eliminated by mixed bed ion exchange. The breakthrough curves of HDS and NSOC showed selective retention toward NSOC, leading to 75% HDS recovery with 95% purity at 17 bed volumes of exchange capacity. In addition, macroporous resin showed higher exchange capacity than gel resin as indicated by the triple processing volume. The remarkable selectivity of the combined process suggested the feasibility for HDS separation from PHL.

  14. Expanded-bed adsorption utilizing ion-exchange resin to purify extracellular beta-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J A; Vieira E Rosa, P De T; Pastore, G M; Santana, C C

    1998-01-01

    The application of expanded-bed ion-exchange resins allows the elimination of intermediary particulate separation steps like filtration or centrifugation prior to adsorption steps in enzyme-purification processes from crude fermentation broths. This work is concerned with the experimental evaluation data of a process related to the adsorption of an extracellular p-galactosidase from the fungi Scopulariopsis. The protein recovery in the ion-exchange resin Accell Plus QMA was accomplished using a continuous-monitoring method. The direct adsorption step was followed by a elution step with concentrated NaCl solutions aiming to improve the enzyme-specific activity. Experimental data for fixed and expanded bed were compared.

  15. Boron removal from aqueous solutions by ion-exchange resin: column sorption-elution studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, T Ennil; Oztürk, Neşe

    2008-04-01

    A column sorption-elution study was carried out by using a strong base anion-exchange resin (Dowex 2 x 8) for the removal of boron from aqueous solutions. The breakthrough curve was obtained as a function of feed flow rate and the total and breakthrough capacity values of the resin were calculated. The boron on the resin was quantitatively eluted with 0.5M HCl solution at different flow rates. Three consecutive sorption-elution-washing-regeneration-washing cycles were applied to the resin in order to investigate the reusability of the ion-exchange resin. Total capacity values remained almost the same after three sorption-elution-regeneration cycles. The Thomas and the Yoon-Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves and to determine the characteristic column parameters required for process design. The results proved that the models would describe the breakthrough curves well.

  16. The effect of loading solution and dissolution media on release of Diclofenac from ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Atyabi F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Drugs can be loaded on ion exchange resins in order to control their release. Loading of diclofenac sodium on the resin beads not only sustain its release but also reduce its gastrointestinal mucosal injury. In this study the effect of loading solution and concentration of diclofenac in loading solution on total amount of drug loaded on the resin beads (Amberlite IRA-900 and the release characteristic of drug in different media were examined. Results showed that diclofenac resin complex did not release their drug content in simulated gastric fluid but released it in simulated intestinal fluid independent of exposure time in acidic conditions. The effect of a number of parameters such as ionic strength and pH on the release characteristic of drug - resin complexes were also examined. Results showed that although ionic strength is an important factor, drug release is more affected by the pH of the media. NO ABSTRACT

  17. Pyrolysis of spent ion exchange resins; Die Pyrolyse von verbrauchten Ionentauscherharzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braehler, Georg; Slametschka, Rainer [NUKEM Technologies GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2011-07-15

    Ion exchangers are employed in all nuclear power plants with water loops to remove radionuclides from the primary coolant. Cation and anion exchangers are used as coarse-grained spherical resins in pressurized water reactors and as finely ground powder resins in boiling water reactors. In new plants there is a trend to exploit all possibilities of avoiding contaminated liquids and, should solutions occur nevertheless, clean them by ion exchange to such an extent that they can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste. This means less use of evaporator facilities or even giving them up altogether. Regeneration, which is possible in principle, is hardly employed at all. As a rule, ion exchangers consist of cross-linked polystyrene. As no use is made of regeneration in nuclear power plants, unlike conventional technology, the material must be disposed of as radioactive waste. In this connection, it is important to bear in mind that spent ion exchangers are too moist for direct disposal and are made up of inorganic matter. Consequently, a process is needed which reduces volume, produces an inert or mineralized product, works at temperatures not exceeding approx. 600 C, and can be run in a simple plant. NUKEM further developed a pyrolysis technique known from other technical applications. These ion exchangers can be decomposed by pyrolysis very effectively; the product is inert and chemically resistant. No additives are needed. The entire radioactivity inventory remains in the pyrolysate. The pyrolysate is a flowable solid. This makes it easy to handle and allows it to be compacted or cemented, depending on interim and repository storage conditions and on the activity inventory. (orig.)

  18. Performance of monosphere new gel type ion exchange resins for condensate polisher at PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, S.; Nakamura, M.; Asou, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Izumi, T.; Deguchi, T.; Ino, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    1998-12-31

    There are two kinds of ion exchange resins of gel type and porous one which are used as condensate polisher in LWR nuclear power plants. In order to estimate the performance of these resins on the condensate polisher at the secondary cycle of Japanese PWR plants, a column test was performed setting the column test device in Ohi power station unit 1 of the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. and the variations of the resin properties and the samples at the end of column were analyzed. The column test showed that the cross-linking degree of the new gel resins used was lower than those of porous ones. The new resins captured larger amounts of Matrix-Diffused Crud than the conventional cation resins before regeneration but not after that. Whereas the surface adsorbed crud was less captured by the new resins than conventional anion resins. However, there were little differences among these resins in respects of rinsing characteristics, sphericity, water quality, break through capacity, etc. At the condensate polisher in the secondary system it was confirmed that new gel resins had almost the same performance as one of the conventional ones and could be applied to the actual plant. (M.N.)

  19. Radiolytic stability of some recently developed ion exchange and extraction chromatographic resins containing diphosphonic acid groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarizia, R.; Horwitz, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of {sup 60}Co irradiation on the Diphonix{trademark}, Diphosil and Diphonix-CS chelating ion exchange resins, and on two Dipex{trademark} extraction chromatographic resins containing the P,P{prime}-di(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H{sub 2}DEH[MDP]) impregnated in the pores of a polymeric support (Dipex-1) and of silica (Dipex-2), respectively, has been investigated. The resins have been irradiated while in contact with HNO{sub 3} (Diphonix, Diphosil and Dipex resins) or NaOH (Diphonix-DS resin) up to an absorbed dose of about 200 Mrad. As a probe of the resin radiolytic degradation, metal uptake (both equilibrium and kinetics) and capacity measurements have been performed. Results show that the Diphonix-CS resin properties are practically unaffected by irradiation under the experimental conditions used in this work. The Diphonix, Diphosil, and especially the Dipex resins suffer substantial capacity losses, but their affinity for actinide ions is not seriously compromised. On the other hand, the kinetics of metal uptake by the silica based Diphosil and Dipex-2 resins becomes substantially slower indicating that, from a radiolytic degradation standpoint, polymeric materials perform better than silica as supports for H{sub 2}DEH[MDP] containing extraction chromatographic resins.

  20. ION EXCHANGE MODELING FOR REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM HANFORD WASTE USING SUPERLIG 644 RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L

    2004-05-01

    The expected performance of a proposed ion exchange column using SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin for the removal of cesium from Hanford high level radioactive alkaline waste is discussed. This report represents a final report on the ability and knowledge with regard to modeling the Cesium-SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin ion exchange system. Only the loading phase of the cycle process is addressed within this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests and batch equilibrium experiments are addressed. The methodology employed and sensitivity analyses are also included (i.e., existing methodology employed is referenced to prior developmental efforts while updated methodology is discussed). Pilot-scale testing is not assessed since no pilot-scale testing was available at the time of this report. Column performance predictions are made considering three selected feed compositions under nominal operating conditions. The sensitivity analyses provided help to identify key parameters that aid in resin procurement acceptance criteria. The methodology and application presented within this report reflect the expected behavior of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin manufactured at the production-scale (i.e, 250 gallon batch size level). The primary objective of this work was, through modeling and verification based on experimental assessments, to predict the cesium removal performance of SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 resin for application in the RPP pretreatment facility.

  1. Ion Exchange Modeling Of Cesium Removal From Hanford Waste Using Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2007-06-27

    This report discusses the expected performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline Hanford radioactive waste. Predictions of full scale column performance in a carousel mode are made for the Hot Commissioning, Envelope B, and Subsequent Operations waste compositions under nominal operating conditions and for perturbations from the nominal. Only the loading phase of the process cycle is addressed in this report. Pertinent bench-scale column tests, kinetic experiments, and batch equilibrium experiments are used to estimate model parameters and to benchmark the ion-exchange model. The methodology and application presented in this report reflect the expected behavior of spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (i.e., approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary some. As such, the full-scale facility predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance.

  2. Bifunctional phenyl monophosphonic/sulfonic acid ion exchange resin and process for using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandratos, Spiro; Shelley, Christopher A.; Horwitz, E. Philip; Chiarizia, Renato; Gula, Michael J.; Xue, Sui; Harvey, James T.

    2002-01-01

    A cross-linked water-insoluble ion exchange resin comprised of polymerized monomers having a phenyl ring is disclosed. A contemplated resin contains (i) polymerized phenyl ring-containing monomers having a phosphonic acid ligand linked to the phenyl ring, (ii) about 2 to about 5 millimoles per gram (mmol/g) of phosphorus as phosphonic acid ligands, and (iii) a sufficient amount of a sulfonic acid ligand such that the ratio of mmol/g of phosphonic acid to mmol/g sulfonic acid is up to 3:1. A process for removing polyvalent metal cations from aqueous solution, and a process for removing iron(III) cations from acidic copper(II) cation-containing solutions that utilize the contemplated resin or other resins are disclosed.

  3. Processing of Spent Ion Exchange Resins in a Rotary Calciner - 12212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kascheev, Vladimir; Musatov, Nikolay [Joint Stock Company ' A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' (VNIINM), Rogova st., 5A (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Processing Russian nuclear ion exchange resin KU-2 using a 'Rotary' calciner was conducted. The resulting product is a dry free flowing powder (moisture content 3 wt.%, Angle of repose of ≅ 20 deg.). Compared with the original exchange resin the volume of the final product is about 3 times less.. Rotary calciner product can be stored in metal drums or in special reinforced concrete cubicles. After thermal treatment in a rotary calciner, the spent resin product can be solidified in cement yielding the following attributes: - The cemented waste is only a 35% increase over the volume of powder product; - The volume of cement calciner product is almost 9 times less (8.7) than the volume of cement solidified resin; - The mechanical strength of cemented calciner product meets the radioactive waste regulations in Russia. (authors)

  4. Development and Evaluation of Sustained Release Tablet of Betahistine Hydrochloride Using Ion Exchange Resin Tulsion T344

    OpenAIRE

    Wagh, Vijay D.; Pawar, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    An attempt was made to sustain the release of Betahistine hydrochloride by complexation technique using strong cation-exchange resin, Tulsion T344. The drug loading onto ion-exchange resin was optimized for mixing time, activation, effect of pH, swelling time, ratio of drug : resin, and temperature. The resinate was evaluated for micromeritic properties and characterized using XRPD and IR. For resinate sustained release tablets were formulated using hydoxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tab...

  5. Protein adsorption on DEAE ion-exchange resins with different ligand densities and pore sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Li; Lin, Dong-Qiang; Zhu, Mi-Mi; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2012-11-01

    Ion exchange chromatography (IEC) is a common and powerful technique for the purification of proteins. The ligand density and pore properties of ion-exchange resins have significant effects on the separation behaviors of protein, however, the understandings are quite limited. In the present work, the adsorption isotherms of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated systematically with series of diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) ion-exchange resins, which have different ligand densities and pore sizes. The Langmuir equation was used to fit the experimental data and the influences of ligand density and pore size on the saturated adsorption capacity and the dissociation constant were discussed. The zeta potentials and hydrodynamic diameters of proteins at different pHs were also measured, and the surface charge characteristics of proteins and the adsorption mechanism were discussed. The results demonstrated that the ligand density, pore size, and protein properties affect the protein adsorption capacities in an integrative way. An integrative parameter was introduced to describe the complicated effects of ligand density and pore size on the protein adsorption. For a given protein, the ligand density and pore size should be optimized for improving the protein adsorption.

  6. 1-Butanol absorption in poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) ion exchange resins for catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maciá, M A; Curcó, D; Bringué, R; Iborra, M; Rodríguez-Ropero, F; van der Vegt, N F A; Aleman, Carlos

    2015-12-21

    The swelling behaviour of poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene), P(S-DVB), ion exchange resins in 1-butanol (BuOH) has been studied by means of atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations (MD). The topological characteristics reported for the resin in the dry state, which exhibited complex internal loops (macropores), were considered for the starting models used to examine the swelling induced by BuOH contents ranging from 10% to 50% w/w. Experimental measurements using a laser diffraction particle size analyzer indicate that swelling causes a volume variation with respect to the dry resin of 21%. According to MD simulations, such a volume increment corresponds to a BuOH absorption of 31-32% w/w, which is in excellent agreement with the indirect experimental estimation (i.e. 31% w/w). Simulations reveal that, independently of the content of BuOH, the density of the swelled resin is higher than that of the dry resin, evidencing that the alcohol provokes important structural changes in the polymeric matrix. Thus, BuOH molecules cause a collapse of the resin macropores when the content of alcohol is ≤20% w/w. In contrast, when the concentration of BuOH is close to the experimental value (∼30% w/w), P(S-DVB) chains remain separated by pores faciliting the access of the reactants to the reaction centers. On the other hand, evaluation of both bonding and non-bonding interactions indicates that the mixing energy is the most important contribution to the absorption of BuOH into the P(S-DVB) resin. Overall, the results displayed in this work represent a starting point for the theoretical study of the catalytic conversion of BuOH into di-n-butyl ether in P(S-DVB) ion exchange resins using sophisticated electronic methods.

  7. Block containing contaminated ion exchange resins and preparation process. Bloc contenant des resines echangeuses d'ions contaminees et son procede de preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, C.; Da Silva, P.

    1993-01-08

    The invention concerns a block containing contaminated ion exchange resins for storage in a repository. Ion exchange resins are incorporated, after water saturation, in a composite matrix made of hardened epoxide resin and cement chosen among Clinker slag cements and slag-ashes cements. The presence of cement in composite matrix allows to limit the temperature in such block below 63 degree C, during their preparation.

  8. Chromium (III) recovery from waste acid solution by ion exchange processing using Amberlite IR-120 resin: batch and continuous ion exchange modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Alguacil,Francisco José; Alonso Gámez, Manuel; Lozano, Kuis Javier

    2004-01-01

    The use of ion exchange technology was studied to remove chromium (III) from acidic waste solution by Amberlite IR-120 resin. Batch and column experimental tests were conducted to provide data for theoretical models and verify the system performance of the adsorption process. Results of batch equilibrium tests indicated that Langmuir isotherm describes well the adsorption process, whereas experimental data also provide evidence that, under the present experimental conditions, chro...

  9. Mathematical modelling and reactor design for multi-cycle bioregeneration of nitrate exhausted ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Shelir; Roberts, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate contamination is one of the largest issues facing communities worldwide. One of the most common methods for nitrate removal from water is ion exchange using nitrate selective resin. Although these resins have a great capacity for nitrate removal, they are considered non regenerable. The sustainability of nitrate-contaminated water treatment processes can be achieved by regenerating the exhausted resin several times rather than replacing and incineration of exhausted resin. The use of multi-cycle exhaustion/bioregeneration of resin enclosed in a membrane has been shown to be an effective and innovative regeneration method. In this research, the mechanisms for bioregeneration of resin were studied and a mathematical model which incorporated physical desorption process with biological removal kinetics was developed. Regardless of the salt concentration of the solution, this specific resin is a pore-diffusion controlled process (XδD ¯CDr0(5+2α)3) shows that the bioregeneration process is controlled by reaction kinetics and is governed by biological removal of nitrate. The model was validated by comparison to experimental data; the average of R-squared values for cycle 1 to 5 of regeneration was 0.94 ± 0.06 which shows that the developed model predicted the experimental results very well. The model sensitivity for different parameters was evaluated and a model bioreactor design for bioregeneration of highly selective resins was also presented.

  10. PILOT-SCALE HYDRAULIC TESTING OF RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.

    2009-05-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed pilot-scale hydraulic/chemical testing of spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange (IX) resin for the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment & Immobilization Plant (WTP) Project. The RF resin hydraulic cycle testing was conducted in two pilot-scale IX columns, 1/4 and 1/2 scale. A total of twenty-three hydraulic/chemical cycles were successfully completed on the spherical RF resin. Sixteen of these cycles were completed in the 24-inch IX Column (1/2 scale column). Hydraulic testing showed that the permeability of the RF resin remained essentially constant, with no observed trend in the reduction of the permeability as the number of cycles increased. The permeability during the pilot-scale testing was 3 times better than the design requirements of the WTP full-scale IX system. The RF resin bed showed no tendency to form fissures or pack more densely as the number of cycles increased. Particle size measurements of the RF resin showed no indication of particle size change (for a given chemical) with cycles and essentially no fines formation. The permeability of the resin bed was uniform with respect to changes in bed depth. Upflow Regeneration and Simulant Introduction in the IX columns revealed another RF resin benefit; negligible radial pressures to the column walls from the swelling of resin beads. The hydraulic and chemical performance of the spherical RF resin during cycle testing was found to be superior to all other tested IX resins. The pilot-scale testing indicates that the RF resin is durable and should hold up to many hydraulic cycles in actual radioactive Cesium (Cs) separation.

  11. An investigation of the radiolytic stability of a resorcinol-formaldehyde ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.L.; Bibler, N.E.

    1994-01-31

    Developing and demonstrating waste separations technologies are the principal objectives of the Underground Storage Tank -Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Program carried out by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) at the DOE Hanford site. One planned separation technique utilizes ion exchange for removal of cesium and strontium from high-level liquid supernates. A resorcinol-formaldehyde resin, which is a polycondensation-type cation exchange resin for cesium removal, has been developed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and has demonstrated superlative performance in testing at SRS, Oak Ridge and PNL. Advantages of this resin relative to other media for cesium removal are its high capacity for cesium and its compatibility with the high pH and aluminum and sodium concentrations of both Hanford and SRS high-level liquid wastes.

  12. Study of plasma off-gas treatment from spent ion exchange resin pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hernán Ariel; Luca, Vittorio; Banchi, Hugo Luis

    2017-03-23

    Polystyrene divinylbenzene-based ion exchange resins are employed extensively within nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors for purification and chemical control of the cooling water system. To maintain the highest possible water quality, the resins are regularly replaced as they become contaminated with a range of isotopes derived from compromised fuel elements as well as corrosion and activation products including (14)C, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (129)I, and (137)Cs. Such spent resins constitute a major proportion (in volume terms) of the solid radioactive waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several treatment and conditioning techniques have been developed with a view toward reducing the spent resin volume and generating a stable waste product suitable for long-term storage and disposal. Between them, pyrolysis emerges as an attractive option. Previous work of our group suggests that the pyrolysis treatment of the resins at low temperatures between 300 and 350 °C resulted in a stable waste product with a significant volume reduction (>50%) and characteristics suitable for long-term storage and/or disposal. However, another important issue to take into account is the complexity of the off-gas generated during the process and the different technical alternatives for its conditioning. Ongoing work addresses the characterization of the ion exchange resin treatment's off-gas. Additionally, the application of plasma technology for the treatment of the off-gas current was studied as an alternative to more conventional processes utilizing oil- or gas-fired post-combustion chambers operating at temperatures in excess of 1000 °C. A laboratory-scale flow reactor, using inductively coupled plasma, operating under sub-atmospheric conditions was developed. Fundamental experiments using model compounds have been performed, demonstrating a high destruction and removal ratio (>99.99%) for different reaction media, at low reactor temperatures and moderate power

  13. Study on elution ability of salicylic acid on ion exchange resins in supercritical carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping YUAN; Jianguo CAI; Junjie GONG; Xiu DENG

    2009-01-01

    The elution ability of salicylic acid on ion exchange resins in supercritical carbon dioxide has been studied. Some factors influencing elution recovery,including entrainer, temperature, pressure and the flow rate of supercritical fluid CO2 are discussed in this work.The addition of a small amount of entrainer, such as ethanol, triethanolamine and their mixture to supercritical CO2 can cause dramatic effects on the elution ability. The results show that the salicylic acid can be only slightly eluted from the resin with supercritical CO2 alone with temperatures ranging from 307.15 to 323.15K and pressures ranging from 10 to 30MPa. Meanwhile, with the same T, P conditions, 40.58% and 73.08% salicylic acid can be eluted from the ion exchange resin with ethanol and ethanol + triethanolamine as the entrainer, respec-tively. An improved PR equation of state with VDWl mixing rules is used to calculate the elution recovery of salicylic acid in supercritical CO2 and the results agree well with the experimental data.

  14. Regeneration of Ion-Exchanging Resin%离子交换树脂的再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周潇

    2011-01-01

    Desalination by ion exchange is widely used in purifying water for boiler. Regeneration of ion-exchanging resin is a complication process ,and regeneration results are affected by regeneration concentration, velocity and time. In this paper, on the basis of summarizing regeneration experiences of the desalination system in Guangxi Hechi chemical company, regeneration process was studied, which can provide some references for other enterprises which adopt ion-exchanging process.%离子交换法除盐在锅炉给水除盐工艺中有广泛地应用,离子交换树脂的再生是一个复杂的过程,再生浓度、流速和时间等都会影响再生的效果.在总结广西河池化工股份有限公司除盐水系统再生经验的基础上,对再生工艺进行了研究,为采用离子交换法除盐的企业提供借鉴.

  15. Ion exchange resin immobilization into bitumen; Imobilizacao de resinas de troca-ionica em betume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzella, Marcia Flavia Righi; Silva, Tania Valeria da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This work presents the results of a research carried out at CDTN/CNEN (Nuclear Technology Development Center) to incorporate spent ion exchange resin into national bitumen. The campaigns were performed at a bituminization pilot plant in CDTN. The waste products properties were evaluated according national and international standards to determine the softening point, penetration, flash point, water content, the thermo differential analysis and homogeneity. These properties are important to evaluate the waste products in order to allow for the system to be operated safely. The so obtained products should meet the standard safety criteria for disposal. (author)

  16. DETERMINATION OF ION EXCHANGE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS FOR THE WEAK ACID CATION AND THE WEAK BASE ANION EXCHANGE RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAOZuyi; WANGChangshou

    1992-01-01

    The general procedure based on the potentiometric titration has developed.According to the procedure,the rational equilibrium constants of the ion exchange reactions RH/Na,RH/Ca,RH/Sr,RH/Ba for the weak acid cation exchange resin D725 and ROH/Cl for the weak base anion exchange resin D705 have been determined.

  17. Solidification of spent ion exchange resins into the SIAL matrix at the Dukovany NPP, Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatransky, Peter; Prazska, Milena; Harvan, David [AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, Trnava, Slovak Republic, 917 01 (Slovakia)

    2013-07-01

    Based on the decision of the State Office for Nuclear Safety, the Dukovany NPP has been obliged to secure the efficient capacities for the disposal of spent ion exchange resins. Therefore, in September 2010, based on the contract with supplier company AMEC Nuclear Slovakia s.r.o. has begun with pumping and treatment of ion exchange resins from the storage tank 0TW30B02, situated in the auxiliary building. The SIAL{sup R} technology, developed in AMEC Nuclear Slovakia, has been used for the solidification purposes. This technology allows an on-site treatment of various special radioactive waste streams (resins, sludge, sludge/resins and borates) at the room temperature. The SIAL{sup R} matrix and technology were licensed by the Czech State Office for Nuclear Safety in 2007. On-site treatment and solidification of spent ion exchange resins at Dukovany NPP involves process of resin removal from tank using remotely operated manipulator, resin transportation, resin separation from free water, resin filling into 200 dm{sup 3} drums and solidification into SIAL{sup R} matrix in 200 dm{sup 3} drums using the FIZA S 200 facility. The final product is observed for compressive strength, leachability, radionuclide composition, dose rate, solids and total weight. After meeting the requirements for final disposal and consolidation, the drums are being transported for the final disposal to the Repository at Dukovany site. During the 3 month's trial operation in 2010, and the normal operation in 2011 and 2012, 189 tons of dewatered resins have been treated into 1960 drums, with total activity higher than 920 GBq. At the end of trial run (2010), 22 tons of dewatered resins were treated into 235 drums. During standard operation approximately 91 tons in 960 drums (2011) and 76 tons in 765 drums (2012) were treated. The weights of resins in the drum ware in the range from 89 - 106 kg and compressive strength limit (10 MPa) has already been achieved 24 hours after fixation. The

  18. Fractionation of sulphite spent liquor for biochemical processing using ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, D L A; Silva, C M; Xavier, A M R B; Evtuguin, D V

    2012-12-31

    Sulphite spent liquor (SSL) is a side product from acidic sulphite pulping of wood, which organic counterpart is composed mainly by lignosulphonates (LS) and sugars. The last are a prominent substrate for the bioprocessing although a previous purification step is necessary to eliminate microbial inhibitors. In this study a fractionation of hardwood SSL (HSSL) has been accomplished employing ion exchange resins in order to separate sugars fraction from concomitant inhibitors: LS, acetic acid, furan derivatives, phenolics, acetic acid and excess of inorganic salts. The fractionation of HSSL has been carried out using two fixed-bed ion exchangers in series (cationic+anionic). The first cation exchange column packed with Dowex 50WX2 resin was able to eliminate free cations and partially separate sugars from high molecular weight LS and furan derivatives. The second anion exchange column packed with Amberlite IRA-96 sorbed remaining LS, phenolics and acetic acid. Overall, the series arrangement under investigation has removed 99.99% of Mg(2+), 99.0% of Ca(2+), 99.6% of LS, and 100% of acetic acid, whereas the yield of recovered sugars was at least 72% of their total amount in HSSL.

  19. Microbial desalination cells packed with ion-exchange resin to enhance water desalination rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Zuo, Kuichang; Xia, Xue; Wei, Jincheng; Luo, Xi; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2012-08-01

    A novel configuration of microbial desalination cell (MDC) packed with ion-exchange resin (R-MDC) was proposed to enhance water desalination rate. Compared with classic MDC (C-MDC), an obvious increase in desalination rate (DR) was obtained by R-MDC. With relatively low concentration (10-2 g/L NaCl) influents, the DR values of R-MDC were about 1.5-8 times those of C-MDC. Ion-exchange resins packed in the desalination chamber worked as conductor and thus counteracted the increase in ohmic resistance during treatment of low concentration salt water. Ohmic resistances of R-MDC stabilized at 3.0-4.7 Ω. By contrast, the ohmic resistances of C-MDC ranged from 5.5 to 12.7 Ω, which were 55-272% higher than those of R-MDC. Remarkable improvement in desalination rate helped improve charge efficiency for desalination in R-MDC. The results first showed the potential of R-MDC in the desalination of water with low salinity.

  20. Vitrification of ion-exchange (IEX) resins: Advantages and technical challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Cicero, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the commercial sector to convert low-level radioactive ion exchange (IEX) resin wastes from the nuclear utilities to solid stabilized waste forms for permanent disposal. One of the alternative waste stabilization technologies is vitrification of the resin into glass. Wastes can be vitrified at elevated temperatures by thermal treatment. One alternative thermal treatment is conventional Joule heated melting. Vitrification of wastes into glass is an attractive option because it atomistically bonds both hazardous and radioactive species in the glass structure, and volume reduces the wastes by 70-80%. The large volume reductions allow for large associated savings in disposal and/or long term storage costs.

  1. In situ separation of lactic acid from fermentation broth using ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataei, Seyed Ahmad; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim

    2008-11-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is an end product inhibited reaction. In situ separation of lactic acid from fermentation broth using ion exchange resins was investigated and compared with conventional fermentation system. Amberlite resin (IRA-400, Cl-) was used to separate lactic acid from fermentation broth and pH was controlled online with an automatic pH controller. The effect of process variables on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus casei in whey permeate was studied. The maximum productivity was obtained at pH=6.1, T=37 degrees C and impeller speed=200 rpm. The maximum concentration of lactic acid at optimum condition was found to be 37.4 g/L after 38 h of fermentation using in situ separation system. The productivity of in situ separation system was five times increased in comparison with conventional system.

  2. Processing of indium (III solutions via ion exchange with Lewatit K-2621 resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Díaz-Pavón, Adrián

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of indium(III-hydrochloric acid solutions by the cationic ion exchange Lewatit K-2621 resin has been investigated. The influence of several variables such as the hydrochloric acid and metal concentrations in the aqueous solution and the variation of the amount of resin added has been studied. Moreover, a kinetic study performed in the uptake of indium(III by Lewatit K-2621, shows that either the film-diffusion and the particle-diffusion models fit the ion exchange process onto the resin, depending upon the initial metal concentration in the aqueous solution. The loaded resin could be eluted by HCl solutions at 20 °C.Se ha investigado el tratamiento de disoluciones de ácido clorhídrico conteniendo indio(III mediante la resina de cambio catiónico Lewatit K-2621. Las variables ensayadas han sido las concentraciones de ácido y de metal en la disolución acuosa y la cantidad de resina empleada en el tratamiento de dichas disoluciones. Asimismo, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio cinético del proceso de intercambio catiónico entre el indio(III y la resina Lewatit K-2621. Este estudio muestra que el proceso de intercambio responde a un mecanismo de difusión en la disolución o en la partícula de resina dependiendo de la concentración inicial del metal en el medio acuoso. El metal cargado en la resina puede ser eluido con disoluciones de ácido clorhídrico a 20 °C.

  3. Removal of aqueous cyanide with strongly basic ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Halis; Kobya, Mehmet; Khan, Eakalak; Bezbaruah, Achintya N

    2015-01-01

    The removal of cyanide (CN-) from aqueous solutions using a strongly basic ion-exchange resin, Purolite A-250, was investigated. The effects of contact time, initial CN- concentration, pH, temperature, resin dosage, agitation speed, and particle size distribution on the removal of CN- were examined. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir isotherm very well. The maximum CN- adsorption capacity of Purolite A-250 was found to be 44 mg CN- g(-1) resin. More than 90% CN- adsorption was achieved for most CN- solutions (50, 100, and 200 mg CN- L(-1)) with a resin dose of 2 g L(-1). The equilibrium time was ∼20 min, optimum pH was 10.0-10.5, and optimum agitation speed was 150 rpm. An increase in adsorption of CN- with increasing resin dosage was observed. Adsorption of CN- by the resin was marginally affected (maximum 4% variation) within an environmentally relevant temperature range of 20-50 °C. Fixed-bed column (20.5 mm internal diameters) experiments were performed to investigate the effects of resin bed depth and influent flow rate on breakthrough behaviour. Breakthrough occurred in 5 min for 0.60 cm bed depth while it was 340 min for 5.40 cm bed depth. Adsorption capacity was 25.5 mg CN- g(-1) for 5 mL min(-1) flow rate and 3.9 mg CN- g(-1) for 20 mL min(-1) flow rate. The research has established that the resin can be effectively used for CN- removal from aqueous solutions.

  4. Kinetics of esterification of acidified oil with different alcohols by a cation ion-exchange resin/polyethersulfone hybrid catalytic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honglei; Ding, Jincheng; Qiu, Yanli; Zhao, Zengdian

    2012-05-01

    Hybrid catalytic membranes consisting of cation ion-exchange resin particles (CERP) and polyethersulfone (PES) were prepared by immersion phase inversion and used as heterogeneous catalysts for the esterification of acidified oil with methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol. The membranes were characterized by ion exchange capacity and swelling degree tests. The membranes were annealed at different temperatures to improve catalytic activity and membranes annealed at 393 K had the highest catalytic activity. Butanol allowed the highest free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion of 95.28% since it has better miscibility than the other alcohols which strengthened mass and heat transfer. Furthermore, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic models of the esterification of acidified oil with the four alcohols were established according to the experimental data. The kinetic models can well predict the FFA conversion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Throughfall Collection Method Using Mixed Bed Ion Exchange Resin Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Fenn

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of ionic deposition in throughfall is a widely used method for measuring deposition inputs to the forest floor. Many studies have been published, providing a large database of throughfall deposition inputs to forests. However, throughfall collection and analysis is labor intensive and expensive because of the large number of replicate collectors needed and because sample collection and chemical analyses are required on a stochastic precipitation event-based schedule. Therefore we developed and tested a throughfall collector system using a mixed bed ion exchange resin column. We anticipate that this method will typically require only one to three samplings per year. With this method, bulk deposition and bulk throughfall are collected by a funnel or snow tube and ions are retained as the solution percolates through the resin column. Ions retained by the resin are then extracted in the same column with 2N KCl and analyzed for nitrate and ammonium. Deposition values in throughfall from conventional throughfall solution collectors and colocated ion exchange samplers were not significantly different during consecutive 3- and 4-month exposure periods at a high (Camp Paivika; >35 kg N ha-1 year-1 and a low deposition (Barton Flats; 5–9 kg N ha-1 year-1 site in the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. N deposition in throughfall under mature pine trees at Camp Paivika after 7 months of exposure was extremely high (87 and 92 kg ha-1 based on the two collector types compared to Barton Flats (11 and 13 kg ha-1. A large proportion of the N deposited in throughfall at Camp Paivika occurred as fog drip, demonstrating the importance of fog deposition as an input source of N at this site. By comparison, bulk deposition rates in open areas were 5.1 and 5.4 kg ha-1 at Camp Paivika based on the two collector types, and 1.9 and 3.0 kg ha-1 at Barton Flats.

  6. Application of mixture design to optimize cementation of simulated spent radioactive ion exchange resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Xue-Ying; BAO Liang-Jin; LIN Mei-Qiong; James D.NAVRATIL

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of a mixture design for spent resin immobilization in cement as well as to examine the cement-slag-ash system for spent resin solidification. Eighteen distinct combinations, consisting of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, fly ash, organic ion exchange resins and water, were selected by a mixture design computer procedure to compose representative experiment points. The measured properties of solidified forms resulting from the combinations included 28-day compressive strength, 42-day immersion strength,42-day immersion weight and slump. These data were fit to a mathematic model with the aid of Scheffe quadratic polynomial, and the effects of each ingredient on the measured properties were identified through an analysis of the response trace plots and contour plots. Utilization of an optimality function singled out an optimal combination comprising water=0.16(wt/wt), slag=0.21, ash=0.10, cement=0.27 and resin=0.26 from which the resulting response was 1 1MPa for the 28-day strength, 110mm for the slump and 5.4% for the 42-day increase in strength.

  7. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-butanol and isobutanol Catalyzed by Ion Exchange Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Pal Toor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Esters are an important pharmaceutical intermediates and very useful perfumery agents. In this study the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol and iso-butanol over an acidic cation exchange resin, Amberlyst 15 were carried out. The effects of certain parameters such as temperature, catalyst loading, initial molar ratio between reactants on the rate of reaction were studied. The experiments were conducted in a stirred batch reactor in the temperature range of 351.15 K to 366.15K.Variation of parameters on rate of reaction demonstrated that the reaction was intrinsically controlled.The activation energy for the esterification of acetic acid with n-butanol and iso butanol is found to be 28.45 k J/mol and 23.29 kJ/mol respectively. ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 16th December 2010, Revised: 19th March 2011; Accepted: 7th April 2011[How to Cite: A.P. Toor, M. Sharma, G. Kumar, and R. K. Wanchoo. (2011. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Acetic Acid with n-butanol and isobutanol Catalyzed by Ion Exchange Resin. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 6(1: 23-30. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.665.23-30][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.665.23-30 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/665 ] | View in 

  8. Effects of magnetic ion-exchange resin addition during coagulation on floc properties and membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yang Hun; Kweon, Ji Hyang; Jeong, Young Mi; Kwon, Soonbuhm; Kim, Hyung-Soo

    2010-03-01

    The application of magnetic ion-exchange resin (MIEX) during chemical coagulation was investigated for the removal of organic matters responsible for fouling in membrane processes. Two different coagulants were used-polyaluminium chloride (PAC1) and polyaluminum chloride silicate (PACS). The MIEX addition during coagulation with both PAC1 and PACS considerably enhanced removal of dissolved organic carbon. Coagulation with MIEX treatment substantially removed all portions of natural organic matter (NOM), while the MIEX treatment alone effectively removed the hydrophobic and transphilic portions of NOM. The enhanced NOM removal by PAC1 coagulation with the addition of MIEX had positive effects on membrane flux at moderate transmembrane pressure conditions. However, the almost identical flux patterns were reported in the experiments of coagulation with PACS and PACS with MIEX addition. The results of the specific cake resistances indicated that the MIEX addition substantially decreased the resistances. The larger size distributions of PAC1 with MIEX corresponded well with the flux improvement.

  9. Application of a Re-Pd bimetallic catalyst for treatment of perchlorate in waste ion-exchange regenerant brine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyong; Choe, Jong Kwon; Sasnow, Zachary; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated sodium chloride (NaCl) brines are often used to regenerate ion-exchange (IX) resins applied to treat drinking water sources contaminated with perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)), generating large volumes of contaminated waste brine. Chemical and biological processes for ClO(4)(-) reduction are often inhibited severely by high salt levels, making it difficult to recycle waste brines. Recent work demonstrated that novel rhenium-palladium bimetallic catalysts on activated carbon support (Re-Pd/C) can efficiently reduce ClO(4)(-) to chloride (Cl(-)) under acidic conditions, and here the applicability of the process for treating waste IX brines was examined. Experiments conducted in synthetic NaCl-only brine (6-12 wt%) showed higher Re-Pd/C catalyst activity than in comparable freshwater solutions, but the rate constant for ClO(4)(-) reduction measured in a real IX waste brine was found to be 65 times lower than in the synthetic NaCl brine. Through a series of experiments, co-contamination of the IX waste brine by excess NO(3)(-) (which the catalyst reduces principally to NH(4)(+)) was found to be the primary cause for deactivation of the Re-Pd/C catalyst, most likely by altering the immobilized Re component. Pre-treatment of NO(3)(-) using a different bimetallic catalyst (In-Pd/Al(2)O(3)) improved selectivity for N(2) over NH(4)(+) and enabled facile ClO(4)(-) reduction by the Re-Pd/C catalyst. Thus, sequential catalytic treatment may be a promising strategy for enabling reuse of waste IX brine containing NO(3)(-) and ClO(4)(-).

  10. Experimental measurement and modeling of the distribution of solvent and ions between an aqueous phase and an ion exchange resin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Gregers; Thomsen, Kaj

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of solutes and solvent between an aqueous solution of salt and an ion exchange resin has been measured at ambient temperature. The experiments have been performed for aqueous solutions of KNO3, KCl, Ca(NO3)2 and CaCl2 in the concentration range of 0-3N. The absorption has been...

  11. SYNTHESIS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER CATALYZED BY ACIDIC ION-EXCHANGE RESINS - INFLUENCE OF THE PROTON ACTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1995-01-01

    The catalytic activity of various strong acid ion-exchange resins on the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) from methanol and isobutene has been investigated. Relative to Amberlyst 15, Kastel CS 381 and Amberlyst CSP have similar rate constants, whereas Duolite ES 276 and Amberlyst XE 307 h

  12. Magnetic ion-exchange resin treatment: Impact of water type and resin use

    OpenAIRE

    Mergen, Maxime Rodolphe Denis; Jefferson, Bruce; Parsons, Simon A.; Jarvis, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Three raw waters of fundamentally different natural organic matter (NOM) character were treated by magnetic resin using a bench-scale method designed to mimic how the resin is used in continuous operation. Increasing water hydrophobicity resulted in reduced dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal with removal of 56%, 33% and 25% for waters containing 21%, 50% and 75% hydrophobic NOM, respectively. Study of consecutive resin uses showed that the NOM in the hydrophobic water ha...

  13. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of C-phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis on ion-exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available C-phycocyanin is a natural blue dye extracted from Spirulina platensis, which has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this paper the effect of pH and temperature on the adsorption of C-phycocyanin onto two different ion exchange resins (Streamline DEAE and Streamline Q XL for expanded bed adsorption chromatography was investigated. Moreover, the kinetics and adsorption isotherm were evaluated. The equilibrium for the Q XL matrix was reached after 60 min, while for DEAE it was only reached after 140 min. C-phycocyanin showed the highest partition coefficient at pH 7.5 for both resins at 25 ºC. The C-phycocyanin adsorption isotherm was very well represented by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models, where the estimated values for Qm and Kd obtained by the Langmuir isotherm were, respectively, 33.92 mg.mL-1 and 0.123 mg.mL-1 for DEAE, and 28.12 mg.mL-1 and 0.082 mg.mL-1 for the Q XL matrix. A negative cooperativity was observed for C-phycocyanin binding when the Q XL matrix was used, while the cooperativity was purely independent using the DEAE matrix.

  14. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN MATRIX TABLETS OF PROPRANOLOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale Rahul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare and evaluate Indion 254 ion exchange resin based matrix tablets by using sodium alginate, carrageenan and tamarind seed polyose for controlled release of propranolol HCl. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The weight and drug contents of all the tablets were found to be uniform with the low SD values. The hardness and friability were within specified range. The pure drug propranolol HCl has shown complete dissolution within 60 min, whereas, drug-resin complex has shown drug release for 2.5 hrs. With the increase in concentration of carrageenan, the drug release was decreased whereas with the increase in concentration of tamarind seed polyose drug release was increased. The DSC and XRD analysis indicated that the drug was uniformly dispersed in an amorphous state in the polymer matrix. The FTIR analysis ruled out the interaction between drug and polymers used in the preparation. Swelling of the tablets decreased with an increased amount of carrageenan and it further decreased when the tablets were treated with glutaraldehyde. Swelling of the tablets increased with an increased amount of tamarind seed polyose. The in vitro drug release study indicated that the tablets containing tamarind seed polyose were capable of releasing the drug for 24 hrs. Drug release mechanism followed anomalous transport. The stability studies indicated that the formulations were stable, with respect to drug content and physical changes.

  15. Solidification of ion exchange resins saturated with Na+ ions: Comparison of matrices based on Portland and blast furnace slag cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, E.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Gauffinet, S.; Chartier, D.; Stefan, L.; Le Bescop, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the conditioning of ion exchange resins used to decontaminate radioactive effluents. Calcium silicate cements may have a good potential to encapsulate spent resins. However, certain combinations of cement and resins produce a strong expansion of the final product, possibly leading to its full disintegration. The focus is placed on the understanding of the behaviour of cationic resins in the Na+ form in Portland or blast furnace slag (CEM III/C) cement pastes. During hydration of the Portland cement paste, the pore solution exhibits a decrease in its osmotic pressure, which causes a transient expansion of small magnitude of the resins. At 20 °C, this expansion takes place just after setting in a poorly consolidated material and is sufficient to induce cracks. In the CEM III/C paste, swelling of the resins also occurs, but before the end of setting, and induces limited stress in the matrix which is still plastic.

  16. Evaluation of ion exchange resins for the removal of dissolved organic matter from biologically treated paper mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassandeh, Mojgan; Antony, Alice; Le-Clech, Pierre; Richardson, Desmond; Leslie, Greg

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the efficiency of six ion exchange resins to reduce the dissolved organic matter (DOM) from a biologically treated newsprint mill effluent was evaluated and the dominant removal mechanism of residual organics was established using advanced organic characterisations techniques. Among the resins screened, TAN1 possessed favourable Freundlich parameters, high resin capacity and solute affinity, closely followed by Marathon MSA and Marathon WBA. The removal efficiency of colour and lignin residuals was generally good for the anion exchange resins, greater than 50% and 75% respectively. In terms of the DOM fractions removal measured through liquid chromatography-organic carbon and nitrogen detector (LC-OCND), the resins mainly targeted the removal of humic and fulvic acids of molecular weight ranging between 500 and 1000 g mol(-1), the portion expected to contribute the most to the aromaticity of the effluent. For the anion exchange resins, physical adsorption operated along with ion exchange mechanism assisting to remove neutral and transphilic acid fractions of DOM. The column studies confirmed TAN1 being the best of those screened, exhibited the longest mass transfer zone and maximum treatable volume of effluent. The treatable effluent volume with 50% reduction in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was 4.8 L for TAN1 followed by Marathon MSA - 3.6L, Marathon 11 - 2.0 L, 21K-XLT - 1.5 L and Marathon WBA - 1.2 L. The cation exchange resin G26 was not effective in DOM removal as the maximum DOC removal obtained was only 27%. The resin capacity could not be completely restored for any of the resins; however, a maximum restoration up to 74% and 93% was achieved for TAN1 and Marathon WBA resins. While this feasibility study indicates the potential option of using ion exchange resins for the reclamation of paper mill effluent, the need for improving the regeneration protocols to restore the resin efficiency is also identified. Similarly, care should be taken

  17. Selective Production of Aromatics from 2-Octanol on Zinc Ion-Exchanged MFI Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Iwamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aromatization of 2-octanol derived from castor oil as a byproduct in the formation of sebacic acid was investigated on various zeolite catalysts. Zn ion-exchanged MFI (ZSM-5 zeolites with small silica/alumina ratios and zinc contents of 0.5 to 2.0 wt. % were determined to exhibit good and stable activity for the reaction at 623 to 823 K. The yield of aromatics was 62% at 773 K and the space velocity 350 to 1400 h−1. The temperature and contact time dependences of the product distributions indicated the reaction pathways of 2-octanol→dehydration to 2-octene→decomposition to C5 and C3 compounds→further decomposition to small alkanes and alkenes→aromatization with dehydrogenation. Alcohols with carbon numbers of 5 to 8 exhibited similar distributions of products compared to 2-octanol, while corresponding carbonyl compounds demonstrated different reactivity.

  18. Fermentation and recovery of glutamic acid from palm waste hydrolysate by Ion-exchange resin column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, K; Anis, M; Azemi, B M; Ismail, N

    1995-12-05

    Glutamic acid produced from palm waste hydrolysate by fermentation with Brevibacterium lactofermentum ATCC 13869 is produced with a remarkably high yield compared with that produced from pure glucose as a carbon source. The produce yield is 70 g/L with glucose, wherease, when palm waste hydrolysate is the fermentation medium in the same bioreactor under same conditions, it is 88 g/L. The higher yield may be attributed to the fact that this organism has the ability to convert sugars other than only glucose present in the hydrolysate. Bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production are pH 7.5, temperature of 30 degrees rmentation period of 48 h, inoculum size 6%, substrate concentration of 10 g per 100 mL, yeast extract 0.5 g per 100 mL as a suitable N source, and biotin at a concentration of 10 pg/L. Palm waste hydrolysate used in this study was prepared by enzymic saccharification of treated palm press fiber under conditions that yielded a maximum of 30 g/L total reducing sugars. Glutamic acid from fermentation broth was recovered by using a chromatographic column (5cm x 60 cm) packed with a strong ion-exchange resin. The filtered broth containing glutamic acid and other inorganic ions was fed to the fully charged column. The broth was continuously recycled at a flow rate of 50 mL/min (retention time of 55 min) until glutamic acid was fully adsorbed on the column leaving other ions in the effluent. Recovery was done by eluting with urea and sodium hydroxide for total displacement of glutamic acid from the resin. The eluent containing 88 g/L of glutamic acid was concentrated by evaporation to obtain solid crystals of the product. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in shaft-type reactor with fuel-plasma source of heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Knyazev, I. A.; Lifanov, F. A.; Polkanov, M. A.; Shvetsov, S. Yu; Savkin, A. E. [Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association RADON, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    The method of high-temperature conditioning the spent radioactive ion-exchange resins in combination with other combustible and incombustible radioactive waste in the plasma shaft furnace with obtaining a crystalline glass-like matrix as a final product has been developed. The method was tested on the pilot plant consisted of ceramic plasma melter, steel water-cooled shaft furnace, lined by fire-resistant concrete, and system of gas purification. The capacity of the furnace was within the limits from 10 to 15 kg/h. The volume and mass reduction factors of treated waste were 36 and 7.6, accordingly. The content of gaseous products of thermal decomposition of a waste at an output of the shaft furnace and properties of obtained slag compound were determined. Based on test results the proposals on creation of compact plasma plant for treatment of mixed radioactive waste including spent ion exchange resins were developed. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Synthesis, characterization and application of ion exchange resin as a slow-release fertilizer for wheat cultivation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bowei; Dong, Chen; Chu, Zhengpei; Zhang, Weizhe; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Hong; Xie, Beizhen

    2016-10-01

    In addition to the bio-regenerative air revitalization, water recycling and waste management systems and their associated challenges, enhancing the crop yield with less fertilizer input for sustainable food production in space is also a challenge that needs to be overcome. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of applying ion exchange resin as a slow-release fertilizer for wheat cultivation in space. Strong-acid cationic exchange resins and weak-base anion exchange resins soaked in 1X, 5X, 10X and 15X Hoagland nutrient solutions, respectively, were used as fertilizers in clinoptilolite to cultivate wheat plants, and the morphological and physiological characteristics of the wheat plants were studied and compared with that of the wheat planted in vermiculite and nutrient solutions. The results showed that more ions were attached on the surface of the ion exchange resins as the solution concentration increased. After 14 days, the fresh weight of wheat planted in the ion exchange resin-clinoptilolite (IER-clinoptilolite) treated with 10X and 15X solutions were 190% and 192% higher than that of wheat planted in nutrient solution with the same concentration. Chlorophyll content of wheat plants cultivated in the two kinds of solid medium is significantly higher than that of liquid cultivation. The lowest peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of wheat plants cultivated in the IER-clinoptilolite appeared on the 14th day. According to all the experimental data, it's promising to produce slow-release nutrient fertilizer by using strong-acid cationic exchange resins and weak-base anion exchange resins for wheat cultivation in space.

  1. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  2. Protein adsorption on ion exchange resins and monoclonal antibody charge variant modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guélat, Bertrand; Khalaf, Rushd; Lattuada, Marco; Costioli, Matteo; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-05-20

    A novel multicomponent adsorption equilibrium model for proteins on ion-exchange resins is developed on a statistical thermodynamic basis including surface coverage effects and protein-resin and protein-protein interactions. The resulting model exhibits a general competitive Langmuirian behavior and was applied to the study and optimization of the separation of monoclonal antibody charge variants on two strong cation exchangers. The model accounts explicitly for the effect of both pH and salt concentration, and its parameters can be determined in diluted conditions, that is, through physically sound assumptions, all model parameters can be obtained using solely experiments in diluted conditions, and be used to make predictions in overloaded conditions. The parameterization of the model and optimization of the separation is based on a two-step approach. First, gradient experiments in diluted conditions are undertaken in order to determine the model parameters. Based on these experiments and on information about the proteins of interest and the stationary phase used, all the model parameters can be estimated. Second, using the parameterized model, an initial Pareto optimization is undertaken where overloaded operating conditions are investigated. Experiments from this Pareto set are then used to refine the estimation of the model parameters. A second Pareto optimization can then be undertaken, this time with the refined parameters. This can be repeated until a satisfactory set of model parameters is found. This iterative approach is shown to be extremely efficient and to provide large amounts of knowledge based on only a few experiments. It is shown that due to the strong physical foundation of the model and the very low number of adjustable parameters, the number of iterations is expected to be at most two or three. Furthermore, the model based tool is improved as more experimental knowledge is provided, allowing for better estimations of the chromatographic

  3. Removal of natural organic matter from water using ion-exchange resins and cyclodextrin polyurethanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkambule, T. I.; Krause, R. W.; Mamba, B. B.; Haarhoff, J.

    Natural organic matter (NOM) consists of a complex mixture of naturally occurring organic compounds. Although it is not considered toxic by itself, NOM present during water disinfection may result in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs), many of which are either carcinogenic or mutagenic. Although it is difficult to completely characterize NOM due to its complex and large structure, a consideration of its structure is necessary for a better understanding of the mechanism of NOM removal from water. In this study, water from the Vaalkop water treatment plant was characterized for its NOM composition by fractionation over ion-exchange resins. Fractionation at different pH with different resins resulted in the isolation of the neutral, basic and acidic fractions of both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic NOM. The hydrophilic basic fraction was found to be the most abundant fraction in the source water. Each of the isolated NOM fractions were percolated through cyclodextrin (CD) polyurethanes, resulting in an adsorption efficiency of between 6% and 33%. The acidic fractions were the most adsorbed fractions by the CD polyurethanes, while the neutral fractions being the least adsorbed. The water samples were then subjected to an ozonation regime at the treatment plant and then fractionated as before. As expected there were decreases of the neutral and basic fractions after ozonation. The application of CD polyurethanes to the fractions after ozonation resulted in a removal efficiency of up to 59%, nearly double that of the non-treated sample. Also, in the case of the ozone pre-treated samples, it was mainly the hydrophilic basic fraction which was removed. All the fractions were subjected to a chlorination test to determine the trihalomethane (THM) formation potential. All six NOM fractions resulted in THM formation, but the hydrophilic basic fraction was found to be the most reactive and formed the highest THM concentration. The effect of the combination of

  4. Direct Encapsulation of Spent Ion-exchange Resins at the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant, Czech Republic - 12367

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Paul [AMEC Nuclear UK, Knutsford (United Kingdom); Rima, Steve [AMEC USA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    At the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant there are large amounts of spent ion exchange resins contained within storage tanks. These resins are a product of the operation of an Active Water Purification System within the Power Plant. Activity levels of the resins are in the range of 105 to 10{sup 6} Bq/l and the main isotopes present are Co-60, Cs-137, Mn-54 and Ag-110m. In order to maintain storage tank availability throughout the planned lifetime of the Power Plant these resins must be removed and disposed of safely. The storage tanks do not have an effective retrieval route for the resins and the installed agitation system is inoperable. A proven system for retrieving and directly encapsulating these resins to a standard required for the Czech repository is described, together with an overview of operational performance. Experience gained from this and other projects has highlighted some common challenges relating to the treatment of ion-exchange resins and sludges. There are common approaches that can assist in overcoming these challenges. 1. Transport resin / sludge type waste over as short a distance as possible to avoid issues with line plugging. 2. Transport these wastes once and once only wherever possible. 3. Try to keep the treatment process as simple as possible. With sludge or resin handling equipment consider the physical properties foremost - radiological issues can be addressed within any subsequent design. 4. Consider the use of dry-mix technologies. This avoids the requirement for expensive and complicated grouting plant. 5. Avoid the use of make up water for transport purposes if at all possible - it introduces secondary waste that needs to be treated at additional cost. 6. Consider alternative disposal techniques. SIAL{sup R} is AMEC's preferred technology as we developed it and understand it well - additionally the waste loading factors are much higher than for cement. 7. Consider final waste volumes when selecting the disposal technique

  5. ION EXCHANGE RESINS: AN APPROACH TOWARDS TASTE MASKING OF BITTER DRUGS AND SUSTAINED RELEASE FORMULATIONS WITH THEIR PATENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Bilandi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to cover various aspects related with the use of ion exchange resins for taste masking of bitter drugs and for formulating sustained release dosage form. Ion exchange resins are water insoluble cross-linked polymers containing a salt-forming group at repeating positions on the polymer chain and have the ability to exchange counter-ions within aqueous solutions surrounding them. The bitterness of pharmaceutical medicines plays a critical role in patient compliance, as the oral administration of bitter drugs is often hampered by their unpleasant taste which leads to non-compliance and further worsening of diseased condition. One of the popular approaches in the taste masking of bitter drugs is based on IER. For taste masking purpose weak cation exchange or weak anion exchange resins are used, depending on the nature of drug. The drug resin complex is absolutely tasteless with no after taste, and at the same time, its bioavailability is not affected. Sustained release dosage forms are designed to release a drug at a pre determined rate in order to maintain a constant drug concentration for a specific period of time with minimum side effects. The usage of IER during the development of sustained release formulations plays a significant role because of their drug retarding properties. In this review also incorporates various patents related to taste masking and sustained release formulations using IER.

  6. A comparative study of chelating and cationic ion exchange resins for the removal of palladium(II) complexes from acidic chloride media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicki, Zbigniew; Wołowicz, Anna

    2009-05-30

    The increasing demand for palladium for technological application requires the development of ion exchange chromatography. Recently ion exchange chromatography has developed largely as a result of new types of ion exchangers available on the market of which two types are widely applied. One of them are selective (chelating) and modified ion exchangers and the other one are liquid exchangers. Two types of ion exchange resins such as chelating (Lewatit TP 214, Purolite S 920) and cationic (Chelite S, Duolite GT 73) ion exchangers are used for the recovery of palladium(II) complexes from chloride media (0.1-2.0M HCl-1.0M NaCl-0.0011 M Pd(II); 0.1-2.0M HCl-2.0M NaCl-0.0011M Pd(II)). The influence of concentration of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride as well as the phase contact time on the degree of recovery of palladium(II) complexes was studied. Moreover, the amount of palladium(II) chlorocomplexes sorbed onto ion exchangers, the working ion exchange capacities and the weight and bed distribution coefficients were calculated in order to judge which of two types of resins possesses the best performance towards palladium(II) complexes.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPROACH TO MODELING LOADING AND ELUTION OF SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleman, S.; Hamm, L.; Smith, F.

    2011-10-03

    The current strategy for removal of cesium from the Hanford waste stream is ion-exchange using spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) resin. The original resin of choice was granular SuperLig 644 resin and during testing of this resin several operational issues were identified. For example, the granular material had a high angle of internal friction resulting in fragmentation of resin particles along its edges during cycling and adverse hydraulic performance. Efforts to replace SuperLig 644 were undertaken and one candidate was the granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin where experience with this cation exchanger dates back to the late 1940's. To minimize hydraulic concerns a spherical version of RF was developed and several different chemically produced batches were created. The 5E-370/641 batch of sRF was selected and for the last decade numerous studies have been performed (e.g., batch contact tests, column loading and elution tests). The Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) flowsheet shows that the aqueous phase waste stream will have a wide range of ionic concentrations (e.g., during the loading step 0-3 M free OH, 5+ M Na, 0-1 M K, 0-3 M NO{sub 3}). Several steps are required in the ion-exchange process to achieve the required Cs separation factors: loading, displacement, washing, elution, and regeneration. The sRF resin will be operated over a wide range in pH (i.e., pH of 12-14 during the loading step and pH of 0.01-1 during the elution step). During some of these steps very high levels of counter-ions and co-ions will be present within the aqueous phase. Alternative process feeds are under consideration as well (e.g., sodium levels as high as 8 M and column operation up to 45 C during loading, reduced and recycled HNO{sub 3} during elution). In order to model the performance of sRF resin through an entire ion-exchange cycle, a more robust isotherm model is required. To achieve this more robust isotherm model requires knowledge of the numbers and kinds of

  8. Characterization of uranium binding to Diphonix{sup TM} and Duolite{sup TM} ion-exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.G.; Shrinsky, A.J.; Sommerville, L.E. [Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO (United States)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    We initiated a series of experiments to characterize uranium binding to two commercially available ion-exchange resins, Diphonix{trademark} and Duolite{trademark}. These experiments were done to determine the most efficient means of recycling an organic chelator, tiron, in a process used to wash soil contaminated with uranium. The binding capacity and pH dependence were determined for uranium binding to Diphonix{trademark} and Duolite{trademark}. Also competition studies with aluminum, iron, and uranium were done to determine the optimum conditions for uranium binding in the presence of these other metals. Both resins were shown to effectively separate uranium from tiron allowing almost quantitative recovery of uranium-free tiron. Furthermore, these resins may serve as a suitable place to concentrate and store uranium.

  9. Competitive migration behaviors of multiple ions and their impacts on ion-exchange resin packed microbial desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Yuan, Lulu; Wei, Jincheng; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2013-10-01

    Mixed ion-exchange resins packed microbial desalination cell (R-MDC) could stabilize the internal resistance, however, the impacts of multiple ions on R-MDC performance was unclear. This study investigated the desalination performance, multiple ions migration behaviors and their impacts on R-MDCs fed with salt solution containing multiple anions and cations. Results showed that R-MDC removed multiple anions better than multiple cations with desalination efficiency of 99% (effluent conductivity NO3(-)>Cl(-) for anions and Ca(2+)≈Mg(2+)>NH4(+)>Na(+) for cations, jointly affected by both their molar conductivity and exchange selectivity on resins. After long-term operation, the existence of higher concentration Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) caused the electric conductivity of mixed resins decrease and scaling on the surface of cation-exchange membrane adjoined with cathode chamber, suggesting that R-MDC would be more suitable for desalination of water with lower hardness.

  10. Macroreticular chelating ion-exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, R F; E Gancher, R; Russo, F R

    1970-06-01

    Two macroreticular chelating ion-exchangers have been prepared and characterized. One contains the iminodiacetate group and the second contains the arsonate group as the ion-exchanging site. The macroreticular resins show selectivities among metal ions similar to those of the commercially available naicroreticular chelating resins. Chromatographie separations on the new resins are rapid and sharp.

  11. Chromatographic separation process with pellicular ion exchange resins that can be used for ion or isotope separation and resins used in this process. Procede de separation chromatographique au moyen de resines echangeuses d'ions pelliculaires, utilisable notamment pour la separation des isotopes ou des ions, et resines utilisables dans ce procede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carles, M.; Neige, R.; Niemann, C.; Michel, A.; Bert, M.; Bodrero, S.; Guyot, A.

    1989-01-06

    For separation of uranium, boron or nitrogen isotopes, an isotopic exchange is carried out betwen an isotope fixed on an ion exchange resin and another isotope of the same element in the liquid phase contacting the resin. Pellicular resins are used comprising composite particulates with an inert polymeric core and a surface layer with ion exchange groups.

  12. [Investigation of mechanisms of interaction between inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus and the matrices of ion-exchange resins and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyavka, M G; Kovaleva, T A; Karpov, S I; Seredin, P V; Artyukhov, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is established that ion exchange resins AV-17-2P, KU-2, AV-16-GS, AM 21A, IMAC-HP, PUROLITE and fiber VION KN-1 can be applied as carriers for inulinase immobilization. The analysis of IR spectra for an enzyme, carriers and heterogeneous enzyme preparations showed that inulinase binding to matrices of various carriers occurs in general through electrostatic interactions. It is assumed that the mechanisms of interaction between inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus and the matrices of cation- and anion exchange polymers differ essentially from each other: different sites of protein molecule take part in adsorption that causes various conformational reorganizations in an enzyme molecule.

  13. Radioactive ion exchange resin pretreatment and treatment system and corresponding process. Systemes de pre-traitement et de traitement de resines echangeuses d'ions radioactives et procede de traitement correspondant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, G.; Ranc, R.

    1989-05-12

    Spent organic ion exchange resins contain Li (cationic resins) and B (amionic resins) which interfere with cement after encapsulation. Radioactive anionic and cationic resins or their mixture are treated by a soluble aluminum salt for precipitation of insoluble lithium aluminate, then neutralized and mixed with the cement containing calcium oxide for precipitation of boron.

  14. Sodium concentration measurement during hemodialysis through ion-exchange resin and conductivity measure approach: in vitro experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tura

    Full Text Available Sodium measurement during hemodialysis treatment is important to preserve the patient from clinical events related to hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some "mixed samples", i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl at different concentrations (4.375-17.5 mEq/l, to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity was measured again. On average, the difference in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration was 20.9%. After treatment with the exchange resin, it was 14.7%, i.e., 42% lower. Similar experiments were performed with calcium chloride and magnesium chloride as confounding factors, with similar results. We also performed some experiments on actual dialysate solution during hemodialysis sessions in 15 patients, and found that the correlation between conductivity measures and sodium concentration improved after resin treatment (R=0.839 before treatment, R=0.924 after treatment, P<0.0001. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may improve the measurement of sodium compared to conductivity measures alone, and may become a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis.

  15. The Desalting Property of Ion-Exchange Resins in Organic Solvent%离子交换树脂在有机溶剂中的脱盐行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纪孝; 王世昌; 郝聚民; 路国梁

    2002-01-01

    The desalting property of ion-exchange resins in organic solvent is reported by using potassium acetateas a model compound. The experimental results show that the solvability of the solvent stirring speed, andtemperature are the factors which influence the ion-exchange rate. The increase of solvability, stirring speed andtemperature will speed up the ion-exchange process.

  16. Electro-Catalytic Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil in Methanolic and Ethanolic Solutions with Low-Cost Stainless Steel and Hybrid Ion-Exchange Resin Grafted Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Marie Allioux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a growing alternative to petroleum fuels and is produced by the catalyzed transesterification of fats in presence of an alcohol base. Transesterification processes using homogeneous catalysts are considered to be among the most efficient methods but rely on the feedstock quality and low water content in order to avoid undesirable saponification reactions. In this work, the electro-catalytic conversion of canola oil to biodiesel in a 1% aqueous methanolic and ethanolic reaction mixture was performed without the addition of external catalyst or cosolvent. An inexpensive stainless steel (SS electrode and a hybrid SS electrode coated with an ion-exchange resin catalyst were used as cathode materials while the anode was composed of a plain carbon paper. The cell voltages were varied from 10 to 40 V and the reaction temperature maintained at 20 or 40°C. The canola oil conversion rates were found to be superior at 40°C without saponification reactions for cell voltages below 30 V. The conversion rates were as high as 87% for the hybrid electrode and 81% for the plain SS electrode. This work could inspire new process development for the conversion of high water content feedstock for the production of second-generation biodiesel.

  17. Thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and divalent reaction systems using strongly basic anion exchange resin Indion FF-IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.U. Singare

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Indion FF-IP. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well as in the resin phase. For uni-univalent ion exchange reaction systems, the equilibrium constant K’ were also calculated by considering mole fraction of ions in the resin phase. The K values calculated for uni-univalent and uni-divalent anion exchange reaction systems were observed to increase with rise in temperature, indicating the endothermic exchange reactions having enthalpy values of 22.45, 28.57, 17.84, 15.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

  18. Purification of Lactic Acid by Heterogeneous Catalytic Distillation Using Ion-exchange Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利; 张阳; 杨基础

    2005-01-01

    The purification of lactic acid based on the esterification of raw lactic acid from fermentation broth and then the catalytic distillation hydrolysis of methyl lactate simultaneously to achieve pure lactic acid is reported. The esterification kinetics of lactic acid with methanol catalyzed by strong-acid cation-exchange resins (Amberlyst-15,D001, D002, NKC, 002) was studied under the condition that simulates the real catalytic environment. Experimental results were correlated by a Langmuir-Hinselwood model and the nonideality of the solution was taken into account by using activities calculated by the universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient (UNIFAC) method.A good agreement between the model and the experimental data was achieved. Continuous purification experiments were conducted to find the optimum column configuration and operation condition for the system. The effects of various parameters, e.g. the length of different section of the column, feed rate and ratio of reactants, packing material and catalyst type, were studied. This novel system shows good separation results in lab scale, and is potential for industrial application.

  19. Effect of resin charged functional group, porosity, and chemical matrix on the long-term pharmaceutical removal mechanism by conventional ion exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Shengliu; Sun, Jian; Zheng, Shaokui

    2016-10-01

    This study attempted to clarify the long-term pharmaceutical removal mechanism from sewage treatment plant effluent during the cyclical adsorption-regeneration operation of 5 commercial resin-based fixed-bed reactors with the simultaneous occurrence of electrostatic interactions and complex non-electrostatic interactions. It examined 12 pharmaceuticals belonging to 10 therapeutic classes with different predominant existing forms and hydrophobicities. Furthermore, the effect of the resin charged functional group (strong-base vs. strong-acid vs. non-ionic), porosity (macroporous vs. gel), and chemical matrix (polystyrenic vs. polyacrylic) on the mechanism was investigated to optimize resin properties and achieve higher pharmaceutical removal. The results reported herein indicate the importance of non-electrostatic interactions between pharmaceuticals and the resin backbone during short-term cyclical operation (i.e., the 1st adsorption-regeneration cycle). With the development of cyclical operation, however, non-electrostatic interaction-induced pharmaceutical removal generally decreased and even disappeared when equilibrium was achieved between the influent and the resin. Despite pharmaceutical therapeutic class or hydrophilicity, anion (or cation) exchange resin preferentially removed those pharmaceuticals that were predominantly present as organic anions (or cations) by ion exchange process during long-term cyclical operation (i.e., ≥6 adsorption-regeneration cycles). Besides pharmaceuticals predominantly present as undissociated molecules, some amphoteric pharmaceuticals containing large amounts of zwitterions were also difficult to remove by ion exchange resin. Additionally, neither resin porosity nor chemical matrix had any significant effect on the long-term pharmaceutical removal mechanism.

  20. Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan in Support of BNFL Part B: Studies of Ion Exchange Resin Integrity under Flowsheet Extremes: Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, C.A.

    2000-08-23

    This task will address four items related to ion exchange stability: (1) process upset evaluation of resin in contact with 1 molar sodium permanganate at 25 and 40 degrees C, (2) accelerated aging with nitric acid solution used during normal regeneration operations, (3) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with 5 molar nitric acid at room temperature, and (4) prolonged contacting of SuperLig 644 resin with deionized water at 60 plus/minus 5 degrees C.

  1. Modelling of the interaction between chemical and mechanical behaviour of ion exchange resins incorporated into a cement-based matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bescop P.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a predictive model, based on experimental data, to determine the macroscopic mechanical behavior of a material made up of ion exchange resins solidified into a CEM III cement paste. Some observations have shown that in some cases, a significant macroscopic expansion of this composite material may be expected, due to internal pressures generated in the resin. To build the model, we made the choice to break down the problem in two scale’s studies. The first deals with the mechanical behavior of the different heterogeneities of the composite, i.e. the resin and the cement paste. The second upscales the information from the heterogeneities to the Representative Elementary Volume (REV of the composite. The heterogeneities effects are taken into account in the REV by applying a homogenization method derived from the Eshelby theory combined with an interaction coefficient drawn from the poroelasticity theory. At the first scale, from the second thermodynamic law, a formulation is developed to estimate the resin microscopic swelling. The model response is illustrated on a simple example showing the impact of the calculated internal pressure, on the macroscopic strain.

  2. Stabilization of Metal-Loaded Ion-Exchange Resin with a Porous Silica Supporter Through Thermal Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I-T. Park, H-S.; Yoo, J-H.; Kim, J-H.

    2003-02-25

    A new ion exchanger with porous silica as a supporting material and diphosphonic acid as a functional chelating group has been developed at ANL for the effective removal of transition metals and actinide ions from very acidic radioactive liquid wastes. The applicability of this resin for the treatment of low- and/or intermediate-level aqueous waste from nuclear power plants (NPP) has not been reported in scientific literature, but is under study now in Korea. The major radioisotopes in NPP radioactive liquid waste are Cs and Co in neutral pH ranges. This study on the thermal stabilization of metal-loaded waste resin has been carried out in parallel with the sorption experiment. Thermal treatment of metal (Co, Cs or U) loaded resin was accomplished to see the possibility of enhancing the safety and stability of the final product during transportation and disposal. In this paper, characteristics of the metal-loaded resins before and after heat treatment at three different thermal conditions were investigated and compared with each other to see the effectiveness of the thermal treatment method.

  3. Taste masked orodispersible formulation of fexofenadine hydrochloride using ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Suares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to mask the intense bitter taste of fexofenadine hydrochloride using weak cation exchange resins and to formulate orodispersible tablet of taste masked drug-resin complex. Five resins indion 204, indion 234, indion 414, kyron T-114 and kyron T-314 were used. Depending on maximum drug loading capacity of resins indion 234 and kyron T-314 were finalized for further study. Drug-resin complex was optimized by considering parameters such as drug to resin ratio, soaking time of resins, stirring time, temperature and pH on maximum drug loading. The drug-resin complex was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The drug-resin complex was also subjected to various evaluation studies such as taste mask evaluation by panel method, drug content and in vitro drug release at salivary and gastric pH. The orodispersible tablets of taste masked drug-resin complex for indion 234 and kyron T-314 were prepared by direct compression method. Formulated orodispersible tablets were subjected to various evaluation parameters such as diameter and thickness measurement, hardness test, weight variation test, in vitro United States Pharmacopoeia disintegration test, wetting time, test for content uniformity, assay, friability test and in vitro dissolution studies. The results indicate that orodispersible tablets of fexofenadine hydrochloride containing indion 234 and kyron T-314 are palatable and provide quick disintegration and fast drug release without addition of superdisintegrants.

  4. Taste Masked Orodispersible Formulation of Fexofenadine Hydrochloride Using Ion Exchange Resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suares, Divya; Hiray, Arti

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to mask the intense bitter taste of fexofenadine hydrochloride using weak cation exchange resins and to formulate orodispersible tablet of taste masked drug-resin complex. Five resins indion 204, indion 234, indion 414, kyron T-114 and kyron T-314 were used. Depending on maximum drug loading capacity of resins indion 234 and kyron T-314 were finalized for further study. Drug-resin complex was optimized by considering parameters such as drug to resin ratio, soaking time of resins, stirring time, temperature and pH on maximum drug loading. The drug-resin complex was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The drug-resin complex was also subjected to various evaluation studies such as taste mask evaluation by panel method, drug content and in vitro drug release at salivary and gastric pH. The orodispersible tablets of taste masked drug-resin complex for indion 234 and kyron T-314 were prepared by direct compression method. Formulated orodispersible tablets were subjected to various evaluation parameters such as diameter and thickness measurement, hardness test, weight variation test, in vitro United States Pharmacopoeia disintegration test, wetting time, test for content uniformity, assay, friability test and in vitro dissolution studies. The results indicate that orodispersible tablets of fexofenadine hydrochloride containing indion 234 and kyron T-314 are palatable and provide quick disintegration and fast drug release without addition of superdisintegrants.

  5. Treatment process of ion exchange resin contaminated by plutonium. Procede de traitement de resines echangeuses d'ions contaminees par du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woignier, S.

    1994-04-08

    Ion exchange resins are put in suspension in a nitric solution and oxidised by Ag[sup 2+] regenerated continuously by electrolysis during enough time to destroy the resins and dissolve the plutonium. The reaction takes place at temperature from 40 to 80 deg C in an electrolytic cell divided in an anodic part and a cathodic part by a porous wall. Resins are introduced in the anodic part with silver, while nitric acid from 8 to 12 N is introduced continuously in the cathodic part. Acidity excess in the anodic part is neutralized by continuous addition of weak base. An air intake in the cathodic part may there produce the regeneration of nitric acid by reaction with nitrous acid produced by electrolysis. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Taste masking of ciprofloxacin by ion-exchange resin and sustain release at gastric-intestinal through interpenetrating polymer network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Michael Rajesh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to taste mask ciprofloxacin (CP by using ion-exchange resins (IERs followed by sustain release of CP by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN. IERs based on the copolymerization of acrylic acid with different cross linking agents were synthesised. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs with three different ratios of drug to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 were prepared & evaluated for taste masking by following in vivo and in vitro methods. Human volunteers graded ADC 1:4, acrylic acid-divinyl benzene (ADC-3 resin as tasteless. Characterization studies such as FTIR, SEM, DSC, P-XRD differentiated ADC 1:4, from physical mixture (PM 1:4 and confirmed the formation of complex. In vitro drug release of ADC 1:4 showed complete release of CP within 60 min at simulated gastric fluid (SGF i.e. pH 1.2. IPN beads were prepared with ADC 1:4 by using sodium alginate (AL and sodium alginate-chitosan (AL-CS for sustain release of CP at SGF pH and followed by simulated intestinal fluid (SIF i.e. pH 7.4. FTIR spectra confirmed the formation of IPN beads. The release of CP was sustain at SGF pH (75%. The kinetic model of IPN beads showed the release of CP was non-Fickian diffusion type.

  7. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, S; El-Sharkawy, A; Burnett, W C; Horwitz, E P

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a new procedure for 228Ra determination of natural waters via preconcentration of radium on MnO2 and separation of its daughter, 228Ac, using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Following removal of potential interferences via passage through an initial Diphonix Resin column, the first daughter of 228Ra, 228Ac, is isolated by chromatographic separation via a second Diphonix column. A holding time of > 30 h for 228Ac ingrowth in between the two column separations ensures secular equilibrium. Barium-133 is used as a yield tracer. Actinium-228 is eluted from the second Diphonix Resin with 5 ml 1M 1-Hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) and quantified by addition of scintillation cocktail and LSC counting. Radium (and 133Ba) from the load and rinse solutions from the 2nd Diphonix column may be prepared for alpha spectrometry (for determination of 223Ra, 224Ra, and 226Ra) by BaSO4 microprecipitation and filtration. Decontamination tests indicate that U, Th, and Ra series nuclides do not interfere with these measurements, although high contents of 90Sr (90Y) require additional treatment for accurate measurement of 228Ra. Addition of stable Sr as a "hold back" carrier during the initial MnO2 preconcentration step was shown to remove most 90Sr interference.

  8. Adsorption of saponin compound in Carica papaya leaves extract using weakly basic ion exchanger resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Noraziani Zainal; Janam, Anathasia; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2016-11-01

    Adsorption of saponin compound in papaya leaves juice extract using Amberlite® IRA-67 resin was not reported in previous studies. In this research, Amberlite® IRA-67 was used to determine the amount of saponin that can be adsorbed using different weights of dry resin (0.1 g and 0.5 g). Peleg model was used to determine the maximum yield of saponin (43.67 mg) and the exhaustive time (5.7 days) prior to a preliminary resin-saponin adsorption study. After adsorption process, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in total saponin content (mg) for sample treated with 0.1 g (3.79 ± 0.55 mg) and sample treated with 0.5 g (3.43 ± 0.51 mg) dry weight resin. Long-term kinetic adsorption of resin-saponin method (>24 hours) should be conducted to obtain optimum freed saponin extract. Besides that, sample treated with 0.1 g dry weight resin had high free radical scavenging value of 50.33 ± 2.74% compared to sample treated with 0.5 g dry weight resin that had low free radical scavenging value of 24.54 ± 1.66% dry weights. Total saponin content (mg), total phenolic content (mg GAE) and free radical scavenging activity (%) was investigated to determine the interaction of those compounds with Amberlite® IRA-67. The RP-HPLC analysis using ursolic acid as standard at 203 nm showed no peak even though ursolic acid was one of the saponin components that was ubiquitous in plant kingdom. The absence of peak was due to weak solubility of ursolic acid in water and since it was only soluble in solvent with moderate polarity. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for total saponin content (mg) versus total phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) were +0.959 and +0.807. Positive values showed that whenever there was an increase in saponin content (mg), the phenolic content (mg GAE) and radical scavenging activity (%) would also increase. However, as the resin-saponin adsorption was carried out, there was a significant decrease of radical scavenging activity

  9. SOLVENT EFFECTS ON THE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN .3. EFFECT OF SULFOLANE ON THE EQUILIBRIUM CONVERSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo-first-order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. Macroporous Amberlite XE 307 was used because of its superior catalytic activity. Chemical equilibrium conve

  10. STRUCTURAL FEATURE AND EXCHANGE KINETICS OF CARBOXYLATED POLYPROPYLENE ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Chinyung; YANG Chaoshiung; YANG Chong

    1987-01-01

    The present article deals with the exchange process of bivalent metal ions, such as Zn2 +, Cd2 + and Hg2+, etc., taken up by non-crosslinked carboxylated polypropylene (CPP) resin. The control factor of the exchange rate deduced from the kinetic data is governed basically by the chemical reaction rather than the mass transfer effect particle diffusion and/or liquid film diffusion. In solution, all the graft chains in the outer shell ofa CPP resin could form a "quasi-macromolecular solution" domain. This opinion further demonstrates the structural pattern of CPP resin proposed in earlier paper[1].

  11. Properties of powdered ion-exchange resins based on petroleum asphaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokonova, Y.V.; Mitrofanova, L.M.; Proskuryakov, V.A.

    1977-02-01

    The following properties of the resins were studied: physical-mechanical properties, total effective exchange capacity, particle size distribution, dissociation constants, and dynamic and static exchange capacities. 6 tables. (DLC)

  12. Process for ion exchange resins from radioactive materials reprocessing plants. Procede d'immobilisation de resines echangeuses d'ions provenant des centres de retraitement des produits radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.; Magnin, M.F.; Aubert, V.; Jaouen, C.

    1989-06-23

    Prior to encapsulation in cement spent ion exchange resins are treated with an aqueous solution containing NO{sub 3}{sup -} and Na{sup +} ions. Nitrate ion amount is determined for saturation of all resin sites as if all the resins were anionic and sodium ion amount for on the one hand a basic pH of the medium and on the other hand the saturation of all cationic resin sites.

  13. Process for carbonaceous material conversion and recovery of alkali metal catalyst constituents held by ion exchange sites in conversion residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David W.

    1980-01-01

    In a coal gasification operation or similar conversion process carried out in the presence of an alkali metal-containing catalyst wherein solid particles containing alkali metal residues are produced, alkali metal constituents are recovered for the particles by contacting or washing them with an aqueous solution containing calcium or magnesium ions in an alkali metal recovery zone at a low temperature, preferably below about 249.degree. F. During the washing or leaching process, the calcium or magnesium ions displace alkali metal ions held by ion exchange sites in the particles thereby liberating the ions and producing an aqueous effluent containing alkali metal constituents. The aqueous effluent from the alkali metal recovery zone is then recycled to the conversion process where the alkali metal constituents serve as at least a portion of the alkali metal constituents which comprise the alkali metal-containing catalyst.

  14. Sodium concentration measurement during hemodialysis through ion-exchange resin and conductivity measure approach: in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tura, Andrea; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Mambelli, Emanuele; Ravazzani, Paolo; Santoro, Antonio; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Sodium measurement during hemodialysis treatment is important to preserve the patient from clinical events related to hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some "mixed samples", i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375-17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity was measured again. On average, the difference in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. After treatment with the exchange resin, it was 14.7%, i.e., 42% lower. Similar experiments were performed with calcium chloride and magnesium chloride as confounding factors, with similar results. We also performed some experiments on actual dialysate solution during hemodialysis sessions in 15 patients, and found that the correlation between conductivity measures and sodium concentration improved after resin treatment (R=0.839 before treatment, R=0.924 after treatment, Pconductivity measures may improve the measurement of sodium compared to conductivity measures alone, and may become a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis.

  15. Adsorption of Zinc and Cyanide from Cyanide Effluents on Anionic Ion-exchange Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-li; FANG Tao; YU Xian-jin

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of zinc and cyanide from cyanide effluents onto strong and weak basic anion exchange resins was studied in a batch adsorption system.Factors influencing the adsorption rates such as resin selection,resin amounts,contact time and temperature were studied and scanning electron microscopy-energy disperse spectroscopy(SEM-EDS) was used in the analysis.The present study shows that the adsorption capacity of resin 201 ×7 is better than that of resin 301.The adsorption process was relatively fast and came to equilibrium after 60 min.The kinetic data were analyzed with three models and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to agree with the experimental data well.The equilibrium data could also be described well by Langmuir isotherm model.Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change(△H0),free energy change(△G0) and entropy change(△S0) were calculated and the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic.

  16. Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L.L.

    2000-08-23

    A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste.

  17. A ten liter stacked microbial desalination cell packed with mixed ion-exchange resins for secondary effluent desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Kuichang; Cai, Jiaxiang; Liang, Shuai; Wu, Shijia; Zhang, Changyong; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2014-08-19

    The architecture and performance of microbial desalination cell (MDC) have been significantly improved in the past few years. However, the application of MDC is still limited in a scope of small-scale (milliliter) reactors and high-salinity-water desalination. In this study, a large-scale (>10 L) stacked MDC packed with mixed ion-exchange resins was fabricated and operated in the batch mode with a salt concentration of 0.5 g/L NaCl, a typical level of domestic wastewater. With circulation flow rate of 80 mL/min, the stacked resin-packed MDC (SR-MDC) achieved a desalination efficiency of 95.8% and a final effluent concentration of 0.02 g/L in 12 h, which is comparable with the effluent quality of reverse osmosis in terms of salinity. Moreover, the SR-MDC kept a stable desalination performance (>93%) when concentrate volume decreased from 2.4 to 0.1 L (diluate/concentrate volume ratio increased from 1:1 to 1:0.04), where only 0.875 L of nonfresh water was consumed to desalinate 1 L of saline water. In addition, the SR-MDC achieved a considerable desalination rate (95.4 mg/h), suggesting a promising application for secondary effluent desalination through deriving biochemical electricity from wastewater.

  18. Technological aspects of vegetable oils epoxidation in the presence of ion exchange resins: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eugeniusz Milchert; Kornelia Malarczyk-Matusiak; Marlena Musik

    2016-01-01

    ..., the relative percentage conversion to oxirane and the iodine number was discussed. Optimal technological parameters, mechanism of epoxidation by carboxylic peracids and the possibilities of catalyst recycling have been also discussed...

  19. B and N isolate-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins for enhanced oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Lu; Tian, Chungui; Zhao, Dongdong; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Jie; Wang, Ruihong; Fu, Honggang

    2014-06-01

    B,N-codoped carbon nanostructures (BNCS) can serve as alternative low-cost metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). However, the compensation effect between the p- (B atoms) and n-type (N atoms) dopants would make the covalent boron-nitride (BN) easily formed during the synthesis of BNCS, leading to a unsatisfactory ORR activity. Therefore, it has been challenging to develop facile and rapid synthetic strategies for highly active BNCS without forming the direct covalent BN. Here, a facile method is developed to prepare B and N isolate-doped graphitic nanosheets (BNGS) by using iron species for saving N element and simultaneous doping the B element from nitrogen-containing ion-exchanged resins (NR). The resulting BNGS exhibits much more onset potential (Eonset) compared with the B-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (BGS), N-doped graphitic carbon nanosheets (NGS), as well as B,N-codoped disorder carbon (BNC). Moreover, the BNGS shows well methanol tolerance propery and excellent stability (a minimal loss of activity after 5,000 potential cycles) compared to that of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The goog performance for BNGS towards ORR is attributed to the synergistic effect between B and N, and the well electrons transport property of graphitic carbon in BNGS.

  20. UREA/ammonium ion removal system for the orbiting frog otolith experiment. [ion exchange resins for water treatment during space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J. R.; Anselmi, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of using free urease enzyme and ANGC-101 ion exchange resin to remove urea and ammonium ion for space system waste water applications was studied. Specifically examined is the prevention of urea and ammonia toxicity in a 30-day Orbiting Frog Otolith (OFO) flight experiment. It is shown that free urease enzyme used in conjunction with ANGC-101 ion-exchange resin and pH control can control urea and amonium ion concentration in unbuffered recirculating water. In addition, the resin does not adversely effect the bullfrogs by lowering the concentration of cations below critical minimum levels. Further investigations on bioburden control, frog waste excretion on an OFO diet, a trade-off analysis of methods of automating the urea/ammonium ion removal system and fabrication and test of a semiautomated breadboard were recommended as continuing efforts. Photographs of test equipment and test animals are shown.

  1. A development of the stabilization technology for the solid form of ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Kang, I. S.; Bae, S. M; Ahn, S. J.; Lee, K. M.; Kim, K. J.; Son, J. S.; Hong, K. P. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    In this study, a modified bituminization technology has been developed, which needs no grinding of the granular resin waste, and enables the solid form to keep its shape stability as good as that of a cemented solid form. Also, the study intended to apply the developed technology to the practical treatment of radioactive resin waste. In the experiment, the granular type resin was used and the straight-run distillation bitumen with penetration rate 60/70 was used as the solidifying agent. The PE was used as the additive. The shape stability increased remarkably with the additive of PE, which act as a binder in the solid form. The shape of the solid form was maintained without failure during the long-term exposure test when the additive content of spent PE is more than 10wt %. The proper ranges of bitumen content, PE content and operating temperature are 30-50wt%, 10-20wt% and 180 .deg. C respectively. The bituminized solid form of radioactive resin waste by the technology of this study has the remarkably superior quality than the conventional solid forms, partially for the shape stability.

  2. Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Michelle B.; Hestekin, Jamie A.; Lin, YuPo J.; St. Martin, Edward J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2007-12-11

    A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

  3. The radiolytic and chemical degradation of organic ion exchange resins under alkaline conditions: effect on radionuclide speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loon, L. van; Hummel, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    The formation of water soluble organic ligands by the radiolytic and chemical degradation of several ion exchange resins was investigated under conditions close to those of the near field of a cementitious repository. The most important degradation products were characterised and their role on radionuclide speciation evaluated thoroughly. Irradiation of strong acidic cation exchange resins (Powdex PCH and Lewatite S-100) resulted in the formation of mainly sulphate and dissolved organic carbon. A small part of the carbon (10-20%) could be identified as oxalate. The identity of the remainder is unknown. Complexation studies with Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} showed the presence of two ligands: oxalate and ligand X. Although ligand X could not be identified, it could be characterised by its concentration, a deprotonation constant and a complexation constant for the NiX complex. The influence of oxalate and ligand X on the speciation of radionuclides is examined in detail. For oxalate no significant influence on the speciation of radionuclides is expected. The stronger complexing ligand X may exert some influence depending on its concentration and the values of other parameters. These critical parameters are discussed and limiting values are evaluated. In absence of irradiation, no evidence for the formation of ligands was found. Irradiation of strong basic anion exchange resins (Powdex PAO and Lewatite M-500) resulted in the formation of mainly ammonia, amines and dissolved organic carbon. Up to 50% of the carbon could be identified as methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamine. Complexation studies with Eu{sup 3+} showed that the complexing capacity under near field conditions was negligible. The speciation of cations such as Ag, Ni, Cu and Pd can be influenced by the presence of amins. The strongest amine-complexes are formed with Pd and therefore, as an example, the aqueous Pd-ammonia system is examined in great detail. (author) 30 figs., 10 tabs., refs.

  4. Kafirin adsorption on ion-exchange resins: isotherm and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Lau, Pei Wen; Kale, Sandeep; Johnson, Stuart; Pareek, Vishnu; Utikar, Ranjeet; Lali, Arvind

    2014-08-22

    Kafirin is a natural, hydrophobic and celiac safe prolamin protein obtained from sorghum seeds. Today kafirin is found to be useful in designing delayed delivery systems and coatings of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals where its purity is important and this can be obtained by adsorptive chromatography. This study is the first scientific insight into the isotherm and kinetic studies of kafirin adsorption on anion- and cation-exchange resins for practical applications in preparative scale chromatography. Adsorption isotherms of kafirin were determined for five anion- and two cation-exchange resins in batch systems. Isotherm parameters such as maximum binding capacity and dissociation constant were determined from Langmuir isotherm, and adsorptive capacity and affinity constant from Freundlich isotherm. Langmuir isotherm was found to fit the adsorption equilibrium data well. Batch uptake kinetics for kafirin adsorption on these resins was also carried out and critical parameters including the diffusion coefficient, film mass transfer coefficient, and Biot number for film-pore diffusion model were calculated. Both the isotherm and the kinetic parameters were considered for selection of appropriate resin for kafirin purification. UNOsphere Q (78.26 mg/ml) and Toyopearl SP-650M (57.4 mg/ml) were found to offer better kafirin binding capacities and interaction strength with excellent uptake kinetics under moderate operating conditions. With these adsorbents, film diffusion resistance was found to be major governing factor for adsorption (Bi<10 and δ<1). Based on designer objective function, UNOsphere Q was found be best adsorbent for binding of kafirin. The data presented is valuable for designing large scale preparative adsorptive chromatographic kafirin purification systems.

  5. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide From Seawater by Ion Exchange Resin. Part 2. Using Strong Base Anion Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-29

    Figure 1. Table 2 - Resin Properties of Static Experiments Using Amberjet 4400 in OH Form (150 minute contact time). Sample Concentration (Molar...0.271 1 36 17.9 0.0075 150 0.267 134 19.0 Table 4 - Resin Properties of Static Experiments Using Amberjet 4400 in Cl Form (150 minute contact time

  6. Leaching of solutes from ion-exchange resins buried in Bandelier Tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essington, E.H.; Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Lopez, E.A.; Stallings, E.A.

    1986-10-01

    Prediction of solute transport at shallow land burial facilities requires a knowledge of the rates of release of solutes (source term) from the buried wastes and of those processes affecting transport through the surrounding media. The leaching (removal) of lithium, strontium, and cesium from a resin/tuff mixture (Bandelier Tuff) was conducted under unsaturated steady and unsteady (drainage) flow conditions in both laboratory columns and large-scale field caissons to approximate the conditions of buried contaminated-waste resins. Lithium was leached most rapidly and strontium least rapidly. Stopping the flow for a period of 40 to 60 days to create drainage (unsteady flow) conditions had very little effect on the concentrations of solutes leached from the resin/tuff layer. Leaching of these solutes in laboratory columns simulated the large-scale (caisson) leaching very well. Thus, laboratory studies may be reasonable predictors of leaching under certain large-scale field conditions. Also, leaching appears to be a kinetics-controlled process that, for the experimental conditions of this study, may be represented by simple first-order kinetics. Further work should concentrate on understanding the effect of environmental factors such as solute mixtures, concentrations, and temperature, as well as those mechanisms that control leaching of solutes. Also, the evaluation and development of alternative mathematical models for describing the source term are needed.

  7. Immobilization of ion exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor; Inmovilizacion de resinas de intercambio ionico radiactivas del reactor nuclear Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia M, H.; Emeterio H, M.; Canizal S, C. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work has the objective to develop the process and to define the agglutinating material which allows the immobilization of the ion exchange radioactive resins coming from the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor contaminated with Ba-133, Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Mn-54 through the behavior analysis of different immobilization agents such as: bitumens, cement and polyester resin. According to the International Standardization the archetype samples were observed with the following tests: determination of free liquid, leaching, charge resistance, biodegradation, irradiation, thermal cycle, burned resistance. Generally all the tests were satisfactorily achieved, for each agent. Therefore, the polyester resin could be considered as the main immobilizing. (Author)

  8. The influence of EI-21 redox ion-exchange resins on the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of vehicular nuclear power installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, L. N.; Rakov, V. T.

    2015-06-01

    The results obtained from testing the secondary-coolant circuit water chemistry of full-scale land-based prototype bench models of vehicular nuclear power installations equipped with water-cooled water-moderated and liquid-metal reactor plants are presented. The influence of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins intended for chemically deoxygenating steam condensate on the working fluid circulation loop's water chemistry is determined. The influence of redox ion-exchange resins on the water chemistry is evaluated by generalizing an array of data obtained in the course of extended monitoring using the methods relating to physicochemical analysis of the quality of condensate-feedwater path media and the methods relating to metallographic analysis of the state of a faulty steam generator's tube system surfaces. The deoxygenating effectiveness of the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system is experimentally determined. The refusal from applying redox ion-exchange resins in the condensate polishing ion-exchange filters is formulated based on the obtained data on the adverse effect of copper-containing redox ionexchange resins on the condensate-feedwater path water chemistry and based on the data testifying a sufficient effect from using the normal state turbine condensate vacuum deaeration system. Data on long-term operation of the prototype bench model of a vehicular nuclear power installation without subjecting the turbine condensate to chemical deoxygenation are presented.

  9. Preparation of Pd-Cu Bimetal Catalyst Loaded on Ion Exchange Resin and its Catalytic Denitrification for Water Containing Nitrate%离子交换树脂负载Pd-Cu双金属催化剂的制备及其对硝酸盐的催化脱除作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建峰; 徐春彦; 高保娇; 庄源益

    2008-01-01

      The loading-type Pd-Cu bimetal catalyst was prepared using anion exchange resin (AIER) as carrier and complex reagent EDTA as an intermedium. The as-prepared catalyst was used in reduction of nitrate in water to remove nitrate using H2 as reductant. The effects of the composition of bimetal, the property of the carrier and the presence of NaCl on the denitrification were investigated. The results showed that the metal ions (Cu2+and Pd2+) can be combined onto resin surface by the strong adsorption of AIER towards EDTA and the strong chelation of EDTA for metal ions. Via reduction of hydrazine hydrate for the metal ions, the loading-type catalyst Pd-Cu/AIER with high bimetal capacity and firm combination property were obtained. For the aqueous solution mere containing nitrate, NO3- only was reduced into NH4+ by the catalysis of Pd-Cu/ AIER. In the presence of higher concentration NaCl, the reduction of NO3-into N2 could be accelerated greatly. The activity and selectivity of the catalyst prepared is poorer if the weak alkaline anion exchange resins were used.%  采用阴离子交换树脂(AIER)为载体,以络合剂EDTA为媒介物,制备了Pd-Cu双金属负载性型催化剂;以H2为还原剂,将催化剂应用于水介质中NO3-还原为N2的脱除反应;考察了双金属催化剂组成、载体阴离子交换树脂的性质及水介质中NaCl存在对还原脱除反应的影响规律.研究结果表明,凭借阴离子交换树脂对EDTA强烈的吸附作用及EDTA对金属离子的强螯合作用,可将大量的金属离子(Cu2+与Pd2+)结合到树脂表面,再通过水合肼的还原作用,可制得金属负载量高且结合程度牢的双金属负载性型催化剂Pd-Cu/AIER.在单纯含有硝酸盐的水溶液中,在催化剂Pd-Cu/AIER的作用下,NO3-只能被还原为NH4+离子,不能还原为N2;水介质中大量氯离子的存在,能大大促进NO3-转变为N2的还原反应;载体阴离子交换树脂的碱性越弱,最终制得的催化剂活性与选择性越差.

  10. Novel ion exchange resin-based combination drug-delivery system for treatment of gastro esophageal reflux diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh Ramesh Bhalekar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study involves preparation and characterization of a combination tablet of ranitidine in immediate release form and domperidone in sustained release form, using ion exchange resins. Ranitidine lowers acid secretion, while domperidone release over a prolonged period improves gastric motility thus justifying this combination in gastro esophageal reflux diseases (GERD and ensuring patient compliance. Drug loading was carried out by batch method & resinates were characterized using FTIR, XRPD. Resinates were formulated as a combination tablet and evaluated for tablet properties & in vitro drug release. Resinates provided sustained release of domperidone and immediate release of ranitidine. IR and X-ray studies indicate complexation of drug and resin along with monomolecular distribution of drugs in amorphous form in the resin matrix. The tablets of resinate combination showed good tablet properties. In-vitro drug release gave desired release profiles and ex-vivo drug absorption studies carried out by placing everted rat intestine in dissolution medium indicated statistically significant similarity in absorption from test and marketed formulation. The novelty of this study is that the retardation in release of domperidone from resinates is achieved by presence of weak resin in the formulation.O presente estudo envolve a preparação e a caracterização de associação do comprimido de ranitidina de liberação imediata e domperidona de liberação prolongada, utilizando resinas de troca iônica. A ranitidina diminui a secreção ácida, enquanto a liberação prolongada de domperidona melhora a motilidade gástica, justificando, dessa forma, a associação em doenças de refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE e garantindo a adesão do paciente. A carga de fármaco foi efetuada pelo método em batelada e os resinatos, caracterizados utilizando-se FTIR e XRPD. Os resinatos foram formulados como comprimido da associação e avaliados com rela

  11. Atmospheric deposition of inorganic nitrogen in Spanish forests of Quercus ilex measured with ion-exchange resins and conventional collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gomez, Héctor; Izquieta-Rojano, Sheila; Aguillaume, Laura; González-Fernández, Ignacio; Valiño, Fernando; Elustondo, David; Santamaría, Jesús M; Àvila, Anna; Fenn, Mark E; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition is one of the main threats for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Measurement techniques like ion-exchange resin collectors (IECs), which are less expensive and time-consuming than conventional methods, are gaining relevance in the study of atmospheric deposition and are recommended to expand monitoring networks. In the present work, bulk and throughfall deposition of inorganic nitrogen were monitored in three different holm oak forests in Spain during two years. The results obtained with IECs were contrasted with a conventional technique using bottle collectors and with a literature review of similar studies. The performance of IECs in comparison with the conventional method was good for measuring bulk deposition of nitrate and acceptable for ammonium and total dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Mean annual bulk deposition of inorganic nitrogen ranged 3.09-5.43 kg N ha(-1) according to IEC methodology, and 2.42-6.83 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) using the conventional method. Intra-annual variability of the net throughfall deposition of nitrogen measured with the conventional method revealed the existence of input pulses of nitrogen into the forest soil after dry periods, presumably originated from the washing of dry deposition accumulated in the canopy. Important methodological recommendations on the IEC method and discussed, compiled and summarized.

  12. SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION OF PHOSPHORUS BY MEHLICH-1 AND ION EXCHANGE RESIN FROM B HORIZONS OF FERRIC AND PERFERRIC LATOSOLS (OXISOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo de Lima Camêlo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, Latosols have low levels of available P, however, the influence of the parent material seems to be decisive in defining the pool and predominant form of P in these soils. This study evaluated P availability by extraction with Mehlich-1 (M-1 and Ion Exchange Resin (IER, from samples of B horizons of Ferric and Perferric Latosols developed from different parent materials. To this end, in addition to the physical and chemical characterization of soils, 10 sequential extractions were performed with M-1 and IER from samples of B horizons (depth between 0.8 and 1.0 m. Total contents of Ca, P, Fe, Al, and Ti were determined after digestion with nitric, hydrofluoric and perchloric acids. The effects of sequential P extractions on Fe oxides were also evaluated from the analyses of dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and ammonium acid oxalate. The high similarity between contents of P accumulated after sequential extractions with M-1 and IER in soils developed on tuffite indicated a predominance of P-Ca. Higher contents of P after a single IER extraction show greater efficiency in P removal from highly weathered soils, as from the Latosols studied here. The P contents also show the high sensitivity of extractant M-1 in highly buffered soils. Furthermore, a single extraction with extractant M-1 or IER is not sufficient to estimate the amount of labile P in these soils.

  13. Kinetic Study of Esterification of Lactic Acid with Isobutanol and n-Butanol Catalyzed by Ion-exchange Resins%离子交换树脂催化乳酸与异丁醇及正丁醇酯化反应的动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈一新; 彭少君; 王水; 张志强; 王际东

    2009-01-01

    The esterification reactions of lactic acid with isobutanol and n-butanol have been studied in the presence of acid ion-exchange resin Weblyst D009. The influences of catalyst loading, stirrer speed, catalyst particle size, initial reactant molar ratio and temperature on the reaction rate have been examined. Experimental kinetic data were correlated by using the Pseudo-homogeneous, Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal models. Nonideality of the liquid phase was taken into account by using activities instead of molar fractions. The activity coefficients were calculated according to the group contribution method UNIFAC. Provided that the nonideality of the liquid is taken into account, the esterification kinetics of lactic acid with isobutanol and n-butanol catalyzed by the acid ion-exchange resin can be described using all three models with reasonable errors.

  14. Iodine adsorption on ion-exchange resins and activated carbons: batch testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2014-09-30

    Iodine sorption onto seven resins and six carbon materials was evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36 on the Hanford Site. These materials were tested using a range of solution-to-solid ratios. The test results are as follows. The efficacy of the resin and granular activated carbon materials was less than predicted based on manufacturers’ performance data. It is hypothesized that this is due to the differences in speciation previously determined for Hanford groundwater. The sorption of iodine is affected by the iodine species in the source water. Iodine loading on resins using source water ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 189.9 to 227.0 mL/g. The sorption values when the iodine is converted to iodide ranged from 2.75 to 5.90 µg/g with the corresponding Kd values from 536.3 to 2979.6 mL/g. It is recommended that methods to convert iodine to iodide be investigated in fiscal year (FY) 2015. The chemicals used to convert iodine to iodate adversely affected the sorption of iodine onto the carbon materials. Using as-received source water, loading and Kd values ranged from 1.47 to 1.70 µg/g and 189.8 to 226.3 mL/g respectively. After treatment, loading and Kd values could not be calculated because there was little change between the initial and final iodine concentration. It is recommended the cause of the decrease in iodine sorption be investigated in FY15. In direct support of CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has evaluated samples from within the 200W pump and treat bioreactors. As part of this analysis, pictures taken within the bioreactor reveal a precipitate that, based on physical properties and known aqueous chemistry, is hypothesized to be iron pyrite or chalcopyrite, which could affect iodine adsorption. It is recommended these materials be tested at different solution-to-solid ratios in FY15 to determine their effect on iodine

  15. Ion exchange equilibrium for some uni-univalent and uni-divalent reaction systems using strongly basic anion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Lokhande

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study on thermodynamics of ion exchange equilibrium for uni-univalent Cl-/I-, Cl-/Br-, and uni-divalent Cl-/SO42-, Cl-/C2O42- reaction systems was carried out using ion exchange resin Duolite A-102 D. The equilibrium constant K was calculated by taking into account the activity coefficient of ions both in solution as well as in the resin phase. The K values calculated for uni-univalent and uni-divalent anion exchange reaction systems was observed to increase with rise in temperature, indicating the endothermic exchange reactions having enthalpy values of 13.7, 38.0, 23.9, 22.9 kJ/mol, respectively.

  16. Highly active and stable ion-exchanged Fe-Ferrierite catalyst for N2O decomposition under nitric acid tail gas conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melian Cabrera, Ignacio; Mentruit, C; Pieterse, JAZ; van den Brink, RW; Mul, G; Kapteijn, F; Moulijn, JA

    2005-01-01

    This communication reports on the excellent performance and durability of a wet ion-exchanged Fe-Ferrierite catalysts for N2O decomposition under conditions of nitric acid plants, especially in the presence of water (0.5% vol) and at a high space time W/F-0(N2O) = 900 kg(cat) s mol(-1). In contrast

  17. Highly active and stable ion-exchanged Fe–Ferrierite catalyst for N2O decomposition under nitric acid tail gas conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melián-Cabrera, I.; Mentruit, C.; Pieterse, J.A.Z.; Brink, R.W. van den; Mul, G.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This communication reports on the excellent performance and durability of a wet ion-exchanged Fe–Ferrierite catalysts for N2O decomposition under conditions of nitric acid plants, especially in the presence of water (0.5% vol) and at a high space time W/F0(N2O) = 900 kgcat s mol-1. In contrast to io

  18. Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange process for the separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, K.M.; Penwell, D.L.; Knutson, B.J.

    1994-12-01

    This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin to remove cesium from Hanford Tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. Process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs are discussed which relate to the process.

  19. Ion Exchange Distribution Coefficient Tests and Computer Modeling at High Ionic Strength Supporting Technetium Removal Resin Maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hamm, L. Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, Frank G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-19

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for this facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW). Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and poured into canisters for disposition. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Due to the water solubility properties of pertechnetate and long half-life of 99Tc, effective management of 99Tc is important to the overall success of the Hanford River Protection Project mission. To achieve the full target WTP throughput, additional LAW immobilization capacity is needed, and options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. To enable an informed decision regarding the viability of technetium removal, further maturation of available technologies is being performed. This report contains results of experimental ion exchange distribution coefficient testing and computer modeling using the resin SuperLig® 639a to selectively remove perrhenate from high ionic strength simulated LAW. It is advantageous to operate at higher concentration in order to treat the waste

  20. Fabrication of gadolinium hydroxide nanoparticles using ion-exchange resin and their MRI property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kobayashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method to fabricate gadolinium hydroxide (Gd(OH3 nanoparticles. An opaque solution was prepared by adding basic anion exchange resin (BAER to a Gd(NO33 aqueous solution at room temperature and aging the solution for 12–24 h; the solution became basic because of the exchange of H2O with OH−. The particles in the opaque solution have a needle structure, and their crystal structure was hexagonal Gd(OH3. Their longitudinal and lateral average particle sizes tend to increase in the ranges of 175.0–222.1 and 33.9–52.3 nm when the aging time increases from 12 to 24 h, respectively. The relaxivity value for T1-weighted imaging was 0.79 mM−1 s−1 for the solution that was prepared at the aging time of 18 h, which was ca. 20% of that for a commercial Gd complex contrast agent.

  1. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption studies of dimethylamine (DMA) onto ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Qinhai, E-mail: qhhu@zju.edu.cn [College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang (China); Meng Yuanyuan [College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang (China); Sun Tongxi [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Mahmood, Qaisar [Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University, Abbottabad 22060 (Pakistan); Wu Donglei; Zhu Jianhang [College of Environmental and Resources Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, Zhejiang (China); Lu, George [Golden Maple Leaf Corporation of Hangzhou, Hangzhou 310012 (China)

    2011-01-30

    The fine grained resin ZGSPC106 was used to adsorb dimethylamine (DMA) from aqueous solution in the present research. Batch experiments were performed to examine the effects of initial pH of solution and agitation time on the adsorption process. The thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption were also analyzed. The maximum adsorption was found at natural pH of DMA solution and equilibrium could be attained within 12 min. The equilibrium adsorption data were conformed satisfactorily to the Langmuir equation. The evaluation based on Langmuir isotherm gave the maximal static saturated adsorption capacity of 138.89 mg/g at 293 K. Various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) showed that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and feasible. DMA adsorption on ZGSPC106 fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism was discussed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis.

  2. Kinetics and equilibrium adsorption studies of dimethylamine (DMA) onto ion-exchange resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinhai; Meng, Yuanyuan; Sun, Tongxi; Mahmood, Qaisar; Wu, Donglei; Zhu, Jianhang; Lu, George

    2011-01-30

    The fine grained resin ZGSPC106 was used to adsorb dimethylamine (DMA) from aqueous solution in the present research. Batch experiments were performed to examine the effects of initial pH of solution and agitation time on the adsorption process. The thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption were also analyzed. The maximum adsorption was found at natural pH of DMA solution and equilibrium could be attained within 12 min. The equilibrium adsorption data were conformed satisfactorily to the Langmuir equation. The evaluation based on Langmuir isotherm gave the maximal static saturated adsorption capacity of 138.89 mg/g at 293K. Various thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) showed that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and feasible. DMA adsorption on ZGSPC106 fitted well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Furthermore, the adsorption mechanism was discussed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromate (CrO(4)(2-)) and copper (Cu2+) adsorption by dual-functional ion exchange resins made from agricultural by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wayne E; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2006-07-01

    Ion exchange resins commonly have a single functionality for either cations or anions. Resins that have a dual functionality for both cations and anions are uncommon. The objective of this study was to create dual-functional ion exchange resins derived from soybean hulls, sugarcane bagasse and corn stover. Dual-functional resins were prepared by two separate two-step processes. In the first two-step process, by-products were reacted with a solution of citric acid in order to impart additional negative charge, and then reacted with the cross-linking reagent dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) and a quaternary amine (choline chloride) to add positive charge to the lignocellulosic material. In the second two-step process, the order of reaction was reversed, with positive charge added first, followed by the addition of negative charge. These combined reactions added both cationic and anionic character to the by-products as evidenced by the increased removal from solution of copper (Cu(2+)) cation and the chromate (CrO(4)(2-)) anion compared to unmodified by-products. The order of reaction appeared to slightly favor the functionality that was added last. That is, if negative charge was added last, the resulting resin sequestered more copper ion than a comparable resin where the negative charge was added first and vice-versa. Cu(2+) and CrO(4)(2-) were used as marker ions in a solution that contained both competing cations and anions. The dual-functional resins adsorbed as much as or more of the marker ions compared to commercial cation or anion exchange resins used for comparison. None of the commercial resins exhibited dual-functional properties to the same extent as the by-product-based resins.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Templated Ion Exchange Resins for the Selective Complexation of Actinide Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uy, O. Manual

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a polymeric extractant for the selective complexation of uranyl ions (and subsequently other actinyl and actinide ions) from aqueous solutions (lakes, streams, waste tanks and even body fluids). Chemical insights into what makes a good complexation site will be used to synthesize reagents tailor-made for the complexation of uranyl and other actinide ions. These insights, derived from studies of molecular recognition include ion coordination number and geometry, ionic size and ionic shape, as well as ion to ligand thermodynamic affinity. Selectivity for a specific actinide ion will be obtained by providing the polymers with cavities lined with complexing ligands so arranged as to match the charge, coordination number, coordination geometry, and size of the actinide metal ion. These cavity-containing polymers will be produced by using a specific ion (or surrogate) as a template around which monomeric complexing ligands will be polymerized. The complexing ligands will be ones containing functional groups known to form stable complexes with a specific ion and less stable complexes with other cations. Prior investigator's approaches for making templated resins for metal ions have had marginal success. We have extended and amended these methodologies in our work with Pb(II) and uranyl ion, by changing the order of the steps, by the inclusion of sonication, by using higher complex loading, and the selection of functional groups with better complexation constants. This has resulted in significant improvements to selectivity. The unusual shape of the uranyl ion suggests that this approach will result in even greater selectivities than already observed for Pb(II). Preliminary data obtained for uranyl templated polymers shows unprecedented selectivity and has resulted in the first ion selective electrode for uranyl ion.

  5. Adsorption of amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger NRRL 3122 using ion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Manera

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase enzyme was produced by Aspergillus niger NRRL 3122 from solid-state fermentation, using deffated rice bran as substrate. The effects of process parameters (pH, temperature in the equilibrium partition coefficient for the system amyloglucosidase - resin DEAE-cellulose were investigated, aiming at obtaining the optimum conditions for a subsequent purification process. The highest partition coefficients were obtained using 0.025M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0 and 25ºC. The conditions that supplied the highest partition coefficient were specified, the isotherm that better described the amyloglucosidase process of adsorption obtained. It was observed that the adsorption could be well described by Langmuir equation and the values of Qm and Kd estimated at 133.0 U mL-1 and 15.4 U mL-1, respectively. From the adjustment of the kinetic curves using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, the adsorption (k1 and desorption (k2 constants were obtained through optimization by the least square procedure, and the values calculated were 2.4x10-3 mL U-1 min-1 for k1 and 0.037 min-1 for k2 .A enzima amiloglicosidase foi produzida por Aspergillus niger NRRL 3122 através de fermentação em estado sólido, tendo como substrato farelo de arroz desengordurado. Os efeitos dos parâmetros de processo (pH e temperatura no coeficiente de partição no equilíbrio, para o sistema amiloglicosidase - resina DEAE-celulose foram investigados, com o objetivo de se obter as melhores condições para um posterior processo de purificação. Os maiores coeficientes de partição foram obtidos usando tampão Tris-HCl 0,025M pH 8,0 e 25°C. Determinadas as condições que forneceram o maior coeficiente de partição obteve-se a isoterma que melhor descrevia o processo de adsorção de amiloglicosidase. Foi verificado que adsorção pode ser bem descrita pela equação de Langmuir e os valores de Qm e Kd foram estimados em 133,0 U mL-1 e 15,4 U mL-1 respectivamente. A

  6. Atmospheric Ionic Deposition in Tropical Sites of Central Sulawesi Determined by Ion Exchange Resin Collectors and Bulk Water Collector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S; Jungkunst, H F; Gutzler, C; Herrera, R; Gerold, G

    2012-09-01

    In the light of global change, the necessity to monitor atmospheric depositions that have relevant effects on ecosystems is ever increasing particularly for tropical sites. For this study, atmospheric ionic depositions were measured on tropical Central Sulawesi at remote sites with both a conventional bulk water collector system (BWS collector) and with a passive ion exchange resin collector system (IER collector). The principle of IER collector to fix all ionic depositions, i.e. anions and cations, has certain advantages referring to (1) post-deposition transformation processes, (2) low ionic concentrations and (3) low rainfall and associated particulate inputs, e.g. dust or sand. The ionic concentrations to be measured for BWS collectors may easily fall below detection limits under low deposition conditions which are common for tropical sites of low land use intensity. Additionally, BWS collections are not as independent from the amount of rain fallen as are IER collections. For this study, the significant differences between both collectors found for nearly all measured elements were partly correlated to the rainfall pattern, i.e. for calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. However, the significant differences were, in most cases, not highly relevant. More relevant differences between the systems were found for aluminium and nitrate (434-484 %). Almost five times higher values for nitrate clarified the advantage of the IER system particularly for low deposition rate which is one particularity of atmospheric ionic deposition in tropical sites of extensive land use. The monthly resolution of the IER data offers new insights into the temporal distribution of annual ionic depositions. Here, it did not follow the tropical rain pattern of a drier season within generally wet conditions.

  7. RAPID DETERMINATION OF L-GLUTAMIC ACIDWITH AN ENZYME REACTOR OF L-GLUTAMIC DECARBOXYLASE IMMOBILIZED ON ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of an immobilized L-glutamic decarboxylase (GDC)were studied This work is to develop a sensitive method for the determination of L-glutamate using a new biosensor, which consists of an enzyme column reactor of GDC immobilized on a novel ion exchange resin (carboxymethyl-copolymer of allyl dextran and N.N'-methylene-bisacrylamide CM-CADB) and ion analyzer coupled with a CO2 electrode. The conditions for the enzyme immobilization were optimized by the parameters: buffer composition and concentration, adsorption equilibration time, amount of enzyme, temperature, ionic strength and pH. The properties of the immobilized enzyme on CM-CADB were studied by investigating the initial rate of the enzyme reaction, the efffect of various parameters on the immobilized GDC activity and its stability. An immobilized GDC enzyme column reactor matched with a flow injection system-ion analyzer coupled with CO2 electrode-data collection system made up the original form of the apparatus of biosensor for determining of L-glutamate acid. The limit of detection is 1.O ×1O-5 M. The linearity response is in the range of 5 × 1O -2-5 × 1O -5 M. The equation of linear regression of the calibration curve is y= 43.3x + 181.6 (y is the milli-volt of electrical potential response, x is the logarithm of the concentration of the substrate of L-glutamate acid). The correlation coefficient equals 0.99. The coefficient of variation equals 2.7%.

  8. Two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid [C4mim]Ac by macroporous resin and ion exchange resin from Schisandra chinensis fruits extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian

    2015-01-22

    In this study, two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim]Ac) were studied through a digestion extraction system of extracting biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis. The RP-HPLC detection method for [C4mim]Ac was established in order to investigate the recovery efficiency of IL. The recycling method of [C4mim]Ac is divided into two steps, the first step was the separation of lignans from the IL solution containing HPD 5000 macroporous resin, the recovery efficiency and purity of [C4mim]Ac achieved were 97.8% and 67.7%, respectively. This method cannot only separate the lignans from [C4mim]Ac solution, also improve the purity of lignans, the absorption rate of lignans in [C4mim]Ac solution was found to be higher (69.2%) than that in ethanol solution (57.7%). The second step was the purification of [C4mim]Ac by the SK1B strong acid ion exchange resin, an [C4mim]Ac recovery efficiency of 55.9% and the purity higher than 90% were achieved. Additionally, [C4mim]Ac as solvent extraction of lignans from S. chinensis was optimized, the hydrolysis temperature was 90°C and the hydrolysis time was 2h.

  9. Chromium metal plating followed by rinsing and by regeneration of rinse water on ion exchange resins with recycling; Chromage de pieces suivi de rincages, avec regeneration du dernier bain de rincage froid sur resines echangeuses d`ions et recyclage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This audit presents a modification of the rinsing stages of the conventional chromium plating technology. After chromium plating the parts are rinsed. The first rinsing bath which is high in chromic acid, is recycled and the last cold rinsing bath is regenerated on ion-exchange resins and recycled. In the conventional process, the last cold rinsing bath is discarded.

  10. Reduction of aldehydes and hydrogen cyanide yields in mainstream cigarette smoke using an amine functionalised ion exchange resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke Martin G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a well recognized cause of diseases such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease. Of the more than 5000 identified species in cigarette smoke, at least 150 have toxicological activity. For example, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde have been assigned as Group 1 and Group 2B carcinogens by IARC, and hydrogen cyanide has been identified as a respiratory and cardiovascular toxicant. Active carbon has been shown to be an effective material for the physical adsorption of many of the smoke volatile species. However, physical adsorption of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and also hydrogen cyanide from smoke is less effective using carbon. Alternative methods for the removal of these species from cigarette smoke are therefore of interest. A macroporous, polystyrene based ion-exchange resin (Diaion®CR20 with surface amine group functionality has been investigated for its ability to react with aldehydes and HCN in an aerosol stream, and thus selectively reduce the yields of these compounds (in particular formaldehyde in mainstream cigarette smoke. Results Resin surface chemistry was characterized using vapour sorption, XPS, TOF-SIMS and 15N NMR. Diaion®CR20 was found to have structural characteristics indicating weak physisorption properties, but sufficient surface functionalities to selectively remove aldehydes and HCN from cigarette smoke. Using 60 mg of Diaion®CR20 in a cigarette cavity filter gave reductions in smoke formaldehyde greater than 50% (estimated to be equivalent to >80% of the formaldehyde present in the smoke vapour phase independent of a range of flow rates. Substantial removal of HCN (>80% and acetaldehyde (>60% was also observed. The performance of Diaion®CR20 was found to be consistent over a test period of 6 months. The overall adsorption for the majority of smoke compounds measured appeared to follow a pseudo-first order approximation to second order

  11. The elimination of corrosiveness of hydrated ethanol by using ion exchange resin; Eliminador da corrosividade do alcool etilico hidratado combustivel pelo tratamento com resinas de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aurelio N. de; Tanaka, Deniol K. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1986-12-31

    Based on ion exchange principles and the chemical analysis of regularly produced hydrated alcohol and considering corrosion problems found when this alcohol is used as fuel, the use of ion exchange resins is proposed to purify hydrated alcohol and hence eliminate corrosiveness. This alternative takes advantage of high efficiency with significantly low cost compared to other alternatives or to surface treatments required as function of the aggressive characteristics of fuel. Available preliminary results shows a modification in the aggressive characteristics of alcohol fuel as well as the possibility to obtain adequate physico-chemical properties of final product and the ability to standardize products from different sources or regions. Additional research work and follow up from vehicles testings with treated alcohol were done and they confirm presented results. 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. An alternative preparation method for ion exchanged catalysts: Solid state redox reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, E.; Hagen, A.; Grunwaldt, J.-D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for modifying zeolites with zinc is proposed. The solid state redox reaction between metallic zinc and ZSM-5 zeolites with different Si/Al ratios was investigated by temperature programmed hydrogen evolution (TPHE), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and diffuse reflectance...... infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The evolution of hydrogen was detected at temperatures above 620 K. The source of hydrogen was the solid state redox reaction of the metal with protons of the support. The samples exhibit catalytic activity in ethane aromatization indicating that zinc...... should be located at the same sites as in catalysts prepared by conventional methods. Combination of XANES and catalytic activity point to zinc being mainly present in tetrahedral geometry under reaction conditions....

  13. Selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 over a Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst prepared by a solid state ion exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Di; Gao, Feng; Peden, Charles HF; Li, Junhui; Kamasamudram, Krishna; Epling, William S.

    2014-06-01

    A novel solid state method was developed to synthesize Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts with excellent NH3-SCR performance and durable hydrothermal stability. After the solid state ion exchange (SSIE) process, the SSZ framework structure and surface area was maintained. In-situ DRIFTS and NH3-TPD experiments provide evidence that isolated Cu ions were successfully exchanged into the pores, which are the active centers for the NH3-SCR reaction.

  14. Conditioning of spent ion-exchange resins followed by solidification in the alkali-slag long-lived matrix with an increased level of filling with resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nikolaevna Skomorokhova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for spent ion-exchange resins (IER of intermediate specific activity to be solidified in alkali-slag (geocement water-resistant matrixes with an increased level of filling with resins was studied. Comparative tests of the IER immobilization process were done for justifying the most technologically effective matrix material. We used three different alkali-slag cementing systems and the prepared simulated pulps of IER with the specific activity of 3×108 Bq/L, saturated with 137Cs radionuclide. The manufactured samples of the alkali-slag compounds, filled with IER at the level of 24-27% by weight, meet the regulatory requirements set in NP-019-15 code and feature better working quality parameters (mechanical strength: 5-14 MPa, leaching rate of 137Cs, Na, Ca: <2×10-4 g/cm2∙day on the 7th-10th day, mechanical strength of compounds rises by the factor of 1.2-1.5 after immersion tests. The incorporation of the spent IER in the most technologically effective alkali-slag matrix makes it possible to decrease the cementing material consumption by the factor of 2.4 in comparison with Portland cement and by the factor of 1.3 in comparison with the known slag binders, while a compound with better quality parameters is produced. The research was done with the support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identifier of the applied research studies - RFMEFI57915X0101 for justifying a new energy-efficient and resource-saving technology of reprocessing the spent IER-containing waste.

  15. Characterization and disposal of ion exchange resins used in nuclear installations; Caracterizacion y disposicion de resinas de intercambio ionico utilizadas en instalaciones nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores E, R.M.; Ortiz O, H.B.; Olguin G, M.T.; Emeterio H, M.; Garcia M, H. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    To dispose of an appropriate way the used ion exchange resins so much in the pool water purification systems of the TRIGA Mark III reactor like in the JS6500 gamma irradiator, of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, were carried out a series of analytic nuclear techniques and complementary conventional to those recommended by the ASTM, with the object of to control and to manage 14 lots of worn out resins appropriately. For its were identified the radioactive isotopes, the resins type, the grade of chemical pollution and the physicochemical degradation of the same ones. The lots of resins that didn't contain radioactive isotopes its were regenerated in an usual way, as long as those that if they controlled them they selected options for its final disposition. The first selected option was the extraction method of ion radioactive isotopes, concentrating the elution product by evaporation. As second option it was carried out the resins stabilization damaged by micro-encapsulation by forged to ambient temperature, using an organic polymer. Previous to the immobilization the resins were pretreated by vacuum drying, pulverization and thermal drying, however before carrying out this last, it was carried out a thermal gravimetric analysis to determine the drying conditions of the resins avoiding its chemical decomposition. (Author)

  16. Physiochemical characterization of taste masking levetiracetam ion exchange resinates in the solid state and formulation of stable liquid suspension for pediatric use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaneswari S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an attempt has been made to mask the bitter taste of Levetiracetam using various ion-exchange resins such as Amberlite IRP69 and Duolite AP143. The physicochemical characteristics of the drug–resin complex in the solid state were studied. FT-IR studies revealed that there is no interaction between drug and resin. The DSC and XRD studies proved that the drug is in amorphous nature. Using the same concentration of resins, Xanthan gum as suspending agent in a liquid dosage form for pediatric use was formulated. Evaluation parameters such as drug content, sedimentation volume, re-dispersibility and viscosity of the prepared suspension were found to be satisfactory. The higher Zeta potential value indicates the stability of the suspension. Suspension prepared with Duolite AP 143 efficiently masks the bitter taste of Levetiracetam compared to Amberlite IRP69. From the in vitro drug release, a formulation with 1:2 ratios of resin has shown the maximum release at the end of 90 minutes. The sustained effect is due to one of the properties of the resin. The release profile follows zero order kinetics. The results obtained in this work show that drug–resin complexes effectively masked the bitter taste of Levetiracetam while liquid formulation provides an easier way to administer and to overcome problems with noncompliance of pediatrics.

  17. Effect of pH on the release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resins collected from operating nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Akers, D.W.; McConnell, J.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Data are presented on the physical stability and leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin wastes collected from two operating commercial light water reactors. Small-scale waste--form specimens collected during solidifications performed at the Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Unit 1 and at the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Station were leach-tested and subjected to compressive strength testing in accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Technical Position on Waste Form'' (Revision 1). Samples of untreated resin waste collected from each solidification vessel before the solidification process were analyzed for concentrations of radionuclides, selected transition metals, and chelating agents to determine the quantities of these chemicals in the waste-form specimens. The chelating agents included oxalic, citric, and picolinic acids. In order to determine the effect of leachant chemical composition and pH on the stability and leachability of the waste forms, waste-form specimens were leached in various leachants. Results of this study indicate that differences in pH do not affect releases from cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms, but that differences in leachant chemistry and the presence of chelating agents may affect the releases of radionuclides and chelating agents. Also, this study indicates that the cumulative releases of radionuclides and chelating agents are similar for waste- form specimens that decomposed and those that retained their general physical form. 36 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs.

  18. Amberlite-IRA-402 (OH) ion exchange resin mediated synthesis of indolizines, pyrrolo [1,2-a] quinolines and isoquinolines: antibacterial and antifungal evaluation of the products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Abhijit; Mondal, Shyamal; Maity, Arindam; Naskar, Subhendu; Saha, Pritam; Paira, Rupankar; Sahu, Krishnendu B; Paira, Priyankar; Ghosh, Soma; Sinha, Chandrima; Samanta, Amalesh; Banerjee, Sukdeb; Mondal, Nirup B

    2011-06-01

    A number of indolizines and pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinolines/isoquinolines were prepared from phenacyl pyridinium, quinolinium and isoquinolinium salts derived from the reaction of the heterocycles with 2-bromo acetophenone with alkynes and alkenes using amberlite-IRA-402 (OH) ion exchange resin as the base. Antibacterial and antifungal studies were carried out against thirteen bacterial and four fungal strains, which revealed that three derivatives (4a, 4b, 7a) out of fifteen are effective against all the thirteen strains and one derivative, 10, showed dual antibactericidal and antifungal efficacy.

  19. Demonstration of Regenerable, Large-Scale Ion Exchange System Using WBA Resin in Rialto, CA (Drinking Water Treatment - Pilot Scale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Health Services CSTR continuously stirred tank reactor DoD Department of Defense DWEL drinking water equivalent level DWSP Drinking Water Supply...stirred tank reactor ( CSTR ) anoxic biodegradation process. The full-scale ion exchange process will be fully automated—being controlled by a PLC

  20. Production of large quantities of {sup 90}Y by ion-exchange chromatography using an organic resin and a chelating agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiques Castillo, Abmel, E-mail: axcastillo@yahoo.co [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada Km 3 1/2, Guanabacoa, Havana (Cuba); Perez-Malo, Marylaine; Isaac-Olive, Keila [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada Km 3 1/2, Guanabacoa, Havana (Cuba); Mukhallalati, Heyam [Division of Radiopharmaceuticals, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Casanova Gonzalez, Edgar; Torres Berdeguez, Mirta [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada Km 3 1/2, Guanabacoa, Havana (Cuba); Cornejo Diaz, Nestor [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, AP: 6195 Habana 6, CP 10600, Havana (Cuba)

    2010-11-15

    The performance of a system composed of an organic cation exchanger (Dowex 50Wx8) and a chelating agent (EDTA) previously described for the successful production of {sup 90}Y via a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator is assessed under dynamic conditions. In an attempt to overcome the established limitation of ion-exchange resins for the separation of subcurie quantities of activity, {sup 90}Y is repeatedly isolated from an 11.8-GBq (320 mCi) {sup 90}Sr cow using a three-column tandem arrangement. The high recovery and radionuclidic purity obtained for {sup 90}Y and the parameters of the separation (time, eluant concentration, pH and flow rate range) strongly suggest that Ci quantities of {sup 90}Y can be handled satisfactorily by the ion-exchange method. No replacement or treatment of the cow, low waste generation and {sup 90}Sr losses less than 0.1% after each run were observed during the present study which, in combination with the low cost of this resin, may result in an attractive alternate method for the production of large quantities of {sup 90}Y.

  1. A combined process of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment and membrane concentration for recovery of dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jing; Kaur, Ishneet; Baktash, Mir Mojtaba; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-01

    To recover dissolved organics in pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) of the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process, a new combined process concept of sequential steps of activated carbon adsorption, ion exchange resin treatment, and membrane concentration, was proposed. The removal of lignin in the PHL was achieved in the activated carbon adsorption step, which also facilitates the subsequent operations, such as the membrane filtration and ion exchange resin treatment. The ion exchange resin treatment resulted in the removal/concentration of acetic acid, which opens the door for acetic acid recovery. The membrane filtration is to recover/concentrate the dissolved sugars. The combined process resulted in the production of PHL-based concentrate with relatively high concentration of hemicellulosic sugars, i.e., 22.13%.

  2. Comparative study of ion-exchange resin Indion 204 and Indion 214 for the taste masking of metoclopramide hydrochloride and formulation of rapid-disintegrating tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahima Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to mask the intensely bitter taste of metoclopramide hydrochloride and to formulate a rapid-disintegrating tablet of the taste-masked drug. Taste masking was done by complexing the drug with ion exchange resin, Indion 204 and Indion 214, in different ratios. The complex loading process was optimized for the concentration of resin, swelling time, stirring time, pH, and temperature for maximum drug loading. Drug-resin complexes (DRC were tested for flow properties, drug content, in-vitro release in simulated salivary fluid, and in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, taste evaluation by the panel method. Taste evaluation of DRC revealed considerable taste masking with the degree of bitterness below threshold value (40 μg/ml in 0 to 5 min. Complex of both Indion 204 and Indion 214 masked the taste, but on the basis of the comparative study, resin 214 was selected for taste masking property. Disintegrant croscarmellose (5% wt/wt gave the minimum disintegration time in comparison to crosspovidone and sodium starch glycolate. The batch of tablet containing Pearlitol SD and Avicel (PH102 in the ratio 60:40 and 5% (wt/wt Croscarmellose showed faster disintegration i.e. 32 s, as compare to marketed tablet. It also revealed rapid drug release (t 80 , 6 min in SGF compared with marketed formulation (t 80 , 9 min.

  3. Nanostructured gadolinium-doped ceria microsphere synthesis from ion exchange resin: Multi-scale in-situ studies of solid solution formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caisso, Marie [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Institut Européen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC047, Université Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Lebreton, Florent; Horlait, Denis [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Picart, Sébastien [CEA, DEN, DRCP/SERA/LCAR, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Martin, Philippe M.; Bès, René [CEA, DEN, DEC/SESC/LLCC, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Renard, Catherine; Roussel, Pascal [Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR 8012 CNRS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille BP 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Neuville, Daniel R. [Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris-CNRS, Géochimie and Cosmochimie, 1 rue Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Jörg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal (KIT-INE), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Ayral, André [Institut Européen des Membranes, UMR 5635 CNRS-ENSCM-UM2, CC047, Université Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2014-10-15

    In the current nano-sized material revolution, the main limitations to a large-scale deployment of nanomaterials involve health concerns related to nano-dissemination via air. Developing new chemical routes benefiting from nano-size advantages while avoiding their hazards could overcome these limitations. Addressing this need, a chemical route leading to soft nano-particle agglomerates, i.e., macroscopic precursors presenting the ability to be decomposed into nano-sized materials, was developed and applied to Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ}. Using cerium/gadolinium-loaded ion exchange resin, the Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} solid solution formation as a function of temperature was studied in-situ through X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Temperatures corresponding to the organic skeleton decomposition and to the mixed oxide crystallization were identified. An optimal heat treatment, leading to nanostructured soft agglomerates, was established. Microsphere processing capabilities were evaluated and particle size distribution measurements were recorded. A very low fracture strength was calculated, and a nanometric particle size distribution (170 nm) was determined. - Graphical abstract: The elaboration of micro-spherical precursors leading to the formation of nano-oxide soft agglomerates was studied and approved through the use of ion exchange resin loaded with cerium and gadolinium. The formation of the solid solution was followed through in-situ measurements such as XAS, XRD, Raman, TGA and DSC. Key temperatures were identified for the formation of the mixed-oxide. Following this study, the microstructure and particle size of oxide microspheres formed highlight the formation of soft nano-arrangments. - Highlights: • Soft microspherical agglomerates able to be decomposed into nano-sized materials. • In situ study of cerium/gadolinium-loaded ion exchange resin conversion in oxide. • In situ multi-scale study

  4. Immobilization of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase onto ion-exchange resin beads and hydrolysis of natural starch at high concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kapish; Jana, Asim Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Maiti, Mithu

    2013-11-01

    α-Amylase was immobilized on Dowex MAC-3 with 88 % yield and amyloglucosidase on Amberlite IRA-400 ion-exchange resin beads with 54 % yield by adsorption process. Immobilized enzymes were characterized to measure the kinetic parameters and optimal operational parameters. Optimum substrate concentration and temperature were higher for immobilized enzymes. The thermal stability of the enzymes enhanced after the immobilization. Immobilized enzymes were used in the hydrolysis of the natural starch at high concentration (35 % w/v). The time required for liquefaction of starch to 10 dextrose equivalent (DE) and saccharification of liquefied starch to 96 DE increased. Immobilized enzymes showed the potential for use in starch hydrolysis as done in industry.

  5. Rapid removal of copper with magnetic poly-acrylic weak acid resin: quantitative role of bead radius on ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lichun; Shuang, Chendong; Liu, Fuqiang; Li, Aimin; Li, Yan; Zhou, Yang; Song, Haiou

    2014-05-15

    A novel magnetic weak acid resin NDMC was self-synthesized for the removal of Cu(2+) from aqueous solutions. NDMC showed superior properties on the removal of Cu(2+) compared to commercial resins C106 and IRC-748, which was deeply investigated by adsorption isotherms and kinetic tests. The equilibrium adsorption amount of Cu(2+) onto NDMC (267.2mg/g) was almost twice as large as that onto IRC-748 (120.0mg/g). The adsorption kinetics of Cu(2+) onto the three resins fitted well with the pseudo-second-order equation. The initial adsorption rate h of NDMC was about 4 times that of C106 and nearly 8 times that of IRC-748 at the initial concentration of 500mg/L. External surface area was determined to be the key factor in rate-controlling by further analyzing the adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics parameters and physicochemical properties of the resins. NDMC resin with the smallest bead radius possessed the largest external surface and therefore exhibited the fastest kinetics. The adsorption amount of Cu(2+) onto NDMC was not influenced as the concentration of Na(+) increased from 1.0 to 10.0mM/L. Dilute HCl solution could effectively desorb Cu(2+). NDMC demonstrated high stability during 10 adsorption/desorption cycles, showing great potential in the rapid removal of Cu(2+) from wastewater.

  6. Resin catalysts and method of preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1986-12-16

    Heat stabilized catalyst compositions are prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  7. Tungsten removal from molybdate solutions using chelating ion-exchange resin:Equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱先正; 霍广生; 倪捷; 宋琼

    2016-01-01

    The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetic of the sorption process for W and Mo on macro chelating resin D403 were investigated on single Na2MoO4 and Na2WO4 solutions. The sorption isotherm results show that the adsorption process of W obeys the Freundlich model very well whereas the exchange process with Mo approximately follows the Henry model. The kinetic experiments show that the intraparticle diffusion process was the rate-determining step for W sorption on the resin, and the corresponding activation energy is calculated to be 21.976 kJ/mol.

  8. 离子交换树脂脱除地下水中的硝酸盐%Nitrate Removal from Groundwater by Ion Exchange Resin Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费宇雷; 曹国民; 张立辉; 迟峰; 李栋

    2011-01-01

    地下水是我国华北地区最重要的饮用水水源之一,特别是华北农村生活饮用水几乎全部来自地下水.然而,华北又是我国地下水硝酸盐污染比较严重的地区.研究开发适合华北农村分散式供水特点的地下水脱硝酸盐技术,对于保障农村的饮水安全具有十分重要的意义,为此把简单、高效且投资和运行费用相对较低的离子交换法用于脱除地下水中的硝酸盐.考察了普通强碱性阴离子交换树脂Purolite A 300E和硝酸盐选择性强碱性阴离子交换树脂Purolite A 520E脱除地下水中硝酸盐的效果,比较了地下水中SO2-4和Cl-等阴离子对两类不同树脂交换性能的影响.结果表明,Purolite A 300E和Purolite A 520E树脂均能有效地去除地下水中的硝酸盐,两者的NO-3-N饱和交换容量分别为49.02和48.54 mg/g.但是,当地下水中含有较高浓度的SO2-4或Cl-时,Purolite A 520E脱除硝酸盐的效果明显优于Pumlite A 300E.%Groundwater is one of the most important drinking water source in North China, especially in some rural areas of North China, groundwater may be the only drinking water source.But unfortunately the groundwater has badly been contaminated by nitrate in North China.To research and develop an appropriate nitrate removal process which can fit in with the needs of the rural area water supply has great significance for guaranteeing drinking water safety of peasants.Thus, the ion exchange process with characteristics of simple, efficiency as well as relatively low investment and operating cost was applied to remove nitrate from groundwater.The performances of nitrate removal from groundwater by a strongly basic anion exchange resin (Purolite A 300E) and a nitrate selective macroporous strong basic anion resin (Purolite A 520E) were evaluated, and the effect of sulfate and chloride in groundwater on these two resins' efficiency was compared.The results show that the nitrate in groundwater can be

  9. Ion Exchange Formation via Sulfonated Bicomponent Nonwovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, Hannah L.

    For many years ion exchange resins were used to: remove heavy metals from water, recover materials from wastewater, and eliminate harmful gases from the air. While use of these resin beads dominates the ion exchange industry, the beads have limitations that should be considered when decisions are made to employ them. For instance, officials must balance the inherent zero sum surface area and porosity of the materials. This series of studies investigates the use of bicomponent nonwovens as a base substrate for producing high surface area ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metal ions. Functionalized materials were produced in a two-step process: (1) PET/PE spunbond bicomponent fibers were fractured completely, producing the high surface area nonwoven to be used as the base ion exchange material, and (2) the conditions for functionalizing the PET fibers of the nonwoven webs were investigated where an epoxy containing monomer was grafted to the surface followed by sulfonation of the monomer. The functionalization reactions of the PET fibers were monitored based on: weight gain, FTIR, TOF-SIMS, and SEM. Ion exchange properties were evaluated using titration and copper ion removal capacity from test solutions. The relationship between web structure and removal efficiency of the metal ions was defined through a comparison of the bicomponent and homocomponent nonwovens for copper ion removal efficiency. The investigation revealed that utilizing the high surface area, fractured bicomponent nonwoven ion exchange materials with capacities comparable to commercially available ion exchange resins could be produced.

  10. Influence of zirconium hydrophosphate nanoparticles on porous structure and sorption capacity of the composites based on ion exchange resin

    OpenAIRE

    Dzyazko, Yuliya; Ponomarova, Ludmila; Volfkovich, Yurii; Tsirina, Valentina; Sosenkin, Valentin; Nikolska, Nadiya; Belyakov, Volodimir

    2016-01-01

    Evolution of swelling of gel-like strongly acidic resin and organic-inorganic composites based on this ionexchanger was investigated. Non-aggregated nanoparticles of zirconium hydrophosphate were found to provide size invariability of the polymer pores, which contain functional groups (up to 20 nm), the nanoparticle aggregates squeeze these pores (down to 3 nm). Owing to this, the nanocomposite shows higher break-through capacity during removal of Ni2+ from water, than the sample modified onl...

  11. Leaching of 60Co and 137Cs from spent ion exchange resins in cement–bentonite clay matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I B Plecas; R S Pavlovic; S D Pavlovic

    2003-12-01

    The leaching rate of 60Co and 137Cs from the spent cation exchange resins in cement–bentonite matrix has been studied. The solidification matrix was a standard Portland cement mixed with 290–350 (kg/m3) spent cation exchange resins, with or without 2–5% of bentonite clay. The leaching rates from the cement–bentonite matrix for 60Co: (4,2–7,0) × 10-5 (cm/d) and 137Cs: (3,2–6,6) × 10-4 (cm/d), after 125 days were measured. From the leaching data the apparent diffusivity of cobalt and cesium in cement–bentonite clay matrix with a waste load of 290–350 (kg/m3) spent cation exchange resins, was measured for 60Co: (1,1–4,0) × 10-6 (cm2/d) and 137Cs: (0,5–2,6) × 10-4 (cm2/d), after 125 days. The results presented in this paper are part of the results obtained in a 20-year mortar and concrete testing project which will influence the design of radioactive waste management for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal centre.

  12. Rapid removal of copper with magnetic poly-acrylic weak acid resin: Quantitative role of bead radius on ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Lichun; Shuang, Chendong; Liu, Fuqiang, E-mail: jogia@163.com; Li, Aimin, E-mail: liaimin@nju.edu.cn; Li, Yan; Zhou, Yang; Song, Haiou

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The equilibrium adsorption amount of Cu{sup 2+} onto NDMC was 267.2 mg/g. • Initial adsorption rate of NDMC was 4 and 8 times that of C106 and IRC-748. • External surface area was determined to be the key factor in rate-controlling. • Adsorption amount onto NDMC was not influenced by Na{sup +} concentration. • 0.01 mM HCl solution could effectively desorb Cu{sup 2+}. - Abstract: A novel magnetic weak acid resin NDMC was self-synthesized for the removal of Cu{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions. NDMC showed superior properties on the removal of Cu{sup 2+} compared to commercial resins C106 and IRC-748, which was deeply investigated by adsorption isotherms and kinetic tests. The equilibrium adsorption amount of Cu{sup 2+} onto NDMC (267.2 mg/g) was almost twice as large as that onto IRC-748 (120.0 mg/g). The adsorption kinetics of Cu{sup 2+} onto the three resins fitted well with the pseudo-second-order equation. The initial adsorption rate h of NDMC was about 4 times that of C106 and nearly 8 times that of IRC-748 at the initial concentration of 500 mg/L. External surface area was determined to be the key factor in rate-controlling by further analyzing the adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics parameters and physicochemical properties of the resins. NDMC resin with the smallest bead radius possessed the largest external surface and therefore exhibited the fastest kinetics. The adsorption amount of Cu{sup 2+} onto NDMC was not influenced as the concentration of Na{sup +} increased from 1.0 to 10.0 mM/L. Dilute HCl solution could effectively desorb Cu{sup 2+}. NDMC demonstrated high stability during 10 adsorption/desorption cycles, showing great potential in the rapid removal of Cu{sup 2+} from wastewater.

  13. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  14. Upgrade to Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Technetium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig® 639 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2013-05-16

    This report documents the development and application of computer models to describe the sorption of pertechnetate [TcO₄⁻], and its surrogate perrhenate [ReO₄⁻], on SuperLig® 639 resin. Two models have been developed: 1) A thermodynamic isotherm model, based on experimental data, that predicts [TcO₄⁻] and [ReO₄⁻] sorption as a function of solution composition and temperature and 2) A column model that uses the isotherm calculated by the first model to simulate the performance of a full-scale sorption process. The isotherm model provides a synthesis of experimental data collected from many different sources to give a best estimate prediction of the behavior of the pertechnetate-SuperLig® 639 system and an estimate of the uncertainty in this prediction. The column model provides a prediction of the expected performance of the plant process by determining the volume of waste solution that can be processed based on process design parameters such as column size, flow rate and resin physical properties.

  15. Upgrade to Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Technetium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig® 639 Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Aleman, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2013-05-16

    This report documents the development and application of computer models to describe the sorption of pertechnetate [TcO₄⁻], and its surrogate perrhenate [ReO₄⁻], on SuperLig® 639 resin. Two models have been developed: 1) A thermodynamic isotherm model, based on experimental data, that predicts [TcO₄⁻] and [ReO₄⁻] sorption as a function of solution composition and temperature and 2) A column model that uses the isotherm calculated by the first model to simulate the performance of a full-scale sorption process. The isotherm model provides a synthesis of experimental data collected from many different sources to give a best estimate prediction of the behavior of the pertechnetate-SuperLig® 639 system and an estimate of the uncertainty in this prediction. The column model provides a prediction of the expected performance of the plant process by determining the volume of waste solution that can be processed based on process design parameters such as column size, flow rate and resin physical properties.

  16. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part lll:Copper(ll/Sulphate/Amberlite 200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper(II adsorption from aqueous sulphate media on Amberlite 200 was investigated. The influence of operating variables such as aqueous pH, temperature and copper concentration on the metal adsorption kinetics was measured. The copper{II uptake is best fitted to the film-diffusion controlled process. The resin has been used in minicolumns to investigate its performance under dynamics conditions. Copper(II desorption from the resin is accomplished using sulphuric acid solutions.

    Se estudia la adsorción de cobre(II, de disoluciones en medio sulfato, en la resina Amberlite 200. La cinética de adsorción del metal se ha estudiado en función de una serie de variables experimentales: pH de la fase acuosa, temperatura y concentración del metal en el medio acuoso. La adsorción de cobre(II se puede correlacionar como controlada por un proceso de difusión en capa límite. Se ha utilizado la resina en minicolumnas para estudiar su comportamiento bajo condiciones dinámicas. La desorción del cobre(II se lleva a cabo con disoluciones de ácido sulfúrico.

  17. TECHNICAL COMPARISON OF CANDIDATE ION EXCHANGE MEDIA FOR SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE (SCIX) APPLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF SUPPLEMENTAL LAW PRETREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RAMSEY AA; THORSON MR

    2010-12-28

    At-tank supplemental pretreatment including both filtration and small column ion exchange is currently under evaluation to facilitate salt waste retrieval and processing in the Hanford tank farms. Spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) resin is the baseline ion exchange resin for use in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). This document provides background and technical rationale to assist in determining whether spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (sRF) is also the appropriate ion exchange resin for supplemental LAW pretreatment processes and compares sRF with crystalline silicotitanate (CST) as potential supplemental pretreatment ion exchange media.

  18. Effects of pH and Competing Anions on the Solution Speciation of Arsenic by Ion Exchange Resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Impellitteri, Christopher A.; Ryan, JAmes A.; Al-Abed, Souhail R.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Randall, Paul M.; Richardson, Collin A.

    2003-03-26

    Anion-exchange resins (AER) are used to differentiate As(V) and As(III) by retaining As(V) and allowing As(III) to pass through. AERs allow rapid speciation of As in the field which precludes the effects of sample preservation on As speciation. Aqueous environmental samples contain anions that may interfere with the speciation of As. This study compares the speciation of As by two commercially available AERs. A silica-based AER was selected for further study. As(V) and As(III) were passed through the AER in the presence of NO3 -, SO4 2-, HPO4 2-, Cl- and HCO3 - at pH 4, 6 and 8. Recoveries of As species in mixed systems range between 90 to 100%. Breakthrough curves for As(V) are presented which allow calculation of loading rates. HPO4 2- has the greatest effect on the speciation of As by AER.

  19. Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1999-06-16

    This document reports results from an ion exchange column heat transfer analysis requested by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades.

  20. Determination of {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni in spent ion-exchange resins from the IEA-R1 reactor (IPEN-CNEN/SP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddei, Maria Helena T.; Ferreira, Marcelo T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: ferreira@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. of Pocos de Caldas; Vicente, Roberto; Marumo, Julio T.; Terremoto, Luis A. Albiac, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.b, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.b, E-mail: laaterre@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Iron and nickel are used in a wide range of metallic alloys employed in reactor core structures and their corresponding activation products are often encountered in reactor-derived solid low-level wastes and effluents. Both {sup 63} Ni and {sup 55} Fe are neutron activation products. {sup 63} Ni is produced by a neutron-gamma reaction of {sup 62} Ni and by a neutron-proton reaction of-{sup 63}Cu. Iron-55 is produced by neutron activation of two major stable iron isotopes: neutron-gamma reaction of {sup 54} Fe and neutron-to-neutron reaction of {sup 56}Fe. Nickel-63 is a pure beta emitter with maximum energy of 66.95 keV and half-life of 100.1 years, and {sup 55}Fe, with a half life of 2.7 years, decays via electron capture to stable {sup 55}Mn with the emission of Auger electrons and 5.89 keV X-rays. {sup 63} Ni is an important radionuclide in safety analysis of nuclear waste repositories and {sup 55} Fe is an important contributor to the radioactivity of nuclear waste in the first few years of storage. In this work, liquid scintillation counting was used for the determination of both radionuclides in spent ion-exchange resins taken from the water retreatment system of the IEA-R1 reactor and stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Since nuclear waste usually contains many beta emitters, such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs, a highly efficient chemical separation method is required to isolate {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni from all other radionuclides. Hydroxide precipitation was used to separate {sup 55} Fe and {sup 63}Ni from the waste matrix and ion exchange chromatography was used to separate {sup 55}Fe and {sup 63}Ni from each other as well as from interfering radionuclides. The chemical yield was above 90% for {sup 63}Ni and above 60% for {sup 55}Fe. The results of activity measurements correlated well with the concentration of {sup 60}Co in this waste

  1. ESTIMATION OF RADIOLYTIC GAS GENERATION RATE FOR CYLINDRICAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE PACKAGES - APPLICATION TO SPENT ION EXCHANGE RESIN CONTAINERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, A.; Lewis, Brent J.

    2003-02-27

    Radioactive waste packages containing water and/or organic substances have the potential to radiolytically generate hydrogen and other combustible gases. Typically, the radiolytic gas generation rate is estimated from the energy deposition rate and the radiolytic gas yield. Estimation of the energy deposition rate must take into account the contributions from all radionuclides. While the contributions from non-gamma emitting radionuclides are relatively easy to estimate, an average geometry factor must be computed to determine the contribution from gamma emitters. Hitherto, no satisfactory method existed for estimating the geometry factors for a cylindrical package. In the present study, a formulation was developed taking into account the effect of photon buildup. A prototype code, called PC-CAGE, was developed to numerically solve the integrals involved. Based on the selected dimensions for a cylinder, the specified waste material, the photon energy of interest and a value for either the absorption or attenuation coefficient, the code outputs values for point and average geometry factors. These can then be used to estimate the internal dose rate to the material in the cylinder and hence to calculate the radiolytic gas generation rate. Besides the ability to estimate the rates of radiolytic gas generation, PC-CAGE can also estimate the dose received by the container material. This is based on values for the point geometry factors at the surface of the cylinder. PC-CAGE was used to calculate geometry factors for a number of cylindrical geometries. Estimates for the absorbed dose rate in container material were also obtained. The results for Ontario Power Generation's 3 m3 resin containers indicate that about 80% of the source gamma energy is deposited internally. In general, the fraction of gamma energy deposited internally depends on the dimensions of the cylinder, the material within it and the photon energy; the fraction deposited increases with increasing

  2. RAPID DETERMINA TION OF L—GLUTAMIC ACID WITH AN ENZYME REACTOR OFL—GLUTAMIC DECARBOXYLASE IMMOBILIZED ON ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUGuoqi; LINGDaren; 等

    2001-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of an immobilized L-glutamic decarboxylase(GDC) were studied.This work is to develop a sensitive method for the determination of L-glutamate using a new biosensor,which consists of an enzyme column reactor of GDC immobilized on a novel ion exchange resin(carboxymethyl-copolymer of allyl dextran and N.N'-methylene-bisacrylamide CM-CADB) and ion analyzer coupled with a CO2 electrode.The conditions for the enzyme immobilization were optimized by the parameters:buffer composition and concentration,adsorption equilibration time,amount of enzyme,temperature,ionic strength and pH.The properties of the immobilized enzyme on CM-CADB were studied by investigating the initial ate of the enzyme reaction,the effect of various parameters on the immobilized GDC activity and its stability.An immobilized GDC enzyme column reactor matched with a flow injection system-ion analyzer coupled with CO2 electrode-data collection system made up the original form of the apparatus of biosensor for determining of L-glutamate acid.The limit of detection is 1.0×10-5M.The linearity response is in the range of 5×10-2-5×10-5M.The equation of linear regression of the calibration curve is y=43.3x+181.6(y is the milli-volt of electrical potential response,x is the logarithm of the concentration of the substrate of L-glutamate acid).The correlation coefficient equals 0.99.The coefficient of varioation equals 2.7%.

  3. Spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur using ion-exchange resin collectors in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Roop, Heidi A.; Nanus, Leora; Fenn, Mark E.; Sexstone, Graham A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes and streams in Class 1 wilderness areas in the western United States (U.S.) are at risk from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S), and protection of these resources is mandated under the Federal Clean Air Act and amendments. Assessment of critical loads, which are the maximum exposure to pollution an area can receive without adverse effects on sensitive ecosystems, requires accurate deposition estimates. However, deposition is difficult and expensive to measure in high-elevation wilderness, and spatial patterns in N and S deposition in these areas remain poorly quantified. In this study, ion-exchange resin (IER) collectors were used to measure dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and S deposition during June 2006-September 2007 at approximately 20 alpine/subalpine sites spanning the Continental Divide in Rocky Mountain National Park. Results indicated good agreement between deposition estimated from IER collectors and commonly used wet + dry methods during summer, but poor agreement during winter. Snowpack sampling was found to be a more accurate way of quantifying DIN and S deposition during winter. Summer DIN deposition was significantly greater on the east side of the park than on the west side (25-50%; p ≤ 0.03), consistent with transport of pollutants to the park from urban and agricultural areas to the east. Sources of atmospheric nitrate (NO3-) were examined using N isotopes. The average δ15N of NO3- from IER collectors was 3.5‰ higher during winter than during summer (p coverage of deposition monitoring/modeling programs and thus may enable policy makers to better protect sensitive natural resources in Class 1 Wilderness areas.

  4. Gamma radiation effects in polymers used to immobilize ion exchange resin. Part 1: properties of PEBD; Efeito da radiacao gama em polimeros usados como imobilizadores de resinas de troca ionica. Parte 1: propriedades do PEBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Daniel L.C.; Riella, Humberto G. [Coordenadoria para Projetos Especiais (COPESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-04-01

    In this work tests were performed to evaluate properties such as: density, shore D hardness, tensile strength and rupture elongation of low density polyethylene (LDPE), which is used as resin solidification agent, in function of irradiation dose and ion exchange resin concentration incorporated. It also was observed LDPE color change, due to interaction between polymer and gamma radiation. The results showed the occurrence of phenyl radical formation, deriving from amine aromatic additive, introduced by polymer producer, which is responsible by color change. Up to studied dose of 5 MGy, the aromatic chain presence gave to LDPE the good resistance to radiation. resin concentration provoked more variation on properties than radiation effect. It was possible to incorporate up to 60% wt of resin, resulting high reduction of final volume. (author). 13 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Gamma radiation effects on the polymers used as ion exchange resin imobilizers: Part I - properties of the low density polyethylene (LDPE); Efeito da radiacao gama em polimeros usados como imobilizadores de resinas de troca ionica. Parte 1: Propriedades do PEBD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Daniel Liu Chun; Riella, Humberto G. [Coordenadoria para Projetos Especiais (COPESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1996-04-01

    In this work tests were realized to evaluate properties such as: density, Shore D hardness, tensile strength and rupture elongation of low density polyethylene (LDPE), which is used as resin solidification agent, in function of irradiation dose and ion exchange resin concentration incorporated. It also was observed LDPE color change, due to interaction between polymer and gamma radiation. The results showed the occurrence of phenyl radical formation, deriving from amine aromatic additive, introduced by polymer producer, which is responsible by color change. Up to studied dose of 5 MGy, the aromatic chain presence gave to LDPE the good resistance to radiation. Resin concentration provoked more variation on properties than radiation effect. It was possible to incorporate up to 60% wt of resin, resulting high reduction of final volume. (author) 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. High-speed ion-exclusion chromatography of dissolved carbon dioxide on a small weakly acidic cation-exchange resin column with ion-exchange enhancement columns of conductivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Ikedo, Mikaru; Hu, Wenzhi; Helaleh, Murad I H; Xu, Qun; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2005-10-28

    The high-speed ion-exclusion chromatographic determination of dissolved carbon dioxide, i.e., carbonic acid, hydrogencarbonate or carbonate, with conductivity detection was obtained using a small column packed with a weakly acidic cation-exchange resin in the H+-form (40 mm long x 4.6 mm i.d., 3 microm-particle and 0.1 meq./ml-capacity). Two different ion-exchange resin columns, which were a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin in the K+-form and a strongly basic anion-exchange resin in the OH- -form, were connected after the separation column. The sequence of columns could convert dissolved carbon dioxide to KOH having high conductivity response. The enhancement effect for dissolved carbon dioxide could retain even on the vast chromatographic runs, by using the enhancement columns with high ion-exchange capacity above 1.0 meq./ml. The retention time was in 60 s at flow-rate of 1.2 ml/min. The calibration graph of dissolved carbon dioxide estimated as H2CO3- was linear in the range of 0.005-10 mM. The detection limit at signal to noise of 3 was 0.15 microM as H2CO3-. This method was applicable to several rainwater and tap water samples.

  7. Radiation effects on ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwer, T.E.; Goldstein, M.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1977-11-01

    An extensive literature review and data compilation has been completed on the radiation-damage of ion exchange resins. The primary goal of the study has been to review the available literature on ion exchange materials used in, as well as those with potential for use in, the nuclear fuel and waste reprocessing areas. The physical and chemical properties of ion exchangers are reviewed. Experimental parameters useful in characterizing the effects of radiation on synthetic ion exchange resins are identified or defined. In compiling the diverse types of data, an effort was made to present the experimental data or experimentally based parameters in a format that would be useful for inter-comparing radiation effects on resins. When subject to radiation there are various general trends or qualitative effects displayed by the different types of resins. These radiation-trends and effects have been formulated into qualitative statements. The present day level of understanding of the behavior of resins under ionizing radiation is too limited to justify quantitative predictive modeling. The limitations and deficiencies of the literature are discussed and the experimentation needed to achieve quantitative modeling are outlined. 14 figs., 108 references.

  8. Study of the retention of radionuclides by ion-exchange resins contained in the circuits of a Pressurized Water Reactor; Etude de la retention des radionucleides dans les resines echangeuses d'ions des circuits d'une centrale nucleaire a eau sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gressier, F.

    2008-11-15

    Physico-chemical quality of fluids in nuclear power plant circuits must be maintained in order to limit contamination and dose rate especially when the shutdown takes place. Nevertheless, an optimum between diminishing liquid waste and limiting solid waste production has to be reached, but at affordable costs. Ion-exchange resins of purification circuits are used to fulfill this goal. In this work, different resin types have been characterized (exchange capacity, water and electrolyte sorption) and their selectivity towards Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Cs{sup +} and Li{sup +} cations have been studied. We have shown that the two cation-exchange resins selectivity varies according to the nature and concentrations of their counter-ions. Moreover, flow rate (and thus hydro-kinetics) impact on species retention in a column has been characterized: the more the flow rate, the more the ionic leakage (output concentration divided by input concentration) is fast and the more the output concentration front is spread. A literature revue has enabled to put in light advantages and drawbacks of the models of interest to simulate operations of ion-exchange resins. Thus, the pure end-members mixing model associated to a non-ideality description of the resin phase based on the regular solutions model has been retained for modelling ion-exchange equilibrium. Ion-exchange kinetics has been described by mass transfer coefficients. Using the experimental results to determine model parameters, these last ones have been implemented in a speciation code CHESS, coupled with a hydrodynamic code in HYTEC. On the one hand, equilibrium experiments of ion retention have been simulated and, on the other hand, column retention tests have been modelled. Finally, selectivity variations and hydro-kinetics impacts have been simulated on some test cases so as to demonstrate the importance of taking these into account when simulating ion-exchange resins operations. (author)

  9. DECOMPOSITION CHARACTERISTICS OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN IN HIGH PARAMETER WATER-STEAM SYSTEM%离子交换树脂在高参数水汽系统中的分解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海军; 韩建伟; 刘小杰; 刘芬芬; 曹顺安

    2012-01-01

    通过高压釜模拟高温高压的水汽环境,研究了离子交换树脂在温度为230℃和300℃下的分解特性,全面检测了离子交换树脂的各种分解产物和树脂分解前后的结构变化,结合树脂的化学结构,分析了离子交换树脂的分解机理,并通过高压釜挂片试验,探究了离子交换树脂的分解产物对TA16合金的影响.试验结果表明,离子交换树脂的分解包括具有离子交换能力的活性基团的脱离和树脂骨架的分解,H型阳树脂分解产生了H2SO4,Na型阳树脂分解生成了NaHSO4,OH型阴树脂分解生成了三甲胺,CI型阴树脂分解产生氯化三甲铵,4种树脂分解都有苯及苯的同系物生成,且分解产物对TA16合金没有明显的腐蚀.%Decomposition characteristics of ion exchange resin have been researched in the water-steam system of 230℃ and 300℃ simulated by autoclave. The decomposition products and the molecular structure change of resin have been detected and researched comprehensively; taking account of the resin's chemical structure, the mechanism of resin's decomposition have been analyzed; and the effects of resin's decomposition products on TA16 alloy have been explored. The results show that the decomposition of resin includes the detachment of ion exchange group and the decomposition of resin framework. Thus, the decomposition of H form cation resin produces H2SO4, the decomposition of Na form cation resin produces NaHSO4, OH form anion resin trimethylamine, Cl form anion resin trimethylamine chloride; The decomposition of the four kinds of resin also produces benzene and homologue of benzene, and the products of the resin have no corrosion to TA16 alloy.

  10. Physico-chemical study of the thermal degradation of ions exchange resins of nuclear origin: research of conditions to limit the pollution transfer, application to electric cables; Etude physico-chimique de la degradation thermique des resines echangeuses d'ions d'origine nucleaire: recherche des conditions limitant le transfert de pollution, application aux cables electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonetti, P

    1999-07-01

    The ions exchange resins are one solid form of radioactive wastes. They are found mainly during the demineralization operations of the water from reactors cooling systems. This study aims to determine the conditions of a thermal processing leading to the production of a smaller residue, containing the whole activity. A protocol is proposed and validated on resins allowing a decrease of the volume of 63% for 99,93% of the activity. (A.L.B.)

  11. Spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur using ion-exchange resin collectors in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Roop, Heidi; Nanus, Leora; Fenn, Mark; Sexstone, Graham A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes and streams in Class 1 wilderness areas in the western United States (U.S.) are at risk from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S), and protection of these resources is mandated under the Federal Clean Air Act and amendments. Assessment of critical loads, which are the maximum exposure to pollution an area can receive without adverse effects on sensitive ecosystems, requires accurate deposition estimates. However, deposition is difficult and expensive to measure in high-elevation wilderness, and spatial patterns in N and S deposition in these areas remain poorly quantified. In this study, ion-exchange resin (IER) collectors were used to measure dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and S deposition during June 2006–September 2007 at approximately 20 alpine/subalpine sites spanning the Continental Divide in Rocky Mountain National Park. Results indicated good agreement between deposition estimated from IER collectors and commonly used wet + dry methods during summer, but poor agreement during winter. Snowpack sampling was found to be a more accurate way of quantifying DIN and S deposition during winter. Summer DIN deposition was significantly greater on the east side of the park than on the west side (25–50%; p ≤ 0.03), consistent with transport of pollutants to the park from urban and agricultural areas to the east. Sources of atmospheric nitrate (NO3−) were examined using N isotopes. The average δ15N of NO3− from IER collectors was 3.5‰ higher during winter than during summer (p < 0.001), indicating a seasonal shift in the relative importance of regional NOxsources, such as coal combustion and vehicular sources of atmospheric NO3−. There were no significant differences in δ15N of NO3− between east and west sides of the park during summer or winter (p = 0.83), indicating that the two areas may have similar sources of atmospheric NO3−. Results from this study indicate that a combination of IER collectors and snowpack

  12. Separation processes in biotechnology. Ion-exchange processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, C D

    1990-01-01

    Through the use of several differentiating mechanisms, ion exchangers can separate ionic and nonionic materials, solutions containing only ionic species, and even completely nonionic mixtures. Although the mechanisms are distinct in their mode of operation, the resin characteristics that influence the results are largely the same. A practical understanding of the resin properties involved is all that is necessary to begin to use ion-exchange resins successfully. Ion exchange owes most of its history to water treatment, which has provided the economic and technological driving force in the past for the development of improved resins. However, specialty applications such as those in biotechnology are steadily becoming major factors in industry, perhaps not in shear volumes of resin used, but certainly in the value added by the process. The field of biotechnology no doubt holds many of the exciting new applications for ion exchange.

  13. THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS ON FUNCTIONAL GROUP OF STYRENE ION EXCHANGE RESINS%3种苯乙烯系离子交换树脂功能基团的热失重分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱浩; 彭奇均; 张军伟

    2012-01-01

    The thermal degradation of three kinds of ion-exchange resins based on polystyrene was studied by thermogravimetry, elemental analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, mainly focused on degradation temperature of different functional groups and degradation temperature of the framework with different functional groups. The thermogravimetric analysis process of three kinds of ion-exchange resins were divided as three degradation stages at 25-600°C. Thermolysis results indicated that degradation of functional groups of strong acid and strong base resin occurred in the second step, whereas degradation of functional group of weak base resin occurred in the first step and second step. Further study demonstrated that strong acid and weak base resins were part of weightlessness, with the comparison that strong base resin was complete weightlessness by increasing heating time. Thus the thermogravimetry gave a quantitative result of functional groups. This study will contribute to the ion exchange resin industry.%通过热失重法结合红外光谱及元素分析,从功能基团的分解温度、分解率及不同功能基团树脂骨架的分解温度等方面入手,研究了3种苯乙烯系离子交换树脂功能基团的热分解,结果表明,25 ~600℃范围内,3种树脂的热分解分为3个阶段,即存在3个失重台阶,其中强酸、强碱树脂功能基团的分解发生在二阶上,而弱碱树脂发生在一阶和二阶上.进一步分析热失重发现,通过延长热解时间可以使强碱树脂功能基团完全分解,而强酸和弱碱树脂的功能基团则只能部分分解.同时热失重法在一定条件下可作为树脂功能基团定量分析的参考依据.本文的研究对于离子交换树脂行业有一定参考意义.

  14. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  15. Development of a treatment process for the removal of heavy metals from raw water for drinking water supply using chelating ion exchange resins. Subproject 1. Final report; Entwicklung der Verfahrenstechnik zur Eliminierung von Schwermetallen aus Rohwaessern zur Trinkwassergewinnung mit chelatbildenden Kationenaustauscherharzen zur technischen Reife. Teilprojekt 1. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overath, H.; Stetter, D.; Doerdelmann, O.

    2002-07-01

    Chelating cation exchange resins with iminodiacetic acid group (Lewatit TP 207 and Amberlite IRC 748) were tested for the removal of heavy metals in a drinking water treatment plant. The pilot scale filtration experiments were conducted by varying the operating conditions, such as flow rate and feed concentrations. Heavy metal concentrations (nickel, lead, cadmium, zinc) in the feed were adjusted between 20 and 200 {mu}g/L. Different methods for regeneration and conditioning of the resins were developed and investigated. Finally the ion exchange resins were tested according to German health regulations for ion exchangers in drinking water treatment. (orig.)

  16. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu/SAPO-34 Catalysts for NH3-SCR 2: Solid-state Ion Exchange and One-pot Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2015-01-01

    Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are synthesized using two methods: solid-state ion exchange (SSIE) and one-pot synthesis. SSIE is conducted by calcining SAPO-34/CuO mixtures at elevated temperatures. For the one-pot synthesis method, Cu-containing chemicals (CuO and CuSO4) are added during gel preparation. A high-temperature calcination step is also needed for this method. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. In Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE, Cu presents both as isolated Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuO. The former is highly active and selective in NH3-SCR, while the latter catalyzes a side reaction; notably, the non-selective oxidation of NH3 above 350 ºC. Using the one-pot method followed by a high-temperature aging treatment, it is possible to form Cu SAPO-34 samples with predominately isolated Cu2+ ions at low Cu loadings. However at much higher Cu loadings, isolated Cu2+ ions that bind weakly with the CHA framework and CuO clusters also form. These Cu moieties are very active in catalyzing non-selective NH3 oxidation above 350 ºC. Low-temperature reaction kinetics indicate that Cu-SAPO-34 samples formed using SSIE have core-shell structures where Cu is enriched in the shell layers; while Cu is more evenly distributed within the one-pot samples. Reaction kinetics also suggest that at low temperatures, the local environment next to Cu2+ ion centers plays little role on the overall catalytic properties. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental

  17. Mineral Separation in a CELSS by Ion-exchange Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Operational parameters pertinent to ion exchange chromatography separation were identified. The experiments were performed with 9 mm diameter ion exchange columns and conventional column accessories. The cation separation beds were packed with AG 50W-X2 strong acid cation exchange resin in H(+) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size. The stripper beds used in some experiments were packed with AG 1-XB strong base cation exchange resin in OH(-) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size.

  18. 001×14.5离子交换树脂对镍(Ⅱ)的吸附%Adsorption of Ni(Ⅱ) by ion exchange resin(001 × 14.5)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金杯; 陈玉成; 余美琼; 邱挺

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of Ni(Ⅱ) in aqueous solution with ion exchange resins was investigated,and 001 × 14.5 strong acidic cation ion exchange resin showed the maximum capacity by the resin selection experiment.The adsorption properties of the selected 001 × 14.5 resin for Ni(Ⅱ) were studied by static experiments.The results indicated that the influence of external diffusion was eliminated when stirring speed was over 100 r/ min,and the best pH value was 7,and that the percent removal of Ni(Ⅱ) increased as the consumption of resin.The adsorption behavior of 001 × 14.5 for Ni (Ⅱ),which was the favourable adsorption,conformed the Langmuir isotherm equation well.The adsorption process corresponded with pseudo-second-order kinetic model,the activation energy was 30.9 kJ/mol,and the kinetics experiments showed that intrapartical diffusion was the main rate-controlling step.The desorption efficiency of resin to Ni(Ⅱ) could be over 98% with 1 mol/L sulfuric acid to regenerate the saturated resin.%实验采用离子交换树脂法吸附镍(Ⅱ),树脂选型确定了强酸性阳离子交换树脂001×14.5对镍(Ⅱ)吸附容量最大.用所选的001×14.5树脂吸附镍(Ⅱ)的过程,静态吸附实验表明,转速大于100 r/min时,对树脂吸附的影响可忽略,即基本消除外扩散,pH =7.0时吸附最佳,镍(Ⅱ)吸附率随树脂用量的增加而增大;001×14.5树脂吸附镍(Ⅱ)过程符合Langmuir等温吸附方程,且为优惠吸附;吸附过程符合拟二级动力学模型,吸附过程活化能为E=30.9 kJ/mol,由颗粒内扩散控制;用1 mol/L的硫酸对吸附饱和树脂进行脱附再生,脱附率可达98%以上.

  19. Elution test in the separation process of zirconium and hafnium with D296 resin in the ion exchange fixed bed%D296树脂分离锆、铪洗脱的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎志万; 刘锦洪; 刘小龙

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the study of elution test in the separation process of zirconium and hafnium with D296 resin in the ion exchange fixed bed.The temperature of the adsorption and elution tests was between 2 and 5 degrees Celsius.Elution tests was carried out in a saturated adsorption ion exchange column,an ion exchange column with exchange region,and an ion exchange column with exchange region and no adsorption region.The results showed that the status of the ion exchange column and the acidity of the eluting agent had a significant effect on the separation effect.When the ion exchange column had exchange region,with the any acidity of sulphuric acid elution,hafnium would be eluted first,but the high acidity of eluent was more favorable for the separation of zirconium and hafnium.When the ion exchange column was saturated adsorption state,with low acidity and high acidity of eluent,zirconium and hafnium could not get effective separation.Experiments proved that, the single fixed bed has low separation efficiency of zirconium and hafnium.In order to achieve separation of zirconium and hafnium,need to design the continuous moving bed separation.%介绍了在离子交换固定床上用D296强碱性阴离子交换树脂分离锆、铪的洗脱实验研究。吸附与洗脱实验的温度均控制在2~5℃,洗脱实验在饱和吸附的离子交换柱、过漏的离子交换柱、未过漏的离子交换柱中进行。研究结果表明:离子交换柱吸附状态以及洗脱剂酸度对分离效果有显著的影响。当离子交换柱存在交换区时,用任何酸度的硫酸作为洗脱剂,铪均被先洗脱出来,但高酸度的洗脱剂对分离锆、铪更有利;当离子交换柱为饱和状态时,低酸度和高酸度的洗脱剂洗脱,锆、铪不能得到分离。实验证明了单一的固定床分离锆、铪的效率低,要成功实现锆、铪的分离,需采用连续分离的离子交换移动床。

  20. ADSORPTION OF ION EXCHANGE RESIN FOR COPPER ION IN ORGANIC WASTE WATER%离子交换树脂对有机废水中铜离子的吸附

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑波; 王维敬; 祝乐

    2001-01-01

    Different ion exchange resins were selected to adsorb the copperion in organic wastewater. The absorption rate of resin for copper was determined. The impact of copper ion concentration and pH value on absorption rate, and the regenesis capability of the resin were tested. Results showed "zhengguang", "Qiangsuan 1#" and PK208 resin possess outstanding performance, which should be used in decontamination of wastewater that contains copper ion.%选用多种大孔强酸型离子交换树脂,用于吸附浓集含有机物废水中的铜离子,通过测定各种树脂对铜离子的去除率、不同铜离子浓度和溶液pH值对去除率的影响,以及各树脂再生性能的比较,表明“争光”、“强酸1号”和PK208树脂性能最为突出,效果明显优于其它几种树脂,可用于吸附处理有机废水中的铜离子。

  1. Effects of ion-exchange treatment on bromate formation and oxidation efficiency during ozonation

    OpenAIRE

    Echigo, S.; Itoh, S.; Niwa, A

    2012-01-01

    Ion-exchange treatment is a promising technique for removing hydrophilic compounds during drinking water treatment. In this study, we applied several different ion exchangers (i.e., anion exchange resins and a hydrotalcite compound) to bromide removal to minimize bromate formation during ozonation. It was found that ion-exchange treatment affected ozone and hydroxyl radical concentration profiles as well as bromate ion concentration after ozonation. Selecting an appropriate ion exchanger is i...

  2. Experimental study on sintering characteristics of spent ion exchange resin and iron ore mixture%废离子交换树脂与铁矿石混匀料共烧结特性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周冠文; 钟文琪; 赵浩川; 王天才; 刘飞

    2013-01-01

    Experiments of sinter of iron ore mixture and spent ion exchange resin were carried out on the sinter pot with a capacity of 80 kg.The influences of different mass fractions (0,2%,4%, 6%,and 8%)of spent ion exchange resin doping into iron ore mixture on sintering process parame-ters,sinter quality and pollutants emissions were studied.The results show that with the increase of the mass fraction of spent ion exchange resin,the vertical sintering speed climbs up first and then de-clines.When mass fraction is 2%,the vertical sintering speed reaches the highest.The permeability index and the content of sulfur in sinter are increased;the basicity and the drum strength of sinter are decreased,and the screening index of sinter is increased.The average emission concentration of SO2 and CO2 are increased,while that of NOx is decreased.%为利用铁矿石烧结工艺无害化处理废离子交换树脂,开展了废离子交换树脂与铁矿石混匀料共烧结的实验研究。在容量为80 kg 的烧结杯实验系统中,进行了铁矿石混匀料中掺入废离子交换树脂质量分数分别为0,2%,4%,6%和8%的5组烧结实验,研究了废离子交换树脂的掺入对烧结过程参数、烧结成品质量参数及污染物排放特性的影响。研究结果表明:随着废离子交换树脂含量的增加,垂直烧结速度先增大后减小,当掺入2%时为最大;料层透气性指数及烧结成品含硫量增加,二元碱度和转鼓强度减小,筛分指数增大;SO2和 CO2平均排放浓度增大,而NOx 平均排放浓度减小。

  3. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  4. Removal of boron from wastewater of geothermal power plant by selective ion-exchange resins. 1: Batch sorption-elution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badruk, M. [MTA, Izmir (Turkey); Kabay, N.; Demircioglu, M. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mineral Engineering; Mordogan, H.; Ipekoglu, U. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mineral Engineering

    1999-09-01

    Boron removal was studied using N-glucamine-type resins Diaion CRB 02 and Purolite S 108. The resin Diaion CRB 02 exhibited a higher sorption capacity for boron removal from 0.01 M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} solution than did Purolite S 108. The presence of calcium, sodium, and chloride ions did not make a large interference on boron removal by both Diaion CRB 02 and Purolite S 108 resins. The sorption behavior of these two chelating resins obeyed the Langmuir isotherm model. Kinetic tests were performed to find the mass transfer mechanism of the sorption process of boron by Diaion CRB 02 resin. Five kinetic models were applied to fit the kinetic data obtained by using glucamine type-resin Diaion CRB 02. The results showed that the rate-determining step is particle diffusion for boron removal by Diaion CRB 02. The quantitative stripping of boron from both chelating resins was obtained with either 0.05 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or 0.1 M HCl solutions. Boron in wastewater of the Kizildere geothermal field was effectively removed by both Diaion CRB 02 and Purolite S 108 resins. Preliminary column tests showed that Diaion CRB 02 is a potential resin for column removal of boron from wastewater of a geothermal power plant.

  5. Remoção de íons de cobre de aguardente utilizando carvão ativo e resinas de troca iônica = Copper ions remotion from sugarcane spirit by activated carbon and ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Kunigk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A aguardente é a bebida fermento-destilada mais importante no Brasil. Caso a concentração de cobre (Cu2+, presente na aguardente, fosse inferior a 2,0 mg L-1, ela poderia ser exportada para diversos países europeus apesar da Legislação Brasileira permitir um teor de cobre em aguardente igual ou inferir a 5,0 mg L-1. Este trabalho mostrou que aaguardente contaminada com esses íons em concentrações de 4,0; 7,0 e 9,0 mg L-1 pode ser recuperada utilizando tanto carvão ativo como resinas de troca iônica, podendo reutilizar estes materiais adsorventes. Quando a concentração de Cu2+ é igual a 9,0 mg L-1, o carvão ativado pode ser reutilizado até três vezes e as resinas de troca iônica podem ser reutilizadas até sete vezes.Sugarcane spirit (aguardente is the most important fermented/distilled beverage in Brazil. If the concentration of cooper (Cu2+ in sugarcane spirits was less than 2.0 mg L-1, it could be exported to several European countries. This study showed that the sugarcane spirits contaminated with these ions with a concentrationof 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 mg L-1 can be recovered using both active carbon and ion-exchange resins, reusing these absorbent materials. When the concentration of Cu2+ is equal to 9.0 mg L-1, active carbon can be reused up to 3 times and ion-exchange resins up to 7 times.

  6. Comparison of adsorption equilibrium of fructose, glucose and sucrose on potassium gel-type and macroporous sodium ion-exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C; Santos, M J; Dominguez, A; Torres, D; Rocha, O; Peres, A M; Rocha, I; Ferreira, E C; Teixeira, J A; Rodrigues, L R

    2009-11-03

    Adsorption equilibrium of fructose, glucose and sucrose was evaluated on sulfonated poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) cation-exchange resins. Two types of resins were used: potassium (K+) gel-type and sodium (Na+) macroporous resins. Influence of the cation and effect of the resin structure on adsorption were studied. The adsorption isotherms were determined by the static method in batch mode for mono-component and multi-component sugar mixtures, at 25 and 40 degrees C, in a range of concentrations between 5 and 250 g L(-1). All adsorption isotherms were fitted by a linear model in this range of concentrations. Sugars were adsorbed in both resins by the following order: fructose > glucose > sucrose. Sucrose was more adsorbed in the Na+ macroporous resin, glucose was identically adsorbed, and fructose was more adsorbed in the K+ gel-type resin. Data obtained from the adsorption of multi-component mixtures as compared to the mono-component ones showed a competitive effect on the adsorption at 25 degrees C, and a synergetic effect at 40 degrees C. The temperature increase conducted to a decrease on the adsorption capacity for mono-component sugar mixtures, and to an increase for the multi-component mixtures. Based on the selectivity results, K+ gel-type resin seems to be the best choice for the separation of fructose, glucose and sucrose, at 25 degrees C.

  7. Removing and recovering of uranium from the acid mine waters by using ion exchange resin; Remocao e recuperacao de uranio de aguas acidas de mina por resina de troca ionica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do

    1998-07-01

    Ion exchange using resins is one of the few processes capable of reducing ionic contaminants in effluents to very low levels. In this study the process was used to remove and recovery uranium from acid mine waters at Pocos de Caldas-MG Uranium Mining and Milling Plant. The local mineralogical features, allied to the biogeochemical phenomena, owing to presence of pyrite in the rock piles, moreover another factors, resulting acid drainage with several pollutants, including uranium ranging from 6 to 14 mg/l, as sulfate complex, that can be removed by anionic exchanger. The iron interference is eliminated by lime pretreatment of water, increasing pH from 2.6 to 3.3-3.8 to precipitate this cation, without changing the uranium amount. Eight anionic resins were tested, based on the uranium loading, in sorption studies. Retention time, and pH influence was verified for the exchanger chose. With breakthrough of 1 mg U/L and 10 mg U/l in the feed solution, the uranium decontamination level was 94%. Typical values of loading resin were 20-30 g U/l and 70-90 g SO{sub 4}/l. Uranium elution was done with Na Cl solution. Retention time, saline, and acid concentration were the parameters studied. The concentrate, obtained from the eluate by ammonia precipitation, presented uranium (86,8% as U{sub 3} O{sub 8}) and impurities within commercial specifications. (author)

  8. REMOVAL OF COPPER-BASED CATALYST IN ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION USING ION EXCHANGE RESINS. (R826735)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND SYNTHETIC USES OF LANTHANIDE(III) CATALYSTS SUPPORTED ON ION EXCHANGE RESINS. (R826123)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. REMOVAL OF COPPER-BASED CATALYST IN ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION USING ION EXCHANGE RESINS. (R826735)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. A study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Jung; Ahn, Byung Gil

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of {sup A} study on dry decontamination using ion exchange polymer{sup ,} the followings were investigated. 1. Highly probable decontamination technologies for the decontamination were investigated. 2. Development of gel type decontamination agent using ion-exchange resin powder (mixed type) as an ion exchanger. 3. Manufacturing of contaminated specimens (5 kinds) with Cs-137 solution and dust / Cs-137 solution. 4. Decontamination performance evaluation of the manufactured agent. 5. Analysis of composition (XRF) and the structure of surface of specimens (optic micrography). (author). 20 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Modeling radial flow ion exchange performance for condensate polisher conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shallcross, D. [University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Renouf, P.

    2001-11-01

    A theoretical model is developed which simulates ion exchange performance within an annular resin bed. Flow within the mixed ion exchange bed is diverging, with the solution flowing outwards away from the bed's axis. The model is used to simulate performance of a mixed annular bed operating under condensate polisher conditions. The simulation predictions are used to develop design envelope curves for practical radial flow beds and to estimate potential cost savings flowing from less expensive polisher vessels. (orig.)

  13. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Project Results from Test 4, ''Acid Digestion of Mixed-Bed Ion Exchange Resin''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, K.H.; Delegard, C.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Silvers, K.L.

    1999-04-02

    Approximately 73 m{sup 3} of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (HSNF) project has conducted a number of evaluations to examine technology and processing alternatives to pretreat K Basin sludge to meet storage and disposal requirements. From these evaluations, chemical pretreatment has been selected to address criticality issues, reactivity, and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Chemical pretreatment, referred to as the K Basin sludge conditioning process, includes nitric acid dissolution of the sludge (with removal of acid insoluble solids), neutrons absorber addition, neutralization, and reprecipitation. Laboratory testing is being conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide data necessary to develop the sludge conditioning process.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1993-10-01

    We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included.

  15. 聚苯乙烯磺酸钠阳离子交换树脂(高温磺化)制备浅色高纯树脂的方法%Method for the Preparation of Lighted Colored Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Cation-ion-exchange Resin of High Purity Sulfonated at High Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 顾浩

    2009-01-01

    Sodium polystyrene sulfonate ion-exchange resin(SPSR) is a medicine used as lowering kalieraia. Using commercial dark colored sodium polystyrene sulfonate cation-ion-exchange resin prepared by the conventional process at the sulfonated temperature higher than 100℃as raw material, light colored SPSR of high purity was prepared by the bleaching-purifying combined process. The resin reached the criterion of medicinal SPSR of Japanese pharmacopoeia(14 ed. ).%聚苯乙烯磺酸钠阳离子交换树脂(SPSR)是降血钾药.以市售的高于100℃的高温磺化工艺生产的深棕色SPSR为原料,经过漂白和净化联合工艺处理,得到了浅色高纯SPSR,该浅色树脂达到日本药典(第14版)规定的药用SPSR标准.

  16. Immobilization of Ion Exchange radioactive resins of the TRIGA Mark III Nuclear Reactor; Inmovilizacion de resinas de intercambio ionico radiactivas del reactor nuclear TRIGA Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Martinez, H

    1999-07-01

    In the last decades many countries in the world have taken interest in the use, availability, and final disposal of dangerous wastes in the environment, within these, those dangerous wastes that contain radioactive material. That is why studies have been made on materials used as immobilization agent of radioactive waste that may guarantee its storage for long periods of time under drastic conditions of humidity, temperature change and biodegradation. In mexico, the development of different applications of radioactive material in the industry, medicine and investigation, have generated radioactive waste, sealed and open sources, whose require a special technological development for its management and final disposal. The present work has as a finality to develop the process and define the agglutinating material, bitumen, cement and polyester resin that permits immobilization of resins of Ionic Exchange contaminated by Barium 153, Cesium 137, Europium 152, Cobalt 60 and Manganese 54 generated from the nuclear reactor TRIGA Mark III. Ionic interchange contaminated resin must be immobilized and is analysed under different established tests by the Mexican Official Standard NOM-019-NUCL-1995 {sup L}ow level radioactive wastes package requirements for its near-surface final disposal. Immobilization of ionic interchange contaminated resins must count with the International Standards applicable in this process; in these standards, the following test must be taken in prototype examples: Free-standing water, leachability, compressive strength, biodegradation, radiation stability, thermal stability and burning rate. (Author)

  17. Research on Concentrated Performance for Caffeine Solution by Ion-Exchange Resin%离子交换树脂对咖啡因溶液提浓性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜德清; 夏丙堃; 尹进华

    2014-01-01

    选用不同型号阳离子交换树脂和洗脱剂,对1%咖啡因溶液交换、洗脱过程进行研究。结果表明:相比于724、D-113、D-151树脂,732树脂交换处理量达10 BV,洗脱速度快,单次洗脱浓度可达3.82%;80℃水更适合作为洗脱剂;经过3次叠加交换、洗脱后,1%咖啡因溶液提浓到7.39%,可为工业生产中结晶母液回收咖啡因过程提供参考。%Different types of cation-exchange resins and eluent were used in the ion-exchange and elution process of 1% caffeine solution.Compared with types of 724,D-113 and D-151 resins,732 resin showed an ex-change treatment capacity of 10 BV,a faster elusion rate and single elution concentration of 3.82%.Water with 80 ℃ was more suitable for eluent.Concentration of caffeine solution was elevated from 1% to 7.39% after three times of superimposed exchange elution.The results provided reference for the process of recycling caffe-ine from crystallizing mother solution in industrial production.

  18. The removal of toxic metals from liquid effluents by ion exchange resins. Part II: cadmium(II/ sulphate/Lewatit TP260

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, F. J.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of cadmium (II, from aqueous sulphate solutions, on Lewatit TP260 resin has been investigated in batch equilibrium experiments. The influence of pH and temperature on metal adsorption capacity have also been examined. The kinetic performance of the resin has been assesed and the results have been correlated by the pore diffusion model. The resin has been used in mini-columns to study its performance under dynamics conditions. The desorption of metal ion is achieved using sulphuric acid (0.25M and 0.5M.

    Se estudia la adsorción de cadmio(II, de disoluciones en medio sulfato, sobre la resina Lewatit TP260. La adsorción del metal se ha investigado en función del pH, la temperatura y el tiempo de contacto con la resina. Los estudios cinéticos permiten correlacionar el proceso de intercambio iónico con el modelo de difusión en poro. Se ha empleado el sistema en mini columnas para evaluar el comportamiento de la resina bajo condiciones dinámicas. La desorción del metal se lleva a cabo con disoluciones de ácido sulfúrico (0,25M y 0,5M.

  19. Phosphorus extracted by ion exchange resins and mehlich-1 from oxisols (latosols treated with different phosphorus rates and sources for varied soil-source contact periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irio Fernando de Freitas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of studies addressing the quantification of phosphorus (P availability by different extraction methods, many questions remain unanswered. The aim of this paper was to compare the effectiveness of the extractors Mehlich-1, Anionic Resin (AR and Mixed Resin (MR, to determine the availability of P under different experimental conditions. The laboratory study was arranged in randomized blocks in a [(3 x 3 x 2 + 3] x 4 factorial design, with four replications, testing the response of three soils with different texture: a very clayey Red Latosol (LV, a sandy clay loam Red Yellow Latosol (LVA, and a sandy loam Yellow Latosol (LA, to three sources (triple superphosphate, reactive phosphate rock from Gafsa-Tunisia; and natural phosphate from Araxá-Minas Gerais at two P rates (75 and 150 mg dm-3, plus three control treatments (each soil without P application after four contact periods (15, 30, 60, and 120 days of the P sources with soil. The soil acidity of LV and LVA was adjusted by raising base saturation to 60 % with the application of CaCO3 and MgCO3 at a 4:1 molar ratio (LA required no correction. These samples were maintained at field moisture capacity for 30 days. After the contact periods, the samples were collected to quantify the available P concentrations by the three extractants. In general, all three indicated that the available P-content in soils was reduced after longer contact periods with the P sources. Of the three sources, this reduction was most pronounced for triple superphosphate, intermediate for reactive phosphate, while Araxá phosphate was least sensitive to the effect of time. It was observed that AR extracted lower P levels from all three soils when the sources were phosphate rocks, while MR extracted values close to Mehlich-1 in LV (clay and LVA (medium texture for reactive phosphate. For Araxá phosphate, much higher P values were determined by Mehlich-1 than by the resins, because of the acidity of

  20. Determination of 63Ni and 59Ni in spent ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, M H T; Macacini, J F; Vicente, R; Marumo, J T; Sakata, S K; Terremoto, L A A

    2013-07-01

    A radiochemical method has been adapted to determine (59)Ni and (63)Ni in samples of radioactive wastes from the water cleanup system of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. The process includes extraction chromatographic resin with dimethylglyoxime (DMG) as a functional group. Activity concentrations of (59)Ni and (63)Ni were measured, respectively, by X-ray spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting, whereas the chemical yield was determined by ICP-OES. The average ratio of measured activity concentrations of (63)Ni and (59)Ni agree well with theory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Production and first use of {sup 153}SmCl{sub 3}-ion exchange resin capsule formulation for assessing gastrointestinal motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Ng, Kwan-Hoong [University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chung, Lip-Yong [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Goh, Khean-Lee [Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Sarji, Sazilah Ahmad [University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Perkins, Alan Christopher, E-mail: alan.perkins@nottingham.ac.uk [Radiological and Imaging Sciences and Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    We produced an enteric-coated gelatine capsule containing neutron-activated {sup 153}Sm-labelled resin beads for use in gastrointestinal motility studies. In vitro test in simulated gastrointestinal environment and in vivo study on volunteers were performed. Scintigraphic images were acquired from ten volunteers over 24 h while blood and urine samples were collected to monitor the presence of {sup 153}Sm. All the capsules remained intact in stomach. This proved to be a safe and practical oral capsule formulation for whole gut transit scintigraphy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enteric-coated gelatin capsule containing {sup 153}Sm-labelled resin was manufactured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro disintegration test ensured targeted release properties of the formulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo volunteers study confirmed safeness and practical use of the formulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 153}Sm can be used as an alternative nuclide to {sup 111}In in GI transit scintigraphy.

  2. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Dawson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants, one for ppb concentrations in air and the second with lower (ppt detection limits, are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  3. Measurement of gas-phase ammonia and amines in air by collection onto an ion exchange resin and analysis by ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M. L.; Perraud, V.; Gomez, A.; Arquero, K. D.; Ezell, M. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2014-08-01

    Ammonia and amines are common trace gases in the atmosphere and have a variety of both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, with a major contribution coming from agricultural sites. In addition to their malodorous nature, both ammonia and amines have been shown to enhance particle formation from acids such as nitric, sulfuric and methanesulfonic acids, which has implications for visibility, human health and climate. A key component of quantifying the effects of these species on particle formation is accurate gas-phase measurements in both laboratory and field studies. However, these species are notoriously difficult to measure as they are readily taken up on surfaces, including onto glass surfaces from aqueous solution as established in the present studies. We describe here a novel technique for measuring gas-phase ammonia and amines that involves uptake onto a weak cation exchange resin followed by extraction and analysis using ion chromatography. Two variants - one for parts per billion concentrations in air and the second with lower (parts per trillion) detection limits - are described. The latter involves the use of a custom-designed high-pressure cartridge to hold the resin for in-line extraction. These methods avoid the use of sampling lines, which can lead to significant inlet losses of these compounds. They also have the advantages of being relatively simple and inexpensive. The applicability of this technique to ambient air is demonstrated in measurements made near a cattle farm in Chino, CA.

  4. SPEEDUP{trademark} ion exchange column model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, T.

    2000-03-06

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUp{trademark} software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLig{trademark} ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete.

  5. SnCl4/强酸性离子交换树脂催化合成乙酸甲酯研究%Synthesis of methyl acetate catalyzed by SnCl4 supported on strong acid ion exchange resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝海娟; 左卫元; 史兵方; 段艳; 陈盛余

    2016-01-01

    Several strong acid ion exchange resins were m odified using zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate or tin tetrachloride, respectively, and the their catalytic activities for synthesis of methyl acetate were evaluated. The Sn 4+supported D072 type resin exihibited the best activity. Over it, the conditions for synthezing methyl acetate, including reaction time, temperature, molar ratio of acetic acid to methanol and catalyst dosage were optimized by the single factor experiments and the further orthogonal tests, and the stability of catalyst was also investigated. The optimum conditions for synthesis of methyl acetate were determined as follows: acetic acid/methanol molar ratio of 1∶3, reaction time of 2.5h, reaction temperature of 70℃and catalyst/acetic acid mass ratio of 5%. Under above conditions, the conversion of acetic acid was 79.2%, and the catalytic performance maintain stable after being used 6 times.%分别用硫酸锌、硫酸锰、氯化锡对几种强酸性离子交换树脂进行改性并评价其催化乙酸和甲醇合成乙酸甲酯的活性,确定Sn4+负载的D072型强酸性阳离子交换树脂活性最佳。以其为催化剂,在单因子实验基础上,通过正交试验法对反应温度、催化剂投加量、酸醇物质的量比、反应温度等影响合成乙酸甲酯的因素进行了优化,并考察了催化剂的的稳定性。结果表明:在催化剂用量为乙酸质量的5%,反应时间2.5h,酸醇物质的量比1:3,反应温度70℃的工艺条件下,乙酸转化率为79.2%,且催化剂的稳定性良好,可循环使用6次。

  6. Electrically switched ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  7. Effect of sorption conditions on the state of copper(II) ions in the phase of AN-31 ion exchange resin, according to data from ESR and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroganova, E. A.; Anufrienko, V. F.; Larina, T. V.; Vasenin, N. T.; Lebedev, Yu. A.; Parmon, V. N.

    2017-08-01

    It is found that the sorption recovery of copper ions from water solutions in the phase of AN-31 low basicity anion exchanger has a mixed character. It is established via diffuse reflectance spectroscopy that ions are stabilized through complexation with the participation of the functional groups of the sorbent with the formation of structures [Cu(NR3)2(OH)2(H2O)2], [Cu(NR3)3(OH)(H2O)2], and as a result of the physical adsorption of oxide dimers and planar-squared copper clusters. It is shown that increasing the ionic strength of a solution by introducing sodium chloride into the system greatly improves the capacity of the sorbent and leads to the uniform distribution of copper ions in the resin matrix. The similarity between the ESR spectrum parameters of copper-containing samples of the ion exchanger, obtained in a wider range of pH, is determined via ESR and testifies to the homogeneity of the stabilization positions of Cu2+ ions. The crystalline field of tetragonal-elongated octahedron is typical of all Cu2+ ions. All of the complexes have Cu(NO3)2 coordination nodes with the covalent bonding of Cu2+ ions and the amine groups of the sorbent.

  8. Complejación de la resina de intercambio de iones: enmascaramiento del sabor amargo de cefuroxime acetil Ion-exchange resin complexation: Masking the bitter taste of cefuroxime axetil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderbir Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the purpose of this research was to formulate taste masked complexes of cefuroxime axetil and to evaluate them for taste, drug loading and characterized by FTIR, XRD. Tablets were formulated of selected batches and evaluated for drug release and physical parameters. METHODS: complexation technique is used to prepare complexes of drug where ion exchange resins such as Indion® 214, Indion® 234 and Indion® 414 were used with a drug-resin ratio of 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2. The drug resinates were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, DSC and X-Ray Diffraction pattern and evaluated for drug loading and taste. Direct compression method was used to formulate tablets. In vitro dissolution was carried out using USP II apparatus. RESULT: potential taste masking increased with increasing concentration of resin. Indion® 214 resin showed better taste masking effect as compared to Indion® 234 and Indion® 414. Percent of drug loading was maximum at drug : resin ratio of 1:1, after that it decreased. Prolonged (upto 5 h and slow drug release was observed with resin 214 at higher concentration. CONCLUSIONS: out of three resins chosen, Indion® 214 at higher concentration exhibit excellent taste masking as well as sustained drug release action.OBJETIVO: el objetivo de esta investigación fue formular los complejos con sabor amargo de cefuroxime acetil y evaluarlos por sabor, carga medicamentosa y caracterización por FTIR, XRD. Las tabletas fueron formuladas a partir de lotes seleccionados y evaluados en busca de la liberación medicamentosa y parámetros físicos. MÉTODOS: la técnica de complejación se utilizó para preparar complejos farmacológicos donde las resinas de intercambio iónico como Indion® 214, Indion® 234 y el Indion® 414 se emplearon a una proporción resina-medicamento de 1:0.5, 1:1, 1:2. Los resinados medicamentosos fueron caracterizados mediante espectroscopia infrarroja, DSC y el patrón de difracción-rayos-X, y evaluados

  9. Evaluation of electrochemical ion exchange for cesium elution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontha, J.D.; Kurath, D.E.; Surma, J.E.; Buehler, M.F.

    1996-04-01

    Electrochemical elution was investigated as an alternative method to acid elution for the desorption of cesium from loaded ion exchange resins. The approach was found to have several potential advantages over existing technologies, in particular, electrochemical elution eliminates the need for addition of chemicals to elute cesium from the ion exchange resin. Also, since, in the electrochemical elution process the eluting solution is not in direct contact with the ion exchange material, very small volumes of the eluting solution can be used in a complete recycle mode in order to minimize the total volume of the cesium elute. In addition, the cesium is eluted as an alkaline solution that does not require neutralization with caustic to meet the tank farm specifications. Other advantages include easy incorporation of the electrochemical elution process into the present cesium recovery schemes.

  10. Resinas sulfônicas: síntese, caracterização e avaliação em reações de alquilação Ion-exchanges resins: synthesis, characterization and evaluation in alkylation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M.B. Coutinho

    2003-07-01

    of the aromatic rings. Samples of the three resins, of two granulometric ranges each, were charactherized by nitrogen adsorption (specific surface area, pore volume and average pore diameter, electron scanning microscopy (morphology and by their ion exchange capacity. The catalysts were used in alkylation reactions of toluene with benzyl alcohol. The influence of parameters such as avarage particle size, morphology, catalyst type and reaction temperature on the conversion of the benzyl alcohol and on the reaction selectivity relative to the formation of benzyl-toluene, was sutdied. The data obtained show that Amberlyst 15 and MLS 07 presented better performance as compared to that of Lewatit SPC112. In all the reaction conditions employed Lewatit SPC 112 showed the lowest activity and selectivity in the formation of the desired product (o-, m-, p- benzyltoluene. This behavior may be mainly attributed to the fact that Lewatit SPC112 has the lowest surface area of the three resins.

  11. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Teng, E-mail: zhangteng@mail.iee.ac.cn; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste.

  12. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  13. D296树脂吸附分离锆铪试验研究%Separation of Hafnium From Zirconium by D296 Ion-exchange Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小龙; 任萌; 李佳; 黎志万; 刘锦洪

    2015-01-01

    研究了用 D296树脂从硫酸体系中吸附锆、铪,考察了吸附时间、初始料液质量浓度、温度、硫酸浓度对树脂吸附锆、铪及锆、铪分离系数的影响及吸附反应动力学。结果表明:溶液中锆离子质量浓度为120 g/L 、温度1℃、硫酸浓度1.6 mol/L 条件下,D296树脂对锆、铪的静态吸附分离系数最大,为1.19。动力学研究结果表明,D296树脂吸附锆离子的控制步骤为液膜扩散,D296树脂吸附锆离子的活化能 E=158.639 kJ/mol 。%Adsorption separation of hafnium from zirconium in sulfuric acid medium by D 296 ion‐exchange resin was researched .The effects of adsorption time ,initial concentrate of zirconium and hafnium in solution ,temperature and sulfuric acid concentrate on separation coefficient of zirconium and hafnium were examined ,and the reaction dynamics was also studied .The results show that under the conditions of zirconium ion mass concentrate of 120 g/L ,temperature of 1 ℃ ,sulfuric acid concentrate of 1 .6 mol/L ,the static adsorption separation coefficient of zirconium and hafnium is maximum(1 .19) .Dynamics research results show that the main controlling step for D296 adsorption zirconium ion is liquid membrane diffusion .The adsorption activation energy of D296 for zirconium ion is 158 .639 kJ/mol .

  14. Effect of Fe Ion-Exchanged BEA Zeolite Catalysts on N{sub 2}O Decomposition Reaction Following Heat-treatment Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gi-Rim; Lee, Seung-Jae; Ryu, In-Soo; Moon, Seung-Hyun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The effect of heat-treatment temperature on the activity of catalysts was studied by investigating N{sub 2}O decomposition reaction in Fe ion-supported BEA Zeolite. As a result of N{sub 2}O decomposition reaction experiment, N{sub 2}O decomposition activity significantly decreased as heat-treatment temperature of Fe/BEA catalyst increased. the shape and size of the particles of Fe/BEA catalyst following the rise of heat-treatment temperature did not display a significant change. But following the rise of the heat-treatment temperature, its surface area was significantly reduced. Also it was confirmed that as the heat-treatment temperature rose, the crystallization of β structure was greatly reduced. And as heat-treatment temperature rose, while SiO structure either increased or did not exhibit much change, the structure of Fe bonded with lattice structure was speculated to decrease. From the stated results, it was concluded that the increase of heat-treatment temperature became the cause of the declined activity of catalysts by destruction of its β structure of bonding aluminium and Fe atoms.

  15. Application of MIEX-DOC(R) Ion Exchange Resin in Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water%MIEX-DOC(R)离子交换树脂的饮用水除砷研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸣涛; 李腾; 朱迟; 赵良元; 蒋金辉; 杨劭

    2012-01-01

    The performance of MIEX-DOC(R) Ion exchange resin in the arsenic removal from drinking water was investigated, including the removal capacity for arsenic,the removal capability for As(Ⅲ) and As(V),and the effects of different ions and pH values on removal capabilities for As( Ⅲ) and As( V ). The result showed that MIEX-DOC(R) Resin's removal capacity for arsenic was about 0. 0051 mg (R) mL-l ,and its capabilities of removing As(Ⅲ) and As(V) showed no significance (P>0. 05). Different ions showed significantly negative or positive effect on the arsenic removal of MIEX-DOC(R) Resin. pH Value also could greatly affect the arsenic removal, especially for As (Ⅲ), however, the arsenic removal was kept above 50% at the initial concentration of 0.1 mg (R) L-1. The field experiment showed that, by application of MIEX-DOC(R) Resin under the concentration condition of around 10 mg (R) L-1 ,the arsenic concentration decreased to below 0. 05 mg (R) L-1, which reached the (GB 5749 - 2006) on the rural small-scale centralized water supply and decentralized water supply. The localized equipment using MIEX-DOC(R) Resin was the same as the imported equipment in effeciency of arsenic removal,but cheaper in the cost. The running cost was 0. 56 Yuan per ton water for the localized equipment. In consequence,MIEX-DOC(R) Resin has a significant potential in arsenic removal and can be applied to the China's countryside areas suffered from the high-arsenic drinking water.%对新型阴离子交换树脂MIEX-DOC(R)的除砷性能进行了研究,考察了该树脂除砷容量、对三价砷[As(Ⅲ)]和五价砷[As(Ⅴ)]的去除能力、不同离子和水体pH值对树脂除砷[包括As(Ⅲ)和As(Ⅴ)]效率的影响.结果表明,MIEX-DOC(R)树脂对人工配制高砷水(0.1 mg·L-1)的除砷容量约为0.0051 mg·mL-1;对As(Ⅲ)和As(Ⅴ)的去除能力相当;常见的共存离子对树脂除砷效率有抑制或促进影响;不同pH值下,MIEX-DOC(R)树脂除砷效率不同,但对0

  16. Reactive ion exchange synthesis of high pure nano-CeO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shao-min; FENG Ying-chun; WEN Yang; JIANG Yu-ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reactive ion exchange synthesis method of nano-CeO2 with positive cerium preexchanged ion exchange resin as precursor and (NH4)2CO3 as precipitant.The resultant precipitate was dried at 100 ℃ for 12 h and then was calcined at 500 K in air.The effects of ion exchange temperature and reaction time on the diameter of CeO2 particle were discussed.The TEM images show that the samples prepared with one step reactive ion exchange method are composed of nano-club with the length about 300 nm.

  17. Arsenic Removal from Water Using Various Adsorbents: Magnetic Ion Exchange Resins, Hydrous Ion Oxide Particles, Granular Ferric Hydroxide, Activated Alumina, Sulfur Modified Iron, and Iron Oxide-Coated Microsand

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Shahnawaz

    2011-09-30

    The equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of arsenic on six different adsorbents were investigated with one synthetic and four natural types (two surface and two ground) of water. The adsorbents tested included magnetic ion exchange resins (MIEX), hydrous ion oxide particles (HIOPs), granular ferric hydroxide (GFH), activated alumina (AA), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide-coated mic - rosand (IOC-M), which have different physicochemical properties (shape, charge, surface area, size, and metal content). The results showed that adsorption equilibriums were achieved within a contact period of 20 min. The optimal doses of adsorbents determined for a given equilibrium concentration of C eq = 10 μg/L were 500 mg/L for AA and GFH, 520–1,300 mg/L for MIEX, 1,200 mg/L for HIOPs, 2,500 mg/L for SMI, and 7,500 mg/L for IOC-M at a contact time of 60 min. At these optimal doses, the rate constants of the adsorbents were 3.9, 2.6, 2.5, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.6 1/hr for HIOPs, AA, GFH, MIEX, SMI, and IOC-M, respectively. The presence of silicate significantly reduced the arsenic removal efficiency of HIOPs, AA, and GFH, presumably due to the decrease in chemical binding affinity of arsenic in the presence of silicate. Additional experiments with natural types of water showed that, with the exception of IOC-M, the adsorbents had lower adsorption capacities in ground water than with surface and deionized water, in which the adsorption capacities decreased by approximately 60–95 % .

  18. Determination of Sc by Ion-exchanger Colorimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ion-exchanger colorimetry for scandium in the form of ternary color system "Sc(Ⅲ)-CPA-pc-Ac" was developed. The influences of types and grain sizes of resin, adsorption modes and the acidity on the determination were studied systematically, and the optimum operating conditions and the allowable amounts of foreign ions were determined. In comparison with the ordinary solution colorimetry, both of the sensitivity and the selectivity of this ion-exchanger colorimetry are improved obviously. The preliminary uses of this method to the determination of Sc(Ⅲ) in two synthetic samples were satisfied.

  19. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  20. Thermally Regenerable Ion Exchange Resins Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Exploration Initiative missions will require substantial reductions in ESM for water processing hardware. Significant reductions can be achieved using water...

  1. Ion Exchange Kinetics Testing with SRF Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Brown, Garrett N.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site contains more than 53 million gallons of legacy waste generated as a byproduct of plutonium production and reprocessing operations. The wastes are a complex mixture composed mostly of NaNO3, NaNO2, NaOH, NaAlO2, Na3PO4, and Na2SO4, with a number of minor and trace metals, organics, and radionuclides stored in underground waste tanks. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has contracted Bechtel National Incorporated (BNI) to build a pretreatment facility, the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP), that will separate long-lived transuranics (TRU) and highly radioactive components (specifically 137Cs and, in selected cases, 90Sr) from the bulk (non-radioactive) constituents and immobilize the wastes by vitrification. The plant is designed to produce two waste streams: a high-volume low-activity waste (LAW) and a low-volume high-activity waste (HLW).

  2. Optimization of ion exchange in polishers at PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, A.D. [Pedro Point Technology, Inc., Pacifica, CA (United States); Fruzzetti, K. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Blowdown polishers are indispensable components in the secondary systems of pressurized water reactors. The application of advanced amines to reduce iron levels in final steam generator feedwater influences the resin selection for and operation of condensate polishers. There are many opportunities to optimize blowdown polisher performance. This paper summarizes the work currently underway to optimally use resin properties such as ion selectivity and capacity and operational parameters to maximize water quality while minimizing cost. It is shown that the best amine for a given power plant is a complex function of amine properties, ion exchange resin choice, purification systems and other plant design and operational parameters. (orig.)

  3. Research of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase on ion exchange resin 214%214型离子交换树脂固定化假丝酵母脂肪酶的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱俊青; 蒋盛蓝; 秦德怀; 郭辉; 凌春英

    2013-01-01

    以假丝酵母脂肪酶(Candida rugosa lipase)催化脂肪酸甲酯化是植物油精制副产物中提取天然维生素E的重要预处理反应.为提高预处理效果,通过固定化假丝酵母脂肪酶提高其酯化能力,降低水解反应的能力.笔者在不同性能树脂筛选的基础上,开展了离子交换树脂214型固定化假丝酵母脂肪酶的研究.以酶固定化率为指标,开展了酶质量浓度、树脂的量、缓冲液pH、固定化温度、时间和振荡速率等条件试验和响应面试验,得到的最适固定化条件为酶质量浓度6.09 mg/mL,5 mL酶液中加入0.75 g树脂,缓冲液pH 8.4,振荡转速134.26 r/min,固定化温度30℃,固定化时间4h.该条件下,假丝酵母脂肪酶与树脂的结合率最高,酶的水解作用基本消失,酯化能力得到保持,可以获得较好的维生素E提纯预处理效果.%Fatty acid catalytic esterification by Candida rugosa lipase is an important preconditioning response in the extraction of natural Vitamin E from by-products of vegetable oil refining.In order to improve the efficiency of pretreatment,immobilized lipase was applied to improve the esterification capacity and to reduce the hydrolysis reaction.214 ion exchange resin was selected to immobilize Candida rugosa lipase,the concentration of enzyme,the amount of the resin,buffer solution pH,temperature,time and oscillation rate condition tests and response surface test were made while the reaction rate of the immobilized enzymes was taken as an index.The optimum conditions were:30℃,0.75 g resin,6.09 mg/mL enzyme,pH 8.40,oscillation speed 134.26 r/min,4 h.Under this condition,the hydrolysis reaction was disappeared,immobilization rate reached a maximum.

  4. 强酸性离子交换树脂催化大豆油脱臭馏出物连续酯化反应%Continuous esterification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate catalyzed by strong acidic ion exchange resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉平; 汪宝和; 陈学兵

    2012-01-01

    Free fatty acid esterification is the key step in the preparation of vitamin E and phytosterols from oil deodorizer distillate ( DD) , but the traditional esterification method has disadvantages, such as batch operation and easy equipment corrosion. Continuous esterification of soybean oil DD catalyzed by strong acidic ion exchange resin was studied. The influences of reaction temperature,feed flow rate,water content of raw material and volume ratio of methanol to soybean oil DD on the esterification reaction were investigated. The results showed that reducing the water content of raw material could promote the esterification reaction;the esterifcation rate of soybean oil DD could reach above 98% by two -step esterification under the conditions of reaction temperature 70 ℃ , volume ratio of methanol to soybean oil DD 1: 1 , feed flow rate 1 BV/h and water content of soybean oil DD 0. 05%%游离脂肪酸酯化是以油脂脱臭馏出物为原料,制备天然维生素E和植物甾醇的关键步骤,而传统酯化方法存在间歇操作、设备易腐蚀等缺点.以强酸性离子交换树脂为催化剂,对大豆油脱臭馏出物(DD油)的连续酯化反应进行了研究.考察了反应温度、进料流速、原料含水量以及醇油体积比对酯化反应的影响.结果表明:减少原料DD油中的含水量可促进酯化反应的进行,在反应温度70℃、醇油体积比1∶1、流速1 BV/h、DD油含水量0.05%的条件,通过二次酯化DD油酯化率可达到98%以上.

  5. Novel magnetic porous carbon spheres derived from chelating resin as a heterogeneous Fenton catalyst for the removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junjun; Zhou, Lincheng; Dan, Wenfeng; Zhang, He; Shao, Yanming; Bao, Chao; Jing, Lingyun

    2015-05-15

    Porous magnetic carbon spheres (MCS) were prepared from carbonized chelating resin composites derived from ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-modified macroporous polystyrene (PS-EDTA) resin, and then loaded with iron composites via ion exchange. The resulting composites were characterized for this study using X-ray diffraction, MÖssbauer spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area method, scanning electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The porous magnetic carbon spheres were then used, in the existence of H2O2 and NH2OH, with a view to remove methylene blue from the aqueous solution by catalyze a heterogeneous Fenton reaction. Results indicated excellent removal rates and removal efficiency for this catalytic system. Optimal degradation was achieved (nearly 100% within 10 min) using initial concentrations of 5 mmol H2O2 L(-1), 2.5 mmol L(-1) NH2OH and 40 mg L(-1) methylene blue. The catalyst retained its activity after six reuses, indicating strong stability and reusability. Porosity of the catalyst contributed to its high activity, suggesting its potential application for the industrial treatment of wastewater.

  6. Uses of complexone III and ion exchange resins in colorimetric determination with o-phenanthroline of Fe traces in uranium compounds; Aplicacion de la complexona III y resinas combadoras a la determinacion colorimetrica con orto-fenantro-lina de trazas de dhierro en compuesto de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Cellini, R.; Ruiz Sanchez, F.

    1956-07-01

    The determination of small quantities of iron using o-phenanthroline, assumes the elimination of some cations interference by means of pH control before the formation of a coloured complex. We have eluded that difficulty by the connected action of complexones III and ion exchange. the previous forms quelate with the iron (III) with a stability constant high enough to permit the pass of an iron solution through a cation resin column without being fixed which never occurs with the interferer cations. Mercury is the only element with a similar stability, but it has been eliminated previously. (Author) 16 refs.

  7. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process

  8. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freydell, E.; Wielen, van der L.; Eppink, M.H.M.; Ottens, M.

    2010-01-01

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process intensification

  9. Electrically controlled cesium ion exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Several sites within the DOE complex (Savannah River, Idaho, Oak Ridge and Hanford) have underground storage tanks containing high-level waste resulting from nuclear engineering activities. To facilitate final disposal of the tank waste, it is advantageous to separate and concentrate the radionuclides for final immobilization in a vitrified glass matrix. This task proposes a new approach for radionuclide separation by combining ion exchange (IX) and electrochemistry to provide a selective and economic separation method.

  10. Nitroguanidine Wastewater Pollution Control Technology: Phase III. Ion Exchange and Carbon Adsorption Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    SD are synthetic cross-linked resins provided as moist spherical beads nominally of 50 percent water content. The clinoptilolite was supplied presized...Na+ i3 provided by a resin (either naturally occurring or synthetic ). Usually, the resin is prepared in a fixed-bed column, and hard water ion is...these :.ons as well as NQ. I/’ I . , I * MATERIALS AND METHODS RESINS AND CARBONS Three ion-exchange materials were studied: clinoptilolite , an

  11. Transesterification of propylene glycol methyl ether in chromatographic reactors using anion exchange resin as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungmin; Sreedhar, Balamurali; Donaldson, Megan E; Frank, Timothy C; Schultz, Alfred K; Bommarius, Andreas S; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki

    2016-09-30

    Reactive chromatography using an anion exchange resin is proposed for a transesterification reaction of propylene glycol methyl ether (DOWANOL™ PM) with ethyl acetate to produce propylene glycol methyl ether acetate (DOWANOL™ PMA). This reaction is studied in batch and chromatographic reactors catalyzed by an anion exchange resin. Several anion exchange resins are tested and compared based on the performance of resin as an adsorbent and a catalyst. A chromatographic column is packed with a selected catalyst, AMBERLITE™ IRA904, and both reaction and chromatographic elution are studied at different temperatures and feed concentrations. The resulting chromatograms are fitted to a mathematical model to obtain adsorption equilibrium and reaction kinetic parameters by the inverse method. Compared to esterification investigated in a previous study, transesterification has advantages such as a higher conversion at lower temperature and easy removal of the byproduct which may lead to higher productivity. Deactivation of anion exchange resins is observed and potential solutions are suggested.

  12. Nanofiltration: ion exchange system for effective surfactant removal from water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kowalska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A system combining nanofiltration and ion exchange for highly effective separation of anionic surfactant from water solutions was proposed. The subjects of the study were nanofiltration polyethersulfone membranes and ion-exchange resins differing in type and structure. The quality of the treated solution was affected by numerous parameters, such as quality of the feed solution, membrane cut-off, resin type, dose and the solution contact time with the resin. A properly designed purification system made it possible to reduce the concentration of anionic surfactant below 1 mg L-1 from feed solutions containing surfactant in concentrations above the CMC value.

  13. Preparation and emanation properties of an ion-exchanged solid thoron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, F; Zhuo, W; He, L; Zhao, C; Xu, Y

    2012-11-01

    For the calibration purpose of thoron ((220)Rn) measurements, solid sources with constant (220)Rn emanation are generally desired. In this study, Th(4+) in the thorium nitrate powder was successfully exchanged to the surfaces of sodium benzenesulphonate resins with a bead diameter of ∼0.5 mm by using the ion-exchange method. Tests of (220)Rn emanating from the ion-exchanged resin indicated that the emanation rates were nearly constant, provided both the air humidity and air temperature were controlled. As the resin can be easily prepared to be of various sizes and activities of sources, the ion-exchanged resin is considered as a promising standard source for calibrations of (220)Rn measurements.

  14. Sulfo cation-exchange resins as heterogeneous catalysts for the reaction of styrene with formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasymova, K.A.; Sharf, V.Z.; Litvin, E.F.; Grigor' eva, E.N.

    1987-07-20

    Macroporous and gel sulfo cation-exchange resins are active catalysts for the condensation of styrene with formaldehyde. The product, 4-phenyl-1,3-dioxane was obtained in up to 97% yield. The activity of macroporous sulfo cation-exchange resins increases with decreasing particle diameter but in the case of the gel samples, granule size has only a slight effect on the reaction rate. The enhanced activity of sulfo cation-exchange resins is presumably a result of the high value of the acidity function H/sub 0/ of the sulfonic acid groups of the cation-exchange resin.

  15. Performance and life cycle environmental benefits of recycling spent ion exchange brines by catalytic treatment of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jong Kwon; Bergquist, Allison M; Jeong, Sangjo; Guest, Jeremy S; Werth, Charles J; Strathmann, Timothy J

    2015-09-01

    Salt used to make brines for regeneration of ion exchange (IX) resins is the dominant economic and environmental liability of IX treatment systems for nitrate-contaminated drinking water sources. To reduce salt usage, the applicability and environmental benefits of using a catalytic reduction technology to treat nitrate in spent IX brines and enable their reuse for IX resin regeneration were evaluated. Hybrid IX/catalyst systems were designed and life cycle assessment of process consumables are used to set performance targets for the catalyst reactor. Nitrate reduction was measured in a typical spent brine (i.e., 5000 mg/L NO3(-) and 70,000 mg/L NaCl) using bimetallic Pd-In hydrogenation catalysts with variable Pd (0.2-2.5 wt%) and In (0.0125-0.25 wt%) loadings on pelletized activated carbon support (Pd-In/C). The highest activity of 50 mgNO3(-)/(min - g(Pd)) was obtained with a 0.5 wt%Pd-0.1 wt%In/C catalyst. Catalyst longevity was demonstrated by observing no decrease in catalyst activity over more than 60 days in a packed-bed reactor. Based on catalyst activity measured in batch and packed-bed reactors, environmental impacts of hybrid IX/catalyst systems were evaluated for both sequencing-batch and continuous-flow packed-bed reactor designs and environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid system were found to be 38-81% of those of conventional IX. Major environmental impact contributors other than salt consumption include Pd metal, hydrogen (electron donor), and carbon dioxide (pH buffer). Sensitivity of environmental impacts of the sequencing-batch hybrid reactor system to sulfate and bicarbonate anions indicate the hybrid system is more sustainable than conventional IX when influent water contains catalyst reactor systems have potential to reduce resource consumption and improve environmental impacts associated with treating nitrate-contaminated water sources.

  16. Experimental Ion Exchange Column With SuperLig 639 And Simulant Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Megan; Nash, C.

    2013-08-26

    SuperLig®639 ion exchange resin was tested as a retrieval mechanism for pertechnetate, through decontamination of a perrhenate spiked 5M Simple Average Na{sup +} Mass Based Simulant. Testing included batch contacts and a three-column ion exchange campaign. A decontamination of perrhenate exceeding 99% from the liquid feed was demonstrated. Analysis of the first formulation of a SBS/WESP simulant found unexpectedly low concentrations of soluble aluminum. Follow-on work will complete the formulation.

  17. Application of the new thermodynamic approach to the description of superequivalent sorption by ion exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhlova, O. N.

    2014-08-01

    Using the example of sorption systems with the participation of amino acids, it is shown that the novel thermodynamic approach to describing superequivalent sorption as a combination of ion exchange and nonexchangeable absorption allows us to adequately describe such equilibria. Results from calculating the activity coefficients of components of a sorbent phase and the thermodynamic constants of ion exchange equilibrium and the superequivalent absorption of phenylalanine by AV-17-8 anion exchange resin are presented.

  18. Evaluation of ion exchange resins for iron control in copper electro-winning solutions; Evaluacion de resinas de intercambio ionico para el control de hierro en soluciones de electro-obtencion de cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parada, F.; Dreisinger, D.; Wilkomirsky, I.

    2010-07-01

    Two commercial resins were evaluated for the extraction of iron from a copper electrowinning solution. Both resins efficiently extract iron. The Mono phosphonic resin has a greater charge capacity than the Diphonix resin and the Diphonix resin shows faster kinetics. Experimental results of the interrupted test and tests with different particle size of resins have demonstrated that extraction kinetics is controlled by diffusion into the particle in both resins. A good agreement with Fick's model for diffusion inside the particles confirms the proposed mechanism. Finally, temperature favors the process kinetics and its effect on the diffusion coefficient follows Arrhenius law, obtaining a value of 4,89 kcal/mol for the Mono phosphonic resin and 4,94 kcal/mol for the Diphenox resin. The aforementioned values are close to typical values for the proposed diffusional control which are 6 to 10 kcal/mol. (Author)

  19. 反应与催化精馏耦合提纯乳酸新工艺的研究%Purification of Lactic Acid by Heterogeneous Catalytic Distillation Using Ion-exchange Resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利; 张阳; 杨基础

    2005-01-01

    The purification of lactic acid based on the esterification of raw lactic acid from fermentation broth and then the catalytic distillation hydrolysis of methyl lactate simultaneously to achieve pure lactic acid is reported. The esterification kinetics of lactic acid with methanol catalyzed by strong-acid cation-exchange resins (Amberlyst-15,D001, D002, NKC, 002) was studied under the condition that simulates the real catalytic environment. Experimental results were correlated by a Langmuir-Hinselwood model and the nonideality of the solution was taken into account by using activities calculated by the universal quasichemical functional group activity coefficient (UNIFAC) method.A good agreement between the model and the experimental data was achieved. Continuous purification experiments were conducted to find the optimum column configuration and operation condition for the system. The effects of various parameters, e.g. the length of different section of the column, feed rate and ratio of reactants, packing material and catalyst type, were studied. This novel system shows good separation results in lab scale, and is potential for industrial application.

  20. Revised Thermal Analysis of LANL Ion Exchange Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurinat, J

    2006-04-11

    This document updates a previous calculation of the temperature distributions in a Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ion exchange column.1 LANL operates two laboratory-scale anion exchange columns, in series, to extract Pu-238 from nitric acid solutions. The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has requested an updated analysis to calculate maximum temperatures for higher resin loading capacities obtained with a new formulation of the Reillex HPQ anion exchange resin. The increased resin loading capacity will not exceed 118 g plutonium per L of resin bed. Calculations were requested for normal operation of the resin bed at the minimum allowable solution feed rate of 30 mL/min and after an interruption of flow at the end of the feed stage, when one of the columns is fully loaded. The object of the analysis is to demonstrate that the decay heat from the Pu-238 will not cause resin bed temperatures to increase to a level where the resin significantly degrades. At low temperatures, resin bed temperatures increase primarily due to decay heat. At {approx}70 C a Low Temperature Exotherm (LTE) resulting from the reaction between 8-12 M HNO{sub 3} and the resin has been observed. The LTE has been attributed to an irreversible oxidation of pendant ethyl benzene groups at the termini of the resin polymer chains by nitric acid. The ethyl benzene groups are converted to benzoic acid moities. The resin can be treated to permanently remove the LTE by heating a resin suspension in 8M HNO{sub 3} for 30-45 minutes. No degradation of the resin performance is observed after the LTE removal treatment. In fact, heating the resin in boiling ({approx}115-120 C) 12 M HNO{sub 3} for 3 hr displays thermal stability analogous to resin that has been treated to remove the LTE. The analysis is based on a previous study of the SRS Frames Waste Recovery (FWR) column, performed in support of the Pu-238 production campaign for NASA's Cassini mission. In that study, temperature transients

  1. Ion Exchange and Liquid Column Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Harold F.

    1980-01-01

    Emphasizes recent advances in principles and methodology in ion exchange and chromatography. Two tables list representative examples for inorganic ions and organic compounds. Cites 544 references. (CS)

  2. Determination of effective capacities of ion-exchangeable materials by measuring the equilibrium conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    The effective ion-exchange capacities of ion-exchange materials were determined by measuring the change in the equilibrium conductivity of a column packed with analyte. The developed instrumental method can provide effective ion-exchange capacities for both cation and anion exchangers with simple operations. The cation-exchange capacity of a weak-acid cation-exchange resin (TSKgel SuperIC-Cation column) depended on the conditioning pH and the molar concentration of the conditioning agent. Plots of effective cation-exchange capacities over the conditioning pH exhibited three inflection points, suggesting the presence of two carboxy groups and one phenolic OH group in the resin, probably due to the inherent base polymer. This method was applied to several commercial analytical columns for ion chromatography, and could provide scientifically useful results for characterizing the resin properties.

  3. Evaluation of Alternate Ion Exchange Designs for CST Non-Elutable Ion Exchange Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, S.N.; Pike, J.A.; Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.; Sahawneh, B.M.; Leugemors, R.K.

    2001-06-27

    A study of alternative column designs was initiated in late 2000 to explore ion exchange column design concepts outside of the baseline case. The study, which is discussed in detail in the report, has identified two promising commercially proven ion-exchange column designs as candidates to be developed further for application to CST ion-exchange technology.

  4. Selective ion exchange recovery of rare earth elements from uranium mining solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychkov, Vladimir N.; Kirillov, Evgeny V.; Kirillov, Sergey V.; Bunkov, Grigory M.; Mashkovtsev, Maxim A.; Botalov, Maxim S.; Semenishchev, Vladimir S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.

    2016-09-01

    A comparative study of rare earth, ferric and aluminum ions ion exchange behavior on gel sulfonated p;olystyrene cation exchange resins depending on the degree of the matrix cross-linking and pH of the solution is presented. Selective ion exchange of REEs is possible at the pH range of 1.5-2.0 using strongly acidic cation exchange resins containing more than 8 % of DVB. The preliminary results of testing the efficiency of REEs recovery from the industrial uranium underground leaching solutions are also presented.

  5. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  6. Ion exchange in the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Ion exchange is used in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle -- from the purification of uranium from its ore to the final recovery of uranium and transmutation products. Ion exchange also plays a valuable role in the management of nuclear wastes generated in the fuel cycle.

  7. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  8. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  9. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  10. An ion-exchange method for selective separation of palladium, platinum and rhodium from solutions obtained by leaching automotive catalytic converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaita, R; Al-Bazi, S J

    1995-02-01

    An ion-exchange method has been developed for the separation of palladium, platinum and rhodium from a solution that is highly acidic and contains a considerable amount of lead, aluminum, iron and cerium, obtained by leaching a used honeycomb type automotive catalytic converter. A column of Amberlite IRA-93 anion-exchange resin was found appropriate to recover platinum metals from the pregnant solution. Selective stripping of these metals from the resin was achieved by eluting rhodium first with 6.0M hydrochloric acid, then palladium with a 1% ammonia solution at ambient temperature, and platinum with 5% of the reagent at elevated temperatures. Optimum conditions for leaching these metals from the catalyst were 5.0M hydrochloric acid and 0.4M sodium chlorate at 70 degrees C. This method can be applied to both analytical as well as large scale operations. It is simple, economical, and relatively safe for human exposure and the environment.

  11. Preparation and characterization of polysulfone/PEG heterogeneous ion exchange membrane for reverse electrodialysis (RED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariono, D.; Khoiruddin; Prabandari, D.; Wulandari, R.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-07-01

    Heterogeneous cation-exchange membrane is synthesized using solution casting method. The casting solution is prepared by dispersing finely ground cation-exchange resin particles in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solutions of polysulfone (PSf) while polyethylene glycol (PEG400) is used as a modifier. The results show that the PEG400 can increase water uptake, conductivity, and ion-exchange capacity (IEC) of the heterogeneous cation-exchange membrane due to the hydrophilic nature of PEG400. The more hydrophilic membrane results in higher water uptake and wider access for functional sites. However, when the concentration of PEG400 is increased further, the IEC and conductivity tend to decrease. This tendency is more pronounced when the ion-exchange resin particle is increased from 50 to 60%-wt. It could be attributed to the washed out of some ion-exchange particle during membrane immersion due to lower bonding between membrane matrix and the particles.

  12. Ion exchange at the critical point of solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, J D; Baird, J K; Lang, J R

    2016-03-11

    A mixture of isobutyric acid (IBA)+water has an upper critical point of solution at 26.7°C and an IBA concentration of 4.40M. We have determined the Langmuir isotherms for the hydroxide form of Amberlite IRN-78 resin in contact with mixtures of IBA+water at temperatures, 27.0, 29.0, 31.0 and 38.0°C, respectively. The Langmuir plot at 38.0°C forms a straight line. At the three lower temperatures, however, a peak in the Langmuir plot is observed for IBA concentrations in the vicinity of 4.40M. We regard this peak to be a critical effect not only because it is located close to 4.40M, but also because its height becomes more pronounced as the temperature of the isotherm approaches the critical temperature. For concentrations in the vicinity of the peak, the data indicate that the larger isobutyrate ion is rejected by the resin in favor of the smaller hydroxide ion. This reversal of the expected ion exchange reaction might be used to separate ions according to size. Using the Donnan theory of ion exchange equilibrium, we link the swelling pressure to the osmotic pressure. We show that the peak in the Langmuir plot is associated with a maximum in the "osmotic" energy. This maximum has its origin in the concentration derivative of the osmotic pressure, which goes to zero as the critical point is approached.

  13. Ion exchange at TNX using the SKID unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.L.; Bibler, J.P.

    1993-10-21

    An ion exchange unit has been manufactured for WSRC by British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. This unit consists of three columns, ancillary valving, pumps, lines, and computer controls. It has been delivered to TNX for use in testing a cesium-specific ion exchange resin, developed at WSRC as a potential second generation process for the decontamination of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) supernate. This resin also has Department of Energy applications at both Oak Ridge and Hanford. Oak Ridge is interested in decontaminating the Melton Valley storage tank supernate, while Hanford is interested in decontaminating the 101-AW and 101-SY supernate streams. Another potential developmental interest is the Savannah River Site (SRS) DWPF recycle stream. The three primary waste streams of interest are the Oak Ridge, Hanford, and SRS, SWPF supernate streams. For these three waste streams, the cesium decontamination factor (DF) will be measured for a non-radioactive, simulated, high-level waste solution. The test objectives, process outlines, and broad characterization of the waste streams are described.

  14. Superheated water ion-exchange chromatography: an experimental approach for interpretation of separation selectivity in ion-exchange processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibukawa, Masami; Shimasaki, Tomomi; Saito, Shingo; Yarita, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    Cation-exchange selectivity for alkali and alkaline-earth metal ions and tetraalkylammonium ions on a strongly acidic sulfonic acid cation-exchange resin has been investigated in the temperature range of 40-175 degrees C using superheated water chromatography. Dependence of the distribution coefficient (ln KD) on the reciprocal of temperature (1/T) is not linear for most of the ions studied, and the selectivity coefficient for a pair of alkali metal ions or that of alkaline-earth metal ions approaches unity as temperature increases. On the other hand, the retention order of tetraalkylammonium ions is reversed at 160 degrees C or above when eluted with Na2SO4 aqueous solution and the larger ions are eluted faster than the smaller ones contrary to the retention order obtained at ambient temperature. The change in ion-exchange selectivity with temperature observed with superheated water chromatography has been discussed on the basis of the effect of temperature on hydration of the ions and specific adsorption or distribution of ionic species between the external solution and ion-exchange resin. In superheated water, the electrostatic interaction or association of the ions with the fixed ion becomes a predominant mechanism resulting in different separation selectivity from that obtained at ambient temperature.

  15. Boron Separation by the Two-step Ion-Exchange for the Isotopic Measurement of Boron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Qing-Zhong(王庆忠); XIAO,Ying-Kai(肖应凯); WANG,Yun-Hui(王蕴惠); ZHANG,Chong-Geng(张崇耿); WEI,Hai-Zhen(魏海珍)

    2002-01-01

    An improved procedure for extraction and purification of boron from natural samples is presented. The separation and purification of boron was carried out using a boron-specific resin, Amberlite IRA743, and a mixed ion exchange resin,Dowex 50W × 8 and Ion Exchangerresin. Using the mixed ion exchange resin which adsorbs all cations and anions except boron, the HCl and other cations and anions left in eluant from the Amberlite IRA 743 were removed effectively. In this case, boron loss can be avoided because the boron-bearing solution does not have to be evaporated to reach dryness to dislodge HCl. The boron recovery ranged from 97.6% to 102% in this study. The isotopic fractionation of boron can be negligible within the precision of the isotopic measurement. The results show that boron separation for the isotopic measurement by using both Amberlite IRA 743 resin and the mixed rein is more effective than that using Amberlite IRA 743 resin alone. The boron in samples of brine, seawater, rock, coral and foraminifer were separated by this procedure. Boron isotopic compositions of these samples were measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry in this study.

  16. Resin-Supported Catalysts for CuAAC Click Reactions in Aqueous or Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presolski, Stanislav I.; Mamidyala, Sreeman K.; Manzenrieder, Florian

    2012-01-01

    The copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click reaction is a valuable process for the synthesis of libraries of drug candidates, derivatized polymers and materials, and a wide variety of other functional molecules. In some circumstances, the removal of the copper catalyst is both necessary and inconvenient. We describe here two immobilized forms of a Cu-binding ligand that has been shown to accelerate triazole formation under many different conditions, using different resin supports that are appropriate for aqueous or organic solvents. Copper leaching from these resins was modest, allowing them to be reused in many reaction/filtration cycles without recharging with metal ion. The utility of this catalyst form was demonstrated in the convenient synthesis of 20 N-acetylgalactosamine derivatives for biological testing. PMID:22946559

  17. Ion-exchange selectivity of diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in ureolyzed human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Kelly A; Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua; Boyer, Treavor H

    2015-01-01

    This research advances the knowledge of ion-exchange of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) - diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KTP), and naproxen (NPX) - and one analgesic drug-paracetamol (PCM) - by strong-base anion exchange resin (AER) in synthetic ureolyzed urine. Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Astakhov, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models were fit to experimental equilibrium data using nonlinear least squares method. Favorable ion-exchange was observed for DCF, KTP, and NPX, whereas unfavorable ion-exchange was observed for IBP and PCM. The ion-exchange selectivity of the AER was enhanced by van der Waals interactions between the pharmaceutical and AER as well as the hydrophobicity of the pharmaceutical. For instance, the high selectivity of the AER for DCF was due to the combination of Coulombic interactions between quaternary ammonium functional group of resin and carboxylate functional group of DCF, van der Waals interactions between polystyrene resin matrix and benzene rings of DCF, and possibly hydrogen bonding between dimethylethanol amine functional group side chain and carboxylate and amine functional groups of DCF. Based on analysis of covariance, the presence of multiple pharmaceuticals did not have a significant effect on ion-exchange removal when the NSAIDs were combined in solution. The AER reached saturation of the pharmaceuticals in a continuous-flow column at varying bed volumes following a decreasing order of DCF > NPX ≈ KTP > IBP. Complete regeneration of the column was achieved using a 5% (m/m) NaCl, equal-volume water-methanol solution. Results from multiple treatment and regeneration cycles provide insight into the practical application of pharmaceutical ion-exchange in ureolyzed urine using AER.

  18. Organic Ion Exchangers. Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. S. Dragan

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Organic ion exchangers in beads form are the most widely utilized materials in the purification, concentration and separation processes of inorganic and organic ions in many fields of science and industry[1,2]. Some original contributions in the preparation and characterization of porous organic ion exchangers will be summarized first. The main types of synthetic ion exchangers were obtained by polymer-analogous reactions performed on porous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers (S-DVB)[3,4] and porous acrylonitrile-DVB copolymers (AN-DVB) [5,6]. Porous S-DVB copolymers were used as substrate for the synthesis of weak and strong base anion exchangers by chloromethylation reaction followed by the reaction with secondary or tertiary amines.Different chloromethylation agents were employed. Weak base anion exchangers with tertiary or primary amine groups were prepared starting from AN-DVB copolymers by aminolyse-hydrolyse reaction with asymmetrical diamines or ethylenediamine (EDA), respectively. Strong base anion exchangers were obtained by quaternization reaction with alkyl halides of the tertiary amine groups. Chelating ion exchangers with iminodiacetic groups were prepared by the carboxymethylation reaction of the primary amine groups above mentioned and of those contained in a vinylamine-ethylacrylate-DVB copolymer, vinylamine units being generated by a Hofmann degradation reaction of the primary amide groups contained in the acrylamide-ethylacrylate-DVB copolymerp[7]. An amphoteric ion exchanger was prepared by the hydrolysis of the ester groups after the Hofmann degradation.

  19. Characterization of Cr ion exchange with hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Patricia A

    2004-11-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the removal of chromium from water with uncalcined hydrotalcite, a clay mineral ion exchange media. The process was characterized as a function of pH, temperature, contact time, and both Cr and hydrotalcite concentrations. A Freundlich isotherm, used to describe adsorption equilibria, was used as a model and Freundlich constants were determined. The kinetics of the ion exchange reaction were also modeled using a pseudo-first order reaction rate. Finally, an equilibrium stage process was modeled with sequential batch separations to determine if hydrotalcite ion exchange could reduce aqueous Cr levels to below the EPA limit of 0.1mgl(-1). It was shown that the process is highly pH dependent, only yielding significant removals at pH levels between 2.0 and 2.1. While hydrotalcite concentration, Cr concentration, and time did effect the ion exchange, temperature was not found to be a factor. Under optimal conditions, maximum removals of greater than 95% were achieved. Finally, sequential batch tests performed on initial Cr solutions ranging from 5mgl(-1) to 40mgl(-1), demonstrated that the water could be purified to a level that was not statistically different than the EPA limit, thus demonstrating the applicability of hydrotalcite ion exchange.

  20. Reactivity of Phenol Allylation Using Phase-Transfer Catalysis in Ion-Exchange Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shing Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the reactivity of phenol allylation using quaternary ammonium salt as a phase-transfer catalyst in three types of membrane reactors. Optimum reactivity and turnover of phenol allylation were obtained using a respond surface methodology. The contact angle, water content, and degree of crosslinkage were measured to understand the microenvironment in the ion exchange membrane.

  1. Biodiesel production from acid oils and ethanol using a solid basic resin as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F. [Planta Piloto de Ingenieria Quimica, UNS-CONICET, Camino La Carrindanga km 7 (8000) Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2010-03-15

    In the search of an alternative fuel to substitute diesel fuel, biodiesel appears as one of the most promising sources of energy for diesel engines because of its environmental advantages and also due to the evolution of the petroleum market. Refined oil is the conventional raw material for the production of this biofuel; however, its major disadvantage is the high cost of its production. Therefore, frying oils, waste oils, crude oils and/or acid oils are being tested as alternative raw materials; nevertheless, there will be some problems if a homogeneous basic catalyst (NaOH) is employed due to the high amount of free fatty acid present in the raw oil. In this work, the transesterification reaction of acid oil using solid resin, Dowex monosphere 550 A, was studied as an alternative process. Ethanol was employed to have a natural and sustainable final product. The reaction temperature's effects, the initial amount of free fatty acid, the molar ratio of alcohol/oil and the type of catalyst (homogeneous or heterogeneous) over the main reaction are analyzed and their effects compared. The results obtained show that the solid resin is an alternative catalyst to be used to produce fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by a transesterification reaction with a final conversion over 90%. On the other hand, the time required to achieve this conversion is bigger than the one required using conventional technology which employs a homogeneous basic catalyst. This reaction time needs to be optimized. (author)

  2. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-03-09

    Non-elutable ion exchange is being considered as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removing cesium from Savannah River Site (SRS) radioactive waste. Crystalline silicotitanate (CST) particles are the reference ion exchange medium for the process. A major factor in the construction cost of this process is the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications for decontaminated waste. To validate SRS column sizing calculations, SRS subcontracted two reknowned experts in this field to perform similar calculations: Professor R. G. Anthony, Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&038;M University, and Professor S. W. Wang, Department of Chemical Engineering, Purdue University. The appendices of this document contain reports from the two subcontractors. Definition of the design problem came through several meetings and conference calls between the participants and SRS personnel over the past few months. This document summarizes the problem definition and results from the two reports.

  3. ION EXCHANGE IN GLASS-CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness. There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass. The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change.This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  4. Ion Exchange in Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George; Comte, Monique; Deneka, Matthew; Marques, Paulo; Pradeau, Philippe; Smith, Charlene

    2016-08-01

    In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque) and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness). There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass). The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change). This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  5. STATE OF WATER SORBED ON ION EXCHANGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VenkataramaniB

    1994-01-01

    Water sorption isotherms available in the literatures of Na+-from of Dowex 50W×4 and×8,BioRex-70,Amberlyst-15,Nafion-117,hydrous titanium oxide,crystalline zirconium phosphate and zinc hexacyanoferrate(Ⅱ),have been analysed by the D′Arcy and Watt equation.Hydration of Na+ in the ion exchangers is the predominant interaction of sorbed water.The correlation between the hydration numbers and those obtained for electrolyte solution is found in this paper.Qualitative implications of the state of sorbed water in the ion exchangers on its various characteristic quantities like selectivity,are briefly discussed.

  6. Ion exchange tempering of glass ophthalmic lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, A H; Duerson, H L

    1975-08-01

    We performed low velocity drop-ball tests using 5/8-, 7/8-, and 1-inch diameter steel balls on ophthalmic crown glass lenses chemically tempered by the ion exchange process. Four representative dioptric strengths (+ 2.50 spherical, - 2.50 spherical, -2.50 cylindrical, and plano) were studied with the isolated lenses mounted, convex side up, on the American National Standards Institute Z80 test block. New ion exchange lenses exhibited a 100 to 350% greater capacity for attenuation of energy from low velocity, large size missiles than matched lenses of similar strength prepared by the conventional heat-treating and air-quenching process.

  7. 弱碱性离子交换树脂D301分离低浓度甲酸的研究%STUDY OF LOW CONCENTRATION FORMIC ACID IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION WAS SEPARATED BY WEAKLY BASIC ION EXCHANGE RESIN D301

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔鹏; 唐轩宇; 李双涛

    2011-01-01

    采用D301弱碱性离子交换树脂对水溶液中低浓度甲酸进行分离.静态条件下考察了时间、温度、振荡速率和树脂用量对分离效果的影响,获得了交换等温线;动态条件下考察了不同高径比、流速、温度、浓度下动态穿透曲线;研究了树脂再生效果与稳定性.初始浓度573mg/L的甲酸废水,在树脂用量2.5g/L、温度35℃、振荡速率160r/min条件下,最大交换量为15 4.16mg/g;其交换等温线符合Langmuir方程,热力学平衡方程计算得ΔG<0,ΔH=10.25kJ/mol,ΔS>0,表明该吸附过程是自发的、吸热、熵增加的过程.交换过程中颗粒扩散是离子交换的主要速率控制步骤,表观活化能与反应级数分别为5.983kJ/mol和0.378.%The low-concentration formic acid was separated in aqueous solution by weakly basic ion exchange resin D301. The factors influencing the separation, such as separation time, temperature, rotational speed, and the amount of resin of formic acid were investigated under static condition. The exchange isotherms were obtained. The ratio of height to diameter, velocity, temperature, and the concentration of formic acid were investigated under dynamic condition, and the breakthrough curves were determined. The resin regeneration effect and the stability were studied. The kinetic results showed that Langmuir isotherm fitted well with the experimental data, the thermodynamic equilibrium functions △G0 were determined, so the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and entropy increasing. When the resin dosage was 2.5g/L; 35 °C; the oscillation rate of 160r/min and the initial concentration of formic acid wastewater was 573mg/L, the maximum exchange capacity was 154.16mg/L. The ion-exchange process was found to be controlled by the intra-particle diffusion. The apparent activation energy was 5.983kJ/mol, and the reaction order was 0.378.

  8. 离子交换树脂共固定葡萄糖氧化酶-过氧化氢酶%Co-immobilization of glucose oxidase and catalase on ion exchange resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕春元; 任婷月; 张金玲; 杜祎; 李敬龙

    2015-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOD) and catalase (CAT) were co-immobilized on five kinds of macroporous anion exchange resins,wherein resin D201 showed the excellent immobilization.Using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent,the enzyme was immobilized through absorption and cross-linking.The preparation conditions and enzymatic properties of the immobilized enzyme were studied.The optimum conditions for the immobilization were as follows:GOD/CAT =1/1 (U/U);the adsorption pH,temperature and time were 7.5,30℃ and 6 h respectively.The crosslinking temperature and time were 4℃ and 12 h respectively,and the concentration of the crossinking agent (glutaraldehyde) was 1% (V/V).The highest enzyme activity retained 30.8%.Compared with free enzyme,the thermal stability and pH stability of co-immobilized GOD-CAT resin were increased.Enzyme activity retained more than 90% of the initial activity after 10 batches of intermittent operation.%从5种大孔阴离子交换树脂中,筛选出固定化效果较好的大孔强碱性苯乙烯系阴离子交换树脂D 201为载体,以戊二醛为交联剂,通过先吸附后交联的方法共固定化葡萄糖氧化酶(GOD)和过氧化氢酶(CAT),研究了固定化酶的制备条件和酶学性质.结果表明,共固定化的最佳条件是:GOD:CAT=1∶1(酶活力之比),吸附pH值为7.5,吸附温度30℃,吸附时间为8h;交联剂戊二醛质量分数为1%,交联温度4 ℃,交联时间8h.在此条件下固定化,以GOD计,最高酶活回收率为30.8%.与游离酶相比,共固定化GOD-CAT树脂的热稳定性、pH稳定性均增强,间歇操作10批次后酶活力仍然保持在初始活力的90%以上.

  9. Esterification of palm fatty acid distillate with epychlorohydrin using cation exchange resin catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhijanto, Budhijanto; Subagyo, Albertus F. P. H.

    2017-05-01

    Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is one of the wastes from the conversion of crude palm oil (CPO) into cooking oil. The PFAD is currently only utilized as the raw material for low grade soap and biofuel. To improve the economic value of PFAD, it was converted into monoglyceride by esterification process. Furthermore, the monoglyceride could be polymerized to form alkyd resin, which is a commodity of increasing importance. This study aimed to propose a kinetics model for esterification of PFAD with epichlorohydrin using cation exchange resin catalyst. The reaction was the first step from a series of reactions to produce the monoglyceride. In this study, the reaction between PFAD and epichlorohydirne was run in a stirred batch reactor. The stirrer was operated at a constant speed of 400 RPM. The reaction was carried out for 180 minutes on varied temperatures of 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, dan 90°C. Cation exchange resin was applied as solid catalysts. Analysis was conducted periodically by measuring the acid number of the samples, which was further used to calculate PFAD conversion. The data were used to determine the rate constants and the equilibrium constants of the kinetics model. The kinetics constants implied that the reaction was reversible and controlled by the intrinsic surface reaction. Despite the complication of the heterogeneous nature of the reaction, the kinetics data well fitted the elementary rate law. The effect of temperature on the equilibrium constants indicated that the reaction is exothermic.

  10. Decontamination and dismantlement of the building 594 waste ion exchange facility at Argonne National Laboratory-East project final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E. C.

    1998-11-23

    The Building 594 D&D Project was directed toward the following goals: Removal of any radioactive and hazardous materials associated with the Waste Ion Exchange Facility; Decontamination of the Waste Ion Exchange Facility to unrestricted use levels; Demolition of Building 594; and Documentation of all project activities affecting quality (i.e., waste packaging, instrument calibration, audit results, and personnel exposure) These goals had been set in order to eliminate the radiological and hazardous safety concerns inherent in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility and to allow, upon completion of the project, unescorted and unmonitored access to the area. The ion exchange system and the resin contained in the system were the primary areas of concern, while the condition of the building which housed the system was of secondary concern. ANL-E health physics technicians characterized the Building 594 Waste Ion Exchange Facility in September 1996. The characterization identified a total of three radionuclides present in the Waste Ion Exchange Facility with a total activity of less than 5 {micro}Ci (175 kBq). The radionuclides of concern were Co{sup 60}, Cs{sup 137}, and Am{sup 241}. The highest dose rates observed during the project were associated with the resin in the exchange vessels. DOE Order 5480.2A establishes the maximum whole body exposure for occupational workers at 5 rem (50 mSv)/yr; the administrative limit at ANL-E is 1 rem/yr (10 mSv/yr).

  11. Impact of natural organic matter properties on the kinetics of suspended ion exchange process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazri, Mohammad Mahdi; Mohseni, Madjid

    2016-03-15

    Removal kinetics of four standard organic matter isolates under the application of strongly basic ion exchange resins (IEX) in suspended mode was studied under commercial application conditions. Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM), SR fulvic acid (SRFA), and Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA) were greatly removed (>90%) and highly preferred by IEX resins (α > 5, over Cl(-), and HCO3(-)) while SR humic acid (SRHA) was the least preferred organic structure among the four isolates studied (α ≈ 1). Moreover, the efficacy of removal for fulvic acids (i.e., SRFA, PLFA) was consistent over consecutive reuse of IEX resins (i.e., loading cycles) whereas it decreased for SRNOM and SRHA over the course of operation. The stoichiometric correlation between the chloride released from the resins as a result of organic molecules uptake indicated that ion exchange was the dominant mechanism. Results obtained indicated that molecular weight and charge density of isolates played a major role in the performance of ion exchange process for organic matter removal. Furthermore, various empirical and physical models were evaluated using the experimental data and pore diffusion was found to be the rate-liming step during the uptake of organic matters; hence, it was used as the appropriate model to predict the kinetics of removal. Consequently, free liquid diffusivities and effective pore diffusion coefficients of organic molecules were estimated and findings were in agreement with the literature data that were obtained from spectrophotometric methods.

  12. An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven D.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)

  13. Highly active, recyclable catalyst for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight, CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone, base component for a new class of resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Dirkzwager, Hendrik; Mul, Wilhelmus P.; Heeres, Hero J.; Linden, Adrianus J. van der; Orpen, A. Guy

    2002-01-01

    A highly active, recyclable homogeneous palladium(II) catalyst is described for the manufacture of viscous, low molecular weight CO–ethene–propene-based polyketone (Carilite Oligomer), used for the manufacture of a new class of resins (Carilite Resins). The catalyst is composed of palladium acetate,

  14. THE KINETICS OF FILM-DIFFUSION-LIMITED ION-EXCHANGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAIJEVELD, G; WESSELINGH, JA

    1993-01-01

    The film-diffusion-limited ion exchange kinetics for the HCl-NaCl and HCl-CaCl2 systems on a Lewatit S100 ion exchanger are investigated. The ion exchange processes are modelled using the Maxwell-Stefan transport equations. The model uses only one fitting parameter. the film thickness, the Maxwell-S

  15. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  16. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie; Broyan, James; Pickering, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The urine processor assembly (UPA) on the International Space Station (ISS) recovers water from urine via a vacuum distillation process. The distillation occurs in a rotating distillation assembly (DA) where the urine is heated and subjected to sub-ambient pressure. As water is removed, the original organics, salts, and minerals in the urine become more concentrated and result in urine brine. Eventually, water removal will concentrate the urine brine to super saturation of individual constituents, and precipitation occurs. Under typical UPA DA operating conditions, calcium sulfate or gypsum is the first chemical to precipitate in substantial quantity. During preflight testing with ground urine, the UPA achieved 85% water recovery without precipitation. However, on ISS, it is possible that crewmember urine can be significantly more concentrated relative to urine from ground donors. As a result, gypsum precipitated in the DA when operating at water recovery rates at or near 85%, causing the failure and subsequent re14 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2013 placement of the DA. Later investigations have demonstrated that an excess of calcium and sulfate will cause precipitation at water recovery rates greater than 70%. The source of the excess calcium is likely physiological in nature, via crewmembers' bone loss, while the excess sulfate is primarily due to the sulfuric acid component of the urine pretreatment. To prevent gypsum precipitation in the UPA, the Precipitation Prevention Project (PPP) team has focused on removing the calcium ion from pretreated urine, using ion exchange resins as calcium removal agents. The selectivity and effectiveness of ion exchange resins are determined by such factors as the mobility of the liquid phase through the polymer matrix, the density of functional groups, type of functional groups bound to the matrix, and the chemical characteristics of the liquid phase (pH, oxidation potential, and ionic strength). Previous experience with ion

  17. Ion-exchange chromatographic protein refolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydell, Esteban J; van der Wielen, Luuk; Eppink, Michel; Ottens, Marcel

    2010-11-12

    The application of ion-exchange (IEX) chromatography to protein refolding (IExR) has been successfully proven, as supported by various studies using different model proteins, ion-exchange media and flow configurations. Ion-exchange refolding offers a relatively high degree of process intensification, represented by the possibility of performing protein refolding, product purification and product concentration, in one unit operation. Besides its high degree of process intensification, IExR offers an additional set of key advantages including: spatial isolation of the bound protein molecules and the controllable change in chemical composition using gradients. Despite of the acknowledgement of the former advantages, the lack of mechanistic understanding on how they influence the process performance of the ion-exchange refolding reactor, limits the ability to exploit them in order to optimize the performance of the unit. This paper presents a quantitative analysis that assesses the effect that the spatial isolation and the urea gradient, have on the IExR performance, judged on the basis of the refolding yield (Y(N)) and the fractional mass recovery (f(Prot,Rec)). Additionally, this work discusses the effect of the protein load, the protein loading state (i.e., native, denatured, denatured and reduced (D&R)) and the adsorbent type on f(Prot,Rec). The presented work shows: (1) that the protein load has a direct effect on f(Prot,Rec), and the magnitude of this effect depends on the loading state of the protein solution and the adsorbent type; (2) that irrespectively of the type of adsorbent used, the saturation capacity of a denatured protein is less than the native protein and that this difference can be linked to differences in accessible binding surface area; (3) that there is a clear correlation between fractional surface coverage (θ) and f(Prot,Rec), indicating that the former could serve as a good descriptor to assess spatial isolation, and (4) that the urea

  18. 强酸性阳离子交换树脂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的研究%Synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid using strong-acidic cation-exchange resin as catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志刚; 谢志融; 陈靠山

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨001×7强酸性阳离子交换树脂催化合成乙酰水杨酸的方法和最佳工艺.方法:通过正交试验探讨了乙酸酐与水杨酸的摩尔比、反应时间、催化剂用量和反应温度对乙酰水杨酸产率的影响,并探讨催化剂的催化能力与使用次数的关系.结果:乙酸酐与水杨酸的摩尔比为3:1、催化剂用量为水杨酸质量的14.50%、反应时间120 min、反应温度60 ℃时,乙酰水杨酸产率最高,为77.93%.结论:001×7强酸性苯乙烯系阳离子交换树脂对酯化反应催化效果好,副反应少,对环境污染小,能重复使用,值得大力推广.%Objective:To optimize the technology of synthesizing acetylsalicylic acid using 001 × 7 strong-acidic cation-exchange resin as catalyst . Methods : Orthogonal experiment was performed to examine the effect of molar ratio of reactants,reaction time, dosage of catalyst, and reaction temperature on the yield of product as well as the efficiency and frequencies of the resin recycled and shifted on the synthesis. Results :The optimal reaction conditions were 3:1 (the ratio of acetic anhydride to salicylic acid,n:n),in a dosage of the resin 14. 50% of salicylic acid,for the reaction time of 120 min at temperature of 60 ℃ , which led to a yield of 77.93 % . Conclusion: 001 × 7 strong-acidic cat ion-exchange resin works well on esterification reaction as a environmentally friendly catalyst and is worthy of wider use, for it has efficient activity, less adverse reaction and recyclable advantages.

  19. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  20. Sensitivity of catalyst/base ratio on curing of resin luting agents: polymerization exotherm analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, J A; Shen, C; Anusavice, K J

    1994-09-01

    Currently, the proposed test of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) for measuring working and setting times of resin luting agents is based on measurement of times to reach specified stages on the polymerization exotherm. The objective of this study was to use this test to investigate the influence of variations in the mass ratios of catalyst paste to base paste on the working and setting times of three dual-cured dental resin luting agents. The materials used were Dicor Light Activated Cement (Dentsply International Inc.), Palfique Inlay Resin Cement (Tokuyama Soda Co.), and Vivadent Dual Cement (Vivadent). Fifteen specimens of each material were tested for working time by spatulating mass ratios from 0.7 to 1.3 for 30s at 23 degrees C and recording the time from beginning of spatulation to the time at which a temperature increase occurs. Ten specimens of each material were tested for setting time by spatulating in a similar manner at 37 degrees C and recording the time at which the temperature reaches a maximum value. The data were fitted to the relation, In t = In A + Bm, where t is the time in seconds, m is the mass ratio, and A and B are regression coefficients. The results suggest that working and setting times of the specimens were independent of variations in mass ratio. A comparison among the materials was made by using a multiple linear regression with the relation, In t = In C + Dm + E gamma + Fm gamma, where gamma is a dummy variable to help distinguish between materials, and C, D, E, and F are regression coefficients. The results suggest that differences in materials influence the working time but not the setting time. These results infer that variations in mass ratio (+/- 20%) often observed in the clinical setting should not have a significant influence on the working and setting times of resin luting agents.

  1. Rapid Preparation of Biosorbents with High Ion Exchange Capacity from Rice Straw and Bagasse for Removal of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supitcha Rungrodnimitchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation of the cellulose phosphate with high ion exchange capacity from rice straw and bagasse for removal of heavy metals. In this study, rice straw and bagasse were modified by the reaction with phosphoric acid in the presence of urea. The introduced phosphoric group is an ion exchangeable site for heavy metal ions. The reaction by microwave heating yielded modified rice straw and modified bagasse with greater ion exchange capacities (∼3.62 meq/g and shorter reaction time (1.5–5.0 min than the phosphorylation by oil bath heating. Adsorption experiments towards Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cr3+ ions of the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse were performed at room temperature (heavy metal concentration 40 ppm, adsorbent 2.0 g/L. The kinetics of adsorption agreed with the pseudo-second-order model. It was shown that the modified rice straw and the modified bagasse could adsorb heavy metal ions faster than the commercial ion exchange resin (Dowax. As a result of Pb2+ sorption test, the modified rice straw (RH-NaOH 450W removed Pb2+ much faster in the initial step and reached 92% removal after 20 min, while Dowax (commercial ion exchange resin took 90 min for the same removal efficiency.

  2. Development and testing of ion exchangers for treatment of liquid wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Ensor, D.D.; Bright, R.M.; Glasgow, D.C. (Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    This report addresses three areas of waste treatment: (1) treatment of newly generated low-level liquid waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate using inorganic ion exchangers; (2) treatment of processing streams at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC); and (3) removal of radionuclides from organic solutions. Distribution of various radionuclides between simulated waste solutions and several sorbents was determined in batch tests. Inorganic ion exchangers were prepared in the form of microspheres by an intemal gelation process. Microspheres of hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, hydrous titania containing embedded sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and the corresponding phosphate forms of these materials were prepared. Several zeolites (PDZ-140, PDZ-300, EE-96, CBV-10A) and inorganic ion exchangers (hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, polyantimanic acid, sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate) were tested for the removal of cesium and strontium from the acidic simulated Cleanex raffinate generated at REDC. A resorcinol-based ion-exchange resin and three types of sodium titanate were tested for removal of cesium and strontium from the REDC caustic dissolver solution. Hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, and their corresponding phosphates were tested for the removal of Eu[sup 3+] from various solutions of di-2-ethylbexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene or dodecane.

  3. Development and testing of ion exchangers for treatment of liquid wastes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.; Davidson, D.J.; Chase, C.W.; Egan, B.Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ensor, D.D.; Bright, R.M.; Glasgow, D.C. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This report addresses three areas of waste treatment: (1) treatment of newly generated low-level liquid waste and Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernate using inorganic ion exchangers; (2) treatment of processing streams at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC); and (3) removal of radionuclides from organic solutions. Distribution of various radionuclides between simulated waste solutions and several sorbents was determined in batch tests. Inorganic ion exchangers were prepared in the form of microspheres by an intemal gelation process. Microspheres of hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, hydrous titania containing embedded sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate, and the corresponding phosphate forms of these materials were prepared. Several zeolites (PDZ-140, PDZ-300, EE-96, CBV-10A) and inorganic ion exchangers (hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, polyantimanic acid, sodium cobalt hexacyanoferrate) were tested for the removal of cesium and strontium from the acidic simulated Cleanex raffinate generated at REDC. A resorcinol-based ion-exchange resin and three types of sodium titanate were tested for removal of cesium and strontium from the REDC caustic dissolver solution. Hydrous titania, hydrous zirconia, and their corresponding phosphates were tested for the removal of Eu{sup 3+} from various solutions of di-2-ethylbexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in toluene or dodecane.

  4. Synthesis and Structure Characterization of Phenol-Urea-Formaldehyde Resins in the Presence of Magnesium Oxide as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Bin Fan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to provide a useful approach of polymer synthesis for accelerating the fast cure of phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF resin as wood adhesive by optimizing its structure and composition. The PUF resins containing high contents of very reactive groups such as para-methylol groups were synthesized by reacting methylolurea, phenol, and formaldehyde in the presence of magnesium oxide (MgO as catalyst. The effects of synthesis parameters including F/(P + U, OH/P, and MgO/P mole ratios on the structure, composition, curing characteristics, and their relationships of PUF resins were investigated. The results indicated that MgO seemed to be an efficacious catalyst for PUF resin synthesis and promote its faster cure. The increase in the F/(P + U mole ratio or/and OH/P mole ratio appeared to be beneficial for the formation of para-methylol groups and cocondensed methylene linkages between phenolic methylol groups and urea units, and for the removal of unreacted urea. In case of Catalyst/P mole ratio, an appropriate dosage of added metal-ion was very important for synthesizing the high-content reactive groups of PUF resins, otherwise leading to the reverse effects.

  5. Biocidal quaternary ammonium resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janauer, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Activated carbon (charcoal) and polymeric resin sorbents are widely used in the filtration and treatment of drinking water, mainly to remove dissolved organic and inorganic impurities and to improve the taste. Earlier hopes that activated carbon might "disinfect' water proved to be unfounded. The feasibility of protecting against microbial infestation in charcoal and resin beds such as those to be incorporated into total water reuse systems in spacecraft was investigated. The biocidal effect of IPCD (insoluable polymeric contact disinfectants) in combination with a representative charcoal was assessed. The ion exchange resins (IPCD) were shown to adequately protect charcoal and ion exchange beds.

  6. Adsorption behavior of molybdenum onto D314 ion exchange resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明玉; 蒋长俊; 王学文

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption behavior of molybdenum onto D314 was studied with the static adsorption method. The adsorption process was analyzed from thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. The experimental results show that the equilibrium adsorption data conform satisfactorily to the Langmuir equation. In the adsorption process of D314 for molybdenum, the enthalpy changeΔH is positive when temperature is in the range of 298−338 K, which indicates that the adsorption is an endothermic process, and the elevated temperature benefits to the adsorption. Kinetic analysis shows that the adsorption rate is controlled by intraparticle diffusion and chemical diffusion at the same time. The adsorption mechanism of molybdenum onto D314 was discussed based on IR spectra.

  7. 21 CFR 173.25 - Ion-exchange resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... each drained solvent and a solvent blank for nitrogen by a standard micro-Kjeldahl method. (d)(1) The... of ASTM method D388-38, Class I, Group 2, “Standard Specifications for Classification of Coal by Rank... to use in aqueous process streams for the isolation and purification of protein concentrates...

  8. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  9. Multicomponent liquid ion exchange with chabazite zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, S.M.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Byers, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In spite of the increasing commercial use of zeolites for binary and multicomponent sorption, the understanding of the basic mass-transfer processes associated with multicomponent zeolite ion-exchange systems is quite limited. This study was undertaken to evaluate Na-Ca-Mg-Cs-Sr ion exchange from an aqueous solution using a chabazite zeolite. Mass-transfer coefficients and equilibrium equations were determined from experimental batch-reactor data for single and multicomponent systems. The Langmuir isotherm was used to represent the equilibrium relationship for binary systems, and a modified Dubinin-Polyani model was used for the multicomponent systems. The experimental data indicate that diffusion through the microporous zeolite crystals is the primary diffusional resistance. Macropore diffusion also significantly contributes to the mass-transfer resistance. Various mass-transfer models were compared to the experimental data to determine mass-transfer coefficients. Effective diffusivities were obtained which accurately predicted experimental data using a variety of models. Only the model which accounts for micropore and macropore diffusion occurring in series accurately predicted multicomponent data using single-component diffusivities. Liquid and surface diffusion both contribute to macropore diffusion. Surface and micropore diffusivities were determined to be concentration dependent.

  10. Ion exchange properties of humus acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, V. N.; Chudnenko, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    Ion exchange equilibriums in a complex of brown humic acids (HAs) and related fulvic acids (FAs) with cations (H+, K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, and Al3+) have been studied, and the activity coefficients of the acid monoionic forms have been determined. The composition of the stoichiometric cell in the system of black and brown HAs and related FAs in a leached chernozem of the Ob' region has been calculated with consideration for the earlier studies of the ion exchange properties of black HAs and related FAs. It has been shown that hydrogen, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, and iron are the major components in the exchange complex of humus acids in the leached chernozem with the other cations being of subordinate importance. In spite of some differences between the analytical and calculated compositions of the humus acids, the results of the calculations can be considered satisfactory. They indicate that calculations are feasible for such complex objects as soils, and their accuracy will improve with the expansion of the experimental studies. The physicochemical simulation of the transformation of the humus acid composition under different acid-base conditions shows that the contents of most cations decrease under alkalization, and hydroxides or carbonates become the most stable forms of these cations. Under the acidification of solutions, the binding of alkaline and alkaline-earth elements by humus acids decreases and the adsorption of iron and aluminum by humus acids increases.

  11. Evaluation of Resin Dissolution Using an Advanced Oxidation Process - 13241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulart de Araujo, Leandro; Vicente de Padua Ferreira, Rafael; Takehiro Marumo, Julio [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242., Sao Paulo, SP. (Brazil); Passos Piveli, Roque; Campos, Fabio [The Polytechnic School of the University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 83, trav.2. Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ion-exchange resin is widely used in nuclear reactors, in cooling water purification and removing radioactive elements. Because of the long periods of time inside the reactor system, the resin becomes radioactive. When the useful life of them is over, its re-utilization becomes inappropriate, and for this reason, the resin is considered radioactive waste. The most common method of treatment is the immobilization of spent ion exchange resin in cement in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. However, the characteristic of contraction and expansion of the resin limits its incorporation in 10%, resulting in high cost in its direct immobilization. Therefore, it is recommended the utilization of a pre-treatment, capable of reducing the volume and degrading the resin, which would increase the load capacity in the immobilization. This work aims to develop a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Advanced Oxidative Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent (hydrogen peroxide and ferrous sulphate as catalyst). The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic (IR 120P) and anionic (IRA 410) resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25, 50, 100 e 150 mM) and the volume of the hydrogen peroxide, at three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg. C. The time of reaction was three hours. Total organic carbon content was determined periodically in order to evaluate the degradation as a function of time. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%, using up to 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide. The most effective temperature was about 60 deg. C, because of the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in higher temperatures. TOC content was influenced by the concentration of the catalyst, interfering in the beginning of the

  12. Imidazolium Ionic Liquid Modified Graphene Oxide: As a Reinforcing Filler and Catalyst in Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Lyu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Surface modification of graphene oxide (GO is one of the most important issues to produce high performance GO/epoxy composites. In this paper, the imidazole ionic liquid (IMD-Si was introduced onto the surface of GO sheets by a cheap and simple method, to prepare a reinforcing filler, as well as a catalyst in epoxy resin. The interlayer spacing of GO sheets was obviously increased by the intercalation of IMD-Si, which strongly facilitated the dispersibility of graphene oxide in organic solvents and epoxy matrix. The addition of 0.4 wt % imidazolium ionic liquid modified graphene oxide (IMD-Si@GO, yielded a 12% increase in flexural strength (141.3 MPa, a 26% increase in flexural modulus (4.69 GPa, and a 52% increase in impact strength (18.7 kJ/m2, compared to the neat epoxy. Additionally the IMD-Si@GO sheets could catalyze the curing reaction of epoxy resin-anhydride system significantly. Moreover, the improved thermal conductivities and thermal stabilities of epoxy composites filled with IMD-Si@GO were also demonstrated.

  13. SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF LIGNIN BY MEANS OF ION EXCHANGE PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUHede; LIANGHao; 等

    1993-01-01

    The effect of resin structure on desalination of lignin solution was investigated,the optimal structure of resin is as follows;cross linking degree as 4%,ratio of cationogen to anionogen is near 1.with such resin the desalination of lignin was produced very well because the resin has both molecule sieving and ion retardation properties.The sulfonation degress of lignin and total salt content of lignin solution were determinred with ion exchange technique,the relative error less than 1%.The salt content of small molecule in the lignin solution was calculated from sulfonation degree of lignin and total salt.Among gel and macroporous resins the best separation of lignin from reducing sugar was achieved with interpenetrating sulfonated resin 2×1.5×1.The separation of lignin with interpenetrating resin was carried out simultaneously with fractionation of lignin,the effect of fractionation with macroporous sulfonated resin is better than that with interpenetrating resin,but the former has a definite sorption of lignin which decreased the recovery of lignin.

  14. 琼脂糖-DEAE离子交换介质的配基密度和孔径对BSA吸附的影响%Influences of ligand density and pore size on BSA adsorption on agarose-based DEAE-ion-exchange resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢慧丽; 林东强; 姚善泾

    2011-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography (IEC) is a common and powerful technique for the purification of proteins. The ligand density and pore size of the resins have significant effects on the separation behaviors of protein. In the present work, three kinds of crossed-linked agarose gel with different agarose concentrations were used as the matrices to represent various pore sizes, and anionic ligand, diethylaminothyl (DEAE), was coupled with different ligand densities. The preparation conditions, including the reaction temperature, time, DEAE concentration and NaOH concentration, were optimized to control the ionic exchange capacity. A series of DEAE resins with different ligand densities and pore sizes were obtained. The adsorption isotherms and kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) were measured on these resins. The saturated adsorption capacity increased with the increasing of ligand densities and the decreasing of pore sizes at the range tested. For the adsorption kinetics, the pore size influenced significantly the effective pore diffusivities. The results demonstrated that both the pore size and ligand density affect the static and dynamic adsorption. The pore size dominates the diffusion and mass transfer of protein, while the ligand density affects the interactions between ligand and protein.%离子交换色谱是蛋白质分离纯化的有效方法之一,配基密度和介质孔径是影响蛋白质吸附的关键因素.采用3种不同琼脂糖浓度的凝胶为基质,具有不同的平均孔径,分别偶联上阴离子交换配基DEAE,通过调控反应条件,包括反应温度、反应时间、碱浓度和DEAE浓度,得到了不同配基密度和介质孔径的系列DEAE离子交换介质.考察了牛血清白蛋白(BSA)的静态和动态吸附性能,发现随配基密度增加或介质孔径减小,BSA饱和吸附容量有所增大;对于吸附动力学,介质孔径显著影响有效扩散系数.结果表明,配基密度和介质孔径共同决定了蛋白

  15. Birefringence control for ion-exchanged channel glass waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayräs, P; Conti, G N; Honkanen, S; Peyghambarian, N

    1998-12-20

    We show that at 1.55-mum wavelength the waveguide birefringence of ion-exchanged channel waveguides in glass can be broadly tuned by a potassium and silver double-ion exchange. Two different potassium and silver double-ion-exchange processes are used to make surface waveguides with negligible waveguide birefringence. This process is crucially important in the manufacture of devices for dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems. The dependence of the waveguide birefringence on the channel width is also reported.

  16. Zeolitic ammonium ion exchange for portable hemodialysis dialysate regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, J F; Yao, S J; Wolfson, S K

    1995-01-01

    Ammonia removal from a recirculating dialysate stream is a major challenge in developing a truly portable, regenerable hemodialysis system. Three zeolites, type F, type W, and clinoptilolite, were found to have good ammonia ion exchange capacity with linear equilibrium ion exchange coefficients of 0.908, 0.488, and 0.075 L/g, respectively. The linear equilibrium ion exchange coefficient relates dialysate ammonia concentration (mumol/L) to the amount of ammonia absorbed by zeolite (mumol/g) at equilibrium. Ammonia uptake by zeolite powders was fast, with equilibrium reached within 15 sec. Zeolite ammonia ion exchange and regeneration through multiple cycles was studied using an ion exchange column containing clinoptilolite pellets. Zeolite ion exchange capability was regenerated by flushing the column with 2 mol/L sodium chloride after an ion exchange run. The column maintained ammonia ion exchange capacity through six ion exchange/regeneration cycles, demonstrating multiple dialysis use possibilities. Atomic absorption spectroscopy of the column effluent showed no detectible (< 1 part per million) Si or Al leached from the zeolite.

  17. Literature Review of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde for Cesium Ion Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Garrett N.

    2014-09-30

    The current report summarizes work performed throughout the scientific community and DOE complex as reported in the open literature and DOE-sponsored reports to evaluate the Cs+ ion exchange (CIX) characteristics of SRF resin. King (2007) completed a similar literature review in support of material selection for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project. Josephson et al. (2010) and Sams et al. (2009) provided a similar brief review of SRF CIX for the near-tank Cs+ removal (NTCR) project. Thorson (2008a) documented the basis for recommending SRF over SuperLigTM 644 as the primary CIX resin in the WTP. The current review expands on previous work, summarizes additional work completed to date, and provides a broad view of the literature without focusing on a specific column system. Although the focus of the current review is the SRF resin, many cited references include multiple materials such as the non-spherical GGRF and SuperLigTM 644 organic resins and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IONSIVTM IE-911, a non-elutable inorganic material. This report summarizes relevant information provided in the literature.

  18. Modelling the ion-exchange equilibrium in nanoporous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lukšič

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of a two component electrolyte mixture between the model adsorbent and a bulk aqueous electrolyte solution was studied using the replica Ornstein-Zernike theory and the grand canonical Monte Carlo method. The electrolyte components were modelled to mimic the HCl/NaCl and HCl/CaCl2 mixtures, respectively. The matrix, invaded by the primitive model electrolyte mixture, was formed from monovalent negatively charged spherical obstacles. The solution was treated as a continuous dielectric with the properties of pure water. Comparison of the pair distribution functions (obtained by the two methods between the various ionic species indicated a good agreement between the replica Ornstein-Zernike results and machine calculations. Among thermodynamic properties, the mean activity coefficient of the invaded electrolyte components was calculated. Simple model for the ion-exchange resin was proposed. The selectivity calculations yielded qualitative agreement with the following experimental observations: (i selectivity increases with the increasing capacity of the adsorbent (matrix concentration, (ii the adsorbent is more selective for the ion having higher charge density if its fraction in mixture is smaller.

  19. Active carbon-ceramic sphere as support of ruthenium catalysts for catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of resin effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Min; Hu, Yi-Qiang; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2010-07-15

    Active carbon-ceramic sphere as support of ruthenium catalysts were evaluated through the catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of resin effluent in a packed-bed reactor. Active carbon-ceramic sphere and ruthenium catalysts were characterized by N(2) adsorption and chemisorption measurements. BET surface area and total pore volume of active carbon (AC) in the active carbon-ceramic sphere increase with increasing KOH-to-carbon ratio, and AC in the sample KC-120 possesses values as high as 1100 m(2) g(-1) and 0.69 cm(3) g(-1) (carbon percentage: 4.73 wt.%), especially. Active carbon-ceramic sphere supported ruthenium catalysts were prepared using the RuCl(3) solution impregnation onto these supports, the ruthenium loading was fixed at 1-5 wt.% of AC in the support. The catalytic activity varies according to the following order: Ru/KC-120>Ru/KC-80>Ru/KC-60>KC-120>without catalysts. It is found that the 3 wt.% Ru/KC-120 catalyst displays highest stability in the CWAO of resin effluent during 30 days. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol removal were about 92% and 96%, respectively at the reaction temperature of 200 degrees C, oxygen pressure of 1.5 MPa, the water flow rate of 0.75 L h(-1) and the oxygen flow rate of 13.5 L h(-1).

  20. Cu-ZSM-11 catalysts prepared with microwave irradiation ion-exchange method and direct decomposition of NO over MeOx/Cu-ZSM-11 with microwave irradiation%微波离子交换法制备Cu-ZSM-11及微波辐照MeOx/Cu-ZSM-11催化分解NO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗羽裳; 周继承; 徐文涛; 游志敏; 龙伟; 蒋沧海

    2016-01-01

    Cu-ZSM-11 molecular sieve was prepared by the microwave ion-exchange method. The heating behavior of several kinds of metal oxides under microwave irradiation was investigated. Some metal oxide (MnO2>CuO>Ni2O3)which is of good absorption property for microwave was selected to be used for mixing with Cu-ZSM-11 catalyst to prepare the microwave catalysts. Direct decomposition of NO over the microwave catalyst MeOx/Cu-ZSM-11 was conducted with microwave irradiation, and their performance was investigated under microwave irradiation and traditional heating modes respectively. The results show that the conversion rate of decomposing NO is significantly higher under microwave irradiation than under traditional heating; and at catalyst bed temperature 350℃, the NO conversion is achieved up to 99.30% and N2 selectivity 99.9%. Furthermore, under microwave irradiation, the conversion of decomposing NO is higher for the mixture catalyst MeOx/Cu-ZSM-11 than for alone metal oxides and alone Cu-ZSM-11, indicating that microwave irradiation plays important role in catalytic decomposition of nitrogen oxide. The results indicate also that over MeOx/Cu-ZSM-11 with microwave irradiation, oxygen concentration in steam has almost no influences on its catalytic activity for NO decomposition,i.e. microwave irradiation can remove oxygen inhibition in decomposition reaction and keep unique selective effect. Similarly, the influence of water vapor in stream is also much less under microwave irradiation. The exit gas temperature is almost not change for Microwave–assisted reaction, and is the same as the reaction temperature 500—600℃ for conventional heating mode reaction.%用微波辐照离子交换法制备了Cu-ZSM-11,制备的Cu-ZSM-11和金属氧化物(MeOx)机械混合制备了微波催化剂 MeOx/Cu-ZSM-11。考察了 MeOx 在微波辐照下的升温行为,筛选出吸波性能好的 MeOx (MnO2>CuO>Ni2O3)为吸波组分。分别考察了微波辐

  1. Ion exchange materials, method of forming ion exchange materials, and methods of treating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertsching, Alan K.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wey, John E.

    2007-12-25

    The invention includes an ion affinity material having an organic component which is sulfonated and which is chemically bonded to an inorganic substrate component. The invention includes a method of forming a metal binding material. A solid support material comprising surface oxide groups is provided and an organic component having at least one alkyl halide is covalently linked to at least some of the surface oxide groups to form a modified support material. The at least one alkyl halide is subsequently converted into an alkyl sulfonate. The invention further includes a method and system for extracting ions from a liquid. An ion exchange material having a sulfonated alkyl silane component covalently bonded to a metal oxide support material is provided and a liquid is exposed to the ion exchange material.

  2. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.; Stohl, Frances V.

    1985-01-01

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  3. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  4. Polymethylmethacrylate open tubular ion exchange columns: nondestructive measurement of very small ion exchange capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Bingcheng; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2013-08-20

    We describe an approach to prepare an open tubular ion exchange (OTIE) column by coating a monolayer of anion exchange nanoparticle to a 16-20 μm bore polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) capillary. The latex nanoparticle was electrostatically attached to carboxylate groups on the inner wall of capillary, pretreated with strong base for hydrolyzing the ester. Several approaches to nondestructively measure ion exchange capacities (IEC) of the columns were examined: (a) adsorption-desorption of an intensely fluorescent ion, e.g. fluorescein, and off-line fluorometry, (b) loading a weakly retained ion (e.g., IO3(-)), frontal displacement by a strongly bound ion (e.g., Cl(-)), and online optical or conductometric boundary detection, and (c) similar to the above except displacement being accompanied by reaction (e.g., acid-base titration). To our knowledge, this is the first time on-column titration has been used to measure capacities. By using different pH displacer solutions, we demonstrate for the first time the possibility of pKa-differentiated ion exchange capacity measurements. The cation exchange capacity of bare PMMA capillaries was on the order of 1 pequiv/mm(2) with little dependence on time and temperature of hydrolysis conditions. After AS18 latex coating, the strong base anion exchange capacity was on the order of 10 pequiv/mm(2), very close to what would be estimated on the basis of monolayer coverage of the surface by individual latex particles. The latex used contained a significant, additional amount of weak base character, about the same as the strong base ion exchange capacity.

  5. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  6. Using Ion Exchange Chromatography to Separate and Quantify Complex Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography is an important technique in the separation of charged species, particularly in biological, inorganic, and environmental samples. In this experiment, students are supplied with a mixture of two substitution-inert complex ions. They separate the complexes by ion exchange chromatography using a "flash"…

  7. Ion Exchange Chromatography and Spectrophotometry: An Introductory Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which students use ion exchange chromatography to separate a mixture of chloro complexes of transition metal ions and then use spectrophotometry to define qualitatively the efficiency of the ion exchange columns. Background information, materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  8. MODELING OF ION-EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM DISSOLVED SALTCAKE IN SRS TANKS 1-3, 37 AND 41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F

    2007-08-15

    This report presents an evaluation of the expected performance of engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) and spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) ion exchange resin for the removal of cesium from dissolved saltcake in SRS Tanks 1-3, 37 and 41. The application presented in this report reflects the expected behavior of engineered CST IE-911 and spherical RF resin manufactured at the intermediate-scale (approximately 100 gallon batch size; batch 5E-370/641). It is generally believed that scale-up to production-scale in RF resin manufacturing will result in similarly behaving resin batches whose chemical selectivity is unaffected while total capacity per gram of resin may vary. As such, the predictions provided within this report should provide reasonable estimates of production-scale column performance. Two versions of the RF cesium isotherm were used. The older version provides a conservative estimate of the resin capacity while the newer version more accurately fits the most recent experimental data.

  9. A study of ion-exchange chromatography in an expanded bed for bovine albumin recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Severo Jr.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the effect of bed expansion on BSA adsorption on Amberlite IRA 410 ion-exchange resin was studied. The hydrodynamic behavior of an expanded bed adsorption column on effects of the biomolecules and salt addition and temperature were studied to optimize the conditions for BSA recovery on ion-exchange resin. Residence time distribution showed that HEPT, axial dispersion and the Pecletl number increased with temperature and bed height, bed voidage and linear velocity. The binding capacity of the resin increased with bed height. The Amberlite IRA 410 ion-exchange showed an affinity for BSA with a recovery yield of 78.36 % of total protein.No presente trabalho foi estudado o efeito da expansão do leito sobre a adsorção de BSA na resina de troca iônica Amberlite IRA 410. O comportamento hidrodinâmico de uma coluna de adsorção em leito expandido sob efeito da adição de biomoléculas, sal e variação da temperatura também foi estudado para obter as condições ótimas de recuperação da BSA sob a resina de troca iônica. A distribuição do tempo de residência mostrou que a HEPT, a dispersão axial e o número de Pecletl aumentaram com a temperatura, altura do leito, porosidade do leito e velocidade linear. A capacidade de ligação da resina aumentou com a expansão do leito. A resina de troca iônica Amberlite IRA 410 mostrou ter afinidade pela BSA, com uma recuperação de 78,36 % da proteína total.

  10. Lability of heavy metal species in aquatic humic substances characterized by ion exchange with cellulose phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, J C; Toscano, I A; Burba, P

    1997-01-01

    Labile metal species in aquatic humic substances (HSs) were characterized by ion exchange on cellulose phosphate (CellPhos) by applying an optimized batch procedure. The HSs investigated were pre-extracted from humic-rich waters by ultrafiltration and a resin XAD 8 procedure. The HS-metal species studied were formed by complexation with Cd(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) as a function of time and the ratio ions to HSs. The kinetics and reaction order of this exchange process were studied. At the beginning ( Pb > Mn > Ni > Cd. The required metal determinations were carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  11. The effect of curing light and chemical catalyst on the degree of conversion of two dual cured resin luting cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo José; Prieto, Lúcia Trazzi; Soares, Giulliana Panfiglio; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Aguiar, Flávio Henrique Baggio; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different curing lights and chemical catalysts on the degree of conversion of resin luting cements. A total of 60 disk-shaped specimens of RelyX ARC or Panavia F of diameter 5 mm and thickness 0.5 mm were prepared and the respective chemical catalyst (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus or ED Primer) was added. The specimens were light-cured using different curing units (an argon ion laser, an LED or a quartz-tungsten-halogen light) through shade A2 composite disks of diameter 10 mm and thickness 2 mm. After 24 h of dry storage at 37°C, the degree of conversion of the resin luting cements was measured by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and the Tukey test were used, with p ≤ 0.05. Panavia F when used without catalyst and cured using the LED or the argon ion laser showed degree of conversion values significantly lower than RelyX ARC, with and without catalyst, and cured with any of the light sources. Therefore, the degree of conversion of Panavia F with ED Primer cured with the quartz-tungsten-halogen light was significantly different from that of RelyX ARC regardless of the use of the chemical catalyst and light curing source. In conclusion, RelyX ARC can be cured satisfactorily with the argon ion laser, LED or quartz-tungsten-halogen light with or without a chemical catalyst. To obtain a satisfactory degree of conversion, Panavia F luting cement should be used with ED Primer and cured with halogen light.

  12. Fermentation and recovery of L-glutamic acid from cassava starch hydrolysate by ion-exchange resin column Produção de ácido L-glutâmico a partir de um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca usando resina de troca iônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Madhavan Nampoothiri

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out with the aim of producing L-glutamic acid from Brevibacterium sp. by utilizing a locally available starchy substrate, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Initial studies were carried out in shake flasks, which showed that even though the yield was high with 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value, the maximum conversion yield (~34% was obtained by using only partially digested starch hydrolysate, i.e. 45-50 DE. Fermentations were carried out in batch mode in a 5 L fermenter, using suitably diluted cassava starch hydrolysate, using a 85-90 DE value hydrolysate. Media supplemented with nutrients resulted in an accumulation of 21 g/L glutamic acid with a fairly high (66.3% conversation yield of glucose to glutamic acid (based on glucose consumed and on 81.74% theoretical conversion rate. The bioreactor conditions most conducive for maximum production were pH 7.5, temperature 30°C and an agitation of 180 rpm. When fermentation was conducted in fed-batch mode by keeping the residual reducing sugar concentration at 5% w/v, 25.0 g/L of glutamate was obtained after 40 h fermentation (16% more the batch mode. Chromatographic separation by ion-exchange resin was used for the recovery and purification of glutamic acid. It was further crystallized and separated by making use of its low solubility at the isoelectric point (pH 3.2.Pesquisas foram realizadas com o objetivo de produzir ácido glutâmico a partir de Brevibacterium sp. utilizando um substrato disponível na região, a mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. Estudos iniciais, desenvolvidos em shaker, demonstraram que mesmo obtendo elevado rendimento com 85-90 DE (Dextrose Equivalent value, a taxa de conversão máxima (~34% foi obtida usando um hidrolisado de amido parcialmente digerido, i.e. 45-50 DE. As fermentações foram realizadas em um fermentador de 5 L, usando um hidrolisado de amido de mandioca adequadamente diluído, preparado à partir de um valor DE de 85-90. O

  13. Environmentally benign hardness removal using ion-exchange fibers and snowmelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E; Sengupta, Arup K

    2006-01-01

    Many industrial unit operations and unit processes require near-complete removal of hardness to avoid scaling in heat-transfer equipment, fouling in membranes, and high consumption of detergents and sequestering chemicals in cooling and wash water. Lime softening and cation exchange are the most commonly used processes practiced to date for hardness removal. Herein, we report and discuss the results and attributes of a new hardness removal process using ion-exchange fibers (IX-fibers). Most importantly, the process uses harvested snowmelt (or rainwater) as the regenerant chemical along with sparged carbon dioxide. Consequently, the spent regenerant does not contain a high concentration of aggressive chemicals such as sodium chloride or acid like traditional ion-exchange processes nor does the process produce voluminous sludges similar to lime softening. The bulk of carbon dioxide consumed during regeneration remains sequestered in the aqueous phase as alkalinity. IX-fibers form the heart of the process. They are essentially thin cylindrical polymeric strands 10-20 microm in diameter. The weak-acid carboxylate functional groups reside near to the surface of these cylindrical fibers. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason IX-fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration with snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide. When the carbon dioxide partial pressure is increased to 6.8 atm, over 90% calcium desorption efficiency is obtained. On the contrary, commercial weak-acid ion-exchange resins in spherical bead forms are ineffective for regeneration with carbon-dioxide-sparged snowmelt due to extremely slow ion-exchange kinetics involving counter-transport of Ca2+ and H+.

  14. Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Waste Cooking Oil by Heterogeneous Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽艳; 刘志敏; 唐国武; 谭蔚

    2014-01-01

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is becoming the most promising alternative feedstock to produce biodiesel due to its low cost in China. In this study, NKC-9 ion-exchange resin and H-beta zeolite were selected as heterogeneous catalysts in the WCO esterification process and their esterification characteristics were compared by orthogonal ex-periments. NKC-9 resin showed higher activity and achieved a higher final conversion compared with H-beta zeolite under the same reaction conditions. Reusability experiments showed that NKC-9 resin still exhibited high activity after 5 runs. The effects of the mole ratio of alcohol to oil, reaction time, reaction temperature and the catalyst dose were investigated by multifactor orthogonal analysis. The influence of the free fatty acid (FFA) content was also investi-gated, and the result showed that the esterification rate could be as high as 98.4%when the FFA content was 6.3wt%.

  15. Sers-Active Silver Nanoparticles in Ion-Exchanged Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Jaakola, Janne; Säynätjoki, Antti; Tervonen, Ari; Honkanen, Seppo

    We study synthesis and SERS activity of glass-embedded ion-exchanged silver nanoparticles formed by two different methods. Silver-sodium ion-exchange process with heat treatment was utilized on commercial microscope slides, while masked ion-exchange technique was performed on glass Corning 0211. The distribution of particles was studied by absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. After etching the glass surface to expose the particles, SERS performance of these particles was investigated with micro-Raman spectroscopy using Rhodamine 6G as the analyte.

  16. Ion-exchanged glass waveguide technology: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Ari; West, Brian R.; Honkanen, Seppo

    2011-07-01

    We review the history and current status of ion exchanged glass waveguide technology. The background of ion exchange in glass and key developments in the first years of research are briefly described. An overview of fabrication, characterization and modeling of waveguides is given and the most important waveguide devices and their applications are discussed. Ion exchanged waveguide technology has served as an available platform for studies of general waveguide properties, integrated optics structures and devices, as well as applications. It is also a commercial fabrication technology for both passive and active wave-guide components.

  17. Electrochemical ion exchanger in the water circuit to measure cation conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, Bernt; Ingemarsson, Rolf; Settervik, Gustav [Ringhals AB, Vaeroebacka (Sweden); Velin, Anna [Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-03-15

    At Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), more than four years of successful operation with a full-scale electrode ionization (EDI) unit for the recycling of steam generator blowdown gave the inspiration to modify and scale down this EDI process. As part of this project, the possibility of replacing the cation exchanger columns used for cation conductivity analysis with some small and integrated electrochemical ion exchange cells was explored. Monitoring the cation conductivity requires the use of a small cation resin column upstream of the conductivity probe and is one of the most important analyses at power plants. However, when operating with high alkaline treatment in the steam circuit, there is the disadvantage of rapid exhaustion of the resins, necessitating frequent replacement or regeneration. This causes interruptions in the monitoring and gives rise to a high workload for the maintenance staff. This paper reports on the optimization and testing of two different two-compartment electrochemical cells for possible replacement of the cation resin columns for analyzing cation conductivity in the secondary steam circuit at Ringhals NPP. Field tests during start-up conditions and more than four months of steady operation together with real and simulated tests for impurity influences indicate that an electrical ion exchange (ELIX) process could be successfully used to replace the resin columns in Ringhals while operating with high-pH all-volatile treatment (AVT) using hydrazine and ammonia. Installation of an ELIX system downstream of a particle filter and upstream of a small cation resin column will introduce additional safety and further reduce the maintenance and possible interruptions. Performance of the ELIX process together with other chemical additives (morpholine, ethanolamine, 3-methoxypropylamine, dimethylamine) and dispersants may be further evaluated to qualify the ELIX process as well as steam generator blowdown electrodeionization for wider use in

  18. Custom-tailored adsorbers: A molecular dynamics study on optimal design of ion exchange chromatography material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Katharina M H; Kittelmann, Jörg; Pilgram, Florian; Osberghaus, Anna; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-09-25

    The performance of functionalized materials, e.g., ion exchange resins, depends on multiple resin characteristics, such as type of ligand, ligand density, the pore accessibility for a molecule, and backbone characteristics. Therefore, the screening and identification process for optimal resin characteristics for separation is very time and material consuming. Previous studies on the influence of resin characteristics have focused on an experimental approach and to a lesser extent on the mechanistic understanding of the adsorption mechanism. In this in silico study, a previously developed molecular dynamics (MD) tool is used, which simulates any given biomolecule on resins with varying ligand densities. We describe a set of simulations and experiments with four proteins and six resins varying in ligand density, and show that simulations and experiments correlate well in a wide range of ligand density. With this new approach simulations can be used as pre-experimental screening for optimal adsorber characteristics, reducing the actual number of screening experiments, which results in a faster and more knowledge-based development of custom-tailored adsorbers.

  19. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  20. ION EXCHANGE MECHANISM OF Cr+3 ON NATURALLY OCCURRING CLINOPTILOLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S.D. de Barros

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange isotherms are very important tools to achieve a better comprehension of cation removal by means of zeolite treatment. In this work, three isotherms were obtained (at 298K, at 313K and at 333K from natural pretreated Na+ clinoptilolite. The ion exchange was carried out with Cr+3 ions. The isotherms’ shape is similar to the classical type "b" isotherm, according to the arrangement proposed by Breck (1984. Mathematical fitting was applied to the experimental points (Table Curve software to obtain a representative curve thereof. From such fittings, points were simulated and then used to construct the Kielland plots, whose shape was associated with an ion exchange mechanism. Straight lines were obtained as an indication that, although the zeolite used is of natural occurrence and presents impurities such as mordenite and clays, only one site is involved in the ion exchange process

  1. Hydrolyzed Poly(acrylonitrile) Electrospun Ion-Exchange Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Manisha; Bhowmick, Sankha; Sengupta, Sukalyan; Patra, Prabir K; Walker, Douglas I

    2014-06-01

    A potential ion-exchange material was developed from poly(acrylonitrile) fibers that were prepared by electrospinning followed by alkaline hydrolysis (to convert the nitrile group to the carboxylate functional group). Characterization studies performed on this material using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy, and ion chromatography confirmed the presence of ion-exchange functional group (carboxylate). Optimum hydrolysis conditions resulted in an ion-exchange capacity of 2.39 meq/g. Ion-exchange fibers were used in a packed-bed column to selectively remove heavy-metal cation from the background of a benign, competing cation at a much higher concentration. The material can be efficiently regenerated and used for multiple cycles of exhaustion and regeneration.

  2. Hydrolyzed Poly(acrylonitrile) Electrospun Ion-Exchange Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Jassal, Manisha; Bhowmick, Sankha; Sengupta, Sukalyan; Patra, Prabir K.; Walker, Douglas I.

    2014-01-01

    A potential ion-exchange material was developed from poly(acrylonitrile) fibers that were prepared by electrospinning followed by alkaline hydrolysis (to convert the nitrile group to the carboxylate functional group). Characterization studies performed on this material using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-Transform infra-red spectroscopy, and ion chromatography confirmed the presence of ion-exchange functional group (carboxylate). Optimum hydrolysis co...

  3. Controlled porosity monolithic material as permselective ion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2011-03-18

    Ion exchange membranes (IEMs) are used in a variety of analytical devices, including suppressors, eluent generators and other components used in ion chromatography. Such membranes are flexible and undergo substantial dimensional changes on hydration. Presently the push to miniaturization continues; a resurgent interest in open tubular ion chromatography requires microscale adaptation of these components. Incorporating IEMs in microscale devices is difficult. Although both macroporous and microporous ion exchange materials have been made for use as chromatographic packing, ion exchange material used as membranes are porous only on a molecular scale. Because such pores have vicinal ion exchange sites, ions of the same charge sign as those of the fixed sites are excluded from the IEMs. Monolithic polymers, including ion exchangers derived therefrom, are presently extensively used. When used in a separation column, such a monolithic structure contains an extensively connected porous network. We show here that by controlling the amount of porogen added during the synthesis of monolithic polymers derived from ethylene dimethacrylate - glycidyl methacrylate, which are converted to an anion exchanger by treatment with trimethylamine, it is possible to obtain rigid ion exchange polymers that behave like IEMs and allow only one charge type of ions to pass through, i.e., are permselective. We demonstrate successful open tubular cation chromatography suppressor performance.

  4. Recent advances in polymer monoliths for ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Anna; Hilder, Emily F

    2009-05-01

    The use of polymeric materials in ion-exchange chromatography applications is advantageous because of their typically high mechanical stability and tolerance of a wide range of pH conditions. The possibility of using polymeric monoliths in ion-exchange chromatography is therefore obvious and many of the same strategies developed for polymeric particles have been adapted for use with polymeric monoliths. In this review different strategies for the synthesis of polymeric monoliths with ion-exchange functionality are discussed. The incorporation of ion-exchange functionality by co-polymerization is included, as also are different post-polymerization alterations to the monolith surface such as grafting. The formulations and strategies presented include materials intended for use in analytical separations in ion-exchange chromatography, sample pre-treatment or enrichment applications, and materials for capillary electrochromatography. Finally, examples of the use of polymeric monoliths in ion-exchange chromatography applications are included with examples published in the years 2003 to 2008.

  5. LITERATURE REVIEWS TO SUPPORT ION EXCHANGE TECHNOLOGY SELECTION FOR MODULAR SALT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W

    2007-11-30

    This report summarizes the results of literature reviews conducted to support the selection of a cesium removal technology for application in a small column ion exchange (SCIX) unit supported within a high level waste tank. SCIX is being considered as a technology for the treatment of radioactive salt solutions in order to accelerate closure of waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of the Modular Salt Processing (MSP) technology development program. Two ion exchange materials, spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) and engineered Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), are being considered for use within the SCIX unit. Both ion exchange materials have been studied extensively and are known to have high affinities for cesium ions in caustic tank waste supernates. RF is an elutable organic resin and CST is a non-elutable inorganic material. Waste treatment processes developed for the two technologies will differ with regard to solutions processed, secondary waste streams generated, optimum column size, and waste throughput. Pertinent references, anticipated processing sequences for utilization in waste treatment, gaps in the available data, and technical comparisons will be provided for the two ion exchange materials to assist in technology selection for SCIX. The engineered, granular form of CST (UOP IE-911) was the baseline ion exchange material used for the initial development and design of the SRS SCIX process (McCabe, 2005). To date, in-tank SCIX has not been implemented for treatment of radioactive waste solutions at SRS. Since initial development and consideration of SCIX for SRS waste treatment an alternative technology has been developed as part of the River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) Research and Technology program (Thorson, 2006). Spherical RF resin is the baseline media for cesium removal in the RPP-WTP, which was designed for the treatment of radioactive waste supernates and is currently under construction in Hanford, WA

  6. Characterization of cross-linked cellulosic ion-exchange adsorbents: 2. Protein sorption and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, James M; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Gantier, Rene; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2016-03-18

    Adsorption behavior in the HyperCel family of cellulosic ion-exchange materials (Pall Corporation) was characterized using methods to assess, quantitatively and qualitatively, the dynamics of protein uptake as well as static adsorption as a function of ionic strength and protein concentration using several model proteins. The three exchangers studied all presented relatively high adsorptive capacities under low ionic strength conditions, comparable to commercially available resins containing polymer functionalization aimed at increasing that particular characteristic. The strong cation- and anion-exchange moieties showed higher sensitivity to increasing salt concentrations, but protein affinity on the salt-tolerant STAR AX HyperCel exchanger remained strong at ionic strengths normally used in downstream processing to elute material fully during ion-exchange chromatography. Very high uptake rates were observed in both batch kinetics experiments and time-series confocal laser scanning microscopy, suggesting low intraparticle transport resistances relative to external film resistance, even at higher bulk protein concentrations where the opposite is typically observed. Electron microscopy imaging of protein adsorbed phases provided additional insight into particle structure that could not be resolved in previous work on the bare resins.

  7. Ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions affecting selectivity for neutral and charged solutes on three structurally similar agglomerated ion-exchange and mixed-mode stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarian, Artaches A; Taylor, Mark R; Haddad, Paul R; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2013-11-25

    The nature and extent of mixed-mode retention mechanisms evident for three structurally related, agglomerated, particle-based stationary phases were evaluated. These three agglomerated phases were Thermo Fisher ScientificIon PacAS11-HC - strong anion exchange, Thermo Fisher Scientific IonPac CS10--strong cation-exchange PS-DVB, and the Thermo Fisher Scientific Acclaim Trinity P1silica-based substrate, which is commercially marketed as a mixed-mode stationary phase. All studied phases can exhibit zwitterionic and hydrophobic properties, which contribute to the retention of charged organic analytes. A systematic approach was devised to investigate the relative ion-exchange capacities and hydrophobicities for each of the three phases, together with the effect of eluent pH upon selectivity, using a specifically selected range of anionic, cationic and neutral aromatic compounds. Investigation of the strong anion-exchange column and the Trinity P1 mixed-mode substrate, in relation to ion-exchange capacity and pH effects, demonstrated similar retention behaviour for both the anionic and ampholytic solutes, as expected from the structurally related phases. Further evaluation revealed that the ion-exchange selectivity of the mixed-mode phase exhibited properties similar to that of the strong anion-exchange column, with secondary cation-exchange selectivity, albeit with medium to high anion-exchange and cation-exchange capacities, allowing selective retention for each of the anionic, cationic and ampholytic solutes. Observed mixed-mode retention upon the examined phases was found to be a sum of anion- and cation-exchange interactions, secondary ion-exchange and hydrophobic interactions, with possible additional hydrogen bonding. Hydrophobic evaluation of the three phases revealed logP values of 0.38-0.48, suggesting low to medium hydrophobicity. These stationary phases were also benchmarked against traditional reversed-phase substrates namely, octadecylsilica YMC-Pac Pro C18

  8. Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-10-21

    This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

  9. The load and release characteristics on a strong cationic ion-exchange fiber: kinetics, thermodynamics, and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Gao, Yanan; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Hongzhuo; Che, Xin; Xu, Lu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qifang; Wang, Yan; Li, Sanming

    2014-01-01

    Ion-exchange fibers were different from conventional ion-exchange resins in their non-cross-linked structure. The exchange was located on the surface of the framework, and the transport resistance reduced significantly, which might mean that the exchange is controlled by an ionic reaction instead of diffusion. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the load and release characteristics of five model drugs with the strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1. Drugs were loaded using a batch process and released in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) dissolution apparatus 2. Opposing exchange kinetics, suitable for the special structure of the fiber, were developed for describing the exchange process with the help of thermodynamics, which illustrated that the load was controlled by an ionic reaction. The molecular weight was the most important factor to influence the drug load and release rate. Strong alkalinity and rings in the molecular structures made the affinity between the drug and fiber strong, while logP did not cause any profound differences. The drug-fiber complexes exhibited sustained release. Different kinds and concentrations of counter ions or different amounts of drug-fiber complexes in the release medium affected the release behavior, while the pH value was independent of it. The groundwork for in-depth exploration and further application of ion-exchange fibers has been laid.

  10. Separation of 1,3-Propanediol from Aqueous Solutions by Ion Exchange Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukowicz Beata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-propanediol is a promising monomer with many applications and can be produced by bioconversion of renewable resources. The separation of this product from fermentation broth is a difficult task. In this work, the application of cation exchange resin for the separation of 1,3-propanediol from model aqueous solution was examined. The best effect of separation of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol using sorption method was obtained for H+ resin form, although the observed partition coefficient of 1,3-propanediol was low. On the basis of the results of the sorption of 1,3-propanediol, the ionic forms of the resin were selected and used in the next experiments (H+, Ca2+, Ag+, Na+, Pb2+, Zn2+. The best results in ion exchange chromatography were obtained for cation exchange resin in H+ and Ca2+ form. The use of smaller particle size of resin and a longer length of the column allows to obtain better separation of mixtures.

  11. [Ion specificity during ion exchange equilibrium in natural clinoptilolite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun-Hua; Li, Hang; Liu, Xin-Min; Xiong, Hai-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Zeolites have been widely applied in soil improvement and environment protection. The study on ion specificity during ion exchange equilibrium is of important significance for better use of zeolites. The maximum adsorption capacities of alkali ions during ion exchange equilibrium in the clinoptilolite showed obvious specificity. For alkali metal ions with equivalent valence, the differences in adsorption capacity increased with the decrease of ionic concentration. These results cannot be well explained by the classical theories including coulomb force, ionic size, hydration, dispersion force, classic induction force and surface complexation. We found that the coupling of polarization effects resulted from the quantum fluctuation of diverse alkali metal ions and electric field near the zeolite surface should be the primary reason for specific ion effect during ion exchange in zeolite. The result of this coupling effect was that the difference in the ion dipole moment increased with the increase of surface potential, which further expanded the difference in the adsorption ability between zeolite surface and ions, resulting in different ion exchange adsorption ability at the solid/liquid interface. Due to the high surface charge density of zeolite, ionic size also played an important role in the distribution of ions in the double diffuse layer, which led to an interesting result that distinct differences in exchange adsorption ability of various alkali metal ions were only detected at high surface potential (the absolute value was greater than 0.2 V), which was different from the ion exchange equilibrium result on the surface with low charge density.

  12. Ion exchange performance of commercial crystalline silicotitanates for cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J. [and others

    1996-03-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na{sup +}. The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. Together, the high selectivity and stability of the CSTs made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia National Laboratories and UOP have teamed under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by the Sandia and Texas A&M team consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications.

  13. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  14. ION EXCHANGE PERFORMANCE OF TITANOSILICATES, GERMANATES AND CARBON NANOTUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsobrook, A. N.; Hobbs, D. T.

    2013-04-24

    This report presents a summary of testing the affinity of titanosilicates (TSP), germanium-substituted titanosilicates (Ge-TSP) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) for lanthanide ions in dilute nitric acid solution. The K-TSP ion exchanger exhibited the highest affinity for lanthanides in dilute nitric acid solutions. The Ge-TSP ion exchanger shows promise as a material with high affinity, but additional tests are needed to confirm the preliminary results. The MWCNT exhibited much lower affinities than the K-TSP in dilute nitric acid solutions. However, the MWCNT are much more chemically stable to concentrated nitric acid solutions and, therefore, may candidates for ion exchange in more concentrated nitric acid solutions. This technical report serves as the deliverable documenting completion of the FY13 research milestone, M4FT-13SR0303061 – measure actinide and lanthanide distribution values in nitric acid solutions with sodium and potassium titanosilicate materials.

  15. Ion-exchange chromatographic analysis of peroxynitric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoichi; Ikawa, Satoshi; Tani, Atsushi; Kitano, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-29

    Ion-exchange chromatographic analysis of peroxynitric acid (O2NOOH) was performed by combining an acidic eluate with an UV-vis detector and immersing the separation column in an ice-water bath. The decomposition behavior of peroxynitric acid in the solution was also studied using this system. The fraction for the peroxynitric acid peak was collected. Ion-exchange chromatographic analysis of this fraction, after standing at room temperature for 24h, showed that the decomposition products were mainly nitrate ions with a very small amount of nitrous acid. The peroxynitric acid peak area correlated perfectly with the total amount of decomposition products. The ion-exchange chromatographic isolation allowed us to evaluate the molar extinction coefficient of peroxynitric acid precisely in a wider wavelength range than previous reports. The value decreases monotonically from 1729±26M(-1)cm(-1) at 200nm to 12.0±0.5M(-1)cm(-1) at 290nm.

  16. Removal of charged micropollutants from water by ion-exchange polymers -- effects of competing electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Hofman-Caris, Roberta C H M; de Voogt, Pim; Droge, Steven T J

    2012-10-15

    A wide variety of environmental compounds of concern, e.g. pharmaceuticals or illicit drugs, are acids or bases that may predominantly be present as charged species in drinking water sources. These charged micropollutants may prove difficult to remove by currently used water treatment steps (e.g. UV/H(2)O(2), activated carbon (AC) or membranes). We studied the sorption affinity of some ionic organic compounds to both AC and different charged polymeric materials. Ion-exchange polymers may be effective as additional extraction phases in water treatment, because sorption of all charged compounds to oppositely charged polymers was stronger than to AC, especially for the double-charged cation metformin. Tested below 1% of the polymer ion-exchange capacity, the sorption affinity of charged micropollutants is nonlinear and depends on the composition of the aqueous medium. Whereas oppositely charged electrolytes do not impact sorption of organic ions, equally charged electrolytes do influence sorption indicating ion-exchange (IE) to be the main sorption mechanism. For the tested polymers, a tenfold increased salt concentration lowered the IE-sorption affinity by a factor two. Different electrolytes affect IE with organic ions in a similar way as inorganic ions on IE-resins, and no clear differences in this trend were observed between the sulphonated and the carboxylated cation-exchanger. Sorption of organic cations is five fold less in Ca(2+) solutions compared to similar concentrations of Na(+), while that of anionic compounds is three fold weaker in SO(4)(2-) solutions compared to equal concentrations of Cl(-).

  17. THE EFFECT OF THE ACID CATALYST ON THE PREPARATION OF MQ SILICONE RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Huang; Ying Huang; Yun-zhao Yu

    1999-01-01

    MQ silicone resins were prepared through hydrolytic condensation of ethyl polysilicate or tetraethoxysilane and hexamethyl disiloxane. The unit ratio of the MQ resins was determined by 29Si-NMR.The relationship of the unit ratio of the product resins with that in the feed was studied. When the reaction was catalyzed by aqueous hydrochloric acid, and the unit ratio of M to Q in the feed was more than 1, the unit ratio of the product was usually lower than that of the feed. The MQ silicon with an unit ratio of M/Q>2 could not be obtained. However, if the reaction was catalyzed by concentrated sulfuric acid and the reverse hydrolysis process was employed, MQ silicone resin with very high M/Q ratio was successfully prepared.

  18. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  19. Ion-exchanged Tm3+:glass channel waveguide laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Amol; Kannan, Pradeesh; Mackenzie, Jacob I; Feng, Xian; Shepherd, David P

    2013-04-01

    Continuous wave laser action around 1.9 μm has been demonstrated in a Tm(3+)-doped germanate glass channel waveguide laser fabricated by ion-exchange. Laser action was observed with an absorbed power threshold of only 44 mW and a slope efficiency of up to 6.8% was achieved. Propagation loss at the lasing wavelength was measured to be 0.3 dB/cm. We believe this to be the first ion-exchanged Tm(3+)-doped glass waveguide laser.

  20. Effect of formaldehyde on Cu(II) removal from synthetic complexed solutions by ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Ruey-Shin; Lin, Su-Hsia; Kao, Hsiang-Chien; Theng, Ming-Huei

    2005-06-01

    The effect of formaldehyde (HCHO) on the ion exchange of Cu(II) from an equimolar EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, H(4)L) solution with a strong-base Amberlite IRA-400 resin was studied. Experiments were conducted as a function of the initial concentration of Cu(II) (0.5-10 mM), solution pH (1.0-6.0), HCHO concentration (0-6 vol%), and temperature (15-35 degrees C). It was shown that the amount of exchange of Cu(II), which exists in the form of complexed anions CuL(2-), increased with increasing solution pH and reached a plateau at an equilibrium pH (pH(e)) of 3.5. However, the amount of exchange decreased with increasing HCHO concentration up to 3 vol% but then slightly decreased with a further increase in HCHO concentration. Such effect of added HCHO was determined by the following two factors: the competitive exchange of HCOO(-) anions and the enhanced exchange of Cu(I) in the form of complexed anions CuL(3-). The exchange isotherm obtained at a fixed pH(e) could be well described by the Langmuir equation. The isosteric enthalpy change for the present ion exchange process was also evaluated and discussed.

  1. MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.

    2011-04-25

    The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

  2. Kinetic study of heavy metal ions removal by ion exchange in batch conical air spouted bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Zewail

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouted bed contactor is a hybrid of fixed and fluidized bed contactors, which retains the advantages of each with good hydrodynamic conditions. The aim of the present study is to investigate the performance of a batch conical air spouted vessel for heavy metal removal by strong cation exchange resins (AMBERJET 1200 Na. The effect of various parameters such as type of heavy metal ions (Ni+2 and Pb+2, contact time, superficial air velocity and initial heavy metal ion concentration on % heavy metal ion removal has been investigated. It has been found that under optimum conditions 98% and 99% removal of Ni+2 and Pb+2 were achieved respectively. Several kinetic models were used to test the experimental data and to examine the controlling mechanism of the sorption process. The present results of Ni+2 and Pb+2 well fit pseudo second order kinetic model with a high correlation coefficient. Both film diffusion and intra-particle diffusion contribute to the ion exchange process. The present study revealed that spouted bed vessel may provide an effective alternative for conducting ion exchange reactions.

  3. Science Letters:A new configuration of membrane stack for retrieval of nickel absorbed in resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xue-fen; WU Zu-cheng

    2005-01-01

    A new configuration integrated ion exchange effect with both electro-migration and electrochemical reaction in a single cell was developed to effectively retrieve metal ions from simulated wastewater using ion exchange resins without additive chemicals. By simply assembling cation exchange resins and anion exchange resins separated by homogeneous membranes, we found that the system will always be acidic in the concentrate compartment so that ion exchange resins could be in-situ regenerated without hydroxide precipitation. Such a realizable design will be really suitable for wastewater purification.

  4. Esterification of Waste Frying Oil Using Styrene Type Cation Exchange Resin Catalyst%苯乙烯型阳离子交换树脂催化废煎炸油的酯化反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鹏梅; 刘莉梅; 杨玲梅; 袁振宏; 陈子博

    2014-01-01

    Porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene was prepared by suspension polymerization,and then sulfonie acid ion exchange resin was obtained by sulfonated porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene.The resin' s morphology and degree of sulfonation were characterized with SEM/EDS,BET,IR respectively.Esterification of waste frying oils with acid value of 63.0 mg/g was studied using cation exchange resin as catalyst to investigate its catalytic activity.40.0% dosage of porogen was preferred when the polymerization conditions were 360 r/min,1.0% dispersant,1.0% initiator,75℃ for 4 h and the heat to 85 ℃ for 6 h,while the sulfonation conditions were 1.0 mL/g dichloroethane,5.0 mL/g sulfuric acid,70℃ sulfonated for 1 h and the heat to 80 ~ 85℃ for 3 h,the optimum swelling time was 1 h,and the concentration of sulfuric acid was 98%.The maximum exchange capacity of the cation exchange resin W2 was 5.2 mmol/g in that condition.When the esterification was performed in the condition of 40.0% methanol,10.0% W2,70℃ stirring.for 1.5 h,the crushing rate of W2 was only 10.0% and the conversion rate of FFA reached to 86.8%.W2 is better than commercially available cation exchange resin PC101,and could be reused for 5 times.%以液体石蜡、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯为混合致孔剂,采用悬浮聚合法制备多孔聚苯乙烯-二乙烯苯,磺化后得到磺酸型阳离子交换树脂.利用SEM/EDS、BET、IR等手段对其形貌、磺化程度进行表征,并通过酸值为63.0 mg/g(以KOH计)煎炸油的酯化反应考察催化剂的活性.结果表明:磺酸根基团成功接到PS分子链上;在聚合条件为360 r/min、1.0%分散剂、1.0%引发剂、75℃保温4h、升温至85℃保温6h时,混合致孔剂的最佳添加量为40.0%液体石蜡、50.0%邻苯二甲酸二丁酯;在磺化条件为二氯乙烷1.0 mL/g、硫酸5.0 mL/g、70℃磺化1h后升温至80~85℃磺化3h时的最佳溶胀时间为1h、硫酸体积分数98%,

  5. Waste separation and pretreatment using crystalline silicotitanate ion exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadros, M.E.; Miller, J.E. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anthony, R.G. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CSTs) has been developed jointly by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University to selectively remove Cs and other radionuclides from a wide spectrum of radioactive defense wastes. The CST exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and Sr under a wide range of conditions. Tests show it can remove part-per-million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. The materials exhibit ion exchange properties based on ionic size selectivity. Specifically, crystalline lattice spacing is controlled to be highly selective for Cs ions even in waste streams containing very high (5 to 10 M) concentrations of sodium. The CST technology is being demonstrated with actual waste at several DOE facilities. The use of inorganic ion exchangers. The inorganics are more resistant to chemical, thermal, and radiation degradation. Their high selectivities result in more efficient operations offering the possibility of a simple single-pass operation. In contrast, regenerable organic ion exchangers require additional processing equipment to handle the regeneration liquids and the eluant with the dissolved Cs.

  6. Study on the permselectivity of ion exchange membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Ion exchange membranes with high permselectivity (the character of separating cations from anions or anions from cations) and high selectivity (the character of separating cations or anions of different valencies) are important for electrodialysis process. The Donnan equilibrium theory, based on the equilibrium of ions and no electric field, can not exactly explain the permselectivity of ion exchange membrane for ED process, since it is impossible to set up a ion exchange equilibrium between membrane and solution and to neglect the influence of electrical driving force on ions during ED process. A novel model named "anti-electric potential " is established to interpret the permselectivity of ion exchange membrane, according to the determination of electric potential between membranes and the variation of elements content in solutions and membranes. The results of experiment prove that the "anti-electric potential" really exists within membranes. As for the selectivity, the results reveal that electric potential and hydration energy have great influence on the concentration and mobility of ions in membranes.

  7. Stydy on the Model of Ion Exchange Kinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenFengrong; JiangZhixin

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a macrokinetics model equation describing the characteristics of the solid-liquid mass transfer has been proposed.The qualitative analysis and experimental verification have been done for this mode equation.The model equation can explain the ion exchange process considerably well.

  8. EXPLORING THE MAXWELL-STEFAN DESCRIPTION OF ION-EXCHANGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WESSELINGH, JA; VONK, P; KRAAIJEVELD, G

    1995-01-01

    In ion exchange, water and several ions diffuse simultaneously, with different velocities. They are driven by activity, electrical and pressure gradients. We describe these complicated processes with the Maxwell-Stefan equation. This equation for multicomponent diffusion requires one diffusivity or

  9. Ion exchange membranes in seawater applications : processes and characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Officiële titel ENG: Ion exchange membranes in seawater applications. Processes and characteristics Officiële titel NL: Ionwisselende membranen in zeewatertoepassingen. Processen en eigenschappen Auteur: A.H.Galama Jaar: 2015 ISBN: 978-94-6257-225-6 Samenvatting Zeewaterontzouting stelt me

  10. Determination of boron in silicates after ion exchange separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, H.

    1955-01-01

    Existing methods for the determination of boron in silicates are not entirely satisfactory. Separation as the methyl ester is lengthy and frequently erratic. An accurate and rapid method applicable to glass, mineral, ore, and water samples uses ion exchange to remove interfering cations, and boron is determined titrimetrically in the presence of mannitol, using a pH meter to indicate the end point.

  11. Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si Y.; King, William D.

    2012-12-20

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

  12. Evaluation of the resin oxidation process using Fenton's reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro G.; Goes, Marcos M.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The ion exchange resin is considered radioactive waste after its final useful life in nuclear reactors. Usually, this type of waste is treated with the immobilization in cement Portland, in order to form a solid monolithic matrix, reducing the possibility of radionuclides release in to environment. Because of the characteristic of expansion and contraction of the resins in presence of water, its incorporation in the common Portland cement is limited in 10% in direct immobilization, causing high costs in the final product. A pre-treatment would be able to reduce the volume, degrading the resins and increasing the load capacity of this material. This paper is about a method of degradation of ion spent resins from the nuclear research reactor of Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Brazil, using the Fenton's reagent. The resin evaluated was a mixture of cationic and anionic resins. The reactions were conducted by varying the concentration of the catalyst (25 to 80 mM), with and without external heat. The time of reaction was two hours. The concentration of 50 mM of catalyst was the most effective in degrading approximately 99%. The resin degradation was confirmed by the presence of CaCO{sub 3} as a white precipitate resulting from the reaction between the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the CO{sub 2} from the resin degradation. It was possible to degrade the resins without external heating. The calcium carbonates showed no correlation with the residual resin mass. (author)

  13. Uranium Recycle by Ion Exchange and Calcination - Summary of Design Development and Equipment Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, D.J.; A.J. Duncan

    2005-10-31

    Technical information for the process of recovery of uranium from uranyl nitrate hexahydrate solutions that was developed as part of the Onsite Uranium Recycle (OSUR) project conducted at the Savannah River Site in the 1980's is summarized. The process involves an ion-exchange process to load the uranyl species from solution onto a cation resin that is subsequently dried using a microwave oven, and then calcined using a rotary calciner to produce U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. The information in this report was compiled to support critical decisions for new facilities and processes at the Y-12 National Security Complex. The information includes a detailed description of the process and process equipment that were developed for the OSUR project including the technical bases for the materials selection and process conditions. Additional process considerations and recommendations to for a new-design facility are also provided.

  14. Continuous protein recovery from whey using liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed ion-exchange extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Qingdao; Bassi, Amarjeet; Zhu, Jing-Xu Jesse; Margaritis, Argyrios

    2002-04-20

    A liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed (LSCFB) continuous ion-exchange extraction system has been investigated for total protein recovery from whey solutions under various operating conditions. The effectiveness of a dynamic seal was evaluated between the riser and the downcomer, and the best conditions for the establishment of this seal were established. Start-up studies indicated that the system is robust and stable. Under optimal conditions, a productivity of 8.2 g of total protein removed per hour per kilogram of resin was achieved with a protein removal efficiency of 78.4%. However, higher overall protein recovery of up to 90% was also achieved under other conditions, with lower protein concentration in the effluent and a lower overall productivity.

  15. Preparation and Performance of Bipolar Membranes with Liquid Ion-Exchange Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏静; 余立新; 郝继华

    2003-01-01

    The current density is rather low in solid bipolar membranes, because the water transfer rate is relatively slow across solid bipolar membranes made of solid ion-exchange materials. This paper describes the use of polymer solutions, such as phosphatic poly(vinyl alcohol) solution, poly(acrylic acid) solution and poly(vinyl alcohol) solutions with dispersed cation/anion-exchange resin particles to prepare bipolar membranes. The 0.1 mol/L NaOH and the 0.05 mol/L H2SO4 were used to test the performance of the bipolar membranes. For a fixed liquid layer thickness, both the current density and the selectivity increase with the concentration increase of a polyelectrolyte solution. The maximum current density measured in the experiment was 1497 A/m2 with a selectivity of 96.8%.

  16. MINOR ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS USING ION EXCHANGERS OR IONIC LIQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.; Visser, A.; Bridges, N.

    2011-09-20

    This project seeks to determine if (1) inorganic-based ion exchange materials or (2) electrochemical methods in ionic liquids can be exploited to provide effective Am and Cm separations. Specifically, we seek to understand the fundamental structural and chemical factors responsible for the selectivity of inorganic-based ion-exchange materials for actinide and lanthanide ions. Furthermore, we seek to determine whether ionic liquids can serve as the electrolyte that would enable formation of higher oxidation states of Am and other actinides. Experiments indicated that pH, presence of complexants and Am oxidation state exhibit significant influence on the uptake of actinides and lanthanides by layered sodium titanate and hybrid zirconium and tin phosphonate ion exchangers. The affinity of the ion exchangers increased with increasing pH. Greater selectivity among Ln(III) ions with sodium titanate materials occurs at a pH close to the isoelectric potential of the ion exchanger. The addition of DTPA decreased uptake of Am and Ln, whereas the addition of TPEN generally increases uptake of Am and Ln ions by sodium titanate. Testing confirmed two different methods for producing Am(IV) by oxidation of Am(III) in ionic liquids (ILs). Experimental results suggest that the unique coordination environment of ionic liquids inhibits the direct electrochemical oxidation of Am(III). The non-coordinating environment increases the oxidation potential to a higher value, while making it difficult to remove the inner coordination of water. Both confirmed cases of Am(IV) were from the in-situ formation of strong chemical oxidizers.

  17. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H. [and others

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes the Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) separation technology being developed as an alternative to ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. Progress in FY 1997 for specific applications of ESIX is also outlined. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. Based on the ferrocyanide film capacity, stability, rate of uptake, and selectivity shown during performance testing, it appears possible to retain a consistent rate of removal and elute cesium into the same elution solution over several load/unload cycles. In batch experiments, metal hexacyanoferrate films showed high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. Cesium uptake was unaffected by Na/Cs molar ratios of up to 2 x 10{sup 4} , and reached equilibrium within 18 hours. During engineering design tests using 60 pores per inch, high surface area nickel electrodes, nickel ferrocyanide films displayed continued durability. losing less than 20% of their capacity after 1500 load/unload cycles. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 13 BV/h, the maximum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves further supported once-through waste processing. 9 refs., 24 figs.

  18. Pollutant removal from industrial discharge water using individual and combined effects of adsorption and ion-exchange processes: Chemical abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Charles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, adsorption-oriented processes for pollutant removal from metal polycontaminated surface-finishing discharge water were applied individually as well as in combination with ion-exchange treatment to remove the remaining metal ions and organic load. Several materials were compared using batch experiments, namely an activated carbon, three ion-exchange resins (IRA 402Cl, IR 120H and TP 207, and two non-conventional cross-linked polysaccharide-based biosorbents (starch and cyclodextrin. This article presents the abatements obtained in chemical pollution as monitored by complete chemical analysis. For the same experimental conditions (similar discharge water, pollutant concentrations, stirring rate, contact time, and initial pH, the highest levels of pollutant removal were attained with the combined use of two materials, an activated carbon and a mixture of two ion-exchange resins. This physicochemical treatment effectively lowered the main pollutants present in the discharge water such as Cu, Ni and COD, by more than 96%, 79% and 74% respectively (average values for three samples, while the treatment with carbon alone lowered them by 58%, 9% and 70%, and resins alone by 85%, 61% and 16%. Similar interesting results were obtained with the cyclodextrin-based adsorbent and its use alone was sufficient to obtain decreases in Cu, Ni and COD of more than 94%, 77% and 67% respectively. The adsorption-oriented process using cyclodextrin polymer could be an advantageous approach for removing organic and metallic pollutants from metal surface-finishing discharge water due to the non-toxic character of CD to humans and the environment.

  19. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  20. Comparison or organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from Hanford waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP-CP task to develop and evaluate high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for the uptake of cesium, strontium, and technetium (Cs, Sr, and Tc) from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff, in collaboration with researchers from industry, academia, and national laboratories are investigating these and other novel and commercial ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation of groundwater, HLW, and LLW. Since FY 1995, experimental work at PNNL has focused on small-scale batch distribution (K{sub d}) testing of numerous solid sorbents with actual and simulated Hanford wastes, chemical and radiolytic stability of various organic ion exchanger resins, bench-scale column ion exchange testing in actual and simulated Complexant Concentrate (CC) and Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW), and Tc and Sr removal from groundwater and LLW. In addition, PNNL has continued to support various site demonstrations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, West Valley Nuclear Services, Hanford N-Springs, and Hanford N-Basin using technologies developed by their industrial partners. This summary will focus on batch distribution results from the actual waste tests. The data collected in these development and testing tasks provide a rational basis for the selection and direct comparison of various ion exchange materials in simulated and actual HLW, LLW, and groundwater. In addition, prediction of large-scale column loading performance for the materials tested is possible using smaller volumes of actual waste solution. The method maximizes information while minimizing experimental expense, time, and laboratory and process wastes.

  1. Diffusion kinetics of the ion exchange of benzocaine on sulfocationites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'tshuler, O. G.; Shkurenko, G. Yu.; Gorlov, A. A.; Al'tshuler, G. N.

    2016-06-01

    The theory of the ion exchange kinetics on strong acid cationites with the participation of weak electrolytes is discussed. The kinetics of desorption of benzocaine in the protonated and molecular forms from strong acid cationites, sulfonated polycalixarene, and KU-23 30/100 sulfocationite, is studied experimentally. It is shown that the flow of protonated benzocaine from cationite upon desorption proceeding by the ion-exchange mechanism is more intense than upon desorption of nonionized benzocaine molecules. It is established that the diffusion coefficient of benzocaine cations is (1.21 ± 0.23) × 10-12 m2/s in KU-23 30/100 sulfocation and (0.65 ± 0.06) × 10-13 m2/s in sulfonated polycalixarene, while the diffusion coefficient of benzocaine molecules is (0.65 ± 0.15) × 10-14 m2/s in sulfonated polycalixarene.

  2. Study on actinoid isolation by antimonide ion exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Masamichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Kubota, Masumitsu; Yamagishi, Isao

    1996-01-01

    To establish a containment of long-life nuclides and an effective reduction of waste volume is important to reduce the loadings on the natural environment. Chemical isolation of radioactive nuclides from wastes was attempted by using inorganic ion exchanger with high specificity and thermal stability. In this study, titanium antimonide was used as an ion exchanger to investigate the adsorption of trivalent metallic ions according to Kielland plot curves. When the ionic equivalent fraction (X-bar{sub M}) was around 0.005, Kielland plot curve of either of 3-valent metallic ions was bent, suggesting the exchanger had two different adsorption sites. The slope of the curve became smaller as an elevation of temperature. These results show that the ion radius was decreased resulting from partial elimination of the hydrated water of ion and thus, the steric conditions around the exchange site might be improved. (M.N.)

  3. Photowritten gratings in ion-exchanged glass waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, J E; Winick, K A

    1993-05-15

    The fabrication of an ion-exchanged waveguide beam deflector containing a photowritten grating is described. The planar waveguide was fabricated by thermal K(+) exchange in a borosilicate glass. The grating was written by photobleaching an absorption defect centered at 330 am, which was created by gamma-ray irradiation of the glass. The bleaching was accomplished with the 351-nm line from an argon laser. The device achieved 35% deflection efficiency at 633 nm, which corresponded to a grating with a photoinduced index change of 2.6 x 10(-5). This is to our knowledge the first demonstration of an ion-exchanged glass waveguide device containing a permanent photowritten grating.

  4. Hybrid metallic ion-exchanged waveguides for SPR biological sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bonnault, S.; Bucci, D.; Zermatten, P.. J.; Charette, P. G.; Broquin, J. E.

    2015-02-01

    Glass substrates have been used for decades to create biosensors due to their biocompatibility, low thermal conductivity, and limited fluorescence. Among the different types of sensors, those based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) allow exploitation of the sensing lightwave at the vicinity of the sensor surface where small entities such as DNA or proteins are located. In this paper, ion-exchanged waveguides and SPR are combined to create a multianalyte optical sensor integrated onto glass. First the principle of operation is introduced, then the theoretical analysis and design of the sensing element. Simulations have been carried out using the Aperiodic Fourier Modal Method (AFMM) and a custom software that handles ion-exchange index-profiles. Fabrication and characterization processes are also presented. Finally the first experimental spectra are displayed and discussed. The sensor presents a bulk sensibility of 5000nm/RIU.

  5. Separation of americium from curium by oxidation and ion exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan D; Shehee, Thomas C; Clearfield, Abraham; Hobbs, David T

    2012-08-21

    Nuclear energy has the potential to be a clean alternative to fossil fuels, but in order for it to play a major role in the US, many questions about the back end of the fuel cycle must be addressed. One of these questions is the difficult separation of americium from curium. Here, we report the oxidation of Am in two systems, perchloric acid and nitric acid and the affect of changing the acid has on the oxidation. K(d) values were observed and a direct separation factor was calculated and was seen to be as high as 20 for four metal(IV) pillared phosphate phosphonate inorganic organic hybrid ion exchange materials. These ion exchangers are characterized by very low selectivity for cations with low charge but extremely high uptake of ions of high charge.

  6. Negative Joule Heating in Ion-Exchange Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Biesheuvel, P. M.; D. Brogioli; Hamelers, H. V. M.

    2014-01-01

    In ion-exchange membrane processes, ions and water flow under the influence of gradients in hydrostatic pressure, ion chemical potential, and electrical potential (voltage), leading to solvent flow, ionic fluxes and ionic current. At the outer surfaces of the membranes, electrical double layers (EDLs) are formed (Donnan layers). When a current flows through the membrane, we argue that besides the positive Joule heating in the bulk of the membrane and in the electrolyte outside the membrane, t...

  7. 离子交换纤维处理含铀矿井水%Processing of uranium-bearing pit water by ion exchange fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 王红英; 程威; 邓锦勋; 李红

    2012-01-01

    采用静态吸附法和动态吸附法研究了强碱性阴离子交换纤维(简称纤-Ⅱ)对含铀矿井水的吸附行为,测定了接触时间、床层高度对吸附和淋洗的影响,以及铀在溶液和离子交换纤维中的平衡浓度.试验结果表明,纤-Ⅱ比201×7阴离子交换树脂吸附速度和淋洗速度快,吸附容量与201×7树脂相当;Na2CO3+NaHCO3作为淋洗剂淋洗效果好.纤Ⅱ可以从含铀矿井水中回收铀,并使处理后的矿井水达标排放.%Methods of static adsorption and dynamic adsorption are used to study the adsorption of uranium-bearing pit water on ion exchange fibre. The effects of contact time, height of ion exchange fibre column, and balance of uranium between aqueous phase and fibre phase are investigated. It is indicated that ion exchange fibre presents advantages such as fast adsorption, fast elution, same capacity compared with ion exchange resin. 106 g/L Na2CO3 +5 g/L NaHCO3 is a suitable eluant for ion exchange fibre. Therefore ion exchange fibre can be selected to process uranium-bearing pit water.

  8. Buried waveguides for passive integrated optics by Cs+ -ion-exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L.; Lilienhof, H.-J.; Holscher, H. W.

    1986-11-01

    Cs4-ion-exchange in glass is compared with the commonly used K+-, Ag+- and T1+-ion-exchange in glass in the process of waveguide fabrication. It will be shown that the Cs4-ion-exchange in the special substrate glass BGG21 represents an alternative method. As in the case of Ag+ AND T14 it is possible to fabricate buried waveguides by a double ion-exchange. The field-assisted ion-exchange is preferred due to the low CO+-ion mobility.

  9. A Novel Catalyst for Isobutene Oligomerization to High Quality Gasoline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周硼; 安增建; 蔡天锡; 蹇锡高

    2003-01-01

    Dimerization of isobutene in liquid state to form high-octane value gasoline components was investigated over a homemade novel ion exchange resin,SPPESK,which shows high activity and selectivity in isobutene dimerization under mild conditions.

  10. Modified DIX model for ion-exchange equilibrium of L-phenylalanine on a strong cation-exchange resin☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinglan Wu; Pengfei Jiao; Wei Zhuang; Jingwei Zhou; Hanjie Ying

    2016-01-01

    L-phenylalanine, one of the nine essential amino acids for the human body, is extensively used as an ingredient in food, pharmaceutical and nutrition industries. A suitable equilibrium model is required for purification of L-phenylalanine based on ion-exchange chromatography. In this work, the equilibrium uptake of L-phenylalanine on a strong acid-cation exchanger SH11 was investigated experimental y and theoretical y. A modified Donnan ion-exchange (DIX) model, which takes the activity into account, was established to predict the uptake of L-phenyl-alanine at various solution pH values. The model parameters including selectivity and mean activity coefficient in the resin phase are presented. The modified DIX model is in good agreement with the experimental data. The optimum operating pH value of 2.0, with the highest L-phenylalanine uptake on the resin, is predicted by the model. This basic information combined with the general mass transfer model wil lay the foundation for the prediction of dynamic behavior of fixed bed separation process.

  11. Modeling of dual gradient elution in ion exchange and mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Feng; Schmidt, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2015-10-23

    Protein retention using dual gradient elution in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography can be modeled using the combination of a modified Yamamoto's LGE model and a conversion term to correlate the elution salt concentration and pH at any given gradient slope. Incorporation of the pH dependence of the binding charges into the model also provides some insights on the dual effects of salt and pH in protein-ligand interaction. The fitted thermodynamic parameters (ΔGP(0)/RT, ΔGS(0)/RT, number of charged amino acids involved in binding) of the dual gradient elution data using lysozyme and mAbs on SP Sepharose(®) FF, Eshmuno(®) HCX, and Capto(®) MMC ImpRes were consistent to the results of mono gradient data. This gives rise to an approach to perform thermodynamic modeling of protein retention in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography by combining both salt and pH gradient into a single run of dual gradient elution which will increase time and cost efficiency. The dual gradients used in this study encompassed a wide range of pH (4-8) and NaCl concentrations (0-1M). Curve fits showed that ΔGP(0)/RT is protein type and ligand dependent. ΔGS(0)/RT is strongly dependent on the stationary phase but not the protein. For mAb04 on mixed-mode resin Capto(®) MMC, ΔGS(0)/RT is 5-6 times higher than the result reported for the same protein on cation exchanger Fractogel(®) EMD SO3(-) (S).

  12. Application of linear pH gradients for the modeling of ion exchange chromatography: Separation of monoclonal antibody monomer from aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluters, Simon; Wittkopp, Felix; Jöhnck, Matthias; Frech, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The mobile phase pH is a key parameter of every ion exchange chromatography process. However, mechanistic insights into the pH influence on the ion exchange chromatography equilibrium are rare. This work describes a mechanistic model capturing salt and pH influence in ion exchange chromatography. The pH dependence of the characteristic protein charge and the equilibrium constant is introduced to the steric mass action model based on a protein net charge model considering the number of amino acids interacting with the stationary phase. This allows the description of the adsorption equilibrium of the chromatographed proteins as a function of pH. The model parameters were determined for a monoclonal antibody monomer, dimer, and a higher aggregated species based on a manageable set of pH gradient experiments. Without further modification of the model parameters the transfer to salt gradient elution at fixed pH is demonstrated. A lumped rate model was used to predict the separation of the monoclonal antibody monomer/aggregate mixture in pH gradient elution and for a pH step elution procedure-also at increased protein loadings up to 48 g/L packed resin. The presented model combines both salt and pH influence and may be useful for the development and deeper understanding of an ion exchange chromatography separation.

  13. Resin-Immobilized Palladium Nanoparticle Catalysts for Organic Reactions in Aqueous Media: Morphological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Mastrorilli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An insight into the nano- and micro-structural morphology of a polymer supported Pd catalyst employed in different catalytic reactions under green conditions is reported. The pre-catalyst was obtained by copolymerization of the metal-containing monomer Pd(AAEMA2 [AAEMA− = deprotonated form of 2-(acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate] with ethyl methacrylate as co-monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker. This material was used in water for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of aryl bromides, and for the reduction of nitroarenes and quinolines using NaBH4 or H2, as reductants. TEM analyses showed that in all cases the pristine Pd(II species were reduced in situ to Pd(0, which formed metal nanoparticles (NPs, the real active species. The dependence of their average size (2–10 nm and morphology on different parameters (temperature, reducing agent, presence of a phase transfer agent is discussed. TEM and micro-IR analyses showed that the polymeric support retained its porosity and stability for several catalytic cycles in all reactions and Pd NPs did not aggregate after reuse. The metal nanoparticle distribution throughout the polymer matrix after several recycles provided precious information about the catalytic mechanism, which was truly heterogeneous in the hydrogenation reactions and of the so-called “release and catch” type in the Suzuki coupling.

  14. Study on Preparation of Pure Fulvic Acid by Ion Exchange%离子交换法制取高纯度黄腐酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周少丽; 贺燕

    2016-01-01

    Pure fulvic acid was prepared by strong acidic styrene type cation exchange resin and macroporous styrene type chelating resin. Effect of resin type, ion exchange time and resin quantity on FA purity was investigated. The ion exchange mechanism was analyzed. The results show that, the purity of fulvic acid prepared by one 001×7 Na+ type column, two D751 Na+ type columns and one 001×7 H+ type resin column can reach to 99%.%采用强酸性苯乙烯系阳离子交换树脂和大孔苯乙烯系螯合树脂相结合的方法制取高纯度的黄腐酸,探讨了离子类型、交换时间和树脂用量对 FA纯度的影响,分析了离子交换机理。结论:粗 FA溶液依次通过1个001×7 Na+型、2个D751 Na+型、1个001×7 H+型树脂柱,其中001×7型流速1.5 mL/min左右,D751型流速1.5 mL/min左右,FA纯度达99%以上。

  15. Hydrous Tantalum Phosphates for Ion Exchange Purposes: A Systematic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.C.P.da Silva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes two methods of preparation of hydrous tantalum phosphates and their characterization as ion exchangers. The hydrous metallic phosphate compounds were chemically and physically characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry and surface area measurements. By the first method, tantalum phosphate was prepared by alkaline fusion of Ta2O5 with an excess of K2CO3, followed by lixiviation of the tantalate fusion product with hot water, and precipitation with diluted H3PO4. Preparation II was performed using metallic Ta dissolved in concentrated HF/HNO3 acidic mixture followed by hydrolysis of fluortantalic acid intermediary and precipitation with diluted H3PO4. Both freshly prepared materials (I and II were exaustively refluxed with concentrated H3PO4, in its boiling point temperature, resulting respectively in Ta2O5. 2.1 H2O, (IR and Ta2O5. 1.3 H2O, (IIR. Characterization of the prepared products have presented the following values: surface area of 108.27 ± 2.80; 220.14 ± 2.67; 117.07 ± 5.25 and 141.61 ± 0.27 m².g-1 respectively for I, IR, II and IIR. All these materials were amorphous. The ion exchange behavior for all four hydrous tantalum phosphates was studied using Na+, K+ and Ba+2 as the exchanged species. The values for typical ion exchange capacity were 1.64; 1.23; 1.47 and 1.01 miliequivalent.g-1, respectively for I, IR, II and IIR products.

  16. HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR ION-EXCHANGE COLUMN SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; King, W.

    2011-05-23

    Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium in a column configuration and distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program which is focused on processing dissolved, high-sodium salt waste for the removal of specific radionuclides (including Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides) within a High Level Waste (HLW) storage tank at the Savannah River Site. The SCIX design includes CST columns inserted and supported in the tank top risers for cesium removal. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column were calculated with a focus on process upset conditions. A two-dimensional computational modeling approach for the in-column ion-exchange domain was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters such that the results would provide the maximum centerline temperatures achievable under the design configurations using a feed composition known to promote high cesium loading on CST. The current full-scale design for the CST column includes one central cooling pipe and four outer cooling tubes. Most calculations assumed that the fluid within the column was stagnant (i.e. no buoyancy-induced flow) for a conservative estimate. A primary objective of these calculations was to estimate temperature distributions across packed CST beds immersed in waste supernate or filled with dry air under various accident scenarios. Accident scenarios evaluated included loss of salt solution flow through the bed, inadvertent column drainage, and loss of active cooling in the column. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature.

  17. Thermal annealing of K(+)-Na(+) ion-exchanged waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, E; Grando, D; Palchetti, L; Sottini, S

    1995-06-15

    The process of thermal annealing of K(+)(-)Na(+) ion-exchanged waveguides in soda lime glass is characterized and compared with a simple theoretical model. The discrepancies between theory and experiments in the case of initially thick guides disappear if the existence of a stress-induced contribution to the refractive index is assumed that is not proportional to the concentration of the doping ions. The results obtained for initially thin guides are exploited for the design of annealed single-mode channel waveguides: 0.4-dB coupling losses with commercial single-mode fibers at lambda = 1.321 microm were measured.

  18. Ion exchange properties of titanic fiber of layered structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiki, Yoshinori; Komatsu, Yu; Sasaki, Takayoshi

    1986-12-01

    Usually, titanic acid is produced by hydrolyzing titanium tetrachloride, titanium sulfate or titanium alkoxide and is obtained in the form of precipitate in an amorphous gel state. The present authors have synthesized two types of titanic fibers of a layered crystaline structure to provide new ion exchangers. Three synthetic techniques, namely, flux process, annealing baking process and melt process, have been developed. This report deals with the structure and properties of these materials. In the flux process, a mixture of TiO/sub 2/, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/MoO/sub 4/ (flux) is melted at 1150 deg C and annealed at about 950 deg C to provide a K/sub 2/Ti/sub 4/O/sub 3/ fiber of a layered structure, which is subsequently converted into H/sub 2/Ti/sub 4/O/sub 9/ center dot nH/sub 2/O fiber. In the melt process, a mixture of materials is heate up to 1100 deg C to produce molten K/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which is quenched to form K/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 5/ fiber of a layered structure. Then it is converted into H/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 5/ center dot nH/sub 2/O fiber. The annealing baking process provides K/sub 2/Ti/sub 4/O/sub 9/, which is converted into K/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 5/ fiber. In this report, the crystal structure of H/sub 2/Ti/sub 4/O/sub 9/ center dot nH/sub 2/O is discussed and the ion exchanging properties are analized. Examination is made on the ion exchanging reactions involving potassium, alkali metal ions, alkaline earth metal ions and divalent transition metal ions. Various ion exchangers, including the present ones, are compared in terms of the partition coefficient and separation factor. (Nogami, K.).

  19. Multistep ion exchange processes of gradient refractive index rod lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hao; Liu, Aimei; Tong, Jufang; Yi, Xunong; Li, Qianguang; Wang, Xinmin; Ding, Yaoming

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for research on the refractive index profile (RIP) of multistep ion exchange processes (IEPs) of gradient refractive index rod lenses (GRINs) is established by the different initial condition and boundary condition, based on the Fickian diffusion equation. GRIN rod lenses have been fabricated using the three-step IEPs. Research results indicate that the experimental deviations of refractive index (DRI) are in good agreement with the theoretical data. The DRI of three-step IEPs is superior to the one- and two-step IEPs and smaller than 10(-5).

  20. Complexity analysis of the glutamic acid ion-exchanged wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艳; 王瑞明; 徐国华; 王腾飞; 井瑞洁

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the glutamic acid ion-exchanged wastewater has been studied.Kjeldahl determination method,Fehling reagent.muffle furnace method.and so on were used.It can be sure that the wastewater's COD is 50250 mg/L.and total solids is 13.76%.it contains:glutamic acid 0.3%:total reducing sugar 0.414%;fat 0.4274%;ammonium sulphate 10.0758%;microbial protein 0.8045%;ash 0.27%:others 1.4683%.

  1. Model-based prediction of monoclonal antibody retention in ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guélat, Bertrand; Delegrange, Lydia; Valax, Pascal; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2013-07-12

    In order to support a model-based process design in ion-exchange chromatography, an adsorption equilibrium model was adapted to predict the protein retention behavior from the amino acid sequence and from structural information on the resin. It is based on the computation of protein-resin interactions with a colloidal model and accounts for the contribution of each ionizable amino acid to the protein charge. As a verification of the protein charge model, the experimental titration curve of a monoclonal antibody was compared to its predicted net charge. Using this protein charge model in the computation of the protein-resin interactions, it is possible to predict the adsorption equilibrium constant (i.e. retention factor or Henry constant) with an explicit pH and salt dependence. The application of the model-based predictions for an in silico screening of the protein retention on various stationary phases or, alternatively, for the comparison of various monoclonal antibodies on a given cation-exchanger was demonstrated. Furthermore, considering the structural differences between charge variants of a monoclonal antibody, it was possible to predict their individual retention times. The selectivity between the side variants and the main isoform of the monoclonal antibody were computed. The comparison with the experimental data showed that the model was reliable with respect to the identification of the operating conditions maximizing the selectivity, i.e. the most promising conditions for a monoclonal antibody variant separation. Such predictions can be useful in reducing the experimental effort to identify the parameter space.

  2. Anion and cation mixed-bed ion exchange for enhanced multidimensional separations of peptides and phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Akira; Xu, Tao; Ruse, Cristian I; Wohlschlegel, James A; Yates, John R

    2007-05-15

    Shotgun proteomics typically uses multidimensional LC/MS/MS analysis of enzymatically digested proteins, where strong cation-exchange (SCX) and reversed-phase (RP) separations are coupled to increase the separation power and dynamic range of analysis. Here we report an on-line multidimensional LC method using an anion- and cation-exchange mixed bed for the first separation dimension. The mixed-bed ion-exchange resin improved peptide recovery over SCX resins alone and showed better orthogonality to RP separations in two-dimensional separations. The Donnan effect, which was enhanced by the introduction of fixed opposite charges in one column, is proposed as the mechanism responsible for improved peptide recovery by producing higher fluxes of salt cations and lower populations of salt anions proximal to the SCX phase. An increase in orthogonality was achieved by a combination of increased retention for acidic peptides and moderately reduced retention of neutral to basic peptides by the added anion-exchange resin. The combination of these effects led to approximately 100% increase in the number of identified peptides from an analysis of a tryptic digest of a yeast whole cell lysate. The application of the method to phosphopeptide-enriched samples increased by 94% phosphopeptide identifications over SCX alone. The lower pKa of phosphopeptides led to specific enrichment in a single salt step resolving acidic phosphopeptides from other phospho- and non-phosphopeptides. Unlike previous methods that use anion exchange to alter selectivity or enrich phosphopeptides, the proposed format is unique in that it works with typical acidic buffer systems used in electrospray ionization, making it feasible for online multidimensional LC/MS/MS applications.

  3. Coupling on-line preconcentration by ion-exchange with ETAAS. A novel flow injection approach based on the use of a renewable microcolumn as demonstrated for the determination of nickel in environmental and biological samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2000-01-01

    A novel way of exploiting flow injection/sequential injection (FIA/SIA) on-line ion-exchange preconcentration with detection by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is described and demonstrated for the determination of trace-levels of nickel. Based on the use of a renewable...... microcolumn incorporated within an integrated micro FI-system, the column is loaded with a defined volume of small beads of an SP Sephadex C-25 cation-exchange resin and subsequently exposed to a metered amount of sample solution. However, instead of eluting the retained analyte from the organic ion-exchange...

  4. Grafted megaporous materials as ion-exchangers for bioproduct adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Noor Shad; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Megaporous chromatographic materials were manufactured by a three-step procedure, including backbone synthesis, chemical grafting, and introduction of ion-exchange functionality. The backbone of the adsorbent cylindrical bodies was prepared by polymerization of methacrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate at sub-zero temperatures. Grafting was performed employing glycidyl methacrylate and a chemical initiator, cerium ammonium nitrate. The degree of grafting was adjusted by modifying the concentration of the initiator in the reaction mixture to a range of values (23, 39, 62, 89, and 105%). Further, the pendant epoxy-groups generated by the previous step were reacted to cation- and anion-exchanging moieties utilizing known chemical routes. Infrared spectroscopy studies confirmed the incorporation of epoxy and ion-exchanger groups to the backbone material. Optimized materials were tested for chromatography applications with model proteins; the dynamic binding capacity, as recorded at 10% breakthrough and 2.0 × 10(-4) m/s superficial velocity, were 350 and 58 mg/g for the cation-exchanger and the anion-exchanger material, respectively. These results may indicate that long tentacle-type polymer brushes were formed during grafting therefore increasing the ability of the megaporous body to efficiently capture macromolecules.

  5. Raman microspectroscopy investigation of Ag ion-exchanged glass layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A; Giarola, M; Cattaruzza, E; Gonella, F; Mardegan, M; Trave, E; Quaranta, A; Mariotto, G

    2012-11-01

    The ion-exchange process is widely used to dope silicate glass layers with silver, aimed at controlling the Ag state in view of possible applications, ranging from light waveguide fabrication to nanostructured composite glass synthesis. The silver doped glass structure as well as its prescribed properties depend on both the preparation parameters and the subsequent treatments. Several structural aspects are still open with regard either to the modification of the glass incorporating the dopant, or to clustering phenomena silver undergoes as a function of its local concentration and state, which are in turn strongly dependent on the preparation route. Systematic characterizations of these systems are mandatory to address the role of the various synthesis parameters in giving rise to the observed features, thus pointing out the effective methodologies for the fabrication of silicate glass layers with the desired properties. In this work, the results of micro-Raman, optical absorption and photoluminescence characterizations are presented for soda-lime glass slides doped with silver by Ag(+)-Na+ exchange and subsequent thermal treatments in air. In particular, a cross-section profiling analysis by Raman micro-spectroscopy was performed on Ag ion-exchanged samples after treatment at some different temperatures. The experimental findings allow to elucidate the role of the treatment temperature in the clustering process related to the local Ag concentration inside the exchanged glass layer.

  6. Controlled oxidative protein refolding using an ion-exchange column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhof, Marc; Leong, Susanna S J; Pattenden, Leonard K; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2005-04-01

    Column-based refolding of complex and highly disulfide-bonded proteins simplifies protein renaturation at both preparative and process scale by integrating and automating a number of operations commonly used in dilution refolding. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein for refolding and oxido-shuffling on an ion-exchange column to give a refolding yield of 55% after 40 h incubation. Successful on-column refolding was conducted at protein concentrations of up to 10 mg/ml and refolded protein, purified from misfolded forms, was eluted directly from the column at a concentration of 3 mg/ml. This technique integrates the dithiothreitol removal, refolding, concentration and purification steps, achieving a high level of process simplification and automation, and a significant saving in reagent costs when scaled. Importantly, the current result suggests that it is possible to controllably refold disulfide-bonded proteins using common and inexpensive matrices, and that it is not always necessary to control protein-surface interactions using affinity tags and expensive chromatographic matrices. Moreover, it is possible to strictly control the oxidative refolding environment once denatured protein is bound to the ion-exchange column, thus allowing precisely controlled oxido-shuffling.

  7. Characterization of ion-exchange membrane materials: properties vs structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, N P; Kononenko, N A; Dyomina, O A; Gnusin, N P

    2008-06-22

    This review focuses on the preparation, structure and applications of ion-exchange membranes formed from various materials and exhibiting various functions (electrodialytic, perfluorinated sulphocation-exchange and novel laboratory-tested membranes). A number of experimental techniques for measuring electrotransport properties as well as the general procedure for membrane testing are also described. The review emphasizes the relationships between membrane structures, physical and chemical properties and mechanisms of electrochemical processes that occur in charged membrane materials. The water content in membranes is considered to be a key factor in the ion and water transfer and in polarization processes in electromembrane systems. We suggest the theoretical approach, which makes it possible to model and characterize the electrochemical properties of heterogeneous membranes using several transport-structural parameters. These parameters are extracted from the experimental dependences of specific electroconductivity and diffusion permeability on concentration. The review covers the most significant experimental and theoretical research on ion-exchange membranes that have been carried out in the Membrane Materials Laboratory of the Kuban State University. These results have been discussed at the conferences "Membrane Electrochemistry", Krasnodar, Russia for many years and were published mainly in Russian scientific sources.

  8. Advantages of ion-exchange chromatography for oligonucleotide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ken; Thayer, Jim

    2011-05-01

    The rapid development of therapeutic oligonucleotides (ONs) has created a need for in-depth characterization of ONs, beyond previous requirements. The natural migration to LC-MS requires the use of chromatography with MS-compatible eluents to introduce the large, highly charged biopolymers into the mass spectrometer. Most frequently this employs ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography, which may leave gaps in the characterization, but these can be filled with the use of high-resolution ion-exchange chromatography. Several classes of isobaric isomers are among the impurities that will require further separation prior to MS analysis. This review shows how the use of ion exchange as an additional orthogonal analytical method can be used as standalone or interfaced with MS to achieve the highest possible analytical coverage in the characterization and quantification of impurities present in single- and double-stranded ON formulations. Some of these techniques have been in use for some time and the importance of others is just being recognized.

  9. RATE LAW AND ITS MOMENT EXPRESSIONS FOR PELLICULAR ION EXCHANGE MATERIALS OF VARIOURS SHAPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangGengliang; ZhangXiaomin; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the kinetic moment expressions and rate laws are derived for pellicular ion exchange materials with various geometrical forms under the conditions that ion exchange rate is controlled by both the partical diffusion and the film diffusion in finite solution volume.In addition,for strong acidic cation ion exchange fibre,by using the equations obtained we calculated the partical diffusion coefficients and the transfer coefficients in the film under different experimental conditions.

  10. Programmatic Re-Evaluation of Ion Exchange as a 1st Generation ITP Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.B. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This re-evaluation differs from previous work in that (1) the Ion Exchange option was evaluated from a standpoint assuming that ITP would never start up, thus Ion Exchange was the only viable option, (2) the DOE prescribed balanced assumptions were quite different than the WSRC Assumptions used previously, and (3) other Site events and changes within HLWM have tended to reduce the disadvantages of Ion Exchange relative to ITP as the first generation salt decontamination process.

  11. A new hybrid ion exchanger: Effect of system parameters on the adsorption of vanadium (V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Bong-Yeol [Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center, College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8301 (United States); Lee, Chang-Soo [School of Applied Chemistry and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Taek-Sung, E-mail: tshwang@cnu.ac.kr [School of Applied Chemistry and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    The hybrid ion exchanger consisted of PONF-g-GMA anion fibrous exchanger and IRA-96 bead-type anion exchanger was developed by combining different types of layers with hot-melt adhesive. Its ion exchange capacity and the pressure drop with flow rate of water were measured and the adsorption of vanadium (V) ions on the hybrid ion exchanger was evaluated with various process parameters such as pH, initial concentration, and temperature. It was observed that the adsorption kinetics of vanadium (V) ions on the hybrid ion exchanger could be analyzed with pseudo-second-order model.

  12. STUDIES ON INOSINE EXTRACTION BY ION EXCHANGE METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangXiwen; ShiFang; 等

    1998-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of inosine from fermentation solution on anion exchange resin under the condition of different pH,resin type are investigated.Besides,the desorption conditions are studied under different temperature.The adsorption and desorption mechanism are described to obtain the optimum technological condition of inosine extraction.

  13. Electrodialysis-ion exchange for the separation of dissolved salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroch, C.J. [Wastren, Inc., Westminster, CO (United States); Grant, P.J. [Wastren, Inc., Hummelstown, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy generates and stores a significant quantity of low level, high level, and mixed wastes. As some of the DOE facilities are decontaminated and decommissioned, additional and possibly different forms of wastes will be generated. A significant portion of these wastes are aqueous streams containing acids, bases, and salts, or are wet solids containing inorganic salts. Some of these wastes are quite dilute solutions, whereas others contain large quantities of nitrates either in the form of dissolved salts or acids. Many of the wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals, radioactive products, or organics. Some of these wastes are in storage because a satisfactory treatment and disposal processes have not been developed. There is considerable interest in developing processes that remove or destroy the nitrate wastes. Electrodialysis-Ion Exchange (EDIX) is a possible process that should be more cost effective in treating aqueous waste steams. This report describes the EDIX process.

  14. Advanced integrated solvent extraction and ion exchange systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction (SX) and ion exchange (IX) systems are a series of novel SX and IX processes that extract and recover uranium and transuranics (TRUs) (neptunium, plutonium, americium) and fission products {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from acidic high-level liquid waste and that sorb and recover {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline supernatant high-level waste. Each system is based on the use of new selective liquid extractants or chromatographic materials. The purpose of the integrated SX and IX processes is to minimize the quantity of waste that must be vitrified and buried in a deep geologic repository by producing raffinates (from SX) and effluent streams (from IX) that will meet the specifications of Class A low-level waste.

  15. Copper ion-exchanged channel waveguides optimization for optical trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, A H; Khor, K N; Shahimin, M M; Murad, S A Z

    2013-08-01

    Optical trapping of particles has become a powerful non-mechanical and non-destructive technique for precise particle positioning. The manipulation of particles in the evanescent field of a channel waveguide potentially allows for sorting and trapping of several particles and cells simultaneously. Channel waveguide designs can be further optimized to increase evanescent field prior to the fabrication process. This is crucial in order to make sure that the surface intensity is sufficient for optical trapping. Simulation configurations are explained in detail with specific simulation flow. Discussion on parameters optimization; physical geometry, optical polarization and wavelength is included in this paper. The effect of physical, optical parameters and beam spot size on evanescent field has been thoroughly discussed. These studies will continue toward the development of a novel copper ion-exchanged waveguide as a method of particle sorting, with biological cell propulsion studies presently underway.

  16. Using ion exchange chromatography to purify a recombinantly expressed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange chromatography (IEX) separates molecules by their surface charge, a property that can vary vastly between different proteins. There are two types of IEX, cation exhange and anion exchange chromatography. The protocol that follows was designed by the authors for anion exchange chromatography of a recombinantly expressed protein having a pI of 4.9 and containing two cysteine residues and one tryptophan residue, using an FPLC system. Prior to anion exchange, the protein had been salted out using ammonium sulfate precipitation and partially purified via hydrophobic interaction chromatography (see Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation and Use and Application of Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography for Protein Purification). Slight modifications to this protocol may be made to accommodate both the protein of interest and the availability of equipment.

  17. Negative Joule Heating in Ion-Exchange Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Biesheuvel, P M; Hamelers, H V M

    2014-01-01

    In ion-exchange membrane processes, ions and water flow under the influence of gradients in hydrostatic pressure, ion chemical potential, and electrical potential (voltage), leading to solvent flow, ionic fluxes and ionic current. At the outer surfaces of the membranes, electrical double layers (EDLs) are formed (Donnan layers). When a current flows through the membrane, we argue that besides the positive Joule heating in the bulk of the membrane and in the electrolyte outside the membrane, there is also negative Joule heating in one of the EDLs. We define Joule heating as the inner product of the two vectors current and field strength. Also when fluid flows through a charged membrane, at one side of the membrane there is pressure-related cooling, due to the osmotic and hydrostatic pressure differences across the EDLs.

  18. Ion exchange of ammonium in natural and synthesized zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yifei [College of Biology and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxin, Zhejiang 314001 (China); Department of Chemistry, XiXi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China)], E-mail: yifeiwang0206@yahoo.com.cn; Lin Feng [Department of Chemistry, XiXi Campus, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310028 (China); Pang Wenqin [Department of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130023 (China)

    2008-12-30

    In this study, zeolite Na-P and Na-Y was prepared by hydrothermal treatment of the Chinese natural clinoptilolite with NaOH. The ion exchange of NH{sub 4}{sup +} into the three zeolites in the temperature range of 288-333 K was also investigated, and the thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The selectivity sequence for NH{sub 4}{sup +} entering the sodium form of the three materials was Na-clinoptilolite > Na-Y > Na-P, as indicated by values of {delta}G{sup o}. The results demonstrated that the Si/Al molar ratio of zeolites determined the selectivity for NH{sub 4}{sup +}.

  19. Ion-Exchange Chromatography: Basic Principles and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Philip M; Rochfort, Keith D; O'Connor, Brendan F

    2017-01-01

    Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) allows for the separation of ionizable molecules on the basis of differences in charge properties. Its large sample-handling capacity, broad applicability (particularly to proteins and enzymes), moderate cost, powerful resolving ability, and ease of scale-up and automation have led to it becoming one of the most versatile and widely used of all liquid chromatography (LC) techniques. In this chapter, we review the basic principles of IEC, as well as the broader criteria for selecting IEC conditions. By way of further illustration, we outline basic laboratory protocols to partially purify a soluble serine peptidase from bovine whole brain tissue, covering crude tissue extract preparation through to partial purification of the target enzyme using anion-exchange chromatography. Protocols for assaying total protein and enzyme activity in both pre- and post-IEC fractions are also described.

  20. Fabrication of electrospun polyacrylonitrile ion-exchange membranes for application in lysozyme adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion exchange (IEX chromatography is commonly used in separation and purification systems. However, micropore blockage within its resin structure can easily lead to a reduction in the effectiveness of purification. To tackle this problem, we adopted the concept of membrane separation by combining electrospinning techniques with rapid alkaline hydrolysis to prepare a weak acid IEX nanofibrous membrane (AEA-COOH, consisting of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET meltblown fabric as a supporting layer, with upper and lower IEX layers consisting of polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibrous membranes. To determine the characteristics of the AEA-COOH membrane, we used the commercial product Sartobind© C IEX membrane as the standard of comparison. Results showed that the base weight and thickness of AEACOOH were 33 and 64%, relative to Sartobind© C membrane. The thermo-degradable temperature of AEA-COOH membrane (320°C was far higher than that of Sartobind© C (115°C, indicating high thermal stability. Finally, comparisons between the lysozyme adsorption rates and capacity of various IEX membranes confirmed that AEA-COOH was lighter, thinner, faster, possessing higher protein adsorption efficiency than Sartobind© C membrane.

  1. Screening of Catalyst and Important Variable for The Esterification of Acrylic Acid with 2 Ethylhexanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Chin, S. Y.

    2017-06-01

    The global demand of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2EHA) market has witnessed a significant growth in the past few years and this growth is anticipated to increase in the coming years. 2EHA is one of the basic organic building blocks that mainly used in the production of coatings, adhesives, superabsorbents, thickeners and plastic additives. Homogenous acid-catalysed esterification of acrylic acid (AA) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) is commonly used for the production of 2EHA. The homogeneous catalysts such as sulfuric and para-toluene sulfonic acid have resulted the costly and complicated downstream process that generates acidic, corrosive and non-environmental friendly waste. Therefore, it is importance to develop a cheaper process that employing heterogeneous catalysts and alternative raw material from wastewater containing acrylic acid. In this research, the study for the esterification of AA with 2EH catalysed by ion-exchange resin was conducted. The best sulfonic acid functional cation-exchange resin among SK104, SK1B, PK208, PK216, PK228, RCP145, and RCP160 was screened. PK208 outperformed the other resins and it was used subsequently in the parametric studies. The effect of important parameters (initial concentration of acrylic acid (AA), temperature, molar ratio of reactant (AA and 2EH), catalyst loading, and polymerisation inhibitor loading) was studied using 2 factorial design to determine the significant parameters to the esterification. It was found that the initial concentration of AA and temperature were most significantly affecting the esterification of AA with 2EH.

  2. Metaldehyde removal from aqueous solution by adsorption and ion exchange mechanisms onto activated carbon and polymeric sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Bing; Fletcher, Ashleigh J

    2013-01-15

    Metaldehyde removal from aqueous solution was evaluated using granular activated carbon (GAC), a non-functionalised hyper-cross-linked polymer Macronet (MN200) and an ion-exchange resin (S957) with sulfonic and phosphonic functional groups. Equilibrium experimental data were successfully described by Freundlich isotherm models. The maximum adsorption capacity of S957 (7.5 g metaldehyde/g S957) exceeded those of MN200 and GAC. Thermodynamic studies showed that sorption of metaldehyde onto all sorbents is endothermic and processes are controlled by entropic rather than enthalpic changes. Kinetic experiments demonstrated that experimental data for MN200 and GAC obey pseudo-second order models with rates limited by particle diffusion. Comparatively, S957 was shown to obey a pseudo-first order model with a rate-limiting step of metaldehyde diffusion through the solid/liquid interface. Results obtained suggest that metaldehyde adsorption onto MN200 and GAC are driven by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding, as leaching tendencies were high since no degradation of metaldehyde occurred. Conversely, adsorption of metaldehyde onto S957 occurs via ion-exchange processes, where sulfonic and phosphonic functionalities degrade adsorbed metaldehyde molecules and failure to detect metaldehyde in leaching studies for S957 supports this theory. Consequently, the high adsorption capacity and absence of leaching indicate S957 is promising for metaldehyde removal from source water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Adsorbents/ion exchangers-PVA blend membranes: Preparation, characterization and performance for the removal of Zn2+ by electrodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprarescu, Simona; Radu, Anita-Laura; Purcar, Violeta; Ianchis, Raluca; Sarbu, Andrei; Ghiurea, Marius; Nicolae, Cristian; Modrogan, Cristina; Vaireanu, Danut-Ionel; Périchaud, Alain; Ebrasu, Daniela-Ion

    2015-02-01

    The present paper was aimed at studying the possibility of zinc (Zn) removal from the wastewater discharged from zinc electroplating processes. In order to save industrial and environmental resources, the concentrated solution could be reused after electrodialysis process. A mini-electrodialysis system with three cylindrical compartments and different membranes containing various resins (Purolite A500 and Hypersol-Macronet MN500) was employed, which can be further applied for the treatment of synthetic effluent which contained zinc ions. The electrodialysis system was operated at constant voltage using different concentrations of synthetic solutions of zinc ions, without and with electrolyte recirculation for 1.5 h. The pH and conductivity of solutions were measured before and after the electrodialysis process occurs. Also the removal ratio (Rr) and mass flow (J) of zinc ions, energy consumption (EC) and current efficiency (CE) were determined. It was found that electrodialysis treatment generated a very low conductivity solution, enabling its reuse as rinse water. According to the obtained results when using a membrane pair with higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) the removal ratio is improved (over 80%). The physico-chemical, structural and mechanical properties of prepared membranes were registered, before and after electrodialysis process takes place, by means of complementary analytical techniques, namely, ion-exchange capacity, water content and thickness measurements. Furthermore analysis were also carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).

  4. Amine chemistry. Update on impact on resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachman, Gregory; Kellogg, Douglas [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Technology and Lab Services; Wilkes, Marty [Siemens Industry, Inc., Rockford, IL (United States). Water Technologies Div.

    2012-03-15

    Impurity removal in the steam cycle and the associated prevention of corrosion and/or fouling of system components are the goals of ion exchange resins. However, in many instances (such as a switch to amine chemistry or a change in product specifications), resins do not remove, and, in fact, contribute impurities to the steam cycle. This paper reviews recent data compiled to determine the direct and indirect effects of amines on ion exchange resins used in the power industry. Water chemistries have improved in recent years, in large part due to changes in chemistry and resins, but it is necessary to continue to develop products, processes and techniques to reduce impurities and improve overall water chemistry in power plant systems. (orig.)

  5. Er3+/Yb3+ Codoped Phosphate Glass for Ion-Exchanged Planar Waveguide Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shilong Zhao; Baoyu Chen; Zhuping Liu; Lili Hu

    2003-01-01

    A novel Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass was developed, which exhibited good chemical durability in molten salts and excellent spectroscopic properties. Preliminary results of ion exchange at different time and temperature, and with varying melt concentrations indicated that WM4 glass was suitable for ion-exchange experiments and there was no deterioration of surface quality.

  6. Er~(3+)/Yb~(3+) Codoped Phosphate Glass for Ion-Exchanged Planar Waveguide Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass was developed, which exhibited good chemical durability in molten salts and excellent spectroscopic properties. Preliminary results of ion exchange at different time and temperature, and with varying melt concentrations indicated that WM4 glass was suitable for ion-exchange experiments and there was no deterioration of surface quality.

  7. Modeling of Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Columns Using Experimental Data from SRS Simulated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.D.

    1999-03-15

    Non-elutable ion exchange using crystalline silicotitanate is being considered for removing cesium from Savannah River Site radioactive waste. The construction cost of this process depends strongly on the size of the ion exchange column required to meet product specifications.

  8. Ion exchange pretreatment of alkaline radwaste for cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center

    1994-08-01

    A cation exchange resin has been tested for its ability to remove the Cs ion from simulants of highly alkaline liquid nuclear wastes found at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge, and Hanford. The resin is a condensation polymer of the K salt of resorcinol and formaldehyde. It removes milli- and micromolar amounts of Cs{sup +} from solutions that contain as high as 11 molar Na{sup +}. Small column tests indicate that approximately 200 column volumes of SRS simulant and 205 column volumes of OR Tank 25 supernatant simulant can be processed before the resin requires regeneration. For these two wastes, a carousel arrangement of two columns in series and a third in reserve can be used effectively in a process. Hanford 101-AW simulant generates a less sharp breakthrough profile with this resin, though an operation using a maximum of three columns in series with another column off-line for regeneration would be effective if the resin beds are allowed to reach about 90% breakthrough before taking them out of service. Parameters that effect the performance of the resin with a particular feed solution are the concentrations of the two primary ions of interest, Cs{sup +} and Na{sup +}, as well as the concentrations of K{sup +} and OH{sup {minus}}. A further ramification of the hydroxide ion concentration is its role in assisting oxidation of the resin, thereby destroying its usefulness in cesium removal. Although the performance of the resin is unaffected at doses of 1 E+8 rad ionizing radiation, it shows noticeable degradation after storage for 100 hours in alkaline solutions, generating quinone and ketone groups, as determined from C-13 NMR and by an increase in total organic C content of the contacting solution. Gases detected from the radiolysis of the resin/simulant mixture are CO{sub 2} from the resin, N{sub 2}O from nitrate in the simulant, and H{sub 2} possibly from resin and simulant. Oxygen depletion in the mixture results from radiolysis and chemical degradation.

  9. Design of high efficiency fibers for ion exchange and heavy metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Lourdes

    Ion exchange materials coated on glass fiber substrates have a number of advantages over the conventional ion exchange beads. These include simplification of the overall synthesis including faster more efficient functionalization and elimination of toxic solvents. Other benefits include the ability to be fabricated in the form of felts, papers, or fabrics, improving media contact efficiency and enhancing both the rates of reaction and regeneration. In addition, physical and mechanical requirements of strength and dimensional stability are achieved by use of glass fiber substrates. Investigations were focused on design of: (1) polymeric cationic exchange fibers and their application for lead and mercury removal, (2) polymeric anionic exchange fibers and their application for arsenate removal, (3) enhancement of anionic fiber selectivity for monovalent ions over divalent ions through bulkier triaklylamine functional groups, and (4) polymeric mercaptyl fibers for the application of arsenite removal. The design and characterization of a cationic exchange fiber is described. Dynamic mode (breakthrough) experiments for calcium, lead, and mercury ion solutions are also presented. The second system consists of the preparation and characterization of anionic exchange fibers with equilibrium adsorption isotherms and dynamic mode kinetic experiments for arsenate removal. Modification of the resin with bulkier functional groups (trimethylamine, triethylamine, tripropylamine, tributylanmine), thereby effecting a change in the selectivity from divalent species to monovalent species, is considered in the separation of nitrates from sulfates. The ability of a thiol group to bind to the highly toxic arsenite ion (as is done in proteins and enzymes) provided the model used to chemically modify and characterize a polyvinyl alcohol mercaptyl fibrous system, coated on a fiberglass substrate, for the purpose of arsenite (As3+) removal from water. Physical/chemical aspects of naturally

  10. Investigation of isolation conditions and ion-exchange purification of protein coagulation components from common bean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antov Mirjana G.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of an extraction procedure of protein coagulants from common bean seed regarding concentration of NaCl and pH was performed. High values of protein concentration and coagulation activity in crude extract (9.19 g/l and 23.9%, respectively were obtained when the extraction was performed using 0.5 mol/l NaCl and water as solvent, which represents an advantage for economic and environmental reasons. Crude extract of common bean seed was purified by precipitation at two different percentages of (NH42SO4 saturation, followed by batch ion-exchange chromatography. The highest obtained coagulation activity, 45%, was determined in fraction that was eluated at 1.75 mol/l NaCl from resin loaded with proteins precipitated upon 80-100% (NH42SO4 saturation. High values of coagulation activity showed by some eluates suggest their application as natural coagulant for water purification. .

  11. Nonlinear Inverse Problem for an Ion-Exchange Filter Model: Numerical Recovery of Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balgaisha Mukanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of identifying unknown parameters for a mathematical model of an ion-exchange filter via measurement at the outlet of the filter. The proposed mathematical model consists of a material balance equation, an equation describing the kinetics of ion-exchange for the nonequilibrium case, and an equation for the ion-exchange isotherm. The material balance equation includes a nonlinear term that depends on the kinetics of ion-exchange and several parameters. First, a numerical solution of the direct problem, the calculation of the impurities concentration at the outlet of the filter, is provided. Then, the inverse problem, finding the parameters of the ion-exchange process in nonequilibrium conditions, is formulated. A method for determining the approximate values of these parameters from the impurities concentration measured at the outlet of the filter is proposed.

  12. Ammonia removal from wastewater by ion exchange in the presence of organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, T C; Weatherley, L R

    2003-04-01

    The scope of this study was the removal of ammonium by ion exchange from simulated wastewater. The study looks at the effect of organics upon ammonium ion exchange equilibrium uptake. The ion exchangers included a natural zeolite clinoptilolite, and two polymeric exchangers, Dowex 50w-x8, and Purolite MN500. The organic compounds studied included citric acid and a number of proteins. The traditional method for removal of ammonium and organic pollutants from wastewater is biological treatment, but ion exchange offers a number of advantages including the ability to handle shock loadings and the ability to operate over a wider range of temperatures. The results show that in most of the cases studied, the presence of organic compounds enhances the uptake of ammonium ion onto the ion exchangers.

  13. Oxidation of H2 and CO over ion-exchanged X and Y zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Daniel G; Li, Junhui; Davis, Robert J

    2007-03-21

    Zeolites X and Y exchanged with Group IA cations were synthesized by aqueous ion exchange of NaX and NaY and used as catalysts in the oxidation of H2 and CO at temperatures ranging from 473 to 573 K. The CsX zeolite was the most active material of the series for both reactions whereas HX was the least active. Moreover, the oxidation of CO in H2 was very selective (approximately 80%) over the alkali-metal exchanged materials. Isotopic transient analysis of CO oxidation during steady-state reaction at 573 K was used to evaluate the coverage of reactive carbon-containing intermediates that lead to product as well as the pseudo-first-order rate constant of the reaction. A factor of 4 enhancement in activity achieved by exchanging Cs for Na was attributed to a higher coverage of reactive intermediates in CsX because the pseudo-first-order rate constant was nearly same for the two materials (approximately 0.7 s(-1)). The number of reactive intermediates on both materials was orders of magnitude below the number of alkali metal cations in the zeolites but was similar to the number of impurity Fe atoms in the samples. Because the trend in Fe impurity loading was the same as that for oxidation activity, a role of transition metal impurities in zeolite oxidation catalysis is suggested.

  14. Uso de carvão ativado e resina de troca iônica para limpeza e concentração de enzimas em extratos de madeira biodegradada = Use of activated charcoal and ion-exchange resin to cleaN up and concentrate enzymes in extracts from biodegraded wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ferraz

    2010-10-01

    lignin over hemeperoxidases. Adsorption into activated charcoal showed to be an adequate strategy to reduce the absorbance at 280 nm in all the extracts. Moreover, it allowed to maximize the capacity of an anion exchange resin bed (DEAE-Sepharose used to concentrate the MnPs present in the extracts. It was concluded that the use of activated charcoal followed by adsorption into DEAE Sepharose is a strategy that can be used to concentrate MnPs in extracts obtained during the biodegradation of E. grandis by C. subvermispora.

  15. Improved durability of proton exchange membrane fuel cells by introducing Sn (IV) oxide into electrodes using an ion exchange method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, M. G.; Larsen, M. J.; Andersen, S. M.

    2017-03-01

    Electrodes of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs), consisting of catalyst-coated gas diffusion layers, were subjected to an optimized ion exchange procedure, in which tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles were introduced into them. Both methanol and sulfuric acid were tested as ion exchange solvents. SnO2 has previously been shown to exhibit radical scavenging abilities towards radicals inside the electrocatalyst layers. Its presence inside the electrodes was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. After exposure to an accelerated stress test in a three-electrode setup, the electrodes containing SnO2 were found to have retained approximately 73.0% of their original Pt, while only 53.2% was retained in electrodes treated identically, but without Sn. Similarly, the SnO2-treated electrodes also experienced a smaller loss in electrochemical surface area in comparison to before the accelerated stress test. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) constructed with a SnO2-containing anode was evaluated over 500 h. The results showed remarkably reduced OCV decay rate and end of test hydrogen crossover compared to the control MEA, indicating that SnO2 aids in impeding membrane thinning and pinhole formation. The results point toward a positive effect of SnO2 on fuel cell durability, by reducing the degradation of the membrane as well as of the ionomer in the electrocatalyst layer.

  16. Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide by methane over cerium and silver ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhijiang; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A new catalyst comprising cerium and silver ion-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite is reported in this paper, for the reduction of nitric oxide by methane in the presence of excess oxygen. The bi-cation exchanged Ce-Ag-ZSM-5 catalyst was very active for this reaction, while either Ce-ZSM-5 or Ag-ZSM-5 alone showed low activity. The presence of oxygen in the feed gas mixture enhanced the activity of the catalyst and the NO conversion to N{sub 2} increased with the CH{sub 4}/NO ratio and Ag loading of the zeolite. The presence of water vapor had a small adverse effect on the catalyst activity. The coexistence of Ce and Ag ions in the zeolite is crucial for achieving high NO conversion to N{sub 2}. A small amount of cerium is adequate to promote the selective catalytic reduction of NO. The two main functions of Ce ions are (1) to provide the Ag ion sites with NO{sub 2} by catalyzing the oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and (2) to suppress the direct CH{sub 4} oxidation to CO{sub 2}. The Ag sites are the active centers where the reaction of NO{sub 2} with CH{sub 4} takes place

  17. New Stable Cu(I) Catalyst Supported on Weakly Acidic Polyacrylate Resin for Green C-N Coupling: Synthesis of N-(Pyridin-4-yl)benzene Amines and N,N-Bis(pyridine-4-yl)benzene Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, Nitin; Pazdera, Pavel

    2016-12-22

    A method for preparation of a new stable Cu(I) catalyst supported on weakly acidic polyacrylate resin without additional stabilizing ligands is described. A simple and efficient methodology for Ullmann Cu(I) catalyzed C-N cross coupling reactions using this original catalyst is reported. Coupling reactions of 4-chloropyridinium chloride with anilines containing electron donating (EDG) or electron withdrawing (EWG) groups, naphthalen-2-amine and piperazine, respectively, are successfully demonstrated.

  18. New Stable Cu(I Catalyst Supported on Weakly Acidic Polyacrylate Resin for Green C-N Coupling: Synthesis of N-(Pyridin-4-ylbenzene Amines and N,N-Bis(pyridine-4-ylbenzene Amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for preparation of a new stable Cu(I catalyst supported on weakly acidic polyacrylate resin without additional stabilizing ligands is described. A simple and efficient methodology for Ullmann Cu(I catalyzed C-N cross coupling reactions using this original catalyst is reported. Coupling reactions of 4-chloropyridinium chloride with anilines containing electron donating (EDG or electron withdrawing (EWG groups, naphthalen-2-amine and piperazine, respectively, are successfully demonstrated.

  19. Crystalline Silicotitanate Ion Exchange Support for Salt-Alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2001-02-23

    The current version of crystalline silicotitanate (TAM5) is commercially available from UOP under the trade name IONSIV IE-911. TAM5 was extensively tested by several researchers and was determined as the best currently available material for removing radioisotopes from various types of nuclear wastes salt solutions stored at various DOE sites. The studies at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) indicated that the CST granules tend to leach into the nuclear waste simulants as it is processed by the ion exchange columns that is packed with CST granules from UOP. We, at Texas A and M University, agreed to conduct research to compliment the efforts at SRTC so that IONSIV IE-911 could be used for the treatment of nuclear waste stored at the DOE Savannah River facility. After consultation, we developed a Task Plan in January 2000. According to the agreement between Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken SC 29808 and, College Station, TX 77843, synthesis and the performance evaluations of crystalline silicotitanates (CST) were performed the during period of April 1 - September 30, 2000. Our main goals were delivery of a kilogram of CST (TAM5-4) synthesized at Texas A and M University in July to SRTC, performance evaluation of CST in nuclear waste simulants, and consultation mainly by telephone.

  20. Protein-surface interaction maps for ion-exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alexander S; Cramer, Steven M

    2011-04-05

    In this paper, protein-surface interaction maps were generated by performing coarse-grained protein-surface calculations. This approach allowed for the rapid determination of the protein-surface interaction energies at a range of orientations and distances. Interaction maps of lysozyme indicated that there was a contiguous series of orientations corresponding to several adjacent preferred binding regions on the protein surface. Examination of these orientations provided insight into the residues involved in surface interactions, which qualitatively agreed with the retention data for single-site mutants. Interaction maps of lysozyme single-site mutants were also generated and provided significant insight into why these variants exhibited significant differences in their chromatographic behavior. This approach was also employed to study the binding behavior of CspB and related mutants. The results indicated that, in addition to describing general trends in the data, these maps provided significant insight into retention data of the single-site mutants. In particular, subtle retention trends observed with the K12 and K13 mutants were well-described using this interaction map approach. Finally, the number of interaction points with energies stronger than -2 kcal/mol was shown to be able to semi-quantitatively predict the behavior of most of the mutants. This rapid approach for calculating protein-surface interaction maps is expected to facilitate future method development for separating closely related protein variants in ion-exchange systems.

  1. Ion-exchange chromatography for the characterization of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Beck, Alain; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2015-09-10

    Ion-exchange chromatography (IEX) is a historical technique widely used for the detailed characterization of therapeutic proteins and can be considered as a reference and powerful technique for the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of charge heterogeneity. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of theoretical and practical aspects of modern IEX applied for the characterization of therapeutic proteins including monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) and antibody drug conjugates (ADCs). The section on method development describes how to select a suitable stationary phase chemistry and dimensions, the mobile phase conditions (pH, nature and concentration of salt), as well as the temperature and flow rate, considering proteins isoelectric point (pI). In addition, both salt-gradient and pH-gradient approaches were critically reviewed and benefits as well as limitations of these two strategies were provided. Finally, several applications, mostly from pharmaceutical industries, illustrate the potential of IEX for the characterization of charge variants of various types of biopharmaceutical products.

  2. FORMATION OF LUMINESCENT OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES IN SILICATE GLASS MATRIX BY THE ION-EXCHANGE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Dyomichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present spectra of the alkali-silicate glasses with copper ions in near-surface area, introduced by ion exchange of different temperature and duration. It is shown that the reduction of Cu2+ in the near-surface area causes existence of Cu+ and neutral atoms in glass after the ion-exchange in divalent salt. The ion-exchange itself involves only Cu+ and Na+ ions. The formation of subnanometer clusters Cun is due to neutral copper atoms staying in near-surface zone. We have shown that the waveguide layer in near-surface area, made by ion-exchange, has а visible luminescence with the excitation by UVradiation. At the same time, the contribution to luminescence is made by Cu+ ions, molecular clusters Cun and by dimers Cu+ - Cu+ . During the high-temperature ion-exchange at 600 °С the formation and destruction equilibrium shift of molecular clusters Cun can be seen. An hour ion-exchange leads to molecular clusters Cun destruction, while at time periods less than 30 min and around 18 hours it leads to the formation of Cun. The sample turns green after 18,5 hours ion-exchange showing formation of a considerable amount of divalent copper ions Cu2+ therein.

  3. Removal of vanadium from ammonium molybdate solution by ion exchange

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-gang; ZHANG Qi-xiu; ZENG Li; XIAO Lian-sheng; YANG Ya-nan

    2009-01-01

    The separation techniques of vanadium and molybdenum were summarized, and a new method of removal V(Ⅴ) from Mo(Ⅵ) by adsorption with chelate resin was presented. Nine kinds of chelate resins were used to investigate the adsorbent capability of V(Ⅴ) in ammonium molybdate solution with static method. The test results show that DDAS, CUW and CW-2 resins can easily adsorb V(Ⅴ) in ammonium molybdate solution, but hardly adsorb Mo(Ⅵ). The dynamic experimental results show more than 99.5% of V(Ⅴ) can be adsorbed, and the adsorption rate of Mo(Ⅵ) is less than 0.27% at 294-296 K for 60 min at pH 7.42-8.02. The mass ratio of V to Mo decreases to l/5 0000 in the effluent from 1/255 in the initial solution. The loaded resin can be desorbed by 5% NH3·H2O solution, and the vanadium desorption rate can reach 99.6%. The max concentration of vanadium in desorbed solution can reach 20 g/L, while the concentration of molybdenum is less than 0.8 g/L.

  4. Potassium-and silver-double-ion-exchanged slab glass waveguides: characterization and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P L; Najafi, S I

    1994-06-01

    Double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides are made first by a potassium-ion exchange followed by a silver-ion exchange. The inverse WKB method is used to determine the index profile. It is shown that a combination of a truncated quadratic function and a complementary error function represents the refractive index best. A direct WKB method is employed to find the maximum index change and the diffusion coefficient of the second exchange process. The concentration of silver, potassium, and sodium ions are measured by an x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. The results agree well with the index profile when a quadratic function is used.

  5. Low loss two-step ion-exchanged waveguides with high surface refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah; Mittler, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Two-step ion-exchanged waveguides with high surface refractive indices are fabricated under a variety of conditions. By modifying the conventional two-step ion exchange, the losses and the effective diffusion depth can be decreased without a significant effect on the surface refractive index. The influence of the first step, K+-Na+ ion exchange, performed time dependably on the surface refractive index change is investigated. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is performed to establish the diffusion profiles of various ions.

  6. Analyzing the effect of ion exchange on flexural strength of cermaco II and colorlogic veneer porcelains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rashidan

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   The major foible of dental ceramics is their brittle nature. Therefore, the producers of these materials have focused on the “strength” issue. A method of increasing strength is ion exchange on porcelain surface which leads to formation of a compressive crust that opposing forces should overcome before developing a crack. In current study, ion exchange in two types of porcelain, Ceramco II which is used in PFM restorations and Colorloic veneer which is used for laminates, veneers, inlays and onlays, are evaluated. Additionally, laminate porcelains, etching effect on strength of porcelain and interaction of acid etching and ion exchange have been studied.

  7. Mixed ion exchange supports as useful ion exchangers for protein purification: purification of penicillin G acylase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Manuel; Batalla, Pilar; Grazu, Valeria; Pessela, Benevides C C; Mateo, Cesar; Montes, Tamara; Hermoso, Juan A; Guisan, Jose M; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto

    2007-02-01

    A support having similar amounts of carboxymethyl and amino groups has been prepared and evaluated as an ion exchanger. It has been found that this support was able to adsorb a high amount of protein from a crude extract of proteins (approximately 55%) at pH 5. Moreover, it was able to adsorb approximately 60% of the protein that did not become adsorbed on supports bearing just one kind of ionic groups. The use of divalent cations reinforced the adsorption of proteins on these supports. These results suggest that the adsorption of proteins on supports bearing almost neutral charge is not driven by the existence of opposite charges between the adsorbent and the biomacromolecule but just by the possibility of forming a high number of enzyme-support ionic bonds. This support has been used to purify the enzyme penicillin G acylase (PGA) from Escherichia coli. PGA was not significantly adsorbed at any pH value on either amino- or carboxyl-activated supports, while it can be fully adsorbed at pH 5 on this new carboxyl-amino matrix. Thus, we have been able to almost fully purify PGA from crude extracts with a very high yield by using these new supports.

  8. Degradation of ion spent resin using the Fenton's reagent; Degradacao da resina de troca ionica utilizando o reagente de Fenton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Leandro Goulart de

    2013-07-01

    The most common method for spent radioactive ion exchange resin treatment is its immobilization in cement, which reduces the radionuclides release into the environment. Although this method is efficient, it increases considerably the final volume of the waste due to the low incorporation capacity. The objective of this work was to develop a degradation method of spent resins arising from the nuclear research reactor located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), using an Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with Fenton's reagents. This method would allow a higher incorporation in cement. Three different resins were evaluated: cationic, anionic and a mixture of both resins. The reactions were conducted varying the catalyst concentration (25, 50, 100 and 150 mM), the volume of hydrogen peroxide (320 to 460 mL), and three different temperatures, 50, 60 and 70 deg C. Degradation of about 98% was achieved using a 50 mM catalyst solution and 330 mL of hydrogen peroxide solution. The most efficient temperature was 60 deg C. (author)

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Water Confined in Ion-Exchanged Zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Neuhoff, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Zeolites, which host large quantities of water, are among the most important rock-forming and environmental minerals in the surface and near-surface regions of the Earth. The physical properties and geochemical behavior of water confined in zeolites differs substantially from that of bulk liquid water, and the energectics of confined water exerts a profound influence on the stability and behavior of zeolites in natural and engineered systems. Because the cations and water molecules are both located in the zeolitic channels, changes in cation content can influence the amount and site occupancies of water molecules in zeolites. In order to find out the relationship between the behavior of confined water and cation composition in zeolites, thermogravimetric and calorimetric experiments were conducted on the mordenite (one of the most common zeolites) samples of mixing Na+ and K+. These mordenite solid solutions were generated by binary ion exchange between pure synthetic Na-mordenite (CBV 10A, obtained from Zeolyst International) and chloride solutions containing Na+ and K+ of different equivalent concentration ratios. The results from dehydration and hydration of the mordenite solid solutions show that when the mole fraction of K+ in mordenite increases, the maximum water content of mordenite decreases and the enthalpy of hydration becomes less exothermic. More importantly, both maximum water content and enthalpy of hydration of mordenite are demonstrated to change linearly with mole fraction of K+. Two energetically distinct sets of water molecules have been observed in mordenite: W1 (relatively less energetic) and W2 (relatively high energetic). Thermodynamic analysis on the hydration of W1 and W2 reveals that these two sets of water molecules behave differently when cation composition of mordenite changes. The water content of W2 is independent of cation composition, whereas W1 loses water with when mole fraction of K+ increases; the enthalpy of hydration of W1

  10. Free volume and gas permeation in ion-exchanged forms of the Nafion® membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hamdy F. M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Kuroda, C. S.; Ohira, A.

    2010-04-01

    Variations of free volume and gas permeability of the Nafion® membrane upon ion-exchange of H+ with Cs+ or Pt2+ was studied as a function of temperature. Free volume was quantified using the positron annihilation lifetime technique. Our results showed that the free volume (VFV,Ps) of the dried membrane is enlarged by thermal expansion. It was found that the ion-exchange significantly expands the free volume and at the same time decreases the permeabilities of O2 and H2. Good linear correlations between the logarithm of permeabilities of O2 and H2 at different temperatures and 1/VFV,Ps for the ion-exchanged forms of Nafion® in the dried state suggest an important role played by the free volume in gas permeation. Considerable downward deviation of the correlations for the ion-exchanged ionomers from the H+-form suggested the importance of polymer stiffening in gas permeation.

  11. Non-centrosymmetric behavior of a clay film ion-exchanged with chiral metal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasutaka; Matsunaga, Ryoya; Sato, Hisako; Kogure, Toshihiro; Yamagishi, Akihiko; Kawamata, Jun

    2009-12-07

    SHG measurements on a highly transparent clay film ion-exchanged with chiral metal complexes revealed that the mono-molecular layer of the chiral complexes in an interlayer space acquired a non-centrosymmetric character.

  12. Electrical Resistance and Transport Numbers of Ion-Exchange Membranes Used in Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    1999-01-01

    causes damage to the membrane. This work presents the result from transport number and electrical resistance measurements done on four sets of ion-exchange membranes (Ionics, Inc. CR67 HMR412 cation-exchange membranes and Ionics, Inc. AR204 SXZR anion-exchange membranes), which have been used in four......Electrodialytic soil remediation is a recently developed method to decontaminate heavy metal polluted soil using ion-exchange membranes. In this method one side of the ion-exchange membrane is in direct contact with the polluted soil. It is of great importance to know if this contact with the soil...... different electrodialytic soil remediation experiments. The experiments showed that after the use in electrodialytic soil remediation, the ion-exchange membranes had transport numbers in the same magnitude as new membranes. The electrical resistance for six membranes did not differ from that of new...

  13. Ion-exchange chromatography separation applied to mineral recycle in closed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program, a study is being made of mineral separation on ion-exchange columns. The purpose of the mineral separation step is to allow minerals to be recycled from the oxidized waste products of plants, man, and animals for hydroponic food production. In the CELSS application, relatively large quantities of minerals in a broad concentration range must be recovered by the desired system, rather than the trace quantities and very low concentrations treated in analytical applications of ion-exchange chromatography. Experiments have been carried out to assess the parameters pertinent to the scale-up of ion-exchange chromatography and to determine feasibility. Preliminary conclusions are that the column scale-up is in a reasonable size range for the CELSS application. The recycling of a suitable eluent, however, remains a major challenge to the suitability of using ion exchange chromatography in closed systems.

  14. Media selection in ion-exchange chromatography in a single microplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanne, Charlotte; Santarelli, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput process development is more and more used in chromatography. Limitations are the tools provided by the manufacturers. Here, we describe a method to select chromatographic media for ion-exchange chromatography using a 96-well filter microplate.

  15. Dialysis system. [using ion exchange resin membranes permeable to urea molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, W. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The improved hemodialysis system utilizes a second polymeric membrane having dialyzate in contact with one surface and a urea decomposition solution in contact with the other surface. The membrane selectively passes urea from the dialyzate into the decomposition solution, while preventing passage of positively charged metal ions from the dialyzate into the solution and ammonium ions from the solution into the dialyzate.

  16. Determination of radionuclide levels in rainwater using ion exchange resin and γ-spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Jungck, Matthias H.A.; Andrey, Jean-Louis; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of radioactivity accidentally released into the atmosphere involves determining the radioactivity levels of rainwater samples. Rainwater scavenges atmospheric airborne radioactivity in such a way that surface contamination can be deduced from rainfall rate and rainwater radioactivity content. For this purpose, rainwater is usually collected in large surface collectors and then measured by γ-spectrometry after such treatments as evaporation or iron hydroxide precipitation. We fo...

  17. Demonstration of Regenerable, Large-Scale Ion Exchange System Using WBA Resin in Rialto, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Membrana (manufacturer of the membranes), any substantial biological growth or other particulates from the groundwater accumulating on the surface of the...Table 7-3. Equipment Costs for the 1,000 gpm WBA IX System Equipment Cost ($) Pretreatment: Feed Pumps (2 x 600 gpm) $ 28,284 Membrana ...membranes. Also, the membrane vendor ( Membrana ) recommended that the membranes and associated equipment be covered to provide protection from direct

  18. COMPLEX REACTIONS OF ETHYL-GLUCOSIDES SYNTHESIS OVER ION EXCHANGE RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionEthyl-glucoside was a tasty component of sakeand mirin, which was effective in deodorizing badsmell from fish and animal meats ['], softening saltytaste and improving all-around taste for food cooking.Sake has been used as cosmetic for skin treatment fora long time in Japan. Ethyl-glucoside, a typicalingredient in the sake, can reduce the hUrt of exposureto ultraviolat [z]. In addition, alkylglucoside was a newclass of nonionic suthetant, which was oftenapplicable in cosmetics, food emulsifier a...

  19. The Isomerization of (-)-Menthone to (+)-Isomenthone Catalyzed by an Ion-Exchange Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Aurora L.; Baca, Nicholas A.; Hampton, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    A traditional organic chemistry laboratory experiment involves the acid-catalyzed isomerization of (-)-menthone to (+)-isomenthone. This experiment generates large quantities of organic and aqueous waste, and only allows the final ratio of isomers to be determined. A "green" modification has been developed that replaces the mineral acid…

  20. Demonstration of Regenerable, Large-Scale Ion Exchange System Using WBA Resin in Rialto, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-05

    Calibration Check Standard CDPH – California Department of Public Health CSTR – Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor DOD – Department of Defense...groundwater with high concentrations of perchlorate (>500 ppb), may be more economically treated using a CSTR anoxic biodegradation process. A full-scale ion