WorldWideScience

Sample records for ion scattering spectroscopy

  1. InN{0001} polarity by ion scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.; Veal, T.D.; McConville, C.F.; Lu, Hai; Schaff, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The polarity of a wurtzite InN thin film grown on a c-plane sapphire substrate with GaN and AlN buffer layers has been investigated by co-axial impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (CAICISS). Time of flight (TOF) spectra of He + ions scattered from the surface of the InN film were taken as a function of the incident angles of the primary 3 keV He + ions. From the TOF spectra, the polar angle-dependence of the In scattered intensity was obtained. Comparison of the experimental polar-angle dependence of the In CAICISS signal intensity with simulated results for the various volume ratios of (0001)- and (000 anti 1)-polarity domains indicated that the InN film is approximately 75% In-polarity and 25% N-polarity. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Highly-resolving Rutherford-scattering spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.

    2003-10-01

    in the present thesis for the first time the Browne-Buechner spectrometer for the highly resolving ion-beam analysis in the ion beam center Rossendorf is completely presented. A main topic of this theis lied in the apparative construction and the taking-into-operation of the spectrometer and the scattering chamber including the facilities for the sample treatment and characterization. In the framework of this thesis for the chosen measurement arrangement the experimental conditions were elaborated, which allow the routine-like application of the spectrometer for analyses of thin-film systems. for C and Li ions as incident particles especially the straggling was more precisely determined in a large range of materials. By means of the spectrometer also the interaction of the ion with the solid respectively single atoms on its surface could be studied. For the first time the mean charge-state after the single collision on a gold atom was determined for differently heavy ions in a wide energy range

  3. Energy and angle resolved ion scattering spectroscopy: new possibilities for surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellings, G.J.A.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the design and development of a novel, very sensitive and high-resolving spectrometer for surface analysis is described. This spectrometer is designed for Energy and Angle Resolved Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (EARISS). There are only a few techniques that are sensitive enough to study the outermost atomic layer of surfaces. One of these techniques, Low-Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS), is discussed in chapter 2. Since LEIS is destructive, it is important to make a very efficient use of the scattered ions. This makes it attractive to simultaneously carry out energy and angle dependent measurements (EARISS). (Auth.)

  4. Ion scattering spectroscopy studies of zirconium dioxide thin films prepared in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.J.; Netterfield, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Low energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy has been used to investigate, in situ, thin films of zirconium dioxide deposited by evaporation and ion-assisted deposition. It is shown that when a film is deposited to an average thickness of 0.3 nm +- 0.03, as measured by in situ ellipsometry, complete coverage of the substrate occurs. 'Ion-assisted films have detectably higher Zr surface concentrations and reduced low-energy sputter peaks. Inelastic tailing effects in the Zr scattering peak for 2 keV 4 He + are found to come from particles scattered from approximately the first 7 nm of the oxide surface. The influence of primary ion energy on the Zr/O ratio is also examined. (author)

  5. Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy and Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering on Single-Ion Polymer Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soles, Christopher; Peng, Hua-Gen; Page, Kirt; Snyder, Chad; Pandy, Ashoutosh; Jeong, Youmi; Runt, James; NIST Collaboration; Pennsylvania Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    The application of solid polymer electrolytes in rechargeable batteries has not been fully realized after decades of research due to its low conductivity. Dramatic increases of the ion conductivity are needed and this progress requires the understanding of conduction mechanism. We address this topic in two fronts, namely, the effect of plasticizer additives and geometric confinement on the charge transfer mechanism. To this end, we combine broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) to characterize the ion mobility and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) to quantify segmental motion on a single-ion model polymer electrolyte. Deuterated small molecules were used as plasticizers so that the segmental motion of the polymer electrolyte could be monitored by QENS to understand the mechanism behind the increased conductivity. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes with well defined channel sizes are used as the matrix to study the transport of ions solvated in a 1D polymer electrolyte.

  6. In-situ, real-time, studies of film growth processes using ion scattering and direct recoil spectroscopy techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smentkowski, V. S.

    1999-04-22

    Time-of-flight ion scattering and recoil spectroscopy (TOF-ISARS) enables the characterization of the composition and structure of surfaces with 1-2 monolayer specificity. It will be shown that surface analysis is possible at ambient pressures greater than 3 mTorr using TOF-ISARS techniques; allowing for real-time, in situ studies of film growth processes. TOF-ISARS comprises three analytical techniques: ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), which detects the backscattered primary ion beam; direct recoil spectroscopy (DRS), which detects the surface species recoiled into the forward scattering direction; and mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), which is 3 variant of DRS capable of isotopic resolution for all surface species--including H and He. The advantages and limitations of each of these techniques will be discussed. The use of the three TOF-ISARS methods for real-time, in situ film growth studies at high ambient pressures will be illustrated. It will be shown that MSRI analysis is possible during sputter deposition. It will be also be demonstrated that the analyzer used for MSRI can also be used for time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) under high vacuum conditions. The use of a single analyzer to perform the complimentary surface analytical techniques of MSRI and SIMS is unique. The dwd functionality of the MSRI analyzer provides surface information not obtained when either MSRI or SIMS is used independently.

  7. Oxygen adsorption on Cu(111) using low energy ion scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.M.; Yao, J.; Shen, Y.G.; King, B.V.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The surface structure and oxygen adsorption of Cu(l 11) have been studied by 2 keV Li + , He + and Ar + ion scattering . Incident and azimuthal dependences were measured for the clean and O-covered surfaces, and the surface geometry was analysed on the basis of the shadowing features. Experimental results under different oxygen exposures at room temperature showed that the Cu(l 11) surface undergoes a roughening transition and results in a reconstruction where Cu atoms are vertically displaced by about 0.23 Angstroms. 4 refs., 4 figs

  8. Oxygen adsorption on Cu(111) using low energy ion scattering spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F M; Yao, J; Shen, Y G; King, B V; O` Connor, D J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The surface structure and oxygen adsorption of Cu(l 11) have been studied by 2 keV Li{sup +}, He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ion scattering . Incident and azimuthal dependences were measured for the clean and O-covered surfaces, and the surface geometry was analysed on the basis of the shadowing features. Experimental results under different oxygen exposures at room temperature showed that the Cu(l 11) surface undergoes a roughening transition and results in a reconstruction where Cu atoms are vertically displaced by about 0.23 Angstroms. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Oxygen adsorption on Cu(111) using low energy ion scattering spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, F.M.; Yao, J.; Shen, Y.G.; King, B.V.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The surface structure and oxygen adsorption of Cu(l 11) have been studied by 2 keV Li{sup +}, He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ion scattering . Incident and azimuthal dependences were measured for the clean and O-covered surfaces, and the surface geometry was analysed on the basis of the shadowing features. Experimental results under different oxygen exposures at room temperature showed that the Cu(l 11) surface undergoes a roughening transition and results in a reconstruction where Cu atoms are vertically displaced by about 0.23 Angstroms. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, K.; Markwitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report gives an overview about the technique and experimental study of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) as a quantitative technique to determine and analyse the composition and geometrical structure of crystalline surfaces and near surface-layers by measuring the energy and yield of the backscattered ions. The use of a lower energy range of 50 to 500 keV accelerated ions impinging onto the target surface and the application of a high-resolution electrostatic energy analyser (ESA) makes medium energy ion scattering spectroscopy into a high depth resolution and surface-sensitive version of RBS with less resulting damage effects. This report details the first steps of research in that field of measurement technology using medium energetic backscattered ions detected by means of a semiconductor radiation detector instead of an ESA. The study of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) has been performed using the 40 keV industrial ion implanter established at GNS Sciences remodelled with supplementary high voltage insulation for the ion source in order to apply voltages up to 45 kV, extra apertures installed in the beamline and sample chamber in order to set the beam diameter accurately, and a semiconductor radiation detector. For measurement purposes a beam of positive charged helium ions accelerated to an energy of about 80 keV has been used impinging onto target surfaces of lead implanted into silicon (PbSi), scandium implanted into aluminium (ScAl), aluminium foil (Al) and glassy carbon (C). First results show that it is possible to use the upgraded industrial implanter for medium energy ion scattering. The beam of 4 He 2+ with an energy up to 88 keV has been focussed to 1 mm in diameter. The 5 nA ion beam hit the samples under 2 x 10 -8 mbar. The results using the surface barrier detector show scattering events from the samples. Cooling of the detector to liquid nitrogen temperatures reduced the electronic noise in the backscattering spectrum close to zero. A

  11. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungen, Ch.

    2015-01-01

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering

  12. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungen, Ch. [Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, Université de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2015-01-22

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering.

  13. Heavy ion elastic scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Diffraction and refraction play an important role in particle elastic scattering. The optical model treats correctly and simultaneously both phenomena but without disentangling them. Semi-classical discussions in terms of trajectories emphasize the refractive aspect due to the real part of the optical potential. The separation due to to R.C. Fuller of the quantal cross section into two components coming from opposite side of the target nucleus allows to understand better the refractive phenomenon and the origin of the observed oscillations in the elastic scattering angular distributions. We shall see that the real part of the potential is responsible of a Coulomb and a nuclear rainbow which allows to determine better the nuclear potential in the interior region near the nuclear surface since the volume absorption eliminates any effect of the real part of the potential for the internal partial scattering waves. Resonance phenomena seen in heavy ion scattering will be discussed in terms of optical model potential and Regge pole analysis. Compound nucleus resonances or quasi-molecular states can be indeed the more correct and fundamental alternative

  14. Nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, C.

    1977-02-01

    A survey of the state of nuclear spectroscopy with lithium ions is given. Proceeding from the physical and nuclear properties the specific topics arising by the acceleration of these ions are discussed. The results obtained from measurements of excitation functions of different lithium reactions, particularly of compound reactions, with several target nuclei are summarized. Besides compound reactions direct reactions are important, especially transfer reactions, elastic and inelastic scattering and exchange reactions. The results on high spin states obtained by in-beam gamma-spectroscopy are discussed in detail. Finally the possibilities are considered for accelerating lithium ions in the cyclotron U-120 and in the tandem generator EGP-10 of the ZfK. (author)

  15. Complementary low energy ion scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of polystyrene submitted to N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} glow discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonatto, F., E-mail: bonatto02@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 91509-900 (Brazil); Rovani, S. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul 95070-560 (Brazil); Kaufmann, I.R.; Soares, G.V. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 91509-900 (Brazil); Baumvol, I.J.R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 91509-900 (Brazil); Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul 95070-560 (Brazil); Krug, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul 91509-900 (Brazil)

    2012-02-15

    Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to access the elemental composition and chemical bonding characteristics of polystyrene (PS) surfaces sequentially treated by corona and glow discharge (plasma) processing in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} ambient. The latter has shown activity as suppressor of pathogenic Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. LEIS indicated that oxygen from the corona discharge process is progressively replaced by nitrogen at the PS surface. XPS shows C=N and N-C=O chemical groups as significant inhibitors of bacterial adhesion, suggesting application in medical devices.

  16. Auger vs resonance neutralization in low energy He+ ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    He + ions incident on a metal surface can neutralize either by an Auger or resonant charge exchange. While the Auger process has always been thought to be dominant, recent theoretical interest in the simpler one-electron resonance process has led to suggestions that this alone can account for the neutralization seen in low energy He + ion scattering. In this paper this assertion is analysed by looking at the wider information available on charge exchange processes for He + ion scattering through comparison with Li + ion scattering, the importance of multiple scattering in both these scattering experiments and the results of ion neutralization spectroscopy. These lead to the conclusion that while resonance neutralization to produce metastable He* may well occur at a substantial rate in He + ion scattering, the dominant process leading to loss of ions from the final scattered signal is Auger neutralization as originally proposed. (author)

  17. Spectroscopy, scattering, and KK molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The author presents a pedagogical description of a new theoretical technique, based on the multichannel Schroedinger equation, for simultaneously applying the quark model to both meson spectroscopy and meson-meson scattering. This is an extension of an earlier analysis which led to the prediction that the f{sub o}(975) and a{sub o}(980) scalar mesons are K{bar K} molecular states.

  18. Atom location using recoil ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) using inert gas and alkali ions is widely used in studies of the surface atomic layer. The extreme surface sensitivity of this technique ensures that it yields both compositional and structural information on clean and adsorbate covered surfaces. Low Energy Negative recoil Spectroscopy (LENRS) has been applied to a study of oxygen on Ni(110) to gauge the sensitivity to coverage and site location

  19. Recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, J.; Moshammer, R.; Doerner, R.; Jagutzki, O.; Mergel, V.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Spielberger, L.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution recoil-ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) is a novel technique to determine the charge state and the complete final momentum vector P R of a recoiling target ion emerging from an ionising collision of an atom with any kind of radiation. It offers a unique combination of superior momentum resolution in all three spatial directions of ΔP R = 0.07 a.u. with a large detection solid angle of ΔΩ R /4π≥ 98%. Recently, low-energy electron analysers based on rigorously new concepts and reaching similar specifications were successfully integrated into RIM spectrometers yielding so-called ''reaction microscopes''. Exploiting these techniques, a large variety of atomic reactions for ion, electron, photon and antiproton impact have been explored in unprecedented detail and completeness. Among them first kinematically complete experiments on electron capture, single and double ionisation in ion-atom collisions at projectile energies between 5 keV and 1.4 GeV. Double photoionisation of He has been investigated at energies E γ close to the threshold (E γ = 80 eV) up to E γ = 58 keV. At E γ >8 keV the contributions to double ionisation after photoabsorption and Compton scattering were kinematically separated for the first time. These and many other results will be reviewed in this article. In addition, the experimental technique is described in some detail and emphasis is given to envisage the rich future potential of the method in various fields of atomic collision physics with atoms, molecules and clusters. (orig.)

  20. Scattering and transfer reactions with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    From the elastic scattering analysis the input parameters are found for the inelastic scattering analysis and the transfer reactions of the heavy ion reactions. The main theme reported is the likeness and conection among these processes. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Correlation ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Rohde, Steven B [Corrales, NM

    2008-08-26

    Correlation ion mobility spectrometry (CIMS) uses gating modulation and correlation signal processing to improve IMS instrument performance. Closely spaced ion peaks can be resolved by adding discriminating codes to the gate and matched filtering for the received ion current signal, thereby improving sensitivity and resolution of an ion mobility spectrometer. CIMS can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio even for transient chemical samples. CIMS is especially advantageous for small geometry IMS drift tubes that can otherwise have poor resolution due to their small size.

  2. Molecular ion photofragment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamente, S.W.

    1983-11-01

    A new molecular ion photofragment spectrometer is described which features a supersonic molecular beam ion source and a radio frequency octapole ion trap interaction region. This unique combination allows several techniques to be applied to the problem of detecting a photon absorption event of a molecular ion. In particular, it may be possible to obtain low resolution survey spectra of exotic molecular ions by using a direct vibrational predissociation process, or by using other more indirect detection methods. The use of the spectrometer is demonstrated by measuring the lifetime of the O 2 + ( 4 π/sub u/) metastable state which is found to consist of two main components: the 4 π/sub 5/2/ and 4 π/sub -1/2/ spin components having a long lifetime (approx. 129 ms) and the 4 π/sub 3/2/ and 4 π/sub 1/2/ spin components having a short lifetime (approx. 6 ms)

  3. Elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepffer, C.; University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Richter, A.

    1977-02-01

    In the field of elastic and inelastic heavy ion scattering, the following issues are dealt with: semiclassical descriptive approximations, optical potentials, barriers, critical radii and angular momenta, excitation functions and the application to superheavy ions and high energies. (WL) [de

  4. Advances in neutron scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Some aspects of the application of neutron scattering to problems in polymer science, surface chemistry, and adsorption phenomena, as well as molecular biology, are reviewed. In all these areas, very significant work has been carried out using the medium flux reactors at Harwell, Juelich and Risoe, even without the use of advanced multidetector techniques or of a neutron cold source. A general tendency can also be distinguished in that, for each of these new fields, a distinct preference for colder neutrons rather than thermal neutron beams can be seen. (author)

  5. Surface Fluctuation Scattering using Grating Heterodyne Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, R. V.; Sirohi, R. S.; Mann, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Heterodyne photon spectroscopy is used for the study of the viscoelastic properties of the liquid interface by studying light scattered from thermally generated surface fluctuations. A theory of a heterodyne apparatus based on a grating is presented, and the heterodyne condition is given in terms...

  6. Ion induced Auger spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.W.; Legg, K.O.; Metz, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    Auger electron spectra are induced by impact of heavy ions (e.g. Ar + ) on surfaces; it has been suggested that analysis of such spectra would be a useful technique for surface analysis. We have examined the Auger spectra for various projectile-target combinations and present as representative data the spectra for 100 keV Ar + impact on Al, Cr, Mn, Fe and Co. For a projectile incident on a species of higher nuclear charge the spectrum is dominated by Auger lines from the projectile, broadened considerably by the Doppler effect due to the projectile's motion. The spectra are not characteristic of the target and therefore offer no opportunity for surface analysis. For a projectile incident on a target of lower nuclear charge the spectrum is that of the target species but the spectrum is consistent with the source being sputtered excited atoms; the Auger electrons do not come from the surface. We conclude that the ion induced Auger spectra are in general not a convenient method for surface analysis. (orig.)

  7. Heavy ion elastic scattering of code : OPTHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Divatia, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code, OPTHI has been designed to calculate nuclear optical model elastic cross sections for the scattering of heavy ions. The program has been designed to be utilitarian rather than capable of giving an exact description of elastic scattering. Input format is described and the program listing is given. (M.G.B.)

  8. Applications of ion scattering in surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The study of ion scattering from surfaces has made an increasingly important contribution both to the development of highly surface specific analysis techniques and to the understanding of the atomic collision processes associated with ion bombardment of solid surfaces. From an analysis point of view, by appropriate choice of parameters such as ion energy and species, scattering geometry and target temperature, it is possible to study not only the composition of the surface layer but also the detailed atomic arrangement. The ion scattering technique is thus particularly useful for the study of surface compositional and structural changes caused by adsorption, thermal annealing or ion bombardment treatments of simple or composite materials. Ion bombardment induced desorption, damage or atomic mixing can also be effectively studied using scattering techniques. By reviewing the application of the technique to a variety of these technologically important surface investigations, it is possible to illustrate the way in which ion scattering has developed as the understanding of the underlying physics has improved. (author)

  9. Charge-state distribution of MeV He ions scattered from the surface atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kenji; Ohtsuka, Hisashi; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    The charge-state distribution of 500-keV He ions scattered from a SnTe (001) surface has been investigated using a new technique of high-resolution high-energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The observed charge-state distribution of ions scattered from the topmost atomic layer coincides with that of ions scattered from the subsurface region and does not depend on the incident charge state but depends on the exit angle. The observed exit-angle dependence is explained by a model which includes the charge-exchange process with the valence electrons in the tail of the electron distribution at the surface. (author)

  10. Ion temperature via laser scattering on ion Bernstein waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G.A.; Ono, M.; Wong, K.L.

    1981-10-01

    Hydrogen ion temperature has been measured in a warm toroidal plasma with externally launched ion Bernstein waves detected by heterodyne CO 2 laser scattering. Radial scanning of the laser beam allows precise determination of k/sub perpendicular to/ for the finite ion Larmor radius wave (ω approx. less than or equal to 2Ω/sub i/). Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and ion concentration then give a radially resolved ion temperature from the dispersion relation. Probe measurements and Doppler broadening of ArII 4806A give excellent agreement

  11. Study of TiO2(1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) surface structures by impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asari, E.; Souda, R.

    2000-01-01

    The surface structure of TiO 2 (1 1 0)-p(1x1), p(1x2) and p(1x3) were studied using impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS). We found that (i) the height of bridging oxygen for the p(1x1) is comparative to that of bulk structure, (ii) the p(1x2) surface has the added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows proposed by Onishi et al. and also the oxygen atoms rows between Ti 2 O 3 unit rows and (iii) the p(1x3) surface is constructed with the same added Ti 2 O 3 unit rows as that in the p(1x2) surface, but the bridging oxygen rows exist between the Ti 2 O 3 unit rows

  12. Spectroscopy on localized and cooled ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschek, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    This article examines the use of localization and storage of a small number of atomic particles in an electric or magnetic field configuration as a means of distinguishing it from other methods of sample preparation. Current experiments on the storage of isolated cold ions have opened a new experimental approach for studies in atomic physics. In contrast to one dimensional atomic beams, trapped particles are quasi-non-dimensional ensembles. They lend themselves to interaction with light (their spectroscopy) and various other research techniques such as: cooperative effects in the interaction with radiation by comparison of two particle clouds with a single particle; single-particle scattering on background gas particles; single-particle chemical reactions

  13. ITER Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Larsen, Axel Wright; Meo, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The EFDA Contract 04-1213 with Risø National Laboratory concerning a detailed integrated design of a Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostic for ITER was signed on 31 December 2004. In 2003 the Risø CTS group finished a feasibility study and a conceptual design of an ITER Fast Ion...... Collective Thomson Scattering System (Contract 01.654) [1, 2]. The purpose of the CTS diagnostic is to measure the distribution function of fast ions in the plasma. The feasibility study demonstrated that the only system that can fully meet the ITER measurement requirements for confined fusion alphas is a 60...... the blanket gap, and calculations of diagnosing fuel ion ratio and rotation velocity by CTS....

  14. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination

  15. Indirect processes in electron-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottcher, C.; Griffin, D.C.; Pindzola, M.S.; Phaneuf, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    A summary is given of an informal workshop held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory on June 22-23, 1983, in which the current status of theoretical calculations of indirect processes in electron-ion scattering was reviewed. Processes of particular interest in astrophysical and fusion plasmas were emphasized. Topics discussed include atomic structure effects, electron-impact ionization, and dielectronic recombination.

  16. Channeling regimes in ion surface scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, A; Heiland, W

    We report on surface channeling experiments of singly charged ions on single crystal surfaces of Pt(1 1 0) and Pd(1 1 0). Using a time-of-flight system installed in forward direction we analyze the energy distribution of the scattered projectiles. By variation of the primary energy and the angle of

  17. Nonlinear spectroscopy of trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Gessner, Manuel; Mukamel, Shaul; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy employs a series of laser pulses to interrogate dynamics in large interacting many-body systems, and it has become a highly successful method for experiments in chemical physics. Current quantum optical experiments approach system sizes and levels of complexity that require the development of efficient techniques to assess spectral and dynamical features with scalable experimental overhead. However, established methods from optical spectroscopy of macroscopic ensembles cannot be applied straightforwardly to few-atom systems. Based on the ideas proposed in M. Gessner et al., (arXiv:1312.3365), we develop a diagrammatic approach to construct nonlinear measurement protocols for controlled quantum systems, and we discuss experimental implementations with trapped ion technology in detail. These methods, in combination with distinct features of ultracold-matter systems, allow us to monitor and analyze excitation dynamics in both the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom. They are independent of system size, and they can therefore reliably probe systems in which, e.g., quantum state tomography becomes prohibitively expensive. We propose signals that can probe steady-state currents, detect the influence of anharmonicities on phonon transport, and identify signatures of chaotic dynamics near a quantum phase transition in an Ising-type spin chain.

  18. Rayleigh scattering from ions near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.C.; Gupta, S.K.S.; Kissel, L.; Pratt, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical studies of Rayleigh scattering of photons from neon atoms with different degrees of ionization, for energies both below and above the K-edges of the ions, are presented. Some unexpected structures both in Rayleigh scattering and in photoionization from neutral and weakly ionized atoms, very close to threshold, have been reported. It has recently been realized that some of the predicted structures may have a nonphysical origin and are due to the limitation of the independent-particle model and also to the use of a Coulombic Latter tail. Use of a K-shell vacancy potential - in which an electron is assumed to be removed from the K-shell - in calculating K-shell Rayleigh scattering amplitudes removes some of the structure effects near threshold. We present in this work a discussion of scattering angular distributions and total cross sections, obtained utilizing vacancy potentials, and compare these predictions with those previously obtained in other potential model. (author) [pt

  19. Optimizing laser crater enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednev, V. N.; Sdvizhenskii, P. A.; Grishin, M. Ya.; Fedorov, A. N.; Khokhlova, O. V.; Oshurko, V. B.; Pershin, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    The laser crater enhanced Raman scattering (LCERS) spectroscopy technique has been systematically studied for chosen sampling strategy and influence of powder material properties on spectra intensity enhancement. The same nanosecond pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 10 ns, 0.1-1.5 mJ/pulse) was used for laser crater production and Raman scattering experiments for L-aspartic acid powder. Increased sampling area inside crater cavity is the key factor for Raman signal improvement for the LCERS technique, thus Raman signal enhancement was studied as a function of numerous experimental parameters including lens-to-sample distance, wavelength (532 and 1064 nm) and laser pulse energy utilized for crater production. Combining laser pulses of 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths for crater ablation was shown to be an effective way for additional LCERS signal improvement. Powder material properties (particle size distribution, powder compactness) were demonstrated to affect LCERS measurements with better results achieved for smaller particles and lower compactness.

  20. Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy - GASMAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Sune

    2008-09-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy with diffuse media optical propagation. While solids and liquids have broad absorption features, free gas in pores and cavities in the material is characterized by sharp spectral signatures, typically 10,000 times sharper than those of the host material. Many applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, allowing propagation. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities have been studied. Transport of gas in porous media can readily be studied by first immersing the material in, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal air, containing oxygen, reinvades the material. The conductance of the sinus connective passages can be measured in this way by flushing the nasal cavity with nitrogen. Also other dynamic processes such as drying of materials can be studied. The techniques have also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS).

  1. Recoil ion spectroscopy with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.; Mann, R.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the production of very high charge state ions in single ion-atom collisions. Topics considered include some aspects of highly ionized atoms, experimental approaches, the production of highly charged target ions (monoatomic targets, recoil energy distribution, molecular fragmentation, outer-shell rearrangement, lifetime measurements, a comparison of projectile-, target-, and plasma-ion stripping), and secondary collision experiments (selective electron capture, potential applications). The heavy-ion beams for the described experiments were provided by accelerators such as tandem Van de Graaff facility and the UNILAC

  2. Spectroscopy with trapped highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of atomic spectroscopy performed on electron beam ion traps at various locations throughout the world. Spectroscopy at these facilities contributes to various areas of science and engineering, including but not limited to basic atomic physics, astrophysics, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and the development of density and temperature diagnostics of fusion plasmas. These contributions are accomplished by generating, for example, spectral surveys, making precise radiative lifetime measurements, accounting for radiative power emitted in a given wavelength band, illucidating isotopic effects, and testing collisional-radiative models. While spectroscopy with electron beam ion traps had originally focused on the x-ray emission from highly charged ions interacting with the electron beam, the operating modes of such devices have expanded to study radiation in almost all wavelength bands from the visible to the hard x-ray region; and at several facilities the ions can be studied even in the absence of an electron beam. Photon emission after charge exchange or laser excitation has been observed; and the work is no longer restricted to highly charged ions. Much of the experimental capabilities are unique to electron beam ion traps, and the work performed with these devices cannot be undertaken elsewhere. However, in other areas the work on electron beam ion traps rivals the spectroscopy performed with conventional ion traps or heavy-ion storage rings. The examples we present highlight many of the capabilities of the existing electron beam ion traps and their contributions to physics.

  3. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This Technical Progress Report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past twelve months. This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets at intermediate energies. These processes include: elastic scattering,single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H - is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements in progress will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion-atom collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility and the initial ion beam was accelerated through the apparatus in April 1991

  4. Coincident Auger electron and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for low-energy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, G.; Tarisien, M.; Flechard, X.; Jardin, P.; Guillaume, L.; Sobocinski, P.; Adoui, L.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Chesnel, J.-Y.; Fremont, F.; Hennecart, D.; Lienard, E.; Maunoury, L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cassimi, A.

    2003-01-01

    The recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) method combined with the detection of Auger electrons has been used successfully to analyse double electron capture following O 6+ + He collisions at low impact velocities. Although RIMS and Auger spectroscopies are known to be efficient tools to obtain details on the primary processes occurring during the collision, the conjunction of both techniques provides new insights on the electron capture process. In the present experiment, triple coincidence detection of the scattered projectile, the target recoil ion and the Auger electron allows for a precise identification of the doubly excited states O 4+ (1s 2 nln ' l ' ) populated after double electron-capture events

  5. Principle and application of ion mobility spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.; Arnold, G.; Baumbach, J.I.; Doering, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    An outline is given of the principle and application of ion mobility spectroscopy to the selective measurement of single substances in a substance matrix, including advantages and disadvantages of ion mobility detectors for solving analytical problems in the fields of environment, microelectronics, medicine, and military engineering. (orig.) [de

  6. Positron scattering and annihilation from hydrogenlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, S.A.; Bromley, M.W.J.; Mitroy, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Kohn variational method is used with a configuration-interaction-type wave function to determine the J=0 and J=1 phase shifts and annihilation parameter Z eff for positron-hydrogenic ion scattering. The phase shifts are within 1-2% of the best previous calculations. The values of Z eff are small and do not exceed unity for any of the momenta considered. At thermal energies Z eff is minute with a value of order 10 -50 occurring for He + at k=0.05a 0 -1 . In addition to the variational calculations, analytic expressions for the phase shift and annihilation parameters within the Coulomb wave Born approximation are derived and used to help elucidate the dynamics of positron collisions with positive ions

  7. Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results

  8. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.K.

    1975-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) which is primarily a method for investigating the chemical composition of the uppermost atomic layer of solid surfaces is explained. In this method, the specimen is bombarded with a primary positive ion beam of small current density monolayer. Positive and negative ions sputtered from the specimen are mass analysed to give the surface chemical composition. The analytical system which consists of a primary ion source, a target manipulator and a mass spectrometer housed in an ultrahigh vacuum system is described. This method can also be used for profile measurements in thin films by using higher current densities of the primary ions. Fields of application such as surface reactions, semiconductors, thin films emission processes, chemistry, metallurgy are touched upon. Various aspects of this method such as the sputtering process, instrumentation, and applications are discussed. (K.B.)

  9. Improving the resolution of beta scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celiktas, C.; Selvi, S.; Yegin, G.

    2004-01-01

    We have examined the performance of a modified beta-ray spectrometer using a pulse shape analyzer/timing single channel analyzer and related electronics, thereby preserving the low energy electron tail in measurement of the scattered electron spectra from an n-type Si wafer target. Comparison of measurements with the scattering spectra calculated by the Monte Carlo program EGS4 indicates good agreement across a significant part of the spectrum, an exception being for the energy region 30-100 keV. Re-evaluation of existing scattering cross-sections would be useful, as would possible geometrical effects of the scattering arrangement used herein. Present efforts seek to contribute to the evaluation of electron scattering cross-sections and improvement in theoretical models

  10. Compton profiles by inelastic ion-electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckl, H.; Bell, F.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that Compton profiles (CP) can be measured by inelastic ion-electron scattering. Within the impulse approximation the binary-encounter peak (BEP) reflects the CP of the target atom whereas the electron-loss peak (ELP) is given by projectile CP's. Evaluation of experimental data reveals that inelastic ion-electron scattering might be a promising method to supply inelastic electron or photon scattering for the determination of target CP's. The measurement of projectile CP's is unique to ion scattering since one gains knowledge about wave-function effects because of the high excitation degree of fast heavy-ion projectiles

  11. Study of the La-related dipole in TiN/LaO{sub x}/HfSiON/SiON/Si gate stacks using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and backside medium energy ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boujamaa, R. [STMicroelectronics, 850, rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles (France); CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, F38054 Grenoble (France); Laboratoire des Matériaux et du Génie Physique, CNRS, Grenoble INP, 3 parvis L. Néel, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble (France); Martinez, E.; Pierre, F.; Renault, O. [CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, F38054 Grenoble (France); Detlefs, B.; Zegenhagen, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Baudot, S. [STMicroelectronics, 850, rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles (France); Gros-Jean, M., E-mail: Mickael.Gros-Jean@st.com [STMicroelectronics, 850, rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles (France); Bertin, F. [STMicroelectronics, 850, rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles (France); Dubourdieu, C., E-mail: Catherine.Dubourdieu@ec-lyon.fr [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France)

    2015-04-30

    Highlights: • Precise La depth distribution in gate stacks before and after annealing by MEIS. • Analysis by HAXPES of the buried high K/SiO{sub 2} interface without removing TiN gate. • Formation of La-silicate at the HfSiON/SiON interface. • Internal electrical field induced at the HfSiON/SiON interface by the La diffusion. • Increase of electric field strength with initial LaO{sub x} thickness. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of high temperature annealing on the chemical and electronic structure of technologically relevant TiN/LaO{sub x}/HfSiON/SiON/Si gate stacks. Using medium energy ion scattering from the backside of the samples, a non-destructive compositional depth profile of La has been obtained, revealing the lanthanum diffusion in the SiON interface layer upon annealing. To complement this analysis, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation has been performed to investigate the chemical and electronic structure of the gate stacks. The results show clear changes in the Hf and Ti core level energy positions with respect to Si bulk, with changes in the thickness of the LaO{sub x} capping layer. We infer that La diffusion generates an internal electrical field at the La-silicate interface between HfSiON and SiON, and that its strength increases with the increase of LaO{sub x} thickness. These findings support the band alignment model based on a La-induced interfacial dipole.

  12. Coupled channels effects in heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of inelastic excitation on the elastic scattering of heavy ions are considered within a coupled channels framework. Both Coulomb and nuclear excitation results are applied to 18 O + 184 W and other heavy ion reactions

  13. Cryogenic ion chemistry and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Arron B; Leavitt, Christopher M; Garand, Etienne; Johnson, Mark A

    2014-01-21

    The use of mass spectrometry in macromolecular analysis is an incredibly important technique and has allowed efficient identification of secondary and tertiary protein structures. Over 20 years ago, Chemistry Nobelist John Fenn and co-workers revolutionized mass spectrometry by developing ways to non-destructively extract large molecules directly from solution into the gas phase. This advance, in turn, enabled rapid sequencing of biopolymers through tandem mass spectrometry at the heart of the burgeoning field of proteomics. In this Account, we discuss how cryogenic cooling, mass selection, and reactive processing together provide a powerful way to characterize ion structures as well as rationally synthesize labile reaction intermediates. This is accomplished by first cooling the ions close to 10 K and condensing onto them weakly bound, chemically inert small molecules or rare gas atoms. This assembly can then be used as a medium in which to quench reactive encounters by rapid evaporation of the adducts, as well as provide a universal means for acquiring highly resolved vibrational action spectra of the embedded species by photoinduced mass loss. Moreover, the spectroscopic measurements can be obtained with readily available, broadly tunable pulsed infrared lasers because absorption of a single photon is sufficient to induce evaporation. We discuss the implementation of these methods with a new type of hybrid photofragmentation mass spectrometer involving two stages of mass selection with two laser excitation regions interfaced to the cryogenic ion source. We illustrate several capabilities of the cryogenic ion spectrometer by presenting recent applications to peptides, a biomimetic catalyst, a large antibiotic molecule (vancomycin), and reaction intermediates pertinent to the chemistry of the ionosphere. First, we demonstrate how site-specific isotopic substitution can be used to identify bands due to local functional groups in a protonated tripeptide designed to

  14. Growth of CdTe on (100) GaAs and analysis using ion scattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrovic, B.; King, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review of Coaxial Impact collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (CAICISS) has been presented as well as its advantages in studies of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces. The results that we have gained using fast computer code - SABRE are graphically presented as an incident angular spectrum. The plausible interpretation for the large anomalous peak at 60 deg is given. 14 refs., 1 fig

  15. Growth of CdTe on (100) GaAs and analysis using ion scattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, B; King, B V [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    A brief review of Coaxial Impact collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (CAICISS) has been presented as well as its advantages in studies of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces. The results that we have gained using fast computer code - SABRE are graphically presented as an incident angular spectrum. The plausible interpretation for the large anomalous peak at 60 deg is given. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Growth of CdTe on (100) GaAs and analysis using ion scattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrovic, B.; King, B.V. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    A brief review of Coaxial Impact collision Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (CAICISS) has been presented as well as its advantages in studies of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces. The results that we have gained using fast computer code - SABRE are graphically presented as an incident angular spectrum. The plausible interpretation for the large anomalous peak at 60 deg is given. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  17. Electron spectroscopy with fast heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    1983-01-01

    Since about 1970 the spectroscopy of Auger-electrons and characteristic x-rays following energetic ion-atom collisions has received a great deal of attention. An increasing number of accelerators, capable of providing a large number of projectile ion species over a wide range of projectile energies, became available for studying ion-atom collision phenomena. Many charged particles from protons up to heavy ions like uranium can be accelerated to energies ranging over six orders of magnitude. This allows us to study systematically a great variety of effects accompanied by dynamic excitation processes of the atomic shells in either the projectile- or target-atoms. The studies yield fundamental information regarding the excitation mechanism (e.g., Coulomb and quasi-molecular excitation) and allow sensitive tests of atomic structure theories. This information in turn is valuable to other fields in physics like plasma-, astro-, or solid-state (surface) physics. It is a characteristic feature of fast heavy-ion accelerators that they can produce highly stripped ion species which have in turn the capability to highly ionize neutral target atoms or molecules in a single collision. The ionization process, mainly due to the strong electrical fields that are involved, allows us to study few-electron atoms with high atomic numbers Z. High resolution spectroscopy performed with these atoms allows a particularly good test of relativistic and QED effects. The probability of producing these few electron systems is determined by the charge state and the velocity of the projectile ions. In this contribution the possibilities of using electron spectroscopy as a tool to investigate fast ion-atom collisions is discussed and demonstrated with a few examples. 30 references

  18. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of bone tissue: watch the scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Mekhala; Sahar, Nadder D.; Wilson, Robert H.; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pleshko, Nancy; Kohn, David H.; Morris, Michael D.

    2010-02-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy is widely used in the study of molecular composition and orientation in synthetic and natural polymer systems. Here, we describe the use of Raman spectroscopy to extract quantitative orientation information from bone tissue. Bone tissue poses special challenges to the use of polarized Raman spectroscopy for measurement of orientation distribution functions because the tissue is turbid and birefringent. Multiple scattering in turbid media depolarizes light and is potentially a source of error. Using a Raman microprobe, we show that repeating the measurements with a series of objectives of differing numerical apertures can be used to assess the contributions of sample turbidity and depth of field to the calculated orientation distribution functions. With this test, an optic can be chosen to minimize the systematic errors introduced by multiple scattering events. With adequate knowledge of the optical properties of these bone tissues, we can determine if elastic light scattering affects the polarized Raman measurements.

  19. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z; O` Connor, D J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  1. ITER Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Meo, Fernando; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    In this report we investigate the feasibility of diagnosing the fast ions in ITER by collective Thomson scattering (CTS), exploring and comparing the diagnostic potentials of CTS systems base on a range of different probe frequencies. In the first section we first recall the requirements for meas...... the diagnostic potentials uncovered in the preceding four sections. A number of more detailed discussions are placed in appendices along with supporting material....... for measurements of the confined fusion alpha particles in ITER set by the ITER team. Then we outline the considerations, which enter into the selection and evaluation of CTS systems. System definition includes choice of probe frequency, geometry of probe and receiver beam patterns and probe power, but ultimately...... covers many more details. Here we introduce terms and methods used in the more detailed system evaluations later in the report. In Sections 2 through 5 we consider four different types of CTS systems, which differ by the ranges in which their probe frequencies lie. In Section 6 we summarize and compare...

  2. Precision laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, T.; Borneis, S.; Becker, S.; Dax, A.; Engel, T.; Grieser, R.; Huber, G.; Klaft, I.; Klepper, O.; Kohl, A.; Marx, D.; Meier, K.; Neumann, R.; Schmitt, F.; Seelig, P.; Voelker, L.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, intense beams of highly charged ions have become available at heavy ion cooler rings. The obstacle for producing these highly interesting candidates is the large binding energy of K-shell electrons in heavy systems in excess of 100 keV. One way to remove these electrons is to strip them off by passing the ion through material. In the cooler ring, the ions are cooled to a well defined velocity. At the SIS/ESR complex it is possible to produce, store, and cool highly charged ions up to bare uranium with intensities exceeding 10 8 atoms in the ring. This opens the door for precision laser spectroscopy of hydrogenlike-heavy ions, e.g. 209 Bi 82+ , and allows to examine the interaction of the single electron with the large fields of the heavy nucleus, exceeding any artificially produced electric and magnetic fields by orders of magnitude. In the electron cooler the interaction of electrons and highly charged ions otherwise only present in the hottest plasmas can be studied. (orig.)

  3. Coincident Auger electron and recoil ion momentum spectroscopy for low-energy ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, G. E-mail: glaurent@ganil.fr; Tarisien, M.; Flechard, X.; Jardin, P.; Guillaume, L.; Sobocinski, P.; Adoui, L.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Chesnel, J.-Y.; Fremont, F.; Hennecart, D.; Lienard, E.; Maunoury, L.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Cassimi, A

    2003-05-01

    The recoil ion momentum spectroscopy (RIMS) method combined with the detection of Auger electrons has been used successfully to analyse double electron capture following O{sup 6+} + He collisions at low impact velocities. Although RIMS and Auger spectroscopies are known to be efficient tools to obtain details on the primary processes occurring during the collision, the conjunction of both techniques provides new insights on the electron capture process. In the present experiment, triple coincidence detection of the scattered projectile, the target recoil ion and the Auger electron allows for a precise identification of the doubly excited states O{sup 4+} (1s{sup 2}nln{sup '}l{sup '}) populated after double electron-capture events.

  4. Plasma rotation and ion temperature measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2015-01-01

    We present the first deuterium ion temperature and rotation measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade. The results are in general agreement with boron-based charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements and consistent with neoclassical simulations for the plasma sce...... scenario studied here. This demonstration opens the prospect for direct non-perturbative measurements of the properties of the main ion species in the plasma core with applications in plasma transport and confinement studies.......We present the first deuterium ion temperature and rotation measurements by collective Thomson scattering at ASDEX Upgrade. The results are in general agreement with boron-based charge exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements and consistent with neoclassical simulations for the plasma...

  5. Improved single ion cyclotron resonance mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyce, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The author has improved the state of the art for precision mass spectroscopy of a mass doublet to below one part in 10 10 . By alternately loading single ions into a Penning trap, the author has determined the mass ratio M(CO + )/M(N + 2 ) = 0.999 598 887 74(11), an accuracy of 1 x 10 -10 . This is a factor of 4 improvement over previous measurements, and a factor of 10 better than the 1985 atomic mass table adjustment [WAA85a]. Much of the author's apparatus has been rebuilt, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and improving the reliability of the machine. The typical time needed to make and cool a single ion has been reduced from about half an hour to under 5 minutes. This was done by a combination of faster ion-making and a much faster procedure for driving out ions of the wrong species. The improved S/N, in combination with a much better signal processing algorithm to extract the ion phase and frequency from the author's data, has substantially reduced the time required for the actual measurements. This is important now that the measurement time is a substantial fraction of the cycle time (the time to make a new ion and measure it). The improvements allow over 30 comparisons in one night, compared to 2 per night previously. This not only improves the statistics, but eliminates the possibility of large non-Gaussian errors due to sudden magnetic field shifts

  6. Optical theorem for heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzschild, A.Z.; Auerbach, E.H.; Fuller, R.C.; Kahana, S.

    1976-01-01

    An heuristic derivation is given of an equivalent of the optical theorem stated in the charged situation with the remainder or nuclear elastic scattering amplitude defined as a difference of elastic and Coulomb amplitudes. To test the detailed behavior of this elastic scattering amplitude and the cross section, calculations were performed for elastic scattering of 18 O + 58 Ni, 136 Xe + 209 Bi, 84 Kr + 208 Pb, and 11 B + 26 Mg at 63.42 to 114 MeV

  7. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  8. Scattering of Femtosecond Laser Pulses on the Negative Hydrogen Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenko, V. A.; Moroz, N. N.

    2018-05-01

    Elastic scattering of ultrashort laser pulses (USLPs) on the negative hydrogen ion is considered. Results of calculations of the USLP scattering probability are presented and analyzed for pulses of two types: the corrected Gaussian pulse and wavelet pulse without carrier frequency depending on the problem parameters.

  9. Scattering extraction of ions at CRYRING for SEU testing

    CERN Document Server

    Novák, D; Klamra, W; Norlin, L O; Bagge, L; Kaellberg, A; Paál, A; Rensfelt, K G; Molnár, J

    1999-01-01

    A measuring station has been built at the CRYRING heavy ion accelerator to test the Single Event Upset (SEU) phenomena in working Static RAM circuits. The setup extracts the beam using Rutherford scattering and the ions are monitored with a BaF sub 2 scintillator. SEU measurements have been performed for standard bulk CMOS memory circuits.

  10. Multiple scattering of ions in polyatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The equations which determine small angle multiple scattering in the thin polyatomic layers are evaluated numerically for certain cases. A simple approximate method for calculating the scattering in terms of an average target charge which is a function of the target thickness is given and compared with the exact numerical value. The results agree to better than 5% over a wide range of target composition and thickness. (orig.)

  11. Exchange scattering of quasiparticles by positive ion in He3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdel'shtejn, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    The difference in the mobility of negative and positive ions in normal 3 He at low temperatures is discussed. The mobility mechanisms for the ions of different sign are qualitatively different since the positive ion can exchange quasiparticles with the helium atoms from the ice-like shell surrounding the ion. A study of the mobility in a magnetic field may yield quantitative information on the magnitude of the exchange interaction. A calculation for the exchange scattering model is carried out and it is shown that a logarithmic contribution to the positive ion mobility μsub(+)(T) appears which is analogous to the Kondo effect

  12. Heavy ion scattering; a fixed energy inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy ion scattering has been studied quite intensively in the last decade and central in most analyses of data from such experiments be they on fusion, particle transfer or internal state excitations of the colliding pair, is the inter-ion interaction affecting their relative motion. It is customary to use the elastic scattering data to constrain solutions of the (nonrelativistic) Schroedinger equation to ascertain the character of that (central and complex) heavy ion potential. These matters for projectiles ranging from the lightest 'heavy' ion, a proton, to Oxygen nuclei are considered in brief herein. The targets range from 12 C to 208 Pb. The central entity in the analyses to be discussed will be the S-function, and so for completeness, the simple potential scattering theory details are presented that specify the S-function and relate it to measured cross-sections. 20 refs., 18 figs

  13. Pathlength Determination for Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS has been extensively studied and applied during recent years in, e.g., food packaging, human sinus monitoring, gas diffusion studies, and pharmaceutical tablet characterization. The focus has been on the evaluation of the gas absorption pathlength in porous media, which a priori is unknown due to heavy light scattering. In this paper, three different approaches are summarized. One possibility is to simultaneously monitor another gas with known concentration (e.g., water vapor, the pathlength of which can then be obtained and used for the target gas (e.g., oxygen to retrieve its concentration. The second approach is to measure the mean optical pathlength or physical pathlength with other methods, including time-of-flight spectroscopy, frequency-modulated light scattering interferometry and the frequency domain photon migration method. By utilizing these methods, an average concentration can be obtained and the porosities of the material are studied. The last method retrieves the gas concentration without knowing its pathlength by analyzing the gas absorption line shape, which depends upon the concentration of buffer gases due to intermolecular collisions. The pathlength enhancement effect due to multiple scattering enables also the use of porous media as multipass gas cells for trace gas monitoring. All these efforts open up a multitude of different applications for the GASMAS technique.

  14. Glancing-angle scattering of fast ions at crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannami, Michihiko; Narumi, Kazumasa; Katoh, Humiya; Kimura, Kenji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Glancing angle scattering of fast ions from a single crystal surface is a novel technique to study ion-surface interaction. Results of recent studies of ion-surface interaction are reviewed for ions with velocities faster than the Fermi velocity of solid. For the ions with velocities less than the Fermi velocity of target valence electrons the ion-surface interaction shows a new aspect where only the valence electrons of target solid participate in the stopping processes. It will show that the position-dependent stopping power of a surface for these ions governed by the elastic collisions of valence electrons and the ions. A method is proposed from this position-dependent stopping power to derived the electron density distribution averaged over the plane parallel to the surface. (author)

  15. Collective mass parameters in heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, H.J.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown how space-dependent masses can be incorporated in the scattering theory. The Schroedinger equation is transformed to a form that resembles the normal Schroedinger equation in the optical model. This transformation gives rise to additional potentials. If the collective masses in the cranking model are calculated with the aid of a two-centre model there is 30 MeV barrier results for 12 C- 12 C scattering which separates the molecular states from the compound nucleus states. This barrier may have a strong influence on the calculation of fusion cross reactions. (orig./AK) [de

  16. Collinear laser spectroscopy on radioactive praseodymium ions and cadmium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froemmgen, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Collinear laser spectroscopy is a tool for the model independent determination of spins, charge radii and electromagnetic moments of nuclei in ground and long-lived isomeric states. In the context of this thesis a new offline ion source for high evaporating temperatures and an ion beam analysis system were implemented at the TRIGA-LASER Experiment at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz. The main part of the thesis deals with the determination of the properties of radioactive praseodymium and cadmium isotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE/CERN. The necessary test measurements for the spectroscopy of praseodymium ions have been conducted with the aforementioned offline ion source at the TRIGA-LASER experiment. The spectroscopy of the praseodymium ions was motivated by the observation of a modulation of the electron capture decay rates of hydrogen-like 140 Pr 58+ . The nuclear magnetic moment of the nucleus is, among others, required for the explanation of the so-called GSI Oscillations and has not been studied experimentally before. Additionally, the determined electron capture decay constant of hydrogen-like 140 Pr 58+ is lower than the one of helium-like 140 Pr 57+ . The explanation of this phenomenon requires a positive magnetic moment. During the experiment at the COLLAPS apparatus the magnetic moments of the neutron-deficient isotopes 135 Pr, 136 Pr and 137 Pr could be determined for the first time. Unfortunately, due to a too low production yield the desired isotope 140 Pr could not be studied.The systematic study of cadmium isotopes was motivated by nuclear physics in the tin region. With Z=48 two protons are missing for the shell closure and the isotopes extend from the magic neutron number N=50 to the magic neutron number N=82. The extracted nuclear properties allow tests of different nuclear models in this region. In this thesis the obtained results of the spectroscopy of the cadmium isotopes 106-124,126 Cd and their

  17. Heavy ion scattering: High energy limits of RBS and ERD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauhala, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 7 Li ions by oxygen and 12 C, 14 N and 16 O ions by aluminum, silicon, titanium and sulfur have been studied below the Coulomb barrier energies 3-30 MeV in the angular range of 78 degrees - 170 degrees. By kinematically reversing the reactions, the recoiling of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen by 40-100 MeV 27 Al, 28 Si, 32S and 48 Ti ions into recoil angles of 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees has also been investigated. Excitation functions and angular distributions are presented. Contrary to the case of light H and He ions, the heavy ion scattering cross sections fall off rapidly above the non-Rutherford threshold energy, rendering heavy ion RBS and ERD spectrometry worthless. Both classical and wave mechanical calculations have been attempted for predicting the RBS threshold energies. Simple calculations give moderate accuracy, while the more extensive nuclear potential perturbation approach relies on parameters fitted for the particular experiment. The authors present a general classical semi-empirical model for both direct scattering (RBS) and the kinematically reversed reactions (ERD), accurately reproducing the experimental data. The model is based on parameters fitted from the present scattering experiments and from an extensive literature survey

  18. High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Remer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.

  19. Rainbow and Fresnel diffraction effects in the heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M.C.B.S.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed theoretical analysis of the heavy-ion elastic scattering differential cross section, using the uniform semiclassical approximation of Berry in the sharp cut-off limit is presented. A decomposition of the cross section into four physically well-defined components is used in the analysis. The aim of the analysis is to explore the possibility of distinguishing at the cross-section level, between a pure raibow or Fresnel diffraction nature of the heavy-ion elastic scattering at above-barrier energies and not too large angles. (Author) [pt

  20. Chaotic scattering in heavy-ion reactions with mass transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Padron, Emilio; Guzman Martinez, Fernando

    1998-01-01

    The role of the mass transfer in heavy ion collisions is analyzed in the framework of a simple semi phenomenological model searching for chaotic scattering effects. The model couples the relative motion of the ions to a collective degree of freedom. The collective degree of freedom is identified by the mass asymmetry of the system. A Saxon-Woods potential is used for nucleus-nucleus interaction whiles a harmonic potential rules the temporal behaviour of the collective degree of freedom. This model shows chaotic scattering which could be an explanation for certain types of cross-section fluctuations observed in this kind of reactions

  1. Ultraviolet refractometry using field-based light scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dan; Choi, Wonshik; Sung, Yongjin; Oh, Seungeun; Yaqoob, Zahid; Park, YongKeun; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate refractive index measurement in the deep ultraviolet (UV) range is important for the separate quantification of biomolecules such as proteins and DNA in biology. This task is demanding and has not been fully exploited so far. Here we report a new method of measuring refractive index using field-based light scattering spectroscopy, which is applicable to any wavelength range and suitable for both solutions and homogenous objects with well-defined shape such as microspheres. The angular scattering distribution of single microspheres immersed in homogeneous media is measured over the wavelength range 260 to 315 nm using quantitative phase microscopy. By least square fitting the observed scattering distribution with Mie scattering theory, the refractive index of either the sphere or the immersion medium can be determined provided that one is known a priori. Using this method, we have measured the refractive index dispersion of SiO2 spheres and bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions in the deep UV region. Specific refractive index increments of BSA are also extracted. Typical accuracy of the present refractive index technique is ≤0.003. The precision of refractive index measurements is ≤0.002 and that of specific refractive index increment determination is ≤0.01 mL/g. PMID:20372622

  2. Scattering of atomic and molecular ions from single crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoest, J.M. van.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with analysis of crystal surfaces of Cu, Ag and Fe with Low Energy Ion scattering Spectroscopy (LEIS). Different atomic and molecular ions with fixed energies below 7 keV are scattered by a metal single crystal (with adsorbates). The energy and direction of the scattered particles are analysed for different selected charge states. In that way information can be obtained concerning the composition and atomic and electronic structure of the single crystal surface. Energy spectra contain information on the composition of the surface, while structural atomic information is obtained by direction measurements (photograms). In Ch.1 a description is given of the experimental equipment, in Ch.2 a characterization of the LEIS method. Ch.3 deals with the neutralization of keV-ions in surface scattering. Two different ways of data interpretation are presented. First a model is treated in which the observed directional dependence of neutralization action of the first atom layer of the surface is presented by a laterally varying thickness of the neutralizing layer. Secondly it is shown that the data can be reproduced by a more realistic, physical model based on atomic transition matrix elements. In Ch.4 the low energy hydrogen scattering is described. The study of the dissociation of H 2 + at an Ag surface r0230ted in a model based on electronic dissociation, initialized by electron capture into a repulsive (molecular) state. In Ch.5 finally the method is applied to the investigation of the surface structure of oxidized Fe. (Auth.)

  3. Charge state of ions scattered by metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinevsky, L.M.; Parilis, E.S.; Verleger, V.K.

    1976-01-01

    A model for description of charge distributions for scattering of heavy ions in the keV region, on metal surfaces developing and improving the method of Van der Weg and Bierman, and taking into account the connection between the ion charge state and scattering kinematics, is proposed. It is shown that multiple charged particles come from ions with a vacancy in the inner shell while the outer shell vacancies give only single charged ions and neutrals. The approximately linear increase of degree of ionization with normal velocity, and the non-monotonic charge dependence of the energy spectrum established by Chicherov and Buck et al is explained by considering irreversible neutralization in the depth of the metal, taking into account the connection of the charge state with the shape of trajectory and its location relative to the metal surface. The dependence of charge state on surface structure is discussed. Some new experiments are proposed. (author)

  4. Spectroscopy of multi-charged ions: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.

    1983-01-01

    Recent and future applications of multiply charged ions to spectroscopy and atomic structure are discussed. The experimental techniques use either very fast ions produced in heavy ion accelerators, or slow ions produced directly both in electron beam ion sources and from collisions of fast accelerated ions. For the accelerated fast ions, spectroscopic measurements on using gas target excitation, solid foil excitation and laser excitation. In gas target excitation, both X-ray and electron spectroscopy have been applied to analyse atomic structures and secondary collision effects. Highlycharged secondary ions have also been trapped electro-magnetically for further similar studies in controlled conditions. Spectroscopic detection following solid foil interaction has led to atomic lifetime measurements, principally of metastable level, analysis of complex highly-ionized heavy ion spectra, and investigations of relativistic and QED effects in few electron ions

  5. Scattering of energetic ions by solids: a simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.G.; Shaar, Z.; Crosbie, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    Digital computer simulation of an experiment is described which measures the energy-intensity distribution of noble gas ions scattered by crystalline solids. The discussion emphasizes the simulation techniques employed (in particular, the choice of integration method), the methods of relating computer input data to the experimental variables, and the transformation of computer results into a form directly comparable to experimental data

  6. Magnetothermoelectric properties of layered structures for ion impurity scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figarova, S. R.; Huseynov, H. I.; Figarov, V. R.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper, longitudinal and transverse thermoelectric powers are considered in a magnetic field parallel to the layer plane for scattering of charge carriers by weakly screened impurity ions. Based on the semiclassical approximation, it is obtained that, depending on the position of the Fermi level relative to the miniband top and superlattice period, the thermoelectric power can change sign and amplify.

  7. Resonance interaction of heavy ions in radar scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strutinskij, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Resonances on back angles in the process of scatterina of heavy ions are investigated. Comprehensive investigation into possible sources of irregular structure of angular distribution during elastic scattering (ES) on wide angles are compated with an experiment. The first source is a two-component interference and the second one is a resonance structure connected with the process of formation of definite nucleon states in strongly deformed intermediate nucleus. Comparison of radar cross section calculations (back scattering cross section) with angular ES distributions of hydrogen on silicon testifies a possibility to interpret an anomalous scattering on wide angles in some reactions with heavy ions as a result of modulation of partial amplitudes by resonances of the input state typein the initial state of interaction of two nuclei

  8. Resonant inelastic scattering of quasifree electrons on ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabbe, S.

    1994-01-01

    Several studies of resonant-transfer excitation (RTE) have been reported in ion-atom collisions where the doubly excited autoionizing states are produced. Such a complex collision can be approximated as the scattering of quasifree electrons of the target from the projectile ion. Most of the investigations have been restricted to the deexcitation of the autoionizing states to the ground state by Auger electron emission. It has been shown that there is a strong interference between the elastic scattering amplitude and the resonance amplitude. The authors present here the cases where the corresponding interference is between the inelastic scattering and the resonance process. Recent work on 3 ell 3 ell ' resonances that decay predominantly to n=2 states will be presented for C 5+ -molecular hydrogen collisions

  9. Deep inelastic scattering of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    These lectures developed path integral methods for use in the theory of heavy ion reactions. The effects of internal degrees of freedom on the relative motion were contained in an influence functional which was calculated for several simple models of the internal structure. In each model the influence functional had a simple Gaussian structure suggesting that the relative motion of the nuclei in a deep inelastic collision could be described by a Langevin equation. The form of the influence functional determines the average damping force and the correlation function of the fluctuating Langevin force. (author)

  10. Deep inelastic scattering of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    These lecture notes show how path integral methods can be used in the theory of heavy ion reactions. The effects of internal degrees of freedom on the relative motion are contained in an influence functional which is calculated for several simple models of the internal structure. In each model the influence functional has a simple Gaussian structure which suggests that the relative motion of the nuclei in a deep inelastic collision can be described by a Langevin equation. The form of the influence functional determines the average damping force and the correlation function of the fluctuating Langevin force. (author)

  11. Simulation of multiple scattering background in heavy ion backscattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.M.; O'Connor, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of heavy ion backscattering spectrometry (HIBS) for the detection of trace quantities of heavy-atom impurities on Si surfaces, it is necessary to quantify the multiple scattering contribution to the spectral background. In the present work, the Monte Carlo computer simulation program TRIM has been used to study the backscattering spectrum and the multiple scattering background features for heavy ions C, Ne, Si, Ar and Kr impinging on four types of targets: (1) a single ultra-thin (free standing) Au film of 10 A thickness, (2) a 10 A Au film on a 50 A Si surface, (3) a 10 A Au film on an Si substrate (10 000 A), and (4) a thick target (10 000 A) of pure Si. The ratio of the signal from the Au thin layer to the background due to multiple scattering has been derived by fitting the simulation results. From the simulation results, it is found that the Au film contributes to the background which the Si plays a role in developing due to the ion's multiple scattering in the substrate. Such a background is generated neither by only the Au thin layer nor by the pure Si substrate independently. The corresponding mechanism of multiple scattering in the target can be explained as one large-angle scattering in the Au layer and subsequently several small angle scatterings in the substrate. This study allows an appropriate choice of incident beam species and energy range when the HIBS is utilized to analyse low level impurities in Si wafers

  12. Microwave quantum logic spectroscopy and control of molecular ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, M.; F. Herskind, P.; Drewsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    the rotational state of a molecular ion and the electronic state of an atomic ion. In this setting, the atomic ion is used for read-out of the molecular ion state, in a manner analogous to quantum logic spectroscopy based on Raman transitions. In addition to high-precision spectroscopy, this setting allows...... for rotational ground state cooling, and can be considered as a candidate for the quantum information processing with polar molecular ions. All elements of our proposal can be realized with currently available technology....

  13. Magneto optical trap recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: application to ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blieck, J.

    2008-10-01

    87 Rb atoms have been cooled, trapped and prepared as targets for collision studies with 2 and 5 keV Na + projectiles. The physics studied deals with charge exchange processes. The active electron, which is generally the most peripheral electron of the atomic target, is transferred from the target onto the ionic projectile. The ionized target is called recoil ion. The technique used to study this physics is the MOTRIMS (Magneto Optical Trap Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique, which combines a magneto optical trap and a recoil ion momentum spectrometer. The spectrometer is used for the measurement of the recoil ions momentum, which gives access to all the information of the collision: the Q-value (which is the potential energy difference of the active electron on each particle) and the scattering angle of the projectile. The trap provides extremely cold targets to optimize the measurement of the momentum, and to release the latter from thermal motion. Through cinematically complete experiments, the MOTRIMS technique gives access to better resolutions on momentum measurements. Measurements of differential cross sections in initial and final capture states and in scattering angle have been done. Results obtained for differential cross sections in initial and final states show globally a good agreement with theory and an other experiment. Nevertheless, discrepancies with theory and this other experiment are shown for the measurements of doubly differential cross sections. These discrepancies are not understood yet. The particularity of the experimental setup designed and tested in this work, namely a low background noise, allows a great sensitivity to weak capture channels, and brings a technical and scientific gain compared with previous works. (author)

  14. SWIMS, Sigmund and Winterbon Multiple Scattering of Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyeberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function - SWIMS calculates the angular dispersion of ion beams that undergo small-angle, incoherent multiple scattering by gaseous or solid media. 2 - Method of solution - SWIMS uses the tabulated angular distributions of Sigmund and Winterbon for a Thomas-Fermi screened Coulomb potential. The fraction of the incident beam scattered into a cone defined by the polar angle is computed as a function of that angle for a reduced thickness over the rang of 0.01 to 10

  15. Heavy ion inelastic scattering with a 4π gamma detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, E.E.

    1989-01-01

    Heavy-ion inelastic scattering with a new technique that uses a 4π γ-ray detector in coincidence with charged particle detectors is applied to 24 Mg(200 MeV) + 208 Pb scattering. In addition to differential cross sections, a complete particle-γ angular correlation is obtained for decay of the 2 1 + (1.37 MeV) state of 24 Mg. The data are analyzed in coupled-channels. The correlation data proves to be especially sensitive to the static quadrupole moment. 14 refs., 9 figs

  16. Multiple scattering problems in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    A number of groups use Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) to study materials science problems. Nevertheless, there is no standard methodology for the analysis of HIERDA spectra. To overcome this deficiency we have been establishing codes for 2-dimensional data analysis. A major problem involves the effects of multiple and plural scattering which are very significant, even for quite thin (∼100 nm) layers of the very heavy elements. To examine the effects of multiple scattering we have made comparisons between the small-angle model of Sigmund et al. and TRIM calculations. (authors)

  17. Ion beam nanopatterning and micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis on HOPG for testing FIB performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanjo, B.S.; Maciel, I.O.; Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Peripolli, S.B.; Damasceno, J.C.; Achete, C.A.; Jorio, A.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports Ga + focused ion beam nanopatterning to create amorphous defects with periodic square arrays in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and the use of Raman spectroscopy as a new protocol to test and compare progresses in ion beam optics, for low fluence bombardment or fast writing speed. This can be ultimately used as a metrological tool for comparing different FIB machines and can contribute to Focused Ion Beam (FIB) development in general for tailoring nanostructures with higher precision. In order to do that, the amount of ion at each spot was varied from about 10 6 down to roughly 1 ion per dot. These defects were also analyzed by using high resolution scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The sensitivities of these techniques were compared and a geometrical model is proposed for micro-Raman spectroscopy in which the intensity of the defect induced D band, for a fixed ion dose, is associated with the diameter of the ion beam. In addition, the lateral increase in the bombarded spot due to the cascade effect of the ions on graphite surface was extracted from this model. A semi-quantitative analysis of the distribution of ions at low doses per dot or high writing speed for soft modification of materials is discussed. -- Highlights: → Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface is bombarded using a focused ion beam. → Raman spectroscopy is used to propose a new protocol to test focused ion beam optics. → Scattering diameter of the ions on HOPG surface is experimentally obtained. → Optical limitations of the ion column in fast writing speed are discussed. → Small level of modifications is considered for changing graphene conductive properties.

  18. Ion-cyclotron-resonance- and Fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance spectroscopy: technology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luederwald, I.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and technology of Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance and Fourier-Transform-Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Spectroscopy are described. The method can be applied to studies of ion/molecule reactions in gas phase, to obtain thermodynamic data as gas phase acidity or basicity, proton and electron affinity, and to establish reaction mechanisms and ion structures. (orig.) [de

  19. Quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS) of Kondo lattice heavy fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, L. H.; Narasiwodeyar, S. M.; Banerjee, P.; Park, W. K.; Bauer, E. D.; Tobash, P. H.; Baumbach, R. E.; Ronning, F.; Sarrao, J. L.; Thompson, J. D.

    2013-03-01

    Point-contact spectroscopy (PCS) is a powerful technique to study electronic properties via measurements of non-linear current-voltage characteristic across a ballistic junction. It has been frequently adopted to investigate novel and/or unconventional superconductors by detecting the energy-dependent Andreev scattering. PCS of non-superconducting materials has been much rarely reported. From our recent studies on heavy fermions, we have frequently observed strongly bias-dependent and asymmetric conductance behaviors. Based on a Fano resonance model in a Kondo lattice, we attribute them to energy-dependent quasiparticle scattering off hybridized renormalized electronic states, dubbing it QPS. We will present our QPS results on several heavy-fermion systems and discuss QPS as a novel technique to probe the bulk spectroscopic properties of the electronic structure. For instance, it reveals that the hybridization gap in URu2Si2 opens well above the hidden order transition. The work at UIUC is supported by the U.S. DOE under Award No. DE-FG02-07ER46453 and the NSF DMR 12-06766, and the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science.

  20. The threshold anomaly for heavy-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    The real parts of optical potentials deduced from heavy-ion scattering measurements become rapidly more attractive as the bombarding energy is reduced close to the top of the Coulomb barrier. This behavior is explained as a coupled-channels effect, and is related to the corresponding reduction in the absorptive potential through a dispersion relation which expresses the consequences of causality. Another manifestation of this ''anomaly'' is the striking enhancement observed for the near- and sub-barrier fusion of two heavy ions. The barrier penetration model of fusion is examined critically in this context. It is also stressed that similar anomalies could appear in the energy dependence of nonelastic scattering. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Algebraic and coordinate space potentials from heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Berge, L.; Allen, L.J.; Fiedeldey, H.

    1993-01-01

    An inversion scheme is presented to derive the potentials of algebraic scattering theory from the corresponding S-functions. Representative heavy ion scattering data of 12 C, 14 N and 16 O ions on 208 Pb, accurately fitted by McIntyre strong absorption type S-functions, are employed to obtain exact algebraic potentials and to generalize the analytical shapes proposed previously by Alhassid et al. The coordinate space potentials corresponding to a number of S-functions are also obtained via semiclassical inversion. The major advantage of the algebraic potentials is that, at a theoretical level they are more directly related to the S-functions than are coordinate space potentials. 16 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  2. Complementary scattered and recoiled ion data from TOF-E heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.N.; El Bouanani, M.; Stannard, W.B.; Bubb, I.F.; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, N.; Siegele, R.

    1998-01-01

    The advantage of Time of Flight and Energy (ToF-E) Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HIERDA) over Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis is its mass and energy dispersive capabilities. The mass resolution of ToF-E HIERDA deteriorates for very heavy elements. The limitation is related to the poor energy resolution of Si detectors for heavy ions. While the energy spectra from ToF-E HIERDA data are normally used to extract depth profiles, this work discusses the benefits of using the time spectra of both the recoiled and the scattered ions for depth profiling. The simulation of the complementary scattered and recoiled ion time spectra improves depth profiling and reduced current limitations when dealing with very heavy ions, such as Pt, Bi, Ta. (authors)

  3. Gamma-ray spectroscopy with relativistic exotic heavy-ions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Feasibility of gamma-ray spectroscopy at relativistic energies with exotic heavy-ions and new generation of germanium detectors (segmented Clover) is discussed. An experiment with such detector array and radioactive is discussed.

  4. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    This research project is designed to provide measurements of various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic targets at intermediate energies. The immediate goal is to study elastic scattering, single electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization in H - scattering from noble gas targets. For the target inelastic processes, these cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The present measurements will provide either experimentally-determined cross sections or set upper limits to those cross sections. In either case, these measurements will be stringent tests of our understanding in energetic negative ion collisions. This series of experiments required the construction of a new facility, and significant progress toward its operation has been realized during this period. The proposed research is described in this report. The progress on and the status of the apparatus is also detailed in this report

  5. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  6. Ion-atom interactions probed by photofragment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, H.

    1984-01-01

    Photofragment spectroscopy studies energetic and dynamical properties of molecular states interacting with dissociation continuum. So far, data for eighteen diatomic molecular ions have been gathered by this technique. This paper is a review of these investigations, introduced by a discussion of the experimental methods used. The wealth of information accessible by ion photofragment spectroscopy challenges the experimentalist in the application of innovative techniques and the theoretician for less approximate accounts of the Hamiltonian. (Auth.)

  7. Spectroscopy of heavy few-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokler, P.H.

    1986-07-01

    In this paper we ask first, why is it interesting to investigate heavy-few electron ions. Then the various accelerator-based methods to produce heavy few-electron ions are discussed. In the main part an overview on available heavy few-electron ion data and current experiments is given. The summary will end up with future aspects in this field. (orig.)

  8. Re-evaluation of model-based light-scattering spectroscopy for tissue spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Condon; Šćepanović, Obrad; Mirkovic, Jelena; McGee, Sasha; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Fulghum, Stephen; Wallace, Michael; Tunnell, James; Bechtel, Kate; Feld, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Model-based light scattering spectroscopy (LSS) seemed a promising technique for in-vivo diagnosis of dysplasia in multiple organs. In the studies, the residual spectrum, the difference between the observed and modeled diffuse reflectance spectra, was attributed to single elastic light scattering from epithelial nuclei, and diagnostic information due to nuclear changes was extracted from it. We show that this picture is incorrect. The actual single scattering signal arising from epithelial nuclei is much smaller than the previously computed residual spectrum, and does not have the wavelength dependence characteristic of Mie scattering. Rather, the residual spectrum largely arises from assuming a uniform hemoglobin distribution. In fact, hemoglobin is packaged in blood vessels, which alters the reflectance. When we include vessel packaging, which accounts for an inhomogeneous hemoglobin distribution, in the diffuse reflectance model, the reflectance is modeled more accurately, greatly reducing the amplitude of the residual spectrum. These findings are verified via numerical estimates based on light propagation and Mie theory, tissue phantom experiments, and analysis of published data measured from Barrett’s esophagus. In future studies, vessel packaging should be included in the model of diffuse reflectance and use of model-based LSS should be discontinued. PMID:19405760

  9. Recent advances in ion and electron spectroscopy of polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Joseph A.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of microdomains and bonding at multicomponent polymer material interfaces has been studied using a variety of surface sensitive spectroscopic techniques. In our laboratory, low energy ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) and static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) serve to complement results from angular dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) sampling and SEM techniques to provide a quantitative picture of the relationships between structure, bonding, morphology and microdomain formation in near surface regions of polymeric systems. The added surface sensitivity of ISS can yield quantitative information at a sampling depth of 3-5 Å, which, with ESCA and FTIR analysis yields a "non-destructive" depth profile of domain formation in copolymer and blend systems. These studies will be illustrated with results from siloxane and siloxane/polycarbonate copolymer systems, where a complete picture of surface domain formation and morphology as a function of composition and polymer crystallinity has been developed. ISS can also yield information regarding the orientation of surface functional groups which ESCA and FTIR do not have either sensitivity and/or sufficient detection limits to analyze. These studies will be illustrated by the analysis of plasma hydrolysis/oxidation of stereoregular poly(methyl-methacrylate). The effects of functional group orientation on reactivity will be explored using results from ISS, ESCA and FTIR for stereoregular (isotatic, syndiotactic) and random (atactic) PMMA. Electron energy loss spectroscopy at high resolution (HREELS) has recently been extended to the examination of polymer and organic surfaces. Vibrational information from this experiment can yield very precise results about surface functional groups (1-20 Å) but at much lower resolution than is typical from IR and Raman techniques. However, the promise of evaluating surface

  10. Simulation of ion beam scattering in a gas stripper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxeiner, Sascha, E-mail: maxeiner@phys.ethz.ch; Suter, Martin; Christl, Marcus; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-15

    Ion beam scattering in the gas stripper of an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) enlarges the beam phase space and broadens its energy distribution. As the size of the injected beam depends on the acceleration voltage through phase space compression, the stripper becomes a limiting factor of the overall system transmission especially for low energy AMS system in the sub MV region. The spatial beam broadening and collisions with the accelerator tube walls are a possible source for machine background and energy loss fluctuations influence the mass resolution and thus isotope separation. To investigate the physical processes responsible for these effects, a computer simulation approach was chosen. Monte Carlo simulation methods are applied to simulate elastic two body scattering processes in screened Coulomb potentials in a (gas) stripper and formulas are derived to correctly determine random collision parameters and free path lengths for arbitrary (and non-homogeneous) gas densities. A simple parametric form for the underlying scattering cross sections is discussed which features important scaling behaviors. An implementation of the simulation was able to correctly model the data gained with the TANDY AMS system at ETH Zurich. The experiment covered transmission measurements of uranium ions in helium and beam profile measurements after the ion beam passed through the He-stripper. Beam profiles measured up to very high stripper densities could be understood in full system simulations including the relevant ion optics. The presented model therefore simulates the fundamental physics of the interaction between an ion beam and a gas stripper reliably. It provides a powerful and flexible tool for optimizing existing AMS stripper geometries and for designing new, state of the art low energy AMS systems.

  11. XPS and ion beam scattering studies of leaching in simulated waste glass containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, D.P.; Pronko, P.P.; Marcuso, T.L.M.; Lam, D.J.; Paulikas, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Glass samples (consisting of 2 mole % UO 3 dissolved in a number of complex borosilicate simulated waste glasses including Battelle 76-68) were leached for varying times in distilled water at 75 0 C. The glass surfaces were examined before and after leaching using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and back-scattered ion beam profiling. Leached samples showed enhanced surface layer concentrations of several elements including uranium, titanium, zinc, iron and rare earths. An experiment involving the leaching of two glasses in the same vessel showed that the uranium surface enhancement is probably not due to redeposition from solution

  12. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  13. Energy- and angled-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, D.J.; Thompson, J.S.; Compton, R.N.; Alton, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Energy- and angle-resolved photoelectron detachment spectroscopy is currently being used to investigate the structure of negative ions and their interaction with radiation. Measurements of the electron affinity of the Ca atom and the partial cross sections for photodetachment of the metastable negative ion, He - (1s2s2p 4 P), are reported. 5 refs., 5 figs

  14. Analysis of Ion Composition Estimation Accuracy for Incoherent Scatter Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Ledesma, M.; Diaz, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) is one of the most powerful sounding methods developed to estimate the Ionosphere. This radar system determines the plasma parameters by sending powerful electromagnetic pulses to the Ionosphere and analyzing the received backscatter. This analysis provides information about parameters such as electron and ion temperatures, electron densities, ion composition, and ion drift velocities. Nevertheless in some cases the ISR analysis has ambiguities in the determination of the plasma characteristics. It is of particular relevance the ion composition and temperature ambiguity obtained between the F1 and the lower F2 layers. In this case very similar signals are obtained with different mixtures of molecular ions (NO2+ and O2+) and atomic oxygen ions (O+), and consequently it is not possible to completely discriminate between them. The most common solution to solve this problem is the use of empirical or theoretical models of the ionosphere in the fitting of ambiguous data. More recent works take use of parameters estimated from the Plasma Line band of the radar to reduce the number of parameters to determine. In this work we propose to determine the error estimation of the ion composition ambiguity when using Plasma Line electron density measurements. The sensibility of the ion composition estimation has been also calculated depending on the accuracy of the ionospheric model, showing that the correct estimation is highly dependent on the capacity of the model to approximate the real values. Monte Carlo simulations of data fitting at different signal to noise (SNR) ratios have been done to obtain valid and invalid estimation probability curves. This analysis provides a method to determine the probability of erroneous estimation for different signal fluctuations. Also it can be used as an empirical method to compare the efficiency of the different algorithms and methods on when solving the ion composition ambiguity.

  15. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound [yields] bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN[sup [minus

  16. Tensor interaction in heavy-ion scattering. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, H.; Johnson, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Heidelberg shape-effect model for heavy-ion tensor interactions is reformulated and generalized using the Hooton-Johnson formulation. The generalized semiclassical model (the turning-point model) predicts that the components of the tensor analysing power anti Tsub(2q) have certain relations with each other for each type of tensor interaction (Tsub(R), Tsub(P) and Tsub(L) types). The predicted relations between the anti Tsub(2q) are very simple and have a direct connection with the properties of the tensor interaction at the turning point. The model predictions are satisfied in quantum-mechanical calculations for 7 Li and 23 Na elastic scattering from 58 Ni in the Fresnel-diffraction energy region. As a consequence of this model, it becomes possible to single out effects from a Tsub(P)- or Tsub(L)-type tensor interaction in polarized heavy-ion scattering. The presence of a Tsub(P)-type tensor interaction is suggested by measured anti T 20 /anti T 22 ratios for 7 Li + 58 Ni scattering. In the turning-point model the three types of tensor operator are not independent, and this is found to be true also in a quantum-mechanical calculation. The model also predicts relations between the components of higher-rank tensor analysing power in the presence of a higher-rank tensor interaction. The rank-3 tensor case is discussed in detail. (orig.)

  17. Ion pair formation in the vacuum ultraviolet region of NO studied by negative ion imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikosaka, Y.; Kaneyasu, T.; Shigemasa, E.

    2007-01-01

    The pair formation of positive and negative fragment ions has been studied in the vacuum ultraviolet region of NO, with negative ion imaging spectroscopy. The negative ion yield curve obtained in the photon energy region of 19-25 eV exhibits many structures which are absent from the photoabsorption spectrum in the same region. The partial yields and asymmetry parameters associated with the dissociations into individual ion pair limits have been extracted from the negative ion images observed. On the basis of these quantities, the assignments for the structures exhibited on the negative ion yield curve are given and the dynamical properties on the ion pair dissociation are discussed

  18. Fitting phase shifts to electron-ion elastic scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Per, M.C.; Dickinson, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    We have derived non-Coulomb phase shifts from measured differential cross sections for electron scattering by the ions Na + , Cs + , N 3+ , Ar 8+ and Xe 6+ at energies below the inelastic threshold. Values of the scaled squared deviation between the observed and fitted differential cross sections, χ 2 , for the best-fit phase shifts were typically in the range 3-6 per degree of freedom. Generally good agreement with experiment is obtained, except for wide-angle scattering by Ar 8+ and Xe 6+ . Current measurements do not define phase shifts to better than approx. 0.1 rad even in the most favourable circumstances and uncertainties can be much larger. (author)

  19. Testing ion structure models with x-ray Thomson scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wünsch K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of various ionic structure models on the interpretation of the X-ray Thomson scattering signal. For the calculation of the ion structure, classical hypernetted chain equations are used applying different effective inter-particle potentials. It is shown that the different models lead to significant discrepancies in the theoretically predicted weight of the Rayleigh peak, in particular for small k-values where correlation effects are important. Here, we propose conditions which might allow for an experimental verification of the theories under consideration of experimental constraints of k-vector blurring.

  20. Laser photodissociation and spectroscopy of mass-separated biomolecular ions

    CERN Document Server

    Polfer, Nicolas C

    2014-01-01

    This lecture notes book presents how enhanced structural information of biomolecular ions can be obtained from interaction with photons of specific frequency - laser light. The methods described in the book ""Laser photodissociation and spectroscopy of mass-separated biomolecular ions"" make use of the fact that the discrete energy and fast time scale of photoexcitation can provide more control in ion activation. This activation is the crucial process producing structure-informative product ions that cannot be generated with more conventional heating methods, such as collisional activation. Th

  1. Ion-induced particle desorption in time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, S.; Primetzhofer, D.

    2018-05-01

    Secondary ions emitted from solids upon ion impact are studied in a time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering (ToF-MEIS) set-up. In order to investigate characteristics of the emission processes and to evaluate the potential for surface and thin film analysis, experiments employing TiN and Al samples were conducted. The ejected ions exhibit a low initial kinetic energy of a few eV, thus, requiring a sufficiently high acceleration voltage for detection. Molecular and atomic ions of different charge states originating both from surface contaminations and the sample material are found, and relative yields of several species were determined. Experimental evidence that points towards a predominantly electronic sputtering process is presented. For emitted Ti target atoms an additional nuclear sputtering component is suggested.

  2. Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide by neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshinobu; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Satoru; Ohno, Hideo; Nicklow, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Lithium ion behavior in lithium oxide, Li 2 O, was studied in the temperature range from 293 K to 1120 K by the High-Resolution Powder Diffractometer (HRPD) installed in the JRR-3M. The diffraction patterns were analyzed with the RIETAN program. At room temperature, the thermal parameters related to the mean square of the amplitude of vibration of the lithium and the oxygen ions were 6 x 10 -21 m 2 and 4 x 10 -21 m 2 , respectively. AT 1120 K the thermal parameter of the lithium ion was 34 x 10 -21 m 2 . On the other hand, the parameter of the oxygen ion was 16 x 10 -21 m 2 . Inelastic neutron scattering studies for the lithium oxide single crystal were also carried out on the triple-axis neutron spectrometers installed at the JRR-2 and the HFIR. Although the value of a phonon energy of a transverse acoustic mode (Σ 3 ) at zone boundary was 30.6 meV at room temperature, this value was decreased to 25.1 meV at 700 K. This large softening was caused by anharmonicity of the crystal potential of lithium oxide. (author)

  3. Collective Thomson scattering in tokamaks having energetic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myer, R.C.; Woskov, P.P.; Machuzak, J.S.; Sigmar, D.J.; Cohn, D.R.; Bretz, N.L.; Efthimion, P.C.; Colestock, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss how collective Thomson scattering (CTS), using high power gyrotrons or long wavelength lasers,m shows promise as a powerful non-intrusive diagnostic of fast-ion transport as it may be capable of measuring the fast-ion velocity distribution and density profile with good spatial and temporal resolution. In addition, CTS may be used as a diagnostic for detecting localized power deposition in the background plasma. High power CTS systems are presently being planned for TFTR, JET, and CIT. Recent theoretical analysis suggests that an energetic (200-800 keV) He 3 minority can be produced in TFTR by ion cyclotron heating (ICH). Such an energetic population would be useful for simulating the energetic alpha-particles produced in a burning plasma. Since the ICH generated distribution is non-Maxwellian, the authors generalize the theoretical analysis of CTS to allow for particle distributions which can be represented by various orthogonal polynomial expansions. They evaluate the efficacy of CTS in detecting a fast He 3 component and determine the sensitivity of the diagnostic to the details of the ion distribution. In particular, the effectiveness of a planned 56 GHz gyrotron CTS diagnostic for TFTR is evaluated

  4. COMPLIS: COllinear spectroscopy Measurements using a Pulsed Laser Ion Source

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Pulsed Laser spectroscopy experiment has been installed for the study of hyperfine structure and isotope shift of refractory and daughter elements from ISOLDE beams. It includes decelerated ion-implantation, element-selective laser ionization, magnetic and time-of-flight mass separation. The laser spectroscopy has been performed on the desorbed atoms in a set-up at ISOLDE-3 but later on high resolution laser collinear spectroscopy with the secondary pulsed ion beam is planned for the Booster ISOLDE set-up. During the first operation time of ISOLDE-3 we restricted our experiments to Doppler-limited resonant ionization laser and $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$ nuclear spectroscopy on neutron deficient platinum isotopes of even mass number down to A~=~186 and A~=~179 respectively. These isotopes have been produced by implantation of radioactive Hg and their subsequent $\\beta$-decay.

  5. Gold Nanoparticle-based Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering Fe(III) Ion Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, Nguyen Hoang; Joo, Sang-Woo; Cho, Kwang Hwi

    2015-01-01

    We performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 (4AB15C5) in conjugation with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MCB) with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) while considering the aqueous media. After specific binding of the ferric ion onto the 4MCB.4AB15C5 compound, the Raman frequencies and intensities were estimated by DFT calculations with the PCM. It was predicted that the Raman intensities became significantly increased upon binding of the ferric ion. 4MCB.4AB15C5 could be assembled on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via the cleavage of the thiol bond. Colorimetric and UV.Vis absorption spectroscopy indicated that AuNPs became significantly aggregated in the presence of 1.10 mM of the ferric ion. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4MCB.4AB15C5 was used to identify the dissimilar spectral behaviors that yield a difference in intensity in the presence of the ferric ion. These changes were not observed in the other biological ions Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 2+ , Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , NH 4+ , and Co 2+ . This study indicated that 4AB15C5 could be used to detect ferric ions in aqueous AuNP solutions by a combined method of colorimetric, UV.Vis absorption, and Raman spectroscopy. AuNPs.[4MCB. 4AB15C5] can thus be utilized as a selective turn-on sensor to Fe3 + in aqueous solutions above 1 mM.

  6. Analysis of helium-ion scattering with a desktop computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. W.

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes a program written in an enhanced BASIC language for a desktop computer, for simulating the energy spectra of high-energy helium ions scattered into two concurrent detectors (backward and glancing). The program is designed for 512-channel spectra from samples containing up to 8 elements and 55 user-defined layers. The program is intended to meet the needs of analyses in materials sciences, such as metallurgy, where more than a few elements may be present, where several elements may be near each other in the periodic table, and where relatively deep structure may be important. These conditions preclude the use of completely automatic procedures for obtaining the sample composition directly from the scattered ion spectrum. Therefore, efficient methods are needed for entering and editing large amounts of composition data, with many iterations and with much feedback of information from the computer to the user. The internal video screen is used exclusively for verbal and numeric communications between user and computer. The composition matrix is edited on screen with a two-dimension forms-fill-in text editor and with many automatic procedures, such as doubling the number of layers with appropriate interpolations and extrapolations. The control center of the program is a bank of 10 keys that initiate on-event branching of program flow. The experimental and calculated spectra, including those of individual elements if desired, are displayed on an external color monitor, with an optional inset plot of the depth concentration profiles of the elements in the sample.

  7. Electron-translation effects in heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.; Greiner, W.; Mueller, B.

    1981-01-01

    The origin and importance of electron-translation effects within a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion collisions is investigated. First, a fully consistent quantum-mechanical description of the scattering process is developed; the electrons are described by relativistic molecular orbitals, while the nuclear motion is approximated nonrelativistically. Leaving the quantum-mechanical level by using the semiclassical approximation for the nuclear motion, a set of coupled differential equations for the occupation amplitudes of the molecular orbitals is derived. In these coupled-channel equations the spurious asymptotic dynamical couplings are corrected for by additional matrix elements stemming from the electron translation. Hence, a molecular description of electronic excitations in heavy-ion scattering has been achieved, which is free from the spurious asymptotic couplings of the conventional perturbated stationary-state approach. The importance of electron-translation effects for continuum electrons and positrons is investigated. To this end an algorithm for the description of continuum electrons is proposed, which for the first time should allow for the calculation of angular distributions for delta electrons. Finally, the practical consequences of electron-translation effects are studied by calculating the corrected coupling matrix elements for the Pb-Cm system and comparing the corresponding K-vacancy probabilities with conventional calculations. We critically discuss conventional methods for cutting off the coupling matrix elements in coupled-channel calculations

  8. Adiabatic Cooling for Rovibrational Spectroscopy of Molecular Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The field of cold molecular ions is a fast growing one, with applications in high resolution spectroscopy and metrology, the search for time variations of fundamental constants, cold chemistry and collisions, and quantum information processing, to name a few. The study of single molecular ions...... is attractive as it enables one to push the limits of spectroscopic accuracy. Non-destructive spectroscopic detection of molecular ions can be achieved by co-trapping with an easier to detect atomic ion. The ion chain has coupled motion, and transitions which change both the internal and motional states...... to the measured heating rates, almost perfectly fitting existing heating rate theory. Further, the same model successfully predicted the heating rates of the in-phase mode of a two-ion crystal, indicating that we can use it to predict the heating rates in experiments on molecule-atom chains. Adiabatic cooling...

  9. Recent recoil ion momentum spectroscopy experiments at KSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, M.; Cocke, C.L.; Kravis, S.; Montenegro, E.C.; Moshammer, R.; Saleh, L.; Ullrich, J.; Varghese, S.L.; Wolff, W.; Wolf, H.

    1997-01-01

    Recoil momentum spectroscopy is used to study collisions involving both fast and slow projectiles on He targets. Experiments have been performed on electron capture and loss from fast ions from the KSU LINAC and slow ions from the KSU CRYEBIS using a supersonic jets with a momentum resolution below 0.5 au. Using fast ions, the final states populated in electron capture from He by 10 MeV F 8+ have been resolved with a Q-value resolution of 18 eV, sufficient to separate final channels in which the He + ion is left excited from those in which He + is left in its ground state. With slow ions, electron capture from He by slow bare Ne ions has been studied. A few recent results are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Photoelectron spectroscopy via electronic spectroscopy of molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, a new aspect of the correlation between optical and photoelectron spectra is discussed on the basis of which the first ionization potentials of condensed-ring aromatics can be estimated from certain features in the electronic spectra of their positive ions. Furthermore, it is noticed that the first IP's are very sensitive to molecular size as the latter's inclusion in the regression formulas improves the results considerably. Once the first ionization potential for a molecule is determined, its higher IP's may be computed if the lower-energy electronic bands for its cation are known. This procedure is especially useful for such systems whose uv photoelectron spectra are unknown. (author). 11 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  11. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and metal ions detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The spectrochemical analysis is based on the interaction of radiation with the chemical species and depends on their nature, having pi, sigma or electrons, or d and f electrons, UV. Visible spectrophotometry has been used extensively in the detection and determination of both organics and inorganics. In UV detection the sensitivity is proportional to the bath length and the excitation coefficient of the given sample. It may be insensitive to many species unless these are converted to UV, absorbing derivatives. The technique has been applied for the monitoring of the effluents from HPLC, as chlorides or other complexes of various elements in this article the utility of HCl as reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of the metal ions like Al(III), As(III,IV), Ba(II), Cd(II), Ca(II) Ce(III), Cs(i), Cr(III,VI), Co(II), Cu(II), Dy(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Au(III), Hf(IV), Ho(III), In(III), Fe(III), La(III), Pb(II), Lu (III), Mg(II), Mn(II), Hg(II), Mo(VI), Ni(II), Pd(II), Pt(IV), K(I), Pr(III), Re(VII), Ru(IV), Sm(III), Sc(III), Ag(I), Sr(II) Te(III), Th(IV), Sn(II,IV), Ti(III,IV), W(VI), U(VI), V(IV,V), Yb(III), Zn(II) AND Zr(IV) Ions i.e. for meta ions from d of the most of these metal ions has been found sufficient permit their detection in HPLC. Their molar absorptive have also been reported. Reference has also been provided to post column derivatization of some metal ions from d and f block elements for their detection in HPLC. (author) 12 figs.; 6 tabs.; 27 refs

  12. Scaling relations in elastic scattering cross sections between multiply charged ions and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Differential elastic scattering cross sections of bare ions from hydrogen are calculated using the eikonal approximation. The results satisfy a scaling relation involving the scattering angle, the ion charge and a factor related to the ion mass. A semiclassical explanation in terms of a distant collision hypothesis for small scattering angle is proposed. A unified picture of related scaling rules found in direct processes is discussed. (author)

  13. Spectroscopy of a Synthetic Trapped Ion Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, David; Christensen, Justin E.; Hudson, Eric R.; Campbell, Wesley C.

    2017-09-01

    133Ba+ has been identified as an attractive ion for quantum information processing due to the unique combination of its spin-1 /2 nucleus and visible wavelength electronic transitions. Using a microgram source of radioactive material, we trap and laser cool the synthetic A =133 radioisotope of barium II in a radio-frequency ion trap. Using the same, single trapped atom, we measure the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the 62P1 /2↔62S1 /2 and 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transitions that are needed for laser cooling, state preparation, and state detection of the clock-state hyperfine and optical qubits. We also report the 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transition isotope shift for the rare A =130 and 132 barium nuclides, completing the spectroscopic characterization necessary for laser cooling all long-lived barium II isotopes.

  14. Possibilities for direct optical observation of negative hydrogen ions in ion beam plasma sources via Rayleigh or Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities of applying optical scattering techniques to the determination of H - concentrations in plasma sources relevant to negative ion beam generation are considered. Rayleigh scattering measurements for incident wavelengths just below the H - photoionization limit appear to be only just feasible experimentally. A more promising possibility is observation of the modification in a plasma containing negative ions of the collective ion-feature in Thomson scattering. Numerical predictions of the effects of H - concentration on the spectral distribution of the ion-feature are presented. (author)

  15. Polarization Studies in Fast-Ion Beam Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabert, E

    2001-01-01

    In a historical review, the observations and the insight gained from polarization studies of fast ions interacting with solid targets are presented. These began with J. Macek's recognition of zero-field quantum beats in beam-foil spectroscopy as indicating alignment, and D.G. Ellis' density operator analysis that suggested the observability of orientation when using tilted foils. Lastly H. Winter's studies of the ion-beam surface interaction at grazing incidence yielded the means to produce a high degree of nuclear orientation in ion beams

  16. On the neutralization of noble gas ions in low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draxler, M.

    2003-04-01

    The set-up ACOLISSA has been set to operation. It was thoroughly tested and found to completely fulfill the requirements for the measurement of charge integrated and of ion TOF-LEIS spectra. Charge integrated scattering spectra in LEIS exhibit a surface peak in many experimental conditions. It was shown that the appearance of this peak is due to a reduced energy width of the contribution from the surface layer and partly due to a reduced energy loss in the surface layer as compared to deeper layers. In the regime of strong multiple scattering, both reasons reflect the fact, that scattering from surface atoms occurs practically exclusively by single binary collisions, while plural and multiple scattering set in in the subsurface layers. As a consequence, only the surface layer and to some extent also the second layer will contribute to the surface peak. Experiment as well as simulation show this behavior, so that other possible reasons for the appearance of a surface peak (e.g. channeling) can safely be ruled out. At high energies, when the multiple scattering half width angle is small, surface effects are mainly caused by electronic stopping and become small, as observed in both, experiment and simulation. In this regime, the energy spectrum is well described by the single scattering spectrum. From the present thesis one can draw the following conclusions concerning the neutralization of noble gas ions at metal surfaces: below the threshold for collision induced processes (CIN, CIR) Ε Εth), P+ is governed by local processes (collision induced neutralization and collision induced reionization) and by a non-local process (Auger neutralization), and thus depends on the energy as well as on vperp. From experiments like the one presented here, where the ion energy as well as the scattering geometry are varied, the process parameters of the neutralization can uniquely be determined for any system. These findings are generally valid and reveal the relevance of different

  17. Studies on ion scattering and sputtering processes relevant to ion beam sputter deposition of multicomponent thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Results from computer simulation and experiments on ion scattering and sputtering processes in ion beam sputter deposition of high Tc superconducting and ferroelectric thin films are presented. It is demonstrated that scattering of neutralized ions from the targets can result in undesirable erosion of, and inert gas incorporation in, the growing films, depending on the ion/target atom ass ratio and ion beam angle of incidence/target/substrate geometry. The studies indicate that sputtering Kr + or Xe + ions is preferable to the most commonly used Ar + ions, since the undesirable phenomena mentioned above are minimized for the first two ions. These results are used to determine optimum sputter deposition geometry and ion beam parameters for growing multicomponent oxide thin films by ion beam sputter-deposition. 10 refs., 5 figs

  18. Investigation of reordered (001) Au surfaces by positive ion channeling spectroscopy, LEED and AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, B.R.; Noggle, T.S.; Miller, J.W.; Schow, O.E. III; Zehner, D.M.; Jenkins, L.H.; Barrett, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    As a consequence of the channeling phenomenon of positive ions in single crystals, the yield of ions Rutherford scattered from an oriented single crystal surface is dependent on the density of surface atoms exposed to the incident ion beam. Thus, the positive ion channeling spectroscopy (PICS) technique should provide a useful tool for studying reordered surfaces. This possibility was explored by examining the surfaces of epitaxially grown thin Au single crystals with the combined techniques of LEED-AES and PICS. The LEED and AES investigations showed that when the (001) surface was sputter cleaned in ultra-high vacuum, the normal (1 x 1) symmetry of the (001) surfaces reordered into a structure which gave a complex (5 x 20) LEED pattern. The yield and energy distributions of 1 MeV He ions scattered from the Au surfaces were used to determine the number of effective monolayers contributing to the normal and reordered surfaces. These combined measurements were used to characterize the nature of the reordered surface. The general applicability of the PICS technique for investigations of surface and near surface regions is discussed

  19. Light-ion spectroscopy with exotic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Lanier, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the rich and diverse aspects underlying the physics of nuclear structure requires a variety of experimental techniques. In our laboratory, we have concentrated on experimental techniques using light-ion probes and isotopes that are technically difficult to fabricate into targets. In particular, our studies of p-, d-, and t-induced nuclear reactions on the radioactive targets of 152,154 Eu and 148 Gd have illuminated some very specific and very interesting features of nuclear structure near the N = 89 shape-transition region

  20. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, H.; Nielsen, S.K.; Porte, L.

    2006-01-01

    Here we present the first measurements by collective Thomson scattering of the evolution of fast-ion populations in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. 150 kW and 110 Ghz radiation from a gyrotron were scattered in the TEXTOR tokamak plasma with energetic ions generated by neutral beam injection...... and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The temporal behavior of the spatially resolved fast-ion velocity distribution is inferred from the received scattered radiation. The fast-ion dynamics at sawteeth and the slowdown after switch off of auxiliary heating is resolved in time. The latter is shown...

  1. Scattering chamber for the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.D.; Corum, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a 62-in.-diam. general purpose scattering chamber to be used for nuclear research with heavy ions. The detector rotation mechanism is based on large diameter (approx. 58 in.) peripherally driven rings. This leaves the central region open for detectors and other apparatus and permits the use of a perpendicular ring for rotating a detector out of the reaction plane. A precision target slide with provisions for removing the entire slide under vacuum is part of the design. Access and viewing ports on the dished top and in the reaction plane will be provided. Cryogenic pumping will be used to keep the vacuum free from hydrocarbon vapors, water vapor, and oxygen

  2. Energy analyzer for Auger electron spectroscopy and low-energy backscattering ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, S.S.; Gorelik, V.A.; Gutenko, V.T.; Protopopov, O.D.; Trubitsin, A.A.; Shuvalova, Z.A.; Yakushev, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Energy analyzer for electron Auger spectroscopy and low-energy backscattering ion spectroscopy is described. Analyzer presents one-cascade variant of cylindrical mirror with second-order focusing. Energy relative resolution is continuously adjusted within 0.2-1.2% limits. Signal/noise relation by Cu Auger-line at 1 muA current of exciting beam changes upper limit of range 150-450

  3. Ion fractions in the scattering of hydrogen on silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Evelina A.; Gonzalez Pascual, C.; Bolcatto, P.G.; Passeggi, M.C.G.; Goldberg, E.C.

    2005-01-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of the resonant charge-exchange process occurring in H 0 scattering by Si(100)2 x 1 surfaces. In the atom-surface interacting system the core states of the surface atoms are included and the parameters of the Hamiltonian are calculated in an ab initio basis taking into account the extended features of the surface and the localized atom-atom interactions within a mean-field approximation. The density of states of the surface and sub-surface atoms are obtained from a molecular dynamic-density functional theory in the local density approximation. An elastic binary collision is assumed to fix the projectile trajectory, while the inelastic processes are determined by the interaction of the projectile atom with all the surface atoms 'seen' along its trajectory. The ion fractions are calculated by using the Green-Keldysh formalism to solve the time dependent process. The results, obtained as an average over different possibilities for the scattering center, reproduce the general trends of the experiment. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Study of elastic scattering between heavy ions. Reaction channel influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, Hubert.

    1978-01-01

    The role of absorption on the behavior of heavy ion angular distributions and excitaton functions has been investigated on light and medium mass systems. Comparison between 20 Ne+ 12 C and 16 O+ 16 O systems which lead to the same compound nucleus, shows that it originates from the direct channels strongly coupled to the entrance channel. Structures in the excitation functions occur for almost all the light systems and it is shown that the damping observed for heavier systems such as 40 Ca+ 40 Ca, essentially results on the predominance of Coulomb effects which hide the nuclear structure effects. Thus no valuable information on the details of S-matrix can be extracted for such an heavy system. A coherent description of the elastic scattering, based on a splitting of the scattering amplitude into two components, the modulus of each component varying smoothly as a function of energy and angle. The interference between these sub-amplitudes give rise to interference effects in angular distributions and excitation functions. The study of the main reaction channels of the 40 Ca+ 40 Ca system - i.e. deep inelastic reactions and fusion - also shows that the closed-shell nature of the interacting nuclei does not play any role in these processes due to the excitation processes in the first stage of the reactions which destroy the specific structure of the nuclei [fr

  5. Scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy: I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J S; Jagadish, C; Jamieson, D N; Legge, G J F

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of a new technique for the MeV ion microbeam are described in detail for the first time. The basis of the technique, termed scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy (SIDLTS), is the imaging of defect distributions within semiconductor devices. The principles of SIDLTS are similar to those behind other deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques with the main difference stemming from the injection of carriers into traps using the localized energy-loss of a focused MeV ion beam. Energy-loss of an MeV ion generates an electron-hole pair plasma, providing the equivalent of a DLTS trap filling pulse with a duration which depends on space-charge screening of the applied electric field and ambipolar erosion of the plasma for short ranging ions. Some nanoseconds later, the detrapping current transient is monitored as a charge transient. Scanning the beam in conjunction with transient analysis allows the imaging of defect levels. As with DLTS, the temperature dependence of the transient can be used to extract trap activation levels. In this, the first of a two-part paper, we introduce the various stages of corner capture and derive a simple expression for the observed charge transient. The second paper will illustrate the technique on a MeV ion implanted Au-Si Schottky junction

  6. Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of radium ions

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the neutron-deficient radium isotopes with high-resolution collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. Probing the hyperfine structure of the $7{s}\\,^2\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{1/2}$ and $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transitions in Ra II will provide atomic-structure measurements that have not been achieved for $^{{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the $7{s}\\,^{2}\\!{S}\\!_{1/2}\\,\\rightarrow\\,7{p}\\,^{2}\\!{P}\\!_{3/2}$ transition in $^{{A}<214}$Ra will allow the spectroscopic quadrupole moments to be directly measured for the first time. In addition, the technique will allow tentative spin assignments to be confirmed and the magnetic dipole moments measured for $^{\\textit{A}<208}$Ra. Measurement of the hyperfine structure (in particular the isotope shifts) of the neutron-deficient radium will provide information to further constrain the nuclear models away from the N=126 shell closure.

  7. Multiple scattering approach to X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benfatto, M.; Wu Ziyu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper authors present the state of the art of the theoretical background needed for analyzing X-ray absorption spectra in the whole energy range. The multiple-scattering (MS) theory is presented in detail with some applications on real systems. Authors also describe recent progress in performing geometrical fitting of the XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) energy region and beyond using a full multiple-scattering approach

  8. Measuring main-ion temperatures in ASDEX upgrade using scattering of ECRH radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak.......We demonstrate that collective Thomson scattering of millimeter wave electron cyclotron resonance heating radiation can be used for measurements of the main-ion temperature in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak....

  9. Stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy: An alternative to laser-rf double resonance for ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.; Dinneen, T.; Mansour, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy is presented as an alternative to laser-rf double resonance for obtaining high-precision measurements in ion beams. By use of a single-phase modulated laser beam to derive the two required fields, the laser--ion-beam alignment is significantly simplified. In addition, this method is especially useful in the low-frequency regime where the laser-rf double-resonance method encounters difficulties due to modifications of the ion-beam velocity distribution. These modifications, which result from interaction with the traveling rf wave used to induce magnetic dipole transitions, are observed and quantitatively modeled

  10. Negative-Ion source for mass selective photodetachment photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaesmaier, R.; Baemann, C.; Drechsler, G.; Boesl, U.

    1995-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a negative ion source for mass spectrometry and mass selective photodetachement photoelectron spectroscopy. The characteristics of the source are high anion densities and a large variety of accessible systems. Thus, mass spectra and photoelectron spectra of large unvolatile moelcules (biomolecules), of metal-organic compounds and of molecule water clusters, especially mentioned in this article, have been measured. Combining mass spectrometry, photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and high resolution ZEKE (zero kinetic energy)-PES (1) should make the apparatus to an ideal diagnostic tool for structural assignment

  11. Charge exchange spectroscopy as a fast ion diagnostic on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delabie, E.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Nielsen, S. K.; Marchuk, O.

    2008-01-01

    An upgraded charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic has been taken into operation at the TEXTOR tokamak. The angles of the viewing lines with the toroidal magnetic field are close to the pitch angles at birth of fast ions injected by one of the neutral beam injectors. Using another neutral beam for active spectroscopy, injected counter the direction in which fast ions injected by the first beam are circulating, we can simultaneously measure a fast ion tail on the blue wing of the D α spectrum while the beam emission spectrum is Doppler shifted to the red wing. An analysis combining the two parts of the spectrum offers possibilities to improve the accuracy of the absolute (fast) ion density profiles. Fast beam modulation or passive viewing lines cannot be used for background subtraction on this diagnostic setup and therefore the background has to be modeled and fitted to the data together with a spectral model for the slowing down feature. The analysis of the fast ion D α spectrum obtained with the new diagnostic is discussed.

  12. Multiple Scattering Theory for Spectroscopies : a Guide to Multiple Scattering Computer Codes : Dedicated to C. R. Natoli on the Occasion of his 75th Birthday

    CERN Document Server

    Hatada, Keisuke; Ebert, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    This edited book, based on material presented at the EU Spec Training School on Multiple Scattering Codes and the following MSNano Conference, is divided into two distinct parts. The first part, subtitled “basic knowledge”, provides the basics of the multiple scattering description in spectroscopies, enabling readers to understand the physics behind the various multiple scattering codes available for modelling spectroscopies. The second part, “extended knowledge”, presents “state- of-the-art” short chapters on specific subjects associated with improving of the actual description of spectroscopies within the multiple scattering formalism, such as inelastic processes, or precise examples of modelling.

  13. Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2018-04-01

    Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.

  14. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion: Atom collisions. Technical progress report, 1 September 1991--31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the progress made on the research objectives during the past three years of the grant. This research project is designed to study various scattering processes which occur in H - collisions with atomic (specifically, noble gas and atomic hydrogen) targets in the intermediate energy region. These processes include: elastic scattering, single- and double-electron detachment, and target excitation/ionization. For the elastic and target inelastic processes where H - is scattered intact, the experimental technique of Ion Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (IELS) will be employed to identify the final target state(s). In most of the above processes, cross sections are unknown both experimentally and theoretically. The measurements will provide total cross sections (TCS) initially, and once the angular positioning apparatus is installed, will provide angular differential cross sections (ADCS)

  15. Photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals, clusters, and ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeon [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    The photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals and ions is studied to characterize the dissociative electronic states in these species. To accomplish this, a special method of radical production, based on the photodetachment of the corresponding negative ion, has been combined with the technique of fast beam photofragment translational spectroscopy. The photofragment yield as a function of photon energy is obtained, mapping out the dissociative and predissociative electronic states. Branching ratios to various product channels, the translational energy distributions of the fragments, and bond dissociation energies are then determined at selected photon energies. The detailed picture of photodissociation dynamics is provided with the aid of ab initio calculations and a statistical model to interpret the observed data. Important reaction intermediates in combustion reactions have been studied: CCO, C2H5O, and linear Cn (n = 4--6).

  16. Predicted precision of ion temperature and impurity fractional density measurements using the JET collective scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsitto, F.

    1992-11-01

    In a previous investigation the possibility of measuring the bulk ion temperature was considered in detail, in the context of the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic for fast ions and alpha particles in the Joint European Torus project. In this report we give an affirmative answer to the question of whether good precision can be obtained in the simultaneous determination of the temperatures and densities of plasma ions from a collective scattering experiment provided some conditions are satisfied. (Author)

  17. Electron emission induced by resonant coherent interaction in ion-surface scattering at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.; Ponce, V.H.; Echenique, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The resonant coherent interaction of an ion with an oriented crystal surface, under grazing-incidence conditions with respect to a special direction of the crystal, gives rise to electron loss to the continuum from electronic bound states of the ion. The calculations presented below predict large probabilities for electron emission due to this mechanism. The electrons are emitted with well defined energies, expressed in terms of the condition of resonance. Furthermore, the emission takes place around certain preferential directions, which are determined by both the latter condition and the symmetry of the surface lattice. Our calculations for MeV He + ions scattered at a W(001) surface along the left-angle 100 right-angle direction with glancing angle of 0--2 mrad indicate a yield of emission close to 1. Using heavier projectiles, one obtains smaller yields, but still large enough to be measurable in some cases (e.g., ∼0.9 for 53 MeV B 4+ and an angle of incidence of 1 mrad). Besides, the initial bound state is energy shifted due to the interaction with both the crystal potential and the velocity-dependent image potential. This results in a slight shift of the peaks of emission, which suggests a possible spectroscopy for analyzing the dynamical interaction of electronic bound states with solid surfaces

  18. Mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy investigation of Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2(100) and (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, G.S.; Henderson, M.A.; Starkweather, K.A.; McDaniel, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the (100) and (110) surfaces of yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 using Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction (LEED), direct recoil spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (MSRI), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The concentration of yttrium at the surface was weakly influenced by the surface structure under the experimental conditions investigated. Both MSRI and SIMS indicated a more enhanced yttrium signal than zirconium signal at the surface compared to the respective bulk concentrations. The surfaces were not very well ordered as indicated by LEED. The yttria-stabilized cubic ZrO 2 single crystal surfaces may not be a suitable model material for pure phase ZrO 2 surfaces due to significant yttria concentrations at the surface. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  19. Physics of the ion acoustic wave driven by the stimulated Brillouin scattering instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The ion acoustic wave excited in the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability is probed via collective ruby-laser Thomson scattering in order to understand the low saturation level observed in the instability. Many of the features observed in the Brillouin backscattered CO 2 laser light from the underdense gas-target plasma are also observed in the Thomson scattered ruby light - from which it is learned that the ion acoustic wave grows exponentially and then saturates as the CO 2 pump power is increased. The primary advantage of the ruby Thomson scattering diagnostic is in its capability of providing simultaneous space and time resolved measurements of the ion wave amplitude. From these first such detailed measurements, it was found that the ion wave grows exponentially in space at a rate that agrees with the linear convective SBS theory. However, at higher pump powers, the ion wave saturates at an inferred amplitude of anti-n/n 0 approx. = 5 to 10%. Further increases in the pump power appear to result in an increase in the length over which the ion wave is saturated. A nearly constant SBS reflectivity in this saturated regime, however, suggests that the saturated ion wave does not contribute as much to the scattered power as would be expected from Bragg scattering theory. This apparent contradiction can be resolved if ion trapping is responsible for the saturation of the ion wave

  20. Rydberg Molecules for Ion-Atom Scattering in the Ultracold Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T; Veit, C; Zuber, N; Löw, R; Pfau, T; Tarana, M; Tomza, M

    2018-04-13

    We propose a novel experimental method to extend the investigation of ion-atom collisions from the so far studied cold, essentially classical regime to the ultracold, quantum regime. The key aspect of this method is the use of Rydberg molecules to initialize the ultracold ion-atom scattering event. We exemplify the proposed method with the lithium ion-atom system, for which we present simulations of how the initial Rydberg molecule wave function, freed by photoionization, evolves in the presence of the ion-atom scattering potential. We predict bounds for the ion-atom scattering length from ab initio calculations of the interaction potential. We demonstrate that, in the predicted bounds, the scattering length can be experimentally determined from the velocity of the scattered wave packet in the case of ^{6}Li^{+}-^{6}Li and from the molecular ion fraction in the case of ^{7}Li^{+}-^{7}Li. The proposed method to utilize Rydberg molecules for ultracold ion-atom scattering, here particularized for the lithium ion-atom system, is readily applicable to other ion-atom systems as well.

  1. Process control with optical emission spectroscopy in triode ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmenoja, K.; Korhonen, A.S.; Sulonen, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques used to prepare, e.g., hard TiN, HfN, or ZrN coatings include a great variety of processes ranging from reactive evaporation to sputtering and ion plating. In ion plating one effective way to enhance ionization is to use a negatively biased hot filament. The use of an electron emitting filament brings an extra variable to be taken into account in developing the process control. In addition, proper control of the evaporation source is critical in ensuring reproducible results. With optical emission spectroscopy (OES) it should be possible to control the coating process more accurately. The stoichiometry and the composition of the growing coating may then be ensured effectively in subsequent runs. In this work the application of optical emission spectroscopy for process control in triode ion plating is discussed. The composition of the growing coating is determined experimentally using the relative intensities of specific emission lines. Changes in the evaporation rate and the gas flow can be seen directly from emission line intensities. Even the so-called poisoning of the evaporation source with reactive gas can be detected. Several experimental runs were carried out and afterwards the concentration profiles of the deposited coatings were checked with the nuclear resonance broadening (NRB) method. The results show the usefulness of emission spectroscopy in discharge control

  2. Uncharted Frontiers in the Spectroscopy of Highly Charged Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Beiersdorfer, P; Crespo, J; Kim, S H; Neill, P; Utter, S; Widmann, K

    2000-01-01

    The development of novel techniques is critical for maintaining a state-of-the-art core competency in atomic physics and readiness for evolving programmatic needs. We have carried out a three-year effort to develop novel spectroscopic instrumentation that added new dimensions to our capabilities for measuring energy levels, radiative transition probabilities, and electron-ion excitation processes. The new capabilities created were in areas that heretofore had been inaccessible to scientific scrutiny and included high-resolution spectroscopy of hard x rays, femtosecond lifetime measurements, measurements of transition probabilities of long-lived metastable levels, polarization spectroscopy, ultra-precise determinations of energy levels, and the establishment of absolute wavelength standards in x-ray spectroscopy. Instrumentation developed during the period included a transmission-type crystal spectrometer, a flat-field EUV spectrometer, and the development and deployment of absolutely calibrated monolithic cry...

  3. Resonating rays in ion-ion scattering from an optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhan, A.R.; Stoyanov, B.J.; Nagl, A.; Uberall, H.; de Llano, M.

    1986-01-01

    The amplitude of ion-ion scattering, described, e.g., by an optical potential, separates into a ''surface-wave'' part (which, as shown before, may give rise to resonances) and a ''geometrical-ray'' part. The amplitude as alternately expressed here by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation resolves into an externally reflected ''barrier wave'' and into ''internal'' or ''penetrating rays'' that undergo an internal reflection together with possible additional multiple reflections. Our numerical calculations show that resonances also occur in the penetrating rays, which take place when a characteristic equation is satisfied. The geometrical meaning of the latter is determined by the optical path length of penetration being an integer multiple of π, plus a 1/2π caustic phase jump, and an extra phase shift due to barrier penetration

  4. Dynamics of fast ions during sawtooth oscillations in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Salewski, Mirko; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigations of sawteeth interaction with fast ions measured by collective Thomson scattering on TEXTOR are presented. Time-resolved measurements of localized 1D fast-ion distribution functions allow us to study fast-ion dynamics during several sawtooth cycles. Sawtooth oscillation...

  5. Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy of SeO-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coe, J.V.; Snodgrass, J.T.; Freidhoff, C.B.; McHugh, K.M.; Bowen, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy (NIPES) involves a kinetic energy analysis of electrons which are photodetached when a mass selected beam of negative ions is crossed with a fixed frequency laser beam. The photodetachment spectra of SeO - displays transitions from the X 2 PI state of SeO - to both the X 3 Σ - and a 1 Δ states of SeO. The singlet-triplet splitting of SeO is readily observable since selection rules regarding spin do not apply in the bound to free state process of photodetachment. The electron affinity of SeO and the negative ion potential parameters of SeO - have been determined

  6. DETERMINATION OF THE THERMODYNAMICS OF β-LACTOGLOBULIN AGGREGATION USING ULTRA VIOLET LIGHT SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Belton, Daniel; Austerberry, James

    2018-01-01

    The problem of protein aggregation is widely studied across a number of disciplines, where understanding the behaviour of the protein monomer, and its behaviour with co-solutes is imperative in order to devise solutions to the problem. Here we present a method for measuring the kinetics of protein aggregation based on ultra violet light scattering spectroscopy (UVLSS) across a range of NaCl conditions. Through measurement of wavelength dependant scattering and using the model protein β-lactog...

  7. Inelastic light scattering spectroscopy of semiconductor nitride nanocolumns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, J.M.; Lazic, S.; Sanchez-Paramo, J. [Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Rueda, F. [Materials Science Institute of Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Cerutti, L.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J.; Calleja, E. [ISOM and Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, ETSIT, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Trampert, A.; Jahn, U. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    A review of inelastic light scattering measurements on group III-nitride nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. The nanocolumns are hexagonal, high quality single crystals with diameters in the range of 20 to 100 nm, with no traces of extended defects. GaN nanocolumns grown on bare Si substrates with both (111) and (100) orientation display narrow phonon peaks, indicating the absence of strain inhomogeneities. This opens the possibility of efficient integration of the nanocolumns as optoelectronic devices with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the E{sub 2} phonon frequency on AlGaN nanocolumns indicate a linear dependence of the Al concentration on the Al relative flux, up to 60%. The E{sub 2} peak width increases with Al content due to phonon damping by alloy scattering. Inelastic light scattering measurements in InN nanocolumns display a coupled LO phonon-plasmon mode together with uncoupled phonons. The coupled mode is not observed in a reference compact sample. The origin of the coupled mode is attributed to spontaneous accumulation of electrons at the lateral surfaces of the nanocolumns. The presence of free electrons in the nanocolumns is confirmed by infrared reflectance measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Inelastic light scattering spectroscopy of semiconductor nitride nanocolumns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, J.M.; Lazic, S.; Sanchez-Paramo, J.; Agullo-Rueda, F.; Cerutti, L.; Ristic, J.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Sanchez-Garcia, M.A.; Grandal, J.; Calleja, E.; Trampert, A.; Jahn, U.

    2007-01-01

    A review of inelastic light scattering measurements on group III-nitride nanocolumns grown by molecular beam epitaxy is presented. The nanocolumns are hexagonal, high quality single crystals with diameters in the range of 20 to 100 nm, with no traces of extended defects. GaN nanocolumns grown on bare Si substrates with both (111) and (100) orientation display narrow phonon peaks, indicating the absence of strain inhomogeneities. This opens the possibility of efficient integration of the nanocolumns as optoelectronic devices with the complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Measurements of the E 2 phonon frequency on AlGaN nanocolumns indicate a linear dependence of the Al concentration on the Al relative flux, up to 60%. The E 2 peak width increases with Al content due to phonon damping by alloy scattering. Inelastic light scattering measurements in InN nanocolumns display a coupled LO phonon-plasmon mode together with uncoupled phonons. The coupled mode is not observed in a reference compact sample. The origin of the coupled mode is attributed to spontaneous accumulation of electrons at the lateral surfaces of the nanocolumns. The presence of free electrons in the nanocolumns is confirmed by infrared reflectance measurements. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. On the algebraic scattering theory for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.; Kiedeldey, H.; Morrison, I.; Allen, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Algebraic potentials from SO(3,1) and SO(3,2) representations of scattering functions are deduced by matching to scattering functions obtained by fitting 12 C- 12 C elastic scattering differential cross-sections. Their variations with energy suggest a simple mapping between algebraic and coordinate space interactions. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Cytosine Radical Cations: A Gas-Phase Study Combining IRMPD Spectroscopy, UVPD Spectroscopy, Ion-Molecule Reactions, and Theoretical Calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lesslie, M.; Lawler, J. T.; Dang, A.; Korn, J. A.; Bím, Daniel; Steinmetz, V.; Maitre, P.; Tureček, F.; Ryzhov, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 10 (2017), s. 1293-1301 ISSN 1439-4235 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ion-molecule reactions * IRMPD spectroscopy * nucleobases * radical ions * UVPD spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.075, year: 2016

  11. Principles of fuel ion ratio measurements in fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    ratio. Measurements of the fuel ion ratio will be important for plasma control and machine protection in future experiments with burning fusion plasmas. Here we examine the theoretical basis for fuel ion ratio measurements by CTS. We show that the sensitivity to plasma composition is enhanced......For certain scattering geometries collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements are sensitive to the composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. CTS therefore holds the potential to become a new diagnostic for measurements of the fuel ion ratio—i.e. the tritium to deuterium density...... by the signatures of ion cyclotron motion and ion Bernstein waves which appear for scattering geometries with resolved wave vectors near perpendicular to the magnetic field. We investigate the origin and properties of these features in CTS spectra and give estimates of their relative importance for fuel ion ratio...

  12. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradforth, Stephen Edmund [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound {yields} bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN-, NCO- and NCS-. Transition state photoelectron spectra are presented for the following systems Br + HI, Cl + HI, F + HI, F + CH30H,F + C2H5OH,F + OH and F + H2. A time dependent framework for the simulation and interpretation of the bound → free transition state photoelectron spectra is subsequently developed and applied to the hydrogen transfer reactions Br + HI, F + OH → O(3P, 1D) + HF and F + H2. The theoretical approach for the simulations is a fully quantum-mechanical wave packet propagation on a collinear model reaction potential surface. The connection between the wavepacket time evolution and the photoelectron spectrum is given by the time autocorrelation function. For the benchmark F + H2 system, comparisons with three-dimensional quantum calculations are made.

  13. Bimolecular reaction dynamics from photoelectron spectroscopy of negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradforth, S.E.

    1992-11-01

    The transition state region of a neutral bimolecular reaction may be experimentally investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy of an appropriate negative ion. The photoelectron spectrum provides information on the spectroscopy and dynamics of the short lived transition state and may be used to develop model potential energy surfaces that are semi-quantitative in this important region. The principles of bound → bound negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy are illustrated by way of an example: a full analysis of the photoelectron bands of CN - , NCO - and NCS - . Transition state photoelectron spectra are presented for the following systems Br + HI, Cl + HI, F + HI, F + CH 3 0H,F + C 2 H 5 OH,F + OH and F + H 2 . A time dependent framework for the simulation and interpretation of the bound → free transition state photoelectron spectra is subsequently developed and applied to the hydrogen transfer reactions Br + HI, F + OH → O( 3 P, 1 D) + HF and F + H 2 . The theoretical approach for the simulations is a fully quantum-mechanical wave packet propagation on a collinear model reaction potential surface. The connection between the wavepacket time evolution and the photoelectron spectrum is given by the time autocorrelation function. For the benchmark F + H 2 system, comparisons with three-dimensional quantum calculations are made

  14. Coherent scattering of CO2 light from ion-acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peratt, A.L.; Watterson, R.L.; Derfler, H.

    1977-01-01

    Scattering of laser radiation from ion-acoustic waves in a plasma is investigated analytically and experimentally. The formulation predicts a coherent component of the scattered power on a largely incoherent background spectrum when the acoustic analog of Bragg's law and Doppler shift conditions are satisfied. The experiment consists of a hybrid CO 2 laser system capable of either low power continuous wave or high power pulsed mode operation. A heterodyne light mixing scheme is used to detect the scattered power. The proportionality predicted by the theory is verified by scattering from externally excited acoustic and ion-acoustic waves; continuous wave and pulsed modes in each case. Measurement of the ion-acoustic dispersion relation by continuous wave scattering is also presented

  15. Optimalization study for ion-temperature measurements by means of Rutherford scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donne, A.J.H.; Barbian, E.P.

    1986-03-01

    Small-angle Rutherford scattering of energetic neutrals by plasma ions is governed by energy and momentum conservation. The FWHM of the scattering distibution reveals the ion temperature of the plasma. A feasibility study is performed to optimize the parameters in case Rutherford-scattering technique is applied to a medium-sized tokamak experiment. Together with a time-of-flight analyser with a high energy resolution of about 100, a 20 keV helium probing beam with a neutral current density of 10 A/m 2 can provide a detailed spectrum within 3 ms, from which the ion temperature can be extracted with an accuracy of better than 10%. The influence of plasma impurities and resonant charge exchange on the scattering process is discussed in detail. The good spatial resolution makes the method very suitable to investigate energy deposition profiles in the case of ion-cyclotron radiation applied to the plasma for the purpose of plasma heating. (orig.)

  16. Spectroscopy of scattered light for the characterization of micro and nanoscale objects in biology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Qiu, Le; Itzkan, Irving; Novikov, Andrei A; Kotelev, Mikhail S; Getmanskiy, Michael; Vinokurov, Vladimir A; Muradov, Alexander V; Perelman, Lev T

    2014-01-01

    The biomedical uses for the spectroscopy of scattered light by micro and nanoscale objects can broadly be classified into two areas. The first, often called light scattering spectroscopy (LSS), deals with light scattered by dielectric particles, such as cellular and sub-cellular organelles, and is employed to measure their size or other physical characteristics. Examples include the use of LSS to measure the size distributions of nuclei or mitochondria. The native contrast that is achieved with LSS can serve as a non-invasive diagnostic and scientific tool. The other area for the use of the spectroscopy of scattered light in biology and medicine involves using conducting metal nanoparticles to obtain either contrast or electric field enhancement through the effect of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Gold and silver metal nanoparticles are non-toxic, they do not photobleach, are relatively inexpensive, are wavelength-tunable, and can be labeled with antibodies. This makes them very promising candidates for spectrally encoded molecular imaging. Metal nanoparticles can also serve as electric field enhancers of Raman signals. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful method for detecting and identifying molecules down to single molecule concentrations. In this review, we will concentrate on the common physical principles, which allow one to understand these apparently different areas using similar physical and mathematical approaches. We will also describe the major advancements in each of these areas, as well as some of the exciting recent developments.

  17. Characterizing aging effects of lithium ion batteries by impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troeltzsch, Uwe; Kanoun, Olfa; Traenkler, Hans-Rolf

    2006-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for characterizing aging effects of portable secondary batteries online because it provides information about different aging mechanisms. However, application of impedance spectroscopy 'in the field' has some higher requirements than for laboratory experiments. It requires a fast impedance measurement process, an accurate model applicable with several batteries and a robust method for model parameter estimation. In this paper, we present a method measuring impedance at different frequencies simultaneously. We propose to use a composite electrode model, capable to describe porous composite electrode materials. A hybrid method for parameter estimation based on a combination of evolution strategy and Levenberg-Marquardt method allowed a robust and fast parameter calculation. Based on this approach, an experimental investigation of aging effects of a lithium ion battery was carried out. After 230 discharge/charge cycles, the battery showed a 14% decreased capacity. Modeling results show that series resistance, charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient changed thereby their values by approximately 60%. A single frequency impedance measurement, usually carried out at 1 kHz, delivers only information about series resistance. Impedance spectroscopy allows additionally the estimation of charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient. This fact and the high sensitivity of model parameters to capacity change prove that impedance spectroscopy together with an accurate modeling deliver information that significantly improve characterization of aging effects

  18. Characterizing aging effects of lithium ion batteries by impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troeltzsch, Uwe [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)]. E-mail: uwe.troeltzsch@unibw-muenchen.de; Kanoun, Olfa [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Traenkler, Hans-Rolf [University of the Bundeswehr Munich Institute for Measurement and Automation, 85579 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2006-01-20

    Impedance spectroscopy is one of the most promising methods for characterizing aging effects of portable secondary batteries online because it provides information about different aging mechanisms. However, application of impedance spectroscopy 'in the field' has some higher requirements than for laboratory experiments. It requires a fast impedance measurement process, an accurate model applicable with several batteries and a robust method for model parameter estimation. In this paper, we present a method measuring impedance at different frequencies simultaneously. We propose to use a composite electrode model, capable to describe porous composite electrode materials. A hybrid method for parameter estimation based on a combination of evolution strategy and Levenberg-Marquardt method allowed a robust and fast parameter calculation. Based on this approach, an experimental investigation of aging effects of a lithium ion battery was carried out. After 230 discharge/charge cycles, the battery showed a 14% decreased capacity. Modeling results show that series resistance, charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient changed thereby their values by approximately 60%. A single frequency impedance measurement, usually carried out at 1 kHz, delivers only information about series resistance. Impedance spectroscopy allows additionally the estimation of charge transfer resistance and Warburg coefficient. This fact and the high sensitivity of model parameters to capacity change prove that impedance spectroscopy together with an accurate modeling deliver information that significantly improve characterization of aging effects.

  19. Characterization of solar cell materials by Proton Back Scattering Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joynal Abedin, M.; Fazlul Hoque, A.K.M.; Firoz Hasan, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The need for accurate chemical characterization of samples specially related to electronic and solar cell materials has assumed increasing importance in recent years. The importance of the study of the surfaces of materials of different origin also increased in recent years to a great extent. This need has created a worldwide spurt to develop rapid, accurate and sensitive tools for the characterization of materials. In recent years the proton backscattering spectrometry (PBS) method has been recognized as one of the useful analytical tool in several applications of material analysis and technology. The lack of information of the relevant scattering cross sections as a function of proton energy and the problems arising in conventional data analysis have so far rendered proton backscattering analysis of multielemental samples difficult at low energies. On the other hand advances in the computer evaluation of experimental data have, however, made it possible to utilize low-MeV protons as a sensitive probe for light elements in the μm range. The benefits of the method in comparison to alpha particle backscattering include the relatively higher non-Rutherford scattering cross sections of the light elements and to the lower proton stopping in the target material. These lead to higher sensitivity in detecting and profiling light elements in heavy targets and to significantly larger accessible depths and smaller straggling than with alpha particles. Research works on the development of methodologies of Proton Backscattering Spectrometry (PBS) for the analysis of thin films and surfaces has been in progress in the 3 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator facilities of Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka for some years. The PBS system comprises a target chamber with appropriate sample holders and a Surface Barrier Detector (SBD) with the associated electronics for data acquisition and reduction. For the evaluation of the PBS data RBS Universal Master Package, RUMP has been installed in the

  20. In vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Matthew Allen

    This thesis research presents the development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for distinguishing between skin cancer, moles, and normal skin using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy. Polarized light incident on the skin is single scattered by the epidermal layer and multiple scattered by the dermal layer. The epidermal light maintains its initial polarization while the light from the dermal layer becomes randomized and multiple scattered. Mie theory was used to model the epidermal light as the scattering from the intercellular organelles. The dermal signal was modeled as the diffusion of light through a localized semi-homogeneous volume. These models were confirmed using skin phantom experiments, studied with in vitro cell cultures, and applied to human skin for in vivo testing. A CCD-based spectroscopy system was developed to perform all these experiments. The probe and the theory were tested on skin phantoms of latex spheres on top of a solid phantom. We next extended our phantom study to include in vitro cells on top of the solid phantom. Optical fluorescent microscope images revealed at least four distinct scatterers including mitochondria, nucleoli, nuclei, and cell membranes. Single scattering measurements on the mammalian cells consistently produced PSD's in the size range of the mitochondria. The clinical portion of the study consisted of in vivo measurements on cancer, mole, and normal skin spots. The clinical study combined the single scattering model from the phantom and in vitro cell studies with the diffusion model for multiple scattered light. When parameters from both layers were combined, we found that a sensitivity of 100% and 77% can be obtained for detecting cancers and moles, respectively, given the number of lesions examined.

  1. An RF ion source based primary ion gun for secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Ranjini; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present the design, development and characterization of an RF plasma based ion gun as a primary ion gun for SIMS application. RF ion sources, in particular Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) ion sources are superior compared to LMIS and duoplasmtron ion sources since they are filamentless, can produce ions of gaseous elements. At the same time, ICP ion sources offer high angular current density which is an important factor in producing high current in small spot size on the target. These high current microprobes improve the signal to noise ratio by three orders as compared to low current ion sources such as LMIS. In addition, the high current microprobes have higher surface and depth profiling speeds. In this article we describe a simple ion source in its very basic form, two lens optical column and characteristics of microprobe

  2. Hertzian spectroscopy application to excited states in accelerated ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M L

    1974-01-01

    Accelerated ion beams enables the application of optical hertzian spectrometry methods to be extended to research on the excited states of free ionic systems. The photon beat method has proved especially simple to apply in beam foil geometry because of the unidirectional beam velocity while the beam gas device is suitable for experiments of the energy level crossing type. Only the resonance technique involving direct application of high-frequency magnetic fields poses serious problems because of the high HF powers necessary. So far structure intervals have been measured in ions carrying up to three charges (seven in the special case of Lamb shift measurements) with a precision of a few percent. Study of hydrogen-like or helium-like ions of high Z allows the fundamental calculations of quantum electrodynamics to be checked with regard to the Lamb shift or the spontaneous emission theory. In more complex electronic systems, optical spectroscopy of accelerated ion beams gives wavelengths with a resolution reaching 10/sup -5/, lifetimes with an accuracy better than 10% when the cascade effects are properly studied, and Lande factors with a precision of several % under present technical conditions. The photon beat method concerns hyperfine nuclear effects in light atoms of Z < = 20. (FR)

  3. Investigation of metal ions in fusion plasmas using emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tale, I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Latvian and Portugal Associations are performing development of advanced plasma - facing system using the liquid metal limiter. The objectives of this project require study of the influence of the liquid metal limiter on the main plasma parameters, including concentration of evaporated metal atoms in plasma. The fusion plasmas are related to the dense hot plasmas. The required average ion temperature according to the ITER project (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is 8,0 keV (9,3 x 10 7 0 K), the average electron temperature - 8,9 keV (1,04 x 10 8 0 K). Plasma temperature operated in the research tokamak ISSTOK, involved in testing of liquid metal limiter concept is considerably less, being of order of 10 50 K. The ionization degree of metal atoms considerably depends on the plasma ion temperature. Density of metal vapours in plasma can be estimated using the following two spectroscopic methods: The fluorescence of the multiple ionised metal ions in steady state concentration; The charge exchange emission during ionisation of evaporated metal ions. In the first step of development of testing system of metal vapours the equipment and instrumentation for charge exchange spectroscopy of Ga and In has been elaborated taking into account the following features of plasma emission. The Ga emission lines occur on the background high temperature plasma black body emission and stray light. Radial distribution of Ga in plasma in the facing plane of Ga flux is desirable

  4. X-ray Raman spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery electrolyte solutions in a flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketenoglu, Didem; Spiekermann, Georg; Harder, Manuel; Oz, Erdinc; Koz, Cevriye; Yagci, Mehmet C; Yilmaz, Eda; Yin, Zhong; Sahle, Christoph J; Detlefs, Blanka; Yavaş, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    The effects of varying LiPF 6 salt concentration and the presence of lithium bis(oxalate)borate additive on the electronic structure of commonly used lithium-ion battery electrolyte solvents (ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate and propylene carbonate) have been investigated. X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy (a non-resonant inelastic X-ray scattering method) was utilized together with a closed-circle flow cell. Carbon and oxygen K-edges provide characteristic information on the electronic structure of the electrolyte solutions, which are sensitive to local chemistry. Higher Li + ion concentration in the solvent manifests itself as a blue-shift of both the π* feature in the carbon edge and the carbonyl π* feature in the oxygen edge. While these oxygen K-edge results agree with previous soft X-ray absorption studies on LiBF 4 salt concentration in propylene carbonate, carbon K-edge spectra reveal a shift in energy, which can be explained with differing ionic conductivities of the electrolyte solutions.

  5. Charge transfer processes during ion scattering and stimulated desorption of secondary ions from gas-condensed dielectric surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Souda, R

    2002-01-01

    The ion emission mechanism from weakly-interacting solid surfaces has been investigated. The H sup + ion captures a valence electron via transient chemisorption, so that the ion neutralization probability is related to the nature of bonding of adsorbates. The H sup + ion is scattered from physisorbed Ar at any coverage whereas the H sup + yield from solid H sub 2 O decays considerably due to covalency in the hydrogen bond. In electron- and ion-stimulated desorption, the ion ejection probability is correlated intimately with the physisorption/chemisorption of parent atoms or molecules. The emission of F sup + ions is rather exceptional because they arise from the screened F 2s core-hole state followed by the ionization via the intra-atomic Auger decay after bond breakage. In electron-stimulated desorption of H sub 2 O, hydrated protons are emitted effectively from nanoclusters formed on a solid Ar substrate due to Coulomb repulsion between confined valence holes.

  6. The Crossed-Beam Scattering Method in Studies of Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herman, Zdeněk

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 212, - (2001), s. 413-443 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : ion-molecule reaction dynamics * ion scattering * experimental methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2001

  7. Scattering of low energy noble gas ions from a metal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luitjens, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    Reflection of low energy (0.1-10 keV) noble gas ions can be used to analyse a solid surface. To study charge exchange processes, the ion fractions of neon and of argon, scattered from a Cu(100) surface, have been determined. (Auth.)

  8. Measurement of two ion components in a plasma by collective scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasparek, W.; Hirsch, K.; Holzhauer, E.

    With collective laser scattering a clear separation of the ion features of two ion species with large mass ratio was experimentally realized. Furthermore demixing effects in a H 2 /A mixture as well as a temperature difference were observed. (orig.) 891 HT/orig. 892 HIS

  9. Antenna design for fast ion collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Furtula, Vedran; Salewski, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Fast ion physics will play an important role for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), where confined alpha particles will affect and be affected by plasma dynamics and thereby have impacts on the overall confinement. A fast ion collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic...

  10. The scattering of low energy helium ions and atoms from a copper single crystal, ch. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheij, L.K.; Poelsema, B.; Boers, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    The scattering of 4-10 keV helium ions from a copper surface cannot be completely described with elastic, single collisions. The general behaviour of the measured energy and width of the surface peak can be explained by differences in inelastic energy losses for scattering from an ideal surface and from surface structures (damage). Multiple scattering effects have a minor influence. Additional information about the inelastic processes is obtained from scattering experiments with a primary atom beam. For large angles of incidence, the energy of the reflected ions is reduced about 20 eV if the primary beam consists of atoms instead of ions. An explanation of this effect and an explanation of the different behaviour of small angles is given. In the investigated energy range, the electronic stopping power might depend on the charge state of the primary particles. The experimental results are rather well explained by the Lindhard, Scharff, Schioett theory

  11. Secondary relaxation in two engineering thermoplastics by neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Arrese, S; Alegria, A; Colmenero, J; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    We present a preliminary investigation of the dynamics of glassy polycarbonate (PC) and polysulfone (PSF) by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy. Whereas the consideration of pure phenylene ring pi-flips is enough to explain the momentum-transfer (Q) dependence of the inelastic intensity measured for PSF, in the case of PC the Q dependence of both the coherent and the incoherent scattering functions reveal the existence in this polymer of some more complex motion of the phenylene ring. On the other hand, the similarity of the energy landscapes deduced from the different techniques points to a closely related molecular origin for all the relaxation/motions observed. (orig.)

  12. Secondary relaxation in two engineering thermoplastics by neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrese-Igor, S.; Arbe, A.; Alegria, A.; Colmenero, J.; Frick, B.

    2002-01-01

    We present a preliminary investigation of the dynamics of glassy polycarbonate (PC) and polysulfone (PSF) by means of quasielastic neutron scattering and dielectric spectroscopy. Whereas the consideration of pure phenylene ring π-flips is enough to explain the momentum-transfer (Q) dependence of the inelastic intensity measured for PSF, in the case of PC the Q dependence of both the coherent and the incoherent scattering functions reveal the existence in this polymer of some more complex motion of the phenylene ring. On the other hand, the similarity of the energy landscapes deduced from the different techniques points to a closely related molecular origin for all the relaxation/motions observed. (orig.)

  13. Observing Solvation Dynamics with Simultaneous Femtosecond X-ray Emission Spectroscopy and X-ray Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Gawelda, Wojciech; Abela, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    and structural changes, and local solvent structural changes are desired. We have studied the intra- and intermolecular dynamics of a model chromophore, aqueous [Fe(bpy)3]2+, with complementary X-ray tools in a single experiment exploiting intense XFEL radiation as a probe. We monitored the ultrafast structural...... rearrangement of the solute with X-ray emission spectroscopy, thus establishing time zero for the ensuing X-ray diffuse scattering analysis. The simultaneously recorded X-ray diffuse scattering atterns reveal slower subpicosecond dynamics triggered by the intramolecular structural dynamics of the photoexcited...

  14. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-01

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  15. Fast ion dynamics in ASDEX upgrade and TEXTOR measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseev, D.

    2011-11-15

    Fast ions are an essential ingredient in burning nuclear fusion plasmas: they are responsible for heating the bulk plasma, carry a significant amount of plasma current and moreover interact with various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic is sensitive to the projection of fast ion velocity distribution function. This thesis is mainly devoted to investigations of fast ion physics in tokamak plasmas by means of CTS. (Author)

  16. Investigation of triply excited states of Li-like ions in fast ion-atom collisions by zero-degree Auger projectile electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouros, T.J.M.; Benis, E.P.; Zamkov, M.; Lin, C.D.; Lee, T.G.; Richard, P.; Gorczyca, T.W.; Morishita, T.

    2005-01-01

    The production of triply excited states of Li-like systems has recently been extended beyond the lithium atom using two different ion-atom collisional techniques: (a) Triple-electron capture into 2s2p 2 and 2p 3 states of F 6+ formed in fast collisions of bare F 9+ ions with Ar and Kr atoms and (b) 180 deg. resonant scattering of quasi-free electrons of H 2 from the 1s2s 3 S metastable state of He-like B, C, N, O and F ions via the 2s2p 2 2 D resonance. Autoionization energies, decay branching ratios and production cross sections for these states were measured using zero-degree Auger projectile electron spectroscopy and compared to theoretical calculations using hyperspherical close coupling (HSCC) and R-matrix methods

  17. Plasma characterization using ultraviolet Thomson scattering from ion-acoustic and electron plasma waves (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, R. K., E-mail: rfollett@lle.rochester.edu; Delettrez, J. A.; Edgell, D. H.; Henchen, R. J.; Katz, J.; Myatt, J. F.; Froula, D. H. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Collective Thomson scattering is a technique for measuring the plasma conditions in laser-plasma experiments. Simultaneous measurements of ion-acoustic and electron plasma-wave spectra were obtained using a 263.25-nm Thomson-scattering probe beam. A fully reflective collection system was used to record light scattered from electron plasma waves at electron densities greater than 10{sup 21} cm{sup −3}, which produced scattering peaks near 200 nm. An accurate analysis of the experimental Thomson-scattering spectra required accounting for plasma gradients, instrument sensitivity, optical effects, and background radiation. Practical techniques for including these effects when fitting Thomson-scattering spectra are presented and applied to the measured spectra to show the improvements in plasma characterization.

  18. The elastic scattering between heavy ions using Glauber model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmael, E.H.; El-Muhbad, SH.A.

    2002-01-01

    The differential cross sections of the elastic scattering of 1 2 C+ 12 C at energies 1016, 1449 and 2400 MeV and 1 6O +1 2C at energy 1503 MeV are calculated using high energy folding model. An analytical expression for the optical potential is derived. The effect of introducing imaginary phase and the dependence of the ratio of the real to imaginary parts of the forward nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude on the square of momentum transfer are taken into consideration. Two different types of nuclear densities of the projectile and the target nuclei are considered. The considered systems of interaction are studied by using both modified Glauber I and modified Glauber II. The results show that the elastic scattering differential cross section for the considered interacting systems can be satisfactorily reproduced by this model

  19. Angular dispersion and deflection function for heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Zhen; Han Jianlong; Hu Zhengguo; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    The differential cross sections for elastic scattering products of 17 F on 208 Pb have been measured. The angular dispersion plots of ln(dσ/dθ) versus θ 2 are obtained from the angular distribution of the elastic scattering differential cross sections. Systematical analysis on the angular dispersion for the available experimental data indicates that there is an angular dispersion turning angle at forward angular range within the grazing angle. This turning angle can be clarified as nuclear rainbow in classical deflection function. The exotic behaviour of the nuclear rainbow angle offers a new probe to investigate the halo and skin phenomena. (authors)

  20. Ejection of fast recoil atoms from solids under ion bombardment (medium-energy ion scattering by solid surfaces: Pt. 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonoy, A.I.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the third part of our review surface scattering. Part I, which was devoted to the scattering of ions by the surfaces of disordered solids, was published in 1972; Part II, concerning scattering by crystal surfaces, was published in 1974. Since the publication of these reviews the material contained in them has become obsolete in many respects. A more recent account of the status of the problem has been given in a number of studies, including the book by E.S. Mashkova and V.A. Molchanov, Medium-Energy Ion Scattering by Solid Surfaces (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1980), than extended version of which was published by North-Holland in 1985. We note, however, that at the time these reviews were written the study of fast recoil atoms had not been carried out systematically; the problem was studied only as a by-product of surface scattering and sputtering. For this reason, in the above-mentioned works and in other reviews the data relating to recoil atoms were considered only occasionally. In recent years there have appeared a number of works - theoretical, experimental and computer -specially devoted to the study of the ejection of recoil atoms under ion bombardment. A number of interesting effects, which are due to the crystal structure of the target, have been discovered. It therefore, appeared desirable to us to systematize the available material and to present it as Part III of our continuing review. (author)

  1. Heavy ion elastic and quasi-elastic scattering above E/A = 30 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.

    1986-05-01

    At high energy, heavy-ion elastic scattering probes the ion-ion potential in a large domain much inside the strong absorption radius. This results in a more precise determination of the real part of the nuclear potential and a consistent picture of its evolution with energy begins to emerge. It is relatively similar to that observed in light ion scattering. Even if the inelastic angular distributions seem to contain less refractive or interior contribution, coupled channel effects from these states are still important at least up to 20 MeV/n. Heavy-ion induced transfer reactions to discrete states have small cross sections but present a very strong selectivity for states with the highest available spin and could thus provide new and interesting spectroscopic information

  2. Fast Ion Collective Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Søren Bang; Bindslev, Henrik; Furtula, Vedran

    2008-01-01

    In the era of high power and burning plasma fusion experiments with significant populations of fast particles, the diagnosis of fast ion dynamics becomes an important topic. In ITER, populations of fast ions due to ICRH and NBI, as well as fusion born alphas will carry a significant fraction...... of mock-up measurements have brought the design towards a four mirror quasi-optical solution. The development as well as the present design will be presented....

  3. UV Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy of Haloanilinium Ions in a Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Christopher S.; Kirk, Benjamin B.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; O'Hair, Richard. A. J.; Trevitt, Adam J.

    2013-06-01

    UV-vis photodissociation action spectroscopy is becoming increasingly prevalent because of advances in, and commercial availability of, ion trapping technologies and tunable laser sources. This study outlines in detail an instrumental arrangement, combining a commercial ion-trap mass spectrometer and tunable nanosecond pulsed laser source, for performing fully automated photodissociation action spectroscopy on gas-phase ions. The components of the instrumentation are outlined, including the optical and electronic interfacing, in addition to the control software for automating the experiment and performing online analysis of the spectra. To demonstrate the utility of this ensemble, the photodissociation action spectra of 4-chloroanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-iodoanilinium cations are presented and discussed. Multiple photoproducts are detected in each case and the photoproduct yields are followed as a function of laser wavelength. It is shown that the wavelength-dependent partitioning of the halide loss, H loss, and NH3 loss channels can be broadly rationalized in terms of the relative carbon-halide bond dissociation energies and processes of energy redistribution. The photodissociation action spectrum of (phenyl)Ag2 + is compared with a literature spectrum as a further benchmark.

  4. Ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions in lithium imidazolide electrolytes studied by Raman spectroscopy and DFT models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheers, Johan; Niedzicki, Leszek; Zukowska, Grażyna Z; Johansson, Patrik; Wieczorek, Władysław; Jacobsson, Per

    2011-06-21

    Molecular level interactions are of crucial importance for the transport properties and overall performance of ion conducting electrolytes. In this work we explore ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions in liquid and solid polymer electrolytes of lithium 4,5-dicyano-(2-trifluoromethyl)imidazolide (LiTDI)-a promising salt for lithium battery applications-using Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. High concentrations of ion associates are found in LiTDI:acetonitrile electrolytes, the vibrational signatures of which are transferable to PEO-based LiTDI electrolytes. The origins of the spectroscopic changes are interpreted by comparing experimental spectra with simulated Raman spectra of model structures. Simple ion pair models in vacuum identify the imidazole nitrogen atom of the TDI anion to be the most important coordination site for Li(+), however, including implicit or explicit solvent effects lead to qualitative changes in the coordination geometry and improved correlation of experimental and simulated Raman spectra. To model larger aggregates, solvent effects are found to be crucial, and we finally suggest possible triplet and dimer ionic structures in the investigated electrolytes. In addition, the effects of introducing water into the electrolytes-via a hydrate form of LiTDI-are discussed.

  5. On velocity space interrogation regions of fast-ion collective Thomson scattering at ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the collective scattering in well-defined regions in velocity space, here dubbed interrogation regions. Since the CTS instrument measures entire spectra of scattered radiation, many different interrogation regions are probed simultaneously. We here give analytic expressions for weight functions describing...... the interrogation regions, and we show typical interrogation regions of the proposed ITER CTS system. The backscattering system with receivers on the low-field side is sensitive to fast ions with pitch |p| = |v/v| ... scattering system with receivers on the high-field side would be sensitive to co- and counter-passing fast ions in narrow interrogation regions with pitch |p| > 0.6–0.8. Additionally, we use weight functions to reconstruct 2D fast-ion distribution functions, given two projected 1D velocity distribution...

  6. Influences of Au ion radiation on microstructure and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of nanoporous copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Zhaoyi; Li, Rui; Liu, Xiongjun; Xu, Chuan; Wang, Hui; Wu, Yuan; Fu, Engang; Lu, Zhaoping

    2018-05-01

    In this work, effects of Au ion irradiation on microstructure and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performance of nanoporous copper (NPC) were investigated. It is found that the microstructure of NPC could be tailored by the ion irradiation dose, i.e., the pore size decreases while the ligament size significantly coarsens with the increase of the irradiation dose. In addition, the SERS enhancement for rhodamine 6G molecules was improved by Au ions irradiation at an appropriate dose. The underlying mechanism of the increase of SERS enhancement resulted from ion irradiation was discussed. Our findings could provide a new way to tune nanoporosity of nanoporous metals and improve their SERS performance.

  7. Rapid-scan Fourier-transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy with heterodyne detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kotaro; Luo, Yizhi; Ideguchi, Takuro; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    High-speed Raman spectroscopy has become increasingly important for analyzing chemical dynamics in real time. To address the need, rapid-scan Fourier-transform coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FT-CARS) spectroscopy has been developed to realize broadband CARS measurements at a scan rate of more than 20,000 scans/s. However, the detection sensitivity of FT-CARS spectroscopy is inherently low due to the limited number of photons detected during each scan. In this Letter, we show our experimental demonstration of enhanced sensitivity in rapid-scan FT-CARS spectroscopy by heterodyne detection. Specifically, we implemented heterodyne detection by superposing the CARS electric field with an external local oscillator (LO) for their interference. The CARS signal was amplified by simply increasing the power of the LO without the need for increasing the incident power onto the sample. Consequently, we achieved enhancement in signal intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio by factors of 39 and 5, respectively, compared to FT-CARS spectroscopy with homodyne detection. The sensitivity-improved rapid-scan FT-CARS spectroscopy is expected to enable the sensitive real-time observation of chemical dynamics in a broad range of settings, such as combustion engines and live biological cells.

  8. Proton polarizing system with Ar-ion laser for p-vector-RI scattering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakui, T.; Hatano, M.; Sakai, H.; Uesaka, T.; Tamii, A.

    2005-01-01

    A proton polarizing system for use in scattering experiments with radioactive isotope beams is described. Protons in a naphthalene crystal doped with pentacene are polarized in a magnetic field of 0.3T at 100K by transferring a large population difference among the photo-excited triplet states of pentacene to the hydrogen nuclei. An Ar-ion laser, which demands minimal maintenance during scattering experiments, is employed to excite the pentacene molecules. A proton polarization of 37% is obtained

  9. Raman scattering studies of mobile ions in superionic conductor hollandites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Y.; Suemoto, T.; Ishigame, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Raman spectra of the superionic conductors K/sub 1.6/Mg/sub 0.8/Ti/sub 7.2/O 16 , Cs/sub 1.2/Mg/sub 0.6/Ti/sub 7.4/O 16 , and (KTl)/sub 1.6/Mg/sub 0.8/Ti/sub 7.2/O 16 are measured in the frequency range from 5 to 1000 cm -1 . In the range from 100 to 1000 cm -1 Raman spectra hardly show alkali ion dependence. On the contrary, in the frequency range from 5 to 100 cm -1 , an additional Raman band is observed. This Raman band shows alkali ion dependence. By using the Frenkel-Kontorova model for the hollandite crystal with the given configuration of the mobile ions, it is found that the dependence of vibrational frequency of mobile ions with kinds of alkali ion is well explained and that the concept of 'super unit cell' that is introduced by Beyeler is very useful to explain the Raman bands which are observed below 100 cm -1 in hollandite crystals. (author)

  10. Closure approximation to the absorptive potential in heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinh Mau, N.

    1986-02-01

    We propose a simple model which is based on the Feshbach's theory of optical potential. The use of closure relation in both nuclei implies that we implicitly include all possible channels, in particular inelastic scattering and one nucleon transfer processes. The local absorptive potential is calculated at large distances and its energy dependence is studied. The results are compared to other theoretical works and to phenomenological potentials

  11. On the interaction potential in low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chini, T.K.; Ghose, D.

    1989-01-01

    The shadow cones for 998 eV Li + → Ag and 2 keV Na + → Cu are calculated by classical scattering theory using Thomas-Fermi-Moliere potential, universal potential of Ziegler et al. and the Born-Mayer potential. It is found that the Born-Mayer potential with the parameters calculated by Andersen and Sigmund also predicts well the shape of the shadow cones. (orig.)

  12. Multiple scattering of low energy rare gas ions: a comparison of experiment and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiland, W.; Taglauer, E.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    Some aspects of ion scattering below a few keV have been interpreted by multiple scattering. This can partly be simulated by chain or string models, where the single crystal surface is replaced by a chain of atoms. The computer program MARLOWE allows a simulation of solid-ion interaction, which is much closer to reality, e.g. the crystal is three-dimensional, includes lattice vibrations, electronic stopping power, different scattering potentials, etc. It is shown that the energy of the reflected ions as a function of the primary energy, lattice constant, impact angle and scattering angle can be understood within the string model. These results of the string model are confirmed by the MARLOWE calculations. For an interpretation of the measured intensities the simple string model is insufficient, whereas with MARLOWE reasonable agreement with experimental data may be achieved, if the thermal vibrations of the lattice atoms are taken into account. The experimental data include Ne + →Ni, Ne + →Ag and preliminary data on Ne + →W. The screening parameters of the scattering potentials are estimated for these ion-atom combinations. The results allow some conclusions about surface Debye temperatures. (Auth.)

  13. Computer simulation program for medium-energy ion scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoaki

    2016-03-01

    A computer simulation program for ion scattering and its graphical user interface (MEISwin) has been developed. Using this program, researchers have analyzed medium-energy ion scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry at Ritsumeikan University since 1998, and at Rutgers University since 2007. The main features of the program are as follows: (1) stopping power can be chosen from five datasets spanning several decades (from 1977 to 2011), (2) straggling can be chosen from two datasets, (3) spectral shape can be selected as Gaussian or exponentially modified Gaussian, (4) scattering cross sections can be selected as Coulomb or screened, (5) simulations adopt the resonant elastic scattering cross section of 16O(4He, 4He)16O, (6) pileup simulation for RBS spectra is supported, (7) natural and specific isotope abundances are supported, and (8) the charge fraction can be chosen from three patterns (fixed, energy-dependent, and ion fraction with charge-exchange parameters for medium-energy ion scattering). This study demonstrates and discusses the simulations and their results.

  14. Computer simulation program for medium-energy ion scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tomoaki, E-mail: t-nishi@hosei.ac.jp

    2016-03-15

    A computer simulation program for ion scattering and its graphical user interface (MEISwin) has been developed. Using this program, researchers have analyzed medium-energy ion scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry at Ritsumeikan University since 1998, and at Rutgers University since 2007. The main features of the program are as follows: (1) stopping power can be chosen from five datasets spanning several decades (from 1977 to 2011), (2) straggling can be chosen from two datasets, (3) spectral shape can be selected as Gaussian or exponentially modified Gaussian, (4) scattering cross sections can be selected as Coulomb or screened, (5) simulations adopt the resonant elastic scattering cross section of {sup 16}O({sup 4}He, {sup 4}He){sup 16}O, (6) pileup simulation for RBS spectra is supported, (7) natural and specific isotope abundances are supported, and (8) the charge fraction can be chosen from three patterns (fixed, energy-dependent, and ion fraction with charge-exchange parameters for medium-energy ion scattering). This study demonstrates and discusses the simulations and their results.

  15. Stimulated ion Compton scattering instability of whistlers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Shukla, Nitin; Stenflo, L.

    2006-01-01

    The nonlinear interactions between magnetic field-aligned broadband whistler wave packets (hereafter referred to as whistlerons) and ion quasimodes in magnetized plasmas are considered. By treating the whistlerons as quasiparticles, their nonlinear propagation in a slowly varying medium supported by ion quasimode density perturbations is studied. A nonlinear dispersion relation within the framework of the wave-kinetic (for the whistlerons) and Vlasov (for the ion quasimodes) descriptions is derived. The dispersion relation admits a kinetic modulational instability. The growth rate of the latter is presented. The present result can improve our understanding of the nonlinear propagation of incoherent whistlers, which have been frequently observed in the Earth's magnetosphere as well as in laboratory plasmas

  16. Ion mobilities in diatomic gases: measurement versus prediction with non-specular scattering models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriba, Carlos; Hogan, Christopher J

    2013-05-16

    Ion/electrical mobility measurements of nanoparticles and polyatomic ions are typically linked to particle/ion physical properties through either application of the Stokes-Millikan relationship or comparison to mobilities predicted from polyatomic models, which assume that gas molecules scatter specularly and elastically from rigid structural models. However, there is a discrepancy between these approaches; when specular, elastic scattering models (i.e., elastic-hard-sphere scattering, EHSS) are applied to polyatomic models of nanometer-scale ions with finite-sized impinging gas molecules, predictions are in substantial disagreement with the Stokes-Millikan equation. To rectify this discrepancy, we developed and tested a new approach for mobility calculations using polyatomic models in which non-specular (diffuse) and inelastic gas-molecule scattering is considered. Two distinct semiempirical models of gas-molecule scattering from particle surfaces were considered. In the first, which has been traditionally invoked in the study of aerosol nanoparticles, 91% of collisions are diffuse and thermally accommodating, and 9% are specular and elastic. In the second, all collisions are considered to be diffuse and accommodating, but the average speed of the gas molecules reemitted from a particle surface is 8% lower than the mean thermal speed at the particle temperature. Both scattering models attempt to mimic exchange between translational, vibrational, and rotational modes of energy during collision, as would be expected during collision between a nonmonoatomic gas molecule and a nonfrozen particle surface. The mobility calculation procedure was applied considering both hard-sphere potentials between gas molecules and the atoms within a particle and the long-range ion-induced dipole (polarization) potential. Predictions were compared to previous measurements in air near room temperature of multiply charged poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) ions, which range in morphology from

  17. Design of microcomputer-based data acquisition system for the time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, H; Su, C [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering

    1981-07-15

    A microcomputer-based data aquisition system used on a time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer is described. The flight time of 90/sup 0/-scattered ions from target atom determined directly with a 30 MHz crystal-controlled oscillator and its associated circuit. The ion intensity is detected by a channel multiplier, and its output signal pulse is converted from the analog form into digital form by an ADC. Both flight time and ion intensity are stored in the microcomputer.

  18. Design of microcomputer-based data acquisition system for the time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, H.; Su, C.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based data aquisition system used on a time-of-flight ion scattering spectrometer is described. The flight time of 90 0 -scattered ions from target atom determined directly with a 30 MHz crystal-controlled oscillator and its associated circuit. The ion intensity is detected by a channel multiplier, and its output signal pulse is converted from the analog form into digital form by an ADC. Both flight time and ion intensity are stored in the microcomputer. (orig.)

  19. Carbonation of wollastonite(001) competing hydration: microscopic insights from ion spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberto C; Cho, Kyeongjae; Brüner, Philipp; Welle, Alexander; Gerdes, Andreas; Thissen, Peter

    2015-03-04

    In this paper, we report about the influence of the chemical potential of water on the carbonation reaction of wollastonite (CaSiO3) as a model surface of cement and concrete. Total energy calculations based on density functional theory combined with kinetic barrier predictions based on nudge elastic band method show that the exposure of the water-free wollastonite surface to CO2 results in a barrier-less carbonation. CO2 reacts with the surface oxygen and forms carbonate (CO3(2-)) complexes together with a major reconstruction of the surface. The reaction comes to a standstill after one carbonate monolayer has been formed. In case one water monolayer is covering the wollastonite surface, the carbonation is no more barrier-less, yet ending in a localized monolayer. Covered with multilayers of water, the thermodynamic ground state of the wollastonite completely changes due to a metal-proton exchange reaction (also called early stage hydration) and Ca(2+) ions are partially removed from solid phase into the H2O/wollastonite interface. Mobile Ca(2+) reacts again with CO2 and forms carbonate complexes, ending in a delocalized layer. By means of high-resolution time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry images, we confirm that hydration can lead to a partially delocalization of Ca(2+) ions on wollastonite surfaces. Finally, we evaluate the impact of our model surface results by the meaning of low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy combined with careful discussion about the competing reactions of carbonation vs hydration.

  20. Quantitative considerations in medium energy ion scattering depth profiling analysis of nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalm, P.C.; Bailey, P. [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Reading, M.A. [Physics and Materials Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Rossall, A.K. [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Berg, J.A. van den, E-mail: j.vandenberg@hud.ac.uk [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    The high depth resolution capability of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) is becoming increasingly relevant to the characterisation of nanolayers in e.g. microelectronics. In this paper we examine the attainable quantitative accuracy of MEIS depth profiling. Transparent but reliable analytical calculations are used to illustrate what can ultimately be achieved for dilute impurities in a silicon matrix and the significant element-dependence of the depth scale, for instance, is illustrated this way. Furthermore, the signal intensity-to-concentration conversion and its dependence on the depth of scattering is addressed. Notably, deviations from the Rutherford scattering cross section due to screening effects resulting in a non-coulombic interaction potential and the reduction of the yield owing to neutralization of the exiting, backscattered H{sup +} and He{sup +} projectiles are evaluated. The former mainly affects the scattering off heavy target atoms while the latter is most severe for scattering off light target atoms and can be less accurately predicted. However, a pragmatic approach employing an extensive data set of measured ion fractions for both H{sup +} and He{sup +} ions scattered off a range of surfaces, allows its parameterization. This has enabled the combination of both effects, which provides essential information regarding the yield dependence both on the projectile energy and the mass of the scattering atom. Although, absolute quantification, especially when using He{sup +}, may not always be achievable, relative quantification in which the sum of all species in a layer adds up to 100%, is generally possible. This conclusion is supported by the provision of some examples of MEIS derived depth profiles of nanolayers. Finally, the relative benefits of either using H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions are briefly considered.

  1. Coupled-channel analysis for heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Taik.

    1978-01-01

    A method is given to carry out much faster coupled-channel (CC) calculations including the Coulomb excitation. For this purpose, two approximation techniques were used, namely, the WKB approximation of Alder and Pauli, in handling the effects of Coulomb excitation, and the Pade approximation for handling the large partial wave contribution. The formulation of CC calculations based on these two approximations is briefly discussed and some results of numerical calculations are shown for 16 O scattering with 152 Sm at 72 MeV

  2. Effects of configuration mixing in heavy-ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Bondi, M.; Nicoloso, D.; Tropea, S.; Lubian, J.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Linares, R.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Chamon, L.C.; Gasques, L.R.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Cunsolo, A.; De Napoli, M.; Nunes Garcia, V.; Paes, B.; Foti, A.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of configuration mixing on elastic scattering cross section is performed for the system 16 O + 27 Al at 100 MeV. A simple two-state model space, including the 27 Al 5/2 + ground and 5/2 + excited state at 2.73 MeV, is used in the coupled channel equations. The results indicate that even a weak degree of mixing is able to sizeably affect the elastic cross section, determining mainly a damping of Fraunhofer oscillations, as observed in the experiments. (authors)

  3. Calculation of electron scattering on the He+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, I.; McCarthy, I.E.; Wigley, J.; Stelbovics, A.T.

    1993-11-01

    The Convergent Close-Coupling method is applied to the calculation of electron scattering on the ground state of He + . The inclusion of the treatment of the continuum, even below the ionization threshold, significantly reduces the calculated 2S cross section. Generally, it shows good agreement with the measurements of the 2S excitation cross section, though in the vicinity of a few eV near threshold the results are characteristically higher than the experiment. Complete quantitative agreement is obtained with the measurement of the total ionization cross section from threshold to 700 eV. 18 refs., 3 fig

  4. Ions cross-B collisional diffusion and electromagnetic wave scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomchuk, B.P.; Gresillon, D.

    2000-01-01

    The calculation is presented of the averaged quadratic displacement of a collisional charged particle in a magnetic field. This calculation is used to obtain the statistical presentation of the electromagnetic field scattered by these particles. These results extend the previous calculations that were restricted to non-magnetized particles (Ornstein equation, Einstein diffusion, etc.). In addition this calculation foresees effects that are absent of the Ornstein equation: a modulation of the averaged quadratic displacement function at the cyclotron frequency and a maximum of the Cross-B diffusion coefficient when the cyclotron frequency is equal to the collision frequency (Bohm diffusion)

  5. The prospect for fuel ion ratio measurements in ITER by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2012-01-01

    We show that collective Thomson scattering (CTS) holds the potential to become a new diagnostic principle for measurements of the fuel ion ratio, nT/nD, in ITER. Fuel ion ratio measurements will be important for plasma control and machine protection in ITER. Measurements of ion cyclotron structures...... in CTS spectra have been suggested as the basis for a new fuel ion ratio diagnostic which would be well suited for reactor environments and capable of providing spatially resolved measurements in the plasma core. Such measurements were demonstrated in recent experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak. Here we...... conduct a sensitivity study to investigate the potential measurement accuracy of a CTS fuel ion ratio diagnostic on ITER. The study identifies regions of parameter space in which CTS can be expected to provide useful information on plasma composition, and we find that a CTS fuel ion ratio diagnostic could...

  6. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in multiple-scattering environments: an application to biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerussi, Albert E.; Gratton, Enrico; Fantini, Sergio

    1999-07-01

    Over the past few years, there has been significant research activity devoted to the application of fluorescence spectroscopy to strongly scattering media, where photons propagate diffusely. Much of this activity focused on fluorescence as a source of contrast enhancement in optical tomography. Our efforts have emphasized the quantitative recovery of fluorescence parameters for spectroscopy. Using a frequency-domain diffusion-based model, we have successfully recovered the lifetime, the absolute quantum yield, the fluorophore concentration, and the emission spectrum of the fluorophore, as well as the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients at the emission wavelength of the medium in different measurements. In this contribution, we present a sensitive monitor of the binding between ethidium bromide and bovine cells in fresh milk. The spectroscopic contrast was the approximately tenfold increase in the ethidium bromide lifetime upon binding to DNA. The measurement clearly demonstrated that we could quantitatively measure the density of cells in the milk, which is an application vital to the tremendous economic burden of bovine subclinical mastitis detection. Furthermore, we may in principle use the spirit of this technique as a quantitative monitor of the binding of fluorescent drugs inside tissues. This is a first step towards lifetime spectroscopy in tissues.

  7. Signals of strong electronic correlation in ion scattering processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, F.; Gonzalez, C.; Goldberg, E. C.

    2016-05-01

    Previous measurements of neutral atom fractions for S r+ scattered by gold polycrystalline surfaces show a singular dependence with the target temperature. There is still not a theoretical model that can properly describe the magnitude and the temperature dependence of the neutralization probabilities found. Here, we applied a first-principles quantum-mechanical theoretical formalism to describe the time-dependent scattering process. Three different electronic correlation approaches consistent with the system analyzed are used: (i) the spinless approach, where two charge channels are considered (S r0 and S r+ ) and the spin degeneration is neglected; (ii) the infinite-U approach, with the same charge channels (S r0 and S r+ ) but considering the spin degeneration; and (iii) the finite-U approach, where the first ionization and second ionization energy levels are considered very, but finitely, separated. Neutral fraction magnitudes and temperature dependence are better described by the finite-U approach, indicating that e -correlation plays a significant role in charge-transfer processes. However, none of them is able to explain the nonmonotonous temperature dependence experimentally obtained. Here, we suggest that small changes in the surface work function introduced by the target heating, and possibly not detected by experimental standard methods, could be responsible for that singular behavior. Additionally, we apply the same theoretical model using the infinite-U approximation for the Mg-Au system, obtaining an excellent description of the experimental neutral fractions measured.

  8. Infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopic studies of condensed ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, N.Q.; Knidiri, M.

    1975-01-01

    Infrared and Raman spectra of the complex K 5 (UO 2 ) 2 F 9 were recorded in the region 4000 to 80 cm -1 . Factor group analysis was used to classify the internal vibrations of the binuclear ion (UO 2 ) 2 F 9 5- . Infrared and Raman spectra were assigned and splitting of the internal modes of the (UO 2 ) 2 F 9 5- anion interpreted. (author)

  9. Classical-limit S-matrix for heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donangelo, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    An integral representation for the classical limit of the quantum mechanical S-matrix is developed and applied to heavy-ion Coulomb excitation and Coulomb-nuclear interference. The method combines the quantum principle of superposition with exact classical dynamics to describe the projectile-target system. A detailed consideration of the classical trajectories and of the dimensionless parameters that characterize the system is carried out. The results are compared, where possible, to exact quantum mechanical calculations and to conventional semiclassical calculations. It is found that in the case of backscattering the classical limit S-matrix method is able to almost exactly reproduce the quantum-mechanical S-matrix elements, and therefore the transition probabilities, even for projectiles as light as protons. The results also suggest that this approach should be a better approximation for heavy-ion multiple Coulomb excitation than earlier semiclassical methods, due to a more accurate description of the classical orbits in the electromagnetic field of the target nucleus. Calculations using this method indicate that the rotational excitation probabilities in the Coulomb-nuclear interference region should be very sensitive to the details of the potential at the surface of the nucleus, suggesting that heavy-ion rotational excitation could constitute a sensitive probe of the nuclear potential in this region. The application to other problems as well as the present limits of applicability of the formalism are also discussed

  10. Laser spectroscopy and laser ion source development at UNISOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the laser spectroscopy facility at UNISOR will be described. The method of collinear laser-atomic beams interaction is utilized to achieve atomic spectra essentially free of Doppler spreading. Measurement of resonance fluorescence via an efficient fiber-optic light collector is used to observe the atomic excitation by the laser beam. The system has been utilized to measure the atomic lifetime of the 6p 4 Ps/2 0 level in Xe II. In other experiment the relativistic Doppler effect was measured as a test of time dilation. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements have been made for a series of Tl atoms ranging in mass from 187 to 205. Magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments were deduced for several of these isotopes; these quantities and the isotope shifts added greatly to our understanding of nuclear shapes in this transition region. Future directions will focus around more sensitive detection techniques and the development of purer beams in order to enable the study of nuclei farther from stability. The development of a laser ion source which operates in a completely cold mode and utilizes resonant absorption in the ionization process world facilitate the production of ultra-pure atomic beams

  11. Quantum interference in laser spectroscopy of highly charged lithiumlike ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Pedro; Loureiro, Ulisses; Safari, Laleh; Fratini, Filippo; Indelicato, Paul; Stöhlker, Thomas; Santos, José Paulo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the quantum interference induced shifts between energetically close states in highly charged ions, with the energy structure being observed by laser spectroscopy. In this work, we focus on hyperfine states of lithiumlike heavy-Z isotopes and quantify how much quantum interference changes the observed transition frequencies. The process of photon excitation and subsequent photon decay for the transition 2 s →2 p →2 s is implemented with fully relativistic and full-multipole frameworks, which are relevant for such relativistic atomic systems. We consider the isotopes 79+207Pb and 80+209Bi due to experimental interest, as well as other examples of isotopes with lower Z , namely 56+141Pr and 64+165Ho. We conclude that quantum interference can induce shifts up to 11% of the linewidth in the measurable resonances of the considered isotopes, if interference between resonances is neglected. The inclusion of relativity decreases the cross section by 35%, mainly due to the complete retardation form of the electric dipole multipole. However, the contribution of the next higher multipoles (e.g., magnetic quadrupole) to the cross section is negligible. This makes the contribution of relativity and higher-order multipoles to the quantum interference induced shifts a minor effect, even for heavy-Z elements.

  12. Measurements of ion temperature and plasma hydrogenic composition by collective Thomson scattering in neutral beam heated discharges at TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Salewski, Mirko; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2013-01-01

    A method is developed to perform plasma composition and ion temperature measurements across the plasma minor radius in TEXTOR based on ion cyclotron structures in collective Thomson scattering spectra. By gradually moving the scattering volume, we obtain measurements across the outer midplane of ...

  13. Quantal theory of heavy ion scattering in a three-dimensional TDHF model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusson, R.Y.

    1977-01-01

    The fast Fourier transform and the predictor corrector method are used to solve the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. The equations are then used to calculate the electric scattering of heavy ions, concentrating on 16 O + 16 O and 14 N + 12 C

  14. A new computer code for quantitative analysis of low-energy ion scattering data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbos, G; Breeman, M; Boerma, D.O

    We have developed a computer program for the full analysis of low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) data, i.e. an analysis that is equivalent to the full calculation of the three-dimensional trajectories of beam particles through a number of layers in the solid, and ending in the detector. A dedicated

  15. Application of one body dissipation to deep inelastic heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, F.; Blocki, J.; Dworzecka, M.; Wolschin, G.

    1978-01-01

    The one body dissipation mechanism is employed to couple the relative motion of two heavy ions to the internal degrees of freedom. Trajectories, energy and angular momentum losses are calculated, and compared with experimental data on deep inelastic scattering. (orig.) [de

  16. Influence of compaction and surface roughness on low-energy ion scattering signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.P.A.; Knoester, A.; Maas, A.J.H.; Schmit, P.; Kytökivi, A.; Denier van der Gon, A.W.; Brongersma, H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation of the surface composition of powders often requires compaction. To study the effect of compaction on surface analysis, samples have been compacted at various pressures ranging from 0 Pa (i.e. no compaction) up to 2000 MPa (2 × 104 kg cm-2) Low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) was used to

  17. Comparison of fast ion collective Thomson scattering measurements at ASDEX Upgrade with numerical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Meo, Fernando; Stejner Pedersen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) experiments were carried out at ASDEX Upgrade to measure the one-dimensional velocity distribution functions of fast ion populations. These measurements are compared with simulations using the codes TRANSP/NUBEAM and ASCOT for two different neutral beam injecti...

  18. Dynamic polarization by coulomb excitation in the closed formalism for heavy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahn, W.E.; Hill, T.F.

    1978-01-01

    We present a closed-form treatment of the effects of dynamic polarization by Coulomb excitation on the elastic scattering of deformed heavy ions. We assume that this interaction can be represented by an absorptive polarization potential. The relatively long range of this potential entails a relatively slow variation of the associated reflection function in l-space. This feature leads to a simple generalization of the closed formula derived previously for the elastic scattering amplitude of spherical heavy nuclei. We use both the polarization potential of Love et al. and the recent improved potential of Baltz et al. to derive explicit expressions for the associated reflection functions in a Coulomb-distorted eikonal approximation. As an example we analyze the elastic scattering of 90-MeV 18 O ions by 184 W and show that both results give a quantitative description of the data. (orig.) [de

  19. Prospects for ion temperature measurements in JET by Thomson scattering of submillimetre waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitbourn, L.B.

    1975-03-01

    The Thomson scattering of submillimeter waves is envisaged as a possible means for measuring the ion temperature of the JET plasma. The present discussion is principally concerned with the practical limitations imposed to the method by the availability of high power pulsed sources and sensitive detectors and noise due to plasma emission at submillimeter wavelengths (bremsstrahlung and electron cyclotron emission). Coherent scattering from plasma wave (e.g. ion acoustic waves and electron drift waves) with millimeter and submillimeter waves are considered briefly. Further suitable development of lasers and heterodyne detectors would make such measurements possible. A pulsed HCN laser associated with a detectors with a lower heterodyne noise equivalent power could then be used to advantage. For scattering with CH 3 F laser the NEP of a Josephson junction would be adequate because a relatively high level of plasma emission is expected at 496 μm [fr

  20. Ion track annealing in quartz investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauries, D.; Afra, B.; Rodriguez, M.D. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trautmann, C. [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hawley, A. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, VIC 3168 (Australia); Kluth, P. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    We report on the reduction of cross-section and length of amorphous ion tracks embedded within crystalline quartz during thermal annealing. The ion tracks were created via Au ion irradiation with an energy of 2.2 GeV. The use of synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) allowed characterization of the latent tracks, without the need for chemical etching. Temperatures between 900 and 1000 °C were required to see a notable change in track size. The shrinkage in cross-section and length was found to be comparable for tracks aligned perpendicular and parallel to the c-axis.

  1. Fast-ion dynamics in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev, H; Nielsen, S K; Porte, L; Hoekzema, J A; Korsholm, S B; Meo, F; Michelsen, P K; Michelsen, S; Oosterbeek, J W; Tsakadze, E L; Westerhof, E; Woskov, P

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of fast ion populations in the TEXTOR tokamak are measured by collective Thomson scattering of millimetre wave radiation generated by a gyrotron operated at 110 GHz and 100-150 kW. Temporal evolution of the energetic ion velocity distribution at switch on of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the slowdown after switch off of NBI are measured. The turn on phase of the NBI has, furthermore, been measured in plasmas with a range of electron densities and temperatures. All of these measurements are shown to be in good agreement with simple Fokker-Planck modelling. Bulk ion rotation velocity is also measured

  2. Harmonic effects on ion-bulk waves and simulation of stimulated ion-bulk-wave scattering in CH plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q. S.; Zheng, C. Y.; Liu, Z. J.; Cao, L. H.; Xiao, C. Z.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, H. C.; He, X. T.

    2017-08-01

    Ion-bulk (IBk) wave, a novel branch with a phase velocity close to the ion’s thermal velocity, discovered by Valentini et al (2011 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 105017), is recently considered as an important electrostatic activity in solar wind, and thus of great interest to space physics and also inertial confinement fusion. The harmonic effects on IBk waves has been researched by Vlasov simulation for the first time. The condition of excitation of the large-amplitude IBk waves is given. The nature of nonlinear IBk waves in the condition of kFeng scattering (SFS) has been proposed and also verified by Vlasov-Maxwell code. In CH plasmas, in addition to the stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi ion-acoustic waves, there exists SIBS simultaneously. This research gives an insight into the SIBS in the field of laser plasma interaction.

  3. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La 2 CuO 4 . Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  4. High-temperature cuprate superconductors studied by x-ray Compton scattering and positron annihilation spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La2-xSrxCuO4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La2CuO4. Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.

  5. Detection of Surface-Linked Polychlorinated Biphenyls using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindzevicius, Tomas; Barten, Jan; Vorobiev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    We present an improved procedure for analytical detection of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. A gold-capped silicon nanopillar substrate was utilized to concentrate PCB molecules within an area of high electromagnetic fields through...... formation of microsized nanopillar clusters, and consequently, so-called “hot spots” can be formed. In order to improve PCB detection limit, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) compounds were chemically modified with a – SCH3 (PCB77-SCH3) group. Experimental and numerical analysis of vibrational modes...

  6. Search for elemental and mineral biomarkers using inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy (INSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hoover, Richard B.; Mitra, Sudeep

    2004-02-01

    Life on Earth is characterized by a select group of low Z elements: C, H, N, O, P, K, S, Na, Cl. The presence of these elements and their ratios can provide indications of possible biogenicity and thus they may constitute valuable biomarkers that may help determine the best locations to seek more definitive evidence of life. We discuss the possible applications and significance of the inelastic neutron scattering induced gamma spectroscopy (INSGS) for future Astrobiology Missions to Mars or other solar System bodies. The general requirements and capabilities of the proposed approach are presented.

  7. Exploring Ion-Ion Interactions in Aqueous Solutions by a Combination of Molecular Dynamics and Neutron Scattering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohagen, Miriam; Pluhařová, E.; Mason, Philip E.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2015), s. 1563-1567 ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ion pairing * molecular dynamics * neutron scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 8.539, year: 2015 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00060

  8. Scattering of field-aligned beam ions upstream of Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned beams are known to originate from the quasi-perpendicular side of the Earth's bow shock, while the diffuse ion population consists of accelerated ions at the quasi-parallel side of the bow shock. The two distinct ion populations show typical characteristics in their velocity space distributions. By using particle and magnetic field measurements from one Cluster spacecraft we present a case study when the two ion populations are observed simultaneously in the foreshock region during a high Mach number, high solar wind velocity event. We present the spatial-temporal evolution of the field-aligned beam ion distribution in front of the Earth's bow shock, focusing on the processes in the deep foreshock region, i.e. on the quasi-parallel side. Our analysis demonstrates that the scattering of field-aligned beam (FAB ions combined with convection by the solar wind results in the presence of lower-energy, toroidal gyrating ions at positions deeper in the foreshock region which are magnetically connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock. The gyrating ions are superposed onto a higher energy diffuse ion population. It is suggested that the toroidal gyrating ion population observed deep in the foreshock region has its origins in the FAB and that its characteristics are correlated with its distance from the FAB, but is independent on distance to the bow shock along the magnetic field.

  9. Scattering of field-aligned beam ions upstream of Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned beams are known to originate from the quasi-perpendicular side of the Earth's bow shock, while the diffuse ion population consists of accelerated ions at the quasi-parallel side of the bow shock. The two distinct ion populations show typical characteristics in their velocity space distributions. By using particle and magnetic field measurements from one Cluster spacecraft we present a case study when the two ion populations are observed simultaneously in the foreshock region during a high Mach number, high solar wind velocity event. We present the spatial-temporal evolution of the field-aligned beam ion distribution in front of the Earth's bow shock, focusing on the processes in the deep foreshock region, i.e. on the quasi-parallel side. Our analysis demonstrates that the scattering of field-aligned beam (FAB ions combined with convection by the solar wind results in the presence of lower-energy, toroidal gyrating ions at positions deeper in the foreshock region which are magnetically connected to the quasi-parallel bow shock. The gyrating ions are superposed onto a higher energy diffuse ion population. It is suggested that the toroidal gyrating ion population observed deep in the foreshock region has its origins in the FAB and that its characteristics are correlated with its distance from the FAB, but is independent on distance to the bow shock along the magnetic field.

  10. Impact of beam ions on α-particle measurements by collective Thomson scattering in ITER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egedal, J.; Bindslev, H.; Budny, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed as a viable diagnostic for characterizing fusion born a-distributions in ITER. However, the velocities of the planned 1 MeV deuterium heating beam ions in 1TER are similar to that of fusion born a-particles and may therefore mask the measureme......Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) has been proposed as a viable diagnostic for characterizing fusion born a-distributions in ITER. However, the velocities of the planned 1 MeV deuterium heating beam ions in 1TER are similar to that of fusion born a-particles and may therefore mask...... and the alpha-particles are calculated. Our investigations show that the CTS measurements of alpha-particles will not be masked by the presence of the beam ions in H-mode plasmas. In lower density reversed shear plasmas, only a part of the CTS alpha-particle spectrum will be perturbed....

  11. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.

    2008-01-01

    reported [Bindslev , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 205005 2006]. Here we extend the discussion of these results which were obtained at the TEXTOR tokamak. The fast ions are generated by neutral-beam injection and ion-cyclotron resonance heating. The CTS system uses 100-150 kW of 110-GHz gyrotron probing radiation......Fast ions created in the fusion processes will provide up to 70% of the heating in ITER. To optimize heating and current drive in magnetically confined plasmas insight into fast-ion dynamics is important. First measurements of such dynamics by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) were recently...... of the velocity distribution after turnoff of the ion heating. These results are in close agreement with numerical simulations....

  12. Extracting $p\\Lambda$ scattering lengths from heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Shapoval, V M; Lednicky, R; Sinyukov, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    The $p-\\Lambda \\oplus \\bar{p}-\\bar{\\Lambda}$ and $\\bar{p}-\\Lambda \\oplus p-\\bar{\\Lambda}$ correlation functions for 10% most central Au+Au collisions at top RHIC energy $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV are modeled with Lednicky and Lyuboshitz analytical formula using the source radii extracted from the hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations. For the baryon-antibaryon case the corresponding spin-averaged strong interaction scattering length is obtained by fitting the STAR correlation function. In contrast to the experimental results, where extracted $p\\bar{\\Lambda}$ source radius value was found $\\sim 2$ times smaller than the corresponding $p\\Lambda$ one, the calculations in HKM show both $p\\Lambda$ and $p\\bar{\\Lambda}$ effective source radii to be quite close, as expected from theoretical considerations. To obtain the satisfactory fit to the measured baryon-antibaryon correlation function at this large source radius value, the modified analytical approximation to the correlation function, effectively accounting for the...

  13. Heavy ion scattering in 3D TDHF. [Isodensity contours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, M.S.

    1977-09-01

    Results of three-dimensional (3D) time-dependent Hartree--Fock (TDHF) calculations are presented. The assumptions used in the calculations are summarized. The first reaction considered is /sup 16/O + /sup 16/O at 105 MeV (lab); isodensity contours integrated perpendicular to the reaction plane are shown for several impact parameters as a function of time. Trajectories are also shown, and the kinetics of the reaction is discussed; several other energies were also examined. Most of the deeply inelastic scattering seems to come from small impact parameters. Density contours and trajectories are next shown for /sup 40/Ca + /sup 40/Ca at 278 MeV (lab). Finally, density contours are shown for asymmetric systems: /sup 4/He + /sup 16/O at l = 5 h-bar and 50 MeV (lab) and /sup 16/O + /sup 40/Ca at l = 20, 40, 60, 80 h-bar and 315 MeV (lab). The light fragment seems to maintain the same average number of nucleons with which it started. 25 figures. (RWR)

  14. Features of laser spectroscopy and diagnostics of plasma ions in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A F; Fomichev, S V

    2003-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence and laser absorption spectroscopies of plasma ions in high magnetic fields have been investigated. Both the high degree of Zeeman splitting of the resonant transitions and the ion rotational movement drastically change the properties of the resonance interaction of the continuous wave laser radiation with ions in highly magnetized plasma. Numerical solution of the density matrix equation for a dissipative two-level system with time-dependent detuning from resonance was used to analyse this interaction. A theoretical simulation was performed and compared with the experimental results obtained from the laser spectroscopy diagnostics of barium plasma ions in high magnetic fields in the several tesla range

  15. Calculated energy distributions for light 0.25--18-keV ions scattered from solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.; Harms, A.A.; Karapetsas, S.K.

    1975-01-01

    Scattered energy distributions are calculated for light ions incident on Nb and Mo surfaces of interest for controlled nulcear fusion reactors. The scattered energy is found to vary as a function of the reflection coefficient between a multiple-collision limit at low energies and a single-collision Rutherford scattering limit at high energies. High-energy peaking of the scattered particle distributions is also found for low incident energies

  16. Study of electron beam effects on surfaces using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettings, M.; Coad, J.P.

    1976-02-01

    Discrepancies in the surface analyses of oxidised or heavily contaminated materials have been observed between X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and techniques using electron beams (primarily Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)). These discrepancies can be ascribed to the influence of the primary electron beam and to illustrate the various types of electron effects different materials were analysed using XPS and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) before and after large area electron bombardment. The materials used included chrome and stainless steels, nickel, platinum, glass and brass. (author)

  17. Scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy: II. Ion irradiated Au-Si Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, J S; Jagadish, C; Jamieson, D N; Legge, G J F

    2006-01-01

    Here we introduce a new technique called scanning ion deep level transient spectroscopy (SIDLTS) for the spatial analysis of electrically active defects in devices. In the first part of this paper, a simple theory behind SIDLTS was introduced and factors determining its sensitivity and resolution were discussed. In this paper, we demonstrate the technique on MeV boron implantation induced defects in an Au-Si Schottky junction. SIDLTS measurements are compared with capacitance DLTS measurements over the temperature range, 100-300 K. SIDLTS analyses indicate the presence of two levels, one of which was positively identified as the E c - 0.23 eV divacancy level. The high sensitivity of SIDLTS is verified and the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed in light of non-exponential components in the charge transient response. Reasons for several undetected levels are also discussed

  18. Ion counting in supercapacitor electrodes using NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Wang, Hao; Trease, Nicole M; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice; Grey, Clare P

    2014-01-01

    (19)F NMR spectroscopy has been used to study the local environments of anions in supercapacitor electrodes and to quantify changes in the populations of adsorbed species during charging. In the absence of an applied potential, anionic species adsorbed within carbon micropores (in-pore) are distinguished from those in large mesopores and spaces between particles (ex-pore) by a characteristic nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS). Adsorption experiments and two-dimensional exchange experiments confirm that anions are in dynamic equilibrium between the in- and ex-pore environments with an exchange rate in the order of tens of Hz. (19)F in situ NMR spectra recorded at different charge states reveal changes in the intensity and NICS of the in-pore resonances, which are interpreted in term of changes in the population and local environments of the adsorbed anions that arise due to the charge-storage process. A comparison of the results obtained for a range of electrolytes reveals that several factors influence the charging mechanism. For a tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte, positive polarisation of the electrode is found to proceed by anion adsorption at a low concentration, whereas increased ion exchange plays a more important role for a high concentration electrolyte. In contrast, negative polarization of the electrode proceeds by cation adsorption for both concentrations. For a tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate electrolyte, anion expulsion is observed in the negative charging regime; this is attributed to the reduced mobility and/or access of the larger cations inside the pores, which forces the expulsion of anions in order to build up ionic charge. Significant anion expulsion is also observed in the negative charging regime for alkali metal bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide electrolytes, suggesting that more subtle factors also affect the charging mechanism.

  19. Low energy ion scattering (LEIS) and the compositional and structural analysis of solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.A. van den; Armour, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The physics of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) and its application as a surface analytical technique are reviewed. It is shown that compositional and short-range structural information can be obtained by choosing experimental conditions which optimize the contributions of single and double (or multiple) collisions, respectively. The LEIS technique allows mass analysis in a straightforward way, possesses a high surface selectivity but is unable to provide quantitative information in isolation due to scattering cross-section uncertainties and not easily quantifiable charge exchange effects. Structural information regarding adsorbate positions on single crystal surfaces and the short-range substrate structure (including damaged and reconstructed surfaces) can be obtained by exploiting shadowing and/or multiple scattering phenomena. The progress made in recent years in this area is charted. It is shown that computer simulations often play an important role in this type of study. Effects, such as charge exchange, inelastic energy loss and ion beam surface perturbations, which complicate the use of low energy ion scattering for surface analysis are discussed in detail. The present status of the technique in the different areas of study is indicated. (author)

  20. Ion-reversibility studies in amorphous solids using the two-atom scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, O.S.

    1981-06-01

    An analytical two-atom scattering model has been developed to treat the recent discovery of the enhancement near 180 0 of Rutherford backscattering yields from disordered solids. In contrast to conventional calculations of Rutherford backscattering that treat scattering from a single atom only (the backscattering atom), the present model includes the interaction of a second atom lying between the target surface and the backscattering plane. The projectile ion makes a glancing collision with this second atom both before and after it is backscattered. The model predicts an enhancement effect whose physical origin arises from the tolerance of path for those ions whose inward and outward trajectories lie in the vicinity of the critical impact parameter. Results using Moliere scattering show how the yield enhancement depends on ion energy, backscattering depth, exit angle, scattering potential, atomic numbers of the projectile and target, and target density. In the model the critical impact parameter and critical angle play important roles. It is shown that these quantities depend on a single dimensionless parameter and analytical expressions for them are given which are accurate to better than 1%

  1. Studies on low energy ion-atom collisions by means of electron-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosi Suzuki

    1991-01-01

    The typical results of studies on autoionization processes produced by low energy ion-atom collisions are given by means of the ejected electron spectroscopy, which have been performed by Atomic Physics Group of Sophia University

  2. Resonant Raman scattering in ion-beam-synthesized Mg2Si in a silicon matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleva, M.; Zlateva, G.; Atanassov, A.; Abrashev, M.; Goranova, E.

    2005-01-01

    Resonant Raman scattering by ion beam synthesized in silicon matrix Mg 2 Si phase is studied. The samples are prepared with the implantation of 24 Mg + ions with dose 4x10 17 cm -2 and with two different energies 40 and 60 keV into (100)Si substrates. The far infrared spectra are used as criteria for the formation of the Mg 2 Si phase. The Raman spectra are excited with different lines of Ar + laser, with energies of the lines lying in the interval from 2.40 to 2.75 eV. The resonant scattering can be investigated using these laser lines, as far as according to the Mg 2 Si band structure, there are direct gaps with energies in the same region. The energy dependences of the scattered intensities in the case of the scattering by the allowed F 2g and the forbidden LO-type modes are experimentally obtained and theoretically interpreted. On the base of the investigation energies of the interband transitions in the Mg 2 Si are determined. It is found also that the resonant Raman scattering appears to be a powerful tool for characterization of a material with inclusions in it. In the particular case it is concluded that the Mg 2 Si phase is present in the form of a surface layer in the sample, prepared with implantation energy 40 keV and as low-dimensional precipitates, embedded in the silicon matrix, in the sample, prepared with the higher implantation energy

  3. Characterization of high-T/sub c/ Nb--Ge thin films by ion scattering, ion-induced x-rays, and ion resonance techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.W.; Appleton, E.R.; Murphree, Q.C.; Gavaler, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Thin films of high-T/sub c/ (21-22 0 K) Nb--Ge were analyzed using three ion bombardment techniques. The depth dependence of stoichiometry in these superconducting thin films is determined by the deconvolution of a series of Rutherford backscattering spectra using 2.0-3.2 MeV 4 He ions at several incidence and scattering angles. Confirmation of these results is provided by studying the yields of Nb and Ge characteristic X-rays as a function of the angle of beam incidence. The depth dependence of oxygen, or oxides of Nb and Ge, is of particular interest, but more difficult to determine. A very sharp ion scattering resonance 16 O (α,α) at 3.045 MeV was utilized to enhance the backscattered yield and depth sensitivity of oxygen determination. The combined use of these three techniques now provides a nearly complete and nondestructive means for the characterization of such films

  4. Design of a facility for the in situ measurement of catalytic reaction by neutron scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shuai; Cheng, Yongqiang; Daemen, Luke L.; Lutterman, Daniel A.

    2018-01-01

    Catalysis is a critical enabling science for future energy needs. The next frontier of catalysis is to evolve from catalyst discovery to catalyst design, and for this next step to be realized, we must develop new techniques to better understand reaction mechanisms. To do this, we must connect catalytic reaction rates and selectivities to the kinetics, energetics, and dynamics of individual elementary steps and relate these to the structure and dynamics of the catalytic sites involved. Neutron scattering spectroscopies offer unique capabilities that are difficult or impossible to match by other techniques. The current study presents the development of a compact and portable instrumental design that enables the in situ investigation of catalytic samples by neutron scattering techniques. The developed apparatus was tested at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory and includes a gas handling panel that allows for computer hookups to control the panel externally and online measurement equipment such as coupled GC-FID/TCD (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector/Thermal Conductivity Detector) and MS (Mass Spectrometry) to characterize offgassing while the sample is in the neutron scattering spectrometer. This system is flexible, modular, compact, and portable enabling its use for many types of gas-solid and liquid-solid reactions at the various beamlines housed at the SNS.

  5. Optical analysis of trapped Gas—Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, S.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of the new field of Gas in Scattering Media Absorption Spectroscopy (GASMAS) is presented. The technique investigates sharp gas spectral signatures, typically 10000 times sharper than those of the host material, in which the gas is trapped in pores or cavities. The presence of pores causes strong multiple scattering. GASMAS combines narrow-band diode-laser spectroscopy, developed for atmospheric gas monitoring, with diffuse media optical propagation, well-known from biomedical optics. Several applications in materials science, food packaging, pharmaceutics and medicine have been demonstrated. So far molecular oxygen and water vapour have been studied around 760 and 935 nm, respectively. Liquid water, an important constituent in many natural materials, such as tissue, has a low absorption at such wavelengths, and this is also true for haemoglobin, making propagation possible in many natural materials. Polystyrene foam, wood, fruits, food-stuffs, pharmaceutical tablets, and human sinus cavities (frontal, maxillary and mastoideal) have been studied, demonstrating new possibilities for characterization and diagnostics. Transport of gas in porous media (diffusion) can be studied by first subjecting the material to, e.g., pure nitrogen, and then observing the rate at which normal, oxygen-containing air, reinvades the material. The conductance of the passages connecting a sinus with the nasal cavity can be objectively assessed by observing the oxygen gas dynamics when flushing the nose with nitrogen. Drying of materials, when liquid water is replaced by air and water vapour, is another example of dynamic processes which can be studied. The technique has also been extended to remote-sensing applications (LIDAR-GASMAS or Multiple-Scattering LIDAR).

  6. Use of low energy alkali ion scattering as a probe of surface structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overbury, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    An overview is given of the use of low energy ion scattering as a probe of surface structure with emphasis on work done using alkali ions. Various schemes for extracting structural information from the ion energy and angle distributions are discussed in terms of advantages and disadvantages of each. The scattering potential which is the primary non-structural parameter needed for analysis, is discussed in terms of recent experimental results. The structure of clean and reconstructed surfaces are discussed, with examples of measurements of layer relaxations on the Mo(111) surface and missing row reconstructions on the Au(110) and Pt(110) surfaces. Studies of adsorbate covered surfaces are presented with respect to location of the adsorbate and its effect on the structure of the underlying substrate. Finally, examples are given which demonstrate the sensitivity of ion scattering to surface defects and disordering on reconstructed Au(110) and Pt(110) surfaces and unreconstructed Mo(111) surfaces, and to ordering of adsorbates on Mo(001). 47 refs., 12 figs

  7. The structural and compositional analysis of single crystal surfaces using low energy ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.; Van der Berg, J.A.; Verheij, IL.K.

    1979-01-01

    The use of ion scattering for surface composition and structure analysis has been reviewed. The extreme surface specificity of this technique has been widely used to obtain quitative information in a straightforward way, but the/aolc/currence of charge exchange processes, thermal lattice vibrations and multiple scattering have precluded quantitative analysis of experimental data. Examples are quoted to illustrate the progress that has been made in understanding these fundamental processes and in applying this knowledge to the development of the analytical capabilities of the technique. (author)

  8. A Thomson scattering diagnostic to measure fast ion and α-particle distributions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costley, A.E.; Hoekzema, J.A.; Stott, P.E.; Watkins, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a feasibility investigation into the proposed Thomson scattering diagnostic to measure fast ion and α-particle distributions in JET. A description is given of the motivation for alpha particle diagnostics on JET, followed by a brief survey of possible α-particle diagnostics for JET. The basic principles of the collective Thomson scattering technique are presented, along with its implementation on JET. The expected performance of the system, and other applications of the diagnostic system are also discussed. (U.K.)

  9. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-charged ions in a storage ring. Invited lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, H.F.

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of the present lectures is to carry through the methods and procedures necessary for a meaningful spectroscopy of the heaviest few-electron ions in relation to present theories. Results achieved so far in accelerator-based X-ray experiments are highlighted with emphasis on recent developments on heavy-ion storage rings. Starting with a brief account of the basics of one-electron ions, the motivation for doing X-ray spectroscopy of the simplest atomic systems with a high nuclear charge is given. In section 2 X-ray instrumentation and techniques are discussed including the precautions necessary when dealing with fast-beam sources. Peculiarities of heavy-ion storage rings are investigated in section 3 with regard to their use for spectroscopy. In section 4 are discussed results obtained so far on the measurement of the Lamb shift in very heavy ions. Section 5 gives some perspectives for the near future. (orig.)

  10. Study of clusters using negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuexing [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The weak van der Waals interaction between an open-shell halogen atom and a closed-shell atom or molecule has been investigated using zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. This technique is also applied to study the low-lying electronic states in GaAs and GaAs-. In addition, the spectroscopy and electron detachment dynamics of several small carbon cluster anions are studied using resonant multiphoton detachment spectroscopy.

  11. Study of clusters using negative ion photodetachment spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuexing.

    1995-12-01

    The weak van der Waals interaction between an open-shell halogen atom and a closed-shell atom or molecule has been investigated using zero electron kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy. This technique is also applied to study the low-lying electronic states in GaAs and GaAs - . In addition, the spectroscopy and electron detachment dynamics of several small carbon cluster anions are studied using resonant multiphoton detachment spectroscopy

  12. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  14. Contributions to the theory of electron spectroscopy. Applications of the relativistic multiple-scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henk, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electron spectroscopy provides access to fundamental properties of solids, such as the geometric, electronic, and the magnetic structure. The latter are necessary for the understanding of a variety of basic but nevertheless important effects. The present work outlines recently developed theoretical approaches to electron spectroscopies. Most of the collected results rely on first-principles calculations, as formulated in multiple-scattering theory, and are contrasted with experimental findings. One topic involves spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy which is addressed for magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films. Exemplary results comprise magnetic dichroism in both valence-band and core-level photoemission as well as the temperature dependence of magnetic properties of ultrathin films. Another topic is spin-dependent ballistic transport through planar tunnel junctions, focusing here on the zero-bias anomaly. In most of the cases, spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is an essential ingredient and, hence, favors a relativistic description. Prominent effects of SOC are illustrated by means of the electronic structure of rare gases adsorbed on a substrate and by the splitting of surface states on Au(111). Concerning magnetism, the magnetic anisotropy of Ni films on Cu(001) is discussed, focusing in particular on the spin reorientation transition induced by lattice distortions in ultrathin films. (orig.)

  15. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a standard dynamic light scattering setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Zahra; Aangenendt, Frank J.; Voudouris, Panayiotis; Mattsson, Johan; Wyss, Hans M.

    2017-12-01

    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) extends dynamic light scattering measurements to samples with strong multiple scattering. DWS treats the transport of photons through turbid samples as a diffusion process, thereby making it possible to extract the dynamics of scatterers from measured correlation functions. The analysis of DWS data requires knowledge of the path length distribution of photons traveling through the sample. While for flat sample cells this path length distribution can be readily calculated and expressed in analytical form; no such expression is available for cylindrical sample cells. DWS measurements have therefore typically relied on dedicated setups that use flat sample cells. Here we show how DWS measurements, in particular DWS-based microrheology measurements, can be performed in standard dynamic light scattering setups that use cylindrical sample cells. To do so we perform simple random-walk simulations that yield numerical predictions of the path length distribution as a function of both the transport mean free path and the detection angle. This information is used in experiments to extract the mean-square displacement of tracer particles in the material, as well as the corresponding frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. An important advantage of our approach is that by performing measurements at different detection angles, the average path length through the sample can be varied. For measurements performed on a single sample cell, this gives access to a wider range of length and time scales than obtained in a conventional DWS setup. Such angle-dependent measurements also offer an important consistency check, as for all detection angles the DWS analysis should yield the same tracer dynamics, even though the respective path length distributions are very different. We validate our approach by performing measurements both on aqueous suspensions of tracer particles and on solidlike gelatin samples, for which we find our DWS-based microrheology

  16. I. Exchange currents in electron scattering from light nuclei. II. Heavy-ion scattering at intermediate and high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubach, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a formalism that will allow one to search the wide variety of transitions presented by nuclei in order to locate situations in which the exchange-current effects are important or dominant and thus allow one to study the contributions of the meson exchanges to the electromagnetic densities within the nucleus. The nuclei studied are assumed to be described in a shell model using harmonic oscillator wave functions. The formalism needed to allow one to do a multipole analysis of these exchange currents within 1s and 1p nuclei is developed. This formalism is then applied to an examination of electron scattering from a series of light nuclei: 3 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, and 10 B. Three significant effects due to the inclusion of exchange currents are seen: (1) The exchange currents can often introduce new structure into the form factors. (2) At larger momentum transfer (700 to 1000 MeV/c) the exchange current contributions to the form factor dominate the simpler one-body form factor by a few orders of magnitude. (3) The exchange currents can excite E4 and M5 multipoles in the p shell which are forbidden to the simpler one-body currents. The elastic scattering of two heavy ions at intermediate and high energies (compared to the Coulomb barrier) is examined in the formalism of the WKB and ''Glauber theory'' approximations. As a concrete example, the scattering of 16 O from 60 Ni is studied assuming an optical-model potential that fits elastic scattering data at low energies. One immediate result is that the WKB approximation agrees quite well with ''exact'' numerical calculations at energies as low as 60 MeV. The Glauber theory fails below about 1 GeV but correction terms are developed that can extend the usefulness of the Glauber theory to much lower energies. The model problem of scattering from a black-sphere model of the nucleus is briefly examined

  17. Direct observation and theory of trajectory-dependent electronic energy losses in medium-energy ion scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, A; Parkinson, G S; Quinn, P D; Muñoz-Márquez, M A; Woodruff, D P; Grande, P L; Schiwietz, G; Bailey, P; Noakes, T C Q

    2009-03-06

    The energy spectrum associated with scattering of 100 keV H+ ions from the outermost few atomic layers of Cu(111) in different scattering geometries provides direct evidence of trajectory-dependent electronic energy loss. Theoretical simulations, combining standard Monte Carlo calculations of the elastic scattering trajectories with coupled-channel calculations to describe inner-shell ionization and excitation as a function of impact parameter, reproduce the effects well and provide a means for far more complete analysis of medium-energy ion scattering data.

  18. X-ray spectroscopy of highly-ionized atoms in an electron beam ion trap (EBIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrs, R.E.; Bennett, C.; Chen, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to produce and trap very-highly-charged-ions (q /le/ 70+) for x-ray spectroscopy measurements. Recent measurements of dielectronic recombination, electron impact excitation and transition energies are presented. 15 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  19. Scanning deep level transient spectroscopy using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Saint, A; Moloney, G M; Legge, G F.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Traditionally the scanning ion microprobe has given little or no information regarding the electronic structure of materials in particular semiconductors. A new imaging technique called Scanning Ion Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (SIDLTS) is presented which is able to spatially map alterations in the band gap structure of materials by lattice defects or impurities. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Scanning deep level transient spectroscopy using an MeV ion microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Saint, A.; Moloney, G.M.; Legge, G.F.J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Traditionally the scanning ion microprobe has given little or no information regarding the electronic structure of materials in particular semiconductors. A new imaging technique called Scanning Ion Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (SIDLTS) is presented which is able to spatially map alterations in the band gap structure of materials by lattice defects or impurities. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  1. A new apparatus for electron-ion multiple coincidence momentum imaging spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Pruemper, G.; Liu, X.-J.; Lischke, T.; Ueda, K.; Tamenori, Y.; Oura, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Suzuki, I.H.; Saito, N.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new experimental apparatus for the electron-ion multiple coincidence momentum imaging spectroscopy in order to obtain the angular distributions of vibration-resolved photoelectrons from molecules fixed in space. The apparatus consists of a four-stage molecular supersonic jet and a spectrometer analyzing three-dimensional momenta of fragment ions and electrons in coincidence

  2. Survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neskovic, N.; Ciric, D.; Perovic, B.

    1982-01-01

    The survival probability in small angle scattering of low energy alkali ions from alkali covered metal surfaces is considered. The model is based on the momentum approximation. The projectiles are K + ions and the target is the (001)Ni+K surface. The incident energy is 100 eV and the incident angle 5 0 . The interaction potential of the projectile and the target consists of the Born-Mayer, the dipole and the image charge potentials. The transition probability function corresponds to the resonant electron transition to the 4s projectile energy level. (orig.)

  3. Inelastic heavy ion scattering on 90Zr and 208Pb at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Beaumel, D.; Chomaz, P.; Frascaria, N.; Garron, J.P.; Jacmart, J.C.; Roynette, J.C.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Suomijarvi, T.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy ion inelastic scattering has been investigated using the SPEG spectrometer at GANIL. It is shown that the use of such a high resolution spectrometer allows a quantitative study of the giant resonances excited in heavy ion collisions. The contribution of the pick-up break-up mechanism to the high excitation energy region (E > 30 MeV) is then discussed. Recent results obtained with 40 Ar beams at two different incident energies show that target excitations are also present in this energy region

  4. Low energy ion scattering as a tool for surface structure and composition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Low energy ion scattering is finding increasing application in the study of areas such as gas adsorption, thin film deposition and surface damage creation and annealing during ion irradiation where structural and compositional changes occurring in only the outermost atomic layer need to be monitored. The capabilities of the technique and the ways in which it has been developed for different types of analysis depend strongly on the fundamental atomic collision processes taking place at the surface and it is these processes, together with examples of their role in analysis applications, that form the subject of this paper. (author)

  5. Radius anomaly in the diffraction model for heavy-ion elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, L. N.; Mukherjee, S. N.

    1984-04-01

    The elastic scattering of heavy ions, 20Ne on 208Pb, 20Ne on 235U, 84Kr on 208Pb, and 84Kr on 232Th, is examined within the framework of Frahn's diffraction model. An analysis of the experiment using the "quarter point recipe" of the expected Fresnel cross sections yields a larger radius for 208Pb than the radii for 235U and 232Th. It is shown that inclusion of the nuclear deformation in the model removes the above anomaly in the radii, and the assumption of smooth cutoff of the angular momentum simultaneously leads to a better fit to elastic scattering data, compared to those obtained by the earlier workers on the assumption of sharp cutoff. [NUCLEAR REACTIONS Elastic scattering, 20Ne+208Pb (161.2 MeV), 20Ne+235U (175 MeV), 84Kr+208Pb (500 MeV), 84Kr+232Th (500 MeV), diffraction model, nuclear deformation.

  6. Detailed calculation of low-energy positron scattering by the hydrogen molecular ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.; Carr, J.M.; Franklin, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed calculations are made using the Kohn method of positron scattering by the hydrogen molecular ion below the positronium formation threshold at 9.45 eV. Phase shifts from the two-centre Coulomb value are obtained for the lowest partial wave of Σ g + symmetry using a very flexible trial function containing a large number of short-range correlation functions. The convergence of the results with respect to both the linear and non-linear parameters is explored. (author)

  7. Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.

    1988-02-01

    The non-linear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering by coupling of the SRS-driven Langmuir waves to ion acoustic waves is studied numerically, in a homogeneous density laser-irradiated plasma. The coupled wave amplitude behaviour is represented either by envelope equations or by complete wave-like equations. The various physical phenomena which are involved are described. This preliminary work has been presented at the 17th Anomalous Absorption Conference, held in last May, in Lake Tahoe City (USA) [fr

  8. Study of CuAl(100) by using He ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L; Zur Muhlen, E; O` Connor, D J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The clean CuAl (100) surface has been investigated by using He{sup +} ion scattering. The polar scans show that Al atoms randomly replace the Cu atoms but sit (0.15{+-}0.05) Angstroms higher than the Cu atoms. The outmost layer concentration of Al is about (17{+-}3)%. The aluminium concentration on the outmost layer is sensitive to the sample temperature up to 300 deg C. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Study of CuAl(100) by using He ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, L.; Zur Muhlen, E.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    The clean CuAl (100) surface has been investigated by using He{sup +} ion scattering. The polar scans show that Al atoms randomly replace the Cu atoms but sit (0.15{+-}0.05) Angstroms higher than the Cu atoms. The outmost layer concentration of Al is about (17{+-}3)%. The aluminium concentration on the outmost layer is sensitive to the sample temperature up to 300 deg C. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Proceeding of the workshop on gamma-ray spectroscopy utilizing heavy-ion, photon and RI beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, Masumi; Sugita, Michiaki; Hayakawa, Takehito [eds.

    1998-03-01

    Three time since 1992, we have held the symposia entitled `Joint Spectroscopy Experiments Utilizing JAERI Tandem-Booster Accelerator` at the Tokai Research Establishment. In the symposia, we have mainly discussed the plans of experiments to be done in this joint program. The joint program started in 1994. Several experiments have been made since and some new results have already come up. This symposium `Gamma-ray Spectroscopy utilizing heavy-ion, Photon and RI beams` was held at Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. Because this symposium is the first occasion after the program started, the first purpose of the symposium is to present and discuss the experimental results so far obtained using the JAERI Tandem-Booster. The second purpose of the symposium is to discuss new possibilities of gamma-ray spectroscopy using new resources such as RI-beam and Photon-beam. The participants from RIKEN, Tohoku University and JAERI Neutron Science Research Center presented the future plans of experiments with RI-beam at each facility. Compared with these nuclear beams, photon beam provides a completely new tool for the {gamma}-ray spectroscopy, which is achieved by inverse Compton scattering between high-energy electron and laser beams. The 23 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. The Glauber model and heavy ion reaction and elastic scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehndiratta, Ajay [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati (India); Shukla, Prashant, E-mail: pshukla@barc.gov.in [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-05-15

    We revisit the Glauber model to study the heavy ion reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions at low and intermediate energies. The Glauber model takes nucleon–nucleon cross sections and nuclear densities as inputs and has no free parameter and thus can predict the cross sections for unknown systems. The Glauber model works at low energies down to Coulomb barrier with very simple modifications. We present new parametrization of measured total cross sections as well as ratio of real to imaginary parts of the scattering amplitudes for pp and np collisions as a function of nucleon kinetic energy. The nuclear (charge) densities obtained by electron scattering form factors measured in large momentum transfer range are used in the calculations. The heavy ion reaction cross sections are calculated for light and heavy systems and are compared with available data measured over large energy range. The model gives excellent description of the data. The elastic scattering angular distributions are calculated for various systems at different energies. The model gives good description of the data at small momentum transfer but the calculations deviate from the data at large momentum transfer.

  12. Radiofrequency/infrared double resonance spectroscopy of the HD+ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrington, Alan; McNab, I.R.; Montgomerie, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a double resonance technique for obtaining radiofrequency spectra of the HD + ion in vibration-rotation levels close to the dissociation limit. Infrared transitions are driven by Doppler tuning an HD + ion beam into resonance with a carbon dioxide infrared laser, and are detected by measuring H + fragment ions produced by electric field dissociation of the upper vibration-rotation level. Radiofrequency transitions between nuclear hyperfine components of the lower vibration-rotation level are then detected through resonant increases in the H + fragment ion current. The high spectroscopic resolution obtained, and the ability to measure magnetic dipole hyperfine transitions, will enable the hyperfine constants to be determined accurately. (author)

  13. On mechanism of low-energy heavy ions scattering on a target surface with small atomic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umarov, F.F. E-mail: farid1945@yahoo.com; Bazarbaev, N.N.; Kudryashova, L.B.; Krylov, N.M

    2002-11-01

    In the present work, an experimental study of low-energy (E{sub 0}=20-500 eV) heavy Cs{sup +} ions scattering on target surfaces with small atomic masses (Al, Si, Ni) has been performed for more accurate definition of mechanism of scattering and evaluation of an opportunity for use of heavy ions scattering as a tool of surface layer analysis. It is shown that the dependence of the relative energies of scattered ions versus the initial energy E/E{sub 0} (E{sub 0}) for Si (E{sub b}=4.64 eV/atom) and Ni (E{sub b}=4.43 eV/atom) approximately coincide despite the fact that the mass of Ni atom is twice as large as that of the Si atom mass. At the same time their binding energies E{sub b} are approximately equal to each other. It is found that the scattering angles of Cs{sup +} ions considerably exceed a limiting scattering angle {theta}{sub lim} in a single collision. It has been established that the scattering of low-energy heavy ions by light targets is described by a non-binary mechanism of many-particle interactions (simultaneous ion interaction with several target atoms). It has been shown that during the many-particle interactions the structure of energy spectra disappears; high relative energy of scattering ions and their dependence on energy of bombardment is observed. It has been found that the energy of scattered ions depends on binding energy, melting temperature and packing density of target atoms.

  14. An l-window formalism for elastic heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, N.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the heavy-ion elastic scattering amplitude may be written as an exact summation over sharp cut-off Coulomb amplitudes with coefficients which are simply the differences of successive nuclear S-matrix elements. Thus in the case of strong absorption the coefficients are non-zero only over a small range of angular momenta, formally making the elastic amplitude similar to those for inelastic scattering and transfer reactions in that it possesses an 'l window'. Some good approximations to the sharp cut-off Coulomb amplitudes are given enabling the results obtained by the usual integral techniques for dealing with smooth S matrices to be rederived simply. A simple means of studying cases where the transition from no absorption to total absorption takes place over a very small range of angular momenta is also provided. The case of identical spin-zero ions, in particular the system 16 0 + 16 0, is discussed and a qualitative understanding of many of the experimental results and of previous fits to the data obtained. Large-angle scattering of non-identical ions is also mentioned and the l-window formalism suggests that the angular distributions for the elastic and other channels should be very similar in this region. (author)

  15. The investigation of the elastic photon scattering cross sections by copper atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuplyauskene, A.B.

    1976-01-01

    The differential cross sections of coherent scattering of photons on a copper atom and ions Cu + and Cu 2+ and also on ions Zn + and Ga 2+ in their ground states have been studied theoretically. The energy of an incident photon has varied in the range from 0.5 keV to 200 keV, and the scattering cross sections are given for angles of 30 deg, 60 deg, 90 deg, 120 deg, 150 deg. The calculations are performed in the formfactor approximation with the use of generalized hydrogen-like analytical radial orbitals. To clarify the contribution from individual shells the cross sections of photon scattering on individual electron of shells are calculated. It follows from the calculations that when the energies of the incident photon are less than 4 keV, the main contribution into the differential cross section is made by external electrons. Then, alongside with the increase of the energy, the contribution of the electrons decreases, and the inner shells begin to play a more important role. Therefore the photon cross sections for the energies greater than 50 keV practically coincide for atoms and ions of copper. The general regularities of the cross section variation accompanying the increase of the photon energy are similar for all the elements under study. The angular dependences of cross sections are such that they decrease first and after reaching the minimum at angles of 90 deg - 120 deg increase again

  16. Arsenic speciation by X-ray spectroscopy using resonant Raman Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, H.J.; Leani, J.J. [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cba (Argentina); Perez, C.A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The toxicity of arsenic species is widely known. A realistic evaluation of the risk posed by As depends on accurate determination of As speciation, because its toxicity and mobility varies with oxidation state and chemical environment. The most toxic species are inorganic As (III) and As (V) called respectively arsenite or trivalent arsenic, and arsenate or pentavalent arsenic. Recently, x-ray Resonant Raman Scattering spectroscopy has been successfully employed to determine the oxidation state of metals. In this work we use RRS spectroscopy to perform arsenic speciation. The measurements were carried out in XRF station of the D09B-XRF beamline at the Brazilian synchrotron facility (LNLS, Campinas). Mineral samples of As in different oxidation states (As(III) and AS(V)), and two biological forms of arsenic (monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V) and dimethylarsinic acid DMA(V)) were analysed. The samples were diluted, deposited on silicon wafers and allowed to dry. The amount of liquid deposited on the reflector before evaporation was 20 microliters for all the specimens. These samples were irradiated with monochromatic photons of 11816 eV, i.e., below the K-edge of arsenic in order to inspect the Raman emissions. The measuring lifetime was 3600 sec for each sample. Spectra were analysed with specific programs for spectrum analysis using non-conventional functions for data fitting, i.e., modified Voight functions (for Compton peaks), Gaussian functions for fluorescent and for low intensity peaks (such as escape peaks and other contributions), and polynomial functions for the background. Raman peaks were fitted using specific functions. In this work we have shown that resonant Raman scattering spectroscopy can be used to analyse arsenic species. The method is very simple and reliable. The most important feature of this method relies in the possibility of using the same spectrometer of XRF analysis or TXRF analysis. In this way, practically in the same experiment

  17. The description of charge transfer in fast negative ions scattering on water covered Si(100) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lin; Qiu, Shunli; Liu, Pinyang; Xiong, Feifei; Lu, Jianjie; Liu, Yuefeng; Li, Guopeng; Liu, Yiran; Ren, Fei; Xiao, Yunqing; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Qiushuang; Ding, Bin; Li, Yuan [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Guo, Yanling, E-mail: guoyanling@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Chen, Ximeng, E-mail: chenxm@lzu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China); Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, 730000 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • We first observe that negative-ion fractions present no variation with the doping concentration, which is very different from the results of low energy Li neutralization from doped Si samples. • Our work shows that the affinity levels and collision time significantly counteract the band gap effect on negative ion formation. The work will improve our understanding on electron transfer on semiconductor surfaces associated with doping. • In addition, we build a complete theoretical framework to quantitatively calculate the negative-ion fractions. • Our work is related to charge transfer on semiconductor surfaces, which will be of interest to a broad audience due to the wide necessity of the knowledge of charge exchange on semiconductor surfaces in different fields. - Abstract: Doping has significantly affected the characteristics and performance of semiconductor electronic devices. In this work, we study the charge transfer processes for 8.5–22.5 keV C{sup −} and F{sup −} ions scattering on H{sub 2}O-terminated p-type Si(100) surfaces with two different doping concentrations. We find that doping has no influence on negative-ion formation for fast collisions in this relatively high energy range. Moreover, we build a model to calculate negative ion fractions including the contribution from positive ions. The calculations support the nonadiabatic feature of charge transfer.

  18. Study of early laser-induced plasma dynamics: Transient electron density gradients via Thomson scattering and Stark Broadening, and the implications on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, P.K.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    To further develop laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as an analytical technique, it is necessary to better understand the fundamental processes and mechanisms taking place during the plasma evolution. This paper addresses the very early plasma dynamics (first 100 ns) using direct plasma imaging, light scattering, and transmission measurements from a synchronized 532-nm probe laser pulse. During the first 50 ns following breakdown, significant Thomson scattering was observed while the probe laser interacted with the laser-induced plasma. The Thomson scattering was observed to peak 15-25 ns following plasma initiation and then decay rapidly, thereby revealing the highly transient nature of the free electron density and plasma equilibrium immediately following breakdown. Such an intense free electron density gradient is suggestive of a non-equilibrium, free electron wave generated by the initial breakdown and growth processes. Additional probe beam transmission measurements and electron density measurements via Stark broadening of the 500.1-nm nitrogen ion line corroborate the Thomson scattering observations. In concert, the data support the finding of a highly transient plasma that deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions during the first tens of nanoseconds of plasma lifetime. The implications of this early plasma transient behavior are discussed in the context of plasma-analyte interactions and the role on LIBS measurements

  19. Random pulsing of neutron source for inelastic neutron scattering gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus are described for use in the detection of inelastic neutron scattering gamma ray spectroscopy. Data acquisition efficiency is enhanced by operating a neutron generator such that a resulting output burst of fast neutrons is maintained for as long as practicably possible until a gamma ray is detected. Upon the detection of a gamma ray the generator burst output is terminated. Pulsing of the generator may be accomplished either by controlling the burst period relative to the burst interval to achieve a constant duty cycle for the operation of the generator or by maintaining the burst period constant and controlling the burst interval such that the resulting mean burst interval corresponds to a burst time interval which reduces contributions to the detected radiation of radiation occasioned by other than the fast neutrons

  20. Carbon nanotubes doped with trivalent elements by using back - scattering Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Babanejad

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available  In this paper by using DC arc discharge method and acetylene gas, as the carbon source, and nitrogen, as the carrier gas, canrbon nanotubes, CNTs, doped with trivalent element boron, B, have been produced. The deposited CNTs on the cathod electrod, which have structural doped properties to boron element, have been collected and after purification have been investigated by back-scattering Raman spectroscopy. The results reveal that the high frequency G mode component in CNTs doped with electron acceptor element, B, shift to higher wavenumbers. The low frequency G mode component which can appear at approximately 1540–1570 cm-1 wavenumber region, called BWF mode, is a sign of metallic CNT. In the synthesized doped CNTs due to the presence of boron dopant, D mode has sharp peaks and has relatively high intensity in the Raman spectra .

  1. Rigorous numerical modeling of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinzhong; Lo, Chiu Fan Bowen; Zheng, William; Hu, Hai; Dai, Qing; Liu, Mengkun

    2017-11-01

    Over the last decade, scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy have been widely used in nano-photonics and material research due to their fine spatial resolution and broad spectral range. A number of simplified analytical models have been proposed to quantitatively understand the tip-scattered near-field signal. However, a rigorous interpretation of the experimental results is still lacking at this stage. Numerical modelings, on the other hand, are mostly done by simulating the local electric field slightly above the sample surface, which only qualitatively represents the near-field signal rendered by the tip-sample interaction. In this work, we performed a more comprehensive numerical simulation which is based on realistic experimental parameters and signal extraction procedures. By directly comparing to the experiments as well as other simulation efforts, our methods offer a more accurate quantitative description of the near-field signal, paving the way for future studies of complex systems at the nanoscale.

  2. Small-angle scattering of ions or atoms by atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, V.

    1982-01-01

    A theory for small-angle scattering of arbitrary medium- or high-energy atoms or ions by atomic hydrogen is described. Results are obtained in terms of the known closed-form and easily calculable Glauber-approximation scattering amplitudes for electron-hydrogen collisions and for collisions between the nucleus (treated as one charged particle) of the ion or atom and the hydrogen atom, and in terms of the transition form factor of the arbitrary ion or atom. Applications are made to the angular differential cross sections for the excitation of atomic hydrogen to its n = 2 states by singly charged ground-state helium ions having velocities of roughly between 1/2 and 1 a.u. The differential cross sections are obtained in terms of electron-hydrogen amplitudes and the known He + ground-state form factor. Comparisons are made with other calculations and with recent measurements. The results are in good agreement with the data. It is seen that the effect of the He + electron is to produce significant constructive interference at most energies

  3. Threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy of simple organic acids, aldehydes, ketones and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yencha, Andrew J; Malins, Andrew E R; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Eypper, Marie; King, George C

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a research program to investigate the ionization behavior of some simple organic molecules containing the carboxyl group (R 2 C=O), where R could be H, OH, NH 2 , or CH 3 or other aliphatic or aromatic carbon groups, using threshold photoelectron spectroscopy and photoionization total ion yield spectroscopy. We report here on the simplest organic acid, formic acid, and two simple aldehydes: acetaldehyde and the simplest unsaturated aldehyde, 2-propenal (acrolein). The objective of this study was to characterize the valence cationic states of these molecules with vibrational structural resolution.

  4. On mechanism of low-energy heavy ions scattering on a target surface with small atomic mass

    CERN Document Server

    Umarov, F F; Kudryashova, L B; Krylov, N M

    2002-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental study of low-energy (E sub 0 =20-500 eV) heavy Cs sup + ions scattering on target surfaces with small atomic masses (Al, Si, Ni) has been performed for more accurate definition of mechanism of scattering and evaluation of an opportunity for use of heavy ions scattering as a tool of surface layer analysis. It is shown that the dependence of the relative energies of scattered ions versus the initial energy E/E sub 0 (E sub 0) for Si (E sub b =4.64 eV/atom) and Ni (E sub b =4.43 eV/atom) approximately coincide despite the fact that the mass of Ni atom is twice as large as that of the Si atom mass. At the same time their binding energies E sub b are approximately equal to each other. It is found that the scattering angles of Cs sup + ions considerably exceed a limiting scattering angle theta sub l sub i sub m in a single collision. It has been established that the scattering of low-energy heavy ions by light targets is described by a non-binary mechanism of many-particle inter...

  5. The ion velocity distribution of tokamak plasmas: Rutherford scattering at TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tammen, H.F.

    1995-01-10

    One of the most promising ways to gererate electricity in the next century on a large scale is nuclear fusion. In this process two light nuclei fuse and create a new nucleus with a smaller mass than the total mass of the original nuclei, the mass deficit is released in the form of kinetic energy. Research into this field has already been carried out for some decades now, and will have to continue for several more decades before a commercially viable fusion reactor can be build. In order to obtain fusion, fuels of extremely high temperatures are needed to overcome the repulsive force of the nuclei involved. Under these circumstances the fuel is fully ionized: it consists of ions and electrons and is in the plasma state. The problem of confining such a hot substance is solved by using strong magnetic fields. One specific magnetic configuration, in common use, is called the tokamak. The plasma in this machine has a toroidal, i.e. doughnut shaped, configuration. For understanding the physical processes which take place in the plasma, a good temporally and spatially resolved knowledge of both the ion and electron velocity distribution is required. The situation concerning the electrons is favourable, but this is not the case for the ions. To improve the existing knowledge of the ion velocity distribution in tokamak plasmas, a Rutherford scattering diagnostic (RUSC), designed and built by the FOM-Institute for Plasmaphysics `Rijnhuizen`, was installed at the TEXTOR tokamak in Juelich (D). The principle of the diagnostic is as follows. A beam of monoenergetic particles (30 keV, He) is injected vertically into the plasma. A small part of these particles collides elastically with the moving plasma ions. By determining the energy of a scattered beam particle under a certain angle (7 ), the initial velocity of the plasma ion in one direction can be computed. (orig./WL).

  6. The ion velocity distribution of tokamak plasmas: Rutherford scattering at TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammen, H.F.

    1995-01-01

    One of the most promising ways to gererate electricity in the next century on a large scale is nuclear fusion. In this process two light nuclei fuse and create a new nucleus with a smaller mass than the total mass of the original nuclei, the mass deficit is released in the form of kinetic energy. Research into this field has already been carried out for some decades now, and will have to continue for several more decades before a commercially viable fusion reactor can be build. In order to obtain fusion, fuels of extremely high temperatures are needed to overcome the repulsive force of the nuclei involved. Under these circumstances the fuel is fully ionized: it consists of ions and electrons and is in the plasma state. The problem of confining such a hot substance is solved by using strong magnetic fields. One specific magnetic configuration, in common use, is called the tokamak. The plasma in this machine has a toroidal, i.e. doughnut shaped, configuration. For understanding the physical processes which take place in the plasma, a good temporally and spatially resolved knowledge of both the ion and electron velocity distribution is required. The situation concerning the electrons is favourable, but this is not the case for the ions. To improve the existing knowledge of the ion velocity distribution in tokamak plasmas, a Rutherford scattering diagnostic (RUSC), designed and built by the FOM-Institute for Plasmaphysics 'Rijnhuizen', was installed at the TEXTOR tokamak in Juelich (D). The principle of the diagnostic is as follows. A beam of monoenergetic particles (30 keV, He) is injected vertically into the plasma. A small part of these particles collides elastically with the moving plasma ions. By determining the energy of a scattered beam particle under a certain angle (7 ), the initial velocity of the plasma ion in one direction can be computed. (orig./WL)

  7. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  8. Localization Spectroscopy of a Single Ion in an Optical Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legrand, Olivier Philippe Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The work reported in this thesis primarily focuses on studies of the dynamics of a single laser-cooled ion, simultaneously confined in the harmonic potential of a linear Paul trap and a rapidly varying periodic potential – a so-called optical lattice – generated from an optical standing-wave. Bes...... as a new tool for future cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments in the Ion trap group at Aarhus University.......-wave. Besides providing a better understanding of the dynamics of an ion subjected to varying trapping conditions, this work establishes a basis for future studies of various quantum many-body physics models, for manipulations of the structure of large ion Coulomb crystals, and for optimization...... of the interaction between light and matter in connection with quantum information experiments. In addition to the deep, three-dimensional harmonic potential of the linear Paul trap which confines the ion in regions of several millimeters, one of the directions of the ion motion is constrained by the application...

  9. Spectroscopy and nonclassical fluorescence properties of single trapped Ba+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, J.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis reports on the setup and application of an experimental apparatus for spectroscopic and quantum optical investigations of a single Barium ion in a Paul trap. The realization of the apparatus, which consists of the ion trap in ultra high vacuum, two laser systems, and a photon counting detection system, is described in detail, with particular consideration of the noise sources like stray light and laser frequency instabilities. The two lasers at 493 nm and 650 nm needed to continuously excite resonance fluorescence from the Barium ion have been realized using diode lasers only. The preparation of a single localized Barium ion is described, in particular its optical cooling with the laser light and the minimization of induced vibration in the trapping potential. The purely quantum mechanical property of antibunching is observed by measuring the intensity correlation function of resonance fluorescence from the trapped and cooled ion. Interference properties of the single ion resonance fluorescence are investigated with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. From the measured high-contrast interference signal it is proven that each individual fluorescence photon interferes with itself. The fluorescence excitation spectrum, on varying one laser frequency, is also measured and exhibits dark resonances. These measurements are compared to calculations based on optical Bloch equations for the 8 atomic levels involved. Future experiments, in particular the detection of reduced quantum fluctuations (squeezing) in one quadrature component of the resonance fluorescence, are discussed. (author)

  10. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonov, A. N.; Gaidarov, M. K.; Ivanov, M. V.; Kadrev, D. N.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J.; Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S.; Farget, F.; Schmitt, C.; Audouin, L.; Khan, E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Aumann, T.; Beller, P.; Boretzky, K.; Dolinskii, A.; Egelhof, P.; Emling, H.; Franzke, B.; Geissel, H.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kester, O.; Kurz, N.; Litvinov, Y.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nolden, F.; Schmidt, K. -H.; Scheidenberger, Ch.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Weick, H.; Enders, J.; Pietralla, N.; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Zilges, A.; Distler, M. O.; Merkel, H.; Mueller, U.; Junghans, A. R.; Lenske, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Suda, T.; Kato, S.; Adachi, T.; Hamieh, S.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Woertche, H.; Berg, G. P. A.; Koop, I. A.; Logatchov, P. V.; Otboev, A. V.; Parkhomchuk, V. V.; Shatilov, D. N.; Shatunov, P. Y.; Shatunov, Y. M.; Shiyankov, S. V.; Shvartz, D. I.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Chulkov, L. V.; Danilin, B. V.; Korsheninnikov, A. A.; Kuzmin, E. A.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Volkov, V. A.; Grishkin, Y.; Lisin, V. P.; Mushkarenkov, A. N.; Nedorezov, V.; Polonski, A. L.; Rudnev, N. V.; Turinge, A. A.; Artukh, A.; Avdeichikov, V.; Ershov, S. N.; Fomichev, A.; Golovkov, M.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Grigorenko, L.; Klygin, S.; Krupko, S.; Meshkov, I. N.; Rodin, A.; Sereda, Y.; Seleznev, I.; Sidorchuk, S.; Syresin, E.; Stepantsov, S.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Teterev, Y.; Vorontsov, A. N.; Kamerdzhiev, S. P.; Litvinova, E. V.; Karataglidis, S.; Alvarez Rodriguez, R.; Borge, M. J. G.; Ramirez, C. Fernandez; Garrido, E.; Sarriguren, P.; Vignote, J. R.; Fraile Prieto, L. M.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Udias-Moinelo, J.; Amaro Soriano, J. E.; Rojo, A. M. Lallena; Caballero, J. A.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Zhukov, M.; Golubev, P.; Rudolph, D.; Hencken, K.; Jourdan, J.; Krusche, B.; Rauscher, T.; Kiselev, D.; Trautmann, D.; Al-Khalili, J.; Catford, W.; Johnson, R.; Stevenson, P. D.; Barton, C.; Jenkins, D.; Lemmon, R.; Chartier, M.; Cullen, D.; Bertulani, C. A.; Heinz, A.

    2011-01-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the

  11. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K. [INRNE-BAS Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, M.V. [Grupo de Physica Nuclear, Complutense University of Madrid (Spain); Kadrev, D.N. [INRNE-BAS Sofia (Bulgaria); Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires Bordeaux-Gradingnan (CENBG) (France); Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S. [CEA Saclay (France); Farget, F.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL Caen (France)

    2011-05-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the structure of exotic nuclei. The conceptual design and the scientific challenges of ELISe are presented.

  12. The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR)-A conceptual design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gaidarov, M.K.; Ivanov, M.V.; Kadrev, D.N.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Jurado, B.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Granier, T.; Taieb, J.; Dore, D.; Letourneau, A.; Ridikas, D.; Dupont, E.; Berthoumieux, E.; Panebianco, S.; Farget, F.; Schmitt, C.

    2011-01-01

    The electron-ion scattering experiment ELISe is part of the installations envisaged at the new experimental storage ring at the International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. It offers an unique opportunity to use electrons as probe in investigations of the structure of exotic nuclei. The conceptual design and the scientific challenges of ELISe are presented.

  13. Elastic scattering of helium ions on 9Be nuclei and exchange mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtebaev, N.; Dujsebaev, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Among nuclei of 1p-shell 9 Be is an extremely deformed nucleus with cluster structure. This considerably impedes determination of nucleus-nucleus potential of interaction. The latter relates to the fact that cross-section of 3 He ion and ?-particle elastic scattering on light nuclei is formed by not only mechanism of mere potential nature but also by other processes of heavy breakaway and displacement as well as by effects of channel relation. Final probability of 6 He+ and 3 He and 5 He+? cluster existence in 9 Be nucleus can be determined in the processes of 3 He or ?-particle ion scattering. As a result, it can cause considerable growth of cross-section under backward angles due to exchange of impinging particle with identical cluster in a nucleus. In order to study the contribution of different mechanisms into formation of cross-section of elastic scattering of helium nuclides on 9 Be nucleus we have performed series of experiments in broad angular range at energies 8-20 MeV/nucleon at derived beams of isochronous cyclotron of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of Kazakhstan national Nuclear Centre

  14. Nuclear laser spectroscopy with on-line ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Nakamura, T.; Ohtani, S.

    1996-01-01

    The hyperfine structure of atoms informs us various static characteristics of nuclei, particularly for electro-magnetic moments and their distributions. We have been developing an experimental method to perform laser-microwave double-resonance spectroscopy for the hyperfine structure of Be and Ca isotopes, including unstable nuclei. The purpose and the status of the experiments are described. (orig.)

  15. Free ion spectroscopy of einsteinium and comments on fermium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    The spectroscopy of einsteinium is presented and other relevant atomic data are cited to give an understanding of the status of that element. Information on the continuing work on einsteinium is given. A few comments on fermium are made. 6 figures, 1 table

  16. Dissociation mechanism of HNIW ions investigated by chemical ionization and electron impact mass spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Rongjie; Xiao, Hemiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2006-04-15

    Chemical Ionization (CI) with Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) spectroscopy and Electron Impacting (EI) with metastable Mass analyzed Ion Kinetic Energy (MIKE) spectroscopy have been applied to study ionic dissociations of Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW). Similarities and differences between EI/MIKE and CI/CID mass spectra of HNIW were analyzed. In EI mass spectra, the ions [HNIW-n NO{sub 2}]{sup +} (n=2-5), such as the ion at m/z 347, were less frequent (1-2% relative abundance), but in CI mass spectra, these ions were very abundant. For some ions of large molar mass from HNIW, their dissociations pathways from parent ions to daughter ions were built according to CID and MIKE spectra. Molecular ions of HNIW with a protonated nitro group at five-member ring seem more stable than at six-member ring. The HNIW ions losing five of six nitro groups are very stable based on CID spectra, which agrees with some research results for thermal decomposition of HNIW in literature. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Non-destructive state detection for quantum logic spectroscopy of molecular ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Fabian; Wan, Yong; Heip, Jan C; Gebert, Florian; Shi, Chunyan; Schmidt, Piet O

    2016-02-25

    Precision laser spectroscopy of cold and trapped molecular ions is a powerful tool in fundamental physics--used, for example, in determining fundamental constants, testing for their possible variation in the laboratory, and searching for a possible electric dipole moment of the electron. However, the absence of cycling transitions in molecules poses a challenge for direct laser cooling of the ions, and for controlling and detecting their quantum states. Previously used state-detection techniques based on photodissociation or chemical reactions are destructive and therefore inefficient, restricting the achievable resolution in laser spectroscopy. Here, we experimentally demonstrate non-destructive detection of the quantum state of a single trapped molecular ion through its strong Coulomb coupling to a well controlled, co-trapped atomic ion. An algorithm based on a state-dependent optical dipole force changes the internal state of the atom according to the internal state of the molecule. We show that individual quantum states in the molecular ion can be distinguished by the strength of their coupling to the optical dipole force. We also observe quantum jumps (induced by black-body radiation) between rotational states of a single molecular ion. Using the detuning dependence of the state-detection signal, we implement a variant of quantum logic spectroscopy of a molecular resonance. Our state-detection technique is relevant to a wide range of molecular ions, and could be applied to state-controlled quantum chemistry and to spectroscopic investigations of molecules that serve as probes for interstellar clouds.

  18. Improving depth resolutions in positron beam spectroscopy by concurrent ion-beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Marco; Dalla, Ayham; Ibrahim, Alaa M.; Anwand, Wolfgang; Wagner, Andreas; Böttger, Roman; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard

    2018-05-01

    The depth resolution of mono-energetic positron annihilation spectroscopy using a positron beam is shown to improve by concurrently removing the sample surface layer during positron beam spectroscopy. During ion-beam sputtering with argon ions, Doppler-broadening spectroscopy is performed with energies ranging from 3 keV to 5 keV allowing for high-resolution defect studies just below the sputtered surface. With this technique, significantly improved depth resolutions could be obtained even at larger depths when compared to standard positron beam experiments which suffer from extended positron implantation profiles at higher positron energies. Our results show that it is possible to investigate layered structures with a thickness of about 4 microns with significantly improved depth resolution. We demonstrated that a purposely generated ion-beam induced defect profile in a silicon sample could be resolved employing the new technique. A depth resolution of less than 100 nm could be reached.

  19. The complex ion structure of warm dense carbon measured by spectrally resolved x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, D.; Barbrel, B.; Falcone, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Vorberger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Helfrich, J.; Frydrych, S.; Ortner, A.; Otten, A.; Roth, F.; Schaumann, G.; Schumacher, D.; Siegenthaler, K.; Wagner, F.; Roth, M. [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 9, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Gericke, D. O.; Wünsch, K. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Bachmann, B.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bagnoud, V.; Blažević, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2015-05-15

    We present measurements of the complex ion structure of warm dense carbon close to the melting line at pressures around 100 GPa. High-pressure samples were created by laser-driven shock compression of graphite and probed by intense laser-generated x-ray sources with photon energies of 4.75 keV and 4.95 keV. High-efficiency crystal spectrometers allow for spectrally resolving the scattered radiation. Comparing the ratio of elastically and inelastically scattered radiation, we find evidence for a complex bonded liquid that is predicted by ab-initio quantum simulations showing the influence of chemical bonds under these conditions. Using graphite samples of different initial densities we demonstrate the capability of spectrally resolved x-ray scattering to monitor the carbon solid-liquid transition at relatively constant pressure of 150 GPa. Showing first single-pulse scattering spectra from cold graphite of unprecedented quality recorded at the Linac Coherent Light Source, we demonstrate the outstanding possibilities for future high-precision measurements at 4th Generation Light Sources.

  20. Thomson scattering measurements of ion interpenetration in cylindrically converging, supersonic magnetized plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, George

    2015-11-01

    Ion interpenetration driven by high velocity plasma collisions is an important phenomenon in high energy density environments such as the interiors of ICF vacuum hohlraums and fast z-pinches. The presence of magnetic fields frozen into these colliding flows further complicates the interaction dynamics. This talk focuses on an experimental investigation of ion interpenetration in collisions between cylindrically convergent, supersonic, magnetized flows (M ~10, Vflow ~ 100km/s, ni ~ 1017cm-3) . The flows used in this study were plasma ablation streams produced by tungsten wire array z-pinches, driven by the 1.4MA, 240ns Magpie facility at Imperial College, and diagnosed using a combination of optical Thomson scattering, Faraday rotation and interferometry. Optical Thomson scattering (TS) provides time-resolved measurements of local flow velocity and plasma temperature across multiple (7 to 14) spatial positions. TS spectra are recorded simultaneously from multiple directions with respect to the probing beam, resulting in separate measurements of the rates of transverse diffusion and slowing-down of the ion velocity distribution. The measurements demonstrate flow interpenetration through the array axis at early time, and also show an axial deflection of the ions towards the anode. This deflection is induced by a toroidal magnetic field (~ 10T), frozen into the plasma that accumulates near the axis. Measurements obtained later in time show a change in the dynamics of the stream interactions, transitioning towards a collisional, shock-like interaction of the streams, and rapid radial collapse of the magnetized plasma column. The quantitative nature of the spatial profiles of the density, flow velocities and ion temperatures measured in these experiments will allow detailed verification of MHD and PIC codes used by the HEDP community. Work Supported by EPSRC (Grant No. EP/G001324/1), DOE (Cooperative Agreement Nos. DE-F03-02NA00057 & DE-SC-0001063) & Sandia National

  1. Beam-foil spectroscopy of chlorine and sulfur ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, D.; Barchewitz, R.; Cukier, M.; Bruneau, J.

    1987-01-01

    We report on the measurement of spectra of highly stripped chlorine and sulfur ions in the energy ranges of, respectively, 2900 - 3500 eV and 2300 - 2600 eV. The spectra have been obtained after excitation of ions travelling through a thin carbon foil. X-rays emitted by the emerging beam are analysed with a Johann-type bent crystal spectrometer. The observation angle with respect to the beam axis is 54 0 . The interpretation of the spectra is performed by comparing experimental results with Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) calculated energies and intensities. All the lines are interpreted by 2p - ls transitions (K α spectrum) in excited ions with, respectively, H-, He-, Li-, Be- and B-like electron structures

  2. SCATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, J.

    1965-11-01

    The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)

  3. Micro faraday-element array detector for ion mobility spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Christopher A [Albuquerque, NM; Rodacy, Phillip J [Albuquerque, NM; Denton, M Bonner [Tucson, AZ; Sperline, Roger [Tucson, AZ

    2004-10-26

    An ion mobility spectrometer includes a drift tube having a collecting surface covering a collecting area at one end of the tube. The surface comprises a plurality of closely spaced conductive elements on a non-conductive substrate, each conductive element being electrically insulated from each other element. A plurality of capacitive transimpedance amplifiers (CTIA) adjacent the collecting surface are electrically connected to the plurality of elements, so charge from an ion striking an element is transferred to the capacitor of the connected CTIA. A controller counts the charge on the capacitors over a period of time.

  4. Doubly versus Singly Positively Charged Oxygen Ions Back-Scattering from a Silicon Surface under Dynamic O2+ Bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franzreb, K.; Williams, P.; Lörinčík, Jan; Šroubek, Zdeněk

    203-204, 1/4 (2003), s. 39-42 ISSN 0169-4332 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : low-energy ion scattering * doubly charged ions * molecular orbital Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.284, year: 2003

  5. Experimental and simulated fast ion velocity distributions on collective Thomson scattering diagnostic in the Large Helical Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a collective Thomson scattering diagnostic system in the LHD. The CTS spectrum spread is observed in the frequency region corresponding to the bulk and fast ions during NB injection. The NB originated fast ions are evaluated by the MORH code for understanding the measured CTS sp...

  6. Fast-ion redistribution due to sawtooth crash in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Salewski, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    Here we present collective Thomson scattering measurements of 1D fast-ion velocity distribution functions in neutral beam heated TEXTOR plasmas with sawtooth oscillations. Up to 50% of the fast ions in the centre are redistributed as a consequence of a sawtooth crash. We resolve various directions...

  7. Development of an Apparatus for High-Resolution Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) and Electron Ion Coincidence (EICO) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Hashimoto, Shogo; Fujita, Narihiko; Mase, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Okusawa, Makoto

    We have developed an electron electron ion coincidence (EEICO) apparatus for high-resolution Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy. It consists of a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA), a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DP-CMA), a miniature time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), a magnetic shield, an xyz stage, a tilt-adjustment mechanism, and a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 203 mm. A sample surface was irradiated by synchrotron radiation, and emitted electrons were energy-analyzed and detected by the ASMA and the DP-CMA, while desorbed ions were mass-analyzed and detected by the TOF-MS. The performance of the new EEICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring Si 2p photoelectron spectra of clean Si(001)-2×1 and Si(111)-7×7, and by measuring Si-L23VV-Si-2p Auger photoelectron coincidence spectra (Si-L23VV-Si-2p APECS) of clean Si(001)-2×1.

  8. Scattering of light keV ions from amorphous and crystalline solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.E.; Kwok, K.K.; Thompson, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Total reflection coefficients (R), backscattered energy fractions (γ), and backscattered energy spectra are evaluated using a binary collision Monte Carlo technique for a variety of light ions (H, D, T, He) in the energy range 0.25-8 keV, incident on amorphous targets (C, Fe, Nb). The scattering is also evaluated for H on Nb for a range of incident angles and two electronic stopping values. The average scattered energy per reflected particle and the backscattered energy spectra are found to vary in a universal manner as a function of the reflection coefficient between the Rutherford high energy limit and a low energy multiple collision limit. Single crystal effects are also briefly discussed using a diffusional dechanneling model. (Auth.)

  9. Nearside-farside analysis of aligned heavy-ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, K.; Grawert, G.; Mukhopadhyay, D.

    1985-01-01

    The nearside-farside decomposition of scattering amplitudes is brought to bear upon analysing powers for polarized heavy-ion elastic scattering. Results for aligned 7 Li on 58 Ni and on 12 C show that at an incident centre-of-mass energy slightly above the Coulomb barrier all observables provide a clear signature of a nearside-dominated process. This is in consonance with the so-called shape-effect ideology which relates second-rank analysing powers with the orientation of aligned, deformed projectiles solely at the point of closest approach. At higher energies, however, the advent of Fraunhofer interference as observed in cross section and analysing powers is found to be coupled with increasing deviations from the shape-effect relations. (orig.)

  10. Nearside-farside analysis of aligned heavy-ion elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, K; Grawert, G [Marburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich Physik; Mukhopadhyay, D [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1985-04-22

    The nearside-farside decomposition of scattering amplitudes is brought to bear upon analysing powers for polarized heavy-ion elastic scattering. Results for aligned /sup 7/Li on /sup 58/Ni and on /sup 12/C show that at an incident centre-of-mass energy slightly above the Coulomb barrier all observables provide a clear signature of a nearside-dominated process. This is in consonance with the so-called shape-effect ideology which relates second-rank analysing powers with the orientation of aligned, deformed projectiles solely at the point of closest approach. At higher energies, however, the advent of Fraunhofer interference as observed in cross section and analysing powers is found to be coupled with increasing deviations from the shape-effect relations.

  11. Alkali ion scattering from Ag(0 0 1) and Ag thin films at low and hyperthermal energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, M.P.; Lake, R.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, 118 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Sosolik, C.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, 118 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)], E-mail: sosolik@clemson.edu

    2009-02-15

    We have investigated the scattering of K{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions from a single crystal Ag(0 0 1) surface and from a Ag-Si(1 0 0) Schottky diode structure. For the K{sup +} ions, incident energies of 25 eV to 1 keV were used to obtain energy-resolved spectra of scattered ions at {theta}{sub i} = {theta}{sub f} = 45 deg. These results are compared to the classical trajectory simulation SAFARI and show features indicative of light atom-surface scattering where sequential binary collisions can describe the observed energy loss spectra. Energy-resolved spectra obtained for Cs{sup +} ions at incident energies of 75 eV and 200 eV also show features consistent with binary collisions. However, for this heavy atom-surface scattering system, the dominant trajectory type involves at least two surface atoms, as large angular deflections are not classically allowed for any single scattering event. In addition, a significant deviation from the classical double-collision prediction is observed for incident energies around 100 eV, and molecular dynamics studies are proposed to investigate the role of collective lattice effects. Data are also presented for the scattering of K{sup +} ions from a Schottky diode structure, which is a prototype device for the development of active targets to probe energy loss at a surface.

  12. Unified description of scattering and fusion phenomena in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, Basudeb; Sahu, B. B.; Mallick, G. S.; Agarwalla, S. K.; Shastry, C. S.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical recursive formula of the partial-wave scattering matrix for the total effective complex potential of nucleus-nucleus collisions is derived to conveniently analyze the data of angular variations of elastic scattering cross sections. Further, another expression of cross sections for the absorption from arbitrarily small intervals is derived. This leads to the explanation of the fusion cross section (σ fus ) data at various incident center-of-mass energies E c.m. by collecting the absorption contributions in the interior region of the effective potential. This concept is akin to that used by Udagawa et al. in the calculation of fusion cross sections in elastic channels. The interaction potential considered in the analysis is energy independent and by virtue of its weakly absorbing character it supports resonance states in different partial-wave trajectories. Consequently, occurrence of these resonances is shown to be the physical origin of the observed oscillatory structure in the variation respect to energy of the quantity D(E c.m. )=d 2 (E c.m. σ fus )/dE c.m. 2 , the second derivative of the product E c.m. σ fus with respect to E c.m. . In this article, we investigate two well-known cases of heavy-ion collisions, namely 12 C+ 208 Pb and 16 O+ 208 Pb, and obtain simultaneous and very successful explanations of cross sections for elastic scattering and fusion and the results of D(E c.m. ). These results obtained by using a somewhat novel and convenient method demonstrate the unified description of scattering and fusion for interacting heavy-ion systems

  13. Ion distributions at charged aqueous surfaces: Synchrotron X-ray scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Wei [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Surface sensitive synchrotron X-ray scattering studies were performed to obtain the distribution of monovalent ions next to a highly charged interface at room temperature. To control surface charge density, lipids, dihexadecyl hydrogen-phosphate (DHDP) and dimysteroyl phosphatidic acid (DMPA), were spread as monolayer materials at the air/water interface, containing CsI at various concentrations. Five decades in bulk concentrations (CsI) are investigated, demonstrating that the interfacial distribution is strongly dependent on bulk concentration. We show that this is due to the strong binding constant of hydronium H3O+ to the phosphate group, leading to proton-transfer back to the phosphate group and to a reduced surface charge. Using anomalous reflectivity off and at the L3 Cs+ resonance, we provide spatial counterion (Cs+) distributions next to the negatively charged interfaces. The experimental ion distributions are in excellent agreement with a renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions without fitting parameters or additional assumptions. Energy Scans at four fixed momentum transfers under specular reflectivity conditions near the Cs+ L3 resonance were conducted on 10-3 M CsI with DHDP monolayer materials on the surface. The energy scans exhibit a periodic dependence on photon momentum transfer. The ion distributions obtained from the analysis are in excellent agreement with those obtained from anomalous reflectivity measurements, providing further confirmation to the validity of the renormalized surface charge Poisson-Boltzmann theory for monovalent ions. Moreover, the dispersion corrections f0 and f00 for Cs+ around L3 resonance, revealing the local environment of a Cs+ ion in the solution at the interface, were extracted simultaneously with output of ion distributions.

  14. Calcium ions in aqueous solutions: Accurate force field description aided by ab initio molecular dynamics and neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinek, Tomas; Duboué-Dijon, Elise; Timr, Štěpán; Mason, Philip E.; Baxová, Katarina; Fischer, Henry E.; Schmidt, Burkhard; Pluhařová, Eva; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2018-06-01

    We present a combination of force field and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations together with neutron scattering experiments with isotopic substitution that aim at characterizing ion hydration and pairing in aqueous calcium chloride and formate/acetate solutions. Benchmarking against neutron scattering data on concentrated solutions together with ion pairing free energy profiles from ab initio molecular dynamics allows us to develop an accurate calcium force field which accounts in a mean-field way for electronic polarization effects via charge rescaling. This refined calcium parameterization is directly usable for standard molecular dynamics simulations of processes involving this key biological signaling ion.

  15. Nuclear rotational population patterns in heavy-ion scattering and transfer reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, J O; Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ring, P [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1991-05-01

    A model of {sup 239}Pu with decoupled neutron is used for theoretical calculations of rotational population patterns in heavy ion inelastic scattering and one-neutron transfer reactions. The system treated in {sup 90}Zr on {sup 239}Pu at the near-barrier energy of 500 MeV and backscattering angles of 180deg and 140deg. The influence of the complex nuclear optical potential is seen to be very strong, and the Nilsson wave function of the odd neutron produces a distinctive pattern in the transfer reaction. (orig.).

  16. Study of surface by ion scattering with simultaneous formation of inner shell vacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    The program on modeling the atomic particles scattering, making it possible to account for the change in the particles charge state in each collision act with an account of the additional ionization, is developed. It is shown, that the additional ionization of the departing particles due to the decay of vacancies in the inner shells increases the accuracy of the surface composition analysis. The algorithm of deriving from the experimental data the information on the dependence of the particles neutralization probability on the distance from the surface is proposed and the conclusion is made on the necessity of accounting for the recharge process for neutralization of the ions with the q>2 [ru

  17. Dynamically induced spin-dependent interaction in the elastic scattering of heavy-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1982-02-01

    Dynamical polarization effect in heavy-ion elastic scattering is investigated in the framework of the coupled-reaction-channel theory. By using the adiabatic approximation at low incident energies, this effect is expressed as a spin-orbit (L vector.S vector) interaction with a L vector and S vector independent radial function. The strength of the (L vector.S vector) interaction calculated for the 12 C + 13 C system is in the same order of magnitude as deduced from experiments and is about two orders of magnitude larger than that obtained from the folding model calculation. (author)

  18. Structural characterization of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots using medium energy ion scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortica, M. A.; Grande, P. L.; Radtke, C.; Almeida, L. G.; Debastiani, R.; Dias, J. F.; Hentz, A.

    2012-07-01

    In the present work, we have analyzed CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots by medium energy ion scattering (MEIS), which is a powerful technique to explore the synthesis, formation, stability, and elemental distribution of such core-shell structures, along with other auxiliary analytical techniques. By comparing different quantum-dot structural models spectra with the experimental MEIS data, we were able to obtain some sample structural information. We found that, despite the well known non stoichiometric Cd:Se ratio, the core is stoichiometric, and there is an excess of cadmium distributed in the shell.

  19. Negative magnetoresistance in perpendicular of the superlattices axis weak magnetic field at scattering of impurity ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askerov, B. M.; Figarova, R.; Guseynov, G.I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text : The transverse magnetoresistance in superlattices with the cosine dispersion law of conduction electrons in a case, when a weak magnetic field in plane of layer at scattering of the charge carriers of impurity ions has been studied. It has been shown that in a quasi-two-dimensional case the magnetoresistance was positive, while in a quasi-three-dimensional case can become negative depending of a degree of mini-band filling. Such behavior of magnetoresistance, apparently, has been related to presence in a mini-band of region with the negative effective mass

  20. Trapped Ion Oscillation Frequencies as Sensors for Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Nörtershäuser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The oscillation frequencies of charged particles in a Penning trap can serve as sensors for spectroscopy when additional field components are introduced to the magnetic and electric fields used for confinement. The presence of so-called “magnetic bottles” and specific electric anharmonicities creates calculable energy-dependences of the oscillation frequencies in the radiofrequency domain which may be used to detect the absorption or emission of photons both in the microwave and optical frequency domains. The precise electronic measurement of these oscillation frequencies therefore represents an optical sensor for spectroscopy. We discuss possible applications for precision laser and microwave spectroscopy and their role in the determination of magnetic moments and excited state lifetimes. Also, the trap-assisted measurement of radiative nuclear de-excitations in the X-ray domain is discussed. This way, the different applications range over more than 12 orders of magnitude in the detectable photon energies, from below μeV in the microwave domain to beyond MeV in the X-ray domain.

  1. Interaction between crystal lattice and mobile ions in copper selenides studied by EXAFS spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asylgushina, G.N.; Bikkulova, N.N.; Titova, S.G.; Kochubey, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Interaction between crystal lattice and mobile Cu ions has been studied in Cu 2- x Se in superionic and in normal state using EXAFS-spectroscopy. It has been found that the transition from normal to superionic state and change of mobile Cu ion concentration practically do not have an influence on local state of Cu atoms, but change of both these parameters is accompanied by a change of Se-sublattice state

  2. Alkali Earth Ion Spectroscopy in Preparation of a Weinberg Angle Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valappol, Nivedya; Dijck, Elwin; Hofsteenge, Aswin; Mohanty, Amita; Willmann, Lorenz; Jungmann, Klaus-Peter

    2017-01-01

    Through precision spectroscopy on Ba+ ions we determine precisely the 6s2S1/2 - 6p2P1/2, 6p2P1/2 - 5d2D3/2, 6s2S1/2 - 5d2D3/2 transition frequencies. In these experiments we employ laser-cooled single trapped ions. The optical frequencies are controlled by a frequency comb and I2 line locked laser

  3. Quantification of Material Fluorescence and Light Scattering Cross Sections Using Ratiometric Bandwidth-Varied Polarized Resonance Synchronous Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Joanna Xiuzhu; Hu, Juan; Zhang, Dongmao

    2018-05-25

    Presented herein is the ratiometric bandwidth-varied polarized resonance synchronous spectroscopy (BVPRS2) method for quantification of material optical activity spectra. These include the sample light absorption and scattering cross-section spectrum, the scattering depolarization spectrum, and the fluorescence emission cross-section and depolarization spectrum in the wavelength region where the sample both absorbs and emits. This ratiometric BVPRS2 spectroscopic method is a self-contained technique capable of quantitatively decoupling material fluorescence and light scattering signal contribution to its ratiometric BVPRS2 spectra through the linear curve-fitting of the ratiometric BVPRS2 signal as a function of the wavelength bandwidth used in the PRS2 measurements. Example applications of this new spectroscopic method are demonstrated with materials that can be approximated as pure scatterers, simultaneous photon absorbers/emitters, simultaneous photon absorbers/scatterers, and finally simultaneous photon absorbers/scatterers/emitters. Because the only instruments needed for this ratiometric BVPRS2 technique are the conventional UV-vis spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer, this work should open doors for routine decomposition of material UV-vis extinction spectrum into its absorption and scattering component spectra. The methodology and insights provided in this work should be of broad significance to all chemical research that involves photon/matter interactions.

  4. A Linear Ion Trap with an Expanded Inscribed Diameter to Improve Optical Access for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Stokes, Chris; Ferzoco, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    We report a custom-geometry linear ion trap designed for fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions at ambient to cryogenic temperatures. Laser-induced fluorescence from trapped ions is collected from between the trapping rods, orthogonal to the excitation laser that runs along the axis of the linear ion trap. To increase optical access to the ion cloud, the diameter of the round trapping rods is 80% of the inscribed diameter, rather than the roughly 110% used to approximate purely quadrupolar electric fields. To encompass as much of the ion cloud as possible, the first collection optic has a 25.4 mm diameter and a numerical aperture of 0.6. The choice of geometry and collection optics yields 107 detected photons/s from trapped rhodamine 6G ions. The trap is coupled to a closed-cycle helium refrigerator, which in combination with two 50 Ohm heaters enables temperature control to below 25 K on the rod electrodes. The purpose of the instrument is to broaden the applicability of fluorescence spectroscopy of gas-phase ions to cases where photon emission is a minority relaxation pathway. Such studies are important to understand how the microenvironment of a chromophore influences excited state charge transfer processes.

  5. Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.

    1987-01-01

    The saturation of the Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) is studied by means of wave-coupling numerical simulations. A new code (CHEOPS) has been designed in order to model these couplings, in real 1-D space, with aperiodic boundary conditions. Each wave can be represented either by a complete amplitude or by an envelope amplitude only. The choice of the wave set to be coupled allows to investigate separately some mechanisms relevant in long time SRS evolution. The various mechanisms which may inhibit SRS growth are reviewed and the SRS saturation scenarios are exhibited in an homogeneous density plasma slab. The ion dependent mechanisms appear to be the most efficient ones to saturate SRS. Their importance is strongly bound to the electron temperature and to the ion fluctuation level at time when SRS has already grown many e-foldings

  6. Suppression of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering in multiple-ion species inertial confinement fusion Hohlraum Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumayer, P

    2007-01-01

    A long-standing problem in the field of laser-plasma interactions is to successfully employ multiple-ion species plasmas to reduce stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum conditions. Multiple-ion species increase significantly the linear Landau damping for acoustic waves. Consequently, recent hohlraum designs for indirect-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility investigate wall liner material options so that the liner gain for parametric instabilities will be below threshold for the onset SBS. Although the effect of two-ion species plasmas on Landau damping has been directly observed with Thomson scattering, early experiments on SBS in these plasmas have suffered from competing non-linear effects or laser beam filamentation. In this study, a reduction of SBS scattering to below the percent level has been observed in hohlraums at Omega that emulate the plasma conditions in an indirect drive ICF experiments. These experiments have measured the laser-plasma interaction processes in ignition-relevant high-electron temperature regime demonstrating Landau damping as a controlling process for SBS. The hohlraums have been filled with various fractions of CO 2 and C 3 H 8 varying the ratio of the light (H) to heavy (C and O) ion density from 0 to 2.6. They have been heated by 14.5 kJ of 351-nm light, thus increasing progressively Landau damping by an order of magnitude at constant electron density and temperature. A delayed 351-nm interaction beam, spatially smoothed to produce a 200-(micro)m laser spot at best focus, has propagated along the axis of the hohlraum. The backscattered light, both into the lens and outside, the transmitted light through the hohlraum plasma and the radiation temperature of the hohlraum has been measured. For ignition relevant laser intensities (3-9 10 14 Wcm -2 ), we find that the SBS reflectivity scales as predicted with Landau damping from >30% to <1%. Simultaneously, the hohlraum radiation

  7. ITER fast ion collective Thomson scattering, conceptual design of 60 GHz system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, F.; Bindslev, H.; Korsholm, S.B.

    2007-08-01

    The collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for ITER at the 60 GHz range is capable of measuring the fast ion distribution parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field at different radial locations simultaneously. The design is robust technologically with no moveable components near the plasma. The fast ion CTS diagnostic consists of two separate systems. Each system has its own RF launcher and separate set of detectors. The first system measures the perpendicular component of the fast ion velocity distribution. It consists of radially directed RF launcher and receiver, both located in the equatorial port on the low field side (LFS). This system will be referred to by the acronym LFS-BS system referring to the location of the receiver and the fact that it measures backscattered radiation. The second part of the CTS diagnostic measures the parallel component of the fast ion distribution. It consists of an RF launcher located in the mid-plane port on the LFS and a receiver mounted on the inner vacuum vessel wall that views the plasma from between two blanket modules. This system will be referred to as HFS-FS referring to the location of the receivers and that they measure forward scattered radiation. The design of both LFS-BS and HFS-FS receivers is aimed at measuring at different spatial locations simultaneously with no moveable components near the plasma. This report is a preliminary study of the hardware design and engineering constraints for this frequency range. Section 2 conceptually describes the two systems and their main components. Section 3 clarifies the impact of design parameters such as beam widths and scattering angle on the CTS measurements. With this in hand, the ITER measurement requirements are translated into constraints on the CTS system designs. An important result in this section is that systems can be designed inside these constraints. Section 4 outlines the technical feasibility and describes in more detail the design and the engineering

  8. Super TOF secondary ion mass spectroscopy using very highly charged primary ions up to Th70+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briere, M.A.; Schenkel, T.; Schneider, D.

    1995-01-01

    The LLNL Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) has made low emittance beams of slow highly charged ions available for ion-solid interaction studies. Such interactions feature the dominance of electronic over collisional effects, and the shock waves generated by the ionized target atoms can desorb large numbers of large molecular species from the surface. This paper presents the first systematic study of the sputtering process due to the incidence of slow very highly charged ions; Th 70+ ions are extracted from EBIT at 7 keV * q and directed onto thin SiO 2 films on Si. Results suggest secondary ion yields of up to 25 per incident ion for Th 70+ (secondary ion yield is increased over that for singly or moderately charged ions). Correlations of the negative, positive, and negative cluster ion yields show promise for application of highly charged ion induced sputtering for enhanced sensitivity and quantitative (absolute) SIMS analysis of deep submicron scale surface layers and polymeric and biomolecular material analysis

  9. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the dysprosium monochloride molecular ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.dunning@gmail.com; Schowalter, Steven J.; Puri, Prateek; Hudson, Eric R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Petrov, Alexander; Kotochigova, Svetlana [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States)

    2015-09-28

    We have performed a combined experimental and theoretical study of the photodissociation cross section of the molecular ion DyCl{sup +}. The photodissociation cross section for the photon energy range 35 500 cm{sup −1} to 47 500 cm{sup −1} is measured using an integrated ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometer; we observe a broad, asymmetric profile that is peaked near 43 000 cm{sup −1}. The theoretical cross section is determined from electronic potentials and transition dipole moments calculated using the relativistic configuration-interaction valence-bond and coupled-cluster methods. The electronic structure of DyCl{sup +} is extremely complex due to the presence of multiple open electronic shells, including the 4f{sup 10} configuration. The molecule has nine attractive potentials with ionically bonded electrons and 99 repulsive potentials dissociating to a ground state Dy{sup +} ion and Cl atom. We explain the lack of symmetry in the cross section as due to multiple contributions from one-electron-dominated transitions between the vibrational ground state and several resolved repulsive excited states.

  10. Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigio, Irving J.; Brown, Stephen G.; Briggs, Gavin M.; Kelley, Christine; Lakhani, Sunil; Pickard, David; Ripley, Paul M.; Rose, Ian; Saunders, Christobel

    2000-04-01

    We report on the first stages of a clinical study designed to test elastic-scattering spectroscopy, medicated by fiberoptic probes, for three specific clinical applications in breast-tissue diagnosis: (1) a transdermal-needle (interstitial) measurement for instant diagnosis with minimal invasiveness similar to fine-needle aspiration but with sensitivity to a larger tissue volume, (2) a hand-held diagnostic probe for use in assessing tumor/resection margins during open surgery, and (3) use of the same probe for real-time assessment of the `sentinel' node during surgery to determine the presence or absence of tumor (metastatic). Preliminary results from in vivo measurements on 31 women are encouraging. Optical spectra were measured on 72 histology sites in breast tissue, and 54 histology sites in sentinel nodes. Two different artificial intelligence methods of spectral classification were studied. Artificial neural networks yielded sensitivities of 69% and 58%, and specificities of 85% and 93%, for breast tissue and sentinel nodes, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis yielded sensitivities of 67% and 91%, and specificities of 79% and 77%, for breast tissue and sentinel nodes, respectively. These values are expected to improve as the data sets continue to grow and more sophisticated data preprocessing is employed. The study will enroll up to 400 patients over the next two years.

  11. Indirect glyphosate detection based on ninhydrin reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-Lei; Gao, Yu; Li, Yali; Li, Xueliang; Zhang, Huanjie; Han, Xiao Xia; Zhao, Bing; Su, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate is one of the most commonly-used and non-selective herbicides in agriculture, which may directly pollute the environment and threaten human health. A simple and effective approach to assessment of its damage to the natural environment is thus quite necessary. However, traditional chromatography-based detection methods usually suffer from complex pretreatment procedures. Herein, we propose a simple and sensitive method for the determination of glyphosate by combining ninhydrin reaction and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. The product (purple color dye, PD) of the ninhydrin reaction is found to SERS-active and directly correlate with the glyphosate concentration. The limit of detection of the proposed method for glyphosate is as low as 1.43 × 10- 8 mol·L- 1 with a relatively wider linear concentration range (1.0 × 10- 7-1.0 × 10- 4 mol·L- 1), which demonstrates its great potential in rapid, highly sensitive concentration determination of glyphosate in practical applications for safety assessment of food and environment.

  12. Hybridization in Kondo lattice heavy fermions via quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasiwodeyar, Sanjay; Dwyer, Matt; Greene, Laura; Park, Wan Kyu; Bauer, Eric; Tobash, Paul; Baumbach, Ryan; Ronning, Filip; Sarrao, John; Thompson, Joe; Canfield, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Band renormalization in a Kondo lattice via hybridization of the conduction band with localized states has been a hot topic over the last several years. In part, this has to do with recently reignited interest in the hidden order problem in URu2Si2. Despite recent developments regarding the electronic structure in this compound, it remains to be resolved whether the hidden order phase transition is related to the opening of a hybridization gap. Our quasiparticle scattering spectroscopy (QPS) has shown they are not related directly. This can be understood naturally since in principle band renormalization does not involve symmetry breaking. To deepen our understanding, we extend to other Kondo lattice compounds. For instance, when applied to YbAl3, a vegetable heavy-fermion system, QPS reveals conductance signatures for hybridization in a Kondo lattice such as asymmetric Fano background along with characteristic energy scales. Presenting new results on these materials, we will discuss a broader picture. The work at UIUC is supported by the NSF DMR 12-06766, the work at LANL is carried out under the auspices of the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, and the work done at Ames Lab. was supported under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  13. Innovative diffraction gratings for high-resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronov, D.L.; Warwick, T.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Padmore, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) requires diffraction gratings with very exacting characteristics. The gratings should provide both very high dispersion and high efficiency which are conflicting requirements and extremely challenging to satisfy in the soft x-ray region for a traditional grazing incidence geometry. To achieve high dispersion one should increase the groove density of a grating; this however results in a diffraction angle beyond the critical angle range and results in drastic efficiency loss. The problem can be solved by use of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG). In this work we have investigated the diffraction characteristics of MBGs via numerical simulations and have developed a procedure for optimization of grating design for a multiplexed high resolution imaging spectrometer for RIXS spectroscopy to be built in sector 6 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We found that highest diffraction efficiency can be achieved for gratings optimized for 4"t"h or 5"t"h order operation. Fabrication of such gratings is an extremely challenging technological problem. We present a first experimental prototype of these gratings and report its performance. High order and high line density gratings have the potential to be a revolutionary new optical element that should have great impact in the area of soft x-ray RIXS.

  14. Development of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy monitoring of fuel markers to prevent fraud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Timothy; Clarkson, John; White, Peter C.; Meakin, Nicholas; McDonald, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Governments often tax fuel products to generate revenues to support and stimulate their economies. They also subsidize the cost of essential fuel products. Fuel taxation and subsidization practices are both subject to fraud. Oil marketing companies also suffer from fuel fraud with loss of legitimate sales and additional quality and liability issues. The use of an advanced marking system to identify and control fraud has been shown to be effective in controlling illegal activity. DeCipher has developed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy as its lead technology for measuring markers in fuel to identify and control malpractice. SERS has many advantages that make it highly suitable for this purpose. The SERS instruments are portable and can be used to monitor fuel at any point in the supply chain. SERS shows high specificity for the marker, with no false positives. Multiple markers can also be detected in a single SERS analysis allowing, for example, specific regional monitoring of fuel. The SERS analysis from fuel is also quick, clear and decisive, with a measurement time of less than 5 minutes. We will present results highlighting our development of the use of a highly stable silver colloid as a SERS substrate to measure the markers at ppb levels. Preliminary results from the use of a solid state SERS substrate to measure fuel markers will also be presented.

  15. Angular distribution of scattered electron and medium energy electron spectroscopy for metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Takeo; Ishioka, Hisamichi; Fukuda, Hisashi; Irako, Mitsuhiro

    1986-01-01

    The angular distribution (AD) of scattered electrons produced by medium energy incident electrons (E P = 50 ∼ 300 eV) from polycrystalline Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu and Au were obtained by the angle-resolved medium energy electron spectrometer. The AD of the energy loss peaks are similar figures to AD of the elastically reflected electron peaks. Therefore, the exchanged electrons produced by the knock-on collision between the incident electrons and those of metals without momentum transfer are observed as the energy loss spectra (ELS). This interpretation differs from the inconsequent interpretation by the dielectric theory or the interband transition. The information depth and penetration length are obtained from AD of the Auger electron peaks. The contribution of the surface to spectra is 3 % at the maximum for E P = 50 eV. The true secondary peaks representing the secondary electron emission spectroscopy (SES) are caused by the emissions of the energetic electrons (kT e ≥ 4 eV), and SES is the inversion of ELS. The established fundamental view is that the medium energy electron spectra represent the total bulk density of states. (author)

  16. Monitoring cell culture media degradation using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Amandine; Ryder, Alan G

    2014-08-20

    The quality of the cell culture media used in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is a crucial factor affecting bioprocess performance and the quality of the final product. Due to their complex composition these media are inherently unstable, and significant compositional variations can occur particularly when in the prepared liquid state. For example photo-degradation of cell culture media can have adverse effects on cell viability and thus process performance. There is therefore, from quality control, quality assurance and process management view points, an urgent demand for the development of rapid and inexpensive tools for the stability monitoring of these complex mixtures. Spectroscopic methods, based on fluorescence or Raman measurements, have now become viable alternatives to more time-consuming and expensive (on a unit analysis cost) chromatographic and/or mass spectrometry based methods for routine analysis of media. Here we demonstrate the application of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy for the simple, fast, analysis of cell culture media degradation. Once stringent reproducibility controls are implemented, chemometric data analysis methods can then be used to rapidly monitor the compositional changes in chemically defined media. SERS shows clearly that even when media are stored at low temperature (2-8°C) and in the dark, significant chemical changes occur, particularly with regard to cysteine/cystine concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined Dynamic Light Scattering and Raman Spectroscopy Approach for Characterizing the Aggregation of Therapeutic Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Neil Lewis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the physicochemical properties of protein therapeutics and their aggregates is critical for developing formulations that enhance product efficacy, stability, safety and manufacturability. Analytical challenges are compounded for materials: (1 that are formulated at high concentration, (2 that are formulated with a variety of excipients, and (3 that are available only in small volumes. In this article, a new instrument is described that measures protein secondary and tertiary structure, as well as molecular size, over a range of concentrations and formulation conditions of low volume samples. Specifically, characterization of colloidal and conformational stability is obtained through a combination of two well-established analytical techniques: dynamic light scattering (DLS and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. As the data for these two analytical modalities are collected on the same sample at the same time, the technique enables direct correlation between them, in addition to the more straightforward benefit of minimizing sample usage by providing multiple analytical measurements on the same aliquot non-destructively. The ability to differentiate between unfolding and aggregation that the combination of these techniques provides enables insights into underlying protein aggregation mechanisms. The article will report on mechanistic insights for aggregation that have been obtained from the application of this technique to the characterization of lysozyme, which was evaluated as a function of concentration and pH.

  18. A novel cyanide ion sensing approach based on Raman scattering for the detection of environmental cyanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Gopal Reddy, C V; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a direct optical approach based on Raman scattering for selective and sensitive detection of cyanide ions in aqueous environment without requiring time-consuming sample pretreatment and the formation of hydrogen cyanide. Due to the strong affinity between copper (I) and cyanide ion, evaporated copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin films are shown to be excellent substrates for selective recognition of free cyanide ions in aqueous matrices. The amount of cyanide ion retained by the copper (I) in the CuI thin films reflects its actual concentration in tested samples, and the subsequent Raman measurements of the substrate are shown to be capable of detecting toxic cyanide content at levels under international drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Measurements obtained from the same batch of evaporated CuI thin films (approximately 100-nm thickness) show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 1.5 microM to 0.15 mM. This detection method offers the advantage of selectively detecting cyanides causing a health hazard while avoiding detection of other common interfering anions such as Cl-, Br-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), NO2-, S2- and SCN-. Coupled with portable Raman systems that are commercially available, our detection approach will provide on-site monitoring capability with little sample preparation or instrument supervision, which will greatly expedite the assessment of potential environmental cyanide risks. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 'Beam-emission spectroscopy' diagnostics also measure edge fast-ion light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Bortolon, A; McKee, G R; Smith, D R

    2011-01-01

    Beam-emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics normally detect fluctuations in the light emitted by an injected neutral beam. Under some circumstances, however, light from fast ions that charge exchange in the high neutral-density region at the edge of the plasma make appreciable contributions to the BES signals. This 'passive' fast-ion D α (FIDA) light appears in BES signals from both the DIII-D tokamak and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). One type of passive FIDA light is associated with classical orbits that traverse the edge. Another type is caused by instabilities that expel fast ions from the core; this light can complicate measurement of the instability eigenfunction.

  20. [Particle Size and Number Density Online Analysis for Particle Suspension with Polarization-Differentiation Elastic Light Scattering Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-kang; Fang, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The basic principle of polarization-differentiation elastic light scattering spectroscopy based techniques is that under the linear polarized light incidence, the singlely scattered light from the superficial biological tissue and diffusively scattered light from the deep tissue can be separated according to the difference of polarization characteristics. The novel point of the paper is to apply this method to the detection of particle suspension and, to realize the simultaneous measurement of its particle size and number density in its natural status. We design and build a coaxial cage optical system, and measure the backscatter signal at a specified angle from a polystyrene microsphere suspension. By controlling the polarization direction of incident light with a linear polarizer and adjusting the polarization direction of collected light with another linear polarizer, we obtain the parallel polarized elastic light scattering spectrum and cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum. The difference between the two is the differential polarized elastic light scattering spectrum which include only the single scattering information of the particles. We thus compare this spectrum to the Mie scattering calculation and extract the particle size. We then also analyze the cross polarized elastic light scattering spectrum by applying the particle size already extracted. The analysis is based on the approximate expressions taking account of light diffusing, from which we are able to obtain the number density of the particle suspension. We compare our experimental outcomes with the manufacturer-provided values and further analyze the influence of the particle diameter standard deviation on the number density extraction, by which we finally verify the experimental method. The potential applications of the method include the on-line particle quality monitoring for particle manufacture as well as the fat and protein density detection of milk products.

  1. Metal ion induced room temperature phase transformation and stimulated infrared spectroscopy on TiO{sub 2}-based surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gole, James L. [Schools of Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430 (United States)], E-mail: jim.gole@physics.gatech.edu; Prokes, S.M. [Code 6876, NRL, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)], E-mail: prokes@estd.nrl.navy.mil; White, Mark G. [Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, James Worth Bagley College of Engineering, Box 959, MS 39762 (United States)], E-mail: white@che.msstate.edu

    2008-11-30

    Raman and infrared spectroscopy are used to demonstrate (1) the high spin metal ion induced room temperature transformation of anatase to rutile TiO{sub 2} and (2) the phenomena of stimulated IR spectroscopy induced by simultaneous nitrogen doping and high spin metal ion seeding of a TiO{sub 2} nanocolloid lattice.

  2. Metal ion induced room temperature phase transformation and stimulated infrared spectroscopy on TiO2-based surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gole, James L.; Prokes, S.M.; White, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Raman and infrared spectroscopy are used to demonstrate (1) the high spin metal ion induced room temperature transformation of anatase to rutile TiO 2 and (2) the phenomena of stimulated IR spectroscopy induced by simultaneous nitrogen doping and high spin metal ion seeding of a TiO 2 nanocolloid lattice

  3. Using resonance light scattering and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy to study the interaction between gliclazide and bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Ju; Liu, Bao-Sheng; Li, Gai-Xia; Han, Rong

    2016-08-01

    At different temperatures (298, 310 and 318 K), the interaction between gliclazide and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy. The first method studied changes in the fluorescence of BSA on addition of gliclazide, and the latter two methods studied the spectral change in gliclazide while BSA was being added. The results indicated that the quenching mechanism between BSA and gliclazide was static. The binding constant (Ka ), number of binding sites (n), thermodynamic parameters, binding forces and Hill's coefficient were calculated at three temperatures. Values for the binding constant obtained using resonance light scattering and UV/vis absorption spectroscopy were much greater than those obtained from fluorescence quenching spectroscopy, indicating that methods monitoring gliclazide were more accurate and reasonable. In addition, the results suggest that other residues are involved in the reaction and the mode 'point to surface' existed in the interaction between BSA and gliclazide. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Spectroscopy of berylliumlike xenon ions using dielectronic recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, D.; Brandau, C.; Harman, Z.; Kozhuharov, C.; Böhm, S.; Bosch, F.; Fritzsche, S.; Jacobi, J.; Kieslich, S.; Knopp, H.; Nolden, F.; Shi, W.; Stachura, Z.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, Th; Schippers, S.; Müller, A.

    2015-07-01

    Be-like 136X{{e}50+} ions have been investigated employing the resonant electron-ion collision process of dielectronic recombination (DR) as a spectroscopic tool. The experiments were performed at the experimental storage ring in Darmstadt, Germany, using its electron cooler as a target for free electrons. DR Rydberg resonance series 2{{s}2}+{{e}-}\\to 2s2{{p}{{j\\prime }}}n{{l}j} for the associated intra-L-shell transitions 2{{s}2}{{ }1}{{S}0}-2s2{{p}1/2}{{ }3}{{P}1},2{{s}2}{{ }1}{{S}0}-2s2{{p}3/2}{{ }3}{{P}2} and 2{{s}2}{{ }1}{{S}0}-2s2{{p}3/2}{{ }1}{{P}1} were observed with high resolution. In addition to these excitations from the ground state we determined resonances associated with excitations 2s2{{p}1/2}{{ }3}{{P}0}\\to 2{{p}1/2}2{{p}3/2}{{ }3}{{P}1} of ions initially in the metastable 2s2{{p}1/2}{{ }3}{{P}0} state. The corresponding excitation energies were determined to be E{{(}1}{{S}0}\\to {{ }3}{{P}1})=127.269(46) eV, E{{(}1}{{S}0}\\to {{ }3}{{P}2})=469.474(81) eV and E{{(}1}{{S}0}\\to {{ }1}{{P}1})=532.801(16) eV, and E{{(}3}{{P}0}\\to 2{{p}1/2}2{{p}3/2}{{ }3}{{P}1})=533.733(22) eV. These excitation energies are compared with previous measurements and with recent state-of-the-art atomic structure calculations.

  5. Beam-transport system for high-resolution heavy-ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Kashy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A method is given to adjust a beam-transport system to the requirements of high-energy resolution heavy-ion spectroscopy. The results of a test experiment performed on a MP tandem with a 12 C beam are shown. A drastic improvement in energy resolution is obtained for a kinematical factor K=1/p dp/dtheta=0.12 [fr

  6. Deamidation reactions of protonated asparagine and glutamine investigated by ion spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempkes, L.J.M.; Martens, J.K.; Grzetic, J.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Deamidation of Asn and Gln residues is a primary route for spontaneous post-translational protein modification. Several structures have been proposed for the deamidation products of the protonated amino acids. Here we verify these structures by ion spectroscopy, as well as the structures

  7. Deep-level transient spectroscopy of low-energy ion-irradiated silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkovsky, Vladimir; Privitera, V.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2009-01-01

     During electron-gun deposition of metal layers on semiconductors, the semiconductor is bombarded with low-energy metal ions creating defects in the outermost surface layer. For many years, it has been a puzzle why deep-level transient spectroscopy spectra of the as-deposited, electron-gun evapor...

  8. Precision spectroscopy of molecular hydrogen ions : Towards frequency metrology of particle masses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, B.; Koelemeij, J.; Schiller, S.; Hilico, L.; Karr, Jean Philippe; Korobov, V.I.; Bakalov, D.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the current status of high-precision ab initio calculations of the spectra of molecular hydrogen ions (H2+ and HD+) and of two experiments for vibrational spectroscopy. The perspectives for a comparison between theory and experiment at a level of 1 part in 109 are considered.

  9. Interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with metal ions in micellar medium using fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujar, Varsha; Pundge, Vijaykumar; Ottoor, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Steady state and life time fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to study the interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with biologically important metal ions i.e. Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ in various micellar media (anionic SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), nonionic TX-100 (triton X-100) and cationic CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide)). It was observed that fluorescence properties of drug remain unaltered in the absence of micellar media with increasing concentration of metal ions. However, addition of Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ and Ni 2+ caused fluorescence quenching of amiloride in the presence of anionic micelle, SDS. Binding of drug with metal ions at the charged micellar interface could be the possible reason for this pH-dependent metal-mediated fluorescence quenching. There were no remarkable changes observed due to metal ions addition when drug was present in cationic and nonionic micellar medium. The binding constant and bimolecular quenching constant were evaluated and compared for the drug–metal complexes using Stern–Volmer equation and fluorescence lifetime values. - Highlights: • Interaction of amiloride with biologically important metal ions, Fe 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ . • Monitoring the interaction in various micelle at different pH by fluorescence spectroscopy. • Micelles acts as receptor, amiloride as transducer and metal ions as analyte in the present system. • Interaction study provides pH dependent quenching and binding mechanism of drug with metal ions

  10. Correlative Raman spectroscopy and focused ion beam for targeted phase boundary analysis of titania polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangum, John S.; Chan, Lisa H.; Schmidt, Ute; Garten, Lauren M.; Ginley, David S.; Gorman, Brian P.

    2018-05-01

    Site-specific preparation of specimens using focused ion beam instruments for transmission electron microscopy is at the forefront of targeting regions of interest for nanoscale characterization. Typical methods of pinpointing desired features include electron backscatter diffraction for differentiating crystal structures and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy for probing compositional variations. Yet there are situations, notably in the titanium dioxide system, where these techniques can fail. Differentiating between the brookite and anatase polymorphs of titania is either excessively laborious or impossible with the aforementioned techniques. However, due to differences in bonding structure, Raman spectroscopy serves as an ideal candidate for polymorph differentiation. In this work, a correlative approach utilizing Raman spectroscopy for targeted focused ion beam specimen preparation was employed. Dark field imaging and diffraction in the transmission electron microscope confirmed the region of interest located via Raman spectroscopy and demonstrated the validity of this new method. Correlative Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and focused ion beam is shown to be a promising new technique for identifying site-specific preparation of nanoscale specimens in cases where conventional approaches do not suffice.

  11. Study of ion tracks by micro-probe ion energy loss spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacík, Jiří; Havránek, Vladimír; Hnatowicz, Vladimír; Horák, Pavel; Fink, Dietmar; Apel, P. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 332, AUG (2014), s. 308-311 ISSN 0168-583X. [21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Seattle, 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ion energy loss spectrometry * single ion track * microprobe * tomography Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  12. Experimental parameters for quantitative surface analysis by medium energy ion scattering, ch. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkenburg, W.C.; Kersten, H.H.; Colenbrander, B.G.; Jongh, A.P. de; Saris, F.W.

    1976-01-01

    A new UHV chamber for surface and surface layer analysis by collision spectroscopy of backscattered ions at medium energies is described. Experimental parameters like energy, angular and depth resolution, crystal alignment and background pressure are discussed. Formulae based on the use of an electrostatic energy analyser show that the analysis can be quantitative. Effects of beam induced build-up of a hydro-carbon layer, sputter cleaning and creation of radiation damage have been investigated for Cu (110) and Ni (110). Detection sensitivity for Carbon, Oxygen and Sulfur on Cu and Ni has been found to be 0.2, 0.1 and 0.03 of a monolayer respectively

  13. X-ray spectroscopy of hydrogen-like ions in an electron beam ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarbutt, M.R.; Crosby, D.; Silver, J.D. [Univ. of Oxford, Clarendon Lab. (United Kingdom); Myers, E.G. [Dept. of Physics, Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Nakamura, N.; Ohtani, S. [ICORP, JST, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The X-ray emission from highly charged hydrogen-like ions in an electron beam ion trap is free from the problems of satellite contamination and Doppler shifts inherent in fast-beam sources. This is a favourable situation for the measurement of ground-state Lamb shifts in these ions. We present recent progress toward this goal, and discuss a method whereby wavelength comparison between transitions in hydrogenlike ions of different nuclear charge Z, enable the measurement of QED effects without requiring an absolute calibration.

  14. Selective laser spectroscopy of molecules and ions in solids: a history, fundamentals and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhnikov, Michael

    2018-03-01

    A history of the development of selective laser spectroscopy is presented, beginning with a pioneering work by Yu. V. Denisov and V. A. Kizel in 1967, who were the first to demonstrate the possibility of removing the inhomogeneous broadening of luminescence spectra of impurity ions in glasses upon monochromatic resonance excitation. Selective excitation of optical centers can be achieved due to existence of zero-phonon transitions corresponding to narrow homogeneous zero-phonon lines in the spectra of impurity centers in solids, which are hidden in broad inhomogeneous optical bands upon usual nonselective excitation. The fundamentals of zero-phonon transition spectroscopy are considered and the mechanism of removing the inhomogeneous broadening of optical spectra of ions and molecules in crystals and amorphous solids under selective laser excitation of luminescence and persistent hole burning in absorption spectra is presented in detail. Various applications of selective laser spectroscopy for fundamental and applied studies are discussed.

  15. Noninvasive identification of subcellular organization and nuclear morphology features associated with leukemic cells using light-scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Austin; Hunter, Martin; Greiner, Cherry; Gupta, Sharad; Georgakoudi, Irene

    2011-03-01

    Leukemia is the most common and deadly cancer among children and one of the most prevalent cancers among adults. Improvements in its diagnosis and monitoring of leukemic patients could have a significant impact in their long-term treatment. We demonstrate that light-scattering spectroscopy (LSS)-based approaches could serve as a tool to achieve this goal. Specifically, we characterize the light scattering properties of leukemic (NALM-6) cells and compare them to those of normal lymphocytes and granulocytes in the 440-710 nm range, over +/-4 deg about the exact backscattering direction. We find that the LSS spectra are well described by an inverse power-law wavelength dependence, with a power exponent insensitive to the scattering angle but significantly higher for leukemic cells than for normal leukocytes. This is consistent with differences in the subcellular morphology of these cells, detected in differential interference contrast images. Furthermore, the residual light-scattering signal, extracted after subtracting the inverse power-law fit from the data, can be analyzed assuming a Gaussian distribution of spherical scatterers using Mie theory. This analysis yields scatterer sizes that are consistent with the diameters of cell nuclei and allows the detection of the larger nuclei of NALM-6 cells compared to those of lymphocytes and granulocytes.

  16. Photon emission spectroscopy of ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, B.

    1995-10-01

    Emission cross sections for the 1snp 1 P 1 -levels have been measured by photon emission spectroscopy for the collision systems He + + He at 10 keV and He 2+ + He at 10-35 keV. Photon spectra of Krypton (Kr VIII) and Xenon (Xe V - IX) have also been obtained using 10q keV beams of Kr q+ (q=7-9) and Xe q+ (q=5-9) colliding with Helium and Argon. The Lifetimes of 3p 2 P-levels in Na-like Nb are reported together with lifetime for the 3s3p 3 P 1 -level in Mg-like Ni, Kr, Y, Zr and Nb where this level has an intercombination transition to the ground state. 45 refs, 20 figs

  17. Photon emission spectroscopy of ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, B

    1995-10-01

    Emission cross sections for the 1snp{sup 1}P{sub 1}-levels have been measured by photon emission spectroscopy for the collision systems He{sup +} + He at 10 keV and He{sup 2+} + He at 10-35 keV. Photon spectra of Krypton (Kr VIII) and Xenon (Xe V - IX) have also been obtained using 10q keV beams of Kr{sup q+} (q=7-9) and Xe{sup q+} (q=5-9) colliding with Helium and Argon. The Lifetimes of 3p{sup 2}P-levels in Na-like Nb are reported together with lifetime for the 3s3p{sup 3}P{sub 1}-level in Mg-like Ni, Kr, Y, Zr and Nb where this level has an intercombination transition to the ground state. 45 refs, 20 figs.

  18. Monitoring the recrystallisation of amorphous xylitol using Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomäki, Emmi; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Ehlers, Henrik; Svedström, Kirsi; Huotari, Simo; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2016-07-11

    In this paper we present a fast model system for monitoring the recrystallization of quench-cooled amorphous xylitol using Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The use of these two methods enables comparison between surface and bulk crystallization. Non-ordered mesoporous silica micro-particles were added to the system in order to alter the rate of crystallization of the amorphous xylitol. Raman measurements showed that adding silica to the system increased the rate of surface crystallization, while X-ray measurements showed that the rate of bulk crystallization decreased. Using this model system it is possible to measure fast changes, which occur in minutes or within a few hours. Raman-spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering were found to be complementary techniques when assessing surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous xylitol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of the defect structures produced by heavy ions in dielectrics by means of small angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, D.J.

    1983-11-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to study the defects in dielectrics produced by fast ions. For this the small angle scattering was proved as suitable method. By the production by means of the ion beam of an accelerator the defects possess a pronounced preferential direction. In scattering experiments this system of scattering centers is distinguished by its unusually strong dependence of the sample orientation according to the primary beam. This property was studied, described, and illustrated by examples, and it could by shown that from this additional informations about the scattering defects can be derived. For the first time nuclear tracks were detected by means of small angle neutron scattering. It could be shown that here the same results are obtained as by small angle X-ray scattering. The measured intensity distributions could be assigned to a mathematical model description which gives form, width, and density of the tracks in the position space. On the base of this cylinder model computer codes were established which simulate the scattering experiment regarding the main influences and calculate the expected theoretical intensity distribution. The agreement between calculated and measured scattering distributions proves the validity of the model. The parameters determined by this model, maximal change of density in the track, defect length, radial dilatation, distance of the narrowings and there depth were determined. For the main quantities, radial dilatation and maximal change of densities a simple description of the energy dependence could be given via the energy loss. (orig./HSI) [de

  20. Low energy RBS-channeling measurement system with the use of a time-of-flight scattered ion detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Masataka; Kobayashi, Naoto; Hayashi, Nobuyuki [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    We have developed a low energy Rutherford backscattering spectrometry-ion channeling measurement system for the analysis of thin films and solid surfaces with the use of several tens keV hydrogen ions and a time-of-flight particle energy spectrometer. For the detection of the scattered ions new TOF spectrometer has been developed, which consists of two micro-channel-plate detectors. The pulsing of the primary ion beam is not necessary for this type of TOF measurement, and it is possible to observe continues scattered ion beams. The dimension of whole system is very compact compared to the conventional RBS-channeling measurement system with the use of MeV He ions. The energy resolution, {delta} E/E, for 25 keV H{sup +} was 4.1%, which corresponds to the depth resolution of 4.8 nm for silicon. The depth resolution of our system is better than that of conventional RBS system with MeV helium ions and solid state detectors. We have demonstrated the ion channeling measurement by this system with 25 keV hydrogen ions. The system can be available well to the analysis of thin films and solid surfaces with the use of the ion channeling effect. The observation of the reaction between Fe and hydrogen terminated silicon surface was also demonstrated. (J.P.N.)

  1. Spectroscopy of highly charged tungsten ions with Electron Beam Ion Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kato, Daiji; Morita, Shigeru; Murakami, Izumi; Yamamoto, Norimasa; Ohashi, Hayato; Yatsurugi, Junji; Nakamura, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present spectra of highly charged tungsten ions in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) by using electron beam ion traps. The electron energy dependence of spectra is investigated of electron energies from 490 to 1440 eV. Previously unreported lines are presented in the EUV range, and some of them are identified by comparing the wavelengths with theoretical calculations. (author)

  2. Quantum screening effects on the electron-ion occurrence scattering time advance in strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Jung, Young-Dae

    2003-01-01

    Quantum screening effects on the occurrence scattering time advance for elastic electron-ion collisions in strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas are investigated using the second-order eikonal analysis. The electron-ion interaction in strongly coupled semiclassical plasmas is obtained by the pseudopotential model taking into account the plasma screening and quantum effects. It is found that the quantum-mechanical effects significantly reduce the occurrence scattering time advance. It is also found that the occurrence scattering time advance increases with increasing Debye length. It is quite interesting to note that the domain of the maximum occurrence time advance is localized for the forward scattering case. The region of the scaled thermal de Broglie wave length (λ-bar) for the maximum occurrence time advance is found to be 0.4≤λ-bar≤1.4

  3. BRIEF COMMUNICATION: Fast-ion redistribution due to sawtooth crash in the TEXTOR tokamak measured by collective Thomson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. K.; Bindslev, H.; Salewski, M.; Bürger, A.; Delabie, E.; Furtula, V.; Kantor, M.; Korsholm, S. B.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Stejner, M.; Westerhof, E.; Woskov, P.; TEXTOR Team

    2010-09-01

    Here we present collective Thomson scattering measurements of 1D fast-ion velocity distribution functions in neutral beam heated TEXTOR plasmas with sawtooth oscillations. Up to 50% of the fast ions in the centre are redistributed as a consequence of a sawtooth crash. We resolve various directions to the magnetic field. The fast-ion distribution is found to be anisotropic as expected. For a resolved angle of 39° to the magnetic field we find a drop in the fast-ion distribution of 20-40%. For a resolved angle of 83° to the magnetic field the drop is no larger than 20%.

  4. A cylindrical quadrupole ion trap in combination with an electrospray ion source for gas-phase luminescence and absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockett, Mark H.; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Svendsen, Annette; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    A relatively simple setup for collection and detection of light emitted from isolated photo-excited molecular ions has been constructed. It benefits from a high collection efficiency of photons, which is accomplished by using a cylindrical ion trap where one end-cap electrode is a mesh grid combined with an aspheric condenser lens. The geometry permits nearly 10% of the emitted light to be collected and, after transmission losses, approximately 5% to be delivered to the entrance of a grating spectrometer equipped with a detector array. The high collection efficiency enables the use of pulsed tunable lasers with low repetition rates (e.g., 20 Hz) instead of continuous wave (cw) lasers or very high repetition rate (e.g., MHz) lasers that are typically used as light sources for gas-phase fluorescence experiments on molecular ions. A hole has been drilled in the cylinder electrode so that a light pulse can interact with the ion cloud in the center of the trap. Simulations indicate that these modifications to the trap do not significantly affect the storage capability and the overall shape of the ion cloud. The overlap between the ion cloud and the laser light is basically 100%, and experimentally >50% of negatively charged chromophore ions are routinely photodepleted. The performance of the setup is illustrated based on fluorescence spectra of several laser dyes, and the quality of these spectra is comparable to those reported by other groups. Finally, by replacing the optical system with a channeltron detector, we demonstrate that the setup can also be used for gas-phase action spectroscopy where either depletion or fragmentation is monitored to provide an indirect measurement on the absorption spectrum of the ion.

  5. A cylindrical quadrupole ion trap in combination with an electrospray ion source for gas-phase luminescence and absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockett, Mark H., E-mail: stockett@phys.au.dk; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Svendsen, Annette; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2016-05-15

    A relatively simple setup for collection and detection of light emitted from isolated photo-excited molecular ions has been constructed. It benefits from a high collection efficiency of photons, which is accomplished by using a cylindrical ion trap where one end-cap electrode is a mesh grid combined with an aspheric condenser lens. The geometry permits nearly 10% of the emitted light to be collected and, after transmission losses, approximately 5% to be delivered to the entrance of a grating spectrometer equipped with a detector array. The high collection efficiency enables the use of pulsed tunable lasers with low repetition rates (e.g., 20 Hz) instead of continuous wave (cw) lasers or very high repetition rate (e.g., MHz) lasers that are typically used as light sources for gas-phase fluorescence experiments on molecular ions. A hole has been drilled in the cylinder electrode so that a light pulse can interact with the ion cloud in the center of the trap. Simulations indicate that these modifications to the trap do not significantly affect the storage capability and the overall shape of the ion cloud. The overlap between the ion cloud and the laser light is basically 100%, and experimentally >50% of negatively charged chromophore ions are routinely photodepleted. The performance of the setup is illustrated based on fluorescence spectra of several laser dyes, and the quality of these spectra is comparable to those reported by other groups. Finally, by replacing the optical system with a channeltron detector, we demonstrate that the setup can also be used for gas-phase action spectroscopy where either depletion or fragmentation is monitored to provide an indirect measurement on the absorption spectrum of the ion.

  6. Application of ion scattering spectrometers for the observation of process of cleaning of surfaces of materials for vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, Ken-ya; Miyahara, Akira; Sagara, Akio.

    1978-01-01

    The impurity gas emitted from the surfaces of vacuum vessels was investigated by using the shadowing effect of the covering atoms. The ion scattering spectrometer used for the experiment consists of an ion source, a test sample, an energy analyzer and an ion detector. The evacuation system comprises a turbomolecular pump, a Ti-sublimation pump and an ion pump. The achieved final gas pressure is 5 x 10 -10 Torr. The ion beam intensity to a sample is 10 micro ampere/cm 2 , and the ion energy is about 1 to 1.5 keV. The quantity of oxygen on the surface of a sample molybdenum was measured in the process of evacuation. The concentration of surface oxygen decreased with the gas pressure of the system. It was found that residual oxygen was observed after the sputter etching with Ar ion impact on the surface. The reason of this residual oxygen was considered. (Kato, T.)

  7. Ion-induced nanopatterns on semiconductor surfaces investigated by grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, D; Metzger, T H [ID01, ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Biermanns, A; Pietsch, U [Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Ziberi, B; Frost, F [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Plantevin, O [Universite Paris-Sud, Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse, UMR 8609, F-91405 Orsay (France)], E-mail: gcarbone@esrf.fr

    2009-06-03

    In this review we cover and describe the application of grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques to study and characterize nanopattern formation on semiconductor surfaces by ion beam erosion under various conditions. It is demonstrated that x-rays under grazing incidence are especially well suited to characterize (sub)surface structures on the nanoscale with high spatial and statistical accuracy. The corresponding theory and data evaluation is described in the distorted wave Born approximation. Both ex situ and in situ studies are presented, performed with the use of a specially designed sputtering chamber which allows us to follow the temporal evolution of the nanostructure formation. Corresponding results show a general stabilization of the ordering wavelength and the extension of the ordering as a function of the ion energy and fluence as predicted by theory. The in situ measurements are especially suited to study the early stages of pattern formation, which in some cases reveal a transition from dot to ripple formation. For the case of medium energy ions crystalline ripples are formed buried under a semi-amorphous thick layer with a ripple structure at the surface being conformal with the crystalline/amorphous interface. Here, the x-ray techniques are especially advantageous since they are non-destructive and bulk-sensitive by their very nature. In addition, the GI x-ray techniques described in this review are a unique tool to study the evolving strain, a topic which remains to be explored both experimentally and theoretically.

  8. Elastic scattering spectroscopy findings in formalin-fixed oral squamous cell carcinoma specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinson, B.; Elmaaytah, M.; Jerjes, W.; Hopper, C.

    2005-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been shown to spread locally and infiltrate adjacent bone or via the lymphatic system to the cervical lymph nodes. This usually necessitates a surgical neck dissection and either a local or segmental resection for bone clearance. While histopathology remains the gold standard for tissue diagnosis, several new diagnostic techniques are being developed that rely on physical and biochemical changes that mirror or precede malignant changes within tissue. The aim of this study was to compare findings of Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy (ESS) with histopathology on formalin-fixed specimens of both neck lymph node dissections and de-calcified archival bone from patients with OSCC. We wished to see if this technique could be used as an adjunct or alternative to histopathology in defining cervical nodal involvement and if it could be used to identify bone resection margins positive for tumour. 130 lymph nodes were examined from 13 patients. The nodes were formalin-fixed, bivalved and examined by ESS. The intensity of the spectrum at 4 points was considered for comparison; at 360nm, 450nm, 630nm and 690nm. 341 spectra were taken from the mandibular specimens of 21 patients, of which 231 spectra were taken from histologically positive sites and the rest were normal. The nodes and bone specimens were then routinely processed with haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, examined histopathologically, and the results compared. Using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) as a statistical method, a sensitivity of 98% and a specificity of 68% was obtained for the neck nodes and a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 80% for the bone margins.

  9. Rapid detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by using Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is a common flour additive that improves the whiteness of flour and the storage properties of flour products. However, benzoyl peroxide adversely affects the nutritional content of flour, and excess consumption causes nausea, dizziness, other poisoning, and serious liver damage. This study was focus on detection of the benzoyl peroxide added in wheat flour. A Raman scattering spectroscopy system was used to acquire spectral signal from sample data and identify benzoyl peroxide based on Raman spectral peak position. The optical devices consisted of Raman spectrometer and CCD camera, 785 nm laser module, optical fiber, prober, and a translation stage to develop a real-time, nondestructive detection system. Pure flour, pure benzoyl peroxide and different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide mixed with flour were prepared as three sets samples to measure the Raman spectrum. These samples were placed in the same type of petri dish to maintain a fixed distance between the Raman CCD and petri dish during spectral collection. The mixed samples were worked by pretreatment of homogenization and collected multiple sets of data of each mixture. The exposure time of this experiment was set at 0.5s. The Savitzky Golay (S-G) algorithm and polynomial curve-fitting method was applied to remove the fluorescence background from the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectral peaks at 619 cm-1, 848 cm-1, 890 cm-1, 1001 cm-1, 1234 cm-1, 1603cm-1, 1777cm-1 were identified as the Raman fingerprint of benzoyl peroxide. Based on the relationship between the Raman intensity of the most prominent peak at around 1001 cm-1 and log values of benzoyl peroxide concentrations, the chemical concentration prediction model was developed. This research demonstrated that Raman detection system could effectively and rapidly identify benzoyl peroxide adulteration in wheat flour. The experimental result is promising and the system with further modification can be applicable for more products in near

  10. Enhanced Scattering of Diffuse Ions on Front of the Earth's Quasi-Parallel Bow Shock: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, A.; Matsukiyo, S.; Otsuka, F.; Hada, T.; Lemperger, I.; Dandouras, I. S.; Barta, V.; Facsko, G. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the analysis we present a case study of three energetic upstream ion events at the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock based on multi-spacecraft data recorded by Cluster. The CIS-HIA instrument onboard Cluster provides partial energetic ion densities in 4 energy channels between 10 and 32 keV.The difference of the partial ion densities recorded by the individual spacecraft at various distances from the bow shock surface makes possible the determination of the spatial gradient of energetic ions.Using the gradient values we determined the spatial profile of the energetic ion partial densities as a function of distance from the bow shock and we calculated the e-folding distance and the diffusion coefficient for each event and each ion energy range. Results show that in two cases the scattering of diffuse ions takes place in a normal way, as "by the book", and the e-folding distance and diffusion coefficient values are comparable with previous results. On the other hand, in the third case the e-folding distance and the diffusion coefficient values are significantly lower, which suggests that in this case the scattering process -and therefore the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism also- is much more efficient. Our analysis provides an explanation for this "enhanced" scattering process recorded in the third case.

  11. Occurrence rate of ion upflow and downflow observed by the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, S.; Lu, J.; Varney, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence rate of ion upflow and downflow events in the auroral ionosphere, using a full 3-year (2011-2013) dataset collected by the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) at 65.5° magnetic latitude. Ion upflow and downflow events are defined if there are three consecutive data points larger/smaller than 100/-100 m/s in the ion field-aligned velocity altitude profile. Their occurrence rates have been evaluated as a function of magnetic local time (MLT), season, geomagnetic activity, solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). We found that the ion upflows are twice more likely to occur on the nightside than the dayside, and have slightly higher occurrence rate near Fall equinox. In contrast, the ion downflow events are more likely to occur in the afternoon sector but also during Fall equinox. In addition, the occurrence rate of ion upflows on the nightside increases when the aurora electrojet index (AE) and planetary K index (Kp) increase, while the downflows measured on the dayside clearly increase as the AE and Kp increase. In general, the occurrence rate of ion upflows increases with enhanced solar wind and IMF drivers. This correlation is particularly strong between the upflows on the nightside and the solar wind dynamic pressure and IMF Bz. The lack of correlation of upflows on the dayside with these parameters is due to the location of PFISR, which is usually equatorward of the dayside auroral zone and within the nightside auroral zone under disturbed conditions. The occurrence rate of downflow at all MLTs does not show strong dependence on the solar wind and IMF conditions. However, it occurs much more frequently on the dayside when the IMF By is strongly positive, i.e., >10 nT and the IMF Bz is strongly negative, i.e., < -10 nT. We suggest that the increased occurrence rate of downflows on the dayside is associated with dayside storm-enhanced density and the plume.

  12. Ion cyclotron transmission spectroscopy in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    The propagation of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies has been investigated experimentally in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. A small, broadband, radiofrequency (rf) magnetic probe located outside the plasma limiter, at a major radius near that of the plasma center, was excited with a low power, frequency swept source (1--200 MHz). Waves propagating to a distant location were detected with a second, identical probe. The rf transmission spectrum revealed a region of attenuation over a band of frequencies for which the minority fundamental resonance was located between the outer plasma edge and the major radius of the probe location. Distinct, non-overlapping attenuation bands were observed from hydrogen and helium-3 minority species; a distinct tritium band should be observed in future DT experiments. Rapid spectrum acquisition during a helium-3 gas puff experiment showed that the wave attenuation involved the plasma core and was not a surface effect. A model in which the received power varied exponentially with the minority density, averaged over the resonance region, fit the time evolution of the probe signal relatively well. Estimation of a 1-d tunneling parameter from the experimental observations is discussed. Minority concentrations of less than 0.5 % can be resolved with this measurement.

  13. Ion cyclotron transmission spectroscopy in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    The propagation of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies has been investigated experimentally in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. A small, broadband, radiofrequency (rf) magnetic probe located outside the plasma limiter, at a major radius near that of the plasma center, was excited with a low power, frequency swept source (1--200 MHz). Waves propagating to a distant location were detected with a second, identical probe. The rf transmission spectrum revealed a region of attenuation over a band of frequencies for which the minority fundamental resonance was located between the outer plasma edge and the major radius of the probe location. Distinct, non-overlapping attenuation bands were observed from hydrogen and helium-3 minority species; a distinct tritium band should be observed in future DT experiments. Rapid spectrum acquisition during a helium-3 gas puff experiment showed that the wave attenuation involved the plasma core and was not a surface effect. A model in which the received power varied exponentially with the minority density, averaged over the resonance region, fit the time evolution of the probe signal relatively well. Estimation of a 1-d tunneling parameter from the experimental observations is discussed. Minority concentrations of less than 0.5 % can be resolved with this measurement

  14. Investigation of complexing of vitamine B-6 with rare earth ions by PMR and luminescent spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiklinskij, V.D.; Zelenov, V.I.; Zolin, V.F.; Koreneva, L.G.; Panyushkin, V.T.

    1981-01-01

    To investigate the complexing of pyridoxine (P), pyridoxal (PL) and pyridoxamine (PM) with lanthanide ions the changes of PMR spectra of ligands in the presence of cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, europium, gadolinium ions, as well as luminescence and absorption spectra of europium in the presence of ligands are used. Using the optical spectroscopy it has been shown that the PL and PM complexes do not have axial symmetry. The values of parameters of the crystalline field of the second order, determining the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of europium complexes are evaluated. With an aid of PMR and luminescence spectroscopy it is shown that lanthanide ions coordinate the hydroxy groups of ligands. In the case of P and especially PL oxygen of the substituent in position 4 takes part in the coordination. Using the PMR spectroscopy the difference of the substituent location near C4 in the PM complex from its location in the P and PL complexes as well as the difference in the position of lanthanide ion in the complexes of all the three ligands are detected. The reasons for the differences above are discussed [ru

  15. Ion spectroscopy for improvement of the physical beam model for therapy planning in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arico, Giulia

    2016-11-23

    Helium and carbon ions enable a more conformal dose distribution, narrower penumbra and higher relative biological effectiveness than photon and proton radiotherapy. However, they may undergo nuclear fragmentation in the patient tissues and the arising secondary fragments affect the delivered biological dose distributions. Currently there is a lack of data regarding ion nuclear fragmentation. One reason is the large size (up to some meters) of the experimental setups required for the investigations. In this thesis a new method is presented, which makes use of versatile pixelated semiconductor detectors (Timepix). This method is based on tracking of single particles and pattern recognition of their signals in the detectors. Measurements were performed at the HIT facility. The mixed radiation field arising from 430 MeV/u carbon ion beams and 221 MeV/u helium ion beams in water and in PMMA targets was investigated. The amounts of primary (carbon or helium) ions detected behind targets with the same water equivalent thickness (WET) were found to be in agreement within the statistical uncertainties. However, more fragments (differences up to 20% in case of H) and narrower lateral particle distributions were measured behind the PMMA than the water targets. The spectra of ions behind tissue surrogates and corresponding water targets with the same WET were analysed. The results obtained with adipose and inner bone surrogates and with the equivalent water phantoms were found to be consistent within the uncertainties. Significant differences in the results were observed in the case of lung and cortical bone surrogates when compared to the water phantoms. The experimental results were compared to FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations. This comparison could contribute to enhance the ion interaction models currently implemented for {sup 12}C and {sup 4}He ion beams.

  16. Temperature Measurements in Reacting Flows Using Time-Resolved Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (fs-CARS) Spectroscopy (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Sukesh; Kinnius, Paul J; Lucht, Robert P; Gord, James R

    2007-01-01

    Time-resolved femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) spectroscopy of the nitrogen molecule is used for the measurement of temperature in atmospheric-pressure, near-adiabatic, hydrogen-air diffusion flames...

  17. Dynamics of water and ions in clays of type montmorillonite by microscopic simulation and quasi-elastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikova, N.

    2005-09-01

    Montmorillonite clays in low hydration states, with Na + and Cs + compensating counter ions, are investigated by a combination of microscopic simulation and quasi-elastic neutron scattering to obtain information on the local structure and dynamics of water and ions in the interlayer. At first predictions of simulation into the dynamics of water and ions at elevate temperatures are shown (0 deg C 80 deg C, pertinent for the radioactive waste disposal scenario) Marked difference is observed between the modes of diffusion of the Na + and C + counter ions. In water dynamics, a significant step towards bulk water behaviour is seen on transition from the mono- to bilayer states. Secondly, a detailed comparison between simulation and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (Neutron Spin Echo and Time-of-Flight) regarding ambient temperature water dynamics is presented. Overall, the approaches are found to be in good agreement with each other and limitations of each of the methods are clearly shown. (author)

  18. Fine structures of atomic excited states: precision atomic spectroscopy and electron-ion collision process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiang; Cheng Cheng; Li Jiaming

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research fields for future energies such as inertial confinement fusion researches and astrophysics studies especially with satellite observatories advance into stages of precision physics. The relevant atomic data are not only enormous but also of accuracy according to requirements, especially for both energy levels and the collision data. The fine structure of high excited states of atoms and ions can be measured by precision spectroscopy. Such precision measurements can provide not only knowledge about detailed dynamics of electron-ion interactions but also a bench mark examination of the accuracy of electron-ion collision data, especially incorporating theoretical computations. We illustrate that by using theoretical calculation methods which can treat the bound states and the adjacent continua on equal footing. The precision spectroscopic measurements of excited fine structures can be served as stringent tests of electron-ion collision data. (authors)

  19. Diagnosis of Lithium-Ion Batteries State-of-Health based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have developed into a popular energy storage choice for a wide range of applications because of their superior characteristics in comparison to other energy storage technologies. Besides modelling the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries, it has become of huge...... interest to accurately diagnose their state-of-health (SOH). At present, Lithium-ion batteries are diagnosed by performing capacity or resistance (current pulse) measurements; however, in the majority of the cases, these measurements are time consuming and result in changing the state of the battery...... as well. This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique for SOH diagnosis of Lithium-ion battery cells, instead of using the aforementioned techniques, since this new method allows for online and direct measurement of the battery cell response in any working...

  20. Excited-state formation as H+ and He+ ions scatter from metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, W.E.; Zivitz, M.; Thomas, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Impact of 10-to30KeV H + or He + ions on polycrystalline metal surfaces causes some projectiles to be backscattered in a neutral excited state. These projectiles subsequently radiatively decay, emitting Doppler-broadened spectral lines. By analysis of the spectral shape of these lines, we are able to determine the probability of radiationless deexcitation of the excited backscattered atoms. Quantitative measurements of spectral intensity indicate that less than 1% of all projectiles are backscattered in an excited state. The relative variation of total spectral line intensity with angle of projectile incidence and with projectile primary energy has been successfully predicted using a model which assumes that the probability for excited-state formation is independent of the scattered projectile's energy and direction. The variation in total spectral line intensity with target atomic number is predicted, and the sputtering and excitation of Al under He + impact is briefly examined

  1. Wall attenuation and scatter corrections for ion chambers: measurements versus calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, D W.O.; Bielajew, A F [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Div. of Physics

    1990-08-01

    In precision ion chamber dosimetry in air, wall attenuation and scatter are corrected for A{sub wall} (K{sub att} in IAEA terminology, K{sub w}{sup -1} in standards laboratory terminology). Using the EGS4 system the authors show that Monte Carlo calculated A{sub wall} factors predict relative variations in detector response with wall thickness which agree with all available experimental data within a statistical uncertainty of less than 0.1%. They calculated correction factors for use in exposure and air kerma standards are different by up to 1% from those obtained by extrapolating these same measurements. Using calculated correction factors would imply increases of 0.7-1.0% in the exposure and air kerma standards based on spherical and large diameter, large length cylindrical chambers and decreases of 0.3-0.5% for standards based on large diameter pancake chambers. (author).

  2. S-matrix description of anomalous large-angle heavy-ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahn, W E; Hussein, M S [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-10-12

    We present a quantitative description of the well-known anomalous features observed in the large-angle scattering of n..cap alpha.. type heavy ions, in particular of the pronounced structures in the backangle excitation function for /sup 16/O + /sup 28/Si. Our treatment is based on the close connection between these anomalies and particular structural deviations of the partial-wave S-matrix from normal strong-absorption behaviour. The properties of these deviations are found to be rather well specified by the data: they are localized within a narrow 'l-window' centered at a critical angular momentum significantly smaller than the grazing value, and have a parity-dependent as well as a parity-independent part. These properties provide important clues as to the physical processes causing the large-angle enhancement.

  3. Evolving and energy dependent optical model description of heavy-ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelian, K.

    1996-01-01

    We present the application of a genetic algorithm to the problem of determining an energy dependent optical model description of heavy-ion elastic scattering. The problem requires a search for the global best optical model potential and its energy dependence in a very rugged 12 dimensional parameter space of complex topographical features with many local minima. Random solutions are created in the first generation. The fitness of a solution is related to the χ 2 fit of the calculated differential cross sections with the experimental data. Best fit solutions are evolved through cross over and mutation following the biological example. This genetic algorithm approach combined with local gradient minimization is shown to provide a global, complete and extremely efficient search method, well adapted to complex fitness landscapes. These characteristics, combined with the facility of application, should make it the search method of choice for a wide variety of problems from nuclear physics. (Author)

  4. S-matrix description of anomalus large-angle heavy-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahn, W.E.; Hussein, M.S.; Canto, L.F.; Donangelo, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A quantitative description of the well-known anomalous features observed in the large-angle scattering of n.α type heavy ions, in particular of the pronounced structures in the backangle excitation function or 16 O + 28 Si is presented. This treatment is based on the close connection between these anomalies and particular structural deviations of the partial-wave S-matrix from normal strong-absorption behaviour. The properties of these deviations are found to be rather well specified by the data: they are localized within a narrow 'l-window' centered at a critical angular momentum significantly smaller than the grazing value, and have a parity-dependent as well as a parity-independent part. These properties provide important clues as to the physical processes causing the large-angle enhancement. (Author) [pt

  5. Microscopic approach in Inelastic Heavy-Ions Scattering with Excitation of Nuclear Collective States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, K.V.; Zemlyanya, E.V.; Khtina, I.N.; Lukyanov, V.K; Metawe, Z.; Hanna, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the density distribution of a deformed target-nucleus,the spherical λ = 0 and the deformed λ = 2 parts were considered. On this basis, the corresponding potential parts U 0 and U i nt(2) of a double-folding microscopic nucleus-nucleus optical potential are obtained. Then, for these potentials and by using the coupled- channel technique (ECIS), the elastic and inelastic amplitudes are calculated for 17 O heavy ions scattering on 2 + collective excited stat of various target nuclei. Besides,the same cross-sections are calculated in the frame of an adiabatic approach of the eikonal approximation, where the inelastic amplitude is the linear function of U i nt (2).Both the obtained results are compared with the experimental data, and also discus their efficiency in predicting the deformation parameters of nuclei

  6. Analysis of Solar Wind Precipitation on Mars Using MAVEN/SWIA Observations of Spacecraft-Scattered Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, C.; Halekas, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Particle sensors on the MAVEN spacecraft (SWIA, SWEA, STATIC) observe precipitating solar wind ions during MAVEN's periapsis passes in the Martian atmosphere (at 120-250 km altitude). The signature is observed as positive and negative particles at the solar wind energy, traveling away from the Sun. The observations can be explained by the solar wind penetrating the Martian magnetic barrier in the form of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) due to charge-exchange with the Martian hydrogen corona, and then being reionized in positive or negative form upon impact with the atmosphere (1). These findings have elucidated solar wind precipitation dynamics at Mars, and can also be used to monitor the solar wind even when MAVEN is at periapsis (2). In the present study, we focus on a SWIA instrument background signal that has been interpreted as spacecraft/instrument-scattered ions (2). We aim to model and subtract the scattered ion signal from the observations including those of reionized solar wind. We also aim to use the scattered ion signal to track hydrogen ENAs impacting the spacecraft above the reionization altitude. We characterize the energy spectrum and directional scattering function for solar wind scattering off the SWIA aperture structure, the radome and the spacecraft body. We find a broad scattered-ion energy spectrum up to the solar wind energy, displaying increased energy loss and reduced flux with increasing scattering angle, allowing correlations with the solar wind direction, energy, and flux. We develop models that can be used to predict the scattered signal based on the direct solar wind observations or to infer the solar wind properties based on the observed scattered signal. We then investigate deviations to the models when the spacecraft is in the Martian atmosphere and evaluate the plausibility of that these are caused by ENAs. We also perform SIMION modeling of the scattering process and the resulting signal detection by SWIA, to study the results from

  7. Structural Analysis of DNA Interactions with Magnesium Ion Studied by Raman Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    S. Ponkumar; P. Duraisamy; N. Iyandurai

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In the present study, FT Raman spectroscopy had been used to extend our knowledge about Magnesium ion - DNA interactions at various volume ratios (1:50, 1:20, 1:10 and 1:5). Approach: The analysis of FT Raman data supported the existence of structural specificities in the interaction and also the stability of DNA secondary structure. Results: Results from the Raman spectra clearly indicate that the interaction of Magnesium ion with DNA is mainly through the phosphate groups...

  8. Fragmentation of the C60 molecule in collision with light ions studied by a multi-correlation technique. Cross-sections, electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenier, A.

    2004-04-01

    A quantitative study of the C60 fullerenes fragmentation in collision with light ions (H n + with n=1,2,3, He q+ with q=1,2) in the velocity range 0,1 - 2,3 u.a.) is presented. The multi-correlation technique, developed between fragment ions and electrons with well defined energy, has enlightened some of the dependences and properties of fragmentation mechanisms (cross sections, electron spectroscopy, size distributions, kinetic energy of fragment ions, Campi's scatter plot, activation energies). The deposited energy hence appeared as an important parameter. Cross sections have been measured, for the first time, for all the collisional processes. Ionisation and capture only depends on the collision velocity. On the other hand, scaling laws with the deposited energy have been observed for the cross sections of multifragmentation, which depends on the collision energy and the nature of the projectile. The deposited energy has also been found as an essential parameter to understand the evolution of the charged fragment size distributions. The electron spectroscopy, achieved at an emission angle of 35 degrees, showed spectra peaked at important energies (from 5 to 20 eV). The spectra shape depends on the collision velocity. A first theoretical analysis points out the link between the observed energy distribution and the presence of a centrifugal potential barrier. Finally, correlation experiments between produced ions and electron energy reveal that electron energy increases with internal energy. (author)

  9. Surface analysis of polished fused-silica laser lenses by ion-scattering spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orvek, K.; Steward, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    New advances in high-powered glass lasers, particularly the NOVA system, have resulted in a need for lenses having higher damage threshold values than those now available. It is currently thought that surface contaminants on the lenses are responsible for initiating part of the damage. These contaminants are apparently introduced during the final polishing stages. In this study, we used ion-scattering spectrometry (ISS) to identify contaminants arising through the use of different polishing techniques. Five lenses were studied, each having undergone different polishing procedures. The first lens was not polished after receiving it from the manfacturer (No. 381). Ion microprobe data were available for this lens, and they were compared to ISS results. The second lens had been polished with rouge, a polishing compound no longer in use (No. 796). This sample served as a further check on the ISS results. The third lens was studied as received from the manufacturer - with no handling or cleaning (No. 802). The final two lenses had both been polished using high-purity ceria, cerium oxide (No. 800 and No. 801). The difference between these two was that No. 800 was polished using a nylon lap, and No. 801 was polished using pitch as a lap. The 800-series lenses were all made from the same batch, and constituted the major part of the investigation

  10. Chloride ion-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of biotin on the silver surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fangfang; Gu Huaimin; Yuan Xiaojuan; Dong Xiao; Lin Yue

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique was employed to study the SERS spectra of biotin molecules formed on the silver surface. The adsorption geometries of biotin molecules on the silver surface were analyzed based on the SERS data. It can be found that most vibration modes show a Raman shift in silver sol after the addition of sodium chloride solution. In addition, The Raman signals of biotin become weaker and weaker with the increase of the concentration of sodium chloride. This may be due to that the interaction between chloride ions and silver particles is stronger than the interaction between biotin molecules and silver particles. When the concentration of sodium chloride in silver colloid is higher than 0.05mol/L, superfluous chloride ions may form an absorption layer so that biotin can not be adsorbed on silver surface directly. The changes in intensity and profile shape in the SERS spectra suggest different adsorption behavior and surface-coverage of biotin on silver surface. The SERS spectra of biotin suggest that the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism to SERS may be dominant.

  11. The effect of thermal vibrations of lattice atoms on the scattering of low energetic ions (2-10keV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelsema, B.; Boers, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    An introduction to the study of solid state surfaces by analyzing the scattering behavior of low energetic noble gas ions is given. Attention is paid to thermal vibrations of the surface atoms. The scattering of Ar and Kr ions on a Cu monocrystal is discussed as an example

  12. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  13. Mode coupling theory analysis of electrolyte solutions: Time dependent diffusion, intermediate scattering function, and ion solvation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Susmita; Yashonath, Subramanian; Bagchi, Biman

    2015-03-28

    A self-consistent mode coupling theory (MCT) with microscopic inputs of equilibrium pair correlation functions is developed to analyze electrolyte dynamics. We apply the theory to calculate concentration dependence of (i) time dependent ion diffusion, (ii) intermediate scattering function of the constituent ions, and (iii) ion solvation dynamics in electrolyte solution. Brownian dynamics with implicit water molecules and molecular dynamics method with explicit water are used to check the theoretical predictions. The time dependence of ionic self-diffusion coefficient and the corresponding intermediate scattering function evaluated from our MCT approach show quantitative agreement with early experimental and present Brownian dynamic simulation results. With increasing concentration, the dispersion of electrolyte friction is found to occur at increasingly higher frequency, due to the faster relaxation of the ion atmosphere. The wave number dependence of intermediate scattering function, F(k, t), exhibits markedly different relaxation dynamics at different length scales. At small wave numbers, we find the emergence of a step-like relaxation, indicating the presence of both fast and slow time scales in the system. Such behavior allows an intriguing analogy with temperature dependent relaxation dynamics of supercooled liquids. We find that solvation dynamics of a tagged ion exhibits a power law decay at long times-the decay can also be fitted to a stretched exponential form. The emergence of the power law in solvation dynamics has been tested by carrying out long Brownian dynamics simulations with varying ionic concentrations. The solvation time correlation and ion-ion intermediate scattering function indeed exhibit highly interesting, non-trivial dynamical behavior at intermediate to longer times that require further experimental and theoretical studies.

  14. Generation of type III solar radio bursts: the role of induced scattering of plasma waves by ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.; Lerner, A.M.; Rapoport, V.O.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma waves in type III solar radio-burst sources might have a spectrum which can explain why, in the quasilinear burst generation model, nonlinear scattering of the waves by ions is so weak. The agent exciting a burst would travel through the corona at velocities limited to a definite range

  15. Spectrum response and analysis of 77 GHz band collective Thomson scattering diagnostic for bulk and fast ions in LHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2014-01-01

    A collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was developed and used to measure the bulk and fast ions originating from 180 keV neutral beams in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Electromagnetic waves from a gyrotron at 77 GHz with 1 MW power output function as both the probe and electron cyclot...

  16. Lithium-Ion Battery Power Degradation Modelling by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Ana-Irina

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique as an alternative to the DC pulses technique for estimating the power capability decrease of Lithium-ion batteries during calendar ageing. Based on results obtained from calendar ageing tests performed...... at different conditions during one to two years, a generalized model that estimates the battery power capability decrease as function of the resistance Rs increase (obtained from EIS) was proposed and successfully verified....

  17. Interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with metal ions in micellar medium using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujar, Varsha; Pundge, Vijaykumar; Ottoor, Divya, E-mail: divya@chem.unipune.ac.in

    2015-05-15

    Steady state and life time fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to study the interaction of antihypertensive drug amiloride with biologically important metal ions i.e. Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in various micellar media (anionic SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate), nonionic TX-100 (triton X-100) and cationic CTAB (cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide)). It was observed that fluorescence properties of drug remain unaltered in the absence of micellar media with increasing concentration of metal ions. However, addition of Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} caused fluorescence quenching of amiloride in the presence of anionic micelle, SDS. Binding of drug with metal ions at the charged micellar interface could be the possible reason for this pH-dependent metal-mediated fluorescence quenching. There were no remarkable changes observed due to metal ions addition when drug was present in cationic and nonionic micellar medium. The binding constant and bimolecular quenching constant were evaluated and compared for the drug–metal complexes using Stern–Volmer equation and fluorescence lifetime values. - Highlights: • Interaction of amiloride with biologically important metal ions, Fe{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. • Monitoring the interaction in various micelle at different pH by fluorescence spectroscopy. • Micelles acts as receptor, amiloride as transducer and metal ions as analyte in the present system. • Interaction study provides pH dependent quenching and binding mechanism of drug with metal ions.

  18. Estimate of repulsive interatomic pair potentials by low-energy alkali-metal-ion scattering and computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrayeb, R.; Purushotham, M.; Hou, M.; Bauer, E.

    1987-01-01

    Low-energy ion scattering is used in combination with computer simulation to study the interaction potential between 600-eV potassium ions and atoms in metallic surfaces. A special algorithm is described which is used with the computer simulation code marlowes. This algorithm builds up impact areas on the simulated solid surface from which scattering cross sections can be estimated with an accuracy better than 1%. This can be done by calculating no more than a couple of thousand trajectories. The screening length in the Moliere approximation to the Thomas-Fermi potential is fitted in such a way that the ratio between the calculated cross sections for double and single scattering matches the scattering intensity ratio measured experimentally and associated with the same mechanisms. The consistency of the method is checked by repeating the procedure for different incidence conditions and also by predicting the intensities associated with other surface scattering mechanisms. The screening length estimates are found to be insensitive to thermal vibrations. The calculated ratios between scattering cross sections by different processes are suggested to be sensitive enough to the relative atomic positions in order to be useful in surface-structure characterization

  19. A novel experimental scheme of electron scattering off unstable nuclei with a self-confining radioactive ion target (SCRIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    We proposed a new experimental scheme of an electron scattering off unstable nuclei using a Self-Confining Radioactive Ion Target (SCRIT). The SCRIT is an unstable ion target formed in the electron storage ring, and is based on completely new idea. We constructed prototype of the SCRIT device and installed it in the electron storage ring KSR in Kyoto University. In the test experiment, 10 7 -Cs ions are confined in the SCRIT with the lifetime of about 2 s and the feasibility of the SCRIT as the target has been confirmed. (author)

  20. 2D fluorescence spectroscopy for monitoring ion-exchange membrane based technologies - Reverse electrodialysis (RED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Sylwin; Galinha, Claudia F; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2016-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is one of the emerging, membrane-based technologies for harvesting salinity gradient energy. In RED process, fouling is an undesirable operation constraint since it leads to a decrease of the obtainable net power density due to increasing stack electric resistance and pressure drop. Therefore, early fouling detection is one of the main challenges for successful RED technology implementation. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence spectroscopy was used, for the first time, as a tool for fouling monitoring in RED. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) of ion-exchange membrane surfaces and of natural aqueous streams were acquired during one month of a RED stack operation. Fouling evolvement on the ion-exchange membrane surfaces was successfully followed by 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and quantified using principal components analysis (PCA). Additionally, the efficiency of cleaning strategy was assessed by measuring the membrane fluorescence emission intensity before and after cleaning. The anion-exchange membrane (AEM) surface in contact with river water showed to be significantly affected due to fouling by humic compounds, which were found to cross through the membrane from the lower salinity (river water) to higher salinity (sea water) stream. The results obtained show that the combined approach of using 2D fluorescence spectroscopy and PCA has a high potential for studying fouling development and membrane cleaning efficiency in ion exchange membrane processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to Identify Colorants in Art: An Experiment for an Upper-Division Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E.; Frano, Kristen A.; Svoboda, Shelley A.; Wustholz, Kristin L.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of art represent an attractive way to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in nanoscience, vibrational spectroscopy, and instrumental analysis. Here, we present an undergraduate analytical or physical chemistry laboratory wherein a combination of normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy is used to…

  2. Gold removal rate by ion sputtering as a function of ion-beam voltage and raster size using Auger electron spectroscopy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehning, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Gold removal rate was measured as a function of ion beam voltage and raster size using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Three different gold thicknesses were developed as standards. Two sputter rate calibration curves were generated by which gold sputter rate could be determined for variations in ion beam voltage or raster size

  3. Study of mode-converted and directly-excited ion Bernstein waves by CO2 laser scattering in Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Fiore, C.L.; McDermott, F.S.; Moody, J.D.; Porkolab, M.; Shepard, T.; Squire, J.

    1987-01-01

    Mode-converted and directly excited ion Bernstein waves (IBW) were studied using CO 2 laser scattering in the Alcator C tokamak. During the ICRF fast wave heating experiments, mode-converted IBW was observed on the high-field side of the resonance in both second harmonic and minority heating regimes. By comparing the relative scattered powers from the two antennas separated by 180 0 toroidally, an increased toroidal wave damping with increasing density was inferred. In the IBW heating experiments, optimum direct excitation is obtained when an ion-cyclotron harmonic layer is located just behind the antenna. Wave absorption at the ω = 3Ω/sub D/ = 1.5Ω/sub H/ layer was directly observed. Edge ion heating was inferred from the IBW dispersion when this absorption layer was located in the plasma periphery, which may be responsible for the observed improvement in particle confinement

  4. High-resolution electron collision spectroscopy with multicharged ions in merged beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestinsky, M.

    2007-04-18

    The Heidelberg ion storage ring Tsr is currently the only ring equipped with two independent devices for the collinear merging of a cold electron beam with stored ions. This greatly improves the potential of electron-ion collision experiments, as the ion beam can be cooled with one electron beam, while the other one is used as a dedicated target for energy-resolved electron collision processes, such as recombination. The work describes the implementation of this system for rst electron collision spectroscopy experiments. A detection system has been realized including an ion detector and specroscopic beam-control software and instrumentation. Moreover, in order to improve the spectroscopic resolution systematical studies of intrinsic relaxation processes in the electron beam have been carried out. These include the dependence on the electron beam density, the magnetic guiding eld strength, and the acceleration geometry. The recombination measurements on low-lying resonances in lithiumlike Sc{sup 18+} yield a high-precision measurement of the 2s-2p{sub 3/2} transition energy in this system. Operation of the two-electron-beam setup at high collision energy ({approx}1000 eV) is established using resonances of hydrogenlike Mg{sup 11+}, while the unique possibility of modifying the beam-merging geometry con rms its importance for the electron-ion recombination rate at lowest relative energy, as demonstrated on F{sup 6+}. (orig.)

  5. High-resolution electron collision spectroscopy with multicharged ions in merged beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestinsky, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Heidelberg ion storage ring Tsr is currently the only ring equipped with two independent devices for the collinear merging of a cold electron beam with stored ions. This greatly improves the potential of electron-ion collision experiments, as the ion beam can be cooled with one electron beam, while the other one is used as a dedicated target for energy-resolved electron collision processes, such as recombination. The work describes the implementation of this system for rst electron collision spectroscopy experiments. A detection system has been realized including an ion detector and specroscopic beam-control software and instrumentation. Moreover, in order to improve the spectroscopic resolution systematical studies of intrinsic relaxation processes in the electron beam have been carried out. These include the dependence on the electron beam density, the magnetic guiding eld strength, and the acceleration geometry. The recombination measurements on low-lying resonances in lithiumlike Sc 18+ yield a high-precision measurement of the 2s-2p 3/2 transition energy in this system. Operation of the two-electron-beam setup at high collision energy (∼1000 eV) is established using resonances of hydrogenlike Mg 11+ , while the unique possibility of modifying the beam-merging geometry con rms its importance for the electron-ion recombination rate at lowest relative energy, as demonstrated on F 6+ . (orig.)

  6. Collinear laser spectroscopy on radioactive praseodymium ions and cadmium ions; Kollineare Laserspektroskopie an radioaktiven Praseodymionen und Cadmiumatomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemmgen, Nadja

    2013-11-21

    Collinear laser spectroscopy is a tool for the model independent determination of spins, charge radii and electromagnetic moments of nuclei in ground and long-lived isomeric states. In the context of this thesis a new offline ion source for high evaporating temperatures and an ion beam analysis system were implemented at the TRIGA-LASER Experiment at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry at the University of Mainz. The main part of the thesis deals with the determination of the properties of radioactive praseodymium and cadmium isotopes by collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE/CERN. The necessary test measurements for the spectroscopy of praseodymium ions have been conducted with the aforementioned offline ion source at the TRIGA-LASER experiment. The spectroscopy of the praseodymium ions was motivated by the observation of a modulation of the electron capture decay rates of hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}. The nuclear magnetic moment of the nucleus is, among others, required for the explanation of the so-called GSI Oscillations and has not been studied experimentally before. Additionally, the determined electron capture decay constant of hydrogen-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} is lower than the one of helium-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 57+}. The explanation of this phenomenon requires a positive magnetic moment. During the experiment at the COLLAPS apparatus the magnetic moments of the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 135}Pr, {sup 136}Pr and {sup 137}Pr could be determined for the first time. Unfortunately, due to a too low production yield the desired isotope {sup 140}Pr could not be studied.The systematic study of cadmium isotopes was motivated by nuclear physics in the tin region. With Z=48 two protons are missing for the shell closure and the isotopes extend from the magic neutron number N=50 to the magic neutron number N=82. The extracted nuclear properties allow tests of different nuclear models in this region. In this thesis the obtained results of the spectroscopy of

  7. A study of the local structure around Eu3+ ions in oxide glasses using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, S.; Hirao, K.; Soga, N.

    1993-01-01

    The local structure around Eu 3+ ions in several oxide glasses (silicate, germanate and borophosphate glasses) was investigated by using 151 Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was found that the isomer shift (IS) of silicate and borophosphate glasses was independent of the sodium content, but that of germanate glasses was not. This means the first coordination sphere around Eu 3+ ions in silicate glasses is insensitive to the composition of the glass matrix. It is assumed that, regardless of the sodium content, Eu 3+ ions in silicate glasses attract a certain amount of nonbridging oxygen (NBO, Si-O direct difference ) when incorporated stably into silicate glass matrix, because NBO is the only species donating negative charge. For germanate glasses, the behavior of IS is considered to be related to the resence of GeO 6/2 octahedra. On the basis of experimental results, the coordination models of Eu 3+ in these systems are proposed. (orig.)

  8. Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements of ion temperature and plasma rotation in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaehnig, K.P.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Powell, E.T.

    1984-11-01

    The primary diagnostic on PBX for ion temperature measurements is charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy of low Z ions, wherein fast neutrals from the heating neutral beams excite spectral lines from highly excited states (n greater than or equal to 4) of hydrogenic 0, C, and He via charge-exchange collisions with the respective fully stripped ions. Since the neutral beams on PBX provide relatively low velocity neutrals (i.e., D 0 beams at 44 keV), the best signals are obtained using the near-uv lines of 0 7+ (e.g., n = 8-7, 2976 A). Off-line analysis of the Doppler broadened and shifted line profiles includes non-linear least squares fitting to a model line profile, while a simplified on-line fast analysis code permits between-shot data analysis

  9. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents.

  10. End point detection in ion milling processes by sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, C.; Dorian, M.; Tabei, M.; Elsea, A.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristic optical emission from the sputtered material during ion milling processes can provide an unambiguous indication of the presence of the specific etched species. By monitoring the intensity of a representative emission line, the etching process can be precisely terminated at an interface. Enhancement of the etching end point is possible by using a dual-channel photodetection system operating in a ratio or difference mode. The installation of the optical detection system to an existing etching chamber has been greatly facilitated by the use of optical fibers. Using a commercial ion milling system, experimental data for a number of etching processes have been obtained. The result demonstrates that sputter-induced optical emission spectroscopy offers many advantages over other techniques in detecting the etching end point of ion milling processes

  11. Photodissociation and charge transfer dynamics of negative ions studied with femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanni, Martin T.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation presents studies aimed at understanding the potential energy surfaces and dynamics of isolated negative ions, and the effects of solvent on each. Although negative ions play important roles in atmospheric and solution phase chemistry, to a large extent the ground and excited state potential energy surfaces of gas phase negative ions are poorly characterized, and solvent effects even less well understood. In an effort to fill this gap, the author's coworkers and the author have developed a new technique, anion femtosecond photoelectron spectroscopy, and applied it to gas phase photodissociation and charge transfer processes. Studies are presented that (1) characterize the ground and excited states of isolated and clustered anions, (2) monitor the photodissociation dynamics of isolated and clustered anions, and (3) explore the charge-transfer-to-solvent states of atomic iodide clustered with polar and non-polar solvents

  12. Characterization of interfaces between metals and organic thin films by electron and ion spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Martin

    2012-01-18

    In this thesis, interfaces between metals and organic thin films have been characterized with photoelectron and ion-scattering spectroscopies. Two different classes of metal/organic interfaces were examined in detail. First, interfaces which can be mainly characterized by relatively weak coordinative interactions between substrate and adsorbate. Second, interfaces which are mostly determined, or even created, by chemical reactions between different adsorbates or between adsorbates and substrate. Typical examples from the first class are metalated tetrapyrrole monolayers on Ag(111) and Au(111) single-crystal substrates. In this study, a focus was set to the interaction between iron and cobalt tetrapyrroles with Ag(111) or Au(111) substrates. A detailed examination of the corresponding photoelectron spectra revealed that the adsorbatesubstrate interaction is associated with a charge transfer from the metallic substrate to the Fe(II) or Co(II) ions within the tetrapyrrole units. The examination of cobalt(II) phthalocyanine monolayers further led to the conclusion that the magnetic moment, as present in unperturbed CoPc molecules, is efficiently quenched by the contact to the Ag(111) surface and the associated charge transfer. Similar investigations on Au(111) substrates gave evidence for possible adsorption site effects, further complicating the adsorbate/substrate interaction. Furthermore the formation of two-dimensional structures of poly(p-phenylene-terephthalamide) (PPTA, trademark Kevlar) on Ag(111) was closely examined. The Ag(111) surface does not only provide the geometrical boundary for the formation of the 2D covalent structures, but, moreover, actively participates in the reaction; after the adsorption of TPC molecules, a scission of the C-Cl bond, in particular at temperatures above 120 K, was evident. The resulting radical fragments appear stable and can act as reaction partners for the co-adsorbed PPD units. The chlorine atoms reside on the surface even

  13. The analysis of Rutherford scattering-channelling measurements of disorder production and annealing in ion irradiated semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Elliman, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Rutherford scattering and channelling of light probe ions (e.g. He + ) has been extensively used for studies of disorder production in ion implanted semiconductors. Various authors have analysed models of amorphousness accumulation and Carter and Webb have indicated the general difficulties in assessing disorder production models from RBS/channelling studies if the production modes are complex and the manner in which the technique responds to different defect structures is unspecified. For less complex disorder production modes and by making reasonable assumptions about the technique response however, some insight into the form of backscattering yield - ion implant fluence functions can be obtained as is discussed in the present communication. It thus becomes possible to infer the importance of different disorder generation processes from RBS/channelling - ion influence studies. It will also be shown how simple annealing processes modify disorder accumulation and thus again how the operation of such processes may be inferred from RBS/channelling - ion fluence measurements. (author)

  14. Theoretical modeling of magnesium ion imprints in the Raman scattering of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitán, Josef; Dracínský, Martin; Kaminský, Jakub; Benda, Ladislav; Bour, Petr

    2010-03-18

    Hydration envelopes of metallic ions significantly influence their chemical properties and biological functioning. Previous computational studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and vibrational spectra indicated a strong affinity of the Mg(2+) cation to water. We find it interesting that, although monatomic ions do not vibrate themselves, they cause notable changes in the water Raman signal. Therefore, in this study, we used a combination of Raman spectroscopy and computer modeling to analyze the magnesium hydration shell and origin of the signal. In the measured spectra of several salts (LiCl, NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), CaCl(2), MgBr(2), and MgI(2) water solutions), only the spectroscopic imprint of the hydrated Mg(2+) cation could clearly be identified as an exceptionally distinct peak at approximately 355 cm(-1). The assignment of this band to the Mg-O stretching motion could be confirmed on the basis of several models involving quantum chemical computations on metal/water clusters. Minor Raman spectral features could also be explained. Ab initio and Fourier transform (FT) techniques coupled with the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics were adapted to provide the spectra from dynamical trajectories. The results suggest that even in concentrated solutions magnesium preferentially forms a [Mg(H(2)O)(6)](2+) complex of a nearly octahedral symmetry; nevertheless, the Raman signal is primarily associated with the relatively strong metal-H(2)O bond. Partially covalent character of the Mg-O bond was confirmed by a natural bond orbital analysis. Computations on hydrated chlorine anion did not provide a specific signal. The FT techniques gave good spectral profiles in the high-frequency region, whereas the lowest-wavenumber vibrations were better reproduced by the cluster models. Both dynamical and cluster computational models provided a useful link between spectral shapes and specific ion-water interactions.

  15. Spin-flip inelastic scattering in electron energy loss spectroscopy of a ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, S.; Tosatti, E.

    1981-08-01

    We calculate the spin polarization occuring during electron inelastic scattering from electron-hole pairs in a model ferromagnetic metal. The polarization is found to have contributions from unequal spin flip as well as non-flip energy loss rates. Our results indicate an asymmetry of the order of a few percent with parameters roughly modeling Fsub(e). The possibilities of comparison with experiments in the presence of simultaneous spin-polarizing elastic scattering are discussed. (author)

  16. High pressure sample container for thermal neutron spectroscopy and diffraction on strongly scattering fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, P.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    1979-01-01

    A description is presented of the construction and performance of a container for thermal neutron scattering on a fluid sample with about 1.5 cm -1 macroscopic cross section (neglecting absorption). The maximum pressure is about 900 bar. The container is made of 5052 aluminium capillary with inner diameter 0.75 mm and wall thickness 0.25 mm; it covers a neutron beam with a cross section of 9 X 2.5 cm 2 . The container has been successfully used in neutron diffraction and time-of-flight experiments on argon-36 at 120 K and several pressures up to 850 bar. It is shown that during these measurements the temperature gradient over the sample as well as the error in the absolute temperature were both less than 0.05 K. Subtraction of the Bragg peaks due to container scattering in diffraction experiments may be dfficult, but seems feasible because of the small amount of aluminium in the neutron beam. Correction for container scattering and multiple scattering in time-of-flight experiments may be difficult only in the case of coherently scattering samples and small scattering angles. (Auth.)

  17. Studi Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy dari Lembaran Polyvinyl Alcohol dengan Penambahan Liclo4 sebagai Bahan Elektolit Baterai Li-ion

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Indra; Wahyudianingsih, Wahyudianingsih; Sudaryanto, Sudaryanto

    2016-01-01

    ELECTROCHEMICALIMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL SHEETWITHADDITION OFLiClO4AS ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL OF Li-ION BATTERAY. Solid polymer electrolyte materials for Li ion battery have been prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) added by lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) salt with various concentration. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) study of the material was done by making a Nyquist plot of the measurement with a LCR meter. These electrolyte materials prepared by using PVA...

  18. Electron and ion temperatures: a comparison of ground-based incoherent scatter and AE-C satellite measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.F.; Bauer, P.; Brace, L.H.; Carlson, H.C.; Hagen, J.; Hanson, W.B.; Hoegy, W.R.; Torr, M.R.; Wickwar, V.B.

    1977-01-01

    The Atmosphere Exploere-C satellite (AE-C) is uniquely suited for correlative studies with ground-based stations because its on-board propulsion system enables a desired ground station overflight condition to be maintained for a period of several weeks. It also provides the first low-altitude (below 260 km) comparison of satellite and incoherent scatter electron and ion temperatures. More than 40 comparisons of remote and in situ measurements were made by using data from AE-C and four incoherent scatter stations (Arecibo, Chatanika, Millstone Hill, and St. Santin). The results indicate very good agreement between satellite and ground measurements of the ion temperature, the average satellite retarding potential analyzer temperatures differing from the average incoherent scatter temperatures by -2% at St. Santin, +3% at Millstone Hill, and +2% at Arecibo. The electron temperatures also agree well, the average satellite temperatures exceeding the average incoherent scatter temperatures by 3% at St. Santin, 2% at Arecibo, and 11% at Millstone Hill. Several temperature comparisons were made between AE-C and Chatanika. In spite of the highly variable ionosphere often encountered at this high-latitude location, good agreement was obtained between the in situ and remote measurements of electron and ion temperatures. Longitudinal variations are found to be very important in the comparisons of electron temperature in some locations. The agreement between the electron temperatures is considerably better than that found in some earlier comparisons involving satellities at higher altitudes

  19. Fast-ion transport studies using FIDA spectroscopy at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    A good confinement of fast-ions, i.e. ions with energies above the thermal energy, is essential for the success of fusion devices as it determines, amongst others, the plasma performance and the heating and current drive efficiencies. In case of a turbulent or magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) active background plasma, various mechanisms have to be considered in order to estimate the spatial distribution of the fast-ions: the slowing down and radial diffusion by Coulomb collisions on electrons and ions, the effect of potential fluctuations and the effect of perturbations of the magnetic field structure. These can lead to a broadening of the fast-ion distribution function which is not yet completely understood. At the fusion experiment ASDEX Upgrade, the fast-ions are generated by heating sources such as neutral beam injection (NBI). Their transport properties can be studied by a fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) spectroscopy diagnostic which has been built in the framework of this thesis. Through charge exchange reactions with neutrals, fast-ions can receive a bound electron and emit Balmer alpha line radiation. This so-called FIDA radiation can be measured with large Doppler shifts and is localized along the NBI path where a high density of neutrals is present. The FIDA diagnostic uses radially distributed lines of sight that intersect, in the horizontal and in the vertical plane, the path of a 2.5 MW NBI heating source. Thereby different parts of the fast-ion phase space above 25 keV can be analyzed. To interpret the FIDA radiation quantitatively, a forward modelling code has been implemented, tested and further developed. The code calculates, based on theoretical fast-ion distribution functions, synthetic FIDA spectra that can be compared to the measurement. In MHD-quiescent plasmas, the possible effect of turbulence on the fast-ion transport has been investigated with the FIDA diagnostic. The measurements obtained under different experimental conditions, such as during on- and

  20. Theory of nuclear reactions, with applications to heavy ion scattering reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, M.S.A.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear science to day, has gained its stature through the pioneer work of both theorists and experimentalists within its two main divisions, Nuclear Reaction and Nuclear Structure theories. Our main interest in this theoretical work in nuclear reaction theory is focused on three topics, come under the headings of three parts which are the constituents of the present paper. Part 1 is concerned with ''Contributions to the theory of Threshold phenomena in nuclear reactions; cluster threshold states in heavy ion reactions''. Part II is devoted to ''Hermiticity of the Laplacian operator, R-matrix theories and direct interaction theory'', while part xII is ascribed to ''Heavy ion transfer reactions and scattering''. The aforementioned selected topics are the backbones of this thesis, which starts with general introduction giving a brief account about the material included in. In each part, investiqations are given in an extended manner through several chapters. Finally, the thesis is ended eith the chapter on ''General Discussions and Conclusions''. Appendices, references, and figure captions are found at the end of each part, the matter which we believe to facilitate much the reading through of the thesis. The first two parts are based (to some extent) on the same formal background (R-matrix, Kapur-Peierls-theories) and they converge to solve some physical problems originating from flux conservation laws in nuclear reactions, while the third part is indirect related to the first two; in principle it joins the other two parts under computational aspects. All of them after all, form the solidarity of the material included in the thesis. (author)

  1. Sizing of single evaporating droplet with Near-Forward Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, M.; Jakubczyk, D.; Derkachov, G.; Archer, J.

    2017-11-01

    We have developed an optical setup and related numerical models to study evolution of single evaporating micro-droplets by analysis of their spectral properties. Our approach combines the advantages of the electrodynamic trapping with the broadband spectral analysis with the supercontinuum laser illumination. The elastically scattered light within the spectral range of 500-900 nm is observed by a spectrometer placed at the near-forward scattering angles between 4.3 ° and 16.2 ° and compared with the numerically generated lookup table of the broadband Mie scattering. Our solution has been successfully applied to infer the size evolution of the evaporating droplets of pure liquids (diethylene and ethylene glycol) and suspensions of nanoparticles (silica and gold nanoparticles in diethylene glycol), with maximal accuracy of ± 25 nm. The obtained results have been compared with the previously developed sizing techniques: (i) based on the analysis of the Mie scattering images - the Mie Scattering Lookup Table Method and (ii) the droplet weighting. Our approach provides possibility to handle levitating objects with much larger size range (radius from 0.5 μm to 30 μm) than with the use of optical tweezers (typically radius below 8 μm) and analyse them with much wider spectral range than with commonly used LED sources.

  2. Dissociative scattering of low-energy SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions (5-200 eV) on Cu(100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Baba, Yuji; Sasaki, T A [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Dissociative scattering of molecular SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions from a Cu(100) single crystal surface has been investigated in the incident energy range from 5 eV to 200 eV with a scattering angle of 77deg. The scattered ion intensity of dissociative ions and parent molecular ions were measured as a function of incident ion energy. The observed data show that onset energies of dissociation for SiF{sub 3}{sup +} and SiF{sup +} ions are 30 eV and 40 eV, respectively. The obtained threshold energies are consistent with a impulsive collision model where the dissociation of incident ion is caused by vibrational excitation during collision. (author)

  3. Spectroscopies et modélisation de verres de silice dopés d'ions de terre rare - influence du co-dopage

    OpenAIRE

    Alombert-Goget , Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    This study concerns the role of a co-doping agent on the environment of the rare earth ions in silica glass and its consequences on the spectroscopy of the luminescent element. Two different co-doping agents were studied: aluminium and hafnium ions. The samples of doped and co-doped glasses were obtained by sol-gel process and were studied by different experimental methods: luminescence spectroscopy, FLN spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and EXAFS spectroscopy. In parallel some numerical simu...

  4. Overview of the current spectroscopy effort on the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Lopez-Urrutia, J.C.; Brown, G.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of the current spectroscopic effort on the Livermore electron beam ion trap facilities. The effort focuses on four aspects: spectral line position, line intensity, temporal evolution, and line shape. Examples of line position measurements include studies of the K-shell transitions in heliumlike Kr 34+ and the 2s-2p intrashell transitions in lithiumlike Th 87+ and U 89+ , which provide benchmark values for testing the theory of relativistic and quantum electrodynamical contributions in high-Z ions. Examples of line intensity measurements are provided by measurements of the electron-impact excitation and dielectronic recombination cross sections of heliumlike transition-metal ions Ti 20+ through CO 25+ . A discussion of radiative lifetime measurements of metastable levels in heliumlike ions is given to illustrate the time-resolved spectroscopy techniques in the microsecond range. The authors also present a measurement of the spectral lineshape that illustrates the very low ion temperatures that can be achieved in an EBIT

  5. FTIR spectroscopy structural analysis of the interaction between Lactobacillus kefir S-layers and metal ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, E.; Mobili, P.; Tymczyszyn, E.; Fausto, R.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.

    2011-02-01

    FTIR spectroscopy was used to structurally characterize the interaction of S-layer proteins extracted from two strains of Lactobacillus kefir (the aggregating CIDCA 8348 and the non-aggregating JCM 5818) with metal ions (Cd +2, Zn +2, Pb +2 and Ni +2). The infrared spectra indicate that the metal/protein interaction occurs mainly through the carboxylate groups of the side chains of Asp and Glut residues, with some contribution of the NH groups belonging to the peptide backbone. The frequency separation between the νCOO - anti-symmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations in the spectra of the S-layers in presence of the metal ions was found to be ca. 190 cm -1 for S-layer CIDCA 8348 and ca. 170 cm -1 for JCM 5818, denoting an unidentate coordination in both cases. Changes in the secondary structures of the S-layers induced by the interaction with the metal ions were also noticed: a general trend to increase the amount of β-sheet structures and to reduce the amount of α-helices was observed. These changes allow the proteins to adjust their structure to the presence of the metal ions at minimum energy expense, and accordingly, these adjustments were found to be more important for the bigger ions.

  6. Reflectance spectroscopy of PMMA implanted with 50 keV silicon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florian, Bojana [Bulgarian Institute of Metrology, 2 Prof. P. Mutafchiev Str., 1797 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stefanov, Ivan [Department of Quantum Electronics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Hadjichristov, Georgi [Institute of Solid State Physics, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, the modification of the specular reflectivity of PMMA implanted with low-energy (50 keV) silicon ions was studied and nano-clusters formed in PMMA by Si{sup +} implantation were evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Further, the optical loss due to off-specular (diffuse) reflectivity of this ion-implanted polymer is also of practical interest for applications such as micro-optical lenses, diffraction gratings, Fresnel lenses, waveguides, etc. We examined both specular and diffuse reflectivity of Si{sup +} implanted PMMA in the UV-Vis-NIR. The effect from Si{sup +} implantation in the dose range 10{sup 14}-10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} is linked to the structure formed in PMMA where the buried ion-implanted layer has a thickness up to 100 nm. As compared to the pristine PMMA, an enhancement of the reflectivity of Si{sup +} implanted PMMA is observed, that is attributed to the modification of the subsurface region of PMMA upon the ion implantation.

  7. Measurements of scattering processes in negative ion-atom collisions: Progress report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvale, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The main emphasis of this research effort is the simultaneous study of several of the scattering processes that occur in negative ion-atom collisions. These include: elastic scattering, target excitation/ionization, single electron detachment, and double electron detachment. The measurements will provide absolute total and differential cross sections for the aforementioned processes. These are extremely valuable in providing stringent tests of the approximations used in the various theoretical calculations. This period covers the first year of the grant and the vast majority of the activity was directed toward construction of the apparatus needed to carry out the proposed measurements. Progress toward these goals are summarized. 2 refs., 1 fig

  8. On the distribution of electrons in the double ionization of helium-like ions by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Drukarev, E G [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St Petersburg 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2003-06-28

    The Compton scattering of a high energy photon by a helium-like ion, followed by the ionization of two electrons, is considered outside of the Bethe surface of Compton scattering with the knock-out of a single electron. The role of shake-off (SO), of final state interactions (FSI) and of the quasi-free mechanism (QFM) is analysed. The triple and double differential distributions are calculated. It is demonstrated for the first time that in certain kinematical regions the process is dominated by the FSI and by the QFM, while the SO contribution is much smaller.

  9. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Tungsten Ions - Atomic Spectroscopy and Fusion Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clementson, Joel [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2010-05-01

    The spectra of highly charged tungsten ions have been investigated using x-ray and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy. These heavy ions are of interest in relativistic atomic structure theory, where high-precision wavelength measurements benchmark theoretical approaches, and in magnetic fusion research, where the ions may serve to diagnose high-temperature plasmas. The work details spectroscopic investigations of highly charged tungsten ions measured at the Livermore electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility. Here, the EBIT-I and SuperEBIT electron beam ion traps have been employed to create, trap, and excite tungsten ions of M- and L-shell charge states. The emitted spectra have been studied in high resolution using crystal, grating, and x-ray calorimeter spectrometers. In particular, wavelengths of n = 0 M-shell transitions in K-like W55+ through Ne-like W64+, and intershell transitions in Zn-like W44+ through Co-like W47+ have been measured. Special attention is given to the Ni-like W46+ ion, which has two strong electric-dipole forbidden transitions that are of interest for plasma diagnostics. The EBIT measurements are complemented by spectral modeling using the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC), and predictions for tokamak spectra are presented. The L-shell tungsten ions have been studied at electron-beam energies of up to 122 keV and transition energies measured in Ne-like W64+ through Li-like W71+. These spectra constitute the physics basis in the design of the ion-temperature crystal spectrometer for the ITER tokamak. Tungsten particles have furthermore been introduced into the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) spheromak in Livermore in order to investigate diagnostic possibilities of extreme ultraviolet tungsten spectra for the ITER divertor. The spheromak measurement and spectral modeling using FAC suggest that tungsten ions in charge states around Er-like W6+ could be useful for

  10. Extracting the redox orbitals in Li battery materials with high-resolution x-ray compton scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Barbiellini, B; Orikasa, Y; Go, N; Sakurai, H; Kaprzyk, S; Itou, M; Yamamoto, K; Uchimoto, Y; Wang, Yung Jui; Hafiz, H; Bansil, A; Sakurai, Y

    2015-02-27

    We present an incisive spectroscopic technique for directly probing redox orbitals based on bulk electron momentum density measurements via high-resolution x-ray Compton scattering. Application of our method to spinel Li_{x}Mn_{2}O_{4}, a lithium ion battery cathode material, is discussed. The orbital involved in the lithium insertion and extraction process is shown to mainly be the oxygen 2p orbital. Moreover, the manganese 3d states are shown to experience spatial delocalization involving 0.16±0.05 electrons per Mn site during the battery operation. Our analysis provides a clear understanding of the fundamental redox process involved in the working of a lithium ion battery.

  11. Recoil ion momentum spectroscopy in atomic and nuclear physics: applications to low energy ion-atom/molecule collisions and to beta-neutrino angular correlation in beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechard, X.

    2012-12-01

    Since the early 1990's, Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy is an ideal tool for ion-atom and ion-molecule collisions study. We detail here the development of this experimental technique during the last twenty years, illustrated with some of the most striking results obtained at GANIL (Caen) and J.R. Mac Donald Laboratory (Kansas State University). Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy is also particularly well suited for β-ν angular correlation measurements in nuclear β decay. The LPCTrap experiment, installed at GANIL, is based on this technique, coupled to the use of a Paul trap for the radioactive ions confinement. The precise measurements performed with this setup allow both, to test specific aspects of the Standard Model of elementary particles, and to study the electron shake-off process following β decay. (author)

  12. Lithium-ion battery electrolyte emissions analyzed by coupled thermogravimetric/Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertilsson, Simon; Larsson, Fredrik; Furlani, Maurizio; Albinsson, Ingvar; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years the use of Li-ion batteries has increased rapidly, powering small as well as large applications, from electronic devices to power storage facilities. The Li-ion battery has, however, several safety issues regarding occasional overheating and subsequent thermal runaway. During such episodes, gas emissions from the electrolyte are of special concern because of their toxicity, flammability and the risk for gas explosion. In this work, the emissions from heated typical electrolyte components as well as from commonly used electrolytes are characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy and FT-IR coupled with thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, when heating up to 650 °C. The study includes the solvents EC, PC, DEC, DMC and EA in various single, binary and ternary mixtures with and without the LiPF6 salt, a commercially available electrolyte, (LP71), containing EC, DEC, DMC and LiPF6 as well as extracted electrolyte from a commercial 6.8 Ah Li-ion cell. Upon thermal heating, emissions of organic compounds and of the toxic decomposition products hydrogen fluoride (HF) and phosphoryl fluoride (POF3) were detected. The electrolyte and its components have also been extensively analyzed by means of infrared spectroscopy for identification purposes.

  13. Electronic Transport and Raman Spectroscopy Characterization in Ion-Implanted Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R. F.; Turatti, A. M.; Camargo, B. C.; da Silva, R. R.; Kopelevich, Y.; Behar, M.; Balzaretti, N. M.; Gusmão, M. A.; Pureur, P.

    2018-02-01

    We report on Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity, and in-plane magnetoresistance experiments in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) implanted with As and Mn. A pristine sample was also studied for comparison. Two different fluences were applied, φ = 0.5× 10^{16} {ions}/{cm}2 and φ = 1.0× 10^{16} {ions}/{cm}2. The implantations were carried out with 20 keV ion energy at room temperature. The Raman spectroscopy results reveal the occurrence of drastic changes of the HOPG surface as a consequence of the damage caused by ionic implantation. For the higher dose, the complete amorphization limit is attained. The resistivity and magnetoresistance results were obtained placing electrical contacts on the irradiated sample surface. Owing to the strong anisotropy of HOPG, the electrical current propagates mostly near the implanted surface. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in the magnetoresistance at low temperatures. These results allow the extraction of the fundamental SdH frequencies and the carriers' effective masses. In general, the resistivity and magnetoresistance results are consistent with those obtained from Raman measurements. However, one must consider that the electrical conduction in our samples occurs as in a parallel association of a largely resistive thin sheet at the surface strongly modified by disorder with a thicker layer where damage produced by implantation is less severe. The SdH oscillations do not hint to significant changes in the carrier density of HOPG.

  14. Strain relaxation of CdTe on Ge studied by medium energy ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, J.C., E-mail: jean-christophe.pillet@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, Département Optique et Photonique, F38054 Grenoble (France); Pierre, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, Service de Caractérisation des Matériaux et Composants, F38054 Grenoble (France); Jalabert, D. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-INAC/UJF-Grenoble 1 UMR-E, SP2M, LEMMA, Minatec Grenoble F-38054 (France)

    2016-10-01

    We have used the medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) technique to assess the strain relaxation in molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) grown CdTe (2 1 1)/Ge (2 1 1) system. A previous X-ray diffraction study, on 10 samples of the same heterostructure having thicknesses ranging from 25 nm to 10 μm has allowed the measurement of the strain relaxation on a large scale. However, the X-ray diffraction measurements cannot achieve a stress measurement in close proximity to the CdTe/Ge interface at the nanometer scale. Due to the huge lattice misfit between the CdTe and Ge, a high degree of disorder is expected at the interface. The MEIS in channeling mode is a good alternative in order to profile defects with a high depth resolution. For a 21 nm thick CdTe layer, we observed, at the interface, a high density of Cd and/or Te atoms moved from their expected crystallographic positions followed by a rapid recombination of defects. Strain relaxation mechanisms in the vicinity of the interface are discussed.

  15. Formation of gold nanorods and gold nanorod films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trotsyuk, L.L.; Kulakovich, O.S.; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, E.V.; Gaponenko, S.V.; Vashchenko, S.V.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of gold nanorods as well as thin films prepared via electrostatic deposition of gold nanorods has been investigated. The obtained gold nanorods films have been used as substrates for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis of sulfur-free organic molecules mitoxantrone and malachite green as well as inorganic malachite microcrystals for the first time. The additional modification of films with L-cysteine allows one to significantly extend the use of gold nanorods for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering analysis. (authors)

  16. Morphology, surface roughness, electron inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering in elastic peak electron spectroscopy of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesiak, B.; Kosinski, A.; Nowakowski, R.; Koever, L.; Toth, J.; Varga, D.; Cserny, I.; Sulyok, A.; Gergely, G.

    2006-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Elastic peak electron spectroscopy (EPES) deals with the interaction of electrons with atoms of a solid surface, studying the distribution of electrons backscattered elastically. The nearest vicinity of the elastic peak, (low kinetic energy region) reflects both, electron inelastic and quasi-elastic processes. The incident electrons produce surface excitations, inducing surface plasmons with the corresponding loss peaks separated by 1 - 20 eV energy from the elastic peak. Quasi-elastic losses result from the recoil of scattering atoms of different atomic number, Z. The respective energy shift and Doppler broadening of the elastic peak depend on Z, the primary electron energy, E, and the measurement geometry. Quantitative surface analytical application of EPES, such as determination of parameters describing electron transport, requires a comparison of experimental data with corresponding data derived from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. Several problems occur in EPES studies of polymers. The intensity of elastic peak, considered in quantitative surface analysis, is influenced by both, the inelastic and quasi-elastic scattering processes (especially for hydrogen scattering atoms and primary electron energy above 1000 eV). An additional factor affecting the elastic peak intensity is the surface morphology and roughness. The present work compares the effect of these factors on the elastic peak intensity for selected polymers (polyethylene, polyaniline and polythiophenes). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and helium pycnometry are applied for deriving the surface atomic composition and the bulk density, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) for determining surface morphology and roughness. According to presented results, the influence of surface morphology and roughness is larger than those of surface excitations or recoil of hydrogen atoms. The component due to recoil of hydrogen atoms can be

  17. Comparison of collective Thomson scattering signals due to fast ions in ITER scenarios with fusion and auxiliary heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Asunta, O.; Eriksson, L.-G.

    2009-01-01

    Auxiliary heating such as neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) will accelerate ions in ITER up to energies in the MeV range, i.e. energies which are also typical for alpha particles. Fast ions of any of these populations will elevate the collective Thomson...... functions of fast ions generated by NBI and ICRH are calculated for a steady-state ITER burning plasma equilibrium with the ASCOT and PION codes, respectively. The parameters for the auxiliary heating systems correspond to the design currently foreseen for ITER. The geometry of the CTS system for ITER...... is chosen such that near perpendicular and near parallel velocity components are resolved. In the investigated ICRH scenario, waves at 50MHz resonate with tritium at the second harmonic off-axis on the low field side. Effects of a minority heating scheme with He-3 are also considered. CTS scattering...

  18. Billion-Fold Enhancement in Sensitivity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Magnesium Ions in Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Gottberg, Alexander; Kowalska, Magdalena; Bissell, Mark L; Arcisauskaite, Vaida; Blaum, Klaus; Helmke, Alexander; Johnston, Karl; Kreim, Kim; Larsen, Flemming H; Neugart, Rainer; Neyens, Gerda; Garcia Ruiz, Ronald F; Szunyogh, Daniel; Thulstrup, Peter W; Yordanov, Deyan T; Hemmingsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    β-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is highly sensitive compared to conventional NMR spectroscopy, and may be applied for several elements across the periodic table. β-NMR has previously been successfully applied in the fields of nuclear and solid-state physics. In this work, β-NMR is applied, for the first time, to record an NMR spectrum for a species in solution. 31Mg β-NMR spectra are measured for as few as 107 magnesium ions in ionic liquid (EMIM-Ac) within minutes, as a prototypical test case. Resonances are observed at 3882.9 and 3887.2 kHz in an external field of 0.3 T. The key achievement of the current work is to demonstrate that β-NMR is applicable for the analysis of species in solution, and thus represents a novel spectroscopic technique for use in general chemistry and potentially in biochemistry.

  19. Multiple scattering modeling pipeline for spectroscopy and photometry of airless Solar System objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, Antti; Väisänen, Timo; Markkanen, Johannes; Martikainen, Julia; Gritsevich, Maria; Muinonen, Karri

    2017-10-01

    We combine numerical tools to analyze the reflectance spectra of granular materials. Our motivation comes from the lack of tools when it comes to intimate mixing of materials and modeling space-weathering effects with nano- or micron-sized inclusions. The current practice is to apply a semi-physical models such as the Hapke models (e.g., Icarus 195, 2008). These are expressed in a closed form so that they are fast to apply. The problem is that the validity of the model is not guaranteed, and the derived properties related to particle scattering can be unrealistic (JQSRT 113, 2012).Our pipeline consists of individual scattering simulation codes and a main program that chains them together. The chain for analyzing a macroscopic target with space-weathered mineral would go as: (1) Scattering properties of small inclusions inside a host matrix are derived using exact Maxwell equation solvers. From the scattering properties, we use the so-called incoherent fields and Mueller matrices as input for the next step; (2) Scattering by a regolith grain is solved using a geometrical optics method with surface reflections, internal absorption, and internal diffuse scattering; (3) The radiative transfer simulation is executed inputting the regolith grains from the previous step as the scatterers in a macroscopic planar volume element.For the most realistic asteroid reflectance model, the chain would produce the properties of a planar surface element. Then, a shadowing simulation over the surface elements would be considered, and finally the asteroid phase function would be solved by integrating the bidirectional reflectance distribution function of the planar element over the object's realistic shape model.The tools in the proposed chain already exist, and practical task for us is to tie these together into an easy-to-use public pipeline. We plan to open the pipeline as a web-based open service a dedicated server, using Django application server and Python environment for the

  20. Study on initial stage of hetero-epitaxial growth by glancing angle scattering of fast ions from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yoshikazu; Toba, Kazuaki; Narumi, Kazumasa; Kimura, Kenji; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    Initial stages of epitaxial growth of lead chalcogenides on the (100) surface of SnTe under UHV conditions are studied from the angular distribution of scattered ions at glancing angle incidence of 0.7 MeV He ions on the growing surfaces. Real time measurement of the angular distribution is performed during the growth. Anomalous broadening of the angular distribution is observed at the initial stage of the growth. The broadening is attributed to the surface wrinkles induced by a square network of misfit edge dislocations. (author)

  1. Fragmentation of the C60 molecule in collision with light ions studied by a multi-correlation technique. Cross-sections, electron spectroscopy; Fragmentation de la molecule C60 par impact d'ions legers etudiee en multicorrelation. Sections efficaces, spectroscopie d'electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentenier, A

    2004-04-01

    A quantitative study of the C60 fullerenes fragmentation in collision with light ions (H{sub n}{sup +} with n=1,2,3, He{sup q+} with q=1,2) in the velocity range 0,1 - 2,3 u.a.) is presented. The multi-correlation technique, developed between fragment ions and electrons with well defined energy, has enlightened some of the dependences and properties of fragmentation mechanisms (cross sections, electron spectroscopy, size distributions, kinetic energy of fragment ions, Campi's scatter plot, activation energies). The deposited energy hence appeared as an important parameter. Cross sections have been measured, for the first time, for all the collisional processes. Ionisation and capture only depends on the collision velocity. On the other hand, scaling laws with the deposited energy have been observed for the cross sections of multifragmentation, which depends on the collision energy and the nature of the projectile. The deposited energy has also been found as an essential parameter to understand the evolution of the charged fragment size distributions. The electron spectroscopy, achieved at an emission angle of 35 degrees, showed spectra peaked at important energies (from 5 to 20 eV). The spectra shape depends on the collision velocity. A first theoretical analysis points out the link between the observed energy distribution and the presence of a centrifugal potential barrier. Finally, correlation experiments between produced ions and electron energy reveal that electron energy increases with internal energy. (author)

  2. Ion desorption induced by charged particle beams: mechanisms and mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, E.F. da; Schweikert, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Surface analysis, through desorption, induced by fast particles, is presented and discussed. The stopping of projectils is essentially made by collisions with the target electrons. The desorbed particles are generally emmited with kinetic energy from 0.1 to 20 eV. Mass, charge, velocity and emission angle give information about the surface components, its structure as well as beam-solid interaction processes. Time-of-flight mass spectroscopy of desorbed ions, determine the mass of organic macromolecules and biomolecules. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  3. Assessment of argon ion laser dispersive Raman spectroscopy for hot cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Characterization of high-level waste tank materials at Hanford is conducted to support safety assessments and waste treatment activities. Raman spectroscopy is expected to give chemical species information which may assist in defining layering in tank waste. This report describes the dispersive Raman system used in this year's investigation and the methology used to collect and evaluate data taken on tank waste samples. The current argon-ion Raman system was found not to be suitable for screening of tank cores, owing to silica interference, fluorescence interferences, and the extensive time required to collect and treat the data. Recommendations are given for further development

  4. Heavy ion deep inelastic collisions studied by discrete gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolas, W.

    1996-05-01

    The discrete gamma ray spectroscopy has been used as a tool to investigate the heavy ion collision. It has been shown that such experimental information supplemented by results of additional of-line radioactivity measurements is complete enough to reconstruct distributions of products of very complex nuclear reactions. Three experiments have been performed in which the 208 Pb + 64 Ni, 130 Te + 64 Ni and 208 Pb + 58 Ni systems have been created. The production cross sections of fragment isotopes have been determined and compared with existing model predictions

  5. Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy at TRIUMF-ISAC: the New Frontier of Radioactive Ion Beam Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, G. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Austin, R. A. E.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Becker, J. A.; Bricault, P.; Brown, N.; Chan, S.; Churchman, R.; Colosimo, S.; Coombes, H.; Cross, D.; Demand, G.; Drake, T. E.; Dombsky, M.; Ettenauer, S.; Finlay, P.; Furse, D.; Garnsworthy, A.; Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Hackman, G.; Kanungo, R.; Kulp, W. D.; Lassen, J.; Leach, K. G.; Leslie, J. R.; Mattoon, C.; Melconian, D.; Morton, A. C.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E.; Sarazin, F.; Svensson, C. E.; Sumithrarachchi, S.; Schumaker, M. A.; Triambak, S.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Williams, S. J.; Wood, J. L.; Wong, J.; Zganjar, E. F.

    2009-03-01

    High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy is essential to fully exploit the unique scientific opportunities at the next generation radioactive ion beam facilities such as the TRIUMF Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC). At ISAC the 8π spectrometer and its associated auxiliary detectors is optimize for β-decay studies while TIGRESS an array of segmented clover HPGe detectors has been designed for studies with accelerated beams. This paper gives a brief overview of these facilities and also presents recent examples of the diverse experimental program carried out at the 8π spectrometer.

  6. Heavy ion deep inelastic collisions studied by discrete gamma ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krolas, W. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1996-05-01

    The discrete gamma ray spectroscopy has been used as a tool to investigate the heavy ion collision. It has been shown that such experimental information supplemented by results of additional of-line radioactivity measurements is complete enough to reconstruct distributions of products of very complex nuclear reactions. Three experiments have been performed in which the {sup 208}Pb + {sup 64}Ni, {sup 130}Te + {sup 64}Ni and {sup 208}Pb + {sup 58}Ni systems have been created. The production cross sections of fragment isotopes have been determined and compared with existing model predictions 64 refs, 59 figs, 19 tabs

  7. On velocity-space sensitivity of fast-ion D-alpha spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Moseev, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    The velocity-space observation regions and sensitivities in fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements are often described by so-called weight functions. Here we derive expressions for FIDA weight functions accounting for the Doppler shift, Stark splitting, and the charge-exchange reaction...... and electron transition probabilities. Our approach yields an efficient way to calculate correctly scaled FIDA weight functions and implies simple analytic expressions for their boundaries that separate the triangular observable regions in (v‖, v⊥)-space from the unobservable regions. These boundaries...

  8. High-resolution spectroscopy diagnostics for measuring impurity ion temperature and velocity on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinzettl, Vladimír; Shukla, G.; Ghosh, J.; Melich, Radek; Pánek, Radomír; Tomeš, Matěj; Imríšek, Martin; Naydenkova, Diana; Varju, Jozef; Pereira, T.; Gomes, R.; Abramovic, I.; Jaspers, R.; Písařík, M.; Odstrčil, T.; Van Oost, G.

    96-97, October (2015), s. 1006-1011 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology 2014(SOFT-28)/28./. San Sebastián, 29.09.2014-03.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA ČR GAP205/11/2341; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * Plasma spectroscopy * Plasma rotation * Ion temperature * CXRS Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.301, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379615002355

  9. Measurement of mobility profile in ion-implanted silicon layers using electroreflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiev, G.B.; Kapaev, V.V.; Mokerov, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility is shown of the application of the low field linearized electroreflection spectroscopy for the measurement of profiles of carriers mobilities μ(x) simultaneously with the concentration profiles N(x) in thin ion-implanted silicon layers. The μ(χ) value is determined from the calibration curve of the dependence of the phenomenological broadening parameter γ on the mobility for uniformly doped samples. The results are presented for the measurements of the profiles μ(x) for boron- and arsenic-implanted silicon

  10. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  11. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy of plasma immersion ion implanted H13 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwagne, G.; Hutchings, R.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) has been used to investigate nitride formation in AISI-H13 tool steel after treatment by plasma immersion ion implantation (PI 3 ) at 350 C. With only slight variation in the plasma conditions, it is possible to influence the kinetics of nitride precipitation so as to obtain nitrogen concentrations that range from those associated with ε-Fe 2 N through ε-Fe 3 N to γ'-Fe 4 N. The CEMS results enable a more definite identification of the nitrides than that obtained by glancing-angle X-ray diffraction and nuclear reaction analysis alone. (orig.)

  12. Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy of plasma immersion ion implanted H13 tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwagne, G.; Collins, G. A.; Hutchings, R.

    1994-12-01

    Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) has been used to investigate nitride formation in AISI-H13 tool steel after treatment by plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) at 350 °C. With only slight variation in the plasma conditions, it is possible to influence the kinetics of nitride precipitation so as to obtain nitrogen concentrations that range from those associated with ɛ-Fe2N through ɛ-Fe3N to γ'-Fe4N. The CEMS results enable a more definite identification of the nitrides than that obtained by glancing-angle X-ray diffraction and nuclear reaction analysis alone.

  13. Visualizing redox orbitals and their potentials in advanced lithium-ion battery materials using high-resolution x-ray Compton scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Hasnain; Suzuki, Kosuke; Barbiellini, Bernardo; Orikasa, Yuki; Callewaert, Vincent; Kaprzyk, Staszek; Itou, Masayoshi; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Yamada, Ryota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Bansil, Arun

    2017-08-01

    Reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions are the key processes that underlie the batteries powering smartphones, laptops, and electric cars. A redox process involves transfer of electrons between two species. For example, in a lithium-ion battery, current is generated when conduction electrons from the lithium anode are transferred to the redox orbitals of the cathode material. The ability to visualize or image the redox orbitals and how these orbitals evolve under lithiation and delithiation processes is thus of great fundamental and practical interest for understanding the workings of battery materials. We show that inelastic scattering spectroscopy using high-energy x-ray photons (Compton scattering) can yield faithful momentum space images of the redox orbitals by considering lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 or LFP) as an exemplar cathode battery material. Our analysis reveals a new link between voltage and the localization of transition metal 3d orbitals and provides insight into the puzzling mechanism of potential shift and how it is connected to the modification of the bond between the transition metal and oxygen atoms. Our study thus opens a novel spectroscopic pathway for improving the performance of battery materials.

  14. Main-ion temperature and plasma rotation measurements based on scattering of electron cyclotron heating waves in ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Stejner; Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate measurements of spectra of O-mode electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) waves scattered collectively from microscopic plasma fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade discharges with an ITER-like ECRH scenario. The measured spectra are shown to allow determination of the main ion...... temperature and plasma rotation velocity. This demonstrates that ECRH systems can be exploited for diagnostic purposes alongside their primary heating purpose in a reactor relevant scenario....

  15. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-08-15

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L→L′+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i→L′+i′, also called “nonlinear Landau damping”) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function α{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility χ{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for α{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub φ}=ω/k≫V{sub e} where ω is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub φ}≪V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for α{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact α{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general α{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub φ}/V{sub e}≈3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay

  16. Evidence of sequential interatomic decay in argon trimers obtained by electron-triple-ion coincidence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X-J; Saito, N; Fukuzawa, H; Morishita, Y; Stoychev, S; Kuleff, A; Suzuki, I H; Tamenori, Y; Richter, R; Pruemper, G; Ueda, K

    2007-01-01

    Sequential interatomic decay, where the first step is an Auger decay with interatomic character and the second step is a pure interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD), is identified in Ar trimers Ar 3 . The 2p hole state in Ar 3 decays via the L 2,3 M 1 M 2,3 Auger to the one-site two-hole states Ar ++ (3s -1 3p -1 )-Ar-Ar that couples to the two-site satellite states Ar + (3p -2 nl)-Ar + (3p -1 )-Ar. These states are subject to ICD to the states Ar + (3p -1 )-Ar + (3p -1 )-Ar + (3p -1 ), in which the nl electron fills the 3p hole in the same Ar site and one of the 3p electrons in the third Ar site is emitted as a slow ICD electron. This ICD process is identified unambiguously by electron-ion-ion-ion coincidence spectroscopy in which the kinetic energy of the slow ICD electron and the kinetic energy release among the three Ar + ions are measured in coincidence. (fast track communication)

  17. Electron Scattering From Atoms, Molecules, Nuclei, and Bulk Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, Colm T

    2005-01-01

    Topics that are covered include electron scattering in the scanning TEM; basic theory of inelastic electron imaging; study of confined atoms by electron excitation; helium bubbles created in extreme pressure with application to nuclear safety; lithium ion implantation; electron and positron scattering from clusters; electron scattering from physi- and chemi-absorbed molecules on surfaces; coincidence studies; electron scattering from biological molecules; electron spectroscopy as a tool for environmental science; electron scattering in the presence of intense fields; electron scattering from astrophysical molecules; electon interatctions an detection of x-ray radiation.

  18. Doubly versus singly positively charged oxygen ions back-scattered from a silicon surface under dynamic O2+ bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzreb, Klaus; Williams, Peter; Loerincik, Jan; Sroubek, Zdenek

    2003-01-01

    Mass-resolved (and emission-charge-state-resolved) low-energy ion back-scattering during dynamic O 2 + bombardment of a silicon surface was applied in a Cameca IMS-3f secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instrument to determine the bombarding energy dependence of the ratio of back-scattered O 2+ versus O + . While the ratio of O 2+ versus O + drops significantly at reduced bombarding energies, O 2+ back-scattered from silicon was still detectable at an impact energy (in the lab frame) as low as about 1.6 keV per oxygen atom. Assuming neutralization prior to impact, O 2+ ion formation in an asymmetric 16 O→ 28 Si collision is expected to take place via 'collisional double ionization' (i.e. by promotion of two outer O 2p electrons) rather than by the production of an inner-shell (O 2s or O 1s) core hole followed by Auger-type de-excitation during or after ejection. A molecular orbital (MO) correlation diagram calculated for a binary 'head-on' O-Si collision supports this interpretation

  19. Vicinage effects in energy loss and electron emission during grazing scattering of heavy molecular ions from a solid surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian; Miskovic, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    Vicinage effects in the energy loss and the electron emission spectra are studied in the presence of Coulomb explosion of swift, heavy molecular ions, during their grazing scattering from a solid surface. The dynamic response of the surface is treated by means of the dielectric theory within the specular reflection model using the plasmon pole approximation for the bulk dielectric function, whereas the angle-resolved energy spectra of the electrons emitted from the surface are obtained on the basis of the first-order, time-dependent perturbation theory. The evolution of the charge states of the constituent ions in the molecule during scattering is described by a nonequilibrium extension of the Brandt-Kitagawa model. The molecule scattering trajectories and the corresponding Coulomb explosion dynamics are evaluated for the cases of the internuclear axis being either aligned in the beam direction or randomly oriented in the directions parallel to the surface. Our calculations show that the vicinage effect in the energy loss is generally weaker for heavy molecules than for light molecules. In addition, there is clear evidence of the negative vicinage effect in both the energy loss and the energy spectra of the emitted electrons for molecular ions at lower speeds and with the axis aligned in the direction of motion

  20. Research studies of aging changes of hyaline cartilage surface by using Raman-scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Dolgushkin, D. A.; Volova, L. T.; Lazarev, V. A.; Tyumchenkova, A. S.; Markova, M. D.

    2017-08-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis by the method of Raman spectroscopy of the joint hyaline cartilage of adults and children. Differences in the spectral characteristics of the surface of articular cartilage are shown. New optical coefficients have been introduced, which make it possible to evaluate the age-related changes in cartilaginous tissue.

  1. Spin flip inelastic scattering in electron energy loss spectroscopy of a ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocchetta, C.J.; Tosatti, E.; Yin, S.

    1986-11-01

    A model ferromagnetic metal is used to calculate the spin-polarization which occurs during inelastic electron-metal scattering with the production of an electron-hole pair. The polarization is found to have contributions from unequal spin-flip as well as non-flip energy loss rates. Our results indicate an asymmetry of the order of a few percent with parameters roughly modelling iron. (author)

  2. ELSEPA—Dirac partial-wave calculation of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms, positive ions and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander; Powell, Cedric J.

    2005-01-01

    The FORTRAN 77 code system ELSEPA for the calculation of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms, positive ions and molecules is presented. These codes perform relativistic (Dirac) partial-wave calculations for scattering by a local central interaction potential V(r). For atoms and ions, the static-field approximation is adopted, with the potential set equal to the electrostatic interaction energy between the projectile and the target, plus an approximate local exchange interaction when the projectile is an electron. For projectiles with kinetic energies up to 10 keV, the potential may optionally include a semiempirical correlation-polarization potential to describe the effect of the target charge polarizability. Also, for projectiles with energies less than 1 MeV, an imaginary absorptive potential can be introduced to account for the depletion of the projectile wave function caused by open inelastic channels. Molecular cross sections are calculated by means of a single-scattering independent-atom approximation in which the electron density of a bound atom is approximated by that of the free neutral atom. Elastic scattering by individual atoms in solids is described by means of a muffin-tin model potential. Partial-wave calculations are feasible on modest personal computers for energies up to about 5 MeV. The ELSEPA code also implements approximate factorization methods that allow the fast calculation of elastic cross sections for much higher energies. The interaction model adopted in the calculations is defined by the user by combining the different options offered by the code. The nuclear charge distribution can be selected among four analytical models (point nucleus, uniformly charged sphere, Fermi's distribution and Helm's uniform-uniform distribution). The atomic electron density is handled in numerical form. The distribution package includes data files with electronic densities of neutral atoms of the elements hydrogen to lawrencium ( Z=1

  3. Quantitative assessment of the ion-beam irradiation induced direct damage of nucleic acid bases through FTIR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qing, E-mail: huangq@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, Anhui (China); Su, Xi; Yao, Guohua; Lu, Yilin; Ke, Zhigang; Liu, Jinghua; Wu, Yuejin; Yu, Zengliang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2014-07-01

    Energetic particles exist ubiquitously in nature, and when they hit DNA molecules in organisms, they may induce critical biological effects such as mutation. It is however still a challenge to measure directly and quantitatively the damage imposed by the energetic ions on target DNA molecules. In this work we attempted to employ Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the ion-induced direct damage of four nucleic acid bases, namely, thymine (T), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and adenine (A), which are the building blocks of DNA molecules. The samples were prepared as thin films, irradiated by argon ion-beams at raised ion fluences, and in the meantime measured by FTIR spectroscopy for the damage in a quasi-in-situ manner. It was found that the low-energy ion-beam induced radiosensitivity of the four bases shows the sequence G > T > C > A, wherein the possible mechanism was also discussed.

  4. X-ray spectroscopy of highly ionized heavy ions as an advanced research for controlled nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschornack, G.; Musiol, G.

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostics and modelling of nuclear fusion plasmas require a detailed knowledge of atomic and molecular data for highly ionized heavy ions. Experimental verification of atomic data is made on the basis of IAEA recommendations using the method of high-resolution wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in order to obtain contributions extensioning the available atomic data lists. Basic facilities for producing highly charged heavy ions are the electron-ion rings of the heavy ion collective accelerator and the electron beam ion source KRYON-2 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. For high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy with these sources a computer-aided crystal diffraction spectrometer has been developed the precision of which is achieved by using advanced principles of measurement and control. Relativistic atomic structure calculations have been carried out for a great number of elements and configurations to obtain data in ionization regions heavily accessible to the experiment. (author)

  5. High resolution medium energy ion scattering study of silicon oxidation and oxy nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.P.; Lu, H.C.; Garfunkel, E.; Gustafsson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Silicon oxide is likely to remain the material of choice for gate oxides in microelectronics for the foreseeable future. As device become ever smaller and faster, the thickness of these layers in commercial products is predicted to be less than 50 Angstroms in just a few years. An understanding of such devices will therefore likely to be based on microscopic concepts and should now be investigated by atomistic techniques. With medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using an electrostatic energy analyzer, depth profiling of thin (<60 Angstroms) silicon oxide films on Si(100) with 3 - 5 Angstroms depth resolution in the near region has been done. The growth mechanism of thin oxide films on Si(100) has been studied, using sequential oxygen isotope exposures. It is found that the oxide films are stoichiometric to within approx. 10 Angstroms of the interface. It is also found that the oxidation reactions occur at the surface, in the transition region and at interface, with only the third region being included in the conventional (Deal-Grove) model for oxide formation. Nitrogen is sometimes added to gate oxides, as it has been found empirically that his improves some of the electrical properties. The role, location and even the amount of nitrogen that exists in such films are poorly understood, and represent interesting analytical challenges. MEIS data will be presented that address these questions, measured for a number of different processing conditions. We have recently demonstrated how to perform nitrogen nano-engineering in such ultrathin gate dielectrics, and these results will also be discussed

  6. 3D local structure around copper site of rabbit prion-related protein: Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with multiple-scattering calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, P.X.; Lian, F.L.; Wang, Y.; Wen, Yi; Chu, W.S.; Zhao, H.F.; Zhang, S.; Li, J.; Lin, D.H.; Wu, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Prion-related protein (PrP), a cell-surface copper-binding glycoprotein, is considered to be responsible for a number of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The structural conversion of PrP from the normal cellular isoform (PrP C ) to the post-translationally modified form (PrP Sc ) is thought to be relevant to Cu 2+ binding to histidine residues. Rabbits are one of the few mammalian species that appear to be resistant to TSEs, because of the structural characteristics of the rabbit prion protein (RaPrP C ) itself. Here we determined the three-dimensional local structure around the C-terminal high-affinity copper-binding sites using X-ray absorption near-edge structure combined with ab initio calculations in the framework of the multiple-scattering (MS) theory. Result shows that two amino acid resides, Gln97 and Met108, and two histidine residues, His95 and His110, are involved in binding this copper(II) ion. It might help us understand the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions, and the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases. - Highlights: ► The first structure of the metal ion binding site in RaPrP fifth copper-binding site. ► Quantitative determination by XANES spectroscopy combined with ab initio calculations. ► Provide a proof of the roles of copper in prion conformation conversions. ► Provide a proof of the molecular mechanisms of prion-involved diseases

  7. Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements and ab initio MD-simulations on single ion motions in molten NaF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, F. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Mukhopadhyay, S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-07

    The ionic stochastic motions in the molten alkali halide NaF are investigated by quasielastic neutron scattering and first principles molecular dynamics simulation. Quasielastic neutron scattering was employed to extract the diffusion behavior of the sodium ions in the melt. An extensive first principles based simulation on a box of up to 512 particles has been performed to complement the experimental data. From that large box, a smaller 64-particle box has then been simulated over a runtime of 60 ps. A good agreement between calculated and neutron data on the level of spectral shape has been obtained. The obtained sodium diffusion coefficients agree very well. The simulation predicts a fluorine diffusion coefficient similar to the sodium one. Applying the Nernst-Einstein equation, a remarkable large cross correlation between both ions can be deduced. The velocity cross correlations demonstrate a positive correlation between the ions over a period of 0.1 ps. That strong correlation is evidence that the unlike ions do not move completely statistically independent and have a strong association over a short period of time.

  8. Validity of the independent-processes approximation for resonance structures in electron-ion scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badnell, N.R.; Pindzola, M.S.; Griffin, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The total inelastic cross section for electron-ion scattering may be found in the independent-processes approximation by adding the resonant cross section to the nonresonant background cross section. We study the validity of this approximation for electron excitation of multiply charged ions. The resonant-excitation cross section is calculated independently using distorted waves for various Li-like and Na-like ions using (N+1)-electron atomic-structure methods previously developed for the calculation of dielectronic-recombination cross sections. To check the effects of interference between the two scattering processes, we also carry out detailed close-coupling calculations for the same atomic ions using the R-matrix method. For low ionization stages, interference effects manifest themselves sometimes as strong window features in the close-coupling cross section, which are not present in the independent-processes cross section. For higher ionization stages, however, the resonance features found in the independent-processes approximation are found to be in good agreement with the close-coupling results

  9. Dynamic light scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of PEGylated polymer nanocarriers: internal structure and surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celasco, Edvige; Valente, Ilaria; Marchisio, Daniele L; Barresi, Antonello A

    2014-07-22

    In this work, nanospheres and nanocapsules are precipitated in confined impinging jet mixers through solvent displacement and characterized. Acetone and water are used as the solvent and antisolvent, respectively, together with polymethoxypolyethylene glycol cyanoacrylate-co-hexadecylcyanoacrylate and Miglyol as the copolymer and oil, respectively. Characterization is performed with dynamic light scattering, with electrophoretic measurements, and for the first time with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results show that the presence of polyethylene glycol chains seems to be more pronounced on the surface of nanospheres than on that of nanocapsules. The thickness of the copolymer layer in nanocapsules ranges from 1 to 10 nm, depending on the value of the oil:copolymer mass ratio. Fast dilution is confirmed to have a positive effect in suppressing aggregation but can induce further copolymer precipitation.

  10. Size-dependent magnetization dynamics in individual Ni80Fe20 disk using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shimon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A direct and systematic investigation of the magnetization dynamics in individual circular Ni80Fe20 disk of diameter (D in the range from 300 nm to 1 μm measured using micro-focused Brillouin Light Scattering (μ-BLS spectroscopy is presented. At high field, when the disks are in a single domain state, the resonance frequency of the uniform center mode is observed to reduce with reducing disk’s diameter. For D = 300 nm, additional edge and end-domains resonant modes are observed due to size effects. At low field, when the disks are in a vortex state, a systematic increase of resonant frequency of magnetostatic modes in a vortex state with the square root of the disks’ aspect ratio (thickness divided by radius is observed. Such dependence diminishes for disks with larger aspect ratio due to an increasing exchange energy contribution. Micromagnetic simulations are in excellent agreement with the experiments.

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopy and nuclear inelastic scattering studies on polynuclear oxo-bridged iron catalyst-first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, S.; Asthalter, T.; Rabe, V.; Buerck, U. van; Wagner, F. E.; Laschat, S.

    2008-01-01

    Polynuclear iron catalysts are interesting materials because of their novel properties. In the future they may help to replace high cost and hazardous heavy metal catalysts by efficient, non toxic and economic iron compounds. In this work, we present some preliminary results on a novel polynuclear oxo-bridged iron catalyst. The chemical environment of the metal species (Fe) was studied under Gif-type conditions (Fe catalyst/Zn/O 2 in pyridine/acetic acid) with cyclohexene as substrate. Such Gif-type catalysts are able to catalyse the selective oxidation of alkanes and alkenes. The characterization was done by Moessbauer spectroscopy and nuclear inelastic scattering. In order to identify the intermediate species during the reaction (selective oxidation using molecular O 2 ), a freeze-quench technique was used. This also helps to understand the kinetics of the chemical reaction.

  12. Study of interaction between molybdenum oxide and molybdate surface by methods of infrared spectroscopy and combinational scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchenko, Eh.N.; Kustova, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    MoO 3 interaction with CdMoO 4 , CaMoO 4 , PbMoO 4 , Ae 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 , Cr 2 (MoO 4 ) is investigated by the methods of infrared spectroscopy and light combination scattering. It is shown, that MoO 3 excess differently interacts with molybdates depending on their structural peculiarities. MoO 3 excess interacts with Fe 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 and Cr 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 , intruding in crystalline lattices with the formation of solid solutions. Intrusion of MoO 3 excess into the structure is not found in the interaction with other molybdates

  13. Effects of Mn Ion Implantation on XPS Spectroscopy of GaN Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Abdul; Ahmad, Naeem; Rizwan, Muhammad; Khan, Salah Ud-Din; Ali, Fekri Abdulraqeb Ahmed; Zhu, Jianjun

    2018-02-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) thin film was deposited onto a sapphire substrate and then implanted with 250 keV Mn ions at two different doses of 2 × 1016 ions/cm2 and 5 × 1016 ions/cm2. The as-grown and post-implantation-thermally-annealed samples were studied in detail using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS peaks of Ga 3 d, Ga 2 p, N 1 s, Mn 2 p and C 1 s were recorded in addition to a full survey of the samples. The doublet peaks of Ga 2 p for pure GaN were observed blue-shifted when compared with elemental Ga, and appeared further shifted to higher energies for the implanted samples. These observations point to changes in the bonds and the chemical environment of the host as a result of ion implantation. The results revealed broadening of the N 1 s peak after implantation, which is interpreted in terms of the presence of N-Mn bonds in addition to N-Ga bonds. The XPS spectra of Mn 2 p recorded for ion-implanted samples indicated splitting of Mn 2 p 1/2 and Mn 2 p 3/2 peaks higher than that for metallic Mn, which helps rule out the possibility of clustering and points to substitutional doping of Mn. These observations provide a framework that sheds light on the local environment of the material for understanding the mechanism of magnetic exchange interactions in Mn:GaN based diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  14. Ion scattering studies of ordered alloy surfaces: CuAu(1 0 0) and NiAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beikler, R.; Taglauer, E.

    2000-01-01

    The composition and structure of alloy surfaces can differ from the corresponding bulk properties due to segregation and relaxation effects. We studied the (1 0 0) surface of the ordered alloy CuAu and amorphous Ni and Al by low-energy Ne + and Na + ion scattering. The interpretation of the experimental results is supported by numerical simulations using the MARLOWE code. In the CuAu system a certain geometry was found to be very sensitive to Au presence in the 2nd layer. Comparison with MARLOWE results also allows to study variations in the ion yields arising from neutralization effects. By trajectory analysis ion survival probabilities are estimated for Ni and Al

  15. The Strength of Chaos: Accurate Simulation of Resonant Electron Scattering by Many-Electron Ions and Atoms in the Presence of Quantum Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0012 The Strength of Chaos : accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many-electron ions and atoms in the presence...of quantum chaos Igor Bray CURTIN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 01/20/2017 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. AF...SUBTITLE The Strength of Chaos : accurate simulation of resonant electron scattering by many- electron ions and atoms in the presence of quantum chaos

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy of superconducting MgB2 by neutron inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muranaka, Takahiro

    2001-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering measurements have been performed on superconducting MgB 2 above and below T c . The temperature dependence of the generalized phonon density-of-states showed clear anomalous behaviour near 24 meV in the acoustic phonon region, which may be interpreted as evidence of a substantial contribution to the total electron-phonon coupling strength deriving from these phonons. Weaker evidence for a corresponding response in the high-energy B bond stretching phonons was also encountered. (author)

  17. High-resolution spectroscopy diagnostics for measuring impurity ion temperature and velocity on the COMPASS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinzettl, Vladimir; Shukla, Gaurav; Ghosh, Joydeep; Melich, Radek; Panek, Radomir; Tomes, Matej; Imrisek, Martin; Naydenkova, Diana; Varju, Josef; Pereira, Tiago; Gomes, Rui; Abramovic, Ivana; Jaspers, Roger; Pisarik, Michael; Odstrcil, Tomas; Van Oost, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We built a new diagnostic of poloidal plasma rotation on the COMPASS tokamak. • Improvements in throughput via toroidal integration and fiber optimizations shown. • Poloidal rotation and ion temperature measured in L- and H-mode and during RMP. • Design and parameters of a new CXRS diagnostic for COMPASS are introduced. - Abstract: High-resolution spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the measurement of plasma rotation as well as ion temperature using the Doppler shift of the emitted spectral lines and their Doppler broadening, respectively. Both passive and active diagnostic variants for the COMPASS tokamak are introduced. The passive diagnostic focused on the C III lines at about 465 nm is utilized for the observation of the poloidal plasma rotation. The current set-up of the measuring system is described, including the intended high-throughput optics upgrade. Different options to increase the fiber collection area are mentioned, including a flower-like fiber bundle, and the use of micro-lenses or tapered fibers. Recent measurements of poloidal plasma rotation of the order of 0–6 km/s are shown. The design of the new active diagnostic using a deuterium heating beam and based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (C VI line at 529 nm) is introduced. The tool will provide both space (0.5–5 cm) and time (10 ms) resolved toroidal plasma rotation and ion temperature profiles. The results of the Simulation of Spectra code used to examine the feasibility of charge exchange measurements on COMPASS are shown and connected with a selection of the spectrometer coupled with the CCD camera.

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy diagnostics for measuring impurity ion temperature and velocity on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinzettl, Vladimir, E-mail: vwei@ipp.cas.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Shukla, Gaurav [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Ghosh, Joydeep [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Melich, Radek; Panek, Radomir [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Tomes, Matej; Imrisek, Martin; Naydenkova, Diana [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Varju, Josef [Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Pereira, Tiago [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Gomes, Rui [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Abramovic, Ivana; Jaspers, Roger [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pisarik, Michael [SQS Vlaknova optika a.s., Nova Paka (Czech Republic); Department of Electromagnetic Field, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Odstrcil, Tomas [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Van Oost, Guido [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We built a new diagnostic of poloidal plasma rotation on the COMPASS tokamak. • Improvements in throughput via toroidal integration and fiber optimizations shown. • Poloidal rotation and ion temperature measured in L- and H-mode and during RMP. • Design and parameters of a new CXRS diagnostic for COMPASS are introduced. - Abstract: High-resolution spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the measurement of plasma rotation as well as ion temperature using the Doppler shift of the emitted spectral lines and their Doppler broadening, respectively. Both passive and active diagnostic variants for the COMPASS tokamak are introduced. The passive diagnostic focused on the C III lines at about 465 nm is utilized for the observation of the poloidal plasma rotation. The current set-up of the measuring system is described, including the intended high-throughput optics upgrade. Different options to increase the fiber collection area are mentioned, including a flower-like fiber bundle, and the use of micro-lenses or tapered fibers. Recent measurements of poloidal plasma rotation of the order of 0–6 km/s are shown. The design of the new active diagnostic using a deuterium heating beam and based on charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (C VI line at 529 nm) is introduced. The tool will provide both space (0.5–5 cm) and time (10 ms) resolved toroidal plasma rotation and ion temperature profiles. The results of the Simulation of Spectra code used to examine the feasibility of charge exchange measurements on COMPASS are shown and connected with a selection of the spectrometer coupled with the CCD camera.

  19. On the Scattering of the Electron off the Hydrogen Atom and the Helium Ion Below and Above the Ionization Threshold: Temkin–Poet Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarevsky, E.; Yakovlev, S. L.; Volkov, M. V.; Elander, N.

    2014-01-01

    We generalize here the splitting approach to the long range (Coulomb) interaction for the three body scattering problem. With this approach, the exterior complex rotation technique can be applied for systems with asymptotic Coulomb interaction. We illustrate the method with calculations of the electron scattering on the hydrogen atom and positive helium ion in the frame of the Temkin–Poet model. (author)

  20. On the Scattering of the Electron off the Hydrogen Atom and the Helium Ion Below and Above the Ionization Threshold: Temkin-Poet Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarevsky, E.; Yakovlev, S. L.; Elander, N.; Volkov, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    We generalize here the splitting approach to the long range (Coulomb) interaction for the three body scattering problem. With this approach, the exterior complex rotation technique can be applied for systems with asymptotic Coulomb interaction. We illustrate the method with calculations of the electron scattering on the hydrogen atom and positive helium ion in the frame of the Temkin-Poet model.