WorldWideScience

Sample records for ion trap reactions

  1. Ejection of Coulomb Crystals from a Linear Paul Ion Trap for Ion-Molecule Reaction Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K A E; Pollum, L L; Petralia, L S; Tauschinsky, A; Rennick, C J; Softley, T P; Heazlewood, B R

    2015-12-17

    Coulomb crystals are being increasingly employed as a highly localized source of cold ions for the study of ion-molecule chemical reactions. To extend the scope of reactions that can be studied in Coulomb crystals-from simple reactions involving laser-cooled atomic ions, to more complex systems where molecular reactants give rise to multiple product channels-sensitive product detection methodologies are required. The use of a digital ion trap (DIT) and a new damped cosine trap (DCT) are described, which facilitate the ejection of Coulomb-crystallized ions onto an external detector for the recording of time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectra. This enables the examination of reaction dynamics and kinetics between Coulomb-crystallized ions and neutral molecules: ionic products are typically cotrapped, thus ejecting the crystal onto an external detector reveals the masses, identities, and quantities of all ionic species at a selected point in the reaction. Two reaction systems are examined: the reaction of Ca(+) with deuterated isotopologues of water, and the charge exchange between cotrapped Xe(+) with deuterated isotopologues of ammonia. These reactions are examples of two distinct types of experiment, the first involving direct reaction of the laser-cooled ions, and the second involving reaction of sympathetically-cooled heavy ions to form a mixture of light product ions. Extensive simulations are conducted to interpret experimental results and calculate optimal operating parameters, facilitating a comparison between the DIT and DCT approaches. The simulations also demonstrate a correlation between crystal shape and image shape on the detector, suggesting a possible means for determining crystal geometry for nonfluorescing ions.

  2. State-selected ion-molecule reactions with Coulomb-crystallized molecular ions in traps

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, Xin; Reyes, Juvenal Yosa; Germann, Matthias; Meuwly, Markus; Willitsch, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    State-selected Coulomb-crystallized molecular ions were employed for the first time in ion-molecule reaction studies using the prototypical charge-transfer process $\\mathrm{N_2^++N_2\\rightarrow N_2+N_2^+}$ as an example. By preparing the reactant ions in a well-defined rovibrational state and localizing them in space by sympathetic cooling to millikelvin temperatures in an ion trap, state- and energy-controlled reaction experiments with sensitivities on the level of single ions were performed. The experimental results were interpreted with quasi-classical trajectory simulations on a six-dimensional potential-energy surface which provided detailed insight into translation-to-rotation energy transfer occurring during charge transfer between N$_2$ and N$_2^+$.

  3. An integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer for chemical and photo- reaction dynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Rellergert, Wade G; Sullivan, Scott T; Hudson, Eric R

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate the integration of a linear quadrupole trap with a simple time-of-flight mass spectrometer with medium-mass resolution (m/Δm ∼ 50) geared towards the demands of atomic, molecular, and chemical physics experiments. By utilizing a novel radial ion extraction scheme from the linear quadrupole trap into the mass analyzer, a device with large trap capacity and high optical access is realized without sacrificing mass resolution. This provides the ability to address trapped ions with laser light and facilitates interactions with neutral background gases prior to analyzing the trapped ions. Here, we describe the construction and implementation of the device as well as present representative ToF spectra. We conclude by demonstrating the flexibility of the device with proof-of-principle experiments that include the observation of molecular-ion photodissociation and the measurement of trapped-ion chemical reaction rates. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  4. Ion trap simulation tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  5. Chemical Reaction of Ultracold Atoms and Ions in a Hybrid Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rellergert, Wade G; Kotochigova, Svetlana; Petrov, Alexander; Chen, Kuang; Schowalter, Steven J; Hudson, Eric R

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between cold ions and atoms have been proposed for use in implementing quantum gates\\cite{Idziaszek2007}, probing quantum gases\\cite{Sherkunov2009}, observing novel charge-transport dynamics\\cite{Cote2000}, and sympathetically cooling atomic and molecular systems which cannot be laser cooled\\cite{Smith2005,Hudson2009}. Furthermore, the chemistry between cold ions and atoms is foundational to issues in modern astrophysics, including the formation of stars, planets, and interstellar clouds\\cite{Smith1992}, the diffuse interstellar bands\\cite{Reddy2010}, and the post-recombination epoch of the early universe\\cite{Stancil1996b}. However, as pointed out in refs 9 and 10, both experimental data and a theoretical description of the ion-atom interaction at low temperatures, reached in these modern atomic physics experiments and the interstellar environment, are still largely missing. Here we observe a chemical reaction between ultracold $^{174}$Yb$^+$ ions and $^{40}$Ca atoms held in a hybrid trap. We me...

  6. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  7. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  8. Using Metal Complex Ion-Molecule Reactions in a Miniature Rectilinear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer to Detect Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graichen, Adam M.; Vachet, Richard W.

    2013-06-01

    The gas-phase reactions of a series of coordinatively unsaturated [Ni(L)n]y+ complexes, where L is a nitrogen-containing ligand, with chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants in a miniature rectilinear ion trap mass spectrometer were investigated as part of a new approach to detect CWAs. Results show that upon entering the vacuum system via a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane introduction, low concentrations of several CWA simulants, including dipropyl sulfide (simulant for mustard gas), acetonitrile (simulant for the nerve agent tabun), and diethyl phosphite (simulant for nerve agents sarin, soman, tabun, and VX), can react with metal complex ions generated by electrospray ionization (ESI), thereby providing a sensitive means of detecting these compounds. The [Ni(L)n]2+ complexes are found to be particularly reactive with the simulants of mustard gas and tabun, allowing their detection at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. These detection limits are well below reported exposure limits for these CWAs, which indicates the applicability of this new approach, and are about two orders of magnitude lower than electron ionization detection limits on the same mass spectrometer. The use of coordinatively unsaturated metal complexes as reagent ions offers the possibility of further tuning the ion-molecule chemistry so that desired compounds can be detected selectively or at even lower concentrations.

  9. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  10. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  11. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 5 applications of ion trapping devices

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2009-01-01

    Examines ion/neutral and ion/ion reactions, ion spectroscopy, and the structural characterization of proteins and peptides using quadropole ion trap mass spectrometry, Fourier transform - ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry, and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

  12. Trapping ions with lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Cormick, Cecilia; Morigi, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    This work theoretically addresses the trapping an ionized atom with a single valence electron by means of lasers, analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively the consequences of the net charge of the particle. In our model, the coupling between the ion and the electromagnetic field includes the charge monopole and the internal dipole, within a multipolar expansion of the interaction Hamiltonian. Specifically, we perform a Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation, taking into account the motion of the center of mass. The net charge produces a correction in the atomic dipole which is of order $m_e/M$ with $m_e$ the electron mass and $M$ the total mass of the ion. With respect to neutral atoms, there is also an extra coupling to the laser field which can be approximated by that of the monopole located at the position of the center of mass. These additional effects, however, are shown to be very small compared to the dominant dipolar trapping term.

  13. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    an inspiring speech at the MIT Physics of Computation 1st Conference in 1981, Feynman proposed the development of a computer that would obey the...on ion trap based 36 quantum computing for physics and computer science students would include lecture notes, slides, lesson plans, a syllabus...reading lists, videos, demonstrations, and laboratories. 37 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] R. P. Feynman , “Simulating physics with computers,” Int. J

  14. Resonance methods in quadrupole ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Peng, Wen-Ping; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole ion trap is widely used in the chemical physics community for making measurements on dynamical systems, both intramolecular (e.g. ion fragmentation reactions) and intermolecular (e.g. ion/molecule reactions). In this review, we discuss linear and nonlinear resonances in quadrupole ion traps, an understanding of which is critical for operation of these devices and interpretation of the data which they provide. The effect of quadrupole field nonlinearity is addressed, with important implications for promoting fragmentation and achieving unique methods of mass scanning. Methods that depend on ion resonances (i.e. matching an external perturbation with an ion's induced frequency of motion) are discussed, including ion isolation, ion activation, and ion ejection.

  15. Nanofriction in cold ion traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E

    2011-01-01

    Sliding friction between crystal lattices and the physics of cold ion traps are so far non-overlapping fields. Two sliding lattices may either stick and show static friction or slip with dynamic friction; cold ions are known to form static chains, helices or clusters, depending on the trapping conditions. Here we show, based on simulations, that much could be learnt about friction by sliding, through, for example, an electric field, the trapped ion chains over a corrugated potential. Unlike infinite chains, in which the theoretically predicted Aubry transition to free sliding may take place, trapped chains are always pinned. Yet, a properly defined static friction still vanishes Aubry-like at a symmetric-asymmetric structural transition, found for decreasing corrugation in both straight and zig-zag trapped chains. Dynamic friction is also accessible in ringdown oscillations of the ion trap. Long theorized static and dynamic one-dimensional friction phenomena could thus become accessible in future cold ion tribology.

  16. A Generic Multiple Reaction Monitoring Based Approach for Plant Flavonoids Profiling Using a Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhixiang; Lin, Ge; Ye, Yang; Wang, Yitao; Yan, Ru

    2014-06-01

    Flavonoids are one of the largest classes of plant secondary metabolites serving a variety of functions in plants and associating with a number of health benefits for humans. Typically, they are co-identified with many other secondary metabolites using untargeted metabolomics. The limited data quality of untargeted workflow calls for a shift from the breadth-first to the depth-first screening strategy when a specific biosynthetic pathway is focused on. Here we introduce a generic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based approach for flavonoids profiling in plants using a hybrid triple quadrupole linear ion trap (QTrap) mass spectrometer. The approach includes four steps: (1) preliminary profiling of major aglycones by multiple ion monitoring triggered enhanced product ion scan (MIM-EPI); (2) glycones profiling by precursor ion triggered EPI scan (PI-EPI) of major aglycones; (3) comprehensive aglycones profiling by combining MIM-EPI and neutral loss triggered EPI scan (NL-EPI) of major glycone; (4) in-depth flavonoids profiling by MRM-EPI with elaborated MRM transitions. Particularly, incorporation of the NH3 loss and sugar elimination proved to be very informative and confirmative for flavonoids screening. This approach was applied for profiling flavonoids in Astragali radix ( Huangqi), a famous herb widely used for medicinal and nutritional purposes in China. In total, 421 flavonoids were tentatively characterized, among which less than 40 have been previously reported in this medicinal plant. This MRM-based approach provides versatility and sensitivity that required for flavonoids profiling in plants and serves as a useful tool for plant metabolomics.

  17. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  18. Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayr, Michael; Kumph, Muir; Partel, Stefan; Edlinger, Johannes; Brownnutt, Michael; Blatt, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

  19. Pattern formation with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experiment to study collective behavior in a nonlinear medium of trapped ions. Using laser cooling and heating and an anharmonic trap potential, one can turn an ion into a nonlinear van der Pol-Duffing oscillator. A chain of ions interacting electrostatically has stable plane waves for all parameters. The system also behaves like an excitable medium, since a sufficiently large perturbation generates a travelling pulse. Small chains exhibit multistability and limit cycles. We account for noise from spontaneous emission in the amplitude equation and find that the patterns are observable for realistic experimental parameters. The tunability of ion traps makes them an exciting setting to study nonequilibrium statistical physics.

  20. Ion funnel ion trap and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Ibrahim, Yehia M [Richland, WA; Clowers, Biran H [West Richland, WA; Prior, David C [Hermiston, OR; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-02-15

    An ion funnel trap is described that includes a inlet portion, a trapping portion, and a outlet portion that couples, in normal operation, with an ion funnel. The ion trap operates efficiently at a pressure of .about.1 Torr and provides for: 1) removal of low mass-to-charge (m/z) ion species, 2) ion accumulation efficiency of up to 80%, 3) charge capacity of .about.10,000,000 elementary charges, 4) ion ejection time of 40 to 200 .mu.s, and 5) optimized variable ion accumulation times. Ion accumulation with low concentration peptide mixtures has shown an increase in analyte signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of a factor of 30, and a greater than 10-fold improvement in SNR for multiply charged analytes.

  1. Ion-ion reactions for charge reduction of biopolymer at atmospheric pressure ambient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Ming Zhou; Jian Hua Ding; Xie Zhang; Huan Wen Chen

    2007-01-01

    Extractive electrospray ionization source (EESI) was adapted for ion-ion reaction, which was demonstrated by using a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer for the first ion-ion reaction of biopolymers in the atmospheric pressure ambient.

  2. Rotation sensing with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, W C

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol for using trapped ions to measure rotations via matter-wave Sagnac interferometry. The trap allows the interferometer to enclose a large area in a compact apparatus through repeated round-trips in a Sagnac geometry. We show how a uniform magnetic field can be used to close the interferometer over a large dynamic range in rotation speed and measurement bandwidth without losing contrast. Since this technique does not require the ions to be confined in the Lamb-Dicke regime, thermal states with many phonons should be sufficient for operation.

  3. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  4. Charge Exchange and Chemical Reactions with Trapped Th$^{3+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, L R; Chapman, M S

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the reaction rates of trapped, buffer gas cooled Th$^{3+}$ and various gases and have analyzed the reaction products using trapped ion mass spectrometry techniques. Ion trap lifetimes are usually limited by reactions with background molecules, and the high electron affinity of multiply charged ions such as Th$^{3+}$ make them more prone to loss. Our results show that reactions of Th$^{3+}$ with carbon dioxide, methane, and oxygen all occur near the classical Langevin rate, while reaction rates with argon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are orders of magnitude lower. Reactions of Th$^{3+}$ with oxygen and methane proceed primarily via charge exchange, while simultaneous charge exchange and chemical reaction occurs between Th$^{3+}$ and carbon dioxide. Loss rates of Th$^{3+}$ in helium are consistent with reaction with impurities in the gas. Reaction rates of Th$^{3+}$ with nitrogen and argon depend on the internal electronic configuration of the Th$^{3+}$.

  5. Quantum Games in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buluta, Iulia Maria [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: noa@lyman.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Shingo [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: fujiwara@lyman.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hasegawa, Shuichi [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: hasegawa@q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-10-09

    We propose a general, scalable framework for implementing two-choices-multiplayer Quantum Games in ion traps. In particular, we discuss two famous examples: the Quantum Prisoners' Dilemma and the Quantum Minority Game. An analysis of decoherence due to intensity fluctuations in the applied laser fields is also provided.

  6. Tachyon Physics with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    It has been predicted that particles with imaginary mass, called tachyons, would be able to travel faster than the speed of light. So far, there has not been any experimental evidence for tachyons in either natural or engineered systems. Here, we propose how to experimentally simulate Dirac tachyons with trapped ions. Quantum measurement on a Dirac particle simulated by a trapped ion causes it to have an imaginary mass so that it may travel faster than the effective speed of light. We show that a Dirac tachyon must have spinor-motion entanglement in order to be superluminal. We also show that it exhibits significantly more Klein tunneling than a normal Dirac particle. We provide numerical simulations with realistic ion systems and show that our scheme is feasible with current technology.

  7. Scaling ion traps for quantum computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a chipscale, multi-zone, surface electrode ion trap is reported. The modular design and fabrication techniques used are anticipated to advance scalability of ion trap quantum computing architectures...

  8. Oxford ion-trap quantum computing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D M; Donald, C J S; Home, J P; McDonnell, M J; Ramos, A; Stacey, D N; Stacey, J-P; Steane, A M; Webster, S C

    2003-07-15

    We describe recent progress in the development of an ion-trap quantum information processor. We discuss the choice of ion species and describe recent experiments on read-out for a ground-state qubit and photoionization trap loading.

  9. Ion trapping for quantum information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Jin-yin; WANG Yu-zhu; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we have reviewed the recent pro-gresses on the ion trapping for quantum information process-ing and quantum computation. We have first discussed the basic principle of quantum information theory and then fo-cused on ion trapping for quantum information processing.Many variations, especially the techniques of ion chips, have been investigated since the original ion trap quantum compu-tation scheme was proposed. Full two-dimensional control of multiple ions on an ion chip is promising for the realization of scalable ion trap quantum computation and the implemen-tation of quantum networks.

  10. Nonlinear ion trap stability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, Bogdan M; Visan, Gina G, E-mail: bmihal@infim.r [Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Atomistilor Str. Nr. 409, 077125 Magurele-Bucharest, Jud. Ilfov (Romania)

    2010-09-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of an ion confined in a nonlinear Paul trap. The equation of motion for the ion is shown to be consistent with the equation describing a damped, forced Duffing oscillator. All perturbing factors are taken into consideration in the approach. Moreover, the ion is considered to undergo interaction with an external electromagnetic field. The method is based on numerical integration of the equation of motion, as the system under investigation is highly nonlinear. Phase portraits and Poincare sections show that chaos is present in the associated dynamics. The system of interest exhibits fractal properties and strange attractors. The bifurcation diagrams emphasize qualitative changes of the dynamics and the onset of chaos.

  11. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...

  12. Superdense Coding via Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Tao; FENG Mang; GAO Ke-Lin

    2004-01-01

    Superdense coding plays an important role in quantum information and can be performed with trapped ions. By confining the ions in a linear trap or a trap-cavity setup, we propose schemes to implement a reliable superdense coding by means of bichromatic radiation method. Experimental feasibility and reliability for achieving our schemes is discussed in detail.

  13. Laser spectroscopy of trapped Th^3+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Adam; Campbell, Corey; Churchill, Layne; Depalatis, Michael; Naylor, David; Kuzmich, Alex; Chapman, Michael

    2008-05-01

    We are applying the techniques of laser cooling and ion trapping to investigate the low lying nuclear isomeric state in ^229Th. We will confine Th^3+ atoms in an RF trap [1] and sympathetically cool them with barium ions. The ions are produced by laser ablation from a thorium metal target by the third harmonic of a Q-switched YAG laser. Using mass-spectroscopic techniques we separate out the Th^3+ ions from the plume of ablation products. We once trapped we will observe fluorescence from the trapped ions using transitions at 984 nm and 690 nm. [1] Peik E. and Tamm Chr., Europhysics Letters, 61 (2) (2003)

  14. Telecloning Quantum States with Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme for telecloning quantum states with trapped ions. The scheme is based on a single ion interacting with a single laser pulse. In the protocol, an ion is firstly measured to determine whether the telecloning succeeds or not, and then another ion is detected to complete the whole procedure. The required experimental techniques are within the scope of what can be obtained in the ion-trap setup.

  15. Coulomb crystal mass spectrometry in a digital ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Nabanita; Smith, Alexander D; Keller, Matthias; Rennick, Christopher J; Heazlewood, Brianna R; Softley, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    We present a mass spectrometric technique for identifying the masses and relative abundances of Coulomb-crystallized ions held in a linear Paul trap. A digital radiofrequency waveform is employed to generate the trapping potential, as this can be cleanly switched off, and static dipolar fields subsequently applied to the trap electrodes for ion ejection. Excellent detection efficiency is demonstrated for Ca+ and CaF+ ions from bi-component Ca+/CaF+ Coulomb crystals prepared by reaction of Ca+ with CH3F. A quantitative linear relationship is observed between ion number and the corresponding integrated TOF peak, independent of the ionic species. The technique is applicable to a diverse range of multi-component Coulomb crystals - demonstrated here for Ca+/NH3+/NH4+ and Ca+/CaOH+/CaOD+ crystals - and will facilitate the measurement of ion-molecule reaction rates and branching ratios in complicated reaction systems.

  16. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    As part of our involvement in the EU MICROTRAP project, we have designed, manufactured and assembled a micro-scale ion trap with integrated optical fibers. These prealigned fibers will allow delivering cooling laser light to single ions. Therefore, such a trap will not require any direct optical...... access for laser cooling. All the parts for the trap have been made in our institute [1]. The electrodes and the spacers were laser cut in the collaboration with the group of P.  Balling. In our group we have developed a technique to manufacture lensed optical fibers. The trap is now assembled...... and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...

  17. Cryogenic resonator design for trapped ion experiments in Paul traps

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, Matthias F; Monz, Thomas; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trapping ions in Paul traps requires high radio-frequency voltages, which are generated using resonators. When operating traps in a cryogenic environment, an in-vacuum resonator showing low loss is crucial to limit the thermal load to the cryostat. In this study, we present a guide for the design and production of compact, shielded cryogenic resonators. We produced and characterized three different types of resonators and furthermore demonstrate efficient impedance matching of these resonators at cryogenic temperatures.

  18. Hybrid ion, atom and light trap

    CERN Document Server

    Jyothi, S; Ram, N Bhargava; Rangwala, S A

    2013-01-01

    We present an unique experimental arrangement which permits the simultaneous trapping and cooling of ions and neutral atoms, within a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity. The versatility of this hybrid trap experiment enables a variety of studies with trapped mixtures. The motivations behind the production of such a hybrid trap system are explained, followed by details of how the experiment is put together. Several experiments that have been performed with this system are presented and some opportunities with this system are discussed. However the primary emphasis is focussed on the aspects that pertain to the trapped ions, in this hybrid system.

  19. Active Stabilization of Ion Trap Radiofrequency Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, K G; Neyenhuis, B; Mizrahi, J; Monroe, C

    2016-01-01

    We actively stabilize the harmonic oscillation frequency of a laser-cooled atomic ion confined in a rf Paul trap by sampling and rectifying the high voltage rf applied to the trap electrodes. We are able to stabilize the 1 MHz atomic oscillation frequency to better than 10 Hz, or 10 ppm. This represents a suppression of ambient noise on the rf circuit by 34 dB. This technique could impact the sensitivity of ion trap mass spectrometry and the fidelity of quantum operations in ion trap quantum information applications.

  20. Cryptography, quantum computation and trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard J.

    1998-03-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  1. Electron attachment to anionic clusters in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Franklin, E-mail: franklin.martinez@uni-rostock.de [University of Rostock, Institute of Physics (Germany); Bandelow, Steffi; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz; Vass, Albert [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Institute of Physics (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Ion traps are versatile tools for the investigation of gas-phase cluster ions, allowing, e.g., cluster-size selection and extended reaction times. Taking advantage of their particular storage capability of simultaneous trapping of electrons and clusters, Penning traps have been applied for the production of clusters with high negative charge states. Recently, linear radio-frequency quadrupole traps have been demonstrated to be another candidate to produce polyanionic clusters. Operation with rectangular, rather than harmonic, radio-frequency voltages provides field-free time slots for unhindered electron passage through the trap. Several aspects of electron-attachment techniques by means of Penning and radio-frequency traps are addressed and recent experimental results are presented.

  2. Modeling and Optimizing RF Multipole Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanghaenel, Sven; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Radio frequency (rf) ion traps are very well suited for spectroscopy experiments thanks to the long time storage of the species of interest in a well defined volume. The electrical potential of the ion trap is determined by the geometry of its electrodes and the applied voltages. In order to understand the behavior of trapped ions in realistic multipole traps it is necessary to characterize these trapping potentials. Commercial programs like SIMION or COMSOL, employing the finite difference and/or finite element method, are often used to model the electrical fields of the trap in order to design traps for various purposes, e.g. introducing light from a laser into the trap volume. For a controlled trapping of ions, e.g. for low temperature trapping, the time dependent electrical fields need to be known to high accuracy especially at the minimum of the effective (mechanical) potential. The commercial programs are not optimized for these applications and suffer from a number of limitations. Therefore, in our approach the boundary element method (BEM) has been employed in home-built programs to generate numerical solutions of real trap geometries, e.g. from CAD drawings. In addition the resulting fields are described by appropriate multipole expansions. As a consequence, the quality of a trap can be characterized by a small set of multipole parameters which are used to optimize the trap design. In this presentation a few example calculations will be discussed. In particular the accuracy of the method and the benefits of describing the trapping potentials via multipole expansions will be illustrated. As one important application heating effects of cold ions arising from non-ideal multipole fields can now be understood as a consequence of imperfect field configurations.

  3. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2008-01-23

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed, and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  4. Space-time crystals of trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Gong, Zhe-Xuan; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Quan, H T; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Peng; Duan, L-M; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-10-19

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking can lead to the formation of time crystals, as well as spatial crystals. Here we propose a space-time crystal of trapped ions and a method to realize it experimentally by confining ions in a ring-shaped trapping potential with a static magnetic field. The ions spontaneously form a spatial ring crystal due to Coulomb repulsion. This ion crystal can rotate persistently at the lowest quantum energy state in magnetic fields with fractional fluxes. The persistent rotation of trapped ions produces the temporal order, leading to the formation of a space-time crystal. We show that these space-time crystals are robust for direct experimental observation. We also study the effects of finite temperatures on the persistent rotation. The proposed space-time crystals of trapped ions provide a new dimension for exploring many-body physics and emerging properties of matter.

  5. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  6. Cold Trapped Ions as Quantum Information Processors

    CERN Document Server

    Sasura, M; Sasura, Marek; Buzek, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    In this tutorial we review physical implementation of quantum computing using a system of cold trapped ions. We discuss systematically all the aspects for making the implementation possible. Firstly, we go through the loading and confining of atomic ions in the linear Paul trap, then we describe the collective vibrational motion of trapped ions. Further, we discuss interactions of the ions with a laser beam. We treat the interactions in the travelling-wave and standing-wave configuration for dipole and quadrupole transitions. We review different types of laser cooling techniques associated with trapped ions. We address Doppler cooling, sideband cooling in and beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit, sympathetic cooling and laser cooling using electromagnetically induced transparency. After that we discuss the problem of state detection using the electron shelving method. Then quantum gates are described. We introduce single-qubit rotations, two-qubit controlled-NOT and multi-qubit controlled-NOT gates. We also comment on...

  7. Planar Ion Trap Geometry for Microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, M J; Stick, D; Rabchuk, J A; Monroe, C

    2004-01-01

    We describe a novel high aspect ratio radiofrequency linear ion trap geometry that is amenable to modern microfabrication techniques. The ion trap electrode structure consists of a pair of stacked conducting cantilevers resulting in confining fields that take the form of fringe fields from parallel plate capacitors. The confining potentials are modeled both analytically and numerically. This ion trap geometry may form the basis for large scale quantum computers or parallel quadrupole mass spectrometers. PACS: 39.25.+k, 03.67.Lx, 07.75.+h, 07.10+Cm

  8. Electron beam ion traps and their applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Ya-Ming; Roger HUTTON

    2003-01-01

    A brief introduction to the historical background and current status of electron beam ion traps (EBITs)is presented. The structure and principles of an EBIT for producing highly charged ions are described. Finally,EBITs as a potential tool in hot-plasma diagnostics and in studying frontier problems of highly charged ion physicsare discussed.

  9. Trapping and Sympathetic Cooling of Boron Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Rugango, Rene; Shu, Gang; Brown, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the trapping and sympathetic cooling of B$^{+}$ ions in a Coulomb crystal of laser-cooled Ca$^{+}$, We non-destructively confirm the presence of the both B$^+$ isotopes by resonant excitation of the secular motion. The B$^{+}$ ions are loaded by ablation of boron and the secular excitation spectrum also reveals features consistent with ions of the form B$_{n}^{+}$.

  10. Novel Ion Trap Design for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Márquez Seco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel ion trap design which facilitates the integration of an optical fiber cavity into the trap structure. The optical fibers are confined inside hollow electrodes in such a way that tight shielding and free movement of the fibers are simultaneously achievable. The latter enables in situ optimization of the overlap between the trapped ions and the cavity field. Through numerical simulations, we systematically analyze the effects of the electrode geometry on the trapping characteristics such as trap depths, secular frequencies and the optical access angle. Additionally, we simulate the effects of the presence of the fibers and confirm the robustness of the trapping potential. Based on these simulations and other technical considerations, we devise a practical trap configuration that isviable to achieve strong coupling of a single ion.

  11. Real-time air monitoring of mustard gas and Lewisite 1 by detecting their in-line reaction products by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry with counterflow ion introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akihiko; Takada, Yasuaki; Watanabe, Susumu; Hashimoto, Hiroaki; Ezawa, Naoya; Seto, Yasuo; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Maruko, Hisashi; Takayama, Yasuo; Sekioka, Ryoji; Yamaguchi, Shintaro; Kishi, Shintaro; Satoh, Takafumi; Kondo, Tomohide; Nagashima, Hisayuki; Nagoya, Tomoki

    2015-01-20

    A new method enabling sensitive real-time air monitoring of highly reactive chemical warfare agents, namely, mustard gas (HD) and Lewisite 1 (L1), by detecting ions of their in-line reaction products instead of intact agents, is proposed. The method is based on corona discharge-initiated atmospheric pressure chemical ionization coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) via counterflow ion introduction. Therefore, it allows for highly sensitive and specific real-time detection of a broad range of airborne compounds. In-line chemical reactions, ionization reactions, and ion fragmentations of these agents were investigated. Mustard gas is oxygenated in small quantity by reactive oxygen species generated in the corona discharge. With increasing air humidity, the MS(2) signal intensity of protonated molecules of mono-oxygenated HD decreases but exceeds that of dominantly existing intact HD. This result can be explained in view of proton affinity. Lewisite 1 is hydrolyzed and oxidized. As the humidity increases from zero, the signal of the final product, namely, didechlorinated, dihydroxylated, and mono-oxygenated L1, quickly increases and reaches a plateau, giving the highest MS(2) and MS(3) signals among those of L1 and its reaction products. The addition of minimal moisture gives the highest signal intensity, even under low humidity. The method was demonstrated to provide sufficient analytical performance to meet the requirements concerning hygienic management and counter-terrorism. It will be the first practical method, in view of sensitivity and specificity, for real-time air monitoring of HD and L1 without sample pretreatment.

  12. Long lifetimes in optical ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrecht, Alexander; Weckesser, Pascal; Debatin, Markus; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We report on single Barium ions confined in a near-infrared optical dipole trap for up to three seconds in absence of any radio-frequency fields. Additionally, the lifetime in a visible optical dipole trap is increased by two orders of magnitude as compared to the state-of-the-art using an efficient repumping method. We characterize the state-dependent potentials and measure an upper bound for the heating rate in the near-infrared trap. These findings are beneficial for entering the regime of ultracold interaction in atom-ion ensembles exploiting bichromatic optical dipole traps. Long lifetimes and low scattering rates are essential to reach long coherence times for quantum simulations in optical lattices employing many ions, or ions and atoms.

  13. Precision spectroscopy of trapped radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.E. van den; Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Hoekman, S.M.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Nunez-Portela, M.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Prinsen, E.B.; Sahoo, B.K.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Shidling, P.D.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Atomic Parity Violation (APV) can be measured in a single trapped and laser cooled Ra{sup +}, enabling a precise measurement of the electroweak mixing angle in the Standard Model of particle physics at the lowest possible momentum transfer. Ultra-narrow transitions in this system can also be exploited to realize a high stability frequency standard. As an important step towards such high precision experiments, excited-state laser spectroscopy is being performed with trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} ions. The results on hyperfine structure, isotope shift and lifetime provide benchmark for the required atomic theory. The experimental set up to perform laser cooling of the trapped radium ions and trapping of a single radium ion is under way.

  14. Scaling the ion trap quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, C; Kim, J

    2013-03-08

    Trapped atomic ions are standards for quantum information processing, serving as quantum memories, hosts of quantum gates in quantum computers and simulators, and nodes of quantum communication networks. Quantum bits based on trapped ions enjoy a rare combination of attributes: They have exquisite coherence properties, they can be prepared and measured with nearly 100% efficiency, and they are readily entangled with each other through the Coulomb interaction or remote photonic interconnects. The outstanding challenge is the scaling of trapped ions to hundreds or thousands of qubits and beyond, at which scale quantum processors can outperform their classical counterparts in certain applications. We review the latest progress and prospects in that effort, with the promise of advanced architectures and new technologies, such as microfabricated ion traps and integrated photonics.

  15. Micromotion in trapped atom-ion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Le Huy; Barrett, Murray; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of the harmonic approximation, where the radio-frequency ion trap is treated as a harmonic trap, in the problem regarding the controlled collision of a trapped atom and a single trapped ion. This is equivalent to studying the effect of the micromotion since this motion must be neglected for the trapped ion to be considered as a harmonic oscillator. By applying the transformation of Cook and Shankland we find that the micromotion can be represented by two periodically oscillating operators. In order to investigate the effect of the micromotion on the dynamics of a trapped atom-ion system, we calculate (i) the coupling strengths of the micromotion operators by numerical integration and (ii) the quasienergies of the system by applying the Floquet formalism --- a useful framework for studying periodic systems. It turns out that the micromotion is not negligible when the distance between the atom and the ion traps is shorter than a characteristic distance. Within this range the energy diagr...

  16. Quantum Logic Between Distant Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Olmschenk, S; Matsukevich, D N; Maunz, P; Moehring, D L; Monroe, C

    2009-01-01

    Trapped atomic ions have proven to be one of the most promising candidates for the realization of quantum computation due to their long trapping times, excellent coherence properties, and exquisite control of the internal atomic states. Integrating ions (quantum memory) with photons (distance link) offers a unique path to large-scale quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. In this article, we present a detailed review of the experimental implementation of a heralded photon-mediated quantum gate between remote ions, and the employment of this gate to perform a teleportation protocol between two ions separated by a distance of about one meter.

  17. Quantification of intermediate-abundance proteins in serum by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry in a single-quadrupole ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shanhua; Shaler, Thomas A; Becker, Christopher H

    2006-08-15

    A method is presented to quantify intermediate-abundance proteins in human serum using a single-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer-in contrast, for example, to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer. Stable-isotope-labeled (tryptic) peptides are spiked into digested protein samples as internal standards, aligned with the traditional isotope dilution approach. As a proof-of-concept experiment, four proteins of intermediate abundance were selected, coagulation factor V, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and thyroxine binding globulin. Stable-isotope-labeled peptides were synthesized with one tryptic sequence from each of these proteins. The normal human serum concentration ranges of these proteins are from 1 to 30 microg/mL (or 20 to 650 pmol/mL). These labeled peptides and their endogenous counterparts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring, a multiplexed form of the selected reaction monitoring technique. For these experiments, only one chromatographic dimension (on-line reversed-phase capillary column) was used. Improved limits of detection will result with multidimensional chromatographic methods utilizing more material per sample. Standard curves of the spiked calibrants were generated with concentrations ranging from 3 to 700 pmol/mL using both neat solutions and peptides spiked into the complex matrix of digested serum protein solution where ion suppression effects and interferences are common. Endogenous protein concentrations were determined by comparing MS/MS peak areas of the endogenous peptides to the isotopically labeled internal calibrants. The derived concentrations from a normal human serum pool (neglecting loss of material during sample processing) were 9.2, 110, 120, and 246 pmol/mL for coagulation factor V, adiponectin, CRP, and thyroxine binding globulin, respectively. These concentrations generally agree with the reported normal ranges for these proteins. As a measure of analytical reproducibility of this

  18. Optimization of RF multipole ion trap geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanghänel, Sven; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2017-02-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) traps are ideal places to store cold ions for spectroscopic experiments. Specific multipole configurations are suited best for different applications but have to be modified to allow e.g. for a proper overlap of a laser beam waist with the ion cloud. Therefore the corresponding trapping fields should be shaped accordingly. To achieve this goal highly accurate electrical potentials of rf multipole traps and the resulting effective trapping potentials are calculated using the boundary element method (BEM). These calculations are used to evaluate imperfections and to optimize the field geometry. For that purpose the complex fields are reduced to a small set of multipole expansion coefficients. Desirable values for these coefficients are met by systematic changes of real trap dimensions from CAD designs. The effect of misalignment of a linear quadrupole, the optimization of an optically open Paul trap, the influence of steering electrodes (end electrode and ring electrode) on a 22-pole ion trap and the effect of the micro motion on the lowest reachable temperatures in such a trap are discussed.

  19. Ions kinematics in an electrostatic ion beam trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2004-06-01

    In this study, I have tried to provide a better understanding of the dynamics of ions inside an electrostatic ion beam trap. The electrostatic ion trap allows to store ions moving between two electrostatic mirrors. Although the trap has been developed already seven years ago, no direct measurement of the transversal velocity distribution of the ions has been performed. Such quantity is central for understanding the conditions under which a beam should be produced (mainly emittance) in order to be trapped by such a device. The data I have obtained during the course of this work are based on an experimental technique which relies on the direct imaging of the particles exiting the trap, as well as on numerical simulations of the ion trajectories inside the trap. I have personally been involved in the hardware development of the imaging system, the data acquisition and analysis of the data as well as il all numerical calculations presented here. These results allow us to obtain, for the first time, experimental information on the transverse phase space of the trap, and contribute to the overall understanding of the ion motion in this system. (author)

  20. Prolonging coherence in trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors study pulse sequences that dynamically decouple 9Be+ ions from their decohering environment. The noise environment the ions see is artificially synthesized to emulate a variety of physical systems. By incorporating measurement feedback...

  1. Controlling fast transport of cold trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Andreas; Ruster, Thomas; Dawkins, Sam T; Ott, Konstantin; Hettrich, Max; Singer, Kilian; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Poschinger, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We realize fast transport of ions in a segmented micro-structured Paul trap. The ion is shuttled over a distance of more than 10^4 times its groundstate wavefunction size during only 5 motional cycles of the trap (280 micro meter in 3.6 micro seconds). Starting from a ground-state-cooled ion, we find an optimized transport such that the energy increase is as low as 0.10 $\\pm$ 0.01 motional quanta. In addition, we demonstrate that quantum information stored in a spin-motion entangled state is preserved throughout the transport. Shuttling operations are concatenated, as a proof-of-principle for the shuttling-based architecture to scalable ion trap quantum computing.

  2. Mobility-Selected Ion Trapping and Enrichment Using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsung-Chi; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Webb, Ian K; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Zhang, Xing; Hamid, Ahmed M; Deng, Liulin; Karnesky, William E; Prost, Spencer A; Sandoval, Jeremy A; Norheim, Randolph V; Anderson, Gordon A; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Baker, Erin S; Smith, Richard D

    2016-02-02

    The integration of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with mass spectrometry (MS) and the ability to trap ions in IMS-MS measurements is of great importance for performing reactions, accumulating ions, and increasing analytical measurement sensitivity. The development of Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) offers the potential for ion manipulations in an extended and more effective manner, while opening opportunities for many more complex sequences of manipulations. Here, we demonstrate an ion separation and trapping module and a method based upon SLIM that consists of a linear mobility ion drift region, a switch/tee and a trapping region that allows the isolation and accumulation of mobility-separated species. The operation and optimization of the SLIM switch/tee and trap are described and demonstrated for the enrichment of the low abundance ions. A linear improvement in ion intensity was observed with the number of trapping/accumulation events using the SLIM trap, illustrating its potential for enhancing the sensitivity of low abundance or targeted species.

  3. Modular cryostat for ion trapping with surface-electrode ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorini, Grahame; Brown, Kenneth R; Harter, Alexa W; Doret, S Charles

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple cryostat purpose built for use with surface-electrode ion traps, designed around an affordable, large cooling power commercial pulse tube refrigerator. A modular vacuum enclosure with a single vacuum space facilitates interior access, and enables rapid turnaround and flexiblity for future modifications. Long rectangular windows provide nearly 360 degrees of optical access in the plane of the ion trap, while a circular bottom window near the trap enables NA 0.4 light collection without the need for in-vacuum optics. We evaluate the system's mechanical and thermal characteristics, and we quantify ion trapping performance by trapping 40Ca+, finding small stray electric fields, long ion lifetimes, and low ion heating rates.

  4. Modular cryostat for ion trapping with surface-electrode ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorini, Grahame; Wright, Kenneth; Brown, Kenneth R.; Harter, Alexa W.; Doret, S. Charles

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple cryostat purpose built for use with surface-electrode ion traps, designed around an affordable, large cooling power commercial pulse tube refrigerator. A modular vacuum enclosure with a single vacuum space facilitates interior access and enables rapid turnaround and flexibility for future modifications. Long rectangular windows provide nearly 360° of optical access in the plane of the ion trap, while a circular bottom window near the trap enables NA 0.4 light collection without the need for in-vacuum optics. We evaluate the system's mechanical and thermal characteristics and we quantify ion trapping performance by trapping 40Ca+, finding small stray electric fields, long ion lifetimes, and low ion heating rates.

  5. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  6. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  7. Quantum computation with ions in microscopic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šašura, Marek; Steane, Andrew M.

    2002-12-01

    We discuss a possible experimental realization of fast quantum gates with high fidelity with ions confined in microscopic traps. The original proposal of this physical system for quantum computation comes from Cirac and Zoller (Nature 404, 579 (2000)). In this paper we analyse a sensitivity of the ion-trap quantum gate on various experimental parameters which was omitted in the original proposal. We address imprecision of laser pulses, impact of photon scattering, nonzero temperature effects and influence of laser intensity fluctuations on the total fidelity of the two-qubit phase gate.

  8. An introduction to the trapping of clusters with ion traps and electrostatic storage devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredy, R; Bernard, J; Chen, L; Montagne, G; Li, B; Martin, S [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, UMR 5579, LASIM (France)

    2009-08-14

    This paper presents an introduction to the application of ion traps and storage devices for cluster physics. Some experiments involving cluster ions in trapping devices such as Penning traps, Paul traps, quadrupole or multipole linear traps are briefly discussed. Electrostatic ion storage rings and traps which allow for the storage of fast ion beams without mass limitation are presented as well. We also report on the recently developed mini-ring, a compact electrostatic ion storage ring for cluster, molecular and biomolecular ion studies. (review)

  9. A Single Laser Cooled Trapped 40Ca+ Ion in a Miniature Paul Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Hua-Lin; GUAN Hua; HUANG Xue-Ren; LI Jiao-Mei; GAO Ke-Lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ We have observed the phenomenon of phase transition of a few trapped ions in a miniature Paul trap. Judging from the quantum jump signals, a single laser-cooled trapped Ca+ ion has been realized. The ion temperature is estimated to be 22mK. The result shows that the amplitude of ion micromotion is strongly dependent on the rf voltage.

  10. Quantum interference from remotely trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S; Rotter, D; Hennrich, M; Blatt, R [Institute for Experimental Physics, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rohde, F; Schuck, C; Almendros, M; Gehr, R; Dubin, F; Eschner, J [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, Av del Canal OlImpic, E-08860 Castelldefels (Spain)], E-mail: francois.dubin@icfo.es

    2009-01-15

    We observe quantum interference of photons emitted by two continuously laser-excited single ions, independently trapped in distinct vacuum vessels. High contrast two-photon interference is observed in two experiments with different ion species, Ca{sup +} and Ba{sup +}. Our experimental findings are quantitatively reproduced by Bloch equation calculations. In particular, we show that the coherence of the individual resonance fluorescence light field is determined from the observed interference.

  11. Fast Quantum Rabi Model with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya-Cessa, Héctor M.

    2016-12-01

    We show how to produce a fast quantum Rabi model with trapped ions. Its importance resides not only in the acceleration of the phenomena that may be achieved with these systems, from quantum gates to the generation of nonclassical states of the vibrational motion of the ion, but also in reducing unwanted effects such as the decay of coherences that may appear in such systems.

  12. Ion trap system for radioactive ions at JYFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolhinen, V.S.; Jokinen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Szerypo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Aeystoe, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    The goal of the ion trap project in Jyvaeskylae is to improve the quality of radioactive beams at IGISOL (Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line), in terms of transverse emittance, energy spread and purity. This improvement is achieved with an aid of an RFQ cooler/buncher and a mass-selective cylindrical Penning trap (mass resolving power up to 10{sup 5}). Their final purpose is to produce cooled isobarically pure beams of exotic radioactivities mainly of exotic neutron-rich isotopes from fission (including refractory elements). In the Penning trap ions are confined in three dimensions in a superposition of static quadrupole electric and homogeneous magnetic fields. The magnetic field confines the ions in two dimensions in a plane perpendicular to the field direction. A confinement in the third, magnetic field direction (parallel to the trap axis) is done by a quadrupole electric field. The Penning trap system in Jyvaeskylae (JYFLTRAP) will contain two cylindrical Penning traps placed inside the same superconducting magnet (B=7 T). The first, purification trap, will accept cooled (continuous or bunched) beams from the RFQ cooler/buncher and perform the isobaric purification. The latter is - done using a combination of a buffer gas cooling and an azimuthal quadrupole RF-field providing mass- dependent centering of ions. This, in turn, allows mass-selective ejection of ions in short pulses. Clean monoisotopic bunched beams will be delivered for the nuclear spectroscopy studies, collinear laser spectroscopy experiments and precise nuclear mass measurements (10{sup -7} precision). The latter will be performed in the second, precision Penning trap (author)

  13. Spectroscopy of a Synthetic Trapped Ion Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, David; Christensen, Justin E.; Hudson, Eric R.; Campbell, Wesley C.

    2017-09-01

    133Ba+ has been identified as an attractive ion for quantum information processing due to the unique combination of its spin-1 /2 nucleus and visible wavelength electronic transitions. Using a microgram source of radioactive material, we trap and laser cool the synthetic A =133 radioisotope of barium II in a radio-frequency ion trap. Using the same, single trapped atom, we measure the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the 62P1 /2↔62S1 /2 and 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transitions that are needed for laser cooling, state preparation, and state detection of the clock-state hyperfine and optical qubits. We also report the 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transition isotope shift for the rare A =130 and 132 barium nuclides, completing the spectroscopic characterization necessary for laser cooling all long-lived barium II isotopes.

  14. Feedback cooling of a single trapped ion

    CERN Document Server

    Bushev, P; Wilson, A; Dubin, F; Becher, C; Eschner, J; Blatt, R; Steixner, V; Rabl, P; Zoller, P; Bushev, Pavel; Rotter, Daniel; Wilson, Alex; Dubin, Francois; Becher, Christoph; Eschner, Juergen; Blatt, Rainer; Steixner, Viktor; Rabl, Peter; Peter Zoller

    2005-01-01

    Based on a real-time measurement of the motion of a single ion in a Paul trap, we demonstrate its electro-mechanical cooling below the Doppler limit by homodyne feedback control (cold damping). The feedback cooling results are well described by a model based on a quantum mechanical Master Equation.

  15. 3D Sisyphus Cooling of Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ejtemaee, S

    2016-01-01

    Using a laser polarization gradient, we realize 3D Sisyphus cooling of $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions confined in and near the Lamb-Dicke regime in a linear Paul trap. The cooling rate and final mean motional energy of a single ion are characterized as a function of laser intensity and compared to semiclassical and quantum simulations. Sisyphus cooling is also applied to a linear string of four ions to obtain a mean energy of 1-3 quanta for all vibrational modes, an approximately order-of-magnitude reduction below Doppler cooled energies. This is used to enable subsequent, efficient sideband laser cooling.

  16. 3D Sisyphus Cooling of Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtemaee, S.; Haljan, P. C.

    2017-07-01

    Using a laser polarization gradient, we realize 3D Sisyphus cooling of Yb+ 171 ions confined in and near the Lamb-Dicke regime in a linear Paul trap. The cooling rate and final mean motional energy of a single ion are characterized as a function of laser intensity and compared to semiclassical and quantum simulations. Sisyphus cooling is also applied to a linear string of four ions to obtain a mean energy of 1-3 quanta for all vibrational modes, an approximately order of magnitude reduction below Doppler cooled energies. This is used to enable subsequent, efficient sideband laser cooling.

  17. Development of a Kingdon ion trap system for trapping externally injected highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numadate, Naoki; Okada, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Tanuma, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a Kingdon ion trap system for the purpose of the laboratory observation of the x-ray forbidden transitions of highly charged ions (HCIs). Externally injected Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) with kinetic energies of 6q keV were successfully trapped in the ion trap. The energy distribution of trapped ions is discussed in detail on the basis of numerical simulations. The combination of the Kingdon ion trap and the time-of-flight mass spectrometer enabled us to measure precise trapping lifetimes of HCIs. As a performance test of the instrument, we measured trapping lifetimes of Ar(q+) (q = 5-7) under a constant number density of H2 and determined the charge-transfer cross sections of Ar(q+)(q = 5, 6)-H2 collision systems at binary collision energies of a few eV. It was confirmed that the present cross section data are consistent with previous data and the values estimated by some scaling formula.

  18. Miniaturized Linear Wire Ion Trap Mass Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Li, Ailin; Tian, Yuan; Zare, Richard N; Austin, Daniel E

    2016-08-02

    We report a linear ion trap (LIT) in which the electric field is formed by fine wires held under tension and accurately positioned using holes drilled in two end plates made of plastic. The coordinates of the hole positions were optimized in simulation. The stability diagram and mass spectra using boundary ejection were compared between simulation and experiment and good agreement was found. The mass spectra from experiments show peak widths (fwhm) in units of mass-to-charge of around 0.38 Th using a scan rate of 3830 Th/s. The limits of detection are 137 ppbv and 401 ppbv for benzene and toluene, respectively. Different sizes of the wire ion trap can be easily fabricated by drilling holes in scaled positions. Other distinguishing features, such as high ion and photon transmission, low capacitance, high tolerance to mechanical and assembly error, and low weight, are discussed.

  19. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M F; van Mourik, M W; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with (40)Ca(+) and (88)Sr(+) ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in (40)Ca(+) is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ⋅ 10(-15) at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped (40)Ca(+) ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  20. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M. F.; van Mourik, M. W.; Postler, L.; Nolf, A.; Lakhmanskiy, K.; Paiva, R. R.; Möller, S.; Daniilidis, N.; Häffner, H.; Kaushal, V.; Ruster, T.; Warschburger, C.; Kaufmann, H.; Poschinger, U. G.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Schindler, P.; Monz, T.; Blatt, R.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with 40Ca+ and 88Sr+ ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in 40Ca+ is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ṡ 10-15 at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped 40Ca+ ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  1. Controlling the quantum state of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, C

    2000-01-01

    brace quadrupole transition enables the transfer of the ion's motional state into the ground state with up to 99.9 % probability. Different aspects of the cooling process are investigated. In particular, a measurement of the length of time that the ion spends on average in the final state after switching off the cooling lasers (heating time) is made. In contrast to prior experiments, this time is found to be orders of magnitude longer than the time required to manipulate the ion's quantum state. By coherently exciting the ion after preparing it in Fock states of motion, the coherence time is probed and found to be on the order of a millisecond, thus allowing the realization of a few quantum gates. Coherence-limiting processes have been investigated, as well as first steps towards extending the experiments to the case of two trapped ions. In addition to the experiments mentioned above, the possibility of performing cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions is explored. How to efficiently couple the quadrupole t...

  2. An in situ trap capacitance measurement and ion-trapping detection scheme for a Penning ion trap facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Ashif; Banerjee, Kumardeb; Das, Parnika; Ray, Kalyankumar; Bandyopadhyay, Subhankar; Dam, Bivas

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an in situ measurement setup for the capacitance of a five electrode Penning ion trap (PIT) facility at room temperature. For implementing a high Q resonant circuit for the detection of trapped electrons/ions in a PIT, the value of the capacitance of the trap assembly is of prime importance. A tunable Colpitts oscillator followed by a unity gain buffer and a low pass filter is designed and successfully implemented for a two-fold purpose: in situ measurement of the trap capacitance when the electric and magnetic fields are turned off and also providing RF power at the desired frequency to the PIT for exciting the trapped ions and subsequent detection. The setup is tested for the in situ measurement of trap capacitance at room temperature and the results are found to comply with those obtained from measurements using a high Q parallel resonant circuit setup driven by a standard RF signal generator. The Colpitts oscillator is also tested successfully for supplying RF power to the high Q resonant circuit, which is required for the detection of trapped electrons/ions.

  3. Micromotion Compensation and Photoionization of Ions in a Linear Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yi; ZHOU Fei; CHEN Liang; WAN Wei; FENG Mang

    2011-01-01

    @@ e confinement of ions in an electromagnetic trap is a prerequisite of sideband cooling and quantum information processing.For a string of ions in a linear ion trap,we report our recent efforts of compensating for micromotion of the ions by three methods,which yields narrower fluorescence spectra and lower temperature.We also achieve a photoionization scheme that loads the ions deterministically into the linear trap from an atomic beam.%The stable confinement of ions in an electromagnetic trap is a prerequisite of sideband cooling and quantum information processing. For a string of ions in a linear ion trap, we report our recent efforts of compensating for micromotion of the ions by three methods, which yields narrower fluorescence spectra and lower temperature. We also achieve a photoionization scheme that loads the ions deterministically into the linear trap from an atomic beam.

  4. Evaluation of multiple reaction monitoring cubed for the analysis of tachykinin related peptides in rat spinal cord using a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailleux, Floriane; Beaudry, Francis

    2014-02-01

    Targeted peptide methods generally use HPLC-MS/MRM approaches. Although dependent on the instrumental resolution, interferences may occur while performing analysis of complex biological matrices. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) is a technique, which provides a significantly better selectivity, compared with HPLC-MS/MRM assay. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) allows the detection and quantitation by enriching standard MRM with secondary product ions that are generated within the linear ion trap. Substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA) are tachykinin peptides playing a central role in pain transmission. The objective of this study was to verify whether HPLC-MS/MRM(3) could provide significant advantages over a more traditional HPLC-MS/MRM assay for the quantification of SP and NKA in rat spinal cord. The results suggest that reconstructed MRM(3) chromatograms display significant improvements with the nearly complete elimination of interfering peaks but the sensitivity (i.e. signal-to-noise ratio) was severely reduced. The precision (%CV) observed was between 3.5% and 24.1% using HPLC-MS/MRM and in the range of 4.3-13.1% with HPLC-MS/MRM(3), for SP and NKA. The observed accuracy was within 10% of the theoretical concentrations tested. HPLC-MS/MRM(3) may improve the assay sensitivity to detect difference between samples by reducing significantly the potential of interferences and therefore reduce instrumental errors.

  5. Space-Time Crystals of Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Space-Time Crystals of Trapped Ions Tongcang Li,1 Zhe-Xuan Gong ,2,3 Zhang- Qi Yin,3,4 H. T. Quan,5 Xiaobo Yin,1 Peng Zhang,1 L.-M. Duan,2,3 and Xiang...Z.-X. Gong , G.-D. Lin, and L.-M. Duan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 265703 (2010). [12] K. Kim, M.-S. Chang, S. Korenblit, R. Islam, E. E. Edwards, J. K

  6. Quantum Computation by Pairing Trapped Ultracold Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芒; 朱熙文; 高克林; 施磊

    2001-01-01

    Superpositional wavefunction oscillations for the implementation of quantum algorithms modify the desired interference required for the quantum computation. We propose a scheme with trapped ultracold ion-pairs beingqubits to diminish the detrimental effect of the wavefunction oscillations, which is applied to the two-qubitGrover's search. It can be also found that the qubits in our scheme are more robust against the decoherencecaused by the environment, and the model is scalable.

  7. Quantum computation with ``hot`` trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D.F.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Schneider, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia); Milburn, G.J. [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The authors describe two methods that have been proposed to circumvent the problem of heating by external electromagnetic fields in ion trap quantum computers. Firstly the higher order modes of ion oscillation (i.e., modes other than the center-of-mass mode) have much slower heating rates, and can therefore be employed as a reliable quantum information bus. Secondly they discuss a recently proposed method combining adiabatic passage and a number-state dependent phase shift which allows quantum gates to be performed using the center-of-mass mode as the information bus, regardless of its initial state.

  8. Type of spiral wave with trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuting; Li, Haihong; Zhu, Yun; Zhang, Mei; Yang, Junzhong

    2011-12-01

    Pattern formation in ultracold quantum systems has recently received a great deal of attention. In this work, we investigate a two-dimensional model system simulating the dynamics of trapped ions. We find a spiral wave that is rigidly rotating, but with a peculiar core region in which adjacent ions oscillate in antiphase. The formation of this spiral wave is ascribed to the excitability previously reported by Lee and Cross. The breakup of the spiral wave is probed and, especially, an extraordinary scenario of the disappearance of the spiral wave, caused by spontaneous expansion of the antiphase core, is unveiled.

  9. Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    trap quantum computer . This architecture has two separate layers of scalability: the first is to increase the number of ion qubits in a single trap...Distribution Unlimited UU UU UU UU 02-06-2016 1-Aug-2010 31-Jan-2016 Final Report: Modular Universal Scalable Ion-trap Quantum Computer The views...P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Ion trap quantum computation , scalable modular architectures REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  10. Characterization of a DAPI-RIT-DAPI System for Gas-Phase Ion/Molecule and Ion/Ion Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ziqing; Tan, Lei; Garimella, Sandilya; Li, Linfan; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Xu, Wei; Xia, Yu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) has been developed as a facile means for efficiently introducing ions generated at atmospheric pressure to an ion trap in vacuum [e.g., a rectilinear ion trap (RIT)] for mass analysis. Introduction of multiple beams of ions or neutral species through two DAPIs into a single RIT has been previously demonstrated. In this study, a home-built instrument with a DAPI-RIT-DAPI configuration has been characterized for the study of gas-phase ion/molecule and ion/ion reactions. The reaction species, including ions or neutrals, can be introduced from both ends of the RIT through the two DAPIs without complicated ion optics or differential pumping stages. The primary reactant ions were isolated prior to reaction and the product ions were mass analyzed after controlled reaction time period. Ion/molecule reactions involving peptide radical ions and proton-transfer ion/ion reactions have been carried out using this instrument. The gas dynamic effect due to the DAPI operation on internal energy deposition and the reactivity of peptide radical ions has been characterized. The DAPI-RIT-DAPI system also has a unique feature for allowing the ion reactions to be carried out at significantly elevated pressures (in 10-1 Torr range), which has been found to be helpful to speed up the reactions. The viability and flexibility of the DAPI-RIT-DAPI system for the study of gas-phase ion reactions have been demonstrated.

  11. Characterization of a DAPI-RIT-DAPI system for gas-phase ion/molecule and ion/ion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ziqing; Tan, Lei; Garimella, Sandilya; Li, Linfan; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Xu, Wei; Xia, Yu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The discontinuous atmospheric pressure interface (DAPI) has been developed as a facile means for efficiently introducing ions generated at atmospheric pressure to an ion trap in vacuum [e.g., a rectilinear ion trap (RIT)] for mass analysis. Introduction of multiple beams of ions or neutral species through two DAPIs into a single RIT has been previously demonstrated. In this study, a home-built instrument with a DAPI-RIT-DAPI configuration has been characterized for the study of gas-phase ion/molecule and ion/ion reactions. The reaction species, including ions or neutrals, can be introduced from both ends of the RIT through the two DAPIs without complicated ion optics or differential pumping stages. The primary reactant ions were isolated prior to reaction and the product ions were mass analyzed after controlled reaction time period. Ion/molecule reactions involving peptide radical ions and proton-transfer ion/ion reactions have been carried out using this instrument. The gas dynamic effect due to the DAPI operation on internal energy deposition and the reactivity of peptide radical ions has been characterized. The DAPI-RIT-DAPI system also has a unique feature for allowing the ion reactions to be carried out at significantly elevated pressures (in 10(-1) Torr range), which has been found to be helpful to speed up the reactions. The viability and flexibility of the DAPI-RIT-DAPI system for the study of gas-phase ion reactions have been demonstrated.

  12. In-Vacuum Electronics for Microfabricated Ion Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Guise, Nicholas D; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Volin, Curtis; Brown, K R; Merrill, J True; Harter, Alexa W; Amini, Jason M; Lust, Lisa M; Muldoon, Kelly; Carlson, Doug; Budach, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The advent of microfabricated ion traps for the quantum information community has allowed research groups to build traps that incorporate an unprecedented number of trapping zones. However, as device complexity has grown, the number of digital-to-analog converter (DAC) channels needed to control these devices has grown as well, with some of the largest trap assemblies now requiring nearly one hundred DAC channels. Providing electrical connections for these channels into a vacuum chamber can be bulky and difficult to scale beyond the current numbers of trap electrodes. This paper reports on the development and testing of an in-vacuum DAC system that uses only 9 vacuum feedthrough connections to control a 78-electrode microfabricated ion trap. The system is characterized by trapping single and multiple $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions. The measured axial mode stability, ion heating rates, and transport fidelities for a trapped ion are comparable to systems with external(air-side) National Instruments PXI-6733 DACs.

  13. Prospects for quantum computation with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.; James, D.F.V.

    1997-12-31

    Over the past decade information theory has been generalized to allow binary data to be represented by two-state quantum mechanical systems. (A single two-level system has come to be known as a qubit in this context.) The additional freedom introduced into information physics with quantum systems has opened up a variety of capabilities that go well beyond those of conventional information. For example, quantum cryptography allows two parties to generate a secret key even in the presence of eavesdropping. But perhaps the most remarkable capabilities have been predicted in the field of quantum computation. Here, a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, and an overview of the in trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos are presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are discussed.

  14. Weak interactions in trapped single radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wansbeek, L.; Willmann, L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    The electroweak theory has been confirmed to great precision in high-energy accelerator experiments. One of the outstanding successful predictions of the theory was the existence of the Z{sup 0} boson, that is mixed with the photon and mediates interactions that do not conserve parity. The mixing angle varies with sca le due to the polarization of the vacuum by particle-antiparticle pairs. This has only poorly been tested. Interference of Z{sup 0} and photon exchange between the electrons and quarks in an atom or ion results in a tiny breakdown of parity selection rules. A high-precision measurement of the electroweak mixing angle at low momentum scales is possible by monitoring quantum jumps in one single trapped Ra ion with precision laser and radiofrequency techniques combined. The proof of principle was recently given in pilot measurements at Seattle with one single Ba ion. A Ra{sup +} experiment can now be envisaged with a precision that, together wit h planned experiments at intermediate energy, can confirm the quantum structure of the electroweak theory over some five orders of magnitude in momentum scale. Such an experiment has been started at the TRI{mu}P facility of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, where the needed radioactive Ra isotopes can be produced online. The experiment uses will use a radiofrequency trap and is possible using several all solid state lasers in an elaborate time switching scheme.

  15. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, M F; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120~dB reduction of 50~Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than $\\pm$20~nm over 2~s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with $^{\\mathrm{40}}$Ca$^{\\mathrm{+}}$ and $^{\\mathrm{88}}$Sr$^{\\mathrm{+}}$ ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in $^{\\mathrm{40}}$Ca$^{\\mathrm{+}}$ is characterized yielding a min...

  16. Correlation between y-type ions observed in ion trap and triple quadrupole mass spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Carly A; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B

    2009-09-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion trap platforms, there is concern in the field regarding the generalizability of these spectra to MRM-MS on a triple quadrupole instrument. In light of this concern, many operators perform an optimization step to determine the most intense fragments for a target peptide on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. We have addressed this issue by targeting, on a triple quadrupole, the top six y-ion peaks from ion trap-derived consensus library spectra for 258 doubly charged peptides from three different sample sets and quantifying the observed elution curves. This analysis revealed a strong correlation between the y-ion peak rank order and relative intensity across platforms. This suggests that y-type ions obtained from ion trap-based library spectra are well-suited for generating MRM-MS assays for triple quadrupoles and that optimization is not required for each target peptide.

  17. Many-Body Physics with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian; Schaetz, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Direct experimental access to some of the most intriguing quantum phenomena is not granted due to the lack of precise control of the relevant parameters in their naturally intricate environment. Their simulation on conventional computers is impossible, since quantum behaviour arising with superposition states or entanglement is not efficiently translatable into the classical language. However, one could gain deeper insight into complex quantum dynamics by experimentally simulating the quantum behaviour of interest in another quantum system, where the relevant parameters and interactions can be controlled and robust effects detected sufficiently well. We report on the progress in experimentally simulating quantum many-body physics with trapped ions.

  18. Novel radio-frequency ion trap with spherical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Noshad, Houshyar

    2014-01-01

    Confinement of single ions in a novel radio-frequency (RF) quadrupole ion trap with spherical shape is investigated. An optimization of this spherical ion trap (SIT) is carried out in order to suppress its nonlinearity substantially by eliminating the electric octupole moment. Hence, a trapping potential and consequently an electric field very similar to the ideal quadrupole ion trap (QIT) are obtained. Afterwards, three stability regions for the optimized SIT are numerically computed. The regions coincide well with those reported in the literature for the ideal QIT. The reason is attributed to the zero electric octupole moment of our proposed trap. The SIT simple geometry and relative ease of fabrication along with its increased trapping volume compared to the conventional hyperbolic quadrupole ion trap, make it an appropriate choice for miniaturization.

  19. Ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinterberger, Frank [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik

    2011-10-15

    The problem of ion trapping in the high-energy storage ring HESR is studied in the present report. Positive ions are trapped in the negative potential well of the antiproton beam. The ions are produced by the interaction between the antiproton beam and the residual gas. The adverse effects of ion trapping like tune shifts, tune spreads and coherent instabilities are reviewed. The ion production rate by ionization of the residual gas molecules is estimated. The negative potential well and the corresponding electric fields of the antiproton beam are evaluated in order to study the transverse and longitudinal motion of the ions and the accumulation in trapping pockets. The removal of ions can be achieved using clearing electrodes and under certain conditions resonant transverse beam shaking. Diagnostic tools and measurements of trapped ion effects are sketched. (orig.)

  20. Evaporative cooling of highly charged ions in EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap): An experimental realization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.B.; Levine, M.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    Both the total number and trapping lifetime of near-neon-like gold ions held in an electron beam ion trap have been greatly increased by a process of 'evaporative cooling'. A continuous flow of low-charge-state ions into the trap cools the high-charge-state ions in the trap. Preliminary experimental results using titanium ions as a coolant are presented. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Towards Quantum Simulations Using a Chip Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chenglin; Wright, Ken; Brennan, Daniel; Ji, Geoffrey; Monroe, Christopher

    2013-05-01

    We report our current experimental progress towards using chip ion traps for quantum simulation. Current progress is being made using a micro-fabricated symmetric trap from GTRI. This trap implements a novel two level design that combines the benefits of both surface traps and linear four-rod traps. The trap has 50 electrodes which allow for the fine control of the DC potential needed to create large anharmonic potentials, to join and split ion chains and to shuttle ions along the trapping axis similar to many surface traps. However this trap also has a much deeper trapping depth than conventional surface traps and improved optical access via an angled slot through the chip wide enough to accommodate higher power laser light which could cause surface charging or damage in a traditional chip trap. These advantages should allow trapping of long ion chains. We hope to use these features as the next step in increasing the size of current quantum simulations being done at Univ of Maryland, which are aimed at exploring quantum phenomena in spin systems in a regime inaccessible to classical simulation. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, IARPA, and the MURI program; and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI. We acknowledge the GTRI team of J. Amini, K. Brown, A. Harter, F. Shaikh, R. Slusher, and C. Volin for the fabrication of the trap.

  2. Trapping, retention and laser cooling of Th3+ ions in a multisection linear quadrupole trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, P. V.; Vasil'ev, O. S.; Derevyashkin, S. P.; Kolachevsky, N. N.; Lebedinskii, Yu. Yu.; Poteshin, S. S.; Sysoev, A. A.; Tkalya, E. V.; Tregubov, D. O.; Troyan, V. I.; Khabarova, K. Yu.; Yudin, V. I.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    2017-06-01

    A multisection linear quadrupole trap for Th3+ ions is described. Multiply charged ions are obtained by the laser ablation method. The possibility of trapping and retention of ˜103 ions is demonstrated in macroscopic time scales of ˜30 s. Specific features of cooling Th3+ ions on the electron transitions with wavelengths of 1088, 690 and 984 nm in Th3+ ion are discussed; a principal scheme of a setup for laser cooling is presented.

  3. Integrated Diffractive Optics for Surface Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streed, Erik; Ghadimi, Moji; Blums, Valdis; Norton, Benjamin; Connor, Paul; Amini, Jason; Volin, Curtis; Lobino, Mirko; Kielpinski, David

    2016-05-01

    Photonic interconnects are a bottleneck to achieving large-scale trapped ion quantum computing. We have modified a Georgia Tech Research Institute microwave chip trap by using e-beam lithography to write reflective diffractive collimating optics (80 μm x 127 μm, f=58.6 μm, λ=369.5nm) on the center electrode. The optics have an NA of 0.55 x 0.73, capturing 13.2% of the solid angle. To evaluate the optics 174Yb+ was loaded by isotope selective photo-ionization from a thermal oven and then shuttled to imaging sites. Near diffraction limited sub-wavelength ion images were obtained with an observed spot sized FWHM of 338 nm x 268 nm vs. a diffraction limit of 336 nm x 257 nm. The total photon collection efficiency was measured to be 5.2+/-1.2%. Coupling into a single mode fiber of up to 2.0+/-0.6% was observed, limited by mismatch in the coupling optics. Image mode quality indicates coupling up to 4% may be possible. Funding from Australian Research Council and IARPA.

  4. Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1995-04-01

    The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k{sub {tau}}{rho}{sub bi} {much_lt} 1, where {rho}{sub bi} is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented.

  5. Efficient Fiber Optic Detection of Trapped Ion Fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    VanDevender, A P; Amini, J; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2010-01-01

    Integration of fiber optics may play a critical role in the development of quantum information processors based on trapped ions and atoms by enabling scalable collection and delivery of light and coupling trapped ions to optical microcavities. We trap 24Mg+ ions in a surface-electrode Paul trap that includes an integrated optical fiber for detecting 280-nm fluorescence photons. The collection numerical aperture is 0.37 and total collection efficiency is 2.1 %. The ion can be positioned between 80 \\mum and 100 \\mum from the tip of the fiber by use of an adjustable rf-pseudopotential.

  6. Ion-trap quantum logic using long-wavelength radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintert, F; Wunderlich, C

    2001-12-17

    A quantum information processor is proposed that combines experimental techniques and technology successfully demonstrated either in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments or with trapped ions. An additional inhomogeneous magnetic field applied to an ion trap (i) shifts individual ionic resonances (qubits), making them distinguishable by frequency, and (ii) mediates the coupling between internal and external degrees of freedom of trapped ions. This scheme permits one to individually address and coherently manipulate ions confined in an electrodynamic trap using radiation in the radiofrequency or microwave regime.

  7. Controlling trapping potentials and stray electric fields in a microfabricated ion trap through design and compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Doret, S Charles; Wright, Kenneth; Volin, Curtis; Killian, Tyler; Ozakin, Arkadas; Denison, Douglas; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C -S; Slusher, Richart E; Harter, Alexa W

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information processing with trapped ions have demonstrated the need for new ion trap architectures capable of holding and manipulating chains of many (>10) ions. Here we present the design and detailed characterization of a new linear trap, microfabricated with scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) techniques, that is well-suited to this challenge. Forty-four individually controlled DC electrodes provide the many degrees of freedom required to construct anharmonic potential wells, shuttle ions, merge and split ion chains, precisely tune secular mode frequencies, and adjust the orientation of trap axes. Microfabricated capacitors on DC electrodes suppress radio-frequency pickup and excess micromotion, while a top-level ground layer simplifies modeling of electric fields and protects trap structures underneath. A localized aperture in the substrate provides access to the trapping region from an oven below, permitting deterministic loading of particular isotopic/eleme...

  8. Test of Lorentz symmetry with trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned

    2016-05-01

    The outcome of an experiment should not depend on the orientation of the apparatus in space. This important cornerstone of physics is deeply engrained into the Standard Model of Physics by requiring that all fields must be Lorentz invariant. However, it is well-known that the Standard Model is incomplete. Some theories conjecture that at the Planck scale Lorentz symmetry might be broken and measurable at experimentally accessible energy scales. Therefore, a search for violation of Lorentz symmetry directly probes physics beyond the Standard model. We present a novel experiment utilizing trapped calcium ions as a direct probe of Lorentz-violation in the electron-photon sector. We monitor the energy between atomic states with different orientations of the electronic wave-functions as they rotate together with the motion of the Earth. This is analogous to the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. To remove magnetic field noise, we perform the experiment with the ions prepared in the decoherence-free states. Our result improves on the most stringent bounds on Lorentz symmetry for electrons by 100 times. The experimental scheme is readily applicable to many ion species, hence opening up paths toward much improved test of Lorentz symmetry in the future. (Ph. D. Advisor: Hartmut Haeffner, University of California, Berkeley).

  9. Effects of ion/ion proton transfer reactions on conformation of gas-phase cytochrome c ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Schieffer, Gregg M; Soyk, Matthew W; Anderson, Timothy J; Houk, R S; Badman, Ethan R

    2010-07-01

    Positive ions from cytochrome c are studied in a 3-D ion trap/ion mobility (IM)/quadrupole-time-of-flight (TOF) instrument with three independent ion sources. The IM separation allows measurement of the cross section of the ions. Ion/ion reactions in the 3-D ion trap that remove protons cause the cytochrome c ions to refold gently without other degradation of protein structure, i.e., fragmentation or loss of heme group or metal ion. The conformation(s) of the product ions generated by ion/ion reactions in a given charge state are similar regardless of whether the cytochrome c ions are originally in +8 or +9 charge states. In the lower charge states (+1 to +5) cytochrome c ions made by the ion/ion reaction yield a single IM peak with cross section of approximately 1110 to 1180 A(2), even if the original +8 ion started with multiple conformations. The conformation expands slightly when the charge state is reduced from +5 to +1. For product ions in the +6 to +8 charge states, ions created from higher charge states (+9 to +16) by ion/ion reaction produce more compact conformation(s) in somewhat higher abundances compared with those produced directly by the electrospray ionization (ESI) source. For ions in intermediate charge states that have a variety of resolvable conformers, the voltage used to inject the ions into the drift tube, and the voltage and duration of the pulse that extracts ions from the ion trap, can affect the observed abundances of various conformers.

  10. An Atomic Abacus: Trapped ion quantum computing experiments at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Brian

    2003-03-01

    Trapped atomic ions are an ideal system for exploring quantum information science because deterministic state preparation and efficient state detection are possible and coherent manipulation of atomic systems is relatively advanced. In our experiment, a few singly charged Be ions are confined by static and radio-frequency electric fields in a micro-machined linear Paul trap. The internal and motional states of the ions are coherently manipulated using applied laser light. Our current work focuses on demonstrating the necessary ingredients to produce a scalable quantum computing scheme and on simplifying and improving quantum logic gates. I will speak about a new set of experiments that was made possible by recent improvements in trap technology. A novel trap with multiple trapping regions was used to demonstrate the first steps towards a fully scalable quantum computing scheme. Single ions were ``shuttled" between trapping regions without disturbing the ion's motional and internal state, and two ions were separated from a single to two different trapping zones. Improvements in the trap manufacturing process has led to a reduction of nearly two orders of magnitude in the ion's motional heating rate, making possible two new improved logic gates. The first gate utilizes the wave-packet nature of the ions to tune the laser-atom interaction and achieve a controlled-NOT gate between a single ion's spin and motional states. The second, a two-ion phase gate, uses phase-space dynamics to produce a state-sensitive geometric phase. I will end with a quick look at experiments using a Mg ion to sympathetically cool a simultaneously trapped Be ion and a glimpse of the next generation of ions traps currently under construction.

  11. Microfabricated surface trap for scalable ion-photon interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Herskind, Peter F; Shi, Molu; Ge, Yufei; Cetina, Marko; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    The combination of high-finesse optical mirrors and ion traps is attractive for quantum light-matter interfaces, which represents an enabling resource for large scale quantum information processing. We report on a scalable approach to ion-photon interfaces based on a surface electrode ion trap that is microfabricated on top of a dielectric mirror, with additional losses due to fabrication as low as 80 ppm for light at 422 nm. Stable trapping of single 88 Sr+ ions is demonstrated and the functionality of the mirror is verified by light collection from, and imaging of, the ion $169 \\pm 4 \\mu$m above the mirror. Sensitivity to laser induced charging of the trap and substrate as well as anomalous heating of the ion at 15 K is evaluated and found comparable to similar traps fabricated on conventional substrates without dielectric mirror coatings.

  12. Is there a speed limit for trapped ion quantum computers?

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a speed limit for quantum processing for trapped ion quantum computers using the Kielpinski-Monroe-Wineland (KMW) architecture. The limiting speed for single-ion shuttling between a storage trap and a logic trap is constrained by the need to avoid excessive ion heating, excessive dephasing and decoherence due to the D.C. Stark effect. We estimate the relative significance of these errors and find that dephasing is dominant. We find that the minimum magnitude of dephasing is quadratic in the time of flight, and an inverse cubic in the operational time scale; from these relations, a limit on the operational speed of ion-trap quantum computers is deduced. Without subsequent phase correction, the maximum speed a qubit can be transferred across a 100 micron-long trap, without excessive error, in about 10 ns for calcium ion and 50 ps for beryllium ion.

  13. A System for Trapping Barium Ions in a Microfabricated Surface Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Richard D; Sakrejda, Tomasz; Wright, John; Zhou, Zichao; Blinov, Boris B

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a vacuum chamber and control system for rapid testing of microfabricated surface ion traps. Our system uses a modular design and is based on an in-vacuum PCB with integrated filters. We have used this system to successfully trap and cool barium ions. We have demonstrated ion 'dark' lifetimes of 31.6 s +- 3.4 s and controlled shuttling of ions using a custom 96 electrode control system with an update rate of 40 kHz.

  14. Trapped ion simulation of molecular spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yangchao; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Kuan; Zhang, Shuaining; Huh, Joonsuk; Kim, Kihwan

    2016-05-01

    Boson sampling had been suggested as a classically intractable and quantum mechanically manageable problem via computational complexity theory arguments. Recently, Huh and co-workers proposed theoretically a modified version of boson sampling, which is designed to simulate a molecular problem, as a practical application. Here, we report the experimental implementation of the theoretical proposal with a trapped ion system. As a first demonstration, we perform the quantum simulation of molecular vibronic profile of SO2, which incorporates squeezing, rotation and coherent displacements operations, and the collective projection measurement on phonon modes. This work was supported by the National Basic Research Program of China 11CBA00300, 2011CBA00301, National Natural Science Foundation of China 11374178, 11574002. Basic Science Research Program of Korea NRF-2015R1A6A3A04059773.

  15. Infrared ion spectroscopy in a modified quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer at the FELIX free electron laser laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Jonathan; Berden, Giel; Gebhardt, Christoph R.; Oomens, Jos

    2016-10-01

    We report on modifications made to a Paul-type quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer and discuss its application in infrared ion spectroscopy experiments. Main modifications involve optical access to the trapped ions and hardware and software coupling to a variety of infrared laser sources at the FELIX infrared free electron laser laboratory. In comparison to previously described infrared ion spectroscopy experiments at the FELIX laboratory, we find significant improvements in efficiency and sensitivity. Effects of the trapping conditions of the ions on the IR multiple photon dissociation spectra are explored. Enhanced photo-dissociation is found at lower pressures in the ion trap. Spectra obtained under reduced pressure conditions are found to more closely mimic those obtained in the high-vacuum conditions of an Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. A gas-mixing system is described enabling the controlled addition of a secondary gas into helium buffer gas flowing into the trap and allows for ion/molecule reactions in the trap. The electron transfer dissociation (ETD) option of the mass spectrometer allows for IR structure characterization of ETD-generated peptide dissociation products.

  16. Technologies for trapped-ion quantum information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eltony, Amira M; Shi, Molu; Bylinskii, Alexei; Vuletić, Vladan; Chuang, Isaac L

    2015-01-01

    Scaling-up from prototype systems to dense arrays of ions on chip, or vast networks of ions connected by photonic channels, will require developing entirely new technologies that combine miniaturized ion trapping systems with devices to capture, transmit and detect light, while refining how ions are confined and controlled. Building a cohesive ion system from such diverse parts involves many challenges, including navigating materials incompatibilities and undesired coupling between elements. Here, we review our recent efforts to create scalable ion systems incorporating unconventional materials such as graphene and indium tin oxide, integrating devices like optical fibers and mirrors, and exploring alternative ion loading and trapping techniques.

  17. Technologies for trapped-ion quantum information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltony, Amira M.; Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Bylinskii, Alexei; Vuletić, Vladan; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2016-12-01

    Scaling up from prototype systems to dense arrays of ions on chip, or vast networks of ions connected by photonic channels, will require developing entirely new technologies that combine miniaturized ion trapping systems with devices to capture, transmit, and detect light, while refining how ions are confined and controlled. Building a cohesive ion system from such diverse parts involves many challenges, including navigating materials incompatibilities and undesired coupling between elements. Here, we review our recent efforts to create scalable ion systems incorporating unconventional materials such as graphene and indium tin oxide, integrating devices like optical fibers and mirrors, and exploring alternative ion loading and trapping techniques.

  18. Grover search algorithm in an ion trap system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    Two schemes for the implementation of the two-qubit Grover search algorithm in the ion trap system are proposed.These schemes might be experimentally realizable with presently available techniques. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward more complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.

  19. Quantum Discrete Fourier Transform in an Ion Trap System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2007-01-01

    We propose two schemes for the implementation of quantum discrete Fourier transform in the ion trap system. In each scheme we design a tunable two-qubit phase gate as the main ingredient. The experimental implementation of the schemes would be an important step toward complex quantum computation in the ion trap system.

  20. Conformation-specific spectroscopy of peptide fragment ions in a low-temperature ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Tobias N; Boyarkin, Oleg V; Paizs, Béla; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2012-06-01

    We have applied conformer-selective infrared-ultraviolet (IR-UV) double-resonance photofragment spectroscopy at low temperatures in an ion trap mass spectrometer for the spectroscopic characterization of peptide fragment ions. We investigate b- and a-type ions formed by collision-induced dissociation from protonated leucine-enkephalin. The vibrational analysis and assignment are supported by nitrogen-15 isotopic substitution of individual amino acid residues and assisted by density functional theory calculations. Under such conditions, b-type ions of different size are found to appear exclusively as linear oxazolone structures with protonation on the N-terminus, while a rearrangement reaction is confirmed for the a (4) ion in which the side chain of the C-terminal phenylalanine residue is transferred to the N-terminal side of the molecule. The vibrational spectra that we present here provide a particularly stringent test for theoretical approaches.

  1. Conformation-Specific Spectroscopy of Peptide Fragment Ions in a Low-Temperature Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Tobias N.; Boyarkin, Oleg V.; Paizs, Béla; Rizzo, Thomas R.

    2012-06-01

    We have applied conformer-selective infrared-ultraviolet (IR-UV) double-resonance photofragment spectroscopy at low temperatures in an ion trap mass spectrometer for the spectroscopic characterization of peptide fragment ions. We investigate b- and a-type ions formed by collision-induced dissociation from protonated leucine-enkephalin. The vibrational analysis and assignment are supported by nitrogen-15 isotopic substitution of individual amino acid residues and assisted by density functional theory calculations. Under such conditions, b-type ions of different size are found to appear exclusively as linear oxazolone structures with protonation on the N-terminus, while a rearrangement reaction is confirmed for the a 4 ion in which the side chain of the C-terminal phenylalanine residue is transferred to the N-terminal side of the molecule. The vibrational spectra that we present here provide a particularly stringent test for theoretical approaches.

  2. Photodissociation of Trapped Rb2+: Implications for Simultaneous Trapping of Atoms and Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, S.; Ray, Tridib; Dutta, Sourav; Allouche, A. R.; Vexiau, Romain; Dulieu, Olivier; Rangwala, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The direct photodissociation of trapped 85Rb2+ (rubidium) molecular ions by the cooling light for the 85Rb magneto-optical trap (MOT) is studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Vibrationally excited Rb2+ ions are created by photoionization of Rb2 molecules formed photoassociatively in the Rb MOT and are trapped in a modified spherical Paul trap. The decay rate of the trapped Rb2+ ion signal in the presence of the MOT cooling light is measured and agreement with our calculated rates for molecular ion photodissociation is observed. The photodissociation mechanism due to the MOT light is expected to be active and therefore universal for all homonuclear diatomic alkali metal molecular ions.

  3. Photodissociation of trapped Rb$^+_2$ : Implications for hybrid molecular ion-atom trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Jyothi, S; Dutta, Sourav; Allouche, A R; Vexiau, Romain; Dulieu, Olivier; Rangwala, S A

    2016-01-01

    We observe direct photodissociation of trapped $^{85}$Rb$_2^+$ molecular ions in the presence of cooling light for the $^{85}$Rb magneto optical trap (MOT). Vibrationally excited Rb$_{2}^{+}$ ions are created by photoionization of Rb$_{2}$ molecules formed photoassociatively in the rubidium (Rb) MOT and are trapped in a modified spherical Paul trap co-centric with the MOT. The decay rate of the trapped Rb$_{2}^{+}$ ion signal in the presence of the MOT cooling light is measured and agreement with our calculated rates for molecular ion photodissociation is established. The photodissociation mechanism due to the MOT light is expected to be active and therefore universal for all homonuclear diatomic alkali metal molecular ions.

  4. Dynamics of ion cloud in a linear Paul trap

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, P

    2013-01-01

    A linear ion trap setup has been developed for studying the dynamics of trapped ion cloud and thereby realizing possible systematics of a high precision measurement on a single ion within it. The dynamics of molecular nitrogen ion cloud has been investigated to extract the characteristics of the trap setup. The stability of trap operation has been studied with observation of narrow nonlinear resonances pointing out the region of instabilities within the broad stability region. The secular frequency has been measured and the motional spectra of trapped ion oscillation have been obtained by using electric dipole excitation. It is applied to study the space charge effect and the axial coupling in the radial plane.

  5. Ion traps in nuclear physics-Recent results and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen, Tommi; Kankainen, Anu; Äystö, Juha

    2016-11-01

    Ion traps offer a way to determine nuclear binding energies through atomic mass measurements with a high accuracy and they are routinely used to provide isotopically or even isomerically pure beams of short-living ions for post-trap decay spectroscopy experiments. In this review, different ion-trapping techniques and progresses in recent nuclear physics experiments employing low-energy ion traps are discussed. The main focus in this review is on the benefit of recent high accuracy mass measurements to solve some key problems in physics related to nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics as well as neutrinos. Also, several cases of decay spectroscopy experiments utilizing trap-purified ion samples are summarized.

  6. Atomic and nuclear physics with stored particles in ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Herfurth, F; Quint, W

    2002-01-01

    Trapping and cooling techniques play an increasingly important role in many areas of science. This review concentrates on recent applications of ion traps installed at accelerator facilities to atomic and nuclear physics such as mass spectrometry of radioactive isotopes, weak interaction studies, symmetry tests, determination of fundamental constants, laser spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. In addition, ion traps are proven to be extremely efficient devices for (radioactive) ion beam manipulation as, for example, retardation, accumulation, cooling, beam cleaning, charge-breeding, and bunching.

  7. Cold atom-ion experiments in hybrid traps

    CERN Document Server

    Härter, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, a novel field of physics and chemistry has developed in which cold trapped ions and ultracold atomic gases are brought into contact with each other. Combining ion traps with traps for neutral atoms yields a variety of new possibilities for research and experiments. These range from studies of cold atom-ion collisions and atom-ion chemistry to applications in quantum information science and condensed matter related research. In this article we give a brief introduction into this new field and describe some of the perspectives for its future development.

  8. Comparative numerical studies of ion traps with integrated optical cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Podoliak, Nina; Keller, Matthias; Horak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We study a range of radio-frequency ion trap geometries and investigate the effect of integrating dielectric cavity mirrors on their trapping potential. We aim to identify ion trap and cavity configurations that are best suited for achieving small cavity volumes and thus large ion-photon coupling as required for scalable quantum information networks. In particular, we investigate the trapping potential distortions caused by the dielectric material of the cavity mirrors for different mirror orientations with respect to the trapping electrodes, as well as for mirror misalignment. We also analyze the effect of the mirror material properties such as dielectric constants and surface conductivity, and study the effect of surface charges on the mirrors. The smallest trapping potential distortions are found if the cavities are aligned along the major symmetry axis of the electrode geometries. These cavity configurations also appear to be the most stable with respect to any mirror misalignment.

  9. A Scalable Microfabricated Ion Trap for Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunz, Peter; Haltli, Raymond; Hollowell, Andrew; Lobser, Daniel; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Rembetski, John; Resnick, Paul; Sterk, Jonathan D.; Stick, Daniel L.; Blain, Matthew G.

    2016-05-01

    Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing (QIP) relies on complex microfabricated trap structures to enable scaling of the number of quantum bits. Building on previous demonstrations of surface-electrode ion traps, we have designed and characterized the Sandia high-optical-access (HOA-2) microfabricated ion trap. This trap features high optical access, high trap frequencies, low heating rates, and negligible charging of dielectric trap components. We have observed trap lifetimes of more than 100h, measured trap heating rates for ytterbium of less than 40quanta/s, and demonstrated shuttling of ions from a slotted to an above surface region and through a Y-junction. Furthermore, we summarize demonstrations of high-fidelity single and two-qubit gates realized in this trap. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA).

  10. Ion sponge: a 3-dimentional array of quadrupole ion traps for trapping and mass-selectively processing ions in gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Linfan; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Ouyang, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the concept of ion sponge has been explored for developing 3D arrays of large numbers of ion traps but with simple configurations. An ion sponge device with 484 trapping units in a volume of 10 × 10 × 3.2 cm has been constructed by simply stacking 9 meshes together. A single rf was used for trapping ions and mass-selective ion processing. The ion sponge provides a large trapping capacity and is highly transparent for transfer of ions, neutrals, and photons for gas phase ion processing. Multiple layers of quadrupole ion traps, with 121 trapping units in each layer, can operate as a single device for MS or MS/MS analysis, or as a series of mass-selective trapping devices with interlayer ion transfers facilitated by AC and DC voltages. Automatic sorting of ions to different trapping layers based on their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios was achieved with traps of different sizes. Tandem-in-space MS/MS has also been demonstrated with precursor ions and fragment ions trapped in separate locations.

  11. Relativistic heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Quantum entanglement in a two-dimensional ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成志; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantum entanglement in a two-dimensional ion trap system. We discuss the quantum entanglement between the ion and phonons by using reduced entropy, and that between two degrees of freedom of the vibrational motion along x and y directions by using quantum relative entropy. We discuss also the influence of initial state of the system on the quantum entanglement and the relation between two entanglements in the trapped ion system.

  13. Quantum entanglement in a two—dimensional ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成志; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the quantum entanglement in a two-dimensional ion trap system.we discuss the quantum entanglement between the ion and phonons by using reduced entropy,and that between two degrees of freedom of the vibrational motion along x and y directions by using quantum relative entropy.We discuss also the influence of initial state of the system on the quantum entanglement and the relation between two entanglements in the trapped ion system.

  14. Reactions of Negative Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-17

    2 + H2 SO 4 + HS04 (HNO 3 ) 2 + HNO 3 1.1 0.6 * defined as 1 The most important results from an atmospheric viewpoint are the reactions of H SO with NO...constant HS04 >4.5 bracketing 22 0 C1 , 1.95 * 0.25 bracketlng 32 -4 __.. . .___,_=____,,_______... . . . -- . . . . One particularly interesting aspect of

  15. Integrated optics architecture for trapped-ion quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielpinski, D.; Volin, C.; Streed, E. W.; Lenzini, F.; Lobino, M.

    2016-12-01

    Standard schemes for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP) involve the manipulation of ions in a large array of interconnected trapping potentials. The basic set of QIP operations, including state initialization, universal quantum logic, and state detection, is routinely executed within a single array site by means of optical operations, including various laser excitations as well as the collection of ion fluorescence. Transport of ions between array sites is also routinely carried out in microfabricated trap arrays. However, it is still not possible to perform optical operations in parallel across all array sites. The lack of this capability is one of the major obstacles to scalable trapped-ion QIP and presently limits exploitation of current microfabricated trap technology. Here we present an architecture for scalable integration of optical operations in trapped-ion QIP. We show theoretically that diffractive mirrors, monolithically fabricated on the trap array, can efficiently couple light between trap array sites and optical waveguide arrays. Integrated optical circuits constructed from these waveguides can be used for sequencing of laser excitation and fluorescence collection. Our scalable architecture supports all standard QIP operations, as well as photon-mediated entanglement channels, while offering substantial performance improvements over current techniques.

  16. An Integrated Mirror and Surface Ion Trap with a Tunable Trap Location

    CERN Document Server

    Van Rynbach, Andre; Kim, Jungsang

    2016-01-01

    We report a demonstration of a surface ion trap fabricated directly on a highly reflective mirror surface, which includes a secondary set of radio frequency (RF) electrodes allowing for translation of the quadrupole RF null location. We introduce a position-dependent photon scattering rate for a $^{174}$Yb$^+$ ion in the direction perpendicular to the trap surface using a standing wave of retroreflected light off the mirror surface directly below the trap. Using this setup, we demonstrate the capability of fine-tuning the RF trap location with nanometer scale precision and characterize the charging effects of the dielectric mirror surface upon exposure to ultra-violet light.

  17. Ion cyclotron resonance detection techniques at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Ketelaer, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Beyer, T.; Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eibach, M.; Smorra, C. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet, Heidelberg (Germany); Nagy, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In Penning trap mass spectrometry the mass of stored ions is obtained via a determination of the cyclotron frequency ({nu}{sub c}=qB/(2 {pi} m)), for which two different techniques are available. The destructive time-of-flight ion cyclotron resonance (TOF-ICR) technique, based on the measurement of the flight time of excited ions, is the established method for measurements on short-lived radionuclides. It is not ideally suited for rarely produced ion species, since typically some hundred ions are required for a single resonance spectrum. At the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP therefore a non-destructive narrow-band Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) detection system is being developed. It is based on the detection of the image currents induced by the stored ions in the trap electrodes and will ultimately reach single ion sensitivity. TRIGA-TRAP also features broad-band FT-ICR detection for the coarse identification of the trap content. Additionally, the TOF-ICR detection system has been recently improved to utilize the Ramsey excitation technique to gain in precision, and the position information of the ion impact to further suppress background events in the final time-of-flight spectrum.

  18. A single strontium Rydberg ion confined in a Paul trap

    CERN Document Server

    Higgins, Gerard; Pokorny, Fabian; Zhang, Chi; Kress, Florian; Maier, Christine; Haag, Johannes; Bodart, Quentin; Lesanovsky, Igor; Hennrich, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Trapped Rydberg ions are a promising new system for quantum information processing. They have the potential to join the precise quantum operations of trapped ions and the strong, long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms. Technically, the ion trap will need to stay active while exciting the ions into the Rydberg state, else the strong Coulomb repulsion will quickly push the ions apart. Thus, a thorough understanding of the trap effects on Rydberg ions is essential for future applications. Here we report the observation of two fundamental trap effects. First, we investigate the interaction of the Rydberg electron with the quadrupolar electric trapping field. This effect leads to Floquet sidebands in the spectroscopy of Rydberg D-states whereas Rydberg S-states are unaffected due to their symmetry. Second, we report on the modified trapping potential in the Rydberg state compared to the ground state which results from the strong polarizability of the Rydberg ion. We observe the resultant energy shifts as a ...

  19. Superstatistical velocity distributions of cold trapped ions in molecular dynamics simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rouse, I

    2015-01-01

    We present a realistic molecular-dynamics treatment of laser-cooled ions in radiofrequency ion traps which avoids previously made simplifications such as modeling laser cooling as a friction force and combining individual heating mechanisms into a single effective heating force. Based on this implementation, we show that infrequent energetic collisions of single ions with background gas molecules lead to pronounced heating of the entire ion ensemble and a time-varying secular ensemble temperature which manifests itself in a superstatistical time-averaged velocity distribution of the ions. The effect of this finding on the experimental determination of ion temperatures and rate constants for cold chemical reactions is discussed.

  20. A scheme of quantum phase gate for trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Jian-Wu; Fang Mao-Fa; Zheng Xiao-Juan; Liao Xiang-Ping

    2007-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement two-qubit controlled quantum phase gate(CQPG) via a single trapped twolevel ion located in the standing wave field of a quantum cavity, in which the trap works beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit. When the light field is resonant with the atomic transition |g〉←→|e〉of the ion located at the antinode of the standing wave, we can perform CQPG between the internal and external states of the trapped ion; while the frequency of the light field is chosen to be resonant with the first red sideband of the collective vibrational mode of the ion located at the node of the standing wave, we can perform CQPG between the cavity mode and the collective vibrational mode of the trapped ion. Neither the Lamb-Dicke approximation nor the assistant classical laser is needed. Also we can generate a GHZ state if assisted with a classical laser.

  1. Sympathetic Wigner-function tomography of a dark trapped ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirkhalaf, Safoura; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A protocol is provided to reconstruct the Wigner function for the motional state of a trapped ion via fluorescence detection on another ion in the same trap. This “sympathetic tomography” of a dark ion without optical transitions suitable for state measurements is based on the mapping of its...... motional state onto one of the collective modes of the ion pair. The quantum state of this vibrational eigenmode is subsequently measured through sideband excitation of the bright ion. Physical processes to implement the desired state transfer are derived and the accomplishment of the scheme is evaluated...

  2. Microfluidic droplet trapping array as nanoliter reactors for gas-liquid chemical reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingquan; Zeng, Shaojiang; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2009-09-01

    This article presents a simple method for trapping arrays of droplets relying on the designed microstructures of the microfluidic device, and this has been successfully used for parallel gas-liquid chemical reaction. In this approach, the trapping structure is composed of main channel, lateral channel and trapping region. Under a negative pressure, array droplets can be generated and trapped in the microstructure simultaneously, without the use of surfactant and the precise control of the flow velocity. By using a multi-layer microdevice containing the microstructures, single (pH gradient) and multiple gas-liquid reactions (metal ion-NH3 complex reaction) can be performed in array droplets through the transmembrane diffusion of the gas. The droplets with quantitative concentration gradient can be formed by only replacing the specific membrane. The established method is simple, robust and easy to operate, demonstrating the potential of this device for droplet-based high-throughput screening.

  3. Ion bunch stacking in a Penning trap after purification in an electrostatic mirror trap

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenbusch, M; Blaum, K; Borgmann, Ch; Kreim, S; Lunney, D; Manea, V; Schweikhard, L; Wienholtz, F; Wolf, R N

    2014-01-01

    The success of many measurements in analytical mass spectrometry as well as in precision mass determinations for atomic and nuclear physics is handicapped when the ion sources deliver ``contaminations'', i.e., unwanted ions of masses similar to those of the ions of interest. In particular, in ion-trapping devices, large amounts of contaminant ions result in significant systematic errors-if the measurements are possible at all. We present a solution for such cases: The ions from a quasi-continuous source are bunched in a linear radio-frequency-quadrupole ion trap, separated by a multi-reflection time-of-flight section followed by a Bradbury-Nielsen gate, and then captured in a Penning trap. Buffer-gas cooling is used to damp the ion motion in the latter, which allows a repeated opening of the Penning trap for a stacking of mass-selected ion bunches. Proof-of-principle demonstrations have been performed with the ISOLTRAP setup at ISOLDE/CERN, both with Cs-133(+) ions from an off-line ion source and by applicati...

  4. Efficient fluorescence collection and ion imaging with the "tack" ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, G; Kurz, N; Dietrich, M R; Blinov, B B

    2011-01-01

    Trapped, laser-cooled ions produce intense fluorescence. Detecting this fluorescence enables efficient measurement of quantum state of qubits based on trapped atoms. It is desirable to collect a large fraction of the photons to make the detection faster and more reliable. Additionally, efficient fluorescence collection can improve speed and fidelity of remote ion entanglement and quantum gates. Here we show a novel ion trap design that incorporates metallic spherical mirror as the integral part of the trap itself, being its RF electrode. The mirror geometry enables up to 35% solid angle collection of trapped ion fluorescence; we measure a 25% effective solid angle, likely limited by imperfections of the mirror surface. We also study properties of the images of single ions formed by the mirror and apply aberration correction. Owing to the simplicity of its design, this trap structure can be adapted for micro-fabrication and integration into more complex trap architectures.

  5. Trapped Ion Chain Thermometry and Mass Analysis Through Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Rajagopal, V; Kokish, M G; Odom, B C

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the temperature measurement of individual laser cooled ions in a linear Coulomb crystal by relating their imaged spatial extent along the linear Paul trap axis to the normal modes of vibration of coupled oscillators in a harmonic potential. We also use the thermal spatial spread of `bright' ions in the case of a two-species mixed chain to measure the secular resonance frequency of vibration of the center-of-mass mode of the entire chain and infer the molecular composition of the co-trapped `dark' ions. These techniques create new possibilities for better understanding of sympathetic cooling in mixed-ion chains and under conditions of non-uniform heat load, improving few-ion mass spectrometry, and making in-situ temperature measurements of individual trapped ions without requiring a scan over the Doppler cooling parameters.

  6. In-Trap Spectroscopy of Charge-Bred Radioactive Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, A.; Grossheim, A.; Leach, K. G.; Alanssari, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Gallant, A. T.; Holl, M.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Dilling, J.; Frekers, D.

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the concept of in-trap nuclear decay spectroscopy of highly charged radioactive ions and describe its successful application as a novel spectroscopic tool. This is demonstrated by a measurement of the decay properties of radioactive mass A=124 ions (here, In124 and Cs124) in the electron-beam ion trap of the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. By subjecting the trapped ions to an intense electron beam, the ions are charge bred to high charge states (i.e., equivalent to the removal of N-shell electrons), and an increase of storage times to the level of minutes without significant ion losses is achieved. The present technique opens the venue for precision spectroscopy of low branching ratios and is being developed in the context of measuring electron-capture branching ratios needed for determining the nuclear ground-state properties of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta (ββ) decay.

  7. Fast Preparation of W States for Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGShi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is presented for generating W states for three or four trapped ions in thermal motion. The scheme works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser field is on the order of the trap frequency, resulting a fast entanglement speed, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

  8. Fast Preparation of W States for Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is presented for generating W states for three o()four trapped ions in thermal motion. The scheme works in the regime, where the Rabi frequency of the laser field is on the order of the trap frequency, resulting a fast entanglement speed, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

  9. From transistor to trapped-ion computers for quantum chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, M-H; Casanova, J; Mezzacapo, A; McClean, J; Lamata, L; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Solano, E

    2014-01-07

    Over the last few decades, quantum chemistry has progressed through the development of computational methods based on modern digital computers. However, these methods can hardly fulfill the exponentially-growing resource requirements when applied to large quantum systems. As pointed out by Feynman, this restriction is intrinsic to all computational models based on classical physics. Recently, the rapid advancement of trapped-ion technologies has opened new possibilities for quantum control and quantum simulations. Here, we present an efficient toolkit that exploits both the internal and motional degrees of freedom of trapped ions for solving problems in quantum chemistry, including molecular electronic structure, molecular dynamics, and vibronic coupling. We focus on applications that go beyond the capacity of classical computers, but may be realizable on state-of-the-art trapped-ion systems. These results allow us to envision a new paradigm of quantum chemistry that shifts from the current transistor to a near-future trapped-ion-based technology.

  10. Trapped ion imaging with a high numerical aperture spherical mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, G; Dietrich, M R; Kurz, N; Blinov, B B, E-mail: shugang@u.washington.ed [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-1560 (United States)

    2009-08-14

    Efficient collection and analysis of trapped ion qubit fluorescence is essential for robust qubit state detection in trapped ion quantum computing schemes. We discuss simple techniques of improving photon collection efficiency using high numerical aperture (N.A.) reflective optics. To test these techniques we placed a spherical mirror with an effective N.A. of about 0.9 inside a vacuum chamber in the vicinity of a linear Paul trap. We demonstrate stable and reliable trapping of single barium ions, in excellent agreement with our simulations of the electric field in this setup. While a large N.A. spherical mirror introduces significant spherical aberration, the ion image quality can be greatly improved by a specially designed aspheric corrector lens located outside the vacuum system. Our simulations show that the spherical mirror/corrector design is an easy and cost-effective way to achieve high photon collection rates when compared to a more sophisticated parabolic mirror setup.

  11. Reducing Space Charge Effects in a Linear Ion Trap by Rhombic Ion Excitation and Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yuzhuo; Hu, Lili; Guo, Dan; Fang, Xiang; Zhou, Mingfei; Xu, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Space charge effects play important roles in ion trap operations, which typically limit the ion trapping capacity, dynamic range, mass accuracy, and resolving power of a quadrupole ion trap. In this study, a rhombic ion excitation and ejection method was proposed to minimize space charge effects in a linear ion trap. Instead of applying a single dipolar AC excitation signal, two dipolar AC excitation signals with the same frequency and amplitude but 90° phase difference were applied in the x- and y-directions of the linear ion trap, respectively. As a result, mass selective excited ions would circle around the ion cloud located at the center of the ion trap, rather than go through the ion cloud. In this work, excited ions were then axially ejected and detected, but this rhombic ion excitation method could also be applied to linear ion traps with ion radial ejection capabilities. Experiments show that space charge induced mass resolution degradation and mass shift could be alleviated with this method. For the experimental conditions in this work, space charge induced mass shift could be decreased by ~50%, and the mass resolving power could be improved by ~2 times at the same time.

  12. Trapping of short lived Ra{sup +} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekker, H.; Nunes Portela, M.; Seelen, D.; Dermois, O.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, University of Groningen, NL (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    A precision measurement of atomic parity violation in order to determine electroweak mixing angle at low energy scale is underway at the KVI, University of Groningen. The experiment exploits the large sensitivity of a single trapped Ra{sup +} ion. It requires the trapping of short lived radium ions in a Paul trap. Our first laser spectroscopy on an ensemble of trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} isotopes employed buffer gas cooled ions in a linear Paul trap. It provided hyperfine structure of the 6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states and isotope shift of the 6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7p {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} transition. In a next step the buffer gas cooled Ra ions are extracted from the trap and transported in an electrostatic transport system towards a small Paul trap in an UHV environment. Here the ion can be cooled and subsequently microwave transitions between hyperfine states in the 6d {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} manifold can be driven in order to yield high precision results on the hyperfine constants. These results provide input for the ongoing precision atomic structure calculations.

  13. Preparation of Cluster States with Trapped Ions in Thermal Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Xing

    2007-01-01

    @@ A potential scheme is proposed for generating cluster states of many trapped ions in thermal motion, in which the effective Hamiltonian does not involve the external degree of freedom and thus the scheme is insensitive to the external state, allowing it to be thermal state. The required experimental techniques of the schemes are within the scope that can be obtained in the ion-trap setup.

  14. Fast cooling of trapped ions using the dynamical Stark shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzker, A [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2PE (United Kingdom); Plenio, M B [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, SW7 2PE (United Kingdom)

    2007-08-15

    A laser cooling scheme for trapped ions is presented which is based on the fast dynamical Stark shift gate, described in (Jonathan et al 2000 Phys. Rev. A 62 042307). Since this cooling method does not contain an off resonant carrier transition, low final temperatures are achieved even in a traveling wave light field. The proposed method may operate in either pulsed or continuous mode and is also suitable for ion traps using microwave addressing in strong magnetic field gradients.

  15. Weighing of trapped ion crystals and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel scheme to measure the secular motion of trapped ions. Employing pulsed excitation and analysis of the fluorescence of laser cooled ions, the COM-mode frequency of single as well as entire ion crystals can be measured to an accuracy of better than 100 Hz within an interrogation on the order of seconds, limited only by the fluorescence collection efficiency and the background noise. We have used this method to measure the mass of ions and observed charge exchange collisions between trapped calcium isotopes.

  16. Trapped-Ion State Detection through Coherent Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Hume, D B; Leibrandt, D R; Thorpe, M J; Wineland, D J; Rosenband, T

    2011-01-01

    Quantum-limited experiments with trapped atomic ions rely on sensitive methods of detecting an ion's state. Current detection techniques are applicable only to relatively simple systems, which precludes most atomic and molecular species. Here, we demonstrate a technique that can be applied to a larger class of ion systems. We couple a "spectroscopy" ion (Al+) to a "control" ion (Mg+) in the same trap and perform state detection through off-resonant laser excitation of the spectroscopy ion that induces coherent motion. The motional amplitude, dependent on the spectroscopy ion state, is measured either by time-resolved photon counting, or by resolved sideband excitations. The first method provides a simplified way to distinguish "clock" states in Al+, which avoids ground state cooling and sideband transitions. The second method reduces spontaneous emission and optical pumping on the spectroscopy ion, which we demonstrate by nondestructively distinguishing Zeeman sublevels in the 1S0 ground state of Al+.

  17. Sympathetic cooling of $^4$He$^+$ ions in a radiofrequency trap

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, B; Schiller, S

    2004-01-01

    We have generated Coulomb crystals of ultracold $^4$He$^+$ ions in a linear radiofrequency trap, by sympathetic cooling via laser--cooled $^9$Be$^+$. Stable crystals containing up to 150 localized He$^+$ ions at $\\sim$20 mK were obtained. Ensembles or single ultracold He$^+$ ions open up interesting perspectives for performing precision tests of QED and measurements of nuclear radii. The present work also indicates the feasibility of cooling and crystallizing highly charged atomic ions using $^9$Be$^+$ as coolant.

  18. Experimental demonstration of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Maurice, Mark; Green, Dylan; Farr, Andrew; Burke, Timothy; Hilleke, Russell; Clark, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report on the design and experimental characterization of a surface-electrode multipole ion trap. Individual microscopic sugar particles are confined in the trap. The trajectories of driven particle motion are compared with a theoretical model, both to verify qualitative predictions of the model, and to measure the charge-to-mass ratio of the confined particle. The generation of harmonics of the driving frequency is observed as a key signature of the nonlinear nature of the trap. We remark on possible applications of our traps, including to mass spectrometry.

  19. Parallel transport quantum logic gates with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    de Clercq, Ludwig; Marinelli, Matteo; Nadlinger, David; Oswald, Robin; Negnevitsky, Vlad; Kienzler, Daniel; Keitch, Ben; Home, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing will require combinations of gate operations and communication, with each applied in parallel to large numbers of quantum systems. These tasks are often performed sequentially, with gates implemented by pulsed fields and information transported either by moving the physical qubits or using photonic links. For trapped ions, an alternative approach is to implement quantum logic gates by transporting the ions through static laser beams, combining qubit operations with transport. This has significant advantages for scalability since the voltage waveforms required for transport can potentially be generated using micro-electronics integrated into the trap structure itself, while both optical and microwave control elements are significantly more bulky. Using a multi-zone ion trap, we demonstrate transport gates on a qubit encoded in the hyperfine structure of a beryllium ion. We show the ability to perform sequences of operations, and to perform parallel gates on two ions transported t...

  20. Investigation of the reaction of hydroxy and carbon monoxide to form hydrogen and carbon dioxide by Photoelectron-Photofragment Coincidence spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion beam trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher Joseph

    2011-12-01

    The HOCO radical plays a crucial role in a wide variety of chemical processes, including atmospheric CO2 regulation and combustion chemistry, as an intermediate in the elementary reaction OH + CO → H + CO2 . However, scant information exists on this species due to the difficulties in studying it. Previous photoelectron-photofragment coincidence (PPC) studies performed in this laboratory have identified key processes occurring on the HOCO potential energy surface, but are complicated by the presence of internal excitation in the precursor anions, leading to uncertainties in product energies and dynamics. To address this, a new instrument has been constructed which incorporates a cryogenically cooled linear electrostatic storage device, providing a cold source of anions for dissociative photodetachment studies by PPC spectroscopy. The enhanced resolution and well-characterized energetics provided by this instrument have allowed the fundamental energetics and processes occurring on the HOCO potential energy surface to be studied in unprecedented detail. New data shows unambiguous confirmation of the presence of tunneling in the reaction HOCO → H + CO2. Careful study of this product channel has led to the generation a model one-dimensional potential barrier describing this process directly from experimental tunneling data, and tunneling lifetimes over a range of relevant internal energies to be predicted. High resolution photodetachment experiments provide a reassignment of the electron affinities of both cis- and trans-HOCO and the determination of several normal mode frequencies not previously measured in the gas phase, each with the support of high-level ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Further details on the previously-unknown isomer well depths and the process of isomerization have been extracted using this information. Finally, nonresonant two-photon photodetachment studies of NO2 -, a species with striking electronic structure similarities to HOCO

  1. Optical cavity integrated surface ion trap for enhanced light collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Francisco M.

    Ion trap systems allow the faithful storage and manipulation of qubits encoded in the energy levels of the ions, and can be interfaced with photonic qubits that can be transmitted to connect remote quantum systems. Single photons transmitted from two remote sites, each entangled with one quantum memory, can be used to entangle distant quantum memories by interfering on a beam splitter. Efficient remote entanglement generation relies upon efficient light collection from single ions into a single mode fiber. This can be realized by integrating an ion trap with an optical cavity and employing the Purcell effect for enhancing the light collection. Remote entanglement can be used as a resource for a quantum repeater for provably secure long-distance communication or as a method for communicating within a distributed quantum information processor. We present the integration of a 1 mm optical cavity with a micro-fabricated surface ion trap. The plano-concave cavity is oriented normal to the chip surface where the planar mirror is attached underneath the trap chip. The cavity is locked using a 780 nm laser which is stabilized to Rubidium and shifted to match the 369 nm Doppler transition in Ytterbium. The linear ion trap allows ions to be shuttled in and out of the cavity mode. The Purcell enhancement of spontaneous emission into the cavity mode would then allow efficient collection of the emitted photons, enabling faster remote entanglement generation.

  2. Cold highly charged ions in a cryogenic Paul trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versolato, O.O.; Schwarz, M.; Windberger, A.

    2013-01-01

    17 + . However, lasers pectroscopy of HCIs is hindered by the large (∼ 106 K) temperatures at which they are produced and trapped. An unprecedented improvement in such laser spectroscopy can be obtained when HCIs are cooled down to the mK range in a linear Paul trap. We have developed a cryogenic...... linear Paul trap in which HCIs will be sympathetically cooled by 9Be +  ions. Optimized optical access for laser light is provided while maintaining excellent UHV conditions. The Paul trap will be connected to an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) which is able to produce a wide range of HCIs. This EBIT...... will also provide the first experimental input needed for the determination of the transition energies inIr 17+ , enabling further laser-spectroscopic investigations of this promising HCI....

  3. HITRAP: A Facility for Experiments with Trapped Highly Charged Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quint, W.; Dilling, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Djekic, S. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Haeffner, H. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Hermanspahn, N. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Kluge, H.-J.; Marx, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Moore, R. [McGill University (Canada); Rodriguez, D.; Schoenfelder, J.; Sikler, G. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Valenzuela, T.; Verdu, J. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Weber, C. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Werth, G. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2001-01-15

    HITRAP is a planned ion trap facility for capturing and cooling of highly charged ions produced at GSI in the heavy-ion complex of the UNILAC-SIS accelerators and the ESR storage ring. In this facility heavy highly charged ions up to uranium will be available as bare nuclei, hydrogen-like ions or few-electron systems at low temperatures. The trap for receiving and studying these ions is designed for operation at extremely high vacuum by cooling to cryogenic temperatures. The stored highly charged ions can be investigated in the trap itself or can be extracted from the trap at energies up to about 10 keV/q. The proposed physics experiments are collision studies with highly charged ions at well-defined low energies (eV/u), high-accuracy measurements to determine the g-factor of the electron bound in a hydrogen-like heavy ion and the atomic binding energies of few-electron systems, laser spectroscopy of HFS transitions and X-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Nonlinear dust-ion-acoustic waves in a multi-ion plasma with trapped electrons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Duha; B Shikha; A A Mamun

    2011-08-01

    A dusty multi-ion plasma system consisting of non-isothermal (trapped) electrons, Maxwellian (isothermal) light positive ions, warm heavy negative ions and extremely massive charge fluctuating stationary dust have been considered. The dust-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves associated with negative ion dynamics, Maxwellian (isothermal) positive ions, trapped electrons and charge fluctuating stationary dust have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The basic features of such dust-ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves have been identified. The implications of our findings in space and laboratory dusty multi-ion plasmas are discussed.

  5. Trapped-Ion State Detection through Coherent Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, D. B.; Chou, C. W.; Leibrandt, D. R.; Thorpe, M. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Rosenband, T.

    2011-12-01

    We demonstrate a general method for state detection of trapped ions that can be applied to a large class of atomic and molecular species. We couple a spectroscopy ion (Al+27) to a control ion (Mg+25) in the same trap and perform state detection through off-resonant laser excitation of the spectroscopy ion that induces coherent motion. The motional amplitude, dependent on the spectroscopy ion state, is measured either by time-resolved photon counting or by resolved sideband excitations on the control ion. The first method provides a simplified way to distinguish clock states in Al+27, which avoids ground-state cooling and sideband transitions. The second method reduces spontaneous emission and optical pumping on the spectroscopy ion, which we demonstrate by nondestructively distinguishing Zeeman sublevels in the S01 ground state of Al+27.

  6. Confining rigid balls by mimicking quadrupole ion trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Wenkai; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    The rotating saddle not only is an interesting system that is able to trap a ball near its saddle point, but can also intuitively illustrate the operating principles of quadrupole ion traps in modern physics. Unlike the conventional models based on the mass-point approximation, we study the stability of a ball in a rotating-saddle trap using rigid-body dynamics. The stabilization condition of the system is theoretically derived and subsequently verified by experiments. The results are compared with the previous mass-point model, giving large discrepancy as the curvature of the ball is comparable to that of the saddle. We also point out that the spin angular velocity of the ball is analogous to the cyclotron frequency of ions in an external magnetic field utilized in many prevailing ion-trapping schemes.

  7. Towards Non-Equilibrium Dynamics with Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Ariel; Jubin, Sierra; Doret, Charlie

    2016-05-01

    Atomic systems are superbly suited to the study of non-equilibrium dynamics. These systems' exquisite isolation from environmental perturbations leads to long relaxation times that enable exploration of far-from-equilibrium phenomena. One example of particular relevance to experiments in trapped ion quantum information processing, metrology, and precision spectroscopy is the approach to thermal equilibrium of sympathetically cooled linear ion chains. Suitable manipulation of experimental parameters permits exploration of the quantum-to-classical crossover between ballistic transport and diffusive, Fourier's Law conduction, a topic of interest not only to the trapped ion community but also for the development of microelectronic devices and other nanoscale structures. We present progress towards trapping chains of multiple co-trapped calcium isotopes geared towards measuring thermal equilibration and discuss plans for future experiments in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. This work is supported by Cottrell College Science Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement and by Williams College.

  8. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  9. High-fidelity transport of trapped-ion qubits through an X-junction trap array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakestad, R B; Ospelkaus, C; VanDevender, A P; Amini, J M; Britton, J; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2009-04-17

    We report reliable transport of (9)Be(+) ions through an "X junction" in a 2D trap array that includes a separate loading and reservoir zone. During transport the ion's kinetic energy in its local well increases by only a few motional quanta and internal-state coherences are preserved. We also examine two sources of energy gain during transport: a particular radio-frequency noise heating mechanism and digital sampling noise. Such studies are important to achieve scaling in a trapped-ion quantum information processor.

  10. The Temperature Effects on the Ion Trap Quantum Computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmin; JiatiLIN

    2001-01-01

    We consider one source of decoherence for a quantum computer composed of many trapped ions due to the thermal effects of the system in the presence of laser-ion interaction.The upper limit of the temperature at which the logical gate operations could be carried out reliably is given,and our result is agreement with the experiment.

  11. Direct Measurement of Squeezing in the Motion of Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hao-Sheng; HU Ai-Qin; LIU Qiong; KUANG Le-Man

    2005-01-01

    @@ We present a simple method that can be used to directly measure the squeezing of the quantum motional states of a trapped ion.Through the use of the interaction between the trapped ion and classical lasers, one can design a required coupling between the internal electronic and external vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and can transfer information of the expectation value of a vibrational operator to the atomic internal populations.Thus measurement of squeezing on the quantum motional state can directly be realized.By adjusting the phases of the interacting lasers, one can measure the squeezing of both position and momentum quadratures.

  12. A Linear RFQ Ion Trap for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatt, B.; Green, M.; Wodin, J.; DeVoe, R.; Fierlinger, P.; Gratta, G.; LePort, F.; Montero Diez, M.; Neilson, R.; O' Sullivan, K.; Pocar, A.; Baussan, E.; Breidenbach, M.; Conley, R.; Fairbank Jr., W.; Farine, J.; Hall, K.; Hallman, D.; Hargrove, C.; Hauger, M.; Hodgson, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Neuchatel U. /SLAC /Colorado State U. /Laurentian U. /Carleton U. /Alabama U.

    2008-01-14

    The design, construction, and performance of a linear radio-frequency ion trap (RFQ) intended for use in the Enriched Xenon Observatory (EXO) are described. EXO aims to detect the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 136}Xe to {sup 136}Ba. To suppress possible backgrounds EXO will complement the measurement of decay energy and, to some extent, topology of candidate events in a Xe filled detector with the identification of the daughter nucleus ({sup 136}Ba). The ion trap described here is capable of accepting, cooling, and confining individual Ba ions extracted from the site of the candidate double-beta decay event. A single trapped ion can then be identified, with a large signal-to-noise ratio, via laser spectroscopy.

  13. Reducing Motional Decoherence in Ion Traps with Surface Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Hartmut

    2014-03-01

    Many trapped ions experiments ask for low motional heating rates while trapping the ions close to trapping electrodes. However, in practice small ion-electrode distances lead to unexpected high heating rates. While the mechanisms for the heating is still unclear, it is now evident that surface contamination of the metallic electrodes is at least partially responsible for the elevated heating rates. I will discuss heating rate measurements in a microfabricated surface trap complemented with basic surface science studies. We monitor the elemental surface composition of the Cu-Al alloy trap with an Auger spectrometer. After bake-out, we find a strong Carbon and Oxygen contamination and heating rates of 200 quanta/s at 1 MHz trap frequency. After removing most of the Carbon and Oxygen with Ar-Ion sputtering, the heating rates drop to 4 quanta/s. Interestingly, we still measure the decreased heating rate even after the surface oxidized from the background gas throughout a 40-day waiting time in UHV.

  14. Electron shakeoff following the $\\Beta$+ decay of trapped 35Ar+ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Couratin, C; Fabre, B; Pons, B; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Breitenfeldt, M; Delahaye, P; Durand, D; Méry, A; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Porobic, T; Quéméner, G; Rodriguez, D; Severijns, N; Thomas, J C; Van Gorp, S

    2013-01-01

    The electron shakeoff of $^{35}$Cl atoms resulting from the $\\beta$$^+$ decay of $^{35}$Ar$^+$ ions has been investigated using a Paul trap coupled to a recoil-ion spectrometer. The charge-state distribution of the recoiling daughter nuclei is compared to theoretical calculations accounting for shakeoff and Auger processes. The calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and enable to identify the ionization reaction routes leading to the formation of all charge states.

  15. Ion Trapping, Storage, and Ejection in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Prost, Spencer A; Webb, Ian K; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Tang, Keqi; Tolmachev, Aleksey V; Norheim, Randolph V; Baker, Erin S; Anderson, Gordon A; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Smith, Richard D

    2015-06-16

    A new Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM) module, having electrode arrays patterned on a pair of parallel printed circuit boards (PCB), was constructed and utilized to investigate capabilities for ion trapping at a pressure of 4 Torr. Positive ions were confined by application of RF voltages to a series of inner rung electrodes with alternating phase on adjacent electrodes, in conjunction with positive DC potentials on surrounding guard electrodes on each PCB. An axial DC field was also introduced by stepwise varying the DC potentials applied to the inner rung electrodes to control the ion transport and accumulation inside the ion trapping region. We show that ions can be trapped and accumulated with up to 100% efficiency, stored for at least 5 h with no significant losses, and then could be rapidly ejected from the SLIM trap. The present results provide a foundation for the development of much more complex SLIM devices that facilitate extended ion manipulations.

  16. Characteristics of Ion Activation and Collision Induced Dissociation Using Digital Ion Trap Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuxing; Dang, Qiankun; Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2016-08-01

    Collision induced dissociation (CID) is one of the most established techniques for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The CID of mass selected ion could be realized by ion resonance excitation with a digital rectangular waveform. The method is simple, and highly efficient CID result could be obtained by optimizing the experimental parameters, such as digital waveform voltage, frequency, and q value. In this work, the relationship between ion trapping waveform voltage and frequency at preselected q value, the relationship between waveform frequency and the q value at certain ion trapping voltage for optimum CID efficiency were investigated. Experiment results showed that the max CID efficiency of precursor reserpine ions can be obtained at different trapping waveform voltage and frequency when q and β are different. Based on systematic experimental analysis, the optimum experimental conditions for high CID efficiency can be calculated at any selected β or q. By using digital ion trap technology, the CID process and efficient fragmentation of parent ions can be realized by simply changing the trapping waveform amplitude, frequency, and the β values in the digital ion trap mass spectrometry. The technology and method are simple. It has potential use in ion trap mass spectrometry.

  17. Infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy of ions in Penning traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, John R

    2009-01-01

    The ability of Paul and Penning traps to contain ions for time periods ranging from milliseconds to minutes allows the trapped ions to be subjected to laser irradiation for extended lengths of time. In this way, relatively low-powered tunable infrared lasers can be used to induce ion fragmentation when a sufficient number of infrared photons are absorbed, a process known as infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD). If ion fragmentation is monitored as a function of laser wavelength, a photodissociation action spectrum can be obtained. The development of widely tunable infrared laser sources, in particular free electron lasers (FELs) and optical parametric oscillators/amplifiers (OPO/As), now allows spectra of trapped ions to be obtained for the entire "chemically relevant" infrared spectral region. This review describes experiments in which tunable infrared lasers have been used to irradiate ions in Penning traps. Early studies which utilized tunable carbon dioxide lasers with a limited output range are first reviewed. More recent studies with either FEL or OPO/A irradiation sources are then covered. The ionic systems examined have ranged from small hydrocarbons to multiply charged proteins, and they are discussed in approximate order of increasing complexity.

  18. Observation and mitigation of ion trapping in Indus-2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saroj Jena; A D Ghodke

    2015-12-01

    The presence of trapped ions in electron storage rings causes considerable degradation in the performances of the beam, such as increase in beam size, reduction in beam lifetime, shifting of betatron tune, beam instabilities etc. This paper discusses the effects of ion trapping and its mitigation in Indus-2 electron storage ring. Ion-induced instability generating partial beam loss is one of the main barriers in higher beam current accumulation in any electron storage ring. Though there are several techniques to clear the ions from the electron beam path, in Indus-2, it is addressed mainly by filling the storage ring in partial bunch filling pattern. In order to improve the electron beam performance and to mitigate the ion-related problem, a suitable bunch filling pattern has been determined. The theoretical prediction and the result of optimal bunch filling pattern are presented in this paper.

  19. Precision measurements in ion traps using slowly moving standing waves

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, A; Singer, K; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes the experimental implementation of a measuring technique employing a slowly moving, near resonant, optical standing wave in the context of trapped ions. It is used to measure several figures of merit that are important for quantum computation in ion traps and which are otherwise not easily obtainable. Our technique is shown to offer high precision, and also in many cases using a much simpler setup than what is normally used. We demonstrate here measurements of i) the distance between two crystalline ions, ii) the Lamb-Dicke parameter, iii) temperature of the ion crystal, and iv) the interferometric stability of a Raman setup. The exact distance between two ions, in units of standing wave periods, is very important for motional entangling gates, and our method offers a practical way of calibrating this distance in the typical lab situation.

  20. Scheme for teleportation of unknown states of trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Mei-Feng; Ma Song-She

    2008-01-01

    A scheme is presented for teleporting an unknown state in a trapped ion system.The scheme only requires a single laser beam.It allows the trap to be in any state with a few phonons,e.g.a thermal motion.Furthermore,it works in the regime,where the Rabi frequency of the laser is on the order of the trap frequency.Thus,the teleportation speed is greatly increased,which is important for decreasing the decoherence effect.This idea can also be used to teleport an unknown ionic entangled state.

  1. Online spectroscopy of trapped short-lived radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J.E. van den; Giri, G.S.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Hoekman, S.M.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Nunez-Portela, M.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Prinsen, E.B.; Sahoo, B.K.; Santra, B.; Sohani, M.; Shidling, P.D.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-07-01

    Radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Atomic Parity Non-Conservation (APNC) can be measured in a single trapped Ra{sup +}. This enables a precise measurement of the electroweak mixing angle (Weinberg angle) in the Standard Model of particle physics at the lowest possible momentum transfer. Ultra-narrow transitions in this system can also be exploited to realize a high stability frequency standard. As an important step towards such high precision experiments, excited-state laser spectroscopy has been performed with trapped short-lived {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +} ions. The results on hyperfine structures, isotope shifts and lifetimes are important input for the required atomic theory, the precision of which is indispensable to extract the Weinberg angle. The experimental set up for laser cooling and trapping a single radium ion is underway.

  2. Entangling quantum gate in trapped ions via Rydberg blockade

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Weibin

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the implementation of an entangling quantum gate between two trapped Ca$^+$ ions which is based on the dipolar interaction among ionic Rydberg states. In trapped ions the Rydberg excitation dynamics is usually strongly affected by mechanical forces due to the strong couplings between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in inhomogeneous electric fields. We demonstrate that this harmful effect can be overcome by using dressed states that emerge from the microwave coupling of nearby Rydberg states. At the same time these dressed states exhibit long range dipolar interactions which we use to implement a controlled adiabatic phase gate. Our study highlights a route towards a trapped ion quantum processor in which quantum gates are realized independently of the vibrational modes.

  3. Ion-Trapping Effect in UVSOR Storage Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Toshio; Yonehara, Hiroto; Kinoshita, Toshio; Hasumoto, Masami

    1985-09-01

    UVSOR is an electron-stage ring dedicated to vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation research. The first beam was stored in the ring in November 1983, and from that time on, efforts have been devoted to improving the performance of the ring. Some inconvenient phenomena have been found during the accelerator studies. One of the most serious problems is the growth of the vertical size of the electron beam. This phenomenon is explained by the ion-trapping effect, in which the ions trapped in the electron beam change the operating point of the storage ring and enhance the coupling between horizontal and vertical oscillations, resulting in a considerable increase in the vertical beam size. This ion trapping was successfully cured by the RF knockout method, which excited the betatron oscillation.

  4. Scalable Digital Hardware for a Trapped Ion Quantum Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Mount, Emily; Vrijsen, Geert; Adams, Michael; Baek, So-Young; Hudek, Kai; Isabella, Louis; Crain, Stephen; van Rynbach, Andre; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2015-01-01

    Many of the challenges of scaling quantum computer hardware lie at the interface between the qubits and the classical control signals used to manipulate them. Modular ion trap quantum computer architectures address scalability by constructing individual quantum processors interconnected via a network of quantum communication channels. Successful operation of such quantum hardware requires a fully programmable classical control system capable of frequency stabilizing the continuous wave lasers necessary for trapping and cooling the ion qubits, stabilizing the optical frequency combs used to drive logic gate operations on the ion qubits, providing a large number of analog voltage sources to drive the trap electrodes, and a scheme for maintaining phase coherence among all the controllers that manipulate the qubits. In this work, we describe scalable solutions to these hardware development challenges.

  5. Single Ion Trapping for the Enriched Xenon Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, Samuel J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-03-28

    In the last decade, a variety of neutrino oscillation experiments have established that there is a mass difference between neutrino flavors, without determining the absolute neutrino mass scale. The Enriched Xenon Observatory for neutrinoless double beta decay (EXO) will search for the rare decays of xenon to determine the absolute value of the neutrino mass. The experiment uses a novel technique to minimize backgrounds, identifying the decay daughter product in real time using single ion spectroscopy. Here, we describe single ion trapping and spectroscopy compatible with the EXO detector. We extend the technique of single ion trapping in ultrahigh vacuum to trapping in xenon gas. With this technique, EXO will achieve a neutrino mass sensitivity of {approx_equal} .010 eV.

  6. Ion trap with integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Christian; Yu, Peter; Hudson, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported an ion trap experiment with an integrated time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) [Phys. Rev. Appl. 2, 034013 (2014)] focussing on the improvement of mass resolution and detection limit due to sample preparation at millikelvin temperatures. The system utilizes a radio-frequency (RF) ion trap with asymmetric drive for storing and manipulating laser-cooled ions and features radial extraction into a compact $275$ mm long TOF drift tube. The mass resolution exceeds $m / \\Delta m = 500$, which provides isotopic resolution over the whole mass range of interest in current experiments and constitutes an improvement of almost an order of magnitude over other implementations. In this manuscript, we discuss the experimental implementation in detail, which is comprised of newly developed drive electronics for generating the required voltages to operate RF trap and TOFMS, as well as control electronics for regulating RF outputs and synchronizing the TOFMS extraction.

  7. Laser ablation loading of a radiofrequency ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, K; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Peik, E

    2012-01-01

    The production of ions via laser ablation for the loading of radiofrequency (RF) ion traps is investigated using a nitrogen laser with a maximum pulse energy of 0.17 mJ and a peak intensity of about 250 MW/cm^2. A time-of-flight mass spectrometer is used to measure the ion yield and the distribution of the charge states. Singly charged ions of elements that are presently considered for the use in optical clocks or quantum logic applications could be produced from metallic samples at a rate of the order of magnitude 10^5 ions per pulse. A linear Paul trap was loaded with Th+ ions produced by laser ablation. An overall ion production and trapping efficiency of 10^-7 to 10^-6 was attained. For ions injected individually, a dependence of the capture probability on the phase of the RF field has been predicted. In the experiment this was not observed, presumably because of collective effects within the ablation plume.

  8. Implementation of Ion/Ion Reactions in a Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Chrisman, Paul A.; Erickson, David E.; Liu, Jian; Liang, Xiaorong; Londry, Frank A.; Yang, Min J.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    A commercial quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) tandem mass spectrometer has been adapted for ion/ion reaction studies. To enable mutual storage of oppositely charged ions in a linear ion trap, the oscillating quadrupole field of the second quadrupole of the system (Q2) serves to store ions in the radial dimension while auxiliary RF is superposed on the end lenses of Q2 during the reaction period to create barriers in the axial dimension. A pulsed dual electrospray (ESI) source is directly coupled to the instrument interface for the purpose of proton transfer reactions. Singly and doubly charged protein ions as high in mass as 66 kDa are readily formed and observed after proton transfer reactions. For the modified instrument, the mass resolving power is about 8000 for a wide m/z range and the mass accuracy is ~20 ppm for external calibration and ~5 ppm for internal calibration after ion/ion reactions. Parallel ion parking is demonstrated with a six-component protein mixture, which shows the potential application of reducing spectral complexity and concentrating certain charge states. The current system has high flexibility with respect to defining MSn experiments involving collision-induced dissociation (CID) and ion/ion reactions. Protein precursor and CID product masses can be determined with good accuracy, providing an attractive platform for top-down proteomics. Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) ion/ion reactions are implemented by using a pulsed nano-ESI/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) dual source for ionization. The reaction between protonated peptide ions and radical anions of 1,3-dinitrobenzene formed exclusively c- and z- type fragment ions. PMID:16771545

  9. The uses of electron beam ion traps in the study of highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, D.

    1994-11-02

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) is a relatively new tool for the study of highly charged ions. Its development has led to a variety of new experimental opportunities; measurements have been performed with EBITs using techniques impossible with conventional ion sources or storage rings. In this paper, I will highlight the various experimental techniques we have developed and the results we have obtained using the EBIT and higher-energy Super-EBIT built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The EBIT employs a high-current-density electron beam to trap, ionize, and excite a population of ions. The ions can be studied in situ or extracted from the trap for external experiments. The trapped ions form an ionization-state equilibrium determined by the relative ionization and recombination rates. Ions of several different elements may simultaneously be present in the trap. The ions are nearly at rest, and, for most systems, all in their ground-state configurations. The electron-ion interaction energy has a narrow distribution and can be varied over a wide range. We have used the EBIT devices for the measurement of electron-ion interactions, ion structure, ion-surface interactions, and the behavior of low-density plasmas.

  10. Decoherence of superposition states in trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the decoherence of superpositions of hyperfine states of 9Be+ ions due to spontaneous scattering of off-resonant light. It was found that, contrary to conventional wisdom, elastic Raleigh scattering can have major...

  11. A quadrupole ion trap as low-energy cluster ion beam source

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, N; Kanayama, T

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic energy distribution of ion beams was measured by a retarding field energy analyzer for a mass-selective cluster ion beam deposition system that uses a quadrupole ion trap as a cluster ion beam source. The results indicated that the system delivers a cluster-ion beam with energy distribution of approx 2 eV, which corresponded well to the calculation results of the trapping potentials in the ion trap. Using this deposition system, mass-selected hydrogenated Si cluster ions Si sub n H sub x sup + were actually deposited on Si(111)-(7x7) surfaces at impact kinetic energy E sub d of 3-30 eV. Observation by using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) demonstrated that Si sub 6 H sub x sup + cluster ions landed on the surface without decomposition at E sub d =3 eV, while the deposition was destructive at E sub d>=18 eV. (author)

  12. Franck-Condon Physics in a Single Trapped Ion

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Y M; Xu, Y Y; Zhou, F; Chen, L; Gao, Kelin; Feng, Mang; Lee, Chaohong

    2010-01-01

    We explore the Franck-Condon physics in a single ion confined in a spin-dependent potential, formed by the combination of a Paul trap and a gradient magnetic field. The correlation between electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom called as electron-vibron coupling is induced by a nonzero gradient. The strong electron-vibron coupling could be employed to suppress or even block some quantum vibrational transitions of the trapped ion. This collective phenomenon is known as the Franck-Condon blockade. Furthermore, we propose how to apply the ionic Franck-Condon physics for quantum logic operation, preparation of motional Fock state and sideband cooling.

  13. Disordered complex systems using cold gases and trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    De, A S; Lewenstein, M; Ahufinger, V; Pons, M L; Sanpera, A; De, Aditi Sen; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej; Ahufinger, Veronica; Pons, Marisa Ll.; Sanpera, Anna

    2005-01-01

    We report our research on disordered complex systems using cold gases and trapped ions, and address the possibility of using complex systems for quantum information processing. Two simple paradigmatic models of disordered complex systems are revisited here. The first one corresponds to a short range disordered Ising Hamiltonian (spin glasses), which can be implemented with a Bose-Fermi (Bose-Bose) mixture in a disordered optical lattice. The second model we address here is a long range disordered Hamiltonian, characteristic of neural networks (Hopfield model), which can be implemented in a chain of trapped ions with appropriately designed interactions.

  14. Trapping ions from a fast beam in a radio-frequency ion trap: The relaxation of the ion cloud and its resulting column density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Annette; Nielsen, Kristian M. E.; Pedersen, Henrik B.

    2014-06-01

    The relaxation of trapped Cl2- ions and their resulting column density in a multipole radio-frequency (RF) ion trap have been investigated after loading the trap from an initial fast-moving beam exploiting a mechanism described recently [A. Svendsen et al., Phys. Rev. A 87, 043410 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.043410] where the injection is mediated through the exchange of energy between ions and the oscillating RF field. The temporal relaxation of the energy distribution of the trapped ion cloud was probed by observing the evolution of the resulting time-of-flight distribution of ions after extraction and fragment mass analysis in a quadrupole mass filter. The ion energy distribution was found to be essentially stationary after ˜20 ms. The resulting column density of trapped ions after relaxation was probed by two-dimensional position-resolved photodissociation of the trapped Cl2- ions. A detailed statistical analysis of the ion column density in the ring-electrode trap is given, and by comparison to the experimental data, a value of the maximum adiabaticity parameter of ηmax≃0.28 is inferred. It is further demonstrated how the present experimental system allows for time-resolved mass spectrometry by probing explicitly the populations of both parent (Cl2-) and daughter (Cl-) ions as a function of time after closing the trap and after laser irradiation. Finally, it is discussed how the setup can be used to obtain absolute photodissociation cross sections via a tomographic method without assumptions on the decay law for the trapped ions.

  15. Cooling of highly charged ions in a Penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, L

    2000-03-31

    Highly charged ions are extracted from an electron beam ion trap and guided to Retrap, a cryogenic Penning trap, where they are merged with laser cooled Be{sup +} ions. The Be{sup +} ions act as a coolant for the hot highly charged ions and their temperature is dropped by about 8 orders of magnitude in a few seconds. Such cold highly charged ions form a strongly coupled nonneutral plasma exhibiting, under such conditions, the aggregation of clusters and crystals. Given the right mixture, these plasmas can be studied as analogues of high density plasmas like white dwarf interiors, and potentially can lead to the development of cold highly charged ion beams for applications in nanotechnology. Due to the virtually non existent Doppler broadening, spectroscopy on highly charged ions can be performed to an unprecedented precision. The density and the temperature of the Be{sup +} plasma were measured and highly charged ions were sympathetically cooled to similar temperatures. Molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the shape, temperature and density of the highly charged ions. Ordered structures were observed in the simulations.

  16. Radiation-reaction trapping of electrons in extreme laser fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Pukhov, A; Kostyukov, I Yu; Shen, B F; Akli, K

    2014-04-11

    A radiation-reaction trapping (RRT) of electrons is revealed in the near-QED regime of laser-plasma interaction. Electrons quivering in laser pulse experience radiation reaction (RR) recoil force by radiating photons. When the laser field reaches the threshold, the RR force becomes significant enough to compensate for the expelling laser ponderomotive force. Then electrons are trapped inside the laser pulse instead of being scattered off transversely and form a dense plasma bunch. The mechanism is demonstrated both by full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using the QED photonic approach and numerical test-particle modeling based on the classical Landau-Lifshitz formula of RR force. Furthermore, the proposed analysis shows that the threshold of laser field amplitude for RRT is approximately the cubic root of laser wavelength over classical electron radius. Because of the pinching effect of the trapped electron bunch, the required laser intensity for RRT can be further reduced.

  17. Exact Quantum Logic Gates with a Single Trapped Cold Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦联福; 刘世勇; 雷啸霖

    2001-01-01

    We present an alternative scheme to exactly implement one-qubit and two-qubit quantum gates with a single trapped cold ion driven by a travelling laser field. The internal degree of freedom of the ion acts as the target qubit and the control qubit is encoded by two Fock states of the external vibration of the ion. The conditions to realize these operations, including the duration of each applied laser pulse and Lamb-Dicke parameter, are derived. In our scheme neither the auxiliary atomic level nor the Lamb-Dicke approximation is required. The multiquantum transition between the internal and external degrees of freedom of the ion is considered.

  18. Linear ion trap imperfection and the compensation of excess micromotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Yi; Wan Wei; Zhou Fei; Chen Liang; Li Chao-Hong; Feng Mang

    2012-01-01

    Quantum computing requires ultracold ions in a ground vibrational state,which is achieved by sideband cooling.We report our recent efforts towards the Lamb-Dicke regime which is a prerequisite of sideband cooling.We first analyse the possible imperfection in our linear ion trap setup and then demonstrate how to suppress the imperfection by compensating the excess micromotion of the ions.The ions,after the micromotion compensation,are estimated to be very close to the Doppler-cooling limit.

  19. A quantum parametric oscillator with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Shiqian; Hablutzel, Roland; Loh, Huanqian; Matsukevich, Dzmitry

    2015-01-01

    A system of harmonic oscillators coupled via nonlinear interaction is a fundamental model in many branches of physics, from biophysics to electronics and condensed matter physics. In quantum optics, weak nonlinear interaction between light modes has enabled, for example, the preparation of squeezed states of light and generation of entangled photon pairs. While strong nonlinear interaction between the modes has been realized in circuit QED systems, achieving significant interaction strength on the level of single quanta in other physical systems remains a challenge. Here we experimentally demonstrate such interaction that is equivalent to photon up- and down-conversion using normal modes of motion in a system of two Yb ions. The nonlinearity is induced by the intrinsic anharmonicity of the Coulomb interaction between the ions and can be used to simulate fully quantum operation of a degenerate optical parametric oscillator. We exploit this interaction to directly measure the parity and Wigner functions of ion ...

  20. Two-photon interaction between trapped ions and cavity fields

    CERN Document Server

    Semião, F L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the ordinary two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model (TPJCM) by considering the atom (or ion) to be trapped in a simple harmonic well. A typical setup would be an optical cavity containing a single ion in a Paul trap. Due to the inclusion of atomic vibrational motion, the atom-field coupling becomes highly nonlinear what brings out quite different behaviors for the system dynamics when compared to the ordinary TPJCM. In particular, we derive an effective two-photon Hamiltonian with dependence on the number operator of the ion's center-of-mass motion. This dependence occurs both in the cavity induced Stark-shifs and in the ion-field coupling, and its role in the dynamics is illustrated by showing the time evolution of the probability of occupation of the electronic levels for simple initial preparations of the state of the system.

  1. Quantum Reservoir Engineering with Laser Cooled Trapped Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyatos, J.; Cirac, J.I.; Zoller, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-12-01

    We show how to design different couplings between a single ion trapped in a harmonic potential and an environment. The coupling is due to the absorption of a laser photon and subsequent spontaneous emission. The variation of the laser frequencies and intensities allows one to {open_quote}{open_quote}engineer{close_quote}{close_quote} the coupling and select the master equation describing the motion of the ion. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. A System for Trapping Barium Ions in a Microfabricated Surface Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zichao; Wright, John; Graham, Richard; Sakrejda, Tomasz; Chen, Bing; Blinov, Boris; Musiqc Team

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a vacuum chamber and control system for rapid testing and development of microfabricated surface traps. Barium ions have been successfully cooled and trapped in this system. The dark lifetime of a single 138Ba + in this trap is up to 30s. And we can shuttle of ions at rate of 8 cm/s between different potential zones. Our system uses a modular design and is based on an in-vacuum PCB with integrated filters. Control of up to 96 DC electrodes is achieved with an update rate of 20 kHz using a custom FPGA based control system. Collection of fluorescence light over a numerical aperture of 0.28 has been achieved. This work is supported by IAPRA.

  3. Cluster observations of trapped ions interacting with magnetosheath mirror modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soucek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mirror modes are among the most intense low frequency plasma wave phenomena observed in the magnetosheaths of magnetized planets. They appear as large amplitude non-propagating fluctuations in the magnetic field magnitude and plasma density. These structures are widely accepted to represent a non-linear stage of the mirror instability, dominant in plasmas with large ion beta and a significant ion temperature anisotropy T/T>1. It has long been recognized that the mirror instability both in the linear and non-linear stage is a kinetic process and that the behavior of resonant particles at small parallel velocities is crucial for its development and saturation. While the dynamics of the instability and the effect of trapped particles have been studied extensively in theoretical models and numerical simulations, only spurious observations of the trapped ions were published to date. In this work we used data from the Cluster spacecraft to perform the first detailed experimental study of ion velocity distribution associated with mirror mode oscillations. We show a conclusive evidence for the predicted cooling of resonant ions at small parallel velocities and heating of trapped ions at intermediate pitch angles.

  4. Enabling Technologies for Scalable Trapped Ion Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Gaultney, Daniel; Mount, Emily; Knoernschild, Caleb; Baek, Soyoung; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-05-01

    Scalability is one of the main challenges of trapped ion based quantum computation, mainly limited by the lack of enabling technologies needed to trap, manipulate and process the increasing number of qubits. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology allows one to design movable micromirrors to focus laser beams on individual ions in a chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Our current MEMS system is designed to steer 355 nm pulsed laser beams to carry out logic gates on a chain of Yb ions with a waist of 1.5 μm across a 20 μm range. In order to read the state of the qubit chain we developed a 32-channel PMT with a custom read-out circuit operating near the thermal noise limit of the readout amplifier which increases state detection fidelity. We also developed a set of digital to analog converters (DACs) used to supply analog DC voltages to the electrodes of an ion trap. We designed asynchronous DACs to avoid added noise injection at the update rate commonly found in synchronous DACs. Effective noise filtering is expected to reduce the heating rate of a surface trap, thus improving multi-qubit logic gate fidelities. Our DAC system features 96 channels and an integrated FPGA that allows the system to be controlled in real time. This work was supported by IARPA/ARO.

  5. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  6. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2016-11-15

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  7. Atomic parity violation in a single trapped radium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, O. O., E-mail: versolato@kvi.nl; Wansbeek, L. W.; Giri, G. S.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W. [University of Groningen, Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (Netherlands)

    2011-07-15

    Atomic parity violation (APV) experiments are sensitive probes of the electroweak interaction at low energy. These experiments are competitive with and complementary to high-energy collider experiments. The APV signal is strongly enhanced in heavy atoms and it is measurable by exciting suppressed (M1, E2) transitions. The status of APV experiments and theory are reviewed as well as the prospects of an APV experiment using one single trapped Ra{sup + } ion. The predicted enhancement factor of the APV effect in Ra{sup + } is about 50 times larger than in Cs atoms. However, certain spectroscopic information on Ra{sup + } needed to constrain the required atomic many-body theory, was lacking. Using the AGOR cyclotron and the TRI{mu}P facility at KVI in Groningen, short-lived {sup 212 - 214}Ra{sup + } ions were produced and trapped. First ever excited-state laser spectroscopy was performed on the trapped ions. These measurements provide a benchmark for the atomic theory required to extract the electroweak mixing angle to sub-1% accuracy and are an important step towards an APV experiment in a single trapped Ra{sup + } ion.

  8. A new ion mobility-linear ion trap instrument for complex mixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Maleki, Hossein; Arndt, James R; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Yi, Jinghai; McBride, Carroll; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Valentine, Stephen J

    2014-08-19

    A new instrument that couples a low-pressure drift tube with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer is demonstrated for complex mixture analysis. The combination of the low-pressure separation with the ion trapping capabilities provides several benefits for complex mixture analysis. These include high sensitivity, unique ion fragmentation capabilities, and high reproducibility. Even though the gas-phase separation and the mass measurement steps are each conducted in an ion filtering mode, detection limits for mobility-selected peptide ions are in the tens of attomole range. In addition to ion separation, the low-pressure drift tube can be used as an ion fragmentation cell yielding mobility-resolved fragment ions that can be subsequently analyzed by multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) methods in the ion trap. Because of the ion trap configuration, these methods can be comprised of any number (limited by ion signal) of collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) processes. The high reproducibility of the gas-phase separation allows for comparison of two-dimensional ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS data sets in a pixel-by-pixel fashion without the need for data set alignment. These advantages are presented in model analyses representing mixtures encountered in proteomics and metabolomics experiments.

  9. Mass spectra of benzaldehyde using time resolved ion trapping mass spectrometer. Jikan bunkai ion trapping shitsuryo bunsekikei ni yoru benzaldehyde no mass spector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigane, M.; Isa, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Education); Nishioka, K. (Fukui Univ., Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-12-28

    An ion trapping mass spectrometer for time resolved analysis has been set up. The time resolved analysis function of this system is excellent and the ion detecting sensitivity is also high. Benzaldehyde is used as the specimen for the measurement of the A group of the mass spectra (m/z 105 106 and 107) by this system and similar mass spectra are obtained at delay time zero to those reported by now. Big changes are observed in the spectra when the delay times are varied. It is found that mass spectra which are different from those reported already are obtained when the mass spectrometer is pulse operated. In other words it can be said that the time dependence of the data on ion decomposition ( fragmentation) and ion/molecule reactions can be obtained in the state where solvent has no influence if this new system is adopted. 6 refs. 12 figs.

  10. Quantum Energy Teleportation with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    We analyze a protocol of quantum energy teleportation that transports energy from the left edge of a linear ion crystal to the right edge by local operations and classical communication at a speed much higher than the speed of the phonon in the crystal. A probe qubit is strongly coupled with the phonon fluctuation in the ground state during short time and is projectively measured in order to get information about this phonon fluctuation. During the measurement process, phonons are excited by the time-dependent measurement interaction and energy of the excited phonons must be infused from outside the system. The obtained information is announced to the right edge of the crystal through a classical channel. Even though the phonons excited at the left edge do not arrive at the right edge yet when the information arrives at the right edge, we are able to soon extract energy from the ion at the right edge by using the announced information. Because the intermediate ions of the crystal are not excited during the ex...

  11. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, M; Versolato, O O; Windberger, A; Brunner, F R; Ballance, T; Eberle, S N; Ullrich, J; Schmidt, P O; Hansen, A K; Gingell, A D; Drewsen, M; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo

    2012-08-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H(2) partial pressure of about 10(-15) mbar (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been set up to provide cold Be(+) ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions.

  12. Rapid crystallization of externally produced ions in a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Murboeck, T; Birkl, G; Noertershaeuser, W; Thompson, R C; Vogel, M

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the cooling dynamics, formation process and geometric structure of mesoscopic crystals of externally produced magnesium ions in a Penning trap. We present a cooling model and measurements for a combination of buffer gas cooling and laser cooling which has been found to reduce the ion kinetic energy by eight orders of magnitude from several hundreds of eV to micro-eV and below within seconds. With ion numbers of the order of 1000 to 100000, such cooling leads to the formation of ion Coulomb crystals which display a characteristic shell structure in agreement with theory of non-neutral plasmas. We show the production and characterization of two-species ion crystals as a means of sympathetic cooling of ions lacking a suitable laser-cooling transition.

  13. Cryogenic linear Paul trap for cold highly charged ion experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Maria; Versolato, Oscar; Windberger, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Storage and cooling of highly charged ions require ultra-high vacuum levels obtainable by means of cryogenic methods. We have developed a linear Paul trap operating at 4 K capable of very long ion storage times of about 30 h. A conservative upper bound of the H2 partial pressure of about 10−15 mbar...... (at 4 K) is obtained from this. External ion injection is possible and optimized optical access for lasers is provided, while exposure to black body radiation is minimized. First results of its operation with atomic and molecular ions are presented. An all-solid state laser system at 313 nm has been...... set up to provide cold Be+ ions for sympathetic cooling of highly charged ions....

  14. Phonon-Mediated Detection of Trapped Atomic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, David; Rosenband, Till; Wineland, David

    2008-03-01

    Both quantum information processing and quantum-limited metrology require sensitive detection of quantum states. Using trapped atomic ions, we investigate quantum non-demolition measurements in a two-species ion chain composed of Al^+ and Be^+. By mapping information from Al^+ to a shared phonon-mode then to Be^+ and detecting repetitively we have experimentally demonstrated a fidelity for state initialization and detection of 0.9994. We have also shown an increase in measurement efficiency through an adaptive procedure. Here we apply these ideas to the detection of states of multiple Al^+ using a single Be^+ ion, and describe the preparation of entangled states through measurement.

  15. Trapped ions in optical lattices for probing oscillator chain models

    CERN Document Server

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned; Talukdar, Ishan; Kreuter, Axel; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    We show that a chain of trapped ions embedded in microtraps generated by an optical lattice can be used to study oscillator models related to dry friction and energy transport. Numerical calculations with realistic experimental parameters demonstrate that both static and dynamic properties of the ion chain change significantly as the optical lattice power is varied. Finally, we lay out an experimental scheme to use the spin degree of freedom to probe the phase space structure and quantum critical behavior of the ion chain.

  16. Scalable digital hardware for a trapped ion quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Emily; Gaultney, Daniel; Vrijsen, Geert; Adams, Michael; Baek, So-Young; Hudek, Kai; Isabella, Louis; Crain, Stephen; van Rynbach, Andre; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2016-12-01

    Many of the challenges of scaling quantum computer hardware lie at the interface between the qubits and the classical control signals used to manipulate them. Modular ion trap quantum computer architectures address scalability by constructing individual quantum processors interconnected via a network of quantum communication channels. Successful operation of such quantum hardware requires a fully programmable classical control system capable of frequency stabilizing the continuous wave lasers necessary for loading, cooling, initialization, and detection of the ion qubits, stabilizing the optical frequency combs used to drive logic gate operations on the ion qubits, providing a large number of analog voltage sources to drive the trap electrodes, and a scheme for maintaining phase coherence among all the controllers that manipulate the qubits. In this work, we describe scalable solutions to these hardware development challenges.

  17. Optimization of parameters of a surface-electrode ion trap and experimental study of influences of surface on ion lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, BaoQuan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, XinFang; Xie, Yi; Chen, Ting; Wu, ChunWang; Wu, Wei; Chen, PingXing

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report the optimal design and fabrication of a gold-on-silica linear segmented surface-electrode ion trap. By optimizing the thickness and width of the electrodes, we improved the trapping ability and trap scalability. By using some practical experimental operation methods, we successfully minimized the trap heating rate. Consequently, we could trap a string of up to 38 ions, and a zigzag structure with 24 ions, and transport two trapped ions to different zones. We also studied the influences of the ion chip surface on the ion lifetime. The excellent trapping ability and flexibility of operation of the planar ion trap shows that it has high feasibility for application in the development a practical quantum information processor or quantum simulator.

  18. Analysis of VX on soil particles using ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, G S; Appelhans, A D; Gresham, G L; Olson, J E; Jeffery, M; Wright, J B

    1999-07-01

    The direct detection of the nerve agent VX (methylphosphonothioic acid, S-[2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl] O-ethyl ester) on milligram quantities of soil particles has been achieved using ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometry (IT-SIMS). VX is highly adsorptive toward a wide variety of surfaces; this attribute makes detection using gas-phase approaches difficult but renders the compound very amenable to surface detection. An ion trap mass spectrometer, modified to perform SIMS, was employed in the present study. A primary ion beam (ReO4-) was fired on axis through the ion trap, where it impacted the soil particle samples. [VX + H]+, [VX + H]+ fragment ions, and ions from the chemical background were sputtered into the gas-phase environment of the ion trap, where they were either scanned out or isolated and fragmented (MS2). At a surface concentration of 0.4 monolayer, intact [VX + H]+, and its fragment ions, were readily observable above background. However, at lower concentrations, the secondary ion signal from VX became obscured by ions derived from the chemical background on the surface of the soil particles. MS2 analysis using the ion trap was employed to improve detection of lower concentrations of VX: detection of the 34S isotopic ion of [VX + H]+, present at a surface concentration of approximately 0.002 monolayer, was accomplished. The study afforded the opportunity to investigate the fragmentation chemistry of VX. Semiempirical calculations suggest strongly that the molecule is protonated at the N atom. Deuterium labeling showed that formation of the base peak ion (C2H4)N(i-C3H7)2+ involves transfer of the amino proton to the phosphonothioate moiety prior to, or concurrent with, C-S bond cleavage. To manage the risk associated with working with the compound, the vacuum unit of the IT-SIMS was located in a hood, connected by cables to the externally located electronics and computer.

  19. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  20. Photoionization and Photoelectric Loading of Barium Ion Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, A V; Churchill, L R; Griffin, P F

    2007-01-01

    Simple and effective techniques for loading barium ions into linear Paul traps are demonstrated. Two-step photoionization of neutral barium is achieved using a weak intercombination line (6s2 1S0 6s6p 3P1, 791 nm) followed by excitation above the ionization threshold using a nitrogen gas laser (337 nm). Isotopic selectivity is achieved by using a near Doppler-free geometry for excitation of the triplet 6s6p 3P1 state. Additionally, we report a particularly simple and efficient trap loading technique that employs an in-expensive UV epoxy curing lamp to generate photoelectrons.

  1. Surface Planar Ion Chip for Linear Radio-Frequency Paul Traps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Jin-Yin; QU Qiu-Zhi; ZHOU Zi-Chao; LI Xiao-Lin; WANG Yu-Zhu; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    We propose a surface planar ion chip which forms a linear radio frequency Paul ion trap. The electrodes reside in the two planes of a chip, and the trap axis is located above the chip surface. Its electric field and potential distribution are similar to the standard linear radio frequency Paul ion trap. This ion trap geometry may be greatly meaningful for quantum information processing.

  2. Spectral measurements of few-electron uranium ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1994-11-04

    Measurements of 2s{sub l/2}-2p{sub 3/2} electric dipole and 2p{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in U{sup 82+} through U{sup 89+} have been made with a high-resolution crystal spectrometer that recorded the line radiation from stationary ions produced and trapped in a high-energy electron beam ion trap. From the measurements we infer {minus}39.21 {plus_minus} 0.23 eV for the QED contribution to the 2s{sub 1/2}-2p{sub 3/2} transition energy of lithiumlike U{sup 89+}. A comparison between our measurements and various computations illustrates the need for continued improvements in theoretical approaches for calculating the atomic structure of ions with two or more electrons in the L shell.

  3. High-precision experiments on a single trapped radium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boell, O.; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Timmermans, R.G.E.; Versolato, O.O.; Wansbeek, L.W.; Willmann, L. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    A single, trapped radium ion is an ideal candidate for high precision experiments. Two Ra{sup +} experiments are under construction at KVI. Ultra-narrow transitions in radium ions provide an excellent basis for an all-optical, high-stability frequency standard, i.e. a clock. The off-the-shelf availability of semiconductor lasers for all necessary transitions is highly advantageous. In certain odd isotopes of radium, the nuclear electric quadrupole shift is absent. The same system and experimental hardware will be used to search for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics by measuring Atomic Parity Violation. This will serve as a low-energy test of the running of the electroweak mixing angle. Recent calculations have shown Ra{sup +} to be the superior candidate. Recently we have succeeded in the production and efficient slowing down of isotopes around {sup 213}Ra at the AGOR cyclotron and the TRI{mu}P facility of KVI. Progress has been made in the development of ion traps and in the laser set-up in a dedicated laser laboratory. Laser spectroscopy of the radium ion and the first ever trapping of this particle are planned in the near future.

  4. Integrated System Technologies for Modular Trapped Ion Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen G.

    Although trapped ion technology is well-suited for quantum information science, scalability of the system remains one of the main challenges. One of the challenges associated with scaling the ion trap quantum computer is the ability to individually manipulate the increasing number of qubits. Using micro-mirrors fabricated with micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, laser beams are focused on individual ions in a linear chain and steer the focal point in two dimensions. Multiple single qubit gates are demonstrated on trapped 171Yb+ qubits and the gate performance is characterized using quantum state tomography. The system features negligible crosstalk to neighboring ions (system photon collection efficiency is increased from 2.2% to 3.4%, which allows for fast state detection of the qubit. For a detection beam intensity of 11 mW/cm 2, the average detection time is 23.7 mus with 99.885(7)% detection fidelity. The technologies demonstrated in this thesis can be integrated to form a single quantum register with all of the necessary resources to perform local gates as well as high fidelity readout and provide a photon link to other systems.

  5. Miniaturized Sources and Traps for Spectroscopy of Multicharged Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph; Guise, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Penning traps made extremely compact (earth (NdFeB) magnets have been used recently to isolate highly charged ions (HCI) for spectroscopy. For example, radiative lifetimes of metastable states are measured by observing the visible fluorescence emitted by isolated Ar XIV (441 nm, 2p 2P3/2 --> 2p 2P1/2) and Kr XVIII (637 nm, 3d 2D3/2 --> 3d 2D1/2) . These measurements use HCIs extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at NIST. For planned experiments, a new apparatus is being developed which will incorporate a ``mini-EBIT'' source using similar permanent-magnet structures. It combines a mini-EBIT and a compact Penning trap to facilitate production of multicharged ions including bare nuclei with nuclear charge in the range Z =1 to Z =10, in a cryogen-free setup with multiple ports for laser and atomic beam access to the isolated HCI. One goal is to produce one-electron ions in Rydberg states with transitions accessible to an optical frequency comb. Such engineered atomic systems are sought to enable tests of theory that could illuminate the proton radius puzzle. J.N. Tan, S.M. Brewer, and N.D. Guise, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 023103 (2012).

  6. Cryogenic Linear Ion Trap for Large-Scale Quantum Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Guido; Hess, Paul; Kaplan, Harvey; Birckelbaw, Eric; Hernanez, Micah; Lee, Aaron; Smith, Jake; Zhang, Jiehang; Monroe, Christopher

    2016-05-01

    Ions confined in RF Paul traps are a useful tool for quantum simulation of long-range spin-spin interaction models. As the system size increases, classical simulation methods become incapable of modeling the exponentially growing Hilbert space, necessitating quantum simulation for precise predictions. Current experiments are limited to less than 30 qubits due to collisions with background gas that regularly destroys the ion crystal. We present progress toward the construction of a cryogenic ion trap apparatus, which uses differential cryopumping to reduce vacuum pressure to a level where collisions do not occur. This should allow robust trapping of about 100 ions/qubits in a single chain with long lifetimes. Such a long chain will provide a platform to investigate simultaneously cooling of various vibrational modes and will enable quantum simulations that outperform their classical counterpart. Our apparatus will provide a powerful test-bed to investigate a large variety of Hamiltonians, including spin 1 and spin 1/2 systems with Ising or XY interactions. This work is supported by the ARO Atomic Physics Program, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Measurement and Verification, the IC Fellowship Program and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.

  7. The kick-out mass selection technique for ions stored in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toker, Y; Altstein, N; Aviv, O; Rappaport, M L; Heber, O; Schwalm, D; Strasser, D; Zajfman, D [Department of Particle Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)], E-mail: jtoker@weizmann.ac.il

    2009-09-15

    A simple mass selection technique which allows one to clean a keV ion beam of undesirable masses while stored in an Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT) is described. The technique is based on the time-of-flight principle and takes advantage of the long storage times and self-bunching that are possible in this type of traps (self bunching being the effect that keeps ions of the same mass bunched in spite of their finite distributions of velocities and trajectories). As the oscillation period is proportional to the square root of the ion mass, bunches containing ions of different masses will separate in space with increasing storage time and can be kicked out by a pulsed deflector mounted inside the trap. A mass selector of this type has been implemented successfully in an EIBT connected to an Even-Lavie supersonic expansion source and is routinely used in ongoing cluster experiments.

  8. Infrared ion spectroscopy inside a mass-selective cryogenic 2D linear ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismesia, Adam P; Tesler, Larry F; Bell, Matthew R; Bailey, Laura S; Polfer, Nicolas C

    2017-07-27

    We demonstrate operation of the first cryogenic 2D linear ion trap (LIT) with mass-selective capabilities. This trap presents a number of advantages for infrared ion "action" spectroscopy studies, particularly those employing the "tagging/messenger" spectroscopy approach. The high trapping efficiencies, trapping capacities, and low detection limits make 2D LITs a highly suitable choice for low-concentration analytes from scarce biological samples. In our trap, ions can be cooled down to cryogenic temperatures to achieve higher-resolution infrared spectra, and individual ions can be mass selected prior to irradiation for a background-free photodissociation scheme. Conveniently, multiple tagged analyte ions can be mass isolated and efficiently irradiated in the same experiment, allowing their infrared spectra to be recorded in parallel. This multiplexed approach is critical in terms of increasing the duty cycle of infrared ion spectroscopy, which is currently a key weakness of the technique. The compact design of this instrument, coupled with powerful mass selection capabilities, set the stage for making cryogenic infrared ion spectroscopy viable as a bioanalytical tool in small molecule identification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Copper ion-exchanged channel waveguides optimization for optical trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshak, A H; Khor, K N; Shahimin, M M; Murad, S A Z

    2013-08-01

    Optical trapping of particles has become a powerful non-mechanical and non-destructive technique for precise particle positioning. The manipulation of particles in the evanescent field of a channel waveguide potentially allows for sorting and trapping of several particles and cells simultaneously. Channel waveguide designs can be further optimized to increase evanescent field prior to the fabrication process. This is crucial in order to make sure that the surface intensity is sufficient for optical trapping. Simulation configurations are explained in detail with specific simulation flow. Discussion on parameters optimization; physical geometry, optical polarization and wavelength is included in this paper. The effect of physical, optical parameters and beam spot size on evanescent field has been thoroughly discussed. These studies will continue toward the development of a novel copper ion-exchanged waveguide as a method of particle sorting, with biological cell propulsion studies presently underway.

  10. Non-destructive ion detection at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibach, Martin; Smorra, Christian [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Beyer, Thomas; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ketelaer, Jens; Knuth, Konstantin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Tests of nuclear mass models, studies of the nuclear structure of heavy elements and calculations of the astrophysical r-process require high precision atomic mass data. For this purpose the double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has recently been set up in order to explore the less-known neutron-rich area of the nuclide chart. Certain nuclides of interest are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoide target with low rates, in the order of a few nuclides per second or less. Thus, the implementation of very efficient means of detection are necessary, such as the non-destructive Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) technique where ultimately a single trapped ion, with a half-life of longer than one second is sufficient for the entire mass measurement. The present status of the implementation of the FT-ICR detection at TRIGA-TRAP is presented. The potential benefit for other experiments is discussed.

  11. Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. X.; Wei, L. F.; Johansson, J. R.; Tsai, J. S.; Nori, F.

    2009-03-01

    Exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of superconducting Josephson junctions, we propose a scalable circuit with superconducting qubits (SCQs) which is very similar to the successful one now being used for trapped ions. The SCQs are coupled to the ``vibrational'' mode provided by a superconducting LC circuit or its equivalent (e.g., a superconducting quantum interference device). Both single-qubit rotations and qubit-LC-circuit couplings and/or decouplings can be controlled by the frequencies of the time-dependent magnetic fluxes. The circuit is scalable since the qubit-qubit interactions, mediated by the LC circuit, can be selectively performed, and the information transfer can be realized in a controllable way. [4pt] Y.X. Liu, L.F. Wei, J.R. Johansson, J.S. Tsai, F. Nori, Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions, Phys. Rev. B 76, 144518 (2007). URL: http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v76/e144518

  12. Quantum-enhanced deliberation of learning agents using trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, V.; Friis, N.; Briegel, H. J.

    2015-02-01

    A scheme that successfully employs quantum mechanics in the design of autonomous learning agents has recently been reported in the context of the projective simulation (PS) model for artificial intelligence. In that approach, the key feature of a PS agent, a specific type of memory which is explored via random walks, was shown to be amenable to quantization, allowing for a speed-up. In this work we propose an implementation of such classical and quantum agents in systems of trapped ions. We employ a generic construction by which the classical agents are ‘upgraded’ to their quantum counterparts by a nested process of adding coherent control, and we outline how this construction can be realized in ion traps. Our results provide a flexible modular architecture for the design of PS agents. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations of simple PS agents which analyze the robustness of our proposal under certain noise models.

  13. Quantum Entropic Dynamics of a Trapped Ion in a Standing Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Mao-Fa; ZHOU Peng; S. Swain

    2000-01-01

    By performing a unitary transformation, we transform the Hamiltonian of the trapped ion in any position of standing wave to that of the normal Jaynes-Cummings model in ionic bare basis and we obtain a general evolution operator of the trapped ion system. We study the quantum entropic dynamics of the phonons and trapped ion.Our results show that, when the trapped ion is located at the node of standing wave, the quantum entropic dynamics of phonons and trapped ion are the same as the one of the field in the Jaynes-Cummings model.When the trapped ion deviatesfrom the node of standing wave, the entropies of the phonons and ion keep their maximum value except at the initial stage, and the phonons and trapped ion become extremely entangled.

  14. Towards the understanding of Decoherence on Ion Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Terra-Cunha, M O

    2004-01-01

    Two mechanisms of decoherence in ion traps are studied, specially related to the experiment [Kielpinski et al., Science 291 (2001) 1013]. Statistical hypothesis are made about the unknown variables and the expected behaviour of the visibility of the best experimental pattern is calculated for each mechanism. Data from the experiment are analyzed and show to be insufficient to distinguish between them. We suggest improvements which can do this with slight modifications in the present facilities.

  15. Photon trap for neutralization of negative ions beams

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S S; Ivanov, A A; Kotelnikov, I A

    2015-01-01

    For effectively neutralization of the powerful negative ions beams of hydrogen and deuterium the photon target is considered in long time. The attractiveness of the traditional approach (Fabry-Perot resonators) to their creation is limited to a number of stringent technical requirements and large economic costs. In this paper we propose a new concept of non-resonant photon trap (storage) for creation more technologically simple optical neutralizers.

  16. Cavity sideband cooling of a single trapped ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibrandt, David R; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Vuletić, Vladan; Chuang, Isaac L

    2009-09-04

    We report a demonstration and quantitative characterization of one-dimensional cavity cooling of a single trapped (88)Sr(+) ion in the resolved-sideband regime. We measure the spectrum of cavity transitions, the rates of cavity heating and cooling, and the steady-state cooling limit. The cavity cooling dynamics and cooling limit of 22.5(3) motional quanta, limited by the moderate coupling between the ion and the cavity, are consistent with a simple model [Phys. Rev. A 64, 033405 (2001)] without any free parameters, validating the rate equation model for cavity cooling.

  17. Scalable Generation of Cluster State for Multiple Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Guang-Ling; HU Xiang-Ming

    2008-01-01

    @@ We propose an alternative scheme for preparing N-qubit cluster state by using a frequency-modulated laser field to simultaneously illuminate the trapped ions. Selecting the index of modulation yields the selective mechanisms of coupling and decoupling between the internal and external states of the ions. Based on the selective mechanisms,the highly entangled duster state is achieved. In our scheme, the vibration mode is only virtually excited.Thus the quantum operations are insensitive to the heating and lead to the high-fidelity quantum information processing.

  18. Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic with Global Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidt, S.; Randall, J.; Webster, S. C.; Lake, K.; Webb, A. E.; Cohen, I.; Navickas, T.; Lekitsch, B.; Retzker, A.; Hensinger, W. K.

    2016-11-01

    Trapped ions are a promising tool for building a large-scale quantum computer. However, the number of required radiation fields for the realization of quantum gates in any proposed ion-based architecture scales with the number of ions within the quantum computer, posing a major obstacle when imagining a device with millions of ions. Here, we present a fundamentally different approach for trapped-ion quantum computing where this detrimental scaling vanishes. The method is based on individually controlled voltages applied to each logic gate location to facilitate the actual gate operation analogous to a traditional transistor architecture within a classical computer processor. To demonstrate the key principle of this approach we implement a versatile quantum gate method based on long-wavelength radiation and use this method to generate a maximally entangled state of two quantum engineered clock qubits with fidelity 0.985(12). This quantum gate also constitutes a simple-to-implement tool for quantum metrology, sensing, and simulation.

  19. Trapped-Ion Quantum Logic with Global Radiation Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidt, S; Randall, J; Webster, S C; Lake, K; Webb, A E; Cohen, I; Navickas, T; Lekitsch, B; Retzker, A; Hensinger, W K

    2016-11-25

    Trapped ions are a promising tool for building a large-scale quantum computer. However, the number of required radiation fields for the realization of quantum gates in any proposed ion-based architecture scales with the number of ions within the quantum computer, posing a major obstacle when imagining a device with millions of ions. Here, we present a fundamentally different approach for trapped-ion quantum computing where this detrimental scaling vanishes. The method is based on individually controlled voltages applied to each logic gate location to facilitate the actual gate operation analogous to a traditional transistor architecture within a classical computer processor. To demonstrate the key principle of this approach we implement a versatile quantum gate method based on long-wavelength radiation and use this method to generate a maximally entangled state of two quantum engineered clock qubits with fidelity 0.985(12). This quantum gate also constitutes a simple-to-implement tool for quantum metrology, sensing, and simulation.

  20. Precision Spectroscopy on Single Cold Trapped Molecular Nitrogen Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegi, Gregor; Najafian, Kaveh; Germann, Matthias; Sergachev, Ilia; Willitsch, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The ability to precisely control and manipulate single cold trapped particles has enabled spectroscopic studies on narrow transitions of ions at unprecedented levels of precision. This has opened up a wide range of applications, from tests of fundamental physical concepts, e.g., possible time-variations of fundamental constants, to new and improved frequency standards. So far most of these experiments have concentrated on atomic ions. Recently, however, attention has also been focused on molecular species, and molecular nitrogen ions have been identified as promising candidates for testing a possible time-variation of the proton/electron mass ratio. Here, we report progress towards precision-spectroscopic studies on dipole-forbidden vibrational transitions in single trapped N2+ ions. Our approach relies on the state-selective generation of single N2+ ions, subsequent infrared excitation using high intensity, narrow-band quantum-cascade lasers and a quantum-logic scheme for non-destructive state readout. We also characterize processes limiting the state lifetimes in our experiment, which impair the measurement fidelity. P. O. Schmidt et. al., Science 309 (2005), 749. M. Kajita et. al., Phys. Rev. A 89 (2014), 032509 M. Germann , X. Tong, S. Willitsch, Nature Physics 10 (2014), 820. X. Tong, A. Winney, S. Willitsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010), 143001

  1. Cascade emission in electron beam ion trap plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jonauskas, Valda; Kyniene, Ausra; Kucas, Sigitas

    2013-01-01

    We present investigation of the influence of cascade emission to the formation of spectra from plasma created by electron beam ion trap (EBIT) in electron trapping mode. It has been shown that cascade emission can play an important role in the formation of spectra from the EBIT plasma. Process of the cascade emission takes place when ion having cycloidal orbit leaves electron beam where coronal approximation is applicable. Thus both processes - excitation from ground or metastable levels and cascade emission - take part in the population of levels. Demonstration is based on the investigation of $W^{13+}$ spectra. The present investigation helps to resolve long-standing discrepancies; in particular, the present structure of $W^{13+}$ spectra is in good agreement with measurements on electron beam ion trap. Lines in the experimental spectra are identified as $4f^{13} 5s 5p \\rightarrow 4f^{13} 5s^{2}$ and $4f^{12} 5s 5p^{2} \\rightarrow 4f^{12} 5s^{2} 5p$ transitions from Dirac-Fock-Slater calculations.

  2. Software development for a fluid portable ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.J.; Buchanan, M.V.; Wise, M.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Most mass spectrometer data systems are developed and optimized for the benchtop GC/MS market and thus do not adequately address the requirements for direct sampling methods. Field analysis also places greater demands on real-time data processing including automated interpretation and quantification for target analytes. The current field portable ion trap mass spectrometers developed at ORNL are based on the Finnigan Magnum ion trap mass spectrometer which provides a procedure language for user programs. A series of these procedures has been developed to support direct sampling ion trap mass spectrometry studies and is part of an overall software development strategy to address the needs of these direct sampling instruments for rapid field analysis and process monitoring. The general approach has been to create task oriented menus that lead a user through a complete analysis. Thus, the user is focused on completing tasks rather than learning and using all of the software components to complete the task. Additionally, user input has been minimized to save keyboard input and data logging time.

  3. Fast thermometry for trapped ions using dark resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Roßnagel, Johannes; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Singer, Kilian

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a method to determine the temperature of trapped ions which is suitable for monitoring fast thermalization processes. We show that observing and analyzing the lineshape of dark resonances in the fluorescence spectrum provides a temperature measurement which accurate over a large dynamic range, applied to single ions and small ion crystals. Laser induced fluorescence is detected over a time of only $20\\,\\mu$s allowing for rapid determination of the ion temperature. In the measurement range of $10^{-1}-10^{+2}\\,$mK we reach better than $15\\,\\%$ accuracy. Tuning the cooling laser to selected resonance features allows for controlling the ion temperatures between $0.7\\,$mK and more than $10\\,$mK. Experimental work is supported by a solution of the 8-level optical Bloch equations when including the ions classical motion. This technique paves the way for many experiments comprising heat transport in ion strings, heat engines, non-equilibrium thermodynamics or thermometry of large ion cr...

  4. On the combination of a low energy hydrogen atom beam with a cold multipole ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodi, Gheorghe

    2008-12-09

    The first part of the activities of this thesis was to develop a sophisticated ion storage apparatus dedicated to study chemical processes with atomic hydrogen. The integration of a differentially pumped radical beam source into an existing temperature variable 22- pole trapping machine has required major modifications. Since astrophysical questions have been in the center of our interest, the introduction first gives a short overview of astrophysics and -chemistry. The basics of ion trapping in temperature variable rf traps is well-documented in the literature; therefore, the description of the basic instrument (Chapter 2) is kept rather short. Much effort has been put into the development of an intense and stable source for hydrogen atoms the kinetic energy of which can be changed. Chapter 3 describes this module in detail with emphasis on the integration of magnetic hexapoles for guiding the atoms and special treatments of the surfaces for reducing H-H recombination. Due to the unique sensitivity of the rf ion trapping technique, this instrument allows one to study a variety of reactions of astrochemical and fundamental interest. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 4. Reactions of CO{sub 2}{sup +} with hydrogen atoms and molecules have been established as calibration standard for in situ determination of H and H{sub 2} densities over the full temperature range of the apparatus (10 K-300 K). For the first time, reactions of H- and D-atoms with the ionic hydrocarbons CH{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 4}{sup +} have been studied at temperatures of interstellar space. A very interesting, not yet fully understood collision system is the interaction of protonated methane with H. The outlook presents some ideas, how to improve the new instrument and a few reaction systems are mentioned which may be studied next. (orig.)

  5. Diffusion, trapping, and isotope exchange of plasma implanted deuterium in ion beam damaged tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Joseph Lincoln

    Tritium accumulation in nuclear fusion reactor materials is a major concern for practical and safe fusion energy. This work examines hydrogen isotope exchange as a tritium removal technique, analyzes the effects of neutron damage using high energy copper ion beams, and introduces a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the concentration of trapped atoms. Tungsten samples were irradiated with high energy (0.5 - 5 MeV) copper ions for controlled levels of damage - 10-3 to 10-1 displacements per atom (dpa) - at room temperature. Samples were then exposed to deuterium plasma at constant temperature (˜ 380 K) to a high fluence of 1024 ions/m2, where retention is at is maximized (i.e. saturated). By then subsequently exposing these samples to fractions of this fluence with hydrogen plasma, isotope exchange rates were observed. The resulting deuterium still trapped in the tungsten is then measured post mortem. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) gives the depth resolved deuterium retention profile with the 3He(D,p) 4He reaction, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) gives the total amount of deuterium trapped in the tungsten by heating a sample in vacuum up to 1200 K and measuring the evaporated gas molecules with a residual gas analyzer. Isotope exchange data show that hydrogen atoms can displace trapped deuterium atoms efficiently only up to the first few microns, but does not affect the atoms trapped at greater depths. In ion damaged tungsten, measurements showed a significant increase in retention in the damage region proportional to dpa 0.66, which results in a significant spike in total retention, and isotope exchange in damaged samples is still ineffective at depths greater than a few microns. Thus, isotope exchange is not an affective tritium removal technique; however, these experiments have shown that trapping in material defects greatly affects diffusion. These experiments lead to a simplified diffusion model with defect densities as the only free

  6. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  7. Experimental characterization of the Hitrap Cooler trap with highly charged ions.

    OpenAIRE

    Fedotova, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    The HITRAP (Highly charged Ions TRAP)facility is being set up and commissioned at GSI, Darmstadt. It will provide heavy, highly charged ions at low velocities to high-precision atomic physics experiments. Within this work the Cooler trap- the key element of the HITRAP facility was tested. The Cooler trap was assembled, aligned, and commissioned in trapping experiments with ions from off-line sources.The work performed within the scope of this thesis provided the baseline for further operation...

  8. All-optical ion generation for ion trap loading

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, Kevin; Keller, Matthias; 10.1007/s00340-011-4563-7

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the all-optical generation of ions by photo-ionisation of atoms generated by pulsed laser ablation. A direct comparison between a resistively heated oven source and pulsed laser ablation is reported. Pulsed laser ablation with 10 ns Nd:YAG laser pulses is shown to produce large calcium flux, corresponding to atomic beams produced with oven temperatures greater than 650 K. For an equivalent atomic flux, pulsed laser ablation is shown to produce a thermal load more than one order of magnitude smaller than the oven source. The atomic beam distributions obey Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics with most probable speeds corresponding to temperatures greater than 2200 K. Below a threshold pulse fluence between 280 mJ/cm^2 and 330 mJ/cm^2, the atomic beam is composed exclusively of ground state atoms. For higher fluences ions and excited atoms are generated.

  9. Recent Results in Trapped-Ion Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Britton, J L; Meyer, V; Rowe, M A; Sackett, C A; Itano, W M; Monroe, C; Wineland, D J

    2001-01-01

    We review recent experiments on entanglement, Bell's inequality, and decoherence-free subspaces in a quantum register of trapped \\be ions. We have demonstrated entanglement of up to four ions using the technique of M{\\o}lmer and S{\\o}rensen. This method produces the state |down down> + |up up> for two ions and the state |down down down down> + |up up up up> for four ions. We generate the entanglement deterministically in each shot of the experiment. Measurements on the two-ion entangled state violates Bell's inequality at the $8\\sigma$ level. Because of the high detector efficiency of our apparatus, this experiment closes the detector loophole for Bell's inequality measurements for the first time. This measurement is also the first violation of Bell's inequality by massive particles that does not implicitly assume results from quantum mechanics. Finally, we have demonstrated reversible encoding of an arbitrary qubit, originally contained in one ion, into a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) of two ions. The DFS-...

  10. Laser desorption lamp ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard N

    2015-01-01

    A two-step laser desorption lamp ionization source coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer (LDLI-ITMS) has been constructed and characterized. The pulsed infrared (IR) output of an Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) is directed to a target inside a chamber evacuated to ~15 Pa causing desorption of molecules from the target's surface. The desorbed molecules are ionized by a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp (filled with xenon, major wavelength at 148 nm). The resulting ions are stored and detected in a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap modified from a Finnigan Mat LCQ mass spectrometer operated at a pressure of ≥ 0.004 Pa. The limit of detection for desorbed coronene molecules is 1.5 pmol, which is about two orders of magnitude more sensitive than laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry using a fluorine excimer laser (157 nm) as the ionization source. The mass spectrum of four standard aromatic compounds (pyrene, coronene, rubrene and 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H-phthalocyanine (OPC)) shows that parent ions dominate. By increasing the infrared laser power, this instrument is capable of detecting inorganic compounds.

  11. Studies of Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission using Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegl, Kevin; Aprahamian, A.; Scielzo, N. D.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Levand, A. F.; Burkey, M.; Caldwell, S.; Czeszumska, A.; Hirsh, T. Y.; Kolos, K.; Marley, S. T.; Morgan, G. E.; Norman, E. B.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Padgett, S.; Pérez Galván, A.; Sh, K. S.; Strauss, S. Y.; Wang, B. S.

    2017-01-01

    Using a radio-frequency quadrupole ion trap to confine radioactive ions allows indirect measurements of beta-delayed neutron (BDN) emission. By determining the recoil energy of the beta-decay daughter ions it is possible to study BDN emission, as the neutron emission can impart a significantly larger nuclear recoil than from beta-decay alone. This method avoids most of the systematic uncertainties associated with direct neutron detection but introduces dependencies on the specifics of the decay and interactions of the ion with the RF fields. The decays of seven BDN precursors were studied using the Beta-decay Paul Trap (BPT) to confine fission fragments from the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The analysis of these measurements and results for the branching ratios and neutron energy spectra will be presented. Supported by the NSF under grant PHY-1419765, and the U.S. DOE under the NEUP project 13-5485, contracts DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL) and DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and award DE-NA0000979 (NNSA).

  12. Integration of fluorescence collection optics with a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, Gregory R; Moehring, David L; Stick, Daniel; Highstrete, Clark; Fortier, Kevin M; Blain, Matthew G; Haltli, Raymond A; Cruz-Cabrera, Alvaro A; Briggs, Ronald D; Wendt, Joel R; Carter, Tony R; Samora, Sally; Kemme, Shanalyn A

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated an integrated optical system for collecting the fluorescence from a trapped ion. The system, consisting of an array of transmissive, dielectric micro-optics and an optical fiber array, has been intimately incorporated into the ion trapping chip without negatively impacting trapping performance. Considerations such as our choice of epoxies, vacuum feedthrough, and optical component materials did not degrade the vacuum environment, and we have demonstrated light detection as well as ion trapping and shuttling behavior comparable to trapping chips without integrated optics, with no modification to the control voltages of the trapping chip.

  13. Collisions of FeO(+) with H2 and He in a Cryogenic Ion Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, Dieter; Jašík, Juraj; Andris, Erik; Navrátil, Rafael; Roithová, Jana

    2016-11-18

    The nominal temperature range of cryogenic radio-frequency ion traps has recently been extended down to T=2.3 K. Whereas in situ He tagging of mass-selected ions embedded in dense helium buffer gas is becoming common for recording IR spectra through photofragmentation of small and large ions, much less activity is devoted to the field of cold chemistry, which in this contribution means the two orders of magnitude extending from 300 to below 3 K. The importance of this temperature range for understanding the dynamics of bi- and termolecular reactions is illustrated with new results for the time-honored reaction of FeO(+) with H2 obtained with the cryogenic ion trap ISORI in Prague. The rate coefficient for forming Fe(+) +H2 O increases steeply with decreasing temperature. In addition more product channels open up, such as the stabilized reaction-intermediate complexes H2 FeO(+) and Hen -FeO(+) formed by ternary association with He. For the FeOH(+) +H channel only a minor signal is observed. The rate coefficients provide deep insight into lifetimes, bottlenecks, and barriers impeding almost completely the exothermic, but spin-forbidden, reaction at room temperature. For some of the He-tagged ions, IR predissociation spectra are recorded. A breakthrough is obtaining the first spectrum of [(H2 )FeO](+) , synthesized and tagged in situ with He. These results pave the way to study the structures of reaction intermediates stabilized in the gas phase by means of collisions with helium. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Controlled Formation and Vibrational Characterization of Large Solvated Ionic Clusters in Cryogenic Ion Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, Etienne; Marsh, Brett; Voss, Jonathan; Duffy, Erin M.

    2016-06-01

    An experimental approach for the formation of solvated ionic clusters and their vibrational spectroscopy will be presented. This recently developed apparatus combines an electrospray ionization source, two temperature controlled cryogenic ion traps and a time-of-flight infrared photofragmentation spectrometer, to allow for a universal and controlled formation and characterization of solvent clusters around ionic core as well as product of ion-molecule reaction. Recent results on the spectroscopy of such solvated ions, will be presented and discussed. In particular, this talk will present the structural evolution of glycylglycine as a function of stepwise solvation, and show how the presence of just a few water can modify the geometry of this model peptide. I will also present results solvation of ion that do not form hydrogen bond or strongly interactions with the solvent.

  15. Conversion electron spectroscopy of isobarically purified trapped radioactive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, J.; Elomaa, V.V.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Rahaman, S.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O.B. 35 (Finland)

    2007-11-15

    The feasibility of the JYFLTRAP for in-trap spectroscopy has been studied. Several internally converted transitions have been measured for isomers of fission products with good accuracy. High-resolution spectroscopic data free of source effects have been obtained proving that trapped radioactive ions can provide excellent conversion electron sources. The shortest-lived isomer studied in this work was {sup 117m} Pd with a half-life of 19.1 ms, for which a superior peak-to-total ratio and an excellent line shape at the 9.9 keV conversion electron line have been observed. Detection efficiencies and related phenomena of the present setup are analyzed. (orig.)

  16. Blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekitsch, Bjoern; Weidt, Sebastian; Fowler, Austin G; Mølmer, Klaus; Devitt, Simon J; Wunderlich, Christof; Hensinger, Winfried K

    2017-02-01

    The availability of a universal quantum computer may have a fundamental impact on a vast number of research fields and on society as a whole. An increasingly large scientific and industrial community is working toward the realization of such a device. An arbitrarily large quantum computer may best be constructed using a modular approach. We present a blueprint for a trapped ion-based scalable quantum computer module, making it possible to create a scalable quantum computer architecture based on long-wavelength radiation quantum gates. The modules control all operations as stand-alone units, are constructed using silicon microfabrication techniques, and are within reach of current technology. To perform the required quantum computations, the modules make use of long-wavelength radiation-based quantum gate technology. To scale this microwave quantum computer architecture to a large size, we present a fully scalable design that makes use of ion transport between different modules, thereby allowing arbitrarily many modules to be connected to construct a large-scale device. A high error-threshold surface error correction code can be implemented in the proposed architecture to execute fault-tolerant operations. With appropriate adjustments, the proposed modules are also suitable for alternative trapped ion quantum computer architectures, such as schemes using photonic interconnects.

  17. Plasmas in compact traps: From ion sources to multidisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Galatà, A.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2017-09-01

    In linear (minimum-B) magneto-static traps dense and hot plasmas are heated by electromagnetic radiation in the GHz domain via the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR). The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times ( n_eτ_i>10^{13} cm ^{-3} s; T_e>10 keV) are similar to the ones of thermonuclear plasmas. The research in this field -devoted to heating and confinement optimization- has been supported by numerical modeling and advanced diagnostics, for probing the plasma especially in a non-invasive way. ECR-based systems are nowadays able to produce extremely intense (tens or hundreds of mA) beams of light ions (p, d, He), and relevant currents of heavier elements (C, O, N) up to heavy ions like Xe, Pb, U. Such beams can be extracted from the trap by a proper electrostatic system. The above-mentioned properties make these plasmas very attractive for interdisciplinary researches also, such as i) nuclear decays rates measurements in stellar-like conditions, ii) energy conversion studies, being exceptional sources of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation (EUV, X-rays, hard X-rays and gammas, useful in material science and archaeometry), iii) environments allowing precise spectroscopical measurements as benchmarks for magnetized astrophysical plasmas. The talk will give an overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of intense ion sources, and some new perspectives for interdisciplinary research, with a special attention to the developments based at INFN-LNS.

  18. Design of blade-shaped-electrode linear ion traps with reduced anharmonic contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, K.; Che, H.; Ge, Y. P.; Xu, Z. T.; Yuan, W. H.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Z. H., E-mail: zehuanglu@mail.hust.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lan, Y. [MOE Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement, School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2015-09-21

    RF quadrupole linear Paul traps are versatile tools in quantum physics experiments. Linear Paul traps with blade-shaped electrodes have the advantages of larger solid angles for fluorescence collection. But with these kinds of traps, the existence of higher-order anharmonic terms of the trap potentials can cause large heating rate for the trapped ions. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the dependence of higher-order terms of trap potentials on the geometry of blade-shaped traps, and offer an optimized design. A modified blade electrodes trap is proposed to further reduce higher-order anharmonic terms while still retaining large fluorescence collection angle.

  19. Laser Controlling Wavepacket Trains of a Paul Trapped Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Li-Hua; HAI Wen-Hua; WU Yun-Wen

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the quantum and classical motions of a single Paul trapped ion interacting with a timeperiodic laser field. By using the test-function method, we construct n exact solutions of quantum dynamics that describe the generalized squeezed coherent states with the expectation orbits being the corresponding classical ones. The spacetime evolutions of the exact probability densities show some wavepacket trains. It is demonstrated analytically that by adjusting the laser intensity and frequency, we can control the center motions of the wavepacket trains. We also discuss the other physical properties such as the expectation value of energy, the widths and heights of the wavepackets, and the resonance loss of stability.

  20. Quantum teleportation by entanglement swapping with trapped ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiao-Juan; Fang Mao-Fa; Cai Jian-Wu; Liao Xiang-Ping

    2006-01-01

    An effective teleportation scheme for an unknown ionic internal state via trapped ions is proposed without joint Bell-state measurement (BSM). In the constructed quantum channel process, we make use of entanglement swapping to avoid decrease in entanglement during the distributing of particles. Thus our scheme provides new prospects for quantum teleportation in a longer distance. The distinct advantage of our scheme is insensitive to the heating of vibrational mode. Furthermore, our scheme has no any individual optical access, and the successful probability also can reach 1.

  1. Vibratile Coherence and Squeezing in Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG HaoSheng; KUANG LeMan; ZHU XiWen; GAO KeLin

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that two trapped ions interacting with laser beams resonant to the first red side-band of center-of-mass mode, in Lamb Dicke regime and under rotating wave approximation, is described by a Jaynes-Cummingsmodel. For the initial condition that the motional state of center-of-mass mode is in vacuum state and the internal stateis prepared in a coherent superposition of states, coherence and squeezing for the vibratile motion of center-of-mass modeare discussed, particularly, a "weak" coherent state and a "weak" squeezed vacuum state are obtained. Collapse andrevival are also observed in this type of initial condition.

  2. Detecting yocto (10-24) newton forces with trapped ions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Uys3_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2574 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Uys3_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Detecting yocto(10−24)newton forces.... These measurements suggest that ion traps may form the basis of a new class of ultra-sensitive deployable force sensors. 1. Summary Measurement of extremely small forces is of interest in a variety of fields ranging from atomic-force-microscopy, to electron spin...

  3. Sympathetic cooling of 171 Yb+ qubit ions on a scalable ion trap chip using Yb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeong-Dae; Ahn, Jun Sik; Hong, Seokjun; Lee, Minjae; Cheon, Hongjin; Cho, Dongil ``Dan''; Kim, Taehyun

    2016-05-01

    To achieve ion trap based large-scale quantum computing devices, motional states of qubit ions must be regulated against heating from ion transportation or noise on the chip surface while leaving internal states of the ions intact. Sympathetic cooling is a natural solution for this problem, but trapping two different species of ions generally requires two sets of optical devices including separate lasers for each ion type, increasing the complexity and the cost of the setup. We tested Doppler-cooled 174 Yb+ ions to sympathetically cool 171 Yb+ qubit ions. Since these two isotopes have energy levels close to each other, the optical setup can be vastly simplified. We also verified that the tail of non-ideally focused cooling beam and the scattered light from the surface create excited state population in the 171 Yb+ qubit ions, as expected. This leads to occasional spontaneous emission events, which currently limits the coherence time of our qubit to a few seconds. We will also discuss our plans for optimizing the experiment, which may increase the coherence time by one or two orders of magnitude. This work was partially supported by ICT R&D program of MSIP/IITP. [10043464, Development of quantum repeater technology for the application to communication systems].

  4. Digital quantum simulation of Dirac equation with a trapped ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Junhua; Casanova, Jorge; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Yung, Man-Hong; Zhang, Jingning; Kim, Kihwan; Department Of Physical Chemistry Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    Recently there has been growing interest in simulating relativistic effects in controllable physical system. We digitally simulate the Dirac equation in 3 +1 dimensions with a single trapped ion. We map four internal levels of 171Yb+ ion to the Dirac bispinor. The time evolution of the Dirac equation is implemented by trotter expansion. In the 3 +1 dimension, we can observe a helicoidal motion of a free Dirac particle which reduces to Zitterbewegung in 1 +1 dimension. This work was supported in part by the National Basic Research Program of China Grant 2011CBA00300, 2011CBA00301, the National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 61033001, 61061130540. KK acknowledge the support from the recruitment program of global youth experts.

  5. Low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, J. R.; García-Delgado, L. A.; Gómez-Fuentes, R.; García-Juárez, A.

    2016-09-01

    A low power RF amplifier circuit for ion trap applications is presented and described. The amplifier is based on a class-D half-bridge amplifier with a voltage mirror driver. The RF amplifier is composed of an RF class-D amplifier, an envelope modulator to ramp up the RF voltage during the ion analysis stage, a detector or amplitude demodulation circuit for sensing the output signal amplitude, and a feedback amplifier that linearizes the steady state output of the amplifier. The RF frequency is set by a crystal oscillator and the series resonant circuit is tuned to the oscillator frequency. The resonant circuit components have been chosen, in this case, to operate at 1 MHz. In testings, the class-D stage operated at a maximum of 78 mW at 1.1356 MHz producing 225 V peak.

  6. Blueprint for a microwave trapped-ion quantum computer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekitsch, B.; Weidt, S.; Fowler, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    constructed using a modular approach. We present a blueprint for a trapped-ion based scalable quantum computer module which makes it possible to create a scalable quantum computer architecture based on long-wavelength radiation quantum gates. The modules control all operations as stand-alone units......, are constructed using silicon microfabrication techniques and they are within reach of current technology. To perform the required quantum computations, the modules make use of long-wavelength-radiation based quantum gate technology. To scale this microwave quantum computer architecture to an arbitrary size we...... present a fully scalable design that makes use of ion transport between different modules, thereby allowing arbitrarily many modules to be connected to construct a large-scale device. A high-error-threshold surface error correction code can be implemented in the proposed architecture to execute fault...

  7. Linear Ion Trap for the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinckerhoff, William; Arevalo, Ricardo; Danell, Ryan; van Amerom, Friso; Pinnick, Veronica; Li, Xiang; Hovmand, Lars; Getty, Stephanie; Mahaffy, Paul; Goesmann, Fred; Steininger, Harald

    2014-05-01

    The 2018 ExoMars rover mission includes the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) investigation. MOMA will examine the chemical composition of samples acquired from depths of up to two meters below the martian surface, where organics may be protected from radiative and oxidative degradation. When combined with the complement of instruments in the rover's Pasteur Payload, MOMA has the potential to reveal the presence of a wide range of organics preserved in a variety of mineralogical environments, and to begin to understand the structural character and potential origin of those compounds. MOMA includes a linear, or 2D, ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) that is designed to analyze molecular composition of (i) gas evolved from pyrolyzed powder samples and separated on a gas chromatograph and (ii) ions directly desorbed from solid samples at Mars ambient pressure using a pulsed laser and a fast-valve capillary ion inlet system. This "dual source" approach gives MOMA unprecedented breadth of detection over a wide range of molecular weights and volatilities. Analysis of nonvolatile, higher-molecular weight organics such as carboxylic acids and peptides even in the presence of significant perchlorate concentrations is enabled by the extremely short (~1 ns) pulses of the desorption laser. Use of the ion trap's tandem mass spectrometry mode permits selective focus on key species for isolation and controlled fragmentation, providing structural analysis capabilities. The flight-like engineering test unit (ETU) of the ITMS, now under construction, will be used to verify breadboard performance with high fidelity, while simultaneously supporting the development of analytical scripts and spectral libraries using synthetic and natural Mars analog samples guided by current results from MSL. ETU campaign data will strongly advise the specifics of the calibration applied to the MOMA flight model as well as the science operational procedures during the mission.

  8. Collisional cooling of light ions by co-trapped heavy atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Sourav; Rangwala, S A

    2015-01-01

    The most generic cooling and thermalization pathway at the lowest temperatures is via elastic collisions. In hybrid ion-atom traps, ion cooling to temperatures where low partial wave collisions dominate require the collisional cooling mechanism to be well understood and controlled. There exists great uncertainty on whether cooling of light ions by heavier neutral atoms is possible. Here we experimentally demonstrate the cooling of light ions by co-trapped heavy atoms for the first time. We show that trapped 39K+ ions are cooled by localized ultracold neutral 85Rb atoms for an ion-atom mass ratio where most theoretical models predict ion heating. We demonstrate, based on detailed numerical simulation of our ion-cooling model, which is in excellent agreement with experiments, that cooling of ions by localized cold atoms is possible for any mass ratio. Our result opens up the possibility of studying quantum collisions and chemistry in trapped atom-ion systems.

  9. Multi-ion sensing of dipolar noise sources in ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, F.; Alonso, J.; Zambrini, R.

    2017-09-01

    Trapped-ion quantum platforms are subject to "anomalous" heating due to interactions with electric-field noise sources of nature not yet completely known. There is ample experimental evidence that this noise originates at the surfaces of the trap electrodes, and models assuming fluctuating pointlike dipoles are consistent with observations, but the exact microscopic mechanisms behind anomalous heating remain undetermined. Here we show how a two-ion probe displays a transition in its dissipation properties, enabling experimental access to the mean orientation of the dipoles and the spatial extent of dipole-dipole correlations. This information can be used to test the validity of candidate microscopic models, which predict correlation lengths spanning several orders of magnitude. Furthermore, we propose an experiment to measure these effects with currently available traps and techniques.

  10. A novel ion cooling trap for multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Y; Wada, M; Naimi, S; Smorra, C; Sonoda, T; Mita, H; Takamine, A; Okada, K; Ozawa, A; Wollnik, H

    2013-01-01

    A radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap system for use with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF) for short-lived nuclei has been developed. The trap system consists of two different parts, an asymmetric taper trap and a flat trap. The ions are cooled to a sufficient small bunch for precise mass measurement with MRTOF in only 2 ms cooling time in the flat trap, then orthogonally ejected to the MRTOF for mass analysis. A trapping efficiency of ~27% for 23Na+ and ~5.1% for 7Li+ has been achieved.

  11. Surface ion trap structures with excellent optical access for quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunz, P.; Blain, M.; Benito, F.; Chou, C.; Clark, C.; Descour, M.; Ellis, R.; Haltli, R.; Heller, E.; Kemme, S.; Sterk, J.; Tabakov, B.; Tigges, C.; Stick, D.

    2013-05-01

    Microfabricated surface electrode ion traps are necessary for the advancement of trapped ion quantum information processing as it offers a scalable way for realizing complex trap structures capable of storing and controlling many ions. The most promising way of performing two-qubit quantum gates in a chain of trapped ions is to focus laser beams on individual ions of the chain to drive gates. However, in surface ion traps the close proximity of the ions to the surface and the size of the chips usually cannot accommodate the tightly focused laser beams necessary to address individual ions parallel to the chip surface. Here we present a surface electrode ion trap monolithically fabricated in standard silicon technology that implements a linear quadrupole trap on a bowtie shaped chip with a narrow section that is only 1.2 mm wide. Laser beams parallel to the surface can be focused down to a waist of 4 μm with enough separation from the trap chip to prevent light scattering. The trap structure incorporates two Y-junctions for reordering ions and is optimized for quantum information processing. This work was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Reliable transport through a microfabricated X-junction surface-electrode ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Kenneth; Faircloth, Daniel L; Volin, Curtis; Doret, S Charles; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Landgren, David W; Denison, Douglas; Killian, Tyler; Slusher, Richart E; Harter, Alexa W

    2012-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap that supports controlled transport through the two-dimensional intersection of linear trapping zones arranged in a ninety-degree cross. The trap is fabricated with very-large-scalable-integration (VLSI) techniques which are compatible with scaling to a larger quantum information processor. The shape of the radio-frequency (RF) electrodes is optimized with a genetic algorithm to minimize axial pseudopotential barriers and to minimize ion heating during transport. Seventy-eight independent DC control electrodes enable fine control of the trapping potentials. We demonstrate reliable ion transport between junction legs, trapping of ion chains with nearly-equal spacing in one of the trap's linear sections, and merging and splitting ions from these chains. Doppler-cooled ions survive more than 10^5 round-trip transits between junction legs without loss and more than sixty-five consecutive round trips without lase...

  13. Ion Trap Quantum Computers: Performance Limits and Experimental Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Richard

    1998-03-01

    In a quantum computer information would be represented by the quantum mechanical states of suitable atomic-scale systems. (A single bit of information represented by a two-level quantum system is known as a qubit.) This notion leads to the possibility of computing with quantum mechanical superpositions of numbers ("quantum parallelism"), which for certain problems would make Quantum/quantum.html>quantum computation very much more efficient than classical computation. The possibility of rapidly factoring the large integers used in public-key cryptography is an important example. (Public key cryptosystems derive their security from the difficuty of factoring, and similar problems, with conventional computers.) Quantum computational hardware development is in its infancy, but an experimental study of quantum computation with laser-cooled trapped calcium ions that is under way at Los Alamos will be described. One of the pricipal obstacles to practical quantum computation is the inevitable loss of quantum coherence of the complex quantum states involved. The results of a theoretical analysis showing that quantum factoring of small integers should be possible with trapped ions will be presented. The prospects for larger-scale computations will be discussed.

  14. Trapped-ion antennae for the transmission of quantum information

    CERN Document Server

    Harlander, Maximilian; Brownnutt, Micheal; Blatt, Rainer; Hänsel, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    More than one hundred years ago Heinrich Hertz succeeded in transmitting signals over a few meters to a receiving antenna using an electromagnetic oscillator and thus proving the electromagnetic theory developed by James C. Maxwell[1]. Since then, technology has developed, and today a variety of oscillators is available at the quantum mechanical level. For quantized electromagnetic oscillations atoms in cavities can be used to couple electric fields[2, 3]. For mechanical oscillators realized, for example, with cantilevers[4, 5] or vibrational modes of trapped atoms[6] or ions[7, 8], a quantum mechanical link between two such oscillators has, to date, been demonstrated in very few cases and has only been achieved in indirect ways. Examples of this include the mechanical transport of atoms carrying the quantum information[9] or the use of spontaneously emitted photons[10]. In this work, direct coupling between the motional dipoles of separately trapped ions is achieved over a distance of 54 {\\mu}m, using the di...

  15. Blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekitsch, Bjoern; Weidt, Sebastian; Fowler, Austin G.; Mølmer, Klaus; Devitt, Simon J.; Wunderlich, Christof; Hensinger, Winfried K.

    2017-01-01

    The availability of a universal quantum computer may have a fundamental impact on a vast number of research fields and on society as a whole. An increasingly large scientific and industrial community is working toward the realization of such a device. An arbitrarily large quantum computer may best be constructed using a modular approach. We present a blueprint for a trapped ion–based scalable quantum computer module, making it possible to create a scalable quantum computer architecture based on long-wavelength radiation quantum gates. The modules control all operations as stand-alone units, are constructed using silicon microfabrication techniques, and are within reach of current technology. To perform the required quantum computations, the modules make use of long-wavelength radiation–based quantum gate technology. To scale this microwave quantum computer architecture to a large size, we present a fully scalable design that makes use of ion transport between different modules, thereby allowing arbitrarily many modules to be connected to construct a large-scale device. A high error–threshold surface error correction code can be implemented in the proposed architecture to execute fault-tolerant operations. With appropriate adjustments, the proposed modules are also suitable for alternative trapped ion quantum computer architectures, such as schemes using photonic interconnects. PMID:28164154

  16. Stick-slip nanofriction in cold-ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Davide; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2013-03-01

    Trapped cold ions are known to form linear or planar zigzag chains, helices or clusters depending on trapping conditions. They may be forced to slide over a laser induced corrugated potential, a mimick of sliding friction. We present MD simulations of an incommensurate 101 ions chain sliding subject to an external electric field. As expected with increasing corrugation, we observe the transition from a smooth-sliding, highly lubric regime to a strongly dissipative stick-slip regime. Owing to inhomogeneity the dynamics shows features reminiscent of macroscopic frictional behaviors. While the chain extremities are pinned, the incommensurate central part is initially free to slide. The onset of global sliding is preceded by precursor events consisting of partial slips of chain portions further from the center. We also look for frictional anomalies expected for the chain sliding across the linear-zigzag structural phase transition. Although the chain is too short for a proper critical behavior, the sliding friction displays a frank rise near the transition, due to opening of a new dissipative channel via excitations of transverse modes. Research partly sponsored by Sinergia Project CRSII2 136287/1.

  17. Detection of Isotopes of Mercury Ions by Resonant Ejection in Paul Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wen-Ming; SHE Lei; LI Jiao-Mei; GAO Ke-Lin

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to detect mercury ions confined in a Paul trap has been developed by resonant ejection. In this method, frequency of the additional ejection ac voltage is scanned instead of the amplitude of the rf drive voltage in conventional methods. It is possible not only to observe the spectra of the secular oscillation of the trapped ions directly, but also to eject the confined ions from the trap mass-selectively.

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF THE CERN SPS ELECTROSTATIC SEPTA ION TRAPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Balhan, Bruno; Barlow, Roger Andrew; Raffaele, Graziano

    2016-01-01

    At CERN, the SPS synchrotron is equipped with a slow extraction channel towards the fixed target beam lines in the North Area This channel includes five consecutive electrostatic septa, where the field free region and the active high field region are separated by an array of tungsten-rhenium wires. The field-free region provides for the circulating beam, while the high field region is used to deflect the extracted beam. Since the residual gas can be ionized by the orbiting beam, low energy ions could cross the wire array and enter the high field region and cause high voltage breakdown when accelerated onto the cathode. To prevent low energy ions from entering this high electric field region, a vertical field is applied to the orbiting beam using so-called ‘ion traps’ for active protection. The vertical field is created by electrodes placed inside the region containing the circulating beam. Due to electromagnetic coupling onto the ion trap electrodes observed with the high frequency LHC beam (25 ns spaced ...

  19. Arbitrary Waveform Generator for Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, R; Britton, J W; Sawyer, B C; Amini, J

    2013-01-01

    Atomic ions confined in multi-electrode traps have been proposed as a basis for scalable quantum information processing. This scheme involves transporting ions between spatially distinct locations by use of time-varying electric potentials combined with laser or microwave pulses for quantum logic in specific locations. We report the development of a fast multi-channel arbitrary waveform generator for applying the time-varying electric potentials used for transport and for shaping quantum logic pulses. The generator is based on a field-programmable gate array controlled ensemble of 16-bit digital-to-analog converters with an update frequency of 50 MHz and an output range of $\\pm$10 V. The update rate of the waveform generator is much faster than relevant motional frequencies of the confined ions in our experiments, allowing diabatic control of the ion motion. Numerous pre-loaded sets of time-varying voltages can be selected with 40 ns latency conditioned on real-time signals. Here we describe the device and de...

  20. Gas-Phase Intramolecular Protein Crosslinking via Ion/Ion Reactions: Ubiquitin and a Homobifunctional sulfo-NHS Ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ian K.; Mentinova, Marija; McGee, William M.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-phase intra-molecular crosslinking of protein ubiquitin cations has been demonstrated via ion/ion reactions with anions of a homobifunctional N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) ester reagent. The ion/ion reaction between multiply-protonated ubiquitin and crosslinker monoanions produces a stable, charge-reduced complex. Covalent crosslinking is indicated by the consecutive loss of 2 molecules of sulfo-NHS under ion trap collisional activation conditions. Covalent modification is verified by the presence of covalently crosslinked sequence ions produced by ion-trap collision-induced dissociation of the ion generated from the losses of sulfo-NHS. Analysis of the crosslinked sequence fragments allows for the localization of crosslinked primary amines, enabling proximity mapping of the gas-phase 3-D structures. The presence of two unprotonated reactive sites within the distance constraint of the crosslinker is required for successful crosslinking. The ability to covalently crosslink is, therefore, sensitive to protein charge state. As the charge state increases, fewer reactive sites are available and protein structure is more likely to become extended because of intramolecular electrostatic repulsion. At high charge states, the reagent shows little evidence for covalent crosslinking but does show evidence for `electrostatic crosslinking' in that the binding of the sulfonate groups to the protein is sufficiently strong that backbone cleavages are favored over reagent detachment under ion trap collisional activation conditions.

  1. Electron Flood Charge Compensation Device for Ion Trap Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Anthony David; Ward, Michael Blair; Olson, John Eric

    2002-11-01

    During secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses of organophosphorous compounds adsorbed onto soils, the measured anion signals were lower than expected and it was hypothesized that the low signals could be due to sample charging. An electron flood gun was designed, constructed and used to investigate sample charging of these and other sample types. The flood gun was integrated into one end cap of an ion trap secondary ion mass spectrometer and the design maintained the geometry of the self-stabilizing extraction optics used in this instrument. The SIMION ion optics program was used to design the flood gun, and experimental results agreed with the predicted performance. Results showed the low anion signals from the soils were not due to sample charging. Other insulating and conducting samples were tested using both a ReO4- and a Cs+ primary ion beam. The proximity of the sample and electron source to the ion trap aperture resulted in generation of background ions in the ion trap via electron impact (EI) ionization during the period the electron gun was flooding the sample region. When using the electron gun with the ReO4- primary beam, the required electron current was low enough that the EI background was negligible; however, the high electron flood current required with the Cs+ beam produced background EI ions that degraded the quality of the mass spectra. The consequences of the EI produced cations will have to be evaluated on a sample-by-sample basis when using electron flood. It was shown that the electron flood gun could be intentionally operated to produce EI spectra in this instrument. This offers the opportunity to measure, nearly simultaneously, species evaporating from a sample, via EI, and species bound to the surface, via SIMS.

  2. Design, microfabrication, and analysis of micrometer-sized cylindrical ion trap arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, D.; Chang, J. P.; Fico, M.; Guymon, A. J.; Austin, D. E.; Blain, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    A description of the design and microfabrication of arrays of micrometer-scale cylindrical ion traps is offered. Electrical characterization and initial ion trapping experiments with a massively parallel array of 5μm internal radius (r0) sized cylindrical ion traps (CITs) are also described. The ion trap, materials, and design are presented and shown to be critical in achieving minimal trapping potential while maintaining minimal power consumption. The ion traps, fabricated with metal electrodes, have inner radii of 1, 2, 5, and 10μm and range from 5to24μm in height. The electrical characteristics of packaged ion trap arrays were measured with a vector network analyzer. The testing focused on trapping toluene (C7H8), mass 91, 92, or 93amu, in the 5μm sized CITs. Ions were formed via electron impact ionization and were ejected by turning off the rf voltage applied to the ring electrode; a current signal was collected at this time. Optimum ionization and trapping conditions, such as a sufficient pseudopotential well and high ionization to ion loss rate ratio (as determined by simulation), proved to be difficult to establish due to the high device capacitance and the presence of exposed dielectric material in the trapping region. However, evidence was obtained suggesting the trapping of ions in 1%-15% of the traps in the array. These first tests on micrometer-scale CITs indicated the necessary materials and device design modifications for realizing ultrasmall and low power ion traps.

  3. Enhanced Reactivity in Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Ion/Ion Reactions Using Triazole-Ester Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiexun; Peng, Zhou; Zhao, Feifei; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-02-01

    The acyl substitution reactions between 1-hydroxy-7-aza-benzotriazole (HOAt)/1-hydroxy-benzotriazole (HOBt) ester reagents and nucleophilic side chains on peptides have been demonstrated in the gas phase via ion/ion reactions. The HOAt/HOBt ester reagents were synthesized in solution and ionized via negative nano-electrospray ionization. The anionic reagents were then reacted with doubly protonated model peptides containing amines, guanidines, and imidazoles in the gas phase. The complexes formed in the reaction cell were further probed with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID) yielding either a covalently modified analyte ion or a proton transfer product ion. The covalent reaction yield of HOAt/HOBt ester reagents was demonstrated to be higher than the yield with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester reagents over a range of equivalent conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed with a primary amine model system for both triazole-ester and NHS-ester reactants, which indicated a lower transition state barrier for the former reagent, consistent with experiments. The work herein demonstrates that the triazole-ester reagents are more reactive, and therefore less selective, than the analogous NHS-ester reagent. As a consequence, the triazole-ester reagents are the first to show efficient reactivity with unprotonated histidine residues in the gas phase. For all nucleophilic sites and all reagents, covalent reactions are favored under long time, low amplitude activation conditions. This work presents a novel class of reagents capable of gas-phase conjugation to nucleophilic sites in analyte ions via ion/ion chemistry.

  4. Two regimes in the decay behavior of ions from a linear r.f. Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, Jonathan; Wells, James; Goodman, Douglas; Blümel, Reinhold; Smith, Winthrop

    2016-05-01

    A linear Paul trap (LPT) enables ions to be trapped for use in a variety of experiments. In many of these experiments, such as those measuring charge exchange or sympathetic cooling, the decay of ions from the trap is used to measure some quantity of interest. This decay is typically modeled as a single exponential. We have found that in cases where the trap is loaded to high numbers of ions, the ion decay is better described by a double exponential decay function. We have experimentally examined the decay of ions from an LPT loaded by photoionization from a magneto-optical trap as a function of the q stability parameter of the Paul trap. The LPT is loaded to steady-state, then the loading is stopped and the number of trapped ions as a function of time is monitored to determine the decay. We present numerical simulations and experimental results that demonstrate two distinct regions in the decay. For high steady-state values, the trap exhibits a double-exponential behavior. However, if the trap is filled to a steady-state value below a threshold, the decay recovers the typical single-exponential behavior. This behavior should be universal to any Paul trap regardless of the geometry or species trapped. NSF Grant No. PHY-1307874.

  5. Space charge effect on parametric resonances of ion cloud in a linear Paul trap

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, P; De Munshi, D; Dutta, T; Mukherjee, M

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the presence of a finite number of ions on their parametric resonances inside a Paul trap has been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The Coulomb coupling among the charged particles results in two distinct phenomena: one is the frequency shift of the trapped ion oscillators and second is the collective oscillation of the trapped ion cloud. We observe both in a linear trap configuration. It is found that the strength and the secular frequency of individual ion-oscillation decrease while the strength of the collective oscillation increases with increasing number of trapped ions. The observation has been modeled by considering the space charge potential as an effective dc potential inside the trap. It describes the observations well within the experimental uncertainties.

  6. Low energy ion-molecule reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, J.M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with elucidating the dynamics of elementary ion-molecule reactions at collision energies near and below 1 eV. From measurements of the angular and energy distributions of the reaction products, one can infer intimathe details about the nature of collisions leading to chemical reaction, the geometries and lifetimes of intermediate complexes that govern the reaction dynamics, and the collision energy dependence of these dynamical features. The author employs crossed-beam low energy mass spectrometry technology developed over the last several years, with the focus of current research on proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of te O{sup {minus}} ion with species such as HF, H{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3}.

  7. Integrated Fiber-Mirror Ion Trap for Strong Ion-Cavity Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Brandstätter, Birgit; Schüppert, Klemens; Casabone, Bernardo; Friebe, Konstantin; Stute, Andreas; Schmidt, Piet O; Deutsch, Christian; Reichel, Jakob; Blatt, Rainer; Northup, Tracy E

    2013-01-01

    We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to $12$ for FFPCs longer than $200 \\mu$m in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber m...

  8. Direct trace analysis of metals and alloys in a quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Song, K S; Yang, M; Cha, H K; Lee, J M; Lee, G H

    1999-01-01

    An ion-trap mass spectrometer adopting a quadrupole ion-trap and laser ablation/ionization method was constructed. The developed system was tested for composition analysis of some metals (Cu, stainless), and alloys (hastalloy C, mumetal) by mass spectrometry. Samples were analyzed by using laser ablation from a sample probe tip followed by a mass analysis with the quadrupole ion-trap. The quadrupole ion-trap was modified to enable laser ablation by a XeCl excimer laser pulse that passed radially through the ring electrode. A mass scan of the produced ions was performed in the mass selective instability mode wherein trapped ions were successively detected by increasing the rf voltage through the ring electrode. Factors affecting the mass resolution, such as pressure of buffer gas and ablation laser power, are discussed.

  9. Plug-and-Play Planar Ion Traps for Scalable Quantum Computation and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Jason; Denison, Douglas; Doret, S. Charles; Faircloth, Daniel; Hayden, Harley; Killian, Tyler; Landgren, David; Martin, Kevin; Merrill, True; Ozakin, Arkadas; Pai, C. S.; Shaikh, Fayaz; Shappert, Chris; Volin, Curtis; Wright, Ken; Harter, Alexa; Slusher, Richart

    2011-05-01

    At the heart of most ion-based quantum information processing and simulation efforts is an RF-Paul trap to confine the ion qubits. Cutting edge experiments are transitioning from a few qubits to a few tens of qubits with many more qubits envisioned for the future. The underlying ion traps need to both grow with the experiments and provide additional features that can simplify and extend these experiments. The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing modeling and fabrication processes for these new generations of ion traps using silicon VLSI technology in surface- electrode geometries. Verified by detailed in-house trap characterization, GTRI has fabricated traps that approach the plug- and-play ideal and demonstrate reliable ion loading and transport, long dark lifetimes, and stable ion chains. Additional features are in development including junctions, integrated GHz range current guides for global qubit rotations, and micromirrors for light collection.

  10. Two-dimensional ion trap lattice on a microchip for quantum simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, R C; Weidt, S; Lake, K; Srinivasan, P; Webster, S C; Kraft, M; Hensinger, W K

    2013-01-01

    Using a controllable quantum system it is possible to simulate other highly complex quantum systems efficiently overcoming an in-principle limitation of classical computing. Trapped ions constitute such a highly controllable quantum system. So far, no dedicated architectures for the simulation of two-dimensional spin lattices using trapped ions in radio-frequency ion traps have been produced, limiting the possibility of carrying out such quantum simulations on a large scale. We report the operation of a two-dimensional ion trap lattice integrated in a microchip capable of implementing quantum simulations of two-dimensional spin lattices. Our device provides a scalable microfabricated architecture for trapping such ion lattices with coupling strengths between neighbouring ions sufficient to provide a powerful platform for the implementation of quantum simulations. In order to realize this device we developed a specialist fabrication process that allows for the application of very large voltages. We fabricated ...

  11. Vibratile Coherence and Squeezing in Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENGHao-Sheng; KUANGLe-Man; 等

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that two trapped ions interacting with laser beams resonant to the first red side-band of center-of-mass mode,in Lamb-Dicke regime and under rotating wave approximation,is described by a Jaynes-Cummings model.For the initial condition that the motional state of center-of-mass mode is in vacuum state and the internal state is prepared in a coherent superposition of states,coherence and squeezing for the vibratile motion of center-of-mass mode are discussed,particularly,a“weak” coherent state and a “weak” squeezed vacuum state are obtained.Collapse and revival are also observed in this type of initial condition.

  12. Detecting unambiguously non-Abelian geometric phases with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xinding; Hu Liangbin; Zhu Shiliang [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Z D [Department of Physics and Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Zhang Zhiming [Laboratory of Photonic Information Technology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou (China)], E-mail: slzhu@scnu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to disclose the noncommutative effects induced by a light-induced non-Abelian gauge structure with trapped ions. Under an appropriate configuration, a true non-Abelian gauge potential naturally arises in connection with the geometric phase associated with two degenerated dark states in a four-state atomic system interacting with three pulsed laser fields. We show that the population in the atomic state at the end of a composed path formed by two closed loops C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} in the parameter space can be significantly different from the composed counter-ordered path. This population difference is directly induced by the noncommutative feature of non-Abelian geometric phases and can be detected unambiguously with current technology.

  13. Gate Set Tomography on a trapped ion qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erik; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Gamble, John; Rundinger, Kenneth; Mizrahi, Jonathan; Sterk, Johathan; Maunz, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We present enhancements to gate-set tomography (GST), which is a framework in which an entire set of quantum logic gates (including preparation and measurement) can be fully characterized without need for pre-calibrated operations. Our new method, ``extended Linear GST'' (eLGST) uses fast, reliable analysis of structured long gate sequences to deliver tomographic precision at the Heisenberg limit with GST's calibration-free framework. We demonstrate this precision on a trapped-ion qubit, and show significant (orders of magnitude) advantage over both standard process tomography and randomized benchmarking. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  14. Investigating the origin of time with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Massar, Serge; Varón, Andrés F; Wunderlich, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Even though quantum systems in energy eigenstates do not evolve in time, they can exhibit correlations between internal degrees of freedom in such a way that one of the internal degrees of freedom behaves like a clock variable, and thereby defines an internal time, that parametrises the evolution of the other degrees of freedom. This situation is of great interest in quantum cosmology where the invariance under reparametrisation of time implies that the temporal coordinate dissapears and is replaced by the Wheeler-DeWitt constraint. Here we show that this paradox can be investigated experimentally using the exquisite control now available on moderate size quantum systems. We describe in detail how to implement such an experimental demonstration using the spin and motional degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion.

  15. Beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy using ion traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Barbara; Czeszumska, A.; Siegl, K.; Caldwell, S.; Aprahamian, A.; Burkey, M.; Clark, J.; Levand, A.; Marley, S.; Morgan, G.; Norman, E.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Padgett, S.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Scielzo, N.; Sharma, K.; Strauss, S.

    2017-01-01

    Trapped radioactive ions suspended in vacuum allow for a new way to perform beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy. Decay branching ratios and energy spectra of the emitted neutrons are inferred from a measurement of the nuclear recoil, thereby circumventing the many limitations associated with direct neutron detection. Beta-delayed neutron measurements were carried out for 137-138,140I, 134-136Sb, and 144-145Cs at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The data collected are needed in many fields of basic and applied science such as nuclear energy, nuclear astrophysics, and stockpile stewardship. Results for the isotopes 135-136Sb and 140I will be presented. Supported by NSF under PHY-1419765, and U.S. DOE under NEUP 13-5485, DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL), DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and DE-NA0000979 (NNSA).

  16. VECSEL systems for generation and manipulation of trapped magnesium ions

    CERN Document Server

    Burd, Shaun C; Leinonen, Tomi; Penttinen, Jussi-Pekka; Slichter, Daniel H; Srinivas, Raghavendra; Wilson, Andrew C; Jördens, Robert; Guina, Mircea; Leibfried, Dietrich; Wineland, David J

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics rely on lasers at many different wavelengths and with varying requirements on spectral linewidth, power, and intensity stability. Vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VECSELs), when combined with nonlinear frequency conversion, can potentially replace many of the laser systems currently in use. Here we present and characterize VECSEL systems that can perform all laser-based tasks for quantum information processing experiments with trapped magnesium ions. For photoionization of neutral magnesium, 570.6$\\,$nm light is generated with an intracavity frequency-doubled VECSEL containing a lithium triborate (LBO) crystal for second harmonic generation. External frequency doubling produces 285.3$\\,$nm light for resonant interaction with the $^{1}S_{0}\\leftrightarrow$ $^{1}P_{1}$ transition of neutral Mg. Using an externally frequency-quadrupled VECSEL, we implement Doppler cooling of $^{25}$Mg$^{+}$ on the 279.6$\\,$nm $^{2}S_{1/2}\\leftrightarrow...

  17. Fast scheme for generating quantum-interference states and G HZ state of N trapped ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiao-Juan; Fang Mao-Fa; Liao Xiang-Ping; Cai Jian-Wu; Cao Shuai

    2007-01-01

    We propose a fast scheme to generate the quantum-interference states of N trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are driven by a standing-wave laser beam whose carrier frequency is tuned such that the ion transition can take place.We also propose a simple and fast scheme to produce the GHZ state of N hot trapped ions and this scheme is insensitive to the heating of vibrational motion, which is important from the viewpoint of decoherence.

  18. Charge state dependent fragmentation of gaseous [alpha]-synuclein cations via ion trap and beam-type collisional activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthamontri, Chamnongsak; Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-06-01

    Ions derived from nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) of [alpha]-synuclein, a 14.5 kDa, 140 amino acid residue protein that is a major component of the Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson's disease, have been subjected to ion trap and beam-type collisional activation. The former samples products from fragmentation at rates generally lower than 100 s-1 whereas the latter samples products from fragmentation at rates generally greater than 103 s-1. A wide range of protein charge states spanning from as high as [M+17H]17+ to as low as [M+4H]4+ have been formed either directly from nano-ESI or via ion/ion proton transfer reactions involving the initially formed protein cations and have been subjected to both forms of collision-induced dissociation (CID). The extent of sequence information (i.e., number of distinct amide bond cleavages) available from either CID method was found to be highly sensitive to protein precursor ion charge state. Furthermore, the relative contributions of the various competing dissociation channels were also dependent upon precursor ion charge state. The qualitative trends in the changes in extent of amide bond cleavages and identities of bonds cleaved with precursor ion charge state were similar for two forms of CID. However, for every charge state examined, roughly twice the primary sequence information resulted from beam-type CID relative to ion trap CID. For example, evidence for cleavage of 86% of the protein amide bonds was observed for the [M+9H]9+ precursor ion using beam-type CID whereas 41% of the bonds were cleaved for the same precursor ion using ion trap CID. The higher energies required to drive fragmentation reactions at rates necessary to observe products in the beam experiment access more of the structurally informative fragmentation channels, which has important implications for whole protein tandem mass spectrometry.

  19. UV-sensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detectors for integration in an ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Slichter, D H; Leibfried, D; Mirin, R P; Nam, S W; Wineland, D J

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate superconducting nanowire single photon detectors with 76 +/- 4 % system detection efficiency at a wavelength of 315 nm and an operating temperature of 3.2 K, with a background count rate below 1 count per second at saturated detection efficiency. We propose integrating these detectors into planar surface electrode radio-frequency Paul traps for use in trapped ion quantum information processing. We operate detectors integrated into test ion trap structures at 3.8 K both with and without typical radio-frequency trapping electric fields. The trapping fields reduce system detection efficiency by 9 %, but do not increase background count rates.

  20. Extending the dynamic range of the ion trap by differential mobility filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adam B; Coy, Stephen L; Kafle, Amol; Glick, James; Nazarov, Erkinjon; Vouros, Paul

    2013-09-01

    A miniature, planar, differential ion mobility spectrometer (DMS) was interfaced to an LCQ classic ion trap to conduct selective ion filtration prior to mass analysis in order to extend the dynamic range of the trap. Space charge effects are known to limit the functional ion storage capacity of ion trap mass analyzers and this, in turn, can affect the quality of the mass spectral data generated. This problem is further exacerbated in the analysis of mixtures where the indiscriminate introduction of matrix ions results in premature trap saturation with non-targeted species, thereby reducing the number of parent ions that may be used to conduct MS/MS experiments for quantitation or other diagnostic studies. We show that conducting differential mobility-based separations prior to mass analysis allows the isolation of targeted analytes from electrosprayed mixtures preventing the indiscriminate introduction of matrix ions and premature trap saturation with analytically unrelated species. Coupling these two analytical techniques is shown to enhance the detection of a targeted drug metabolite from a biological matrix. In its capacity as a selective ion filter, the DMS can improve the analytical performance of analyzers such as quadrupole (3D or linear) and ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) ion traps that depend on ion accumulation.

  1. Extending the Dynamic Range of the Ion Trap by Differential Mobility Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Adam B.; Coy, Stephen L.; Kafle, Amol; Glick, James; Nazarov, Erkinjon

    2013-01-01

    A miniature, planar, differential ion mobility spectrometer (DMS) was interfaced to an LCQ classic ion trap to conduct selective ion filtration prior to mass analysis in order to extend the dynamic range of the trap. Space charge effects are known to limit the functional ion storage capacity of ion trap mass analyzers and this, in turn, can affect the quality of the mass spectral data generated. This problem is further exacerbated in the analysis of mixtures where the indiscriminate introduction of matrix ions results in premature trap saturation with non-targeted species, thereby reducing the number of parent ions that may be used to conduct MS/MS experiments for quantitation or other diagnostic studies. We show that conducting differential mobility-based separations prior to mass analysis allows the isolation of targeted analytes from electrosprayed mixtures preventing the indiscriminate introduction of matrix ions and premature trap saturation with analytically unrelated species. Coupling these two analytical techniques is shown to enhance the detection of a targeted drug metabolite from a biological matrix. In its capacity as a selective ion filter, the DMS can improve the analytical performance of analyzers such as quadrupole (3-D or linear) and ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) ion traps that depend on ion accumulation. PMID:23797861

  2. A proposal for a scalable universal bosonic simulator using individually trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Hoi-Kwan

    2012-01-01

    We describe a possible architecture to implement a universal bosonic simulator (UBS) using trapped ions. Single ions are confined in individual traps, and their motional states represent the bosonic modes. Single-mode linear operators, nonlinear phase-shifts, and linear beam splitters can be realized by precisely controlling the trapping potentials. All the processes in a bosonic simulation, except the initialization and the readout, can be conducted beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime. Aspects of our proposal can also be applied to split adiabatically a pair of ions in a single trap.

  3. Surface-electrode trap with an integrated permanent magnet for generating a magnetic-field gradient at trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yuji; Shimizu, Kenji; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji; Tanaka, Utako

    2017-01-01

    We report on a surface-electrode trap with SmCo magnets arranged in a quadrupole configuration underneath the trap electrode. Because the distance between the magnets and the trapped ions can be as little as several hundred micrometers, a large magnetic field is produced without any heat management. The magnetic-field gradient was measured using the Zeeman splitting of a single trapped 40Ca+ ion at several positions, and a field gradient of 36 T m-1 was obtained. Such a field gradient is useful for the generation of a state-dependent force, which is important for quantum simulation and/or quantum gate operation using radio-frequency or microwave radiation.

  4. Surface-electrode trap with an integrated permanent magnet for generating a magnetic-field gradient at trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yuji; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji; Tanaka, Utako

    2016-01-01

    We report on a surface-electrode trap with SmCo magnets arranged in a quadrupole configuration underneath the trap electrode. Because the distance between the magnets and the trapped ions can be as little as several hundred micrometers, a large magnetic field is produced without any heat management. The magnetic-field gradient was measured using the Zeeman splitting of a single trapped $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ion at several positions, and a field gradient of 36 T/m was obtained. Such a field gradient is useful for the generation of a state-dependent force, which is important for quantum simulation and/or quantum gate operation using radio-frequency or microwave radiation.

  5. Laser-induced acoustic desorption coupled with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Steven C; Amundson, Lucas M; Duan, Penggao; Vinueza, Nelson R; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2010-01-15

    In recent years, laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) coupled with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer has been demonstrated to provide a valuable technique for the analysis of a wide variety of nonvolatile, thermally labile compounds, including analytes that could not previously be analyzed by mass spectrometry. Although FT-ICR instruments are very powerful, they are also large and expensive and, hence, mainly used as research instruments. In contrast, linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) mass spectrometers are common due to several qualities that make these instruments attractive for both academic and industrial settings, such as high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and experimental versatility. Further, the relatively small size of the instruments, comparatively low cost, and the lack of a magnetic field provide some distinct advantages over FT-ICR instruments. Hence, we have coupled the LIAD technique with a commercial LQIT, the Thermo Fischer Scientific LTQ mass spectrometer. The LQIT was modified for a LIAD probe by outfitting the removable back plate of the instrument with a 6 in. ConFlat flange (CFF) port, gate valve, and sample lock. Reagent ions were created using the LQIT's atmospheric pressure ionization source and trapped in the mass analyzer for up to 10 s to allow chemical ionization reactions with the neutral molecules desorbed via LIAD. These initial experiments focused on demonstrating the feasibility of performing LIAD in the LQIT. Hence, the results are compared to those obtained using an FT-ICR mass spectrometer. Despite the lower efficiency in the transfer of desorbed neutral molecules into the ion trap, and the smaller maximum number of available laser pulses, the intrinsically higher sensitivity of the LQIT resulted in a higher sensitivity relative to the FT-ICR.

  6. Practical aspects of trapped ion mass spectrometry, 4 theory and instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    March, Raymond E

    2010-01-01

    The expansion of the use of ion trapping in different areas of mass spectrometry and different areas of application indicates the value of a single source of information drawing together diverse inputs. This book provides an account of the theory and instrumentation of mass spectrometric applications and an introduction to ion trapping devices.

  7. SQUEEZING PROPERTIES OF A TRAPPED ION IN THE STANDING-WAVE LASER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG MAO-FA; LIU XIANG

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the squeezing properties of a trapped ion in a standing-wave laser. Our results show that the squeezing of a trapped ion in the standing-wave laser is dependent on its position in the latter, the detuning parameter and the initial average phonon number.

  8. Ion traps for precision experiments at rare-isotope-beam facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Ion traps first entered experimental nuclear physics when the ISOLTRAP team demonstrated Penning trap mass spectrometry of radionuclides. From then on, the demand for ion traps has grown at radioactive-ion-beam (RIB) facilities since beams can be tailored for the desired experiment. Ion traps have been deployed for beam preparation, from bunching (thereby allowing time coincidences) to beam purification. Isomerically pure beams needed for nuclear-structure investigations can be prepared for trap-assisted or in-trap decay spectroscopy. The latter permits studies of highly charged ions for stellar evolution, which would be impossible with traditional experimental nuclear-physics methods. Moreover, the textbook-like conditions and advanced ion manipulation - even of a single ion - permit high-precision experiments. Consequently, the most accurate and precise mass measurements are now performed in Penning traps. After a brief introduction to ion trapping, I will focus on examples which showcase the versatility and utility of the technique at RIB facilities. I will demonstrate how this atomic-physics technique has been integrated into nuclear science, accelerator physics, and chemistry. DOE.

  9. Trapped ions in the strong-excitation regime: Ion interferometry and nonclassical states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyatos, J.F.; Cirac, J.I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Blatt, R. [Institut fuer Experimental Physik, Universitaet Goettingen, 37073 Goettingen (Germany); Zoller, P. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    1996-08-01

    The interaction of a trapped ion with a laser beam in the strong-excitation regime is analyzed. In this regime, a variety of nonclassical states of motion can be prepared either by using laser pulses of well defined area, or by an adiabatic passage scheme based on the variation of the laser frequency. We show how these states can be used to investigate fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. We also study possible applications of this system to build an ion interferometer. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Quantum Simulation of Frustrated Magnetism with Many Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Crystal

    2013-05-01

    A collection of trapped atomic ions is an excellent system for simulating quantum many-body physics, like magnetism, which may be difficult to access via classical computation or traditional condensed-matter experiments. Our large crystals of 10-20 ions comprise a platform to study a long-range quantum Ising model with tunable couplings in a 1D spin chain. State-dependent optical dipole forces exploit the Coulomb interaction to generate the spin-spin couplings, and fluorescence measurements on a camera are used to read out individual spin states. We investigated the spin order resulting from changing the range of antiferromagnetic interactions or the strength of an axial magnetic field, demonstrating our control over the amount of frustration present. We are turning to the study of dynamics in this system, with the aim of exploring topics including adiabaticity, spectroscopy of the Hamiltonian, the emergence of Kibble-Zurek-like behavior in a finite system, thermalization in an isolated quantum system, and nonequilibrium phase transitions. There is great promise in extending the system to 30+ spins, where computations become classically intractable. Co-authors are R. Islam, P. Richerme, W. C. Campbell, S. Korenblit, J. Smith, A. Lee, E. E. Edwards, C.-C. J. Wang, J. K. Freericks, and C. Monroe. This work is supported by grants from the U.S. Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, IARPA, and the MURI program; and the NSF Physics Frontier Center at JQI.

  11. Formation of molecular ions by radiative association of cold trapped atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Humberto Da; Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Radiative emission during cold collisions between trapped laser-cooled Rb atoms and alkaline-earth ions (Ca + , Sr + , Ba +) and Yb + are studied theoretically, using accurate effective-core-potential based quantum chemistry calculations of potential energy curves and transition dipole moments of the related molecular ions. Radiative association of molecular ions is predicted to occur for all systems with a cross section two to ten times larger than the radiative charge transfer one. Partial and total rate constants are also calculated and compared to available experiments. Narrow shape resonances are expected, which could be detectable at low temperature with an experimental resolution at the limit of the present standards. Vibrational distributions are also calculated, showing that the final molecular ions are not created in their ground state level.

  12. A grooved planar ion trap design for scalable quantum information processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Wei-Bang; Wan Jin-Yin; Cheng Hua-Dong; Liu Liang

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new electrode design for a grooved surface-electrode ion trap,which is fabricated in printed-circuitboard technology with segmented electrodes.This design allows a laser beam to get through the central groove to avoid optical access blocking and laser scattering from the ion trap surface.The confining potentials are modeled both analytically and numerically.We optimize the radio frequency (rf) electrodes and dc electrodes to achieve the maximum trap depth for a given ion height above the trap electrodes.We also compare our design with the reality ion chip MI I for practical considerations.Comparison results show that our design is superior to MI I.This ion trap design may form the basis for large scale quantum computers or parallel quadrupole mass spectrometers.

  13. Ion-photon entanglement and quantum frequency conversion with trapped Ba+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siverns, J D; Li, X; Quraishi, Q

    2017-01-20

    Trapped ions are excellent candidates for quantum nodes, as they possess many desirable features of a network node including long lifetimes, on-site processing capability, and production of photonic flying qubits. However, unlike classical networks in which data may be transmitted in optical fibers and where the range of communication is readily extended with amplifiers, quantum systems often emit photons that have a limited propagation range in optical fibers and, by virtue of the nature of a quantum state, cannot be noiselessly amplified. Here, we first describe a method to extract flying qubits from a Ba+ trapped ion via shelving to a long-lived, low-lying D-state with higher entanglement probabilities compared with current strong and weak excitation methods. We show a projected fidelity of ≈89% of the ion-photon entanglement. We compare several methods of ion-photon entanglement generation, and we show how the fidelity and entanglement probability varies as a function of the photon collection optic's numerical aperture. We then outline an approach for quantum frequency conversion of the photons emitted by the Ba+ ion to the telecommunication range for long-distance networking and to 780 nm for potential entanglement with rubidium-based quantum memories. Our approach is significant for extending the range of quantum networks and for the development of hybrid quantum networks compromised of different types of quantum memories.

  14. Trapped-ion Lissajous trajectories by engineering Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit interactions in a Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, R. F.; de Moraes Neto, G. D.; Egues, J. Carlos; Moussa, M. H. Y.

    2016-09-01

    Here we present a protocol for generating Lissajous curves with a trapped ion by engineering Rashba- and the Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit (SO) interactions in a Paul trap. The unique anisotropic Rashba αx , αy and Dresselhaus βx , βy couplings afforded by our setup also enable us to obtain an “unusual” Zitterbewegung, i.e., the semiconductor analog of the relativistic trembling motion of electrons, with cycloidal trajectories in the absence of magnetic fields. We have also introduced bounded SO interactions, confined to an upper-bound vibrational subspace of the Fock states, as an additional mechanism to manipulate the Lissajous motion of the trapped ion. We have also accounted for dissipative effects on the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ion and find that the Lissajous trajectories are still robust and well defined for realistic parameters.

  15. CrossRef Space-charge effects in Penning ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Porobić, T; Breitenfeldt, M; Couratin, C; Finlay, P; Knecht, A; Fabian, X; Friedag, P; Fléchard, X; Liénard, E; Ban, G; Zákoucký, D; Soti, G; Van Gorp, S; Weinheimer, Ch; Wursten, E; Severijns, N

    2015-01-01

    The influence of space-charge on ion cyclotron resonances and magnetron eigenfrequency in a gas-filled Penning ion trap has been investigated. Off-line measurements with View the MathML source using the cooling trap of the WITCH retardation spectrometer-based setup at ISOLDE/CERN were performed. Experimental ion cyclotron resonances were compared with ab initio Coulomb simulations and found to be in agreement. As an important systematic effect of the WITCH experiment, the magnetron eigenfrequency of the ion cloud was studied under increasing space-charge conditions. Finally, the helium buffer gas pressure in the Penning trap was determined by comparing experimental cooling rates with simulations.

  16. Efficient Fluorescence Collection from Trapped Ion Qubits with an Integrated Spherical Mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, G; Dietrich, M R; Blinov, B B

    2009-01-01

    Efficient collection of fluorescence from trapped ion qubits is crucial for qubit state detection and in generating ion-photon and remote ion entanglement. In a typical setup, only a few per cent of ion fluorescence is intercepted by the aperture of the imaging optics. We employ a simple metallic spherical mirror integrated with a linear Paul ion trap to achieve photon collection efficiency of at least 10% from a single Ba$^+$ ion qubit. An aspheric corrector is used to largely reduce the aberrations caused by the mirror and achieve high image quality.

  17. A Linear Ion Trap with an Expanded Inscribed Diameter to Improve Optical Access for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Stokes, Chris; Ferzoco, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    We report a custom-geometry linear ion trap designed for fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions at ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Laser-induced fluorescence from trapped ions is collected from between the trapping rods, orthogonal to the excitation laser that runs along the axis of the linear ion trap. To increase optical access to the ion cloud, the diameter of the round trapping rods is 80% of the inscribed diameter, rather than the roughly 110% used to approximate purely quadrupolar electric fields. To encompass as much of the ion cloud as possible, the first collection optic has a 25.4 mm diameter and a numerical aperture of 0.6. The choice of geometry and collection optics yields 107 detected photons/s from trapped rhodamine 6G ions. The trap is coupled to a closed-cycle helium refrigerator, which in combination with two 50 Ohm heaters enables temperature control to below 25 K on the rod electrodes. The purpose of the instrument is to broaden the applicability of fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions to cases where photon emission is a minority relaxation pathway. Such studies are important to understand how the microenvironment of a chromophore influences excited state charge transfer processes. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. A novel ion cooling trap for multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y., E-mail: yito@riken.jp [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Schury, P. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); New Mexico State University, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Wada, M.; Naimi, S. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Smorra, C. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sonoda, T. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mita, H. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Takamine, A. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoyama Gakuin University, 4-4-25 Shibuya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8366 (Japan); Okada, K. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Wollnik, H. [SLOWRI Team, Nishina Accelerator-Based Research Center, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); New Mexico State University, Department Chemistry and Biochemistry, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Fast cooling time: 2 ms. • High efficiency: ≈27% for {sup 23}Na{sup +} and ≈5.1% for {sup 7}Li{sup +}. • 100% Duty cycle with double trap system. -- Abstract: A radiofrequency quadrupole ion trap system for use with a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph (MRTOF) for short-lived nuclei has been developed. The trap system consists of two different parts, an asymmetric taper trap and a flat trap. The ions are cooled to a sufficient small bunch for precise mass measurement with MRTOF in only 2 ms cooling time in the flat trap, then orthogonally ejected to the MRTOF for mass analysis. A trapping efficiency of ≈27% for {sup 23}Na{sup +} and ≈5.1% for {sup 7}Li{sup +} has been achieved.

  19. Studies of highly charged iron ions using electron beam ion traps for interpreting astrophysical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G. V.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Clementson, J.; Eberle, S.; Epp, S. W.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kubiček, K.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Mäckel, V.; Porter, F. S.; Rudolph, J. K.; Simon, M. C.; Steinbrügge, R.; Träbert, E.; Ullrich, J.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Beiersdorfer, P.

    2013-09-01

    For over a decade, the x-ray astrophysics community has enjoyed a fruitful epoch of discovery largely as a result of the successful launch and operation of the high resolution, high sensitivity spectrometers on board the Chandra, XMM-Newton and Suzaku x-ray observatories. With the launch of the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer on the Astro-H x-ray observatory in 2014, the diagnostic power of high resolution spectroscopy will be extended to some of the hottest, largest and most exotic objects in our Universe. The diagnostic utility of these spectrometers is directly coupled to, and often limited by, our understanding of the x-ray production mechanisms associated with the highly charged ions present in the astrophysical source. To provide reliable benchmarks of theoretical calculations and to address specific problems facing the x-ray astrophysics community, electron beam ion traps have been used in laboratory astrophysics experiments to study the x-ray signatures of highly charged ions. A brief overview of the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap operated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik's FLASH-EBIT operated at third and fourth generation advanced light sources, including a discussion of some of the results are presented.

  20. Ion-neutral chemistry at ultralow energies: Dynamics of reactive collisions between laser-cooled Ca^+ ions and Rb atoms in an ion-atom hybrid trap

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Felix H J; Hegi, Gregor; Raoult, Maurice; Aymar, Mireille; Dulieu, Olivier; Willitsch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cold chemical reactions between laser-cooled Ca^+ ions and Rb atoms were studied in an ion-atom hybrid trap. Reaction rate constants were determined in the range of collision energies /k_B = 20 mK-20 K. The lowest energies were achieved in experiments using single localized Ca^+ ions. Product branching ratios were studied using resonant-excitation mass spectrometry. The dynamics of the reactive processes in this system (non-radiative and radiative charge transfer as well as radiative association leading to the formation of CaRb^+ molecular ions) have been analyzed using high-level quantum-chemical calculations of the potential energy curves of CaRb^+ and quantum-scattering calculations for the radiative channels. For the present low-energy scattering experiments, it is shown that the energy dependence of the reaction rate constants is governed by long-range interactions in line with the classical Langevin model, but their magnitude is determined by short-range non-adiabatic and radiative couplings which only ...

  1. Compensated Multi-Pole Mercury Trapped Ion Frequency Standard and Stability Evaluation of Systematic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, E. A.; Taghavi-Larigani, S.; Prestage, J. D.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    We have developed a compensated multi-pole Linear Ion Trap Standard (LITS) that eliminates nearly all frequency sensitivity to residual ion number variations. When operated with 199Hg+, this trapped ion clock has recently demonstrated extremely good stability over a 9-month period. The short-term stability has been measured at 5 × 10-14/τ1/2 and an upper limit on long-term fractional frequency deviations of REFID="9789812838223_0037FN001">

  2. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  3. Ion irradiation of graphene on Ir(111): From trapping to blistering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, Charlotte; Åhlgren, E. Harriet; Valerius, Philipp; Schröder, Ulrike A.; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Arman, Mohammad A.; Kotakoski, Jani; Knudsen, Jan; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Michely, Thomas

    Graphene grown epitaxially on Ir(111) is irradiated with low energy noble gas ions and the processes induced by atomic collision and subsequent annealing are analyzed using scanning tunneling microscopy, low energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron diffraction and thermal desorption spectroscopy. Upon room temperature ion irradiation graphene amorphizes and recovers its crystalline structure during annealing. The energetic noble gas projectiles are trapped with surprisingly high efficiency under the graphene cover up to extremely high temperatures beyond 1300K. The energy, angle, and ion species dependence of trapping are quantified. At elevated temperatures the trapped gas forms well developed and highly pressurized blisters under the graphene cover. We use molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations to elucidate the trapping mechanism and its thermal robustness. Similar trapping and blistering are observed after ion irradiation of a single layer of hexagonal boron nitride on Ir(111) and we speculate on the generality of the observed phenomena.

  4. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  5. Mean Field Model of Coagulation and Annihilation Reactions in a Medium of Quenched Traps: Subdiffusion

    OpenAIRE

    I. M. Sokolov; Yuste, S. B.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2008-01-01

    We present a mean field model for coagulation ($A+A\\to A$) and annihilation ($A+A\\to 0$) reactions on lattices of traps with a distribution of depths reflected in a distribution of mean escape times. The escape time from each trap is exponentially distributed about the mean for that trap, and the distribution of mean escape times is a power law. Even in the absence of reactions, the distribution of particles over sites changes with time as particles are caught in ever deeper traps, that is, t...

  6. The streaming-trapped ion interface in the equatorial inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J.; Horwitz, J. L.; Gallagher, D.; Pollock, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements of core ions on L=4-7 field-lines typically show trapped ion distributions near the magnetic equator, and frequently indicate field-aligned ion streams at higher latitudes. The nature of the transition between them may indicate both the microphysics of hot-cold plasma interactions and overall consequences for core plasma evolution. We have undertaken a statistical analysis and characterization of this interface and its relation to the equatorial region of the inner magnetosphere. In this analysis, we have characterized such features as the equatorial ion flux anisotropy, the penetration of field-aligned ionospheric streams into the equatorial region, the scale of the transition into trapped ion populations, and the transition latitude. We found that most transition latitudes occur within 13 deg of the equator. The typical values of equatorial ion anisotropies are consistent with bi-Maxwellian temperature ratios of T(sub perpendicular)/T(sub parallel) in the range of 3-5. The latitudinal scales for the edges of the trapped ion populations display a rather strong peak in the 2-3 deg range. We also found that there is a trend for the penetration ratio, the anisotropy half width, and the transition scale length to decrease with a higher equatorial ion anisotropy. We may interpret these features in terms of Liouville mapping of equatorially trapped ions and the reflection of the incoming ionospheric ion streams from the equatorial potential peaks associated with such trapped ions.

  7. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, I.; Carlberg, C.; Fritioff, T.; Douysset, G.; Schoenfelder, J.; Schuch, R. E-mail: schuch@physto.se

    2002-07-21

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a time. In this paper we demonstrate that mass precision of a few parts in 10{sup 10} also can be obtained in a warm trap at a pressure of about 5x10{sup -12} mbar by stabilizing the pressure in the He-dewar, the trap temperature and the frequency synthesizer. In order to reduce the influence of changes of the magnetic field to a level below 10{sup -10}, the scanning of the frequencies close to the resonances of both the ion of interest and the reference ion is done in a total time <2 min. Trapping of ions is a statistical procedure, allowing more than one ion to be trapped in each measurement cycle. However, after completing the measurements it is possible to reject all information except for events based on 1 and 2 trapped ions. The procedures of producing, transporting, catching, exciting and measuring the cyclotron resonance frequencies of highly charged ions and the mass reference ions with the time-of-flight method are described. In routine measurements with

  8. Poly-anion production in Penning and RFQ ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandelow, Steffi; Martinez, Franklin; Marx, Gerrit; Schweikhard, Lutz [Institute for Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The poly-anion production is being investigated in Penning and linear radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) traps at the ClusterTrap setup. The range of anionic charge states produced with the electron-bath technique in a Penning trap is restricted by the upper mass limit of this trap. By installation of a cylindrical Penning trap with a 12-Tesla superconducting magnet, the mass and thus cluster-size range is enhanced by a factor of 20 compared to the previously used hyperbolic 5-Tesla Penning trap. For first experimental tests with the 12-Tesla cylindrical Penning trap, gold cluster mono-anions Au{sup n-1}, n=330-350, have been exposed to an electron bath. As a result, higher negative charge states up to hexa-anionic clusters have been observed for the first time. In a parallel effort, di- and tri-anionic gold clusters have been produced in an RFQ-trap. To this end, an electron beam is guided through the RFQ-trap, which is operated by 2- or 3-state digital driving voltages. In addition, both polyanion-production techniques have been combined by pre-charging clusters in the RFQ-trap, transferring the resulting dianions into the Penning trap and applying the electron-bath technique to produce higher charge states.

  9. A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bing; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Zhengxu; Gao, Wei; Fan, Rongrong; Cheng, Ping; Ding, Li; Ma, Li; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-10-07

    A hand-portable digital linear ion trap mass spectrometer (DLIT-MS) has been developed for VOC analysis. It has a weight of 18 kg with dimensions of 49 cm × 39 cm × 16 cm, and consumes an average power of ca. 60 W. As a result of the introduction of a digital waveform, the DLIT-MS can be driven at a lower voltage (±100 V) to cover a mass range of 30-300 Th with a unit resolution. Compact electronics has been designed to control the DLIT-MS and record mass spectra. The mass drift was reduced after the improvement in electronics to stabilize the digital waveform voltage during the mass scan. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS) has been achieved by using digital asymmetric waveform isolation (DAWI), forward and reverse scan, and collision induced dissociation (CID). The isolation and CID efficiency for methyl salicylate were 83.9% and 81.3%, respectively. A novel buffer gas inlet system was designed to enhance the sensitivity and allow easy and safe use of the instrument. Limits of detection below 1 ppbv were obtained for several mixed gaseous samples.

  10. The Generation of Dehydroalanine Residues in Protonated Polypeptides: Ion/Ion Reactions for Introducing Selective Cleavages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhou; Bu, Jiexun; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-05-01

    We examine a gas-phase approach for converting a subset of amino acid residues in polypeptide cations to dehydroalanine (Dha). Subsequent activation of the modified polypeptide ions gives rise to specific cleavage N-terminal to the Dha residue. This process allows for the incorporation of selective cleavages in the structural characterization of polypeptide ions. An ion/ion reaction within the mass spectrometer between a multiply protonated polypeptide and the sulfate radical anion introduces a radical site into the multiply protonated polypeptide reactant. Subsequent collisional activation of the polypeptide radical cation gives rise to radical side chain loss from one of several particular amino acid side chains (e.g., leucine, asparagine, lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid) to yield a Dha residue. The Dha residues facilitate preferential backbone cleavages to produce signature c- and z-ions, demonstrated with cations derived from melittin, mechano growth factor (MGF), and ubiquitin. The efficiencies for radical side chain loss and for subsequent generation of specific c- and z-ions have been examined as functions of precursor ion charge state and activation conditions using cations of ubiquitin as a model for a small protein. It is noted that these efficiencies are not strongly dependent on ion trap collisional activation conditions but are sensitive to precursor ion charge state. Moderate to low charge states show the greatest overall yields for the specific Dha cleavages, whereas small molecule losses (e.g., water/ammonia) dominate at the lowest charge states and proton catalyzed amide bond cleavages that give rise to b- and y-ions tend to dominate at high charge states.

  11. The Generation of Dehydroalanine Residues in Protonated Polypeptides: Ion/Ion Reactions for Introducing Selective Cleavages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhou; Bu, Jiexun; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-09-01

    We examine a gas-phase approach for converting a subset of amino acid residues in polypeptide cations to dehydroalanine (Dha). Subsequent activation of the modified polypeptide ions gives rise to specific cleavage N-terminal to the Dha residue. This process allows for the incorporation of selective cleavages in the structural characterization of polypeptide ions. An ion/ion reaction within the mass spectrometer between a multiply protonated polypeptide and the sulfate radical anion introduces a radical site into the multiply protonated polypeptide reactant. Subsequent collisional activation of the polypeptide radical cation gives rise to radical side chain loss from one of several particular amino acid side chains (e.g., leucine, asparagine, lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid) to yield a Dha residue. The Dha residues facilitate preferential backbone cleavages to produce signature c- and z-ions, demonstrated with cations derived from melittin, mechano growth factor (MGF), and ubiquitin. The efficiencies for radical side chain loss and for subsequent generation of specific c- and z-ions have been examined as functions of precursor ion charge state and activation conditions using cations of ubiquitin as a model for a small protein. It is noted that these efficiencies are not strongly dependent on ion trap collisional activation conditions but are sensitive to precursor ion charge state. Moderate to low charge states show the greatest overall yields for the specific Dha cleavages, whereas small molecule losses (e.g., water/ammonia) dominate at the lowest charge states and proton catalyzed amide bond cleavages that give rise to b- and y-ions tend to dominate at high charge states. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Fabrication of a segmented micro Penning trap and numerical investigations of versatile ion positioning protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hellwig, M; Singer, K; Werth, G; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2009-01-01

    We describe a versatile planar Penning trap structure, which allows to dynamically modify the trapping configuration almost arbitrarily. The trap consists of 37 hexagonal electrodes, each of 300 mikron diameter, fabricated in a gold-on-sapphire lithographic technique. Every hexagon can be addressed individually, thus shaping the electric potential. The fabrication of such a device with clean room methods is demonstrated. We illustrate the variability of the device by a detailed numerical simulation of a lateral and a vertical transport and we simulate trapping in racetrack and artificial-crystal configurations. The trap may be used for ions or electrons, as a versatile container for quantum optics and quantum information experiments.

  13. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-μm film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quantification of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identification of target compounds in the samples. Additional identification and confirmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and specificity for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application.

  14. Reliable transport through a microfabricated X-junction surface-electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth; Amini, Jason M.; Faircloth, Daniel L.; Volin, Curtis; Doret, S. Charles; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C.-S.; Landgren, David W.; Denison, Douglas; Killian, Tyler; Slusher, Richart E.; Harter, Alexa W.

    2013-03-01

    We report the design, fabrication and characterization of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap that supports controlled transport through the two-dimensional intersection of linear trapping zones arranged in a 90° cross. The trap is fabricated with very large scalable integration techniques which are compatible with scaling to a large quantum information processor. The shape of the radio-frequency electrodes is optimized with a genetic algorithm to reduce axial pseudopotential barriers and minimize ion heating during transport. Seventy-eight independent dc control electrodes enable fine control of the trapping potentials. We demonstrate reliable ion transport between junction legs and determine the rate of ion loss due to transport. Doppler-cooled ions survive more than 105 round-trip transits between junction legs without loss and more than 65 consecutive round trips without laser cooling.

  15. Demonstration of integrated microscale optics in surface-electrode ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Merrill, J True; Landgren, David; Amini, Jason M; Wright, Kenneth; Doret, S Charles; Pai, C-S; Hayden, Harley; Killian, Tyler; Faircloth, Daniel; Brown, Kenneth R; Harter, Alexa W; Slusher, Richart E

    2011-01-01

    In ion trap quantum information processing, efficient fluorescence collection is critical for fast, high-fidelity qubit detection and ion-photon entanglement. The expected size of future many-ion processors require scalable light collection systems. We report on the development and testing of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap with an integrated high numerical aperture (NA) micromirror for fluorescence collection. When coupled to a low NA lens, the optical system is inherently scalable to large arrays of mirrors in a single device. We demonstrate stable trapping and transport of 40Ca+ ions over a 0.63 NA micromirror and observe a factor of 1.9 enhancement in photon collection compared to the planar region of the trap.

  16. Experimental system design for the integration of trapped-ion and superconducting qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Motte, D.; Grounds, A. R.; Rehák, M.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Lekitsch, B.; Giri, G. S.; Neilinger, P.; Oelsner, G.; Il'ichev, E.; Grajcar, M.; Hensinger, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    We present a design for the experimental integration of ion trapping and superconducting qubit systems as a step towards the realization of a quantum hybrid system. The scheme addresses two key difficulties in realizing such a system: a combined microfabricated ion trap and superconducting qubit architecture, and the experimental infrastructure to facilitate both technologies. Developing upon work by Kielpinski et al. (Phys Rev Lett 108(13):130504, 2012. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130504), we describe the design, simulation and fabrication process for a microfabricated ion trap capable of coupling an ion to a superconducting microwave LC circuit with a coupling strength in the tens of kHz. We also describe existing difficulties in combining the experimental infrastructure of an ion trapping set-up into a dilution refrigerator with superconducting qubits and present solutions that can be immediately implemented using current technology.

  17. Demonstration of integrated microscale optics in surface-electrode ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    True Merrill, J; Brown, Kenneth R [Schools of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Computational Science and Engineering, and Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Volin, Curtis; Landgren, David; Amini, Jason M; Wright, Kenneth; Charles Doret, S; Pai, C-S; Hayden, Harley; Killian, Tyler; Faircloth, Daniel; Harter, Alexa W; Slusher, Richart E, E-mail: curtis.volin@gtri.gatech.edu [Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    In ion trap quantum information processing, efficient fluorescence collection is critical for fast, high-fidelity qubit detection and ion-photon entanglement. The expected size of future many-ion processors requires scalable light collection systems. We report on the development and testing of a microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap with an integrated high-numerical aperture (NA) micromirror for fluorescence collection. When coupled to a low-NA lens, the optical system is inherently scalable to large arrays of mirrors in a single device. We demonstrate the stable trapping and transport of {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions over a 0.63 NA micromirror and observe a factor of 1.9 enhancement of photon collection compared to the planar region of the trap. (paper)

  18. Evaporative cooling and coherent axial oscillations of highly charged ions in a penning trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobein, M; Solders, A; Suhonen, M; Liu, Y; Schuch, R

    2011-01-07

    Externally, in an electron beam ion trap, generated Ar16+ ions were retrapped in a Penning trap and evaporatively cooled in their axial motion. The cooling was observed by a novel extraction technique based on the excitation of a coherent axial oscillation which yields short ion bunches of well-defined energies. The initial temperature of the ion cloud was decreased by a factor of more than 140 within 1 s, while the phase-space density of the coldest extracted ion pulses was increased by a factor of up to about 9.

  19. Reduction of anomalous heating in an in-situ-cleaned ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Hite, D A; Wilson, A C; Brown, K R; Warring, U; Jördens, R; Jost, J D; Pappas, D P; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2011-01-01

    Anomalous heating of trapped atomic ions is a major obstacle to their use as quantum bits in a scalable quantum computer. The physical origin of this heating is not fully understood, but experimental evidence suggests that it is caused by electric-field noise emanating from the surface of the trap electrodes. In this study, we have investigated the role that adsorbates on the electrodes play by identifying contaminant overlayers, developing an in situ argon-ion beam cleaning procedure, and measuring ion heating rates before and after cleaning the trap electrodes' surfaces. We find a reduction of two orders of magnitude in heating rate after cleaning.

  20. SMILETRAP - A Penning trap facility for precision mass measurements using highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bergström, I; Fritioff, T; Douysset, G; Schoenfelder, J; Schuch, R

    2002-01-01

    The precision of mass measurements in a Penning trap increases linearly with the charge of the ion. Therefore we have attached a Penning trap, named SMILETRAP, to the electron beam ion source CRYSIS at MSL. CRYSIS is via an isotope separator connected to an ion source that can deliver singly charged ions of practically any element. In CRYSIS charge state breeding occurs by intense electron bombardment. We have shown that it is possible to produce, catch and measure the cyclotron frequencies of ions in the charge region 1+ to 52+. The relevant observable in mass measurements using a Penning trap is the ratio of the cyclotron frequencies of the ion of interest and ion used as a mass reference. High precision requires that the two frequencies are measured after one another in the shortest possible time. For reasons of convenience the precision trap operates at room temperature. So far it has been believed that warm traps working at 4 K are required for high mass precision with exactly one ion in the trap at a ti...

  1. Experimental Improvement of Signal of a Single Laser-Cooled Trapped 40Ca+ Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Hua-Lin; QUO Bin; GUAN Hua; LIU Qu; HUANG Xue-Ren; GAO Ke-Lin

    2007-01-01

    A single 40Ca+ ion is loaded in a miniature Paul trap and the probability of directly loading a single ion is above 50%. The signal-to-noise ratio and the storage time for a single ion have been improved by minimizing the ion micromotion and locking a 397 nm cooling laser to a Fabry-Perot interferometer and optogalvanic signal. From the fluorescence spectrum, the ion temperature is estimated to be about 5mK.

  2. Measurement of the decoherence of a mesoscopic superposition of motional states of a trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shi-Biao

    2004-01-01

    We propose a scheme to observe the decoherence of a mesoscopic superposition of two coherent states in the motion of a trapped ion. In the scheme the ion is excited by two perpendicular lasers tuned to the ion transition. The decoherence is revealed by the decrease of the correlation between two successive measurements of the internal state of the ion after relevant laser-ion interaction.

  3. Tailored-waveform Collisional Activation of Peptide Ion Electron Transfer Survivor Ions in Cation Transmission Mode Ion/Ion Reaction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongling; Londry, Frank A.; Erickson, David E.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Broad-band resonance excitation via a tailored waveform in a high pressure collision cell (Q2) on a hybrid quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) tandem mass spectrometer has been implemented for cation transmission mode electron transfer ion/ion reactions of tryptic polypeptides. The frequency components in the broadband waveform were defined to excite the first generation intact electron transfer products for relatively large tryptic peptides. The optimum amplitude of the arbitrary waveform applied has been determined empirically to be 3.0 Vp-p, which is effective for relatively high mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio precursor ions with little elimination of sequence information for low m/z ions. The application of broadband activation during the transmission mode ion/ion reaction obviates frequency and amplitude tuning normally associated with ion trap collision induced dissociation (CID). This approach has been demonstrated with triply and doubly charged tryptic peptides with and without post-translational modifications. Enhanced structural information was achieved by production of a larger number of informative c- and z-type fragments using the tailored waveform on unmodified and modified (phosphorylated and glycosylated) peptides when the first generation intact electron transfer products fell into the defined frequency range. This approach can be applied to a wide range of tryptic peptide ions, making it attractive as a rapid and general approach for ETD LC-MS/MS of tryptic peptides in a QqTOF instrument. PMID:19305916

  4. Correlation between y-Type Ions Observed in Ion Trap and Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, Carly A.; Eastham, Ashley; Lee, Lik Wee; Risler, Jenni; Vitek, Olga; Martin, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) is a technique for high-sensitivity targeted analysis. In proteomics, MRM-MS can be used to monitor and quantify a peptide based on the production of expected fragment peaks from the selected peptide precursor ion. The choice of which fragment ions to monitor in order to achieve maximum sensitivity in MRM-MS can potentially be guided by existing MS/MS spectra. However, because the majority of discovery experiments are performed on ion tr...

  5. Multiple Transition States and Roaming in Ion-Molecule Reactions: a Phase Space Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mauguiere, Frederic A L; Ezra, Gregory S; Farantos, Stavros C; Wiggins, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We provide a dynamical interpretation of the recently identified `roaming' mechanism for molecular dissociation reactions in terms of geometrical structures in phase space. These are NHIMs (Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Manifolds) and their stable/unstable manifolds that define transition states for ion-molecule association or dissociation reactions. The associated dividing surfaces rigorously define a roaming region of phase space, in which both reactive and nonreactive trajectories can be trapped for arbitrarily long times.

  6. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Experimental study on dipole motion of an ion plasma confined in a linear Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K., E-mail: kzito@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Okano, T.; Moriya, K.; Fukushima, K.; Higaki, H.; Okamoto, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The compact non-neutral plasma trap systems named “S-POD” have been developed at Hiroshima University as an experimental simulator of beam dynamics. S-POD is based either on a linear Paul trap or on a Penning trap and can approximately reproduce the collective motion of a relativistic charged-particle beam observed in the center-of-mass frame. We here employ the Paul trap system to investigate the behavior of an ion plasma near a dipole resonance. A simple method is proposed to calibrate the data of secular frequency measurements by using the dipole instability condition. We also show that the transverse density profile of an ion plasma in the trap can be estimated from the time evolution of ion losses caused by the resonance.

  8. A far-off-resonance optical trap for a Ba$^+$ ion

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Thomas; Schmidt, Julian; Karpa, Leon; Schaetz, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Optical trapping and ions combine unique advantages of independently striving fields of research. Light fields can form versatile potential landscapes, such as optical lattices, for neutral and charged atoms, avoiding detrimental implications of established radiofrequency (rf) traps while mediating interaction via long range Coulomb forces, controlling and detecting motional and electronic states on the quantum level. Here we show optical trapping of $^{138}$Ba$^{+}$ ions in the absence of rf fields in a far-detuned dipole trap, suppressing photon scattering by three and the related recoil heating by four orders of magnitude. To enhance the prospects for optical as well as hybrid traps, we demonstrate a novel method for stray electric field compensation to a level below 9 mV/m. Our results will be relevant, for example, for ion-atom ensembles, to enable four to five orders of magnitude lower common temperatures, accessing the regime of ultracold interaction and chemistry, where quantum effects are predicted t...

  9. A Novel Method for Fundamental Interaction Studies with Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Vaintraub, S; Aviv, O; Heber, O; Mardor, I

    2010-01-01

    Trapped radioactive atoms present exciting opportunities for the study of fundamental interactions and symmetries. For example, detecting beta decay in a trap can probe the minute experimental signal that originates from possible tensor or scalar terms in the weak interaction. Such scalar or tensor terms affect, e.g., the angular correlation between a neutrino and an electron in the beta-decay process, thus probing new physics of "beyond-the-standard-model" nature. In particular, this article focuses on a novel use of an innovative ion trapping device, the Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT). Such a trap has not been previously considered for Fundamental Interaction studies and exhibits potentially very significant advantages over other schemes. These advantages include improved injection efficiency of the radionuclide under study, an extended field-free region, ion-beam kinematics for better efficiency and ease-of-operation and the potential for a much larger solid angle for the electron and recoiling atom co...

  10. Printed circuit board ion trap mass analyzer: its structure and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Jiang, Gong-Yu; Li, Xiao-Xu; Xu, Fu-Xing; Wang, Liang; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2013-06-18

    An ion trap (IT) mass analyzer can be simply built with low cost material-the printed circuit board (PCB). A printed circuit board ion trap (PCBIT) can perform ion trapping, mass analysis, and tandem mass spectrometry as a conventional ion trap mass analyzer. In a PCBIT, each PCB electrode was fabricated to specially designed patterns with several separate electric strips. The strips' electrodes were insulated from each other and applied with different voltages during the experiment. Therefore, the electric field distribution inside the ion trap region may be adjusted and optimized by simply adjusting the voltage on each strip. The performance of the PCBIT can also be optimized since the property of an ion trap is strongly dependent on the field distribution. The fabrication, operation, and performance of the PCBIT are described and characterized in this paper. A prototype PCBIT was built with two pairs of 64 mm × 12 mm PCB rectangular plates and one pair of 10 mm × 10 mm stainless steel square plates. A mass analysis with a resolving power of over 1500 and a mass range of around 3000 Th was observed. The mass-selected isolation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) of ions were also tested using the homemade PCBIT system. The adjustable electric field distribution, simple structure, and low cost of PCBIT make it certainly suitable for the further miniaturization of the portable mass spectrometer.

  11. Local traps as nanoscale reaction-diffusion probes: B clustering in c-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, B. J., E-mail: bartekpawlak72@gmail.com [Globalfoundries, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cowern, N. E. B.; Ahn, C. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium and IKS, Department of Physics, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Gwilliam, R. [Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Nodus Laboratory, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Berkum, J. G. M. van [Philips CFT, Prof. Holstlaan 4, 5656 AA Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-12-01

    A series of B implantation experiments into initially amorphized and not fully recrystallized Si, i.e., into an existing a/c-Si bi-layer material, have been conducted. We varied B dose, energy, and temperature during implantation process itself. Significant B migration has been observed within c-Si part near the a/c-interface and near the end-of-range region before any activation annealing. We propose a general concept of local trapping sites as experimental probes of nanoscale reaction-diffusion processes. Here, the a/c-Si interface acts as a trap, and the process itself is explored as the migration and clustering of mobile BI point defects in nearby c-Si during implantation at temperatures from 77 to 573 K. We find that at room temperature—even at B concentrations as high as 1.6 atomic %, the key B-B pairing step requires diffusion lengths of several nm owing to a small, ∼0.1 eV, pairing energy barrier. Thus, in nanostructures doped by ion implantation, the implant distribution can be strongly influenced by thermal migration to nearby impurities, defects, and interfaces.

  12. Note: Single ion imaging and fluorescence collection with a parabolic mirror trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chen-Kuan; Auchter, Carolyn; Lilieholm, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin; Blinov, Boris

    2017-08-01

    Efficient fluorescence collection is the most challenging part in remote entangled ion qubit state generation. To address this issue, we developed an ion trap consisting of a reflective parabolic surface and a needle electrode. This parabolic trap design covers a solid angle of 2π steradians and allows precise ion placement at the focal point of the parabola. We measured (39 ± 3)% fluorescence collection from a single ion with this trap and analyzed the mirror optical performance. We observed single ion image spot size of 3.4 times diffraction limit, improved to 2.8 times diffraction limit with the help of an external deformable mirror. The micromotion of the ion is determined to be the limiting factor, and the result is consistent with theoretical calculation.

  13. A microfabricated surface-electrode ion trap for scalable quantum information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Seidelin, S; Bollinger, J J; Britton, J; Chiaverini, J; Epstein, R J; Hume, D B; Jost, J D; Langer, C; Leibfried, D; Ozeri, R; Reichle, R; Shiga, N; Wesenberg, J H; Wineland, D J

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate confinement of individual atomic ions in a radio-frequency Paul trap with a novel geometry where the electrodes are located in a single plane and the ions confined above this plane. This device is realized with a relatively simple fabrication procedure and has important implications for quantum state manipulation and quantum information processing using large numbers of ions. We confine laser-cooled Mg-24 ions approximately 40 micrometer above planar gold electrodes. We measure the ions' motional frequencies and compare them to simulations. From measurements of the escape time of ions from the trap, we also determine a heating rate of approximately five motional quanta per millisecond for a trap frequency of 5.3 MHz.

  14. A carbon-cluster laser ion source for TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smorra, C; Eberhardt, K [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernchemie, Fritz-Strassmann Weg 2, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Blaum, K [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eibach, M; Ketelaer, J; Ketter, J; Knuth, K [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik, Staudingerweg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Sz, E-mail: smorrac@uni-mainz.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2009-08-14

    A new laser ablation ion source was developed and tested for the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP in order to provide carbon-cluster ions for absolute mass calibration. Ions of different cluster sizes up to C{sup +}{sub 24} were successfully produced, covering the mass range up to the heavy actinide elements. The ions were captured in a Penning trap, and their time-of-flight cyclotron resonances recorded in order to determine their cyclotron frequency. Furthermore, the same ion source was used to produce GdO{sup +} ions from a gadolinium target in sufficient amount for mass spectrometry purposes. The design of the source and its characteristics are presented.

  15. Cascade emission in electron beam ion trap plasma of W$^{25+}$ ion

    CERN Document Server

    Jonauskas, V; Kučas, S; Masys, Š; Kynienė, A; Gaigalas, G; Kisielius, R; Radžiūtė, L; Rynkun, P; Merkelis, G

    2015-01-01

    Spectra of the W$^{25+}$ ion are studied using the collisional-radiative model (CRM) with an ensuing cascade emission. It is determined that the cascade emission boosts intensities only of a few lines in the $10 - 3$ nm range. The cascade emission is responsible for the disappearance of structure of lines at about 6 nm in the electron beam ion trap plasma. Emission band at 4.5 to 5.3 nm is also affected by the cascade emission. The strongest lines in the CRM spectrum correspond to $4d^{9} 4f^{4} \\rightarrow 4f^{3}$ transitions, while $4f^{2} 5d \\rightarrow 4f^{3}$ transitions arise after the cascade emission is taken into account.

  16. High resolution EUV spectroscopy of xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safdar; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We performed high resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy measurements of highly charged xenon ions with a compact electron beam ion trap. The spectra were recorded with a flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer while varying the electron beam energy between 200 and 890 eV. We measured the wavelengths for several lines of Rh-like Xe9+ - Cd-like Xe6+ and Cu-like Xe25+- Se-like Xe20+ in the range of 150-200 Å with an uncertainty of 0.05 Å. Previously, most of these lines have been reported from EBITs with a wavelength uncertainty of 0.2 Å. Additionally, based on the electron beam energy dependence of the observed spectra we tentatively identified three new lines, which were reported as unidentified lines in the previous studies.

  17. Rotating Magnetohydrodynamic and Trapped Hot-Ion Induced Internal Kinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, V.

    1993-01-01

    As a new and significant contribution to the tokamak literature, the linear internal MHD kink modes in finite aspect-ratio axisymmetric toroidally rotating tokamak equilibria and their kinetic modifications owing to the presence of hot ions are computationally studied herein using a bilinear form derived using a Lagrangian perturbation procedure. As a practical application, the rotating MHD and kinetic internal kinks are calculated in finite aspect-ratio TFTR- and ITER -like geometries. The MHD and kinetic modes of the rotating tokamak plasmas are found to be significantly destabilized by the centrifugal effects at rotation speeds in the range of 10^4-10^5 rad/s at normal discharge densities. The kinetic instability model provides a unified description of several features of the 'fishbone'-like oscillations such as the slow mode rotating at the plasma rotation frequency, the fast mode with high rotation frequency, and variation of the slow as well as fast mode frequencies with plasma rotation. The slow kinetic modes rotate close to mean plasma rotation speeds, and the fast kinetic modes rotate at about 10 ^5 rad/s. The fast mode rotation frequencies are in the range of the magnetic-precession frequencies of the deeply trapped ions. Also, the kinetic kink modes are found to be excitable in ITER-like ignited tokamak configurations owing to hot fusion products such as alphas. Also, a feasibility study of adaptive distributed parameter control of thermokinetics is demonstrated. Fast transport simulation and control are explored using a nonlinear Galerkin procedure, and a MIMO self-tuning control algorithm. It is found that only the density control can achieve reasonable power set-point follow-up, and that more popular control schemes such as auxiliary power control are not adequate to provide real-world power swings greater than 50-100 MW around the set point. The several computational modules developed for this thesis are as follows. The equilibrium calculations are

  18. Quantum State Control of Trapped Atomic and Molecular Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, Christopher M.

    Full quantum control of a molecule would have a significant impact in molecular coherent control (alignment and orientation) and ultracold and quantum chemistry, quantum computing and simulation as well as hybrid quantum devices, and precision spectroscopy of importance to fundamental physics research. Precision spectroscopy of even simple diatomic molecules offers the possibility of uncovering physics beyond the standard model, specifically time variation of the proton-to-electron mass ratio, which is currently constrained by astronomical molecular observations at the 10-16 1/yr level and laboratory atomic measurements at the 10-17 1/yr level. To achieve this level of measurement and to avoid the complications of diatomic structure on traditional spectroscopy methods, molecular quantum logic spectroscopy (mQLS) will be the spectroscopy technique of choice. We discuss development of in-house external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) systems and improvements to the Libbrecht-Hall circuit, which is a well-known, low-noise current driver for narrow-linewidth diode lasers. However, as the current approaches the maximum set limit, the noise in the laser current increases dramatically. This behavior is documented and simple circuit modifications to alleviate this issue are explored. We cool trapped AlH+ molecules to their ground rotational-vibrational quantum state using an electronically-exciting broadband laser to simultaneously drive cooling resonances from many different rotational levels. We demonstrate rotational cooling on the 140(20) ms timescale from room temperature to 3.8 K, with the ground state population increasing from 3% to 95.4%. Since QLS does not require the high gate fidelities usually associated with quantum computation and quantum simulation, it is possible to make simplifying choices in ion species and quantum protocols at the expense of some fidelity. We demonstrate sideband cooling and motional state detection protocols for 138Ba+ of sufficient fidelity

  19. Electron cooling of highly charged ions in penning traps; Elektronenkuehlung hochgeladener Ionen in Penningfallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellers, B.

    2007-02-08

    For many high precision experiments with highly charged ions in ion traps it is necessary to work with low energy ions. One possibility to slow ions down to a very low energy in a trap is electron cooling, a method, which is already successfully used in storage rings to produce ion beams with high phase space density. Fast ions and a cold electron plasma are inserted into a Penning trap. The ions lose their energy due to Coulomb interaction with the electrons while they cross the plasma, the electrons are heated. The cooling time is the time, which is needed to cool an ion from a given initial energy to a low final energy. To calculate cooling times it is necessary to solve coupled differential equations for the ion energy and electron temperature. In a Penning trap the strong external magnetic field constitutes a theoretical challenge, as it influences the energy loss of the ions in an electron plasma, which can no longer be calculated analytically. In former estimates of cooling times this influence is neglected. But simulations show a dramatic decrease of the energy loss in the presence of a strong magnetic field, so it is necessary to investigate the effect of the magnetic field on the cooling times. This work presents a model to calculate cooling times, which includes both the magnetic field and the trap geometry. In a first step a simplified model without the external trap potential is developed. The energy loss of the ions in the magnetized electron plasma is calculated by an analytic approximation, which requires a numerical solution of integrals. With this model the dependence of the cooling time on different parameters like electron and ion density, magnetic field and the angle between ion velocity and magnetic field is studied for fully ionized uranium. In addition the influence of the electron heating is discussed. Another important topic in this context is the recombination between ions and electrons. The simplified model for cooling times allows to

  20. Measurement of Ion Motional Heating Rates over a Range of Trap Frequencies and Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzewicz, C D; Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the motional heating rate of a trapped ion at different trap frequencies and temperatures between $\\sim$0.6 and 1.5 MHz and $\\sim$4 and 295 K. Additionally, we examine the possible effect of adsorbed surface contaminants with boiling points below $\\sim$105$^{\\circ}$C by measuring the ion heating rate before and after locally baking our ion trap chip under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We compare the heating rates presented here to those calculated from available electric-field noise models. We can tightly constrain a subset of these models based on their expected frequency and temperature scaling interdependence. Discrepancies between the measured results and predicted values point to the need for refinement of theoretical noise models in order to more fully understand the mechanisms behind motional trapped-ion heating.

  1. Cluster States from Quantum Logic Gates with Trapped Ions in Thermal Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Xing; ZHAN Zhi-Ming; LI Jia-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Following the recent proposal by Briegel et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86 (2001) 910], a procedure is proposed for one-step realizing quantum control phase gates with two trapped ions in thermal motion. It is shown that the scheme can also be used to create a new special type of entangled states, i.e., cluster states of many trapped ions. In the scheme the two-trapped ions are simultaneously excited by a single laser beam and the frequency of the laser beam is slightly off resonance with the first lower vibration sideband of the trapped ions. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it does not use the vibrational mode as the data bus. Furthermore, our scheme is insensitive to both the initial motional state and heating (or decay) as long as the system remains in the Lamb-Dicke regime.

  2. On the application of radio frequency voltages to ion traps via helical resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Siverns, J D; Weidt, S; Hensinger, W K

    2011-01-01

    Ions confined using a Paul trap require a stable, high voltage and low noise radio frequency (RF) potential. We present a guide for the design and construction of a helical coil resonator for a desired frequency that maximises the quality factor for a set of experimental constraints. We provide an in-depth analysis of the system formed from a shielded helical coil and an ion trap by treating the system as a lumped element model. This allows us to predict the resonant frequency and quality factor in terms of the physical parameters of the resonator and the properties of the ion trap. We also compare theoretical predictions with experimental data for different resonators, and predict the voltage applied to the ion trap as a function of the Q-factor, input power and the properties of the resonant circuit.

  3. A Modified MeVVA Ion Source for a Malmberg-Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2006-10-01

    We have designed a new type of plasma gun ion source for a Malmberg-Penning trap based on Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MeVVA) ion source designs. Our primary intent with this MeVVA-type source is to create a confinable beryllium-7 (7Be) plasma. The radioactivity of 7Be requires us to replace the sample inside the ion source on a regular basis. Our design makes it possible to easily remove the cathode of the ion source from an ultra-high vacuum trap and exchange 7Be samples while only needing to repressurize a small chamber rather than the entire trap. This design has an added benefit of being capable of generating plasmas from a wide variety of metals by simply exchanging the source target in the removable cathode. Because of this wide compatibility, we will be able to use our trap for studying any number of different plasmas, including other radioactive types.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of CH2D+ in a cold 22-pole ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Sabrina; Krieg, Jürgen; Klemann, André; Asvany, Oskar; Brünken, Sandra; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2013-10-03

    The method of laser-induced reaction (LIR) is used to obtain high-resolution IR spectra of CH2D(+) in collision with n-H2 at a nominal temperature of 14 K. For this purpose, a home-built optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable in the range of 2500-4000 cm(-1), has been coupled to a 22-pole ion trap apparatus. In total, 112 lines of the ν1 and ν4 bands have been recorded. A line list is inferred from a careful analysis of the shape of the LIR signal. Line positions have been determined to an accuracy of 1 × 10(-4) cm(-1), allowing for the prediction of pure rotational transitions with MHz accuracy. In addition, an IR-THz double-resonance LIR depletion technique is applied to H2D(+) to demonstrate the feasibility for pure rotational spectroscopy with LIR.

  5. Ultraviolet Photodissociation Induced by Light-Emitting Diodes in a Planar Ion Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Dustin D; Makarov, Alexander; Schwartz, Jae C; Sanders, James D; Zhuk, Eugene; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2016-09-26

    The first application of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) mass spectrometry is reported. LEDs provide a compact, low cost light source and have been incorporated directly into the trapping cell of an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. MS/MS efficiencies of over 50 % were obtained using an extended irradiation period, and UVPD was optimized by modulating the ion trapping parameters to maximize the overlap between the ion cloud and the irradiation volume.

  6. Fast cooling of trapped ions using the dynamical Stark shift gate

    OpenAIRE

    Retzker, A.; Plenio, M. B.

    2006-01-01

    A laser cooling scheme for trapped ions is presented which is based on the fast dynamical Stark shift gate, described in [Jonathan etal, PRA 62, 042307]. Since this cooling method does not contain an off resonant carrier transition, low final temperatures are achieved even in traveling wave light field. The proposed method may operate in either pulsed or continuous mode and is also suitable for ion traps using microwave addressing in strong magnetic field gradients.

  7. Preparation of Motional Mesoscopic Superpositions of Squeezed Coherent States of N Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-Xing; XIE Xiao-Tao; LI Jia-Hua; CHEN Chang-Yong

    2005-01-01

    A scheme is proposed to generate arbitrary, discrete superpostions of squeezed coherent states of the squeezed center of mass of N trapped ions along a straight line in phase space. The scheme is based on a resonant bichromatic excitation of each trapped ion that generates displacement and squeezing in the vibrational motion conditioned to each internal state. In this paper, we also show that such a method can be used for the engineering of motional quantum states.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of semiconductor ion traps for quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, Daniel Lynn

    The electromagnetic manipulation of isolated ions has led to many advances in atomic physics, from laser cooling to precision metrology and quantum control. As technical capability in this area has grown, so has interest in building miniature electromagnetic traps for the development of large-scale quantum information processors. This thesis will primarily focus on using microfabrication techniques to build arrays of miniature ion traps, similar to techniques used in fabricating high component density microprocessors. A specific focus will be on research using a gallium arsenide/aluminum gallium arsenide heterostructure as a trap architecture, as well as the recent testing of different ion traps fabricated at outside foundries. The construction and characterization of a conventional ceramic trap capable of shuttling an ion through a junction will also be detailed, and reveal the need for moving towards lithographically fabricated traps. Combined, these serve as a set of proof-of-principle experiments pointing to methods for designing and building large scale arrays of ion traps capable of constituting a quantum information processor. As traps become smaller, electrical potentials on the electrodes have greater influence on the ion. This not only pertains to intentionally applied voltages, but also to deleterious noise sources, such as thermal Johnson noise and the more significant "patch potential" noise, which both cause motional heating of the ion. These problematic noise sources dovetail with my thesis research into trap miniaturization since their effects become more pronounced and impossible to ignore for small trap sizes. Therefore characterizing them and investigating ways to suppress them have become an important component of my research. I will describe an experiment using a pair of movable needle electrodes to measure the ion heating rate corresponding to the harmonic frequency of the trap, the ion-electrode distance, and the electrode temperature. This

  9. Development and Characterization of a 171Yb+ Miniature Ion Trap Frequency Standard

    CERN Document Server

    Partner, Heather L

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports on the development of a low-power, high-stability miniature atomic frequency standard based on 171Yb+ ions. The ions are buffer-gas cooled and held in a linear quadrupole trap that is integrated into a sealed, getter-pumped vacuum package, and interrogated on the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition. We hope to achieve a long-term fractional frequency stability of 10^-14 with a miniature clock that consumes only 50 mW of power and occupies a volume of 5 cm^3. I discuss our progress over several years of work on this project. We began by building a conventional tabletop clock to use as a test bed while developing several designs of miniature ion-trap vacuum packages, while also developing techniques for various aspects of the clock operation, including ion loading, laser and magnetic field stabilization, and a low power ion trap drive. The ion traps were modeled using boundary element software to assist with the design and parameter optimization of new trap geometries. We expect a novel trap...

  10. Successive Resonances for Ion Ejection at Arbitrary Frequencies in an Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-09-01

    The use of successive resonances for ion ejection is demonstrated here as a method of scanning quadrupole ion traps with improvement in both resolution and sensitivity compared with single frequency resonance ejection. The conventional single frequency resonance ejection waveform is replaced with a dual-frequency waveform. The two included frequencies are spaced very closely and their relative amplitudes are adjusted so that the first frequency that ions encounter excites them to higher amplitudes where space charge effects are less prominent, thereby giving faster and more efficient ejection when the ions come into resonance with the second frequency. The method is applicable at any arbitrary frequency, unlike double and triple resonance methods. However, like double and triple resonance ejection, ejection using successive resonances requires the rf and AC waveforms to be phase-locked in order to retain mass accuracy and mass precision. The improved performance is seen in mass spectra acquired by rf amplitude scans (resonance ejection) as well as by secular frequency scans.

  11. Technical Note: Detection and identification of radical species formed from α-pinene/ozone reaction using DMPO spin trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavlovic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of ozone with monoterpenes proceed via the formation of multiple oxygen- and carbon-centered free radical species. These radical species are highly reactive and thus, have generally not been measureable. A method for their detection and characterization is needed to preserve these radicals for a sufficiently long time to permit analyzes to be performed. Radical-addition reactions, also called spin trapping techniques, allow the detection of short-lived radicals. This approach has been applied to products from the α-pinene/ozone reaction. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA from a reaction chamber was collected on quartz fiber filters and extracted with a solution of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO (spin trap followed by analysis with ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (MSn using electrospray ionization (ESI in the positive scan mode. The DMPO adducts with radical species appear as positive ions [DMPO−R+H]+, [DMPO−OR+H]+ and [DMPO−O−OR+H]+ in full MS spectra of the samples. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS2 was performed to identify the radical species. The DMPO adducts with the C-centered radical species [DMPO−R+H]+ are characterized by m/z 114 [DMPO+H]+ in the MS2 spectra and with peaks that represent the loss of [DMPO+H]+. The DMPO adducts with O-centered radical species (RO· and ROO· are identified by m/z 130 [DMPO−OH+H]+ and m/z 146 [DMPO−O−OH+H]+, respectively, and with peaks that correspond to the loss of those adducts. DMPO was also able to capture OH radicals from the particle phase, and the product ion fragmentation confirmed DMPO/OH structure providing evidence for particle-bound OH radicals.

  12. Measurement of storage time, estimation of ion number and study of absorption line profile in a Paul trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Bhattacharyya; Anita Gupta; S G Nakhate; Pushpa M Rao

    2006-12-01

    Europium (Eu+) ions were confined in a Paul trap and detected by non-destructive method. Storage time of Eu+ ions achieved in vacuum was improved by orders of magnitude employing buffer gas cooling. The experimentally detected signal was fitted to the ion response signal and the total number of ions trapped was estimated. It is found that the peak signal amplitude as well as the product of FWHM and the peak signal amplitude is proportional to the total number of trapped ions. The trapped ion secular frequency was swept at different rates and its effect on the absorption line profile was studied both experimentally and theoretically.

  13. Radiation-Reaction Trapping of Electrons in Extreme Laser Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, L L; Kostyukov, I Yu; Shen, B F; Akli, K

    2014-01-01

    proposed analysis shows that the threshold of laser field amplitude for RRT is approximately the cubic root of laser wavelength over classical electron radius. Because of the pinching effect of the trapped electron bunch, the required laser intensity for RRT can be further reduced.

  14. Model development of plasma implanted hydrogenic diffusion and trapping in ion beam damaged tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. L.; Wang, Y. Q.; Doerner, R. P.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A Cu ion beam is used to induce controlled levels of damage (10-3, 10-2, and 10-1 dpa) in room temperature W samples. A single 5 MeV beam energy yielding a peaked damage profile 0.8 μm into the material, or three beam energies (0.5, 2, and 5 MeV) producing a relatively uniform damage profile from the near surface up to 0.8 μm were used. The W samples were then exposed to a D plasma ion fluence of 1024 ions m-2 at 380 K, and the resulting D retention was measured using the D(3He,p)4He reaction analysis (NRA) and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). We observe that within experimental error there is no significant difference in retention whether the damage profile is peaked or uniform. The increase in retention is observed to increase proportional to \\text{dp}{{\\text{a}}0.66} estimated from the dpa peak calculated from the SRIM program. A simplified retention model is proposed that provides concentration profiles that can be directly compared to NRA data and total retention measurements. Taking the trapping energies due to three defect types calculated from density functional theory (DFT), the only free-parameters are three defect densities of in-grain monovacancies, dislocations, and grain boundary vacancies, and we assume these defects to be the dominant trapping locations. The model can fit D retention data in a pristine W sample within the experimental error of the measurements, and in subsequent modeling these intrinsic defect densities are then fixed. We model the retention profile after ion damage by adding the SRIM predicted vacancy profile to the intrinsic monovacancy defect density. Since the increase in retention, and therefore the increase in vacancy production, does not increase linearly with dpa, a correction factor is multiplied to the predicted vacancy profile to fit the data. A new diffusion coefficient is calculated with the model that is a function of the concentration of trapped atoms. This calculation may resolve discrepancies of various

  15. Effects of trapped electrons on the oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, M. G.; Roy, N. C.; Talukder, M. R.; Hossain Ali, M.

    2016-08-01

    The characteristics of the nonlinear oblique propagation of ion acoustic solitary waves in unmagnetized plasmas consisting of Boltzmann positrons, trapped electrons and ions are investigated. The modified Kadomtsev-Petviashivili ( m K P ) equation is derived employing the reductive perturbation technique. The parametric effects on phase velocity, Sagdeev potential, amplitude and width of solitons, and electrostatic ion acoustic solitary structures are graphically presented with the relevant physical explanations. This study may be useful for the better understanding of physical phenomena concerned in plasmas in which the effects of trapped electrons control the dynamics of wave.

  16. Greatly Increasing Trapped Ion Populations for Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sandoval, Jeremy A.; Baker, Erin S.; Smith, Richard D.

    2016-10-18

    The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source, and limited to injected ion populations of ~106 charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods (e.g. in extended pulses). In this work a new SLIM ‘flat funnel’ (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations. Ion current measurements indicate a capacity of ~3.2×108 charges for the extended trapping volume, over an order of magnitude greater than the IFT. The orthogonal ion injection into a funnel shaped separation region can greatly reduce space charge effects during the initial IM separation stage, and the gradually reduced width of the path allows the ion packet to be increasingly compressed in the lateral dimension as the separation progresses, allowing e.g. efficient transmission through conductance limits or compatibility with subsequent ion manipulations. This work examined the TW, RF, and DC confining field SLIM parameters involved in ion accumulation, injection, transmission and separation in the FF IM module using both direct ion current and MS measurements. Wide m/z range ion transmission is demonstrated, along with significant increases in signal to noise (S/N) ratios due to the larger ion populations injected. Additionally, we observed a reduction in the chemical background, which was attributed to more efficient desolvation of solvent related clusters over the extended ion accumulation periods. The TW SLIM FF IM module is anticipated to be especially effective as a front end for long path SLIM IM separation modules.

  17. Greatly Increasing Trapped Ion Populations for Mobility Separations Using Traveling Waves in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liulin; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Garimella, Sandilya V B; Webb, Ian K; Hamid, Ahmed M; Norheim, Randolph V; Prost, Spencer A; Sandoval, Jeremy A; Baker, Erin S; Smith, Richard D

    2016-10-07

    The initial use of traveling waves (TW) for ion mobility (IM) separations using structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) employed an ion funnel trap (IFT) to accumulate ions from a continuous electrospray ionization source and was limited to injected ion populations of ∼10(6) charges due to the onset of space charge effects in the trapping region. Additional limitations arise due to the loss of resolution for the injection of ions over longer periods, such as in extended pulses. In this work a new SLIM "flat funnel" (FF) module has been developed and demonstrated to enable the accumulation of much larger ion populations and their injection for IM separations. Ion current measurements indicate a capacity of ∼3.2 × 10(8) charges for the extended trapping volume, over an order of magnitude greater than that of the IFT. The orthogonal ion injection into a funnel shaped separation region can greatly reduce space charge effects during the initial IM separation stage, and the gradually reduced width of the path allows the ion packet to be increasingly compressed in the lateral dimension as the separation progresses, allowing efficient transmission through conductance limits or compatibility with subsequent ion manipulations. This work examined the TW, rf, and dc confining field SLIM parameters involved in ion accumulation, injection, transmission, and IM separation in the FF module using both direct ion current and MS measurements. Wide m/z range ion transmission is demonstrated, along with significant increases in the signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) due to the larger ion populations injected. Additionally, we observed a reduction in the chemical background, which was attributed to more efficient desolvation of solvent related clusters over the extended ion accumulation periods. The TW SLIM FF IM module is anticipated to be especially effective as a front end for long path SLIM IM separation modules.

  18. Multiple Mass Analysis Using an Ion Trap Array (ITA) Mass Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Chu, Yanqiu; Ling, Xing; Ding, Zhengzhi; Xu, Chongsheng; Ding, Li; Ding, Chuan-Fan

    2013-09-01

    A novel ion trap array (ITA) mass analyzer with six ion trapping and analyzing channels was investigated. It is capable of analyzing multiple samples simultaneously. The ITA was built with several planar electrodes made of stainless steel and 12 identical parallel zirconia ceramic substrates plated with conductive metal layers. Each two of the opposing ceramic electrode plates formed a boundary of an ion trap channel and six identical ion trapping and analyzing channels were placed in parallel without physical electrode between any two adjacent channels. The electric field distribution inside each channel was studied with simulation. The new design took the advantage of high precision machining attributable to the rigidity of ceramic, and the convenience of surface patterning technique. The ITA system was tested by using a two-channel electrospray ionization source, a multichannel simultaneous quadruple ion guide, and two detectors. The simultaneous analysis of two different samples with two adjacent ITA channels was achieved and independent mass spectra were obtained. For each channel, the mass resolution was tested. Additional ion trap functions such as mass-selected ion isolation and collision-induced dissociation (CID) were also tested. The results show that one ITA is well suited for multiple simultaneous mass analyses.

  19. Scalable Multiplexed Ion Trap Fabrication Using Ball Grid Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-31

    CPGA carrier. To supply DC potentials for each electrode, pads on the CPGA are wirebonded to pads on the trap chip, while on-chip surface capacitors...industry standard CPGA carrier. To supply DC potentials for each electrode, pads on the CPGA are wirebonded to pads on the trap chip, while on-chip...none) Enter List of papers submitted or published that acknowledge ARO support from the start of the project to the date of this printing . List the

  20. Reduction of trapped ion anomalous heating by in situ surface plasma cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    McConnell, Robert; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous motional heating is a major obstacle to scalable quantum information processing with trapped ions. While the source of this heating is not yet understood, several previous studies suggest that surface contaminants may be largely responsible. We demonstrate an improvement by a factor of four in the room-temperature heating rate of a niobium surface electrode trap by in situ plasma cleaning of the trap surface. This surface treatment was performed with a simple homebuilt coil assembly and commercially-available matching network and is considerably gentler than other treatments, such as ion milling or laser cleaning, that have previously been shown to improve ion heating rates. We do not see an improvement in the heating rate when the trap is operated at cryogenic temperatures, pointing to a role of thermally-activated surface contaminants in motional heating whose activity may freeze out at low temperatures.

  1. Insensitivity of Ion Motional Heating Rate to Trap Material over a Large Temperature Range

    CERN Document Server

    Chiaverini, J

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of trapped-ion motional-state heating rates in niobium and gold surface-electrode ion traps over a range of trap-electrode temperatures from approximately 4 K up to room temperature (295 K) in a single apparatus. Using the sideband-ratio technique after resolved-sideband cooling of single ions to the motional ground state, we find low-temperature heating rates more than two orders of magnitude below the room-temperature values and approximately equal to the lowest measured heating rates in similarly-sized cryogenic traps. We find similar behavior in the two very different electrode materials, suggesting that the anomalous heating process is dominated by non-material-specific surface contaminants. Through precise control of the temperature of cryopumping surfaces, we also identify conditions under which elastic collisions with the background gas can lead to an apparent steady heating rate, despite rare collisions.

  2. Charge Breeding Techniques in an Electron Beam Ion Trap for High Precision Mass Spectrometry at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, T. D.; Simon, M. C.; Bale, J. C.; Chowdhury, U.; Eibach, M.; Gallant, A. T.; Lennarz, A.; Simon, V. V.; Chaudhuri, A.; Grossheim, A.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2012-10-01

    Penning trap mass spectrometry is the most accurate and precise method available for performing atomic mass measurements. TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science is currently the only facility to couple its Penning trap to a rare isotope facility and an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). The EBIT is a valuable tool for beam preparation: since the precision scales linearly with the charge state, it takes advantage of the precision gained by using highly charged ions. However, this precision gain is contingent on fast and efficient charge breeding. An optimization algorithm has been developed to identify the optimal conditions for running the EBIT. Taking only the mass number and half-life of the isotope of interest as inputs, the electron beam current density, charge breeding time, charge state, and electron beam energy are all specified to maximize this precision. An overview of the TITAN charge breeding program, and the results of charge breeding simulations will be presented.

  3. Heating and ion transport in a Y-junction surface-electrode trap

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, G; Volin, C; Buikema, A; Nichols, C S; Stick, D; Brown, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    We measure ion heating following transport throughout a Y-junction surface-electrode ion trap. By carefully selecting the trap voltage update rate during adiabatic transport along a trap arm, we observe minimal heating relative to the anomalous heating background. Transport through the junction results in an induced heating between 37 and 150 quanta in the axial direction per traverse. To reliably measure heating in this range, we compare the experimental sideband envelope, including up to fourth-order sidebands, to a theoretical model. The sideband envelope method allows us to cover the intermediate heating range inaccessible to the first-order sideband and Doppler recooling methods. We conclude that quantum information processing in this ion trap will likely require sympathetic cooling in order to support high fidelity gates after junction transport.

  4. Light-Assisted Cold Chemical Reactions of Barium Ions with Rubidium Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Felix H J; Raoult, Maurice; Dulieu, Olivier; Willitsch, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Light-assisted reactive collisions between laser-cooled Ba+ ions and Rb atoms were studied in an ion-atom hybrid trap. The reaction rate was found to strongly depend on the electronic state of the reaction partners with the largest rate constant (7(2) x 10^-11 cm^3 s^-1) obtained for the excited Ba+(6s)+Rb(5p) reaction channel. Similar to the previously studied Ca+ + Rb system, charge transfer and radiative association were found to be the dominant reactive processes. The generation of molecular ions by radiative association could directly be observed by their sympathetic cooling into a Coulomb crystal. Potential energy curves up to the Ba+(6s)+Rb(5p) asymptote and reactive-scattering cross sections for the radiative processes were calculated. The theoretical rate constant obtained for the lowest reaction channel Ba+(6s)+Rb(5s) is compatible with the experimental estimates obtained thus far.

  5. Highly charged ion research at the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-01-04

    Spectroscopy performed with the three Livermore electron beam ion traps is reviewed, which is continuing and complementing the innumerable contributions to atomic physics provided over the years by heavy-ion accelerators. Numerous spectrometers were developed that cover the spectral bands from the visible to the hard x ray region. These enabled exhaustive line surveys useful for x-ray astrophysics and for systematic studies along iso-electronic sequences, such as the 4s-4p, 3s-3p, and 2s-2p transitions in ions of the Cu-I, Na-I, and Li-I sequences useful for studying QED and correlation effects as well as for precise determinations of atomic-nuclear interactions. They also enabled measurements of radiative transition probabilities of very long-lived (milli- and microseconds) and very short-live (femtosecond) levels. Because line excitation processes can be controlled by choice of the electron beam energy, the observed line intensities are used to infer cross sections for electron-impact excitation, dielectronic recombination, resonance excitation, and innershell ionization. These capabilities have recently been expanded to simulate x-ray emission from comets by charge exchange. Specific contributions to basic atomic physics, nuclear physics, and high-temperature diagnostics are illustrated.

  6. CID of singly charged antioxidants applied in lubricants by means of a 3D ion trap and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassler, Alexander; Pittenauer, Ernst; Doerr, Nicole; Allmaier, Guenter

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fragmentation behavior induced by low-energy collision-induced dissociation (LE-CID) of four selected antioxidants applied in lubricants, by two different types of ion trap mass spectrometers: a three-dimensional ion trap (3D-IT) and a linear IT (LIT) Orbitrap MS. Two sterically hindered phenols and two aromatic amines were selected as model compounds representing different antioxidant classes and were characterized by positive-ion electrospray ionization (ESI) and LE-CID. Various types of molecular ions (e.g. [M](+•) , [M + H](+) , [M + NH(4) ](+) or [M + Na](+) ) were used as precursor ions generating a significant number of structurally relevant product ions. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds were analyzed by negative-ion ESI. For both IT types applied for fragmentation, the antioxidants exhibited the same unusual LE-CID behavior: (1) they formed stable radical product ions and (2) CC bond cleavages of aliphatic substituents were observed and their respective cleavage sites depended on the precursor ion selected. This fragmentation provided information on the type of structural isomer usually not obtainable for branched aliphatic substituents utilizing LE-CID. Comparing the two instruments, the main benefit of applying the LIT-Orbitrap was direct access to elemental composition of product ions enabling unambiguous interpretation of fragmentation trees not obtainable by the 3D-IT device (e.g. loss of isobaric neutrals). It should be emphasized that the types of product ions formed do not depend on the type of IT analyzer applied. For characterizing degradation products of antioxidants, the LIT-Orbitrap hybrid system, allowing the determination of accurate m/z values for product ions, is the method of choice.

  7. Multisectional linear ion trap and novel loading method for optical spectroscopy of electron and nuclear transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoev, Alexey A; Troyan, Victor I; Borisyuk, Peter V; Krasavin, Andrey V; Vasiliev, Oleg S; Palchikov, Vitaly G; Avdeev, Ivan A; Chernyshev, Denis M; Poteshin, Sergey S

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for the development of atomic and nuclear frequency standards because of the important contribution of methods for precision time and frequency measurements to the development of fundamental science, technology, and the economy. It is also conditioned by their potential use in optical clocks and quantum logic applications. It is especially important to develop a universal method that could allow one to use ions of most elements effectively (including ones that are not easily evaporated) proposed for the above-mentioned applications. A linear quadrupole ion trap for the optical spectroscopy of electron and nuclear transitions has been developed and evaluated experimentally. An ion source construction is based on an ultra-high vacuum evaporator in which a metal sample is subjected to an electron beam of energy up to 1 keV, resulting in the appearance of gaseous atoms and ions of various charge state. The linear ion trap consists of five successive quadrupole sections including an entrance quadrupole section, quadrupole mass filter, quadrupole ion guide, ion-trap section, and exit quadrupole section. The same radiofrequency but a different direct current voltage feeds the quadrupole sections. The instrument allows the mass and energy selected trapping of ions from ion beams of various intensities and their localization in the area of laser irradiation. The preliminary results presented show that the proposed instrument and methods allow one to produce effectively up to triply charged thorium ions as well as to trap ions for future spectroscopic study. The instrument is proposed for future use in optical clocks and quantum logic application development.

  8. Search for new physics in $\\beta$-neutrino correlations using trapped ions and a retardation spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Coeck, S; Lienard, E; Zboril, M; Zakoucky, D; Severijns, N

    2002-01-01

    The WITCH set-up is a combination of two Penning ion traps and a retardation spectrometer for recoil ions from $\\beta$-decay. It was installed at ISOLDE in the past four years. In this addendum the present status of the experiment is described and beam time is asked to further improve the set-up and perform first measurements.

  9. Influence of second sideband excitation on the dynamics of trapped ions in a cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a trapped ion placed at an antinode of the standing wave inside a high finesse cavity with consideration of the second sideband excitation between the ionic internal levels and the light field. We investigate the entanglement of the three subsystems embodying the ionic internal levels, the vibrational mode of the ion and the cavity field.

  10. Influence of second sideband excitation on the dynamics of trapped ions in a cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a trapped ion placed at an antinode of the standing wave inside a high finesse cavitywith consideration of the second sideband excitation between the ionic internal levels and the light field. We investigatethe entanglement of the three subsystems embodying the ionic internal levels, the vibrational mode of the ion and thecavity field.

  11. Quantum Nondemolition Measurement of the Collective Motional Energy of Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2002-01-01

    We propose a quantum nondemolition measurement of the collective motional energy of two trapped ions for the first time.It is based on the excitation of the two ions by two lasers with appropriate frequencies and amplitudes.The scheme also provides a new possibility of preparing vibrational Fock states and laser cooling.

  12. Generation of Superpositions of Two Bloch States in an Ion Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2003-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the generation of superpositions of two Bloch states for a collection of ions. Inthe scheme the ions are trapped in a linear potential and interact with laser beams. Our scheme does not put anyrequirement on the Lamb-Dicke parameters.

  13. Quantum information experiments with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Kevin; Bohnet, Justin; Sawyer, Brian; Britton, Joseph; Wall, Michael; Foss-Feig, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria; Bollinger, John

    2016-05-01

    We summarize recent experimental work with 2D arrays of hundreds of trapped 9 Be+ ions stored in a Penning trap. Penning traps utilize static magnetic and electric fields to confine ions, and enable the trapping and laser cooling of ion crystals larger than typically possible in RF ion traps. We work with single-plane ion crystals where the ions form a triangular lattice through minimization of their Coulomb potential energy. The crystals rotate, and we present numerical studies that determine optimal operating parameters for producing low temperature, stable 2-dimensional crystals with Doppler laser cooling and a rotating wall potential. Our qubit is the electron spin-flip transition in the ground state of 9 Be+ and is sensitive to magnetic field fluctuations. Through mitigation of part-per-billion, vibration-induced magnetic field fluctuations we demonstrate T2 coherence times longer than 50 ms. We engineer long-range Ising interactions with spin-dependent optical dipole forces, and summarize recent measurements that characterize the entanglement generated through single-axis twisting. Supported by: JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PHY-1521080, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.

  14. Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubian J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the reaction mechanisms involved in heavy ion fusion. We begin with collisions of tightly bound systems, considering three energy regimes: energies above the Coulomb barrier, energies just below the barrier and deep sub-barrier energies. We show that channel coupling effects may influence the fusion process at above-barrier energies, increasing or reducing the cross section predicted by single barrier penetration model. Below the Coulomb barrier, it enhances the cross section, and this effect increases with the system’s size. It is argued that this behavior can be traced back to the increasing importance of Coulomb coupling with the charge of the collision partners. The sharp drop of the fusion cross section observed at deep sub-barrier energies is addressed and the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon are discussed. We then consider the reaction mechanisms involved in fusion reactions of weakly bound systems, paying particular attention to the calculations of complete and incomplete fusion available in the literature.

  15. Temperature Measurements of Laser-Cooled Ions in a Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M. J.; Hasegawa, T.; Bollinger, J. J.

    2003-12-01

    Between 104 and 106 9Be+ ions are trapped in a Penning trap. The ions are laser-cooled to ˜millikelvin temperatures, where they form ion crystals. This system is an example of a strongly coupled one-component plasma. By means of Doppler laser spectroscopy we have measured the temperature and heating rate of the plasma. Initially the heating rate is low, 60 ± 40 mK/s, but after about 100 ms the plasma heats up rapidly to a few kelvin. The onset of the rapid heating coincides with the solid-liquid phase transition.

  16. Dynamics and control of fast ion crystal splitting in segmented Paul traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, H; Schmiegelow, C T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the process of splitting two-ion crystals in segmented Paul traps, i.e. the structural transition from two ions confined in a common well to ions confined in separate wells. The precise control of this process by application of suitable voltage ramps to the trap segments is non-trivial, as the harmonic confinement transiently vanishes during the process. This makes the ions strongly susceptible to background electric field noise, and to static offset fields in the direction of the trap axis. We analyze the reasons why large energy transfers can occur, which are impulsive acceleration, the presence of residual background fields and enhanced anomalous heating. For the impulsive acceleration, we identify the diabatic and adiabatic regimes, which are characterized by different scaling behavior of the energy transfer with respect to time. We propose a suitable control scheme based on experimentally accessible parameters. Simulations are used to verify both the high sensitivity of the s...

  17. Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, C T; Kaufmann, H; Ruster, T; Schulz, J; Kaushal, V; Hettrich, M; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G

    2016-01-22

    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157  μm range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.

  18. Efficient Raman sideband cooling of trapped ions to their motional ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, H.; Deng, K.; Xu, Z. T.; Yuan, W. H.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Z. H.

    2017-07-01

    Efficient cooling of trapped ions is a prerequisite for various applications of the ions in precision spectroscopy, quantum information, and coherence control. Raman sideband cooling is an effective method to cool the ions to their motional ground state. We investigate both numerically and experimentally the optimization of Raman sideband cooling strategies and propose an efficient one, which can simplify the experimental setup as well as reduce the number of cooling pulses. Several cooling schemes are tested and compared through numerical simulations. The simulation result shows that the fixed-width pulses and varied-width pulses have almost the same efficiency for both the first-order and the second-order Raman sideband cooling. The optimized strategy is verified experimentally. A single 25Mg+ ion is trapped in a linear Paul trap and Raman sideband cooled, and the achieved average vibrational quantum numbers under different cooling strategies are evaluated. A good agreement between the experimental result and the simulation result is obtained.

  19. Phase-stable free-space optical lattices for trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Schmiegelow, Christian Tomas; Ruster, Thomas; Schulz, Jonas; Kaushal, Vidyut; Hettrich, Max; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Poschinger, Ulrich G

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2\\% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over 157~$\\mu$m range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6~nm.

  20. Designing spin-spin interactions with one and two dimensional ion crystals in planar micro traps

    CERN Document Server

    Welzel, J; Abarbanel, C; Wineman-Fisher, V; Wunderlich, C; Folman, R; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the experimental feasibility of quantum simulation with trapped ion crystals, using magnetic field gradients. We describe a micro structured planar ion trap, which contains a central wire loop generating a strong magnetic gradient of about 20 T/m in an ion crystal held about 160 \\mu m above the surface. On the theoretical side, we extend a proposal about spin-spin interactions via magnetic gradient induced coupling (MAGIC) [Johanning, et al, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 (2009) 154009]. We describe aspects where planar ion traps promise novel physics: Spin-spin coupling strengths of transversal eigenmodes exhibit significant advantages over the coupling schemes in longitudinal direction that have been previously investigated. With a chip device and a magnetic field coil with small inductance, a resonant enhancement of magnetic spin forces through the application of alternating magnetic field gradients is proposed. Such resonantly enhanced spin-spin coupling may be used, for instance, to create...

  1. Characterization of fluorescence collection optics integrated with a micro-fabricated surface electrode ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Craig R; Ellis, A R; Hunker, Jeff; Kemme, Shanalyn A; Maunz, Peter; Tabakov, Boyan; Tigges, Chris; Stick, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    One of the outstanding challenges for ion trap quantum information processing is to accurately detect the states of many ions in a scalable fashion. In the particular case of surface traps, geometric constraints make imaging perpendicular to the surface appealing for light collection at multiple locations with minimal cross-talk. In this report we describe an experiment integrating Diffractive Optic Elements (DOE's) with surface electrode traps, connected through in-vacuum multi-mode fibers. The square DOE's reported here were all designed with solid angle collection efficiencies of 3.58%; with all losses included a detection efficiency of 0.388% (1.02% excluding the PMT loss) was measured with a single Ca+ ion. The presence of the DOE had minimal effect on the stability of the ion, both in temporal variation of stray electric fields and in motional heating rates.

  2. Universal nonmonotonic structure in the saturation curves of magneto-optical-trap-loaded Na+ ions stored in an ion-neutral hybrid trap: Prediction and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, R.; Wells, J. E.; Goodman, D. S.; Kwolek, J. M.; Smith, W. W.

    2015-12-01

    We predict that the maximal, steady-state ion capacity Ns(λ ) of radio-frequency (rf) traps, loaded at a rate of λ particles per rf cycle, shows universal, nonlinear, nonmonotonic behavior as a function of loading rate λ . The shape of Ns(λ ) , characterized by four dynamical regimes, is universal; i.e., it is predicted to manifest itself in all types of rf traps independent of the details of their construction and independent of particle species loaded. For λ ≪ 1 (region I), as expected, Ns(λ ) increases monotonically with λ . However, contrary to intuition, at intermediate λ ˜1 (region II), Ns(λ ) reaches a maximum, followed by a local minimum of Ns(λ ) (region III). For λ ≫1 (region IV), Ns(λ ) again rises monotonically. In region IV, numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experiments show Ns(λ ) ˜λ2 /3 . We confirm our predictions both experimentally with magneto-optical-trap-loaded Na+ ions stored in a hybrid ion-neutral trap and numerically with the help of detailed ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations.

  3. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Dunning, Alexander J.; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R.

    2016-08-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to 10 barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behaviour as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behaviour leads to the limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the atomic level.

  4. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Schowalter, Steven J; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to ten barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behavior as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behavior leads to limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

  5. Blue-sky bifurcation of ion energies and the limits of neutral-gas sympathetic cooling of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowalter, Steven J.; Dunning, Alexander J.; Chen, Kuang; Puri, Prateek; Schneider, Christian; Hudson, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Sympathetic cooling of trapped ions through collisions with neutral buffer gases is critical to a variety of modern scientific fields, including fundamental chemistry, mass spectrometry, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics. Despite its widespread use over four decades, there remain open questions regarding its fundamental limitations. To probe these limits, here we examine the steady-state evolution of up to 10 barium ions immersed in a gas of three-million laser-cooled calcium atoms. We observe and explain the emergence of nonequilibrium behaviour as evidenced by bifurcations in the ion steady-state temperature, parameterized by ion number. We show that this behaviour leads to the limitations in creating and maintaining translationally cold samples of trapped ions using neutral-gas sympathetic cooling. These results may provide a route to studying non-equilibrium thermodynamics at the atomic level. PMID:27511602

  6. Deuterium Fractionation and Ion-Molecule Reactions at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Stephan; Asvany, Oskar; Hugo, Edouard; Gerlich, Dieter

    2005-08-01

    Understanding deuterium fractionation is currently one of the greatest challenges in astrochemistry. In this contribution deuteration experiments of the series CH_n^+, n=2-5, in a low temperature 22-pole ion trap are used to systematically test a simple chemical rule predicting which molecular ion undergoes deuterium exchange in collisions with HD. CH_4^+ turns out to be a problem case, where prediction fails. The method of laser induced reaction (LIR) is used to determine the population ratio of the lowest ortho-to-para states of H_2D^+ relaxed in collisions with H_2. Preliminary results indicate that the ortho-to-para ratio of H_2D^+ is substantially reduced in para-H_2. This points at the important role of nuclear spin in deuterium fractionation, in particular at the destruction of ortho-H_2D^+ in collisions with ortho-H_2. More systematic LIR experiments are needed for a chemical model of deuterium fractionation including state-to-state modifications of the species involved.

  7. Final Report - Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program - Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Sandia National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitten, W.B.

    2002-12-18

    This report covers the three main projects that collectively comprised the Advanced Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry Program. Chapter 1 describes the direct interrogation of individual particles by laser desorption within the ion trap mass spectrometer analyzer. The goals were (1) to develop an ''intelligent trigger'' capable of distinguishing particles of biological origin from those of nonbiological origin in the background and interferent particles and (2) to explore the capability for individual particle identification. Direct interrogation of particles by laser ablation and ion trap mass spectrometry was shown to have good promise for discriminating between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin, although detailed protocols and operating conditions were not worked out. A library of more than 20,000 spectra of various types of biological particles has been assembled. Methods based on multivariate analysis and on neural networks were used to discriminate between particles of biological origin and those of nonbiological origin. It was possible to discriminate between at least some species of bacteria if mass spectra of several hundred similar particles were obtained. Chapter 2 addresses the development of a new ion trap mass analyzer geometry that offers the potential for a significant increase in ion storage capacity for a given set of analyzer operating conditions. This geometry may lead to the development of smaller, lower-power field-portable ion trap mass spectrometers while retaining laboratory-scale analytical performance. A novel ion trap mass spectrometer based on toroidal ion storage geometry has been developed. The analyzer geometry is based on the edge rotation of a quadrupolar ion trap cross section into the shape of a torus. Initial performance of this device was poor, however, due to the significant contribution of nonlinear fields introduced by the rotation of the symmetric ion-trapping geometry. These

  8. Experimental quantum simulations of many-body physics with trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ch; Porras, Diego; Schaetz, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    Direct experimental access to some of the most intriguing quantum phenomena is not granted due to the lack of precise control of the relevant parameters in their naturally intricate environment. Their simulation on conventional computers is impossible, since quantum behaviour arising with superposition states or entanglement is not efficiently translatable into the classical language. However, one could gain deeper insight into complex quantum dynamics by experimentally simulating the quantum behaviour of interest in another quantum system, where the relevant parameters and interactions can be controlled and robust effects detected sufficiently well. Systems of trapped ions provide unique control of both the internal (electronic) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. The mutual Coulomb interaction between the ions allows for large interaction strengths at comparatively large mutual ion distances enabling individual control and readout. Systems of trapped ions therefore exhibit a prominent system in several physical disciplines, for example, quantum information processing or metrology. Here, we will give an overview of different trapping techniques of ions as well as implementations for coherent manipulation of their quantum states and discuss the related theoretical basics. We then report on the experimental and theoretical progress in simulating quantum many-body physics with trapped ions and present current approaches for scaling up to more ions and more-dimensional systems.

  9. Trapped-ion probing of light-induced charging effects on dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlander, M; Brownnutt, M; Haensel, W; Blatt, R, E-mail: max.harlander@uibk.ac.a [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-09-15

    We use a string of confined {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ions to measure perturbations to a trapping potential which are caused by the light-induced charging of an antireflection-coated window and of insulating patches on the ion-trap electrodes. The electric fields induced at the ions' position are characterized as a function of distance to the dielectric and as a function of the incident optical power and wavelength. The measurement of the ion-string position is sensitive to as few as 40 elementary charges per {radical}(Hz) on the dielectric at distances of the order of millimetres, and perturbations are observed for illuminations with light of wavelengths as large as 729 nm. This has important implications for the future of miniaturized ion-trap experiments, notably with regard to the choice of electrode material and the optics that must be integrated in the vicinity of the ion. The method presented here can be readily applied to the investigation of charging effects beyond the context of ion-trap experiments.

  10. EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap), N-Division Experimental Physics. Annual report, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D. [ed.

    1995-10-01

    The experimental groups in the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) program continue to perform front-line research with trapped and extracted highly charged ions (HCI) in the areas of ion/surface interactions, atomic spectroscopy, electron-ion interaction and structure measurements, highly charged ion confinement, and EBIT development studies. The ion surface/interaction studies which were initiated five years ago have reached a stage where they an carry out routine investigations, as well as produce breakthrough results towards the development of novel nanotechnology. At EBIT and SuperEBIT studies of the x-ray emission from trapped ions continue to produce significant atomic structure data with high precision for few electron systems of high-Z ions. Furthermore, diagnostics development for magnetic and laser fusion, supporting research for the x-ray laser and weapons programs, and laboratory astrophysics experiments in support of NASA`s astrophysics program are a continuing effort. The two-electron contributions to the binding energy of helium like ions were measured for the first time. The results are significant because their precision is an order of magnitude better than those of competing measurements at accelerators, and the novel technique isolates the energy corrections that are the most interesting. The RETRAP project which was initiated three years ago has reached a stage where trapping, confining and electronic cooling of HCI ions up to Th{sup 80+} can be performed routinely. Measurements of the rates and cross sections for electron transfer from H{sub 2} performed to determine the lifetime of HCI up to Xe{sup q+} and Th{sup q+} (35 {le} q {le} 80) have been studied at mean energies estimated to be {approximately} 5 q eV. This combination of heavy ions with very high charges and very low energies is rare in nature, but may be encountered in planned fusion energy demonstration devices, in highly charged ion sources, or in certain astrophysical events.

  11. Ra{sup +} ion trapping - atomic parity violation measurement and an optical clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Amita; Dijck, Elwin A.; Nunez Portela, Mayerlin; Valappol, Nivedya; Boell, Oliver; Jungmann, Klaus; Onderwater, Cornelis G. G.; Schlesser, Sophie; Timmermans, Rob G.E.; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W. [University of Groningen, FWN, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    A single trapped Ra{sup +} ion has an excellent potential for a precision measurement of the Weinberg mixing angle at low momentum transfer and testing thereby the electroweak running. The absolute frequencies of the transition 7s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}-7d{sup 2}D{sub 3/2} at wavelength 828 nm have been determined in {sup 212*214}Ra{sup +} to better than 19 MHz with laser spectroscopy on small samples of ions trapped in a linear Paul trap at the online facility TRIμP of KVI. The measurement of the Weinberg angle requires the localization of the ion within a fraction of an optical wavelength. The current experiments are focused on trapping and laser spectroscopy on a single Ba{sup +} as a precursor for Ra{sup +}. Work towards single ion trapping of Ra{sup +}, including the preparation of an offline {sup 223}Ra source is in progress. Most elements of the setup for single Ra+ ion parity measurement are also well suited for realizing a most stable optical clock.

  12. Analysis of thermal radiation in ion traps for optical frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Doležal, Miroslav; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B R; King, Steven A; Jones, Jonathan M; Klein, Hugh A; Gill, Patrick; Lindvall, Thomas; Wallin, Anders E; Merimaa, Mikko; Tamm, Christian; Sanner, Christian; Huntemann, Nils; Scharnhorst, Nils; Leroux, Ian D; Schmidt, Piet O; Burgermeister, Tobias; Mehlstäubler, Tanja E; Peik, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    In many of the high-precision optical frequency standards with trapped atoms or ions that are under development to date, the AC Stark shift induced by thermal radiation leads to a major contribution to the systematic uncertainty. We present an analysis of the inhomogeneous thermal environment experienced by ions in various types of ion traps. Finite element models which allow the determination of the temperature of the trap structure and the temperature of the radiation were developed for 5 ion trap designs, including operational traps at PTB and NPL and further optimized designs. Models were refined based on comparison with infrared camera measurement until an agreement of better than 10% of the measured temperature rise at critical test points was reached. The effective temperature rises of the radiation seen by the ion range from 0.8 K to 2.1 K at standard working conditions. The corresponding fractional frequency shift uncertainties resulting from the uncertainty in temperature are in the 10-18 range for ...

  13. Self-generated zonal flows in the plasma turbulence driven by trapped-ion and trapped-electron instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouot, T.; Gravier, E.; Reveille, T.; Collard, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, 54 506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a study of zonal flows generated by trapped-electron mode and trapped-ion mode micro turbulence as a function of two plasma parameters—banana width and electron temperature. For this purpose, a gyrokinetic code considering only trapped particles is used. First, an analytical equation giving the predicted level of zonal flows is derived from the quasi-neutrality equation of our model, as a function of the density fluctuation levels and the banana widths. Then, the influence of the banana width on the number of zonal flows occurring in the system is studied using the gyrokinetic code. Finally, the impact of the temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i} on the reduction of zonal flows is shown and a close link is highlighted between reduction and different gyro-and-bounce-average ion and electron density fluctuation levels. This reduction is found to be due to the amplitudes of gyro-and-bounce-average density perturbations n{sub e} and n{sub i} gradually becoming closer, which is in agreement with the analytical results given by the quasi-neutrality equation.

  14. 12th International Symposium on Electron Beam Ion Sources and Traps and Their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Stefan; Baumann, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The EBIST symposia date back to 1977 and have taken place every 3 to 4 years to specifically discuss progress and exchange ideas in the design, development, applications of electron beam ion sources and traps, and the physics with highly charged ions. The topics to be covered in 2014 are: - Progress and status of EBIS/T facilities, - Atomic spectroscopy of highly charged ions, - Charge-exchange and surface interaction with highly charged ions, - Charge breeding of stable and radioactive isotopes, - Nuclear physics with highly charged ions.

  15. Characterization of environmental samples using ion trap-secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenewold, G.S.; Appelhans, A.D.; Ingram, J.C.

    1998-02-01

    The detection of chemical warfare agent residues on environmental surfaces is an important analytical activity because of the potential for proliferation of these weapons, and for environmental monitoring in areas where they are stored. Historically, one of the most widely used agents has been bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, also known as mustard gas and HD. It was initially used in combat in 1917; by the end of the First World War, more than 16% of all casualties were due to chemicals, in most cases mustard. Manufacture of mustard is continuing to this day; consequently, there are ongoing opportunities for exposure. 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) is used as a simulant for mustard (HD) in a study to develop secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for rapid, semi-quantitative detection of mustard on soil. Using SIMS with single stage mass spectrometry, a signature for CEES can be unequivocally observed only at the highest concentrations (0.1 monolayer and above). Selectivity and sensitivity are markedly improved employing multiple-stage mass spectrometry using an ion trap. C{sub 2}H{sub 5}SC{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +} from CEES eliminates C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and H{sub 2}S, which are highly diagnostic. CEES was detected at 0.0012 monolayer on soil. A single analysis could be conducted in under 5 minutes.

  16. Ion injection optimization for a linear Paul trap to study intense beam propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Chung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX is a linear Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear transverse dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in periodic-focusing quadrupole magnetic transport systems. Externally created cesium ions are injected and trapped in the long central electrodes of the PTSX device. In order to have well-matched one-component plasma equilibria for various beam physics experiments, it is important to optimize the ion injection. From the experimental studies reported in this paper, it is found that the injection process can be optimized by minimizing the beam mismatch between the source and the focusing lattice, and by minimizing the number of particles present in the vicinity of the injection electrodes when the injection electrodes are switched from the fully oscillating voltage waveform to their static trapping voltage.

  17. A Double-Well System Composed of Phonons in a Pair of Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    2. Jaklevic, R. C., et al. Quantum Interference Effects in Josephson Tunneling. Physical Review Letters 1964, 12, 159. 3. Bouchiat, V., et al...Transverse Modes. Physical Review Letters 2009, 103, 120502. 6. Porras, D.; Cirac, J. I. Bose-Einstein Condensation and Strong-correlation Behavior...of Phonons in Ion Traps. Physical Review Letters 2004, 93, 263602. 7. Smerzi, A, et al. Quantum Coherent Atomic Tunneling between Two Trapped Bose

  18. A rare-earth-magnet ion trap for confining low-Z, bare nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Samuel M.; Tan, Joseph N.

    2009-05-01

    Simplifications in the theory for Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions allow a substantial improvement in the accuracy of predicted levels, which can yield information on the values of fundamental constants and test theory if they can be compared with precision frequency measurements.[1] We consider the trapping of bare nuclei (fully-stripped) to be used in making Rydberg states of one-electron ions with atomic number 1earth permanent magnets, and to model the capture of charge-state-selected ions extracted from an electron beam ion trap (EBIT). An experimental apparatus adapted to the NIST EBIT will also be discussed. Reference: [1] U.D. Jentschura, P.J. Mohr, J.N. Tan, and B.J. Wundt, ``Fundamental constants and tests of theory in Rydberg states of hydrogenlike ions,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 160404 (2008).

  19. Loading of a surface electrode ion trap from a remote, pre-cooled source

    CERN Document Server

    Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the loading of ions into a surface electrode trap (SET) from a remote, laser-cooled source of neutral atoms. We first cool and load $\\sim$ $10^6$ neutral $^{88}$Sr atoms into a magneto-optical trap (MOT) from an oven that has no line-of-sight with the SET. The cold atoms are then pushed with a resonant laser into the trap region where they are subsequently photoionized and trapped in an SET operated at a cryogenic temperature of 4.6 K. We present studies of the loading process and show that our technique achieves ion loading into a shallow (15 meV depth) trap at rates as high as 125 ions/s while drastically reducing the amount of deposition of metal on the trap surface as compared with direct loading from a hot vapor. Furthermore, we note that due to multiple stages of isotopic filtering in our loading process, this technique has enhanced isotopic selectivity over other loading methods. Rapid loading from a clean, isotopically pure, and pre-cooled source will potentially enab...

  20. Recombination in Perovskite Solar Cells: Significance of Grain Boundaries, Interface Traps, and Defect Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Trap-assisted recombination, despite being lower as compared with traditional inorganic solar cells, is still the dominant recombination mechanism in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and limits their efficiency. We investigate the attributes of the primary trap-assisted recombination channels (grain boundaries and interfaces) and their correlation to defect ions in PSCs. We achieve this by using a validated device model to fit the simulations to the experimental data of efficient vacuum-deposited p–i–n and n–i–p CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells, including the light intensity dependence of the open-circuit voltage and fill factor. We find that, despite the presence of traps at interfaces and grain boundaries (GBs), their neutral (when filled with photogenerated charges) disposition along with the long-lived nature of holes leads to the high performance of PSCs. The sign of the traps (when filled) is of little importance in efficient solar cells with compact morphologies (fused GBs, low trap density). On the other hand, solar cells with noncompact morphologies (open GBs, high trap density) are sensitive to the sign of the traps and hence to the cell preparation methods. Even in the presence of traps at GBs, trap-assisted recombination at interfaces (between the transport layers and the perovskite) is the dominant loss mechanism. We find a direct correlation between the density of traps, the density of mobile ionic defects, and the degree of hysteresis observed in the current–voltage (J–V) characteristics. The presence of defect states or mobile ions not only limits the device performance but also plays a role in the J–V hysteresis. PMID:28540366

  1. Ion reactions for isobar separation in accelerator mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Litherland, A E; Doupe, J P

    2003-01-01

    The use of resonant and near resonant keV ion reactions for isobar separation in AMS is discussed. It is shown that these and other ionic reactions can be useful provided that the multiple scattering is taken into account.

  2. Integrated Technologies for Large-Scale Trapped-Ion Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorace-Agaskar, C.; Bramhavar, S.; Kharas, D.; Mehta, K. K.; Loh, W.; Panock, R.; Bruzewicz, C. D.; McConnell, R.; Ram, R. J.; Sage, J. M.; Chiaverini, J.

    2016-05-01

    Atomic ions trapped and controlled using electromagnetic fields hold great promise for practical quantum information processing due to their inherent coherence properties and controllability. However, to realize this promise, the ability to maintain and manipulate large-scale systems is required. We present progress toward the development of, and proof-of-principle demonstrations and characterization of, several technologies that can be integrated with ion-trap arrays on-chip to enable such scaling to practically useful sizes. Of particular use are integrated photonic elements for routing and focusing light throughout a chip without the need for free-space optics. The integration of CMOS electronics and photo-detectors for on-chip control and readout, and methods for monolithic fabrication and wafer-scale integration to incorporate these capabilities into tile-able 2D ion-trap array cells, are also explored.

  3. Dust Acoustic Solitary Waves in Dusty Plasma with Trapped Electrons Having Different Temperature Nonthermal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Manoj Kr.

    2016-12-01

    In this report, a detailed investigation on the study of dust acoustics solitary waves solution with negatively dust charge fluctuation in dusty plasma corresponding to lower and higher temperature nonthermal ions with trapped electrons is presented. We consider temporal variation of dust charge as a source of dissipation term to derive the lower order modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation by using the reductive perturbation technique. Solitary wave solution is obtained with the help of sech method in presence of trapped electrons and low (and high) temperature nonthermal ions. Both nonthermality of ions and trapped state of the electrons are found to have an imperative control on the nonlinear coefficient, dissipative coefficient as well as height of the wave potential.

  4. Precision measurement and compensation of optical stark shifts for an ion-trap quantum processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häffner, H; Gulde, S; Riebe, M; Lancaster, G; Becher, C; Eschner, J; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Blatt, R

    2003-04-11

    Using optical Ramsey interferometry, we precisely measure the laser-induced ac-Stark shift on the S(1/2)-D(5/2) "quantum bit" transition near 729 nm in a single trapped 40Ca+ ion. We cancel this shift using an additional laser field. This technique is of particular importance for the implementation of quantum information processing with cold trapped ions. As a simple application we measure the atomic phase evolution during a n x 2 pi rotation of the quantum bit.

  5. Cooling the Collective Motion of Trapped Ions to Initialize a Quantum Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    VOLUME 81, NUMBER 7 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 17 AUGUST 1998Cooling the Collective Motion of Trapped Ions to Initialize a Quantum ...modes of motion of two trapped 9Be1 ions. This is a crucial step towards realizing quantum logic gates which can entangle the ions’ internal...suggesting the importance of these modes in future experiments. [S0031-9007(98)06838-0] PACS numbers: 03.67.Lx, 03.65.–w, 32.80.PjIn physics, quantum

  6. Position-dependent dynamics of a trapped ion in a standing wave laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方卯发

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the position-dependent dynamics of a trapped ion in a standing wave laser by transforming it to the Jaynes-Cummings-type system under the Lamb-Dicke limit. A variety of novel phenomena are exhibited,e.g. periodic collapse and revival features and long-time scaled revivals of the ionic inversion, depending on its position in the standing wave. Our result provides a way of producing a system equivalent to the two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model in the trapped ion system, with its exact periodicities.

  7. Quantum Decoherence of a Single Trapped Ion due to Engineered Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Xue-Xi

    2002-01-01

    Known as an engineered reservoir due to fluctuations in trap parameter,a classical source of quantum decoherence is considered for a single trapped ion theoretically.For simplicity it is assumed that the fluctuations involved are white noise processes,which enables us to give a simple master equation description of this source of decoherence.Our results show that the decoherence rate depends on the vibrational quantum number in different ways corresponding to the vibrational excitation sideband used there.Besides,this source of decoherence also leads to occurrence of dissipation in the ion system.

  8. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, S.; Bartnik, A.; Bazarov, I. V.; Dobbins, J.; Dunham, B.; Hoffstaetter, G. H.

    2016-03-01

    We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high continuous wave beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and continuous wave beam currents in the range of 1-20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates of the ions while employing bunch gaps, and the sinusoidal shaking frequency necessary for clearing via beam shaking. In all cases, we achieve a maximum ion clearing of at least 70% or higher, and in some cases our data is consistent with full ion clearing.

  9. Technology for On-Chip Qubit Control with Microfabricated Surface Ion Traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Highstrete, Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Quantum Information Sciences Dept.; Scott, Sean Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). RF/Optoelectronics Dept.; Nordquist, Christopher D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). RF/Optoelectronics Dept.; Sterk, Jonathan David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Tigges, Christopher P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Blain, Matthew Glenn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Photonic Microsystem Technologies Dept.; Heller, Edwin J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Microsystems Integration Dept.; Stevens, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). MESAFab Operations 2 Dept.

    2013-11-01

    Trapped atomic ions are a leading physical system for quantum information processing. However, scalability and operational fidelity remain limiting technical issues often associated with optical qubit control. One promising approach is to develop on-chip microwave electronic control of ion qubits based on the atomic hyperfine interaction. This project developed expertise and capabilities at Sandia toward on-chip electronic qubit control in a scalable architecture. The project developed a foundation of laboratory capabilities, including trapping the 171Yb+ hyperfine ion qubit and developing an experimental microwave coherent control capability. Additionally, the project investigated the integration of microwave device elements with surface ion traps utilizing Sandia’s state-of-the-art MEMS microfabrication processing. This effort culminated in a device design for a multi-purpose ion trap experimental platform for investigating on-chip microwave qubit control, laying the groundwork for further funded R&D to develop on-chip microwave qubit control in an architecture that is suitable to engineering development.

  10. Advanced Automation for Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-New Opportunities for Real-Time Autonomous Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Wong, C. M.; Salmonson, J. D.; Yost, R. A.; Griffin, T. P.; Yates, N. A.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The utility of MS/MS for both target compound analysis and the structure elucidation of unknowns has been described in a number of references. A broader acceptance of this technique has not yet been realized as it requires large, complex, and costly instrumentation which has not been competitive with more conventional techniques. Recent advancements in ion trap mass spectrometry promise to change this situation. Although the ion trap's small size, sensitivity, and ability to perform multiple stages of mass spectrometry have made it eminently suitable for on-line, real-time monitoring applications, advance automation techniques are required to make these capabilities more accessible to non-experts. Towards this end we have developed custom software for the design and implementation of MS/MS experiments. This software allows the user to take full advantage of the ion trap's versatility with respect to ionization techniques, scan proxies, and ion accumulation/ejection methods. Additionally, expert system software has been developed for autonomous target compound analysis. This software has been linked to ion trap control software and a commercial data system to bring all of the steps in the analysis cycle under control of the expert system. These software development efforts and their utilization for a number of trace analysis applications will be described.

  11. Nonlinear saturation of electrostatic waves mobile ions modify trapping scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, J D; Crawford, John David; Jayaraman, Anandhan

    1996-01-01

    The amplitude equation for an unstable electrostatic wave in a multi-species Vlasov plasma has been derived. The dynamics of the mode amplitude $\\rho(t)$ is studied using an expansion in $\\rho$; in particular, in the limit analyzed to predict the asymptotic dependence of the electric field on the linear growth rate $\\gamma$. Generically $|E_k|\\sim \\gamma^{5/2}$, as instabilities in reflection-symmetric systems due to real eigenvalues the more familiar trapping scaling $|E_k|\\sim \\gamma^{2}$ is predicted.

  12. Development of a linear ion trap/orthogonal-time-of-flight mass spectrometer for time-dependent observation of product ions by ultraviolet photodissociation of peptide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young; Schwartz, Jae C; Reilly, James P

    2009-11-01

    A hybrid linear ion trap/orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer has been developed to observe time-dependent vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation product ions. In this apparatus, a reflectron TOF mass analyzer is orthogonally interfaced to an LTQ using rf-only octopole and dc quadrupole ion guides. Precursor ions are generated by electrospray ionization and isolated in the ion trap. Subsequently they are directed to the TOF source where photodissociation occurs and product ions are extracted for mass analysis. To detect photodissociation product ions having axially divergent trajectories, a large rectangular detector is utilized. With variation of the time between photodissociation and orthogonal extraction in the TOF source, product ions formed over a range of times after photoexcitation can be sampled. Time-dependent observation of product ions following 157 nm photodissociation of a singly charged tryptic peptide ion (NWDAGFGR) showed that prompt photofragment ions (x- and v-type ions) dominate the tandem mass spectrum up to 1 micros after the laser shot, but the intensities of low energy thermal fragment ions (y-type ions) become comparable several microseconds later. Different proton mobilization time scales were observed for arginine- and lysine-terminated tryptic peptides.

  13. An apparatus for immersing trapped ions into an ultracold gas of neutral atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan; Härter, Arne; Frisch, Albert; Hoinka, Sascha; Denschlag, Johannes Hecker

    2012-05-01

    We describe a hybrid vacuum system in which a single ion or a well-defined small number of trapped ions (in our case Ba(+) or Rb(+)) can be immersed into a cloud of ultracold neutral atoms (in our case Rb). This apparatus allows for the study of collisions and interactions between atoms and ions in the ultracold regime. Our setup is a combination of a Bose-Einstein condensation apparatus and a linear Paul trap. The main design feature of the apparatus is to first separate the production locations for the ion and the ultracold atoms and then to bring the two species together. This scheme has advantages in terms of stability and available access to the region where the atom-ion collision experiments are carried out. The ion and the atoms are brought together using a moving one-dimensional optical lattice transport which vertically lifts the atomic sample over a distance of 30 cm from its production chamber into the center of the Paul trap in another chamber. We present techniques to detect and control the relative position between the ion and the atom cloud.

  14. One single trapped and laser cooled radium ion: Towards an all-optical atomic clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versolato, Oscar; Wansbeek, Lotje; Willmann, Lorenz; Timmermans, Rob; Jungmann, Klaus [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    One single trapped radium ion is an ideal candidate for an all-optical frequency standard (*clock*). This system provides a long coherence time and tractable systematics. If the ion is laser cooled to the Lamb-Dicke regime, first order Doppler shifts are eliminated. Ultra-narrow transitions in radium ions provide an excellent basis for such a high stability clock, using commercially available semiconductor lasers in the visible regime. In certain odd isotopes of radium, the nuclear electric quadrupole shift is absent. Further, the radium ion is an excellent candidate for a high sensitivity experiment to search for a time variation of the finestructure constant.

  15. Decoherence bounds on the capabilities of cold trapped ion quantum computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, D.F.V.; Hughes, R.J.; Knill, E.H. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Using simple physical arguments we investigate the capabilities of a quantum computer based on cold trapped ions of the type recently proposed by Cirac and Zoller. From the limitations imposed on such a device by decoherence due to spontaneous decay, laser phase coherence times, ion heating and other possible sources of error, we derive bounds on the number of laser interactions and on the number of ions that may be used. As a quantitative measure of the possible performance of these devices, the largest number which may be factored using Shor`s quantum factoring algorithm is determined for a variety of species of ion.

  16. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ion trap mass spectrometry: efficient isolation and effective fragmentation of peptide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J; Chait, B T

    1996-07-01

    Effective analysis of the sequence of peptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tandem ion trap mass spectrometry requires efficient mass isolation and the ability to induce extensive sequence-specific fragmentation. The present paper describes a new excitation scheme, which we term red-shifted off-resonance large-amplitude excitation (RSORLAE), that can deposit higher amounts of internal energy in ions than is feasible with conventional resonant excitation. The new method provides an effective means for inducing fragmentation of MALDI-produced peptide ions with m/z values up to 3500. Prior to excitation, it is necessary to isolate ions of interest with high efficiency. We demonstrate that isolation efficiencies of > 95% can be achieved by careful design of the rf scan functions used during ion isolation. In particular, sudden transitions in the amplitude of the rf field (from low to high amplitudes) must be avoided. The combined improvements in the efficiency for ion isolation and the efficacy of ion activation make MALDI tandem ion trap mass spectrometry a practical tool for the characterization of proteins with high sensitivity.

  17. Electron beam ion trap bi-annual report 1996/1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D

    1999-01-05

    The research of the EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap) program in N Division of the Physics and Space Technology Directorate at LLNL continues to contribute significantly to the understanding of physical processes with low energy highly charged ions in atomic physics, plasma physics, and material science. Low-energy highly charged ions (up to U92+), provided by the EBIT facilities, provide a unique laboratory opportunity to study high field effects in atomic structures and dynamic interaction processes. The formation, existence, and structure of highly charged ions in astrophysical environments and laboratory plasmas make highly charged ions desirable for diagnosing various plasma conditions. The strong interaction of highly charged ions with matter and the response of solid surfaces make them a sensitive analysis tool and possibly a future capability for materials modifications at the atomic scale (nano technology). These physical applications require a good understanding and careful study of the dynamics of the interactions of the ions with complex systems. The EBIT group hosted an international conference and a workshop on trapped charged particles. The various talks and discussions showed that physics research with trapped charged particles is a very active and attractive area of innovative research, and provides a basis for research efforts in new areas. It also became obvious that the EBIT/RETRAP project has unique capabilities to perform important new experiments with trapped very highly charged ions at rest, which are complementary to and competitive with research at heavy ion storage rings and other trapping facilities planned or in operation in Europe, Japan, and the United States. Atomic structure research at EBIT provides ever better and more experimental complete benchmark data, supplying data needed to improve atomic theories. Research highlights through 1996 and 1997 include hyperfine structure measurements in H-like ions, QED studies, lifetime

  18. Trapped Ion Oscillation Frequencies as Sensors for Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Nörtershäuser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The oscillation frequencies of charged particles in a Penning trap can serve as sensors for spectroscopy when additional field components are introduced to the magnetic and electric fields used for confinement. The presence of so-called “magnetic bottles” and specific electric anharmonicities creates calculable energy-dependences of the oscillation frequencies in the radiofrequency domain which may be used to detect the absorption or emission of photons both in the microwave and optical frequency domains. The precise electronic measurement of these oscillation frequencies therefore represents an optical sensor for spectroscopy. We discuss possible applications for precision laser and microwave spectroscopy and their role in the determination of magnetic moments and excited state lifetimes. Also, the trap-assisted measurement of radiative nuclear de-excitations in the X-ray domain is discussed. This way, the different applications range over more than 12 orders of magnitude in the detectable photon energies, from below μeV in the microwave domain to beyond MeV in the X-ray domain.

  19. Quantum spin dynamics and entanglement generation with hundreds of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnet, Justin G.; Sawyer, Brian C.; Britton, Joseph W.; Wall, Michael L.; Rey, Ana Maria; Foss-Feig, Michael; Bollinger, John J.

    2016-06-01

    Quantum simulation of spin models can provide insight into problems that are difficult or impossible to study with classical computers. Trapped ions are an established platform for quantum simulation, but only systems with fewer than 20 ions have demonstrated quantum correlations. We studied quantum spin dynamics arising from an engineered, homogeneous Ising interaction in a two-dimensional array of 9Be+ ions in a Penning trap. We verified entanglement in spin-squeezed states of up to 219 ions, directly observing 4.0 ± 0.9 decibels of spectroscopic enhancement, and observed states with non-Gaussian statistics consistent with oversqueezed states. The good agreement with ab initio theory that includes interactions and decoherence lays the groundwork for simulations of the transverse-field Ising model with variable-range interactions, which are generally intractable with classical methods.

  20. Kinetics of a single trapped ion in an ultracold buffer gas

    CERN Document Server

    Zipkes, Christoph; Sias, Carlo; Köhl, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The immersion of a single ion confined by a radiofrequency trap in an ultracold atomic gas extends the concept of buffer gas cooling to a new temperature regime. The steady state energy distribution of the ion is determined by its kinetics in the radiofrequency field rather than the temperature of the buffer gas. Moreover, the finite size of the ultracold gas facilitates the observation of back-action of the ion onto the buffer gas. We numerically investigate the system's properties depending on mass ratio, trap geometry, differential cross-section, and non-uniform neutral atom density distribution. We identify excess micromotion to set the typical scale for the ion energy statistics and explore the applicability of the mobility collision cross-section to the ultracold regime.

  1. Scalable Loading of a Two-Dimensional Trapped-Ion Array

    CERN Document Server

    Bruzewicz, C D; Chiaverini, J; Sage, J M

    2015-01-01

    We describe rapid, random-access loading of a two-dimensional (2D) surface-electrode ion-trap array based on two crossed photo-ionization laser beams. With the use of a continuous flux of pre-cooled neutral atoms from a remotely-located source, we achieve loading of a single ion per site while maintaining long trap lifetimes and without disturbing the coherence of an ion quantum bit in an adjacent site. This demonstration satisfies all major criteria necessary for loading and reloading extensive 2D arrays, as will be required for large-scale quantum information processing. Moreover, the already high loading rate can be increased by loading ions in parallel with only a concomitant increase in photo-ionization laser power and no need for additional atomic flux.

  2. Quantum spin dynamics and entanglement generation with hundreds of trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnet, Justin G; Britton, Joseph W; Wall, Michael L; Rey, Ana Maria; Foss-Feig, Michael; Bollinger, John J

    2015-01-01

    Quantum simulation of spin models can provide insight into complex problems that are difficult or impossible to study with classical computers. Trapped ions are an established platform for quantum simulation, but only systems with fewer than 20 ions have demonstrated quantum correlations. Here we study non-equilibrium, quantum spin dynamics arising from an engineered, homogeneous Ising interaction in a two-dimensional array of $^9$Be$^+$ ions in a Penning trap. We verify entanglement in the form of spin-squeezed states for up to 219 ions, directly observing 4.0$\\pm$0.9 dB of spectroscopic enhancement. We also observe evidence of non-Gaussian, over-squeezed states in the full counting statistics. We find good agreement with ab-initio theory that includes competition between entanglement and decoherence, laying the groundwork for simulations of the transverse-field Ising model with variable-range interactions, for which numerical solutions are, in general, classically intractable.

  3. Scalable loading of a two-dimensional trapped-ion array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzewicz, Colin D.; McConnell, Robert; Chiaverini, John; Sage, Jeremy M.

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional arrays of trapped-ion qubits are attractive platforms for scalable quantum information processing. Sufficiently rapid reloading capable of sustaining a large array, however, remains a significant challenge. Here with the use of a continuous flux of pre-cooled neutral atoms from a remotely located source, we achieve fast loading of a single ion per site while maintaining long trap lifetimes and without disturbing the coherence of an ion quantum bit in an adjacent site. This demonstration satisfies all major criteria necessary for loading and reloading extensive two-dimensional arrays, as will be required for large-scale quantum information processing. Moreover, the already high loading rate can be increased by loading ions in parallel with only a concomitant increase in photo-ionization laser power and no need for additional atomic flux.

  4. Deuterium trapping at defects created with neutron and ion irradiations in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hatano; M. Shimada; T. Otsuka; Y. Oya; V.Kh. Alimov; M. Hara; J. Shi; M. Kobayashi; T. Oda; G. Cao; K. Okuno; T. Tanaka; K. Sugiyama; J. Roth; B. Tyburska-Püschel; J. Dorner; N. Yoshida; N. Futagami; H. Watanabe; M. Hatakeyama; H. Kurishita; M. Sokolov; Y. Katoh

    2013-07-01

    The effects of neutron and ion irradiations on deuterium (D) retention in tungsten (W) were investigated. Specimens of pure W were irradiated with neutrons to 0.3 dpa at around 323 K and then exposed to high-flux D plasma at 473 and 773 K. The concentration of D significantly increased by neutron irradiation and reached 0.8 at% at 473 K and 0.4 at% at 773 K. Annealing tests for the specimens irradiated with 20 MeV W ions showed that the defects which play a dominant role in the trapping at high temperature were stable at least up to 973 K, while the density decreased at temperatures equal to or above 1123 K. These observations of the thermal stability of traps and the activation energy for D detrapping examined in a previous study (˜1.8 eV) indicated that the defects which contribute predominantly to trapping at 773 K were small voids. The higher concentration of trapped D at 473 K was explained by additional contributions of weaker traps. The release of trapped D was clearly enhanced by the exposure to atomic hydrogen at 473 K, though higher temperatures are more effective for using this effect for tritium removal in fusion reactors.

  5. Simulations of beta-decay of 6He in an Electrostatic Ion Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Vaintraub, S; Hass, M; Heber, O; Aviv, O; Rappaport, M; Dhal, A; Mardor, I; Wolf, A

    2014-01-01

    Trapped radioactive atoms present exciting opportunities for the study of fundamental interactions and symmetries. For example, detecting beta decay in a trap can probe the minute experimental signal that originates from possible tensor or scalar terms in the weak interaction. Such scalar or tensor terms affect, e.g., the angular correlation between a neutrino and an electron in the beta-decay process, thus probing new physics of beyond-the-standard-model nature. The present system focuses on a novel use of an innovative ion trapping device, the Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap. Such a trap has not been previously considered for Fundamental Interaction studies and exhibits potentially very significant advantages over other schemes. These advantages include improved injection efficiency of the radionuclide under study, an extended field-free region, ion-beam kinematics for better efficiency and ease-of operation and the potential for a much larger solid angle for the electron and recoiling atom counters. The beta-d...

  6. Cross-species gates in a Ba/Yb ion trap for modular networked quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Martin; Inlek, Ismail; Crocker, Clay; Sosnova, Ksenia; Monroe, Chris

    2016-05-01

    A modular network of many ion traps is a promising approach to building a scalable quantum computer. Generation of entanglement between remote atomic qubits has been demonstrated using interference of simultaneously emitted photons from one qubit in each trap. However, stray photons emitted during this process may corrupt information stored in nearby qubits. To avoid this problem we have implemented co-trapping of two different elements in the same ion trap. 171 Yb+ is used as a quantum memory and processor, while 138 Ba+ is used for communication. The 493 nm photons from Ba+ do not couple to the Yb+ system, and suffer less attenuation in fiber optics than wavelengths available from most commonly trapped ion species. In this talk we report demonstration of state mapping between the Yb+ and Ba+ internal qubits, and progress towards utilizing these techniques in entanglement of remote qubits. This work is supported by the ARO with funding from the IARPA MQCO program, the DARPA Quiness program, the AFOSR MURI on Quantum Transduction, and the ARL Center for Distributed Quantum Information.

  7. One-Step Scheme for Realizing N-Qubit Quantum Phase Gates with Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao; LU Dao-Ming

    2011-01-01

    A scheme is presented for realizing an N-qubit quantum phase gate with trapped ions.Taking advantage of the virtual excitation of the vibrational mode, the qubit system undergoes a full-cycle of Rabi oscillation in the selective symmetric Dicke subspace.The scheme only involves a single step and the operation is insensitive to thermal motion.Moreover, the scheme does not require individual addresing of the ions.

  8. Positive ion chemistry in the exhaust plumes of an air craft jet engine and a burner: investigations with a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiendler, A.; Aberle, S.; Arnold, F. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany). Atmospheric Physics Div.

    2000-07-01

    Using a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer detailed composition analyses were made of positive ions in the exhaust of an aircraft jet engine and of a jet fuel burner. For both scenarios complex organic ions with large mass numbers were most abundant. By employing the MS{sup 2}-mode of the quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, mass selected trapped ions were intendently broken up and characteristic fragment ions were observed. The latter indicate that the parent ions contain hydrogen, carbon and oxygen which is indicative of oxygenated hydrocarbons. This contrasts recent composition measurements of negative ions in aircraft jet engine exhaust made by our group which revealed that negative ions contain the inorganic acid H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Our present measurements support the view that positive ions in aircraft jet engine exhaust contain preferably organic molecules. (author)

  9. Evaluation of Pulse Counting for the Mars Organic Mass Analyzer (MOMA) Ion Trap Detection Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Amerom, Friso H.; Short, Tim; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; Kleyner, Igor; Cotter, Robert J.; Pinnick, Veronica; Hoffman, Lars; Danell, Ryan M.; Lyness, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Organic Mass Analyzer is being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to identify organics and possible biological compounds on Mars. In the process of characterizing mass spectrometer size, weight, and power consumption, the use of pulse counting was considered for ion detection. Pulse counting has advantages over analog-mode amplification of the electron multiplier signal. Some advantages are reduced size of electronic components, low power consumption, ability to remotely characterize detector performance, and avoidance of analog circuit noise. The use of pulse counting as a detection method with ion trap instruments is relatively rare. However, with the recent development of high performance electrical components, this detection method is quite suitable and can demonstrate significant advantages over analog methods. Methods A prototype quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer with an internal electron ionization source was used as a test setup to develop and evaluate the pulse-counting method. The anode signal from the electron multiplier was preamplified. The an1plified signal was fed into a fast comparator for pulse-level discrimination. The output of the comparator was fed directly into a Xilinx FPGA development board. Verilog HDL software was written to bin the counts at user-selectable intervals. This system was able to count pulses at rates in the GHz range. The stored ion count nun1ber per bin was transferred to custom ion trap control software. Pulse-counting mass spectra were compared with mass spectra obtained using the standard analog-mode ion detection. Prelin1inary Data Preliminary mass spectra have been obtained for both analog mode and pulse-counting mode under several sets of instrument operating conditions. Comparison of the spectra revealed better peak shapes for pulse-counting mode. Noise levels are as good as, or better than, analog-mode detection noise levels. To artificially force ion pile-up conditions, the ion trap was overfilled

  10. Improved ion guide for heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dendooven, P; Beraud, R; Chabanat, E; Emsallem, A; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Jokinen, A; Lhersonneau, G; Oinonen, M; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Wang, JC; Aysto, J

    1998-01-01

    The ion guide for heavy-ion-induced reactions developed originally for the SARA facility in Grenoble has been implemented at the Jyvaskyla IGISOL facility. For the Cd-116(Ar-40, 6n)Dy-150 reaction an efficiency of 0.5% relative to the number of reaction products entering the stopping chamber was obt

  11. Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulde, Stephan; Riebe, Mark; Lancaster, Gavin P T; Becher, Christoph; Eschner, Jürgen; Häffner, Hartmut; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Chuang, Isaac L; Blatt, Rainer

    2003-01-02

    Determining classically whether a coin is fair (head on one side, tail on the other) or fake (heads or tails on both sides) requires an examination of each side. However, the analogous quantum procedure (the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm) requires just one examination step. The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has been realized experimentally using bulk nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, employing nuclear spins as quantum bits (qubits). In contrast, the ion trap processor utilises motional and electronic quantum states of individual atoms as qubits, and in principle is easier to scale to many qubits. Experimental advances in the latter area include the realization of a two-qubit quantum gate, the entanglement of four ions, quantum state engineering and entanglement-enhanced phase estimation. Here we exploit techniques developed for nuclear magnetic resonance to implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum processor, using as qubits the electronic and motional states of a single calcium ion. Our ion-based implementation of a full quantum algorithm serves to demonstrate experimental procedures with the quality and precision required for complex computations, confirming the potential of trapped ions for quantum computation.

  12. Squeezing properties of a trapped ion in the running-wave laser beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Chang-Ning; Fang Mao-Fa; Zheng Xiao-Juan; Hu Yao-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Beyond the Lamb-Dicke limit, this paper investigates the squeezing properties of the trapped ion in the travelling-wave laser. It shows that the squeezing properties of the trapped ion in the travelling-wave laser are strongly affected by the sideband number k, the Lamb- Dicke parameterηand the initial average phonon number.

  13. Optical probing of Eu ions confined in an RF trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pushpa M Rao; Anita Gupta

    2012-01-01

    The Eu ions confined in an RF quadrupole trap, has been optically detected. Using a tunable dye laser which is pumped by a Nd-YAG pulsed laser system, the resonance ${}^9S_4–6 p_{3/2}$, = 5 transition of the Eu ions have been excited and the resulting fluorescence to the metastable ${}^9 D_{4−6}$ state has been detected. In preparation to determine the ground-state hyperfine splitting of the odd isotopes we found the optimum trapping operating point. We have also observed a number of instabilities inside the region of the stability for an ideal trap. These non-linear resonances arise from higher-order contributions to the ideal quadrupole potential.

  14. Demonstration of a quantum logic gate in a cryogenic surface-electrode ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Ge, Yufei; Shewmon, Ruth; Chuang, Isaac L

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum control techniques for a single trapped ion in a cryogenic, surface-electrode trap. A narrow optical transition of Sr+ along with the ground and first excited motional states of the harmonic trapping potential form a two-qubit system. The optical qubit transition is susceptible to magnetic field fluctuations, which we stabilize with a simple and compact method using superconducting rings. Decoherence of the motional qubit is suppressed by the cryogenic environment. AC Stark shift correction is accomplished by controlling the laser phase in the pulse sequencer, eliminating the need for an additional laser. Quantum process tomography is implemented on atomic and motional states using conditional pulse sequences. With these techniques we demonstrate a Cirac-Zoller Controlled-NOT gate in a single ion with a mean fidelity of 91(1)%.

  15. A dense gas of laser-cooled atoms for hybrid atom-ion trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltkemeier, Bastian; Glässel, Julian; López-Carrera, Henry; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We describe the realization of a dark spontaneous-force trap of rubidium atoms. The atoms are loaded from a beam provided by a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap yielding a capture efficiency of 75%. The dense and cold atomic sample is characterized by saturated absorption imaging. Up to 10^9 atoms are captured with a loading rate of 3× 10^9 atoms/s into a cloud at a temperature of 250 μK with the density exceeding 10^{11} atoms/cm^3. Under steady-state conditions, more than 90% of the atoms can be prepared into the absolute atomic ground state, which provides favorable conditions for the investigation of sympathetic cooling of ions in a hybrid atom-ion trap.

  16. A highly miniaturized vacuum package for a trapped ion atomic clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwindt, Peter D. D., E-mail: pschwin@sandia.gov; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Partner, Heather; Casias, Adrian; Wagner, Adrian R.; Moorman, Matthew; Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Kellogg, James R.; Prestage, John D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a highly miniaturized vacuum package for use in an atomic clock utilizing trapped ytterbium-171 ions. The vacuum package is approximately 1 cm{sup 3} in size and contains a linear quadrupole RF Paul ion trap, miniature neutral Yb sources, and a non-evaporable getter pump. We describe the fabrication process for making the Yb sources and assembling the vacuum package. To prepare the vacuum package for ion trapping, it was evacuated, baked at a high temperature, and then back filled with a helium buffer gas. Once appropriate vacuum conditions were achieved in the package, it was sealed with a copper pinch-off and was subsequently pumped only by the non-evaporable getter. We demonstrated ion trapping in this vacuum package and the operation of an atomic clock, stabilizing a local oscillator to the 12.6 GHz hyperfine transition of {sup 171}Y b{sup +}. The fractional frequency stability of the clock was measured to be 2 × 10{sup −11}/τ{sup 1/2}.

  17. Simple and Fast Scheme for Realizing Quantum Logic Gates in an Ion Trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2004-01-01

    We propose a simple and fast scheme to realize a controlled-NOT gate between two trapped ions using a resonant laser pulse. Our scheme allows the Rabi frequency of the laser field to be of the order of the vibrational frequency and thus the time required to complete the operation is greatly shortened, which is of importance in view of decoherence.

  18. One step to generate quantum controlled phase-shift gate using a trapped ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shi-Jun; Ma Chi; Zhang Wen-Hai; Ye Liu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a very simple scheme for generating quantum controlled phase-shift gate with only one step by using the two vibrational modes of a trapped ion as the two qubits.The scheme couples two vibration degrees of freedom coupled with a suitable chosen laser excitation via the ionic states.

  19. Photoelectron emission as an alternative electron impact ionization source for ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez, Gerardo; Zhu, Liang; Schmitz, Thomas A; Zenobi, Renato

    2008-09-01

    Electron impact ionization has several known advantages; however, heated filament electron sources have pressure limitations and their power consumption can be significant for certain applications, such as in field-portable instruments. Herein, we evaluate a VUV krypton lamp as an alternative source for ionization inside the ion trap of a mass spectrometer. The observed fragmentation patterns are more characteristic of electron impact ionization than photoionization. In addition, mass spectra of analytes with ionization potentials higher than the lamp's photon energy (10.6 eV) can be easily obtained. A photoelectron impact ionization mechanism is suggested by the observed data allowed by the work function of the ion trap electrodes (4.5 eV), which is well within the lamp's photon energy. In this case, the photoelectrons emitted at the surface of the ion trap end-cap electrode are accelerated by the applied rf field to the ring electrode. This allows the photoelectrons to gain sufficient energy to ionize compounds with high ionization potentials to yield mass spectra characteristic of electron impact. In this manner, electron impact ionization can be used in ion trap mass spectrometers at low powers and without the limitations imposed by elevated pressures on heated filaments.

  20. Quantum Logic Operation with Single Trapped Ion Without Limitation of Lamb-Dicke Parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2003-01-01

    By applying the nonlinear interaction between internal and external degrees of a trapped ion with theassistance of two pairs or three pairs of laser beams that are perpendicular to each other, the realization of quantumlogic operation without the limitation on the Lamb-Dicke parameter can be achieved when the lasers are tuned to thecarrier.

  1. A cylindrical quadrupole ion trap in combination with an electrospray ion source for gas-phase luminescence and absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockett, Mark H.; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Svendsen, Annette; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2016-05-01

    A relatively simple setup for collection and detection of light emitted from isolated photo-excited molecular ions has been constructed. It benefits from a high collection efficiency of photons, which is accomplished by using a cylindrical ion trap where one end-cap electrode is a mesh grid combined with an aspheric condenser lens. The geometry permits nearly 10% of the emitted light to be collected and, after transmission losses, approximately 5% to be delivered to the entrance of a grating spectrometer equipped with a detector array. The high collection efficiency enables the use of pulsed tunable lasers with low repetition rates (e.g., 20 Hz) instead of continuous wave (cw) lasers or very high repetition rate (e.g., MHz) lasers that are typically used as light sources for gas-phase fluorescence experiments on molecular ions. A hole has been drilled in the cylinder electrode so that a light pulse can interact with the ion cloud in the center of the trap. Simulations indicate that these modifications to the trap do not significantly affect the storage capability and the overall shape of the ion cloud. The overlap between the ion cloud and the laser light is basically 100%, and experimentally >50% of negatively charged chromophore ions are routinely photodepleted. The performance of the setup is illustrated based on fluorescence spectra of several laser dyes, and the quality of these spectra is comparable to those reported by other groups. Finally, by replacing the optical system with a channeltron detector, we demonstrate that the setup can also be used for gas-phase action spectroscopy where either depletion or fragmentation is monitored to provide an indirect measurement on the absorption spectrum of the ion.

  2. Flame Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Coupled with Negative Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry for Ion Molecule Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sy-Chyi; Bhat, Suhail Muzaffar; Shiea, Jentaie

    2017-07-01

    Flame atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (FAPCI) combined with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was developed to detect the ion/molecule reactions (IMRs) products between nitric acid (HNO3) and negatively charged amino acid, angiotensin I (AI) and angiotensin II (AII), and insulin ions. Nitrate and HNO3-nitrate ions were detected in the oxyacetylene flame, suggesting that a large quantity of nitric acid (HNO3) was produced in the flame. The HNO3 and negatively charged analyte ions produced by a negative ESI source were delivered into each arm of a Y-shaped stainless steel tube where they merged and reacted. The products were subsequently characterized with an ion trap mass analyzer attached to the exit of the Y-tube. HNO3 showed the strongest affinity to histidine and formed (Mhistidine-H+HNO3)- complex ions, whereas some amino acids did not react with HNO3 at all. Reactions between HNO3 and histidine residues in AI and AII resulted in the formation of dominant [MAI-H+(HNO3)]- and [MAII-H+(HNO3)]- ions. Results from analyses of AAs and insulin indicated that HNO3 could not only react with basic amino acid residues, but also with disulfide bonds to form [M-3H+(HNO3)n]3- complex ions. This approach is useful for obtaining information about the number of basic amino acid residues and disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins.

  3. Achieving translational symmetry in trapped cold ion rings

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hao-Kun; Noel, Crystal; Chuang, Alexander; Xia, Yang; Ransford, Anthony; Hemmerling, Boerge; Wang, Yuan; Li, Tongcang; Haeffner, Hartmut; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a universal concept throughout science. For instance, the Landau-Ginzburg paradigm of translational symmetry breaking underlies the classification of nearly all quantum phases of matter and explains the emergence of crystals, insulators, and superconductors. Usually, the consequences of translational invariance are studied in large systems to suppress edge effects which cause undesired symmetry breaking. While this approach works for investigating global properties, studies of local observables and their correlations require access and control of the individual constituents. Periodic boundary conditions, on the other hand, could allow for translational symmetry in small systems where single particle control is achievable. Here, we crystallize up to fifteen 40Ca+ ions in a microscopic ring with inherent periodic boundary conditions. We show the ring's translational symmetry is preserved at millikelvin temperatures by delocalizing the Doppler laser cooled ions. This establishes ...

  4. Sequencing and characterization of oligosaccharides using infrared multiphoton dissociation and boronic acid derivatization in a quadrupole ion trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, Michael; Hargrove, Amanda; Shabbir, Shagufta H; Anslyn, Eric V; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2007-12-01

    A simplified method for determining the sequence and branching of oligosaccharides using infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) in a quadrupole ion trap (QIT) is described. An IR-active boronic acid (IRABA) reagent is used to derivatize the oligosaccharides before IRMPD analysis. The IRABA ligand is designed to both enhance the efficiency of the derivatization reaction and to facilitate the photon absorption process. The resulting IRMPD spectra display oligosaccharide fragments that are formed from primarily one type of diagnostic cleavage, thus making sequencing straightforward. The presence of sequential fragment ions, a phenomenon of IRMPD, permit the comprehensive sequencing of the oligosaccharides studied in a single stage of activation. We demonstrate this approach for two series of oligosaccharides, the lacto-N-fucopentaoses (LNFPs) and the lacto-N-difucohexaoses (LNDFHs).

  5. Dielectronic recombination measurements of highly-charged heliumlike and neonlike ions using an electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.B.; Knapp, D.A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, M.H.; Scofield, J.H.; Bennett, C.L.; DeWitt, D.R.; Henderson, J.R.; Lee, P.; Marrs, R.E.; Schneider, D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Levine, M.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) at LLNL is a unique device designed to measure the interactions of electrons with highly-charged ions. We describe three methods used at EBIT to directly measure the dielectronic recombination (DR) process: the intensity of the stabilizing x-rays is measured as a function of electron beam energy; the ions remaining in a particular ionization state are counted after the electron beam has been held at a fixed electron energy for a fixed time; and high-resolution spectroscopy is used to resolve individual DR satellite lines. In our discussions, we concentrate on the KLL resonances of the heliumlike target ions (V{sup 21+} to Ba{sup 54+}), and the LMM resonances of the neonlike target ions (Xe{sup 44+} to Th{sup 80+}). 12 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Kingdon trap apparatus and technique for precise measurement of the lifetimes of metastable levels of ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; Church, D.A. [Physics Department, Texas AM University, College Station, Texas77843-4242 (United States); Phaneuf, R.A. [Physics Department, University of Nevada at Reno, Reno, Nevada89557-0058 (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A portable system consisting of a Kingdon electrostatic ion trap and associated vacuum system and electronics has been especially designed to capture multiply charged ions from a beam produced by an electron cyclotron resonance ion source and to measure the lifetimes of the decays of metastable levels of these ions, which are excited in the source. Measurements on ion charge states as high as 14+ have been completed, with precisions exceeding 1{percent} achieved with a few hours of data collection time in favorable cases. Gaseous and metallic ions of astrophysical interest have been studied. The measured lifetime of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2} {sup 1}D{sub 2} level of Mn{sup 11+}, {tau}=11.16{plus_minus}0.10 ms, is discussed as an example of the apparatus capabilities. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Ultracold, radiative charge transfer in hybrid Yb ion - Rb atom traps

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, B M; Lane, I C; McCann, J F

    2014-01-01

    Ultracold hybrid ion-atom traps offer the possibility of microscopic manipulation of quantum coherences in the gas using the ion as a probe. However, inelastic processes, particularly charge transfer can be a significant process of ion loss and has been measured experimentally for the Yb$^{+}$ ion immersed in a Rb vapour. We use first-principles quantum chemistry codes to obtain the potential energy curves and dipole moments for the lowest-lying energy states of this complex. Calculations for the radiative decay processes cross sections and rate coefficients are presented for the total decay processes. Comparing the semi-classical Langevin approximation with the quantum approach, we find it provides a very good estimate of the background at higher energies. The results demonstrate that radiative decay mechanisms are important over the energy and temperature region considered. In fact, the Langevin process of ion-atom collisions dominates cold ion-atom collisions. For spin dependent processes \\cite{kohl13} the...

  8. Atomic parity violation in one single trapped radium ion as a probe of electroweak running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wansbeek, Lotje; Versolato, Oscar; Willmann, Lorenz; Timmermans, Rob; Jungmann, Klaus [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-07-01

    In a single trapped and laser cooled radium ion we investigate atomic parity violation by probing the differential splitting (*light shifts*) of the 7S and 6D Zeeman levels, which is caused by the interaction of the ion with an off-resonant laser light field. This experiment serves as a low-energy test of the electroweak Standard Model of particle physics. With precision RF spectroscopy and subsequent monitoring of quantum jumps, this splitting can be determined to sub-Hertz accuracy. A proof-of-principle has recently been given for the barium ion, and crucial ideas are being extended to Ra{sup +} which is a superior candidate.

  9. Scheme for N-Qubit Toffoli Gate by Transport of Trapped Ultracold Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wan-Li; WEI Hua; CHEN Chang-Yong

    2008-01-01

    We propose a potentially practical scheme for implementing an n-qubit Toffoli gate by elaborately controlling the transport of ultracold ions through stationary laser beams. Conditioned on the uniform ionic transport velocity, the n-qubit Toffoli gate can be realized with high fidelity and high successful probability under current experimental conditions, which depends on a single resonant interaction with n trapped ions and has constant implementation time with the increase of qubits. We show that the increase of the ion number can improve the fidelity and the successful probability of the Toffoli gate.

  10. Screening of drugs and toxic compounds with liquid chromatography-linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Duretz, Bénédicte; Deporte, Didier; Lachatre, Gérard; Marquet, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    In clinical and forensic toxicology, general unknown screening is used to detect and identify exogenous compounds. In this study, we aimed to develop a comprehensive general unknown screening method based on liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer. After solid-phase extraction, separation was performed using gradient reversed-phase chromatography. The mass spectrometer was operated in the information-dependent acquisition mode, switching between a survey scan acquired in the Enhanced Mass Spectrometry mode with dynamic subtraction of background noise and a dependent scan obtained in the enhanced product ion scan mode. The complete cycle time was 1.36 s. A library of 1000 enhanced product ion-tandem mass spectrometry spectra in positive mode and 250 in negative mode, generated using 3 alternated collision tensions during each scan, was created by injecting pure solutions of drugs and toxic compounds. Comparison with HPLC-diode array detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of 36 clinical samples showed that linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry could identify most of the compounds (94% of the total). Some compounds were detected only by 1 of the other 2 techniques. Specific clinical cases highlighted the advantages and limitations of the method. A unique combination of new operating modes provided by hybrid triple-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometers and new software features allowed development of a comprehensive and efficient method for the general unknown screening of drugs and toxic compounds in blood or urine.

  11. Minimally complex ion traps as modules for quantum communication and computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullin, Ramil; Ballance, Christopher J.; de Beaudrap, Niel; Benjamin, Simon C.

    2016-10-01

    Optically linked ion traps are promising as components of network-based quantum technologies, including communication systems and modular computers. Experimental results achieved to date indicate that the fidelity of operations within each ion trap module will be far higher than the fidelity of operations involving the links; fortunately internal storage and processing can effectively upgrade the links through the process of purification. Here we perform the most detailed analysis to date on this purification task, using a protocol which is balanced to maximise fidelity while minimising the device complexity and the time cost of the process. Moreover we ‘compile down’ the quantum circuit to device-level operations including cooling and shuttling events. We find that a linear trap with only five ions (two of one species, three of another) can support our protocol while incorporating desirable features such as global control, i.e. laser control pulses need only target an entire zone rather than differentiating one ion from its neighbour. To evaluate the capabilities of such a module we consider its use both as a universal communications node for quantum key distribution, and as the basic repeating unit of a quantum computer. For the latter case we evaluate the threshold for fault tolerant quantum computing using the surface code, finding acceptable fidelities for the ‘raw’ entangling link as low as 83% (or under 75% if an additional ion is available).

  12. Decomposition of cyclohexane ion induced by intense femtosecond laser fields by ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Takao; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kanya, Reika [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Yamanouchi, Kaoru, E-mail: kaoru@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); NANOQUINE, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2016-01-14

    Decomposition of cyclohexane cations induced by intense femtosecond laser fields at the wavelength of 800 nm is investigated by ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry in which cyclohexane cations C{sub 6}H{sub 12}{sup +} stored in an ion trap are irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses and the generated fragment ions are recorded by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The various fragment ion species, C{sub 5}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 7, 9), C{sub 4}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 5–8), C{sub 3}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 3–7), C{sub 2}H{sub n}{sup +} (n = 2–6), and CH{sub 3}{sup +}, identified in the mass spectra show that decomposition of C{sub 6}H{sub 12}{sup +} proceeds efficiently by the photo-irradiation. From the laser intensity dependences of the yields of the fragment ion species, the numbers of photons required for producing the respective fragment ions are estimated.

  13. Soft x-ray laser spectroscopy on trapped highly charged ions at FLASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, S W; López-Urrutia, J R Crespo; Brenner, G; Mäckel, V; Mokler, P H; Treusch, R; Kuhlmann, M; Yurkov, M V; Feldhaus, J; Schneider, J R; Wellhöfer, M; Martins, M; Wurth, W; Ullrich, J

    2007-05-04

    In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate high-resolution resonant laser excitation in the soft x-ray region at 48.6 eV of the 2 (2)S(1/2) to 2 (2)P(1/2) transition of Li-like Fe23+ ions trapped in an electron beam ion trap by using ultrabrilliant light from Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). High precision spectroscopic studies of highly charged ions at this and upcoming x-ray lasers with an expected accuracy gain up to a factor of a thousand, become possible with our technique, thus potentially yielding fundamental insights, e.g., into basic aspects of QED.

  14. Improved high-fidelity transport of trapped-ion qubits through a multi-dimensional array

    CERN Document Server

    Blakestad, R B; VanDevender, A P; Wesenberg, J H; Biercuk, M J; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated transport of Be+ ions through a 2D Paul-trap array that incorporates an X-junction, while maintaining the ions near the motional ground-state of the confining potential well. We expand on the first report of the experiment [1], including a detailed discussion of how the transport potentials were calculated. Two main mechanisms that caused motional excitation during transport are explained, along with the methods used to mitigate such excitation. We reduced the motional excitation below the results in Ref. [1] by a factor of approximately 50. The effect of a mu-metal shield on qubit coherence is also reported. Finally, we examined a method for exchanging energy between multiple motional modes on the few-quanta level, which could be useful for cooling motional modes without directly accessing the modes with lasers. These results establish how trapped ions can be transported in a large-scale quantum processor with high fidelity.

  15. Lower ground state due to counter-rotating wave interaction in trapped ion system

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, T; Feng, M

    2007-01-01

    We consider a single ion confined in a trap under radiation of two traveling waves of lasers. In the strong-excitation regime and without the restriction of Lamb-Dicke limit, the Hamiltonian of the system is similar to a driving Jaynes-Cummings model without rotating wave approximation (RWA). The approach we developed enables us to present a complete eigensolutions, which makes it available to compare with the solutions under the RWA. We find that, the ground state in our non-RWA solution is energically lower than the counterpart under the RWA. If we have the ion in the ground state, it is equivalent to a spin dependent force on the trapped ion. Discussion is made for the difference between the solutions with and without the RWA, and for the relevant experimental test, as well as for the possible application in quantum information processing.

  16. High Energy Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using electron beam ion traps and advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Bernitt, Sven; Eberle, Sita; Hell, Natalie; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kelley, Rich; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. Scott; Rudolph, Jan; Steinbrugge, Rene; Traebert, Elmar; Crespo-Lopez-Urritia, Jose R.

    2015-08-01

    We have used the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's EBIT-I electron beam ion trap coupled with a NASA/GSFC microcalorimeter spectrometer instrument to systematically address problems found in the analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra from celestial sources, and to benchmark atomic physics codes employed by high resolution spectral modeling packages. Our results include laboratory measurements of transition energies, absolute and relative electron impact excitation cross sections, charge exchange cross sections, and dielectronic recombination resonance strengths. More recently, we have coupled to the Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics-Heidelberg's FLASH-EBIT electron beam ion trap to third and fourth generation advanced light sources to measure photoexcitation and photoionization cross sections, as well as, natural line widths of X-ray transitions in highly charged iron ions. Selected results will be presented.

  17. Quantum gate between logical qubits in decoherence-free subspace implemented with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Peter A; Singer, Kilian; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand

    2009-01-01

    We propose an efficient technique for the implementation of a geometric phase gate in a decoherence-free subspace with trapped ions. In this scheme, the quantum information is encoded in the Zeeman sublevels of the ground state and two physical qubits are used to make up one logical qubit with ultra long coherence time. The physical realization of a geometric phase gate between two logic qubits is performed with four ions in a linear crystal simultaneously interacting with single laser beam. We investigate in detail the robustness of the scheme with respect to the right choice of the trap frequency and provide a detailed analysis of error sources, taking into account the experimental conditions. Furthermore, possible applications for the generation of cluster states for larger numbers of ions within the decoherence-free subspace are presented.

  18. Quantum logic gates with two-level trapped ions beyond Lamb-Dicke limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Xiao-Juan; Luo Yi-Min; Cai Jian-Wu

    2009-01-01

    In the system with two two-level ions confined in a linear trap,this paper presents a simple scheme to realize the quantum phase gate(QPG)and the swap gate beyond the Lamb-Dicke(LD)limit.These two-qubit quantum logic gates only involve the internal states of two trapped ions.The scheme does not use the vibrational mode as the data bus and only requires a single resonant interaction of the ions with the lasers.Neither the LD approximation nor the auxiliary atomic level is needed in the proposed scheme.Thus the scheme is simple and the interaction time is very short,which is important in view of decoherence.The experimental feasibility for achieving this scheme is also discussed.

  19. Ghost features in Doppler-broadened spectra of rovibrational transitions in trapped HD$^+$ ions

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, Sayan

    2016-01-01

    Doppler broadening plays an important role in laser rovibrational spectroscopy of trapped deuterated molecular hydrogen ions (HD$^+$), even at the millikelvin temperatures achieved through sympathetic cooling by laser-cooled beryllium ions. Recently, Biesheuvel \\textit{et al.} \\cite{Biesheuvel2016} presented a theoretical lineshape model for such transitions which not only considers linestrengths and Doppler broadening, but also the finite sample size and population redistribution by blackbody radiation, which are important in view of the long storage and probe times achievable in ion traps. Here, we employ the rate equation model developed by Biesheuvel \\textit{et al.} to theoretically study the Doppler-broadened hyperfine structure of the $(v,L):(0,3)\\rightarrow(4,2)$ rovibrational transition in HD$^+$ at 1442~nm. We observe prominent yet hitherto unrecognized ghost features in the simulated spectrum, whose positions depend on the Doppler width, transition rates, and saturation levels of the hyperfine compo...

  20. The trapped ion-electron instability in an electron storage ring with a gap in the bunch train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, R. A.

    2000-08-01

    The trapped ion-electron instability in an electron storage ring is studied for a broad distribution of natural ion oscillation frequencies, termed ion bounce frequencies. A gap in the train of electron bunches may be used to create bands of unstable ion bounce frequencies, so that an ion species is ejected from regions of the ring where its horizontal or vertical bounce frequency is unstable. Expressions are obtained for the reduction in the incoherent tune shifts and trapped ion-electron instability growth rates resulting from the gap.

  1. The trapped ion-electron instability in an electron storage ring with a gap in the bunch train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, R.A. E-mail: bosch@src.wisc.edu

    2000-08-11

    The trapped ion-electron instability in an electron storage ring is studied for a broad distribution of natural ion oscillation frequencies, termed ion bounce frequencies. A gap in the train of electron bunches may be used to create bands of unstable ion bounce frequencies, so that an ion species is ejected from regions of the ring where its horizontal or vertical bounce frequency is unstable. Expressions are obtained for the reduction in the incoherent tune shifts and trapped ion-electron instability growth rates resulting from the gap.

  2. Dynamics of a single trapped ion immersed in a buffer gas

    CERN Document Server

    Höltkemeier, Bastian; López-Carrera, Henry; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive theoretical framework for describing the dynamics of a single trapped ion interacting with a neutral buffer gas, thus extending our previous studies on buffer-gas cooling of ions beyond the critical mass ratio [B. H\\"oltkemeier et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 233003 (2016)]. By transforming the collisional processes into a frame, where the ion's micromotion is assigned to the buffer gas atoms, our model allows one to investigate the influence of non-homogeneous buffer gas configurations as well as higher multipole orders of the radio-frequency trap in great detail. Depending on the neutral-to-ion mass ratio, three regimes of sympathetic cooling are identified which are characterized by the form of the ion's energy distribution in equilibrium. We provide analytic expressions and numerical simulations of the ion's energy distribution, spatial profile and cooling rates for these different regimes. Based on these findings, a method for actively decreasing the ion's energy by reducing the ...

  3. Detection and clearing of trapped ions in the high current Cornell photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Full, Steven; Bazarov, Ivan; Dobbins, John; Dunham, Bruce; Hoffstaetter, Georg

    2015-01-01

    We have recently performed experiments to test the effectiveness of three ion-clearing strategies in the Cornell high intensity photoinjector: DC clearing electrodes, bunch gaps, and beam shaking. The photoinjector reaches a new regime of linac beam parameters where high CW beam currents lead to ion trapping. Therefore ion mitigation strategies must be evaluated for this machine and other similar future high current linacs. We have developed several techniques to directly measure the residual trapped ions. Our two primary indicators of successful clearing are the amount of ion current removed by a DC clearing electrode, and the absence of bremsstrahlung radiation generated by beam-ion interactions. Measurements were taken for an electron beam with an energy of 5 MeV and CW beam currents in the range of 1-20 mA. Several theoretical models have been developed to explain our data. Using them, we are able to estimate the clearing electrode voltage required for maximum ion clearing, the creation and clearing rates...

  4. Sympathetic cooling and detection of a hot trapped ion by a cold one

    CERN Document Server

    Guggemos, M; Herrera-Sancho, O A; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of an ion sympathetically cooled by another laser-cooled ion or small ion crystal. To this end, we develop simple models of the cooling dynamics in the limit of weak Coulomb interactions. Experimentally, we create a two-ion crystal of Ca$^+$ and Al$^+$ by photo-ionization of neutral atoms produced by laser ablation. We characterize the velocity distribution of the laser-ablated atoms crossing the trap by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. We observe neutral atom velocities much higher than the ones of thermally heated samples and find as a consequence long sympathethic cooling times before crystallization occurs. Our key result is a new technique for detecting the loading of an initially hot ion with energy in the eV range by monitoring the motional state of a Doppler-cooled ion already present in the trap. This technique not only detects the ion but also provides information about dynamics of the sympathetic cooling process.

  5. Quantum transitions and quantum entanglement from Dirac-like dynamics simulated by trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Victor A. S. V.; Bernardini, Alex E.; Blasone, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Quantum transition probabilities and quantum entanglement for two-qubit states of a four-level trapped ion quantum system are computed for time-evolving ionic states driven by Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonians with interactions mapped onto a SU(2 )⊗SU(2 ) group structure. Using the correspondence of the method of simulating a 3 +1 dimensional Dirac-like Hamiltonian for bispinor particles into a single trapped ion, one preliminarily obtains the analytical tools for describing ionic state transition probabilities as a typical quantum oscillation feature. For Dirac-like structures driven by generalized Poincaré classes of coupling potentials, one also identifies the SU(2 )⊗SU(2 ) internal degrees of freedom corresponding to intrinsic parity and spin polarization as an adaptive platform for computing the quantum entanglement between the internal quantum subsystems which define two-qubit ionic states. The obtained quantum correlational content is then translated into the quantum entanglement of two-qubit ionic states with quantum numbers related to the total angular momentum and to its projection onto the direction of the trapping magnetic field. Experimentally, the controllable parameters simulated by ion traps can be mapped into a Dirac-like system in the presence of an electrostatic field which, in this case, is associated to ionic carrier interactions. Besides exhibiting a complete analytical profile for ionic quantum transitions and quantum entanglement, our results indicate that carrier interactions actively drive an overall suppression of the quantum entanglement.

  6. Quantum Magnetism of Spin-Ladder Compounds with Trapped-Ion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Bermudez, A; Ott, K; Kaufmann, H; Ulm, S; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B

    2012-01-01

    The quest for experimental platforms that allow for the exploration, and even control, of the interplay of low dimensionality and frustration is a fundamental challenge in several fields of quantum many-body physics, such as quantum magnetism. Here, we propose the use of cold crystals of trapped ions to study a variety of frustrated quantum spin ladders. By optimizing the trap geometry, we show how to tailor the low dimensionality of the models by changing the number of legs of the ladders. Combined with a method for selectively hiding of ions provided by laser addressing, it becomes possible to synthesize stripes of both triangular and Kagome lattices. Besides, the degree of frustration of the phonon-mediated spin interactions can be controlled by shaping the trap frequencies. We support our theoretical considerations by initial experiments with planar ion crystals, where a high and tunable anisotropy of the radial trap frequencies is demonstrated. We take into account an extensive list of possible error sou...

  7. Evaluation of ion trap mass spectrometry for the determination of ambient nicotine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, M.B.; Higgins, C.E.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    A thermal desorption unit has been interfaced directly with a Finnigan Ion Trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the identification and quantification of trace organics in air. No chromatographic separation of the desorbed constituents is performed prior to introduction into the mass spectrometer. Instead, positive identification of a compound is made based on its collision induced dissociation (CID) tandem (MS/MS) mass spectrum. Using this technique, as little as 50 pg of a constituent desorbed from resin trap can be characterized and quantified with a sample turnaround time of only 2--3 minutes. 3 refs.

  8. RESONANT INTERACTION BETWEEN A PAUL-TRAPPED ION AND A STANDING WAVE LASER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG MANG; HAI WEN-HUA; ZHU XI-WEN; GAO KE-LIN; SHI LEI

    2000-01-01

    An ultracold two-level ion experiencing the standing wave of a resonant laser in a Paul trap is investigated in the Lamb-Dicke limit and weak excitation regime, with full consideration of the time-dependence of the trapping potential.The analytical forms of the wave functions of the system can be described with our approach, and the time evolution of the pseudo-energy of the system as well as the squeezing property of the quadrature components is studied in comparison with the treatment of harmonic oscillator model.

  9. EBIT - Electronic Beam Ion Trap: N Divison experimental physics annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, D. [ed.

    1996-10-01

    The multi-faceted research effort of the EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap) program in N-Division of the Physics and Space Technology Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) continues to contribute significant results to the physical sciences from studies with low energy very highly charged heavy ions. The EBIT program attracts a number of collaborators from the US and abroad for the different projects. The collaborations are partly carried out through participating graduate students demonstrating the excellent educational capabilities at the LLNL EBIT facilities. Moreover, participants from Historically Black Colleges and Universities are engaged in the EBIT project. This report describes EBIT work for 1995 in atomic structure measurements and radiative transition probabilities, spectral diagnostics for laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, ion/surface interaction studies, electron-ion interactions studies, retrap and ion collisions, and instrumental development.

  10. Universal Control of Ion Qubits in a Scalable Microfabricated Planar Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Herold, Creston D; Merrill, J True; Meier, Adam M; Brown, Kenton R; Volin, Curtis; Amini, Jason M

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate universal quantum control over chains of ions in a surface-electrode ion trap, including all the fundamental operations necessary to perform algorithms in a one-dimensional, nearest-neighbor quantum computing architecture. We realize both single-qubit operations and nearest-neighbor entangling gates with Raman laser beams, and we interleave the two gate types. We report average single-qubit gate fidelities as high as 0.970(1) for two-, three-, and four-ion chains, characterized with randomized benchmarking. We generate Bell states between the nearest-neighbor pairs of a three-ion chain, with fidelity up to 0.84(2). We combine one- and two-qubit gates to perform quantum process tomography of a CNOT gate in a two-ion chain, and we report an overall fidelity of 0.76(3).

  11. Universal control of ion qubits in a scalable microfabricated planar trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, C. D.; Fallek, S. D.; Merrill, J. T.; Meier, A. M.; Brown, K. R.; Volin, C. E.; Amini, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate universal quantum control over chains of ions in a surface-electrode ion trap, including all the fundamental operations necessary to perform algorithms in a one-dimensional, nearest-neighbor quantum computing architecture. We realize both single-qubit operations and nearest-neighbor entangling gates with Raman laser beams, and we interleave the two gate types. We report average single-qubit gate fidelities as high as 0.970(1) for two-, three-, and four-ion chains, characterized with randomized benchmarking. We generate Bell states between the nearest-neighbor pairs of a three-ion chain, with fidelity up to 0.84(2). We combine one- and two-qubit gates to perform quantum process tomography of a cnot gate in a two-ion chain, and we report an overall fidelity of 0.76(3).

  12. Controlling and measuring quantum transport of heat in trapped-ion crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, A; Bruderer, M; Plenio, M B

    2013-07-26

    Measuring heat flow through nanoscale devices poses formidable practical difficulties as there is no "ampere meter" for heat. We propose to overcome this problem in a chain of trapped ions, where laser cooling the chain edges to different temperatures induces a heat current of local vibrations (vibrons). We show how to efficiently control and measure this current, including fluctuations, by coupling vibrons to internal ion states. This demonstrates that ion crystals provide an ideal platform for studying quantum transport, e.g., through thermal analogues of quantum wires and quantum dots. Notably, ion crystals may give access to measurements of the elusive bosonic fluctuations in heat currents and the onset of Fourier's law. Our results are strongly supported by numerical simulations for a realistic implementation with specific ions and system parameters.

  13. Catalytic Reactions in Heavy-ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, E E

    2011-01-01

    We discuss a new type of reactions of a phi meson production on hyperons, pi Y--> phi Y and anti-kaons bar-K N --> phi Y. These reactions are not suppressed according to Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and can be a new efficient source of phi mesons in a nucleus-nucleus collision. We discuss how these reactions can affect the centrality dependence and the rapidity distributions of the phi yield.

  14. Catalytic reactions in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Tomášik, B.

    2012-06-01

    We discuss a new type of reactions of a ϕ-meson production on hyperons, πY → ϕY and antikaons -KN → ϕY. These reactions are not suppressed according to Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and can be a new efficient source of ϕ mesons in a nucleus-nucleus collision. We discuss how these reactions can affect the centrality dependence and the rapidity distributions of the ϕ yield.

  15. Intervention of phenonium ion in Ritter reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tse-Lok; Chein, Rong-Jie

    2004-01-23

    The transformation of phenylethyl chloride to 3,4-dihydroisoquinolines is shown to proceed via phenonium ion. The evidence comes from a study of dideuterated analogue 4, and the monomethylated and dimethylated compounds 2 and 3.

  16. ELECTRON TRANSFER COLLISION OF NEON IONS WITH Ne IN A RF ION TRAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    满宝元; 王象泰; 等

    1995-01-01

    The pulsed electron beam rf ion stroage system is used to study neon ions electron transfer,The rate coefficients for electron transfer of the neon ions with the neon gas are measured.the results are better than those in other ion storage system.

  17. Ghost features in Doppler-broadened spectra of rovibrational transitions in trapped HD+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Sayan; Koelemeij, J. C. J.

    2017-02-01

    Doppler broadening plays an important role in laser rovibrational spectroscopy of trapped deuterated molecular hydrogen ions (HD+), even at the millikelvin temperatures achieved through sympathetic cooling by laser-cooled beryllium ions. Recently, Biesheuvel et al. (2016) presented a theoretical lineshape model for such transitions which not only considers linestrengths and Doppler broadening, but also the finite sample size and population redistribution by blackbody radiation, which are important in view of the long storage and probe times achievable in ion traps. Here, we employ the rate equation model developed by Biesheuvel et al. to theoretically study the Doppler-broadened hyperfine structure of the (v, L) : (0, 3) → (4, 2) rovibrational transition in HD+ at 1442 nm. We observe prominent yet hitherto unrecognized ghost features in the simulated spectrum, whose positions depend on the Doppler width, transition rates, and saturation levels of the hyperfine components addressed by the laser. We explain the origin and behavior of such features, and we provide a simple quantitative guideline to assess whether ghost features may appear. As such ghost features may be common to saturated Doppler-broadened spectra of rotational and vibrational transitions in trapped ions composed of partly overlapping lines, our work illustrates the necessity to use lineshape models that take into account all the relevant physics.

  18. Shaping of nested potentials for electron cooling of highly-charged ions in a cooler Penning trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Stefan; Kootte, Brian; Lascar, Daniel; Gwinner, Gerald; Dilling, Jens; Titan Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN) is dedicated to mass spectrometry and decay spectroscopy of short-lived radioactive nuclides in a series of ion traps including a precision Penning trap. In order to boost the achievable precision of mass measurements TITAN deploys an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) providing Highly-Charged Ions (HCI). However, the charge breeding process in the EBIT leads to an increase in the ion bunch's energy spread which is detrimental to the overall precision gain. To reduce this effect a new cylindrical Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) is being commissioned to sympathetically cool the HCI via a simultaneously trapped electron plasma. Simultaneous trapping of ions and electrons requires a high level of control over the nested potential landscape and sophisticated switching schemes for the voltages on CPET's multiple ring electrodes. For this purpose, we are currently setting up a new experimental control system for multi-channel voltage switching. The control system employs a Raspberry Pi communicating with a digital-to-analog board via a serial peripheral interface. We report on the implementation of the voltage control system and its performance with respect to electron and ion manipulation in CPET. University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

  19. Towards experimental realization of a scalable ion chain quantum processor in microfabricated surface trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, So-Young; Mount, Emily; Gaultney, Daniel; Noek, Rachel; Crain, Stephen; van Rynbach, Andre; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2012-06-01

    Realization of a practical trapped ion quantum information processor is a major technological challenge that requires development of large-scale integration approaches. The integration technology must include scalable solution for both the qubit datapath and classical controllers necessary to manipulate them. Our approach utilizes linear ion chains in microfabricated surface traps as a platform to store Yb ion qubits and operate quantum logic gates on them. The control signals for qubit manipulation include the abilities to direct precisely tailored laser beams to individual ions, re-arranging the ions in the chains, and parallel detection of multiple qubits. We use a frequency comb generated by an off-resonant picosecond pulsed laser with stabilized repetition rate to drive Raman transitions, realizing single qubit and multiple qubit gates in an inherently scalable way. The laser beams will be delivered to individual ions using a microelectromechanical systems-based beam steering system that can easily be extended to multiple beams, and the parallel state detection will be performed using multi-element photomultiplier tube array. We will describe the experimental progress in implementing basic quantum information processing protocols in this system.

  20. Heavy ion transfer reactions: Status and perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Corradi

    2010-07-01

    With the large solid angle magnetic spectrometer (PRISMA) coupled to the -array (CLARA), extensive investigations of nuclear structure and reaction dynamics have been carried out. In the present paper aspects of these studies will be presented, focussing more closely on the reaction mechanism, in particular on the properties of quasielastic and deep inelastic processes and on measurements at energies far below the Coulomb barrier.