WorldWideScience

Sample records for ion implantation studies

  1. Magnetoreflection studies of ion implanted bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.; Chieu, T.C.; Dresselhaus, M.S.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Dresselhaus, G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of the implantation of Sb ions on the electronic structure of the semimetal bismuth is studied by the magnetoreflection technique. The results show long electronic mean free paths and large implantation-induced increases in the band overlap and L-point band gap. These effects are opposite to those observed for Bi chemically doped with Sb. (author)

  2. Studies of ion implanted thermally oxidised chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal oxidation of 99.99% pure chromium containing precise amounts of foreign elements has been studied and compared to the oxidation of pure chromium. Thirty-three foreign elements including all of the naturally occurring rare earth metals were ion implanted into chromium samples prior to oxidation at 750 0 C in oxygen. The role of radiation induced damage, inherent in this doping technique, has been studied by chromium implantations at various energies and doses. The repair of the damage has been studied by vacuum annealing at temperatures up to 800 0 C prior to oxidation. Many of the implants caused an inhibition of oxidation, the greatest being a 93% reduction for 2 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 of praseodymium. The distribution of the implant was investigated by the use of 2 MeV alpha backscattering and ion microprobe analysis. Differences in the topography and structure of the chromic oxide on and off the implanted area were studied using scanning electron and optical microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to investigate if a rare earth-chromium compound of a perovskite-type structure had been formed. Lastly, the electrical conductivity of chromic oxide on and off the implanted region was examined at low voltages. (author)

  3. Ion beam studies of hydrogen implanted Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmela, A.; Henttinen, K.; Suni, T.; Tolkki, A.; Suni, I.

    2004-01-01

    We have studied silicon-on-insulator (SOI) materials with two different ion beam analysis methods. The SOI samples were implanted with boron and hydrogen ions. After implantation the wafers were annealed, and some of them were bonded to thermally oxidized silicon wafers. The damage in silicon single crystal due to ion implantations has been studied by Rutherford Backscattering in the channeling mode (RBS/C). The content of the ion-implanted hydrogen has been studied by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) method. The strength of the implanted region after thermal annealings were measured with the crack opening method. The boron implantation before hydrogen implantation resulted to shallower implantation depth and lower splitting temperature than in samples implanted with hydrogen only. The boron implantation after hydrogen implantation did not influence the splitting temperature and RBS spectra showed that B implantation drove the H deeper to the sample

  4. Positron annihilation study on defects in ion-implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, T.; Fujinami, M.; Sawada, T.

    2003-01-01

    Two-detector coincidence measurements of the Doppler broadened annihilation spectra with a variable energy positron beam are carried out for the study of the annealing behavior of Si implanted with As, P, Cu and H ions. In P-implanted Si, growth of the defect complexes are observed in coincidence Doppler broadening spectra up to 400degC. In Cu-implanted Si, the formation of defect-Cu complexes is indicated. In H-implanted Si, the passivation effect of hydrogen on positron traps are observed in the low temperature region up to 400degC. (author)

  5. Study on surface modification of M2 steel induced by Cu ions and Al ions implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chao; Liu Zhengmin

    2001-01-01

    Changes of surface hardness and wear resistances in M2 type steel implanted by Cu Al ions were reported. The dependence of surface strengthening on ion species and dose was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) for microhardness and wear resistances measurement. It is shown that both hardness and wear resistance increases apparently after ion implantation. XRD analysis indicates that different phases formed after Al Cu ions implanted. It is also suggested that Cu, Al ions have different role in surface strengthening

  6. Dynamic ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, I.F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Dynamic Ion Implantation Technique consists of ion implantation of a film during the film-deposition process. This technique was investigated theoretically and experimentally with ions whose incident energy is of the order of a few times 100 keV. It was found to be a viable alternative low-temperature method for the preparation of thick zirconium nitride films (∼1 μm) with good mechanical properties. Theoretical modeling of the processes involved during dynamic ion implantation lead to analytical expressions for the ions' depth-profile distributions. Numerical evaluations of these equations indicated that the depth distributions of dynamically implanted ions are in general more uniform than those predicted by the model for ions implanted by more conventional techniques. Mechanical properties of stoichiometric RF sputter-deposited zirconium nitride films post implanted with krypton and rubidium ions were investigated. Scratch-adhesion critical load and Vickers microhardness of samples implanted with doses varying from 1 x 10 15 to 5 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 and energies ranging from 300 to 500 keV were studied. In general, best mechanical properties were observed for 300- keV krypton implantations

  7. Study about iron disilicide formation by high current ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Z Q; Li, W Z

    2002-01-01

    beta-FeSi sub 2 exhibits a strong optical absorption and luminescence peak at the energy of about 0.85 eV, which corresponds to the wavelength window preferred for optical communication systems. This property makes beta-FeSi sub 2 a promising material to be used in optoelectronic applications and it has received great research interest. In this study, the formation of beta-FeSi sub 2 by high current ion implantation using a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source was investigated. Fe atoms with dose ranging from 4x10 sup 1 sup 7 to 2x10 sup 1 sup 8 /cm sup 2 were implanted into (1 0 0)Si substrates. Pure beta-FeSi sub 2 was successfully fabricated. alpha-FeSi sub 2 with strong (1 1 1) preferred orientation was also formed when the implantation was conducted at the temperature of 580 degree sign C.

  8. Quantitative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gries, W.H.

    1976-06-01

    This is a report of the study of the implantation of heavy ions at medium keV-energies into electrically conducting mono-elemental solids, at ion doses too small to cause significant loss of the implanted ions by resputtering. The study has been undertaken to investigate the possibility of accurate portioning of matter in submicrogram quantities, with some specific applications in mind. The problem is extensively investigated both on a theoretical level and in practice. A mathematical model is developed for calculating the loss of implanted ions by resputtering as a function of the implanted ion dose and the sputtering yield. Numerical data are produced therefrom which permit a good order-of-magnitude estimate of the loss for any ion/solid combination in which the ions are heavier than the solid atoms, and for any ion energy from 10 to 300 keV. The implanted ion dose is measured by integration of the ion beam current, and equipment and techniques are described which make possible the accurate integration of an ion current in an electromagnetic isotope separator. The methods are applied to two sample cases, one being a stable isotope, the other a radioisotope. In both cases independent methods are used to show that the implantation is indeed quantitative, as predicted. At the same time the sample cases are used to demonstrate two possible applications for quantitative ion implantation, viz. firstly for the manufacture of calibration standards for instrumental micromethods of elemental trace analysis in metals, and secondly for the determination of the half-lives of long-lived radioisotopes by a specific activity method. It is concluded that the present study has advanced quantitative ion implantation to the state where it can be successfully applied to the solution of problems in other fields

  9. Metallic ion release after knee prosthesis implantation: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lons, Adrien; Putman, Sophie; Pasquier, Gilles; Migaud, Henri; Drumez, Elodie; Girard, Julien

    2017-12-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacement bearings produce metallic ions that can cause health complications. Metallic release also occurs with other materials, but data on metallic ion levels after knee arthroplasty are sparse. We postulate that knee replacement generates elevating metallic ions (chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and titanium (Ti)) during the first year after implantation. This ongoing prospective study included all patients who underwent the same type of knee arthroplasty between May and December 2013. Cr, Co and Ti levels were measured in whole blood at pre-operation and one-year follow-up (6 and 12 months). Clinical and radiographic data (range of motion, Oxford, International Knee Society (IKS) and satisfaction scores) were recorded. In 90 patients, preoperative Cr, Co and Ti metallic ion levels were respectively 0.45 μg/l, 0.22 μg/l, 2.94 μg/l and increased to 1.27 μg/l, 1.41 μg/l, 4.08 μg/l (p < 0.0001) at last one-year follow-up. Mean Oxford and IKS scores rose, respectively, from 45.9 (30-58) and 24.9 (12-52) to 88.3 (0-168) and 160.8 (93-200) (p < 0.001). After the implantation of knee arthroplasty, we found significant blood elevation of Cr, Co and Ti levels one year after implantation exceeding the normal values. This metallic ion release could lead to numerous effects: allergy, hypersensitivity, etc.

  10. Ion implantation in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vook, F.L.

    1977-02-01

    The application of ion beams to metals is rapidly emerging as a promising area of research and technology. This report briefly describes some of the recent advances in the modification and study of the basic properties of metals by ion implantation techniques. Most of the research discussed illustrates some of the new and exciting applications of ion beams to metals which are under active investigation at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque

  11. Ion implantation in ices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strazzulla, G.; Baratta, G.A.; Palumbo, M.E.; Satorre, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied, by in situ infrared spectroscopy, some effects due to ion implantation in frozen ices. In particular mixtures containing C, N and O atoms (e.g., N 2 :H 2 O:CH 4 ) have been irradiated with unreactive (noble gases) ions: the resulting alteration of the frozen sample induces the formation of other molecules (e.g., CO 2 , R- - -OCN, CO and HCN) and of a refractory organic residue. Similar products are formed when mixtures containing only C and O atoms (e.g., H 2 O:CH 4 ) are irradiated with N ions, i.e. molecular species that include the projectile are formed. These results are important, in particular for their applications to planetary physics. In planetary environments ice thickness is usually much larger than the penetration depth of the relevant ion populations (solar wind ions, magnetospheric particles, etc.) and ion implantation phenomena are expected. Our results indicate that some molecular species observed on icy planetary surfaces could not be native of that object but formed by ion irradiation and/or by implantation of reactive ions

  12. Introduction to several solid state techniques for the study of ion implanted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The study of ion implanted materials requires methods which are sensitive to the local structure and chemistry of the implanted atoms. Optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy are among the most useful solid state methods. Study of materials implanted to very high fluences and the use of surface analysis methods provide some unique information. The characteristics of these methods will be reviewed and examples presented which show how the techniques can be used to analyze implanted materials

  13. Study of ion implantation in grown layers of multilayer coatings under ion-plasma vacuum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodin, A.A.; Erokhin, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    The model of ion implantation into growing layers of a multilayer coating produced with vacuum ion-plasma deposition was developed. The model takes into account a possibility for ions to pass through the growing layer and alloys to find the distribution of implanted atoms over the coating thickness. The experimental vitrification of the model was carried out on deposition of Ti and TiN coatings

  14. Ion implantation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Downey, DF; Jones, KS; Ryding, G

    1993-01-01

    Ion implantation technology has made a major contribution to the dramatic advances in integrated circuit technology since the early 1970's. The ever-present need for accurate models in ion implanted species will become absolutely vital in the future due to shrinking feature sizes. Successful wide application of ion implantation, as well as exploitation of newly identified opportunities, will require the development of comprehensive implant models. The 141 papers (including 24 invited papers) in this volume address the most recent developments in this field. New structures and possible approach

  15. Application of ion implantation RBS to the study of electrocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, E.J.; Vallet, C.E.; White, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ir-implanted titanium near-surface alloys were prepared by ion implantation, characterized (Ir concentration/depth profiles) by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and subsequently anodically oxidized to form electrocatalytically active Ir x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the metallic-like Ir 4 Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti electrodes in acidic chloride, sulfate, and perchlorate solutions was investigated, and the results compared with those previously obtained with similarly prepared Ru x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti electrodes. For both electrodes, M x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti (M equals Ir or Ru), the Tafel slope for the Cl 2 evolution reaction is 40 mV, i.e.,δE/δlog i equals 2.303 (2RT/3F). The reaction order (n) with respect to chloride ion concentration δlogi/δlog[Cl - ] + 1, where K 9 equals 54.9 dm 3 mol -1 for Ir x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti and K 9 equals 40 dm 3 mol -1 for Ru x Ti 1-x O 2 /Ti. A modified Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism, one in which the role of absorbed chloride ions is taken into account, is shown to be consistent with aforementioned diagnostic parameters

  16. TEM study of the ion beam induced damage during 14 kev P+ implantation in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubanov, S.; Tamanyan, G.; Hudson, F.; Jamieson, D.N.; McCallum, J.C.; Prawer, S.

    2005-01-01

    The proposed silicon-based quantum computer architecture comprises an array of phosphorus donor atoms (qubits) positioned with nanometre accuracy beneath the surface of a semiconductor host, using a single ion implantation technique. The average depth of the implanted ions (the projected range R p ), lateral range R p 1, and the distribution of ions about that depth can be approximated as two-dimensional Gaussian with standard deviation ΔR p and ΔR p 1 (lateral straggle). Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) we studied ion beam induced damage after 14 keV P + implantation in Si. The TEM images allowed us to compare the depth of the amorphous cluster formation to R p , R p 1, ΔR p 1 calculated from SRIM and hence determine evidence for the limitation on the accuracy of the position of the implanted ions imposed by straggling. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. Plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, J.R.; Forest, C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors' technique allows the ion implantation to be performed directly within the ion source at higher currents without ion beam extraction and transport. The potential benefits include greatly increased production rates (factors of 10-1000) and the ability to implant non-planar targets without rastering or shadowing. The technique eliminates the ion extractor grid set, beam raster equipment, drift space and target manipulator equipment. The target to be implanted is placed directly within the plasma source and is biased to a large negative potential so that plasma ions gain energy as they accelerate through the potential drop across the sheath that forms at the plasma boundary. Because the sheath surrounds the target on all sides, all surfaces of the target are implanted without the necessity to raster the beam or to rotate the target. The authors have succeeded in implanting nitrogen ions in a silicon target to the depths and concentrations required for surface treatment of materials like stainless steel and titanium alloys. They have performed ESCA measurements of the penetration depth profile of a silicon target that was biased to 30 kV in a nitrogen discharge plasma. Nitrogen ions were implanted to a depth of 700A at a peak concentration of 30% atomic. The measured profile is quite similar to a previously obtained profile in titanium targets with conventional techniques

  18. Tungsten contamination in ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L., E-mail: maria.polignano@st.com; Barbarossa, F.; Galbiati, A.; Magni, D.; Mica, I.

    2016-06-15

    In this paper the tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes is studied by DLTS analysis both in typical operating conditions and after contamination of the implanter by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer. Of course the contaminant concentration is orders of magnitude higher after contamination of the implanter, but in addition our data show that different mechanisms are active in a not contaminated and in a contaminated implanter. A moderate tungsten contamination is observed also in a not contaminated implanter, however in that case contamination is completely not energetic and can be effectively screened by a very thin oxide. On the contrary, the contamination due to an implantation in a previously contaminated implanter is reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide. The comparison with SRIM calculations confirms that the observed deep penetration of the contaminant cannot be explained by a plain sputtering mechanism.

  19. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  20. Ion implantation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation is a widely used technique with a literature that covers semiconductor production, surface treatments of steels, corrosion resistance, catalysis and integrated optics. This brief introduction outlines advantages of the technique, some aspects of the underlying physics and examples of current applications. Ion implantation is already an essential part of semiconductor technology while in many other areas it is still in an early stage of development. The future scope of the subject is discussed. (author)

  1. A study of strengthening mechanism for high energy titanium ion implantation into H13 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Chen Jun

    1995-05-01

    The strengthening mechanism of high energy titanium ion implanted H13 steel was studied. The results shown that several kinds of strengthening factors played a part in strengthening together when the high energy titanium ions were implanted into H13 steel. The solution strengthening and dislocation strengthening were dominated if Ti ions were implanted with high dose at low temperature. The strengthening effects were increased. The Fe 2 Ti and TiC phases were formed in H13 steel when the Ti ions were implanted with high dose at 400 degree C. The dispersion strengthening phases of Fe 2 Ti and TiC were appeared. The strengthening effects are better than before. The hardness increased 3.2 times, the wear resistance increased 11 times. (2 tabs., 7 figs.)

  2. Study and realisation of plane optical waveguides in amorphous silica by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutonnet, Danielle

    1974-01-01

    Within the framework of the replacement of radio-electric waves by light waves as support of information transmission in telecommunications, this research thesis addresses the use of ion implantation for the development of small waveguides with low losses. The author first describes how such waveguides can be characterised by studying the propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a plane waveguide, and the different ways to introduce energy in these waveguides. Then, she discusses how the obtained results can be used to determine the main parameters of an optical waveguide, or more generally of a thin transparent layer for a chosen wavelength. In the second part, the author reports the application of this general method to the case of guides obtained by ion implantation. She notably identifies the possibilities of ion implantation as technological tool to develop waveguides, and discusses how the performed experiments allow a better understanding of physical mechanisms occurring during implantation. In this second part, she recalls generally admitted theories about ion implantation, describes experiment principles (implantation of oxygen or nitrogen ions into amorphous silica followed by annealing) and discusses the obtained results (increase of the refraction index, i.e. of the guiding effect, stronger for oxygen than for nitrogen) [fr

  3. Ion implantation for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey-Morgan, T.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Over the past two decades, thousands of particle accelerators have been used to implant foreign atoms like boron, phosphorus and arsenic into silicon crystal wafers to produce special embedded layers for manufacturing semiconductor devices. Depending on the device required, the atomic species, the depth of implant and doping levels are the main parameters for the implantation process; the selection and parameter control is totally automated. The depth of the implant, usually less than 1 micron, is determined by the ion energy, which can be varied between 2 and 600 keV. The ion beam is extracted from a Freeman or Bernas type ion source and accelerated to 60 keV before mass analysis. For higher beam energies postacceleration is applied up to 200 keV and even higher energies can be achieved by mass selecting multiplycharged ions, but with a corresponding reduction in beam output. Depending on the device to be manufactured, doping levels can range from 10 10 to 10 15 atoms/cm 2 and are controlled by implanter beam currents in the range up to 30mA; continuous process monitoring ensures uniformity across the wafer of better than 1 % . As semiconductor devices get smaller, additional sophistication is required in the design of the implanter. The silicon wafers charge electrically during implantation and this charge must be dissipated continuously to reduce the electrical stress in the device and avoid destructive electrical breakdown. Electron flood guns produce low energy electrons (below 10 electronvolts) to neutralize positive charge buildup and implanter design must ensure minimum contamination by other isotopic species and ensure low internal sputter rates. The pace of technology in the semiconductor industry is such that implanters are being built now for 256 Megabit circuits but which are only likely to be widely available five years from now. Several specialist companies manufacture implanter systems, each costing around US$5 million, depending on the

  4. Ion Implantation of Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    is put on the low-energy implantation of metal ions causing the nucleation and growth of nanoparticles in the shallow polymer layers. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties of metal/polymer composites are under the discussion and the approaches towards practical applications are overviewed....

  5. Ellipsometric and channeling studies on ion-implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohner, T.; Mezey, G.; Kotai, E.; Paszti, F.; Kiralyhidi, L.; Valyi, G.; Gyulai, J.

    1980-09-01

    RBS and ellipsometric investigations were combined to separate the contribution of radiation damage and overlayer contamination. It is pointed out that disorder effects which were produced by silicon self-implantation are shielded without proper surface cleaning. For cleaning, plasma stripping proved to be an effective method. The change in psi parameter could be correlated with the degree of amorphousness. It seems that Δ parameter ''feels'' crystalline-amorphous phase transition on low dose 31 P + and 27 Al + implants. No clear evidence was found for impurity effects on high-dose 75 As + and 31 P + implants. (author)

  6. ESR studies of high-energy phosphorus-ion implanted synthetic diamond crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isoya, J. [University of Library and Information Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kanda, H.; Morita, Y.; Ohshima, T.

    1997-03-01

    Phosphorus is among potential n-type dopants in diamond. High pressure synthetic diamond crystals of type IIa implanted with high energy (9-18 MeV) phosphorus ions have been studied by using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The intensity and the linewidth of the ESR signal attributed to the dangling bond of the amorphous phase varied with the implantation dose, suggesting the nature of the amorphization varies with the dose. The ESR signals of point defects have been observed in the low dose as-implanted crystals and in the high dose crystals annealed at high temperature and at high pressure. (author)

  7. Surface changes of nanotopography by carbon ion implantation to enhance the biocompatibility of silicone rubber: an in vitro study of the optimum ion fluence and adsorbed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianhui; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yao; Yu, Shu; Chen, Xin; Xia, Xin; Shi, Xiaohua; Zhang, Yiming; Fan, Dongli

    2017-09-15

    Lower cellular adhesion and dense fibrous capsule formation around silicone breast implants caused by lower biocompatibility is a serious clinical problem. Preliminary work has shown that ion implantation enhances cell adhesion. Whether the biocompatibility is further enhanced by higher doses of carbon ion implantation and the mechanism by which ion implantation enhances biocompatibility remain unclear. In this study, five doses of carbon ions, which gradually increase, were implanted on the surface of silicone rubber and then the surface characteristics were surveyed. Then, cell adhesion, proliferation and migration were investigated. Furthermore, the vitronectin (VN) protein was used as a model protein to investigate whether the ion implantation affected the adsorbed protein on the surface. The obtained results indicate that enhanced cytocompatibility is dose dependent when the doses of ion implantation are less than 1 × 10 16  ions/cm 2 . However, when the doses of ion implantation are more than 1 × 10 16  ions/cm 2 , enhanced cytocompatibility is not significant. In addition, surface physicochemical changes by ion implantation induced a conformational change of the adsorbed vitronectin protein that enhanced cytocompatibility. Together, these results suggest that the optimum value of carbon ion implantation in silicone rubber to enhance biocompatibility is 1 × 10 16  ions/cm 2 , and ion implantation regulates conformational changes of adsorbed ECM proteins, such as VN, and mediates the expression of intracellular signals that enhance the biocompatibility of silicone rubber. The results herein provide new insights into the surface modification of implant polymer materials to enhance biocompatibility. It has potentially broad applications in the biomedical field.

  8. Transmission electron microscope studies of laser and thermally annealed ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, J.; Young, R.T.; White, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the effects of high power laser pulses on boron, phosphorous and arsenic implanted [100] silicon crystals. No defects (dislocations, dislocation loops and/or stacking faults) were observed in either as-grown or implanted silicon after one pulse of ruby laser irradiation (lambda = 0.694 μm, pulse energy density 1.5 to 1.8 J cm -2 , 50 x 10 -9 pulse duration time). The concentration of boron in solution, as inferred from electrical measurements, could exceed the equilibrium solubility. In thermally annealed specimens, on the other hand, significant damage remained even after annealing at 1100 0 C for 30 minutes. On thermally annealing the implanted, laser-treated specimens, precipitation of the implanted boron ions occurred whenever the implanted doses were in excess of the equilibrium solubility limits. The relationship of these observations to the results of electrical measurements made on these samples will be discussed

  9. Hardness of ion implanted ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, W.C.; McHargue, C.J.; Farlow, G.C.; White, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    It has been established that the wear behavior of ceramic materials can be modified through ion implantation. Studies have been done to characterize the effect of implantation on the structure and composition of ceramic surfaces. To understand how these changes affect the wear properties of the ceramic, other mechanical properties must be measured. To accomplish this, a commercially available ultra low load hardness tester has been used to characterize Al 2 O 3 with different implanted species and doses. The hardness of the base material is compared with the highly damaged crystalline state as well as the amorphous material

  10. Ion implantation for materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book reviews current research on ion implantation for materials processing as a viable technique for improving surface properties of metals and alloys-wear, fatigue, and corrosion. An introductory section on new potential applications of ion beam technology is provided. Contents: New potential applications of ion beam technology; ion implantation science and technology; wear and fatigue; corrosion; other research areas

  11. Mutagenic effects of ion implanted rice seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Chen Qiufang

    1996-04-01

    Dry seeds of rice were implanted with 15∼30 keV N + , H + , Ar + ion beam of various doses. The biological effects in M 1 and mutation in M 2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam could induce the variation on the chromosome structure and inhibit mitosis in root tip cell. The chromosomal aberration rate of cells tended to be increased with increase of implanted ion dose. Compared with 60 Co γ-rays, ion implantation induced lower rate of cells with chromosome aberration. However, there was a similar inhibitory effect on mitosis between ion beam and γ-rays. The electrophoretic banding patterns of peroxidase enzymes were altered by both mutagens and varied. Frequency of the chlorophyll mutation implanted by ion beam was higher than that induced by γ-rays. Mutation frequencies of heading date and plant height were similar between ion beam implanting and γ-rays irradiation. (11 tabs., 2 figs.)

  12. Ion implantations of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojak, S., E-mail: stanislav.sojak@stuba.sk; Simeg Veternikova, J.; Slugen, V.; Petriska, M.; Stacho, M.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • ODS steel MA 956 was studied after thermal treatment and ion implantations. • Increase of the defects size was observed after hydrogen ions implantation. • Intensity/amount of the defects did not increase after ion implantations. • Due to defects aggregation defects concentration decreased. - Abstract: This paper is focused on a study of radiation damage and thermal stability of high chromium oxide dispersion strengthened steel MA 956 (20% Cr), which belongs to the most perspective structural materials for the newest generation of nuclear reactors – Generation IV. The radiation damage was simulated by the implantation of hydrogen ions up to the depth of about 5 μm, which was performed at a linear accelerator owned by Slovak University of Technology. The ODS steel MA 956 was available for study in as-received state after different thermal treatments as well as in ions implanted state. Energy of the hydrogen ions chosen for the implantation was 800 keV and the implantation fluence of 6.24 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The investigated specimens were measured by non-destructive technique Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy in order to study the defect behavior after different thermal treatments in the as-received state and after the hydrogen ions implantation. Although, different resistance to defect production was observed in individual specimens of MA 956 during the irradiation, all implanted specimens contain larger defects than the ones in as-received state.

  13. Studies on the surface modification of TiN coatings using MEVVA ion implantation with selected metallic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, L.P.; Purushotham, K.P.; Manory, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced surface roughness was observed after ion implantation. • W implantation increased residual stress. • Reduced friction and wear accompanied Mo implantation. • Mo implanted layer was more resistant to breakdown during wear testing. • Ion implantation effects can be complex on various implanting species properties. - Abstract: Improvement in the performance of TiN coatings can be achieved using surface modification techniques such as ion implantation. In the present study, physical vapor deposited (PVD) TiN coatings were implanted with Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and W using the metal evaporation vacuum arc (MEVVA) technique at a constant nominal dose of 4 × 10 16 ions cm −2 for all species. The samples were characterized before and after implantation, using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Friction and wear studies were performed under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc CSEM Tribometer at 1 N load and 450 m sliding distance. A reduction in the grain size and surface roughness was observed after implantation with all five species. Little variation was observed in the residual stress values for all implanted TiN coatings, except for W implanted TiN which showed a pronounced increase in compressive residual stress. Mo-implanted samples showed a lower coefficient of friction and higher resistance to breakdown during the initial stages of testing than as-received samples. Significant reduction in wear rate was observed after implanting with Zr and Mo ions compared with unimplanted TiN. The presence of the Ti 2 N phase was observed with Cr implantation.

  14. Ion beam studies - part 4. The use of multiply-charged and polyatomic ions in an implantation accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Chivers, D.J.; Gard, G.A.

    1976-12-01

    Polyatomic and multiply-charged ion provide a convenient means of extending the energy range of an implanted accelerator. The molecular species are also of interest in certain special bombardment studies. This report considers some of the factors which affect the production and utilisation of such beams. It introduces the concepts of hetero- and auto-contamination, and particular attention is given to the modification of the charge or mass of the ions resulting from inelastic collisions in the various beams transport regions of the accelerator. (author)

  15. Mutagenic effects of ion implantation on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Chen Qiufang; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1998-01-01

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 75 keV nitrogen and carbon ions with various doses. The biological effects in M 1 and mutation in M 2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with ion beam dose. The rate of cells with chromosomal aberration was lower than that induced with γ-rays. Frequency of the mutation induced by implantation of N + and C + ions were higher than those induced by γ-rays. The rate of cell with chromosome aberration and in M 2 useful mutation induced by implantation of C + ion was higher than those induced by implantation of N + ion. Mutagenic effects Feng 1 x Riyuan and Riyuan x Feng 2 by implantation of N + and C + were higher than that of Jining and Feng 2

  16. Contribution to 57Fe ion implanted garnet study by Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilios, N.

    1986-11-01

    Due to because of their numerous physical properties, garnets are often used in new technologies. In order to improve their properties, ion implantation of inert gases has been proved to be a powerful technique to elaborate bubble memories. Recently it has been shown that high doses implanted ions, chemically reacting with the matrix could give interesting results. If the bulk is completely amorphized after implantation, further annealings can recrystallize it. In this study Y 3 F 5 O 12 , Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and Gd 3 Ga 5 O 12 single crystals were 100 keV implanted with 57 Fe ions at doses ranging between 10 16 and 10 17 ions cm -2 . The iron chemical states were determined thanks to Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) and it was shown that the alloying elements of the matrix could influence the nature of the created phases. After thermal treatments the sample superficial layers were characterized using CEMS, grazing angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS). Different annealing stages were put forward: the oxidation of the implanted iron below 650 0 C and the garnet recrystallization around 850 0 C with some iron substitution in the garnet octahedral and tetraedral sites. The overstoechiometric iron forms particles of mixed oxides (FeAl) 2 O 3 , (FeGa) 2 O 3 or particles of pure Fe 2 O 3 oxide depending on the garnet. For the first time it is proved that after annealing around 1200-1300 0 C a complete rebuilding of the garnet matrix can induce for these oxide particles at room temperature a Morin transition [fr

  17. Ion implantation: an annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, R.N.; Subramanyam, K.

    1975-10-01

    Ion implantation is a technique for introducing controlled amounts of dopants into target substrates, and has been successfully used for the manufacture of silicon semiconductor devices. Ion implantation is superior to other methods of doping such as thermal diffusion and epitaxy, in view of its advantages such as high degree of control, flexibility, and amenability to automation. This annotated bibliography of 416 references consists of journal articles, books, and conference papers in English and foreign languages published during 1973-74, on all aspects of ion implantation including range distribution and concentration profile, channeling, radiation damage and annealing, compound semiconductors, structural and electrical characterization, applications, equipment and ion sources. Earlier bibliographies on ion implantation, and national and international conferences in which papers on ion implantation were presented have also been listed separately

  18. Study of creep of Ti-6Al-4V alloy using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zepka, Susana; Yogi, Lucila Mayumi; Silva, Maria Margareth da; Reis, Danieli Aparecida Pereira; Moura Neto, Carlos de; Oliveira, Vinicius Souza de; Ueda, Mario

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the creep resistance of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy after surface modification by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). For the PIII treatment it was used nitrogen gas (ion implantation) to the formation of plasma, the material was treated for 100 minutes. After PIII treatment the samples were analyzed using the techniques of X-ray diffraction, spectrometry energy dispersive X-ray and atomic force microscopy. The creep tests were realized at 600°C, at constant load of 250 and 319 MPa. After the creep tests the samples were analyzed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. By chemical analysis by X-ray and EDS it is possible to determinate the Ti 2 N on the surface. Through the study of the creep curves it is observed an increasing in creep resistance of the alloy after PIII treatment. (author)

  19. Residual stress in ion implanted titanium nitride studied by parallel beam glancing incidence x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, D.E.; Perry, A.J.; Treglio, J.R.; Valvoda, V.; Rafaja, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ion implantation is known to increase the lifetime of cutting tools. Current theories are the increase in lifetime is caused by an increase in the residual stress, or by work hardening of the surface associated with the implantation. In this work the effect of ion implantation on the residual stress in titanium nitride coatings made by the standard industrial methods of chemical and physical vapor deposition (CVD and PVD) is studied. It is found in the as-received condition (unimplanted), the residual stress levels are near zero for CVD materials and highly compressive, of the order of 6 GPa, for PVD materials. Ion implantation has no effect on the residual stress in the coatings made by CVD. Nitrogen does increase the compressive residual stress by some 10% in the near surface regions of PVD coatings, while nickel-titanium dual metal ion implantation does not have any effect. It appears that the lifetime increase is not associated with residual stress effects

  20. Nitrogen ion implantation on stainless steel: AFM study of surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chico, B. [Dpto. Ingenieria de Materiales, Degradacion y Durabilidad, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: bchico@cenim.csic.es; Martinez, L. [Dpto. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez, F.J. [Dpto. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-30

    This work presents a study by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modification of the surface topography of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel after N-ion implantation, irradiated by 1 x 10{sup 15} N{sub 2}{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 80 keV. Prior to the implantation surface modification, the samples were electropolished for the optimum observation of the surface at a small scale to obtain an initial surface with the smaller roughness. The electrolytic bath was composed of a mixture of water/sulphuric acid/orthophosphoric acid in percentages 20, 20 and 60%, respectively. Once the surface was optimized, the samples were implanted and observed by AFM, a new technique whose importance relies on its resolution power, allowing the acquisition of topographic images of the surface with nanometric resolution. Thanks to the high resolution power could be observed that ion implantation increases the surface roughness and promotes the apparition of 3 {mu}m wide and 10 nm depth craters as well as the apparition of products with singular morphology.

  1. Ion implantation in Thailand (I) - development of ion implantation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Yotsombat, B.; Boonyawan, D.; Charoennugul, R.; Vichaisirimongkol, P.; Aumkaew, S.; A-No, V.

    1997-01-01

    Ion implantation with its many advantages has been widely and rapidly developed in the world to be a novel material treatment technique, which holds significance in both academic research and technical application. In order to develop and apply the ion implantation technique in the country, Thailand has launched a program to establish an ion beam center at Chiang Mai University. By efforts made during the past six years, the University has completed construction and installation of a 150-kV, research-purpose ion implantation facility, which consists of two beam lines - a 00 non-analyzed line and a 450 analyzed line, and which is being put into regular operation, and a 20-kV, high-current ion implanter based on a duoplasmatron ion source for non-analyzed N-ion beam implantation, and a high-intensity, multi cusp ion source for special implantation purposes. The facilities have formed powerful tools for research, teaching and engineering application, and have played an indispensable role in promoting development of novel techniques in the country

  2. Corrosion resistance study of grey cast iron implanted with C, N, Cr and Cu ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, O. Yu; Maryushin, L. A.; Kazantsev, A. Yu; Dyukova, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    This article deals with the corrosion resistance of gray cast iron implanted with C, N, Cr and Cu ions in sodium chloride solution and sulfuric acid solution. The potentiodynamic research was conducted in atmosphere, simulating corrosion conditions: in 3% sodium chloride solution and in 0,1 N sulfuric acid solution. Potentiodynamic curves were obtained and surfaces of samples were observed. The research proves that the implantation of ions with N and Cr leads to an increase in the corrosion resistance of cast iron in sodium chloride solution, and the implantation of ions with N and Cu leads to increased corrosion resistance in sulfuric acid solution.

  3. Synchrotron Topographic and Diffractometer Studies of Buried Layered Structures Obtained by Implantation with Swift Heavy Ions in Silicon Single Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierzchowski, W.; Wieteska, K.; Zymierska, D.; Graeff, W.; Czosnyka, T.; Choinski, J.

    2006-01-01

    A distribution of crystallographic defects and deformation in silicon crystals subjected to deep implantation (20-50 μm) with ions of the energy of a few MeV/amu is studied. Three different buried layered structures (single layer, binary buried structure and triple buried structure) were obtained by implantation of silicon single crystals with 184 MeV argon ions, 29.7 MeV boron ions, and 140 MeV argon ions, each implantation at a fluency of 1x10 14 ions cm -2 . The implanted samples were examined by means of white beam X-ray section and projection topography, monochromatic beam topography and by recording local rocking curves with the beam restricted to 50 x 50 μm 2 . The experiment pointed to a very low level of implantation-induced strain (below 10 -5 ). The white beam Bragg case section experiment revealed a layer producing district black contrast located at a depth of the expected mean ion range. The presence of these buried layered structures in studied silicon crystals strongly affected the fringe pattern caused by curvature of the samples. In case of white beam projection and monochromatic beam topographs the implanted areas were revealed as darker regions with a very tiny grain like structure. One may interpret these results as the effect of considerable heating causing annihilation of point defects and formation of dislocation loops connected with point defect clusters. (author)

  4. Ion implantation into concave polymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakudo, N. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan)]. E-mail: sakudo@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp; Shinohara, T. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Amaya, S. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Endo, H. [Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Advanced Materials R and D Center, 3-1 Yatsukaho, Matto, Hakusan, Ishikawa 924-0838 (Japan); Okuji, S. [Lintec Corp., 5-14-42 Nishiki-cho, Warabi, Saitama 335-0005 (Japan); Ikenaga, N. [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Nomigun, Ishikawa 923-1121 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    A new technique for ion implantation into concave surface of insulating materials is proposed and experimentally studied. The principle is roughly described by referring to modifying inner surface of a PET (polyethylene terephthalate) bottle. An electrode that is supplied with positive high-voltage pulses is inserted into the bottle. Both plasma formation and ion implantation are simultaneously realized by the same high-voltage pulses. Ion sheath with a certain thickness that depends on plasma parameters is formed just on the inner surface of the bottle. Since the plasma potential is very close to that of the electrode, ions from the plasma are accelerated in the sheath and implanted perpendicularly into the bottle's inner surface. Laser Raman spectroscopy shows that the inner surface of an ion-implanted PET bottle is modified into DLC (diamond-like carbon). Gas permeation measurement shows that gas-barrier property enhances due to the modification.

  5. Study of the effects of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Agulló-Rueda, F.; Gordillo, N.; Maira, A.; Moreno-Cerrada, D.; Ramos, M. A.

    2017-08-01

    Boron-doped diamond is a material with a great technological and industrial interest because of its exceptional chemical, physical and structural properties. At modest boron concentrations, insulating diamond becomes a p-type semiconductor and at higher concentrations a superconducting metal at low temperature. The most conventional preparation method used so far, has been the homogeneous incorporation of boron doping during the diamond synthesis carried out either with high-pressure sintering of crystals or by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of films. With these methods, high boron concentration can be included without distorting significantly the diamond crystalline lattice. However, it is complicated to manufacture boron-doped microstructures. A promising alternative to produce such microstructures could be the implantation of focused high-energy boron ions, although boron fluences are limited by the damage produced in diamond. In this work, the effect of focused high-energy boron ion implantation in single crystals of diamond is studied under different irradiation fluences and conditions. Micro-Raman spectra of the sample were measured before and after annealing at 1000 °C as a function of irradiation fluence, for both superficial and buried boron implantation, to assess the changes in the diamond lattice by the creation of vacancies and defects and their degree of recovery after annealing.

  6. Cd doping of AlN via ion implantation studied with perturbed angular correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Kessler, Patrick; Miranda, Sérgio MC; Simon, R; Correia, João Guilherme; Johnston, Karl; Vianden, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    AlN with a wide bandgap of 6.2 eV is a promising candidate for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes and laser diodes. However, the production of the required p-type AlN is still challenging. As a possible dopant Cd was suggested among other Group II atoms (Be, Mg, and Zn). In this study the annealing condition of implanted Cd in AlN was investigated with the method of the perturbed angular correlation (PAC). Therefore radioactive $^{117}$Cd or $^{111m}$Cd ions were implanted into thin AlN films on sapphire substrate with an energy of 30 keV and fluences in the range of 10$^{11}$ ions/cm$^{2}$. After thorough annealing with a proximity cap of the same material most of the Cd-probes occupy substitutional lattice sites and almost all implantation damage can be annealed. This results in a distinct frequency in the PAC spectra which increases with temperature. In contrast to the formation of an indium nitrogen-vacancy complex observed with the probe $^{111}$In on substitutional Al-sites no defects are bound to substi...

  7. Study of high energy ion implantation of boron and oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenin, P.

    1991-06-01

    Three aspects of high energy (0.5-3 MeV) light ions ( 11 B + and 16 O + ) implantation in silicon are examined: (1)Spatial repartition; (2) Target damage and (3) Synthesis by oxygen implantation of a buried silicon oxide layer

  8. Ion beam analysis of metal ion implanted surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Chu, J.W.; Johnson, E.P.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation is an established method for altering the surface properties of many materials. While a variety of analytical techniques are available for the characterisation of implanted surfaces, those based on particle accelerators such as Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) provide some of the most useful and powerful for this purpose. Application of the latter techniques to metal ion implantation research at ANSTO will be described with particular reference to specific examples from recent studies. Where possible, the information obtained from ion beam analysis will be compared with that derived from other techniques such as Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Auger spectroscopies. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Development and experimental study of large size composite plasma immersion ion implantation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falun, SONG; Fei, LI; Mingdong, ZHU; Langping, WANG; Beizhen, ZHANG; Haitao, GONG; Yanqing, GAN; Xiao, JIN

    2018-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) overcomes the direct exposure limit of traditional beam-line ion implantation, and is suitable for the treatment of complex work-piece with large size. PIII technology is often used for surface modification of metal, plastics and ceramics. Based on the requirement of surface modification of large size insulating material, a composite full-directional PIII device based on RF plasma source and metal plasma source is developed in this paper. This device can not only realize gas ion implantation, but also can realize metal ion implantation, and can also realize gas ion mixing with metal ions injection. This device has two metal plasma sources and each metal source contains three cathodes. Under the condition of keeping the vacuum unchanged, the cathode can be switched freely. The volume of the vacuum chamber is about 0.94 m3, and maximum vacuum degree is about 5 × 10‑4 Pa. The density of RF plasma in homogeneous region is about 109 cm‑3, and plasma density in the ion implantation region is about 1010 cm‑3. This device can be used for large-size sample material PIII treatment, the maximum size of the sample diameter up to 400 mm. The experimental results show that the plasma discharge in the device is stable and can run for a long time. It is suitable for surface treatment of insulating materials.

  10. Surface microhardening by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amarjit

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses the process and the underlying mechanism of surface microhardening by implanting suitable energetic ions in materials like 4145 steel, 304 stainless steel, aluminium and its 2024-T351 alloy. It has been observed that boron and nitrogen implantation in materials like 4145 steel and 304 stainless steel can produce a significant increase in surface hardness. Moreover the increase can be further enhanced with suitable overlay coatings such as aluminium (Al), Titanium (Ti) and carbon (C). The surface hardening due to implantation is attributed to precipitation hardening or the formation of stable/metastable phase or both. The effect of lithium implantation in aluminium and its alloy on microhardness with increasing ion dose and ion beam energy is also discussed. (author)

  11. Studies on mass deposition effect and energy effect of biomolecules implanted by N+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    1994-05-01

    By analyzing some spectrum of tyrosine sample implanted by N + ion beam, it is deduced that the implantation N + could react with the tyrosine molecule and substitute =C 5 H- group of benzene ring to produce a N-heterocyclic compound. This compound would notably affect the residual activity of the sample. Moreover, the percentage of the product molecules to the damaged tyrosine molecules is larger than the reciprocal of the proportion of their extinction coefficients. On the other hand, by comparing the release of inorganic phosphate, it is found that the radiation sensibility for four basic nucleotides is 5'-dTMP>5'-CMP>5'-GMP>5'-AMP. to implanted nucleotides, alkali treatment and heat treatment could increase the amount of inorganic phosphate. The amount of inorganic phosphate in the nucleotide samples directly implanted by ions beam is about 60% of the total amount of inorganic phosphate that could be released from the implanted samples heated at 90 degree C for 1.75 hours. Alkali treatment could damage and split the free bases released from the implanted nucleotides, but heat treatment might repair those damaged bases. Above results prove that ions implantation to biomolecules has the mass deposition effects and energy effects

  12. Experimental studies of thorium ion implantation from pulse laser plasma into thin silicon oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyuk, P. V.; Chubunova, E. V.; Lebedinskii, Yu Yu; Tkalya, E. V.; Vasilyev, O. S.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Strugovshchikov, E.; Mamedov, D.; Pishtshev, A.; Karazhanov, S. Zh

    2018-05-01

    We report the results of experimental studies related to implantation of thorium ions into thin silicon dioxide by pulsed plasma flux expansion. Thorium ions were generated by laser ablation from a metal target, and the ionic component of the laser plasma was accelerated in an electric field created by the potential difference (5, 10 and 15 kV) between the ablated target and a SiO2/Si (0 0 1) sample. The laser ablation system installed inside the vacuum chamber of the electron spectrometer was equipped with a YAG:Nd3  +  laser having a pulse energy of 100 mJ and time duration of 15 ns in the Q-switched regime. The depth profile of thorium atoms implanted into the 10 nm thick subsurface areas together with their chemical state as well as the band gap of the modified silicon oxide at different conditions of implantation processes were studied by means of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflected electron energy loss spectroscopy methods. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that the modified silicon oxide film contains complex thorium silicates. Depending on the local concentration of thorium atoms, the experimentally established band gaps were located in the range 6.0–9.0 eV. Theoretical studies of the optical properties of the SiO2 and ThO2 crystalline systems were performed by ab initio calculations within hybrid functional. The optical properties of the SiO2/ThO2 composite were interpreted on the basis of the Bruggeman effective medium approximation. A quantitative assessment of the yield of isomeric nuclei in ‘hot’ laser plasma at the early stages of expansion was performed. The estimates made with experimental results demonstrated that the laser implantation of thorium ions into the SiO2 matrix can be useful for further research of low-lying isomeric transitions in a 229Th isotope with energy of 7.8 +/- 0.5 eV.

  13. Study on the variation of the distant crossing rice by ion beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuejin; Li Hong; Song Mei; Yu Zengliang; Wu Jingde; Tong Jiping; Zheng Leya

    2005-01-01

    The following contents including the original receptor EI213 and other two control materials, RAPD polymorphism, photosynthetic efficiency, and the number of vascular bundles of the first internodes below the peduncle have been studied for the eight F7 transgenic lines obtained from ion beam implantation. The results showed that there was a significant variation in genomes of maize-rice line, compared with the receptor EI213, after the total exogenous maize DNA was introduced into EI213. The number of the vascular bundles of maize-rich progeny's line was obviously much larger than those of the original receptor EI213 and other two controls GER-3 and MH63, and along with the photosynthetic efficiency of maize-rice progeny's lines being gone up. Moreover, the parenchyma cells around the vascular bundles of the transgenic lines became much larger in number and in size than those around the controls. All these indicated that the maize-rich progeny's lines are really different from and superior to the receptor and the controls. It is a novel and useful way to apply ion beam implantation in transferring DNA from C 4 plant maize into C 3 plant rice. (authors)

  14. Study of defects, radiation damage and implanted gases in solids by field-ion and atom-probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidman, D.N.; Amano, J.; Wagner, A.

    1980-10-01

    The ability of the field-ion microscope to image individual atoms has been applied, at Cornell University, to the study of fundamental properties of point defects in irradiated or quenched metals. The capability of the atom probe field-ion microscope to determine the chemistry - that is, the mass-to-charge ratio - of a single ion has been used to investigate the behavior of different implanted species in metals. A brief review is presented of: (1) the basic physical principles of the field-ion and atom-probe microscopes; (2) the many applications of these instruments to the study of defects and radiation damage in solids; and (3) the application of the atom-probe field-ion microscope to the study of the behavior of implanted 3 He and 4 He atoms in tungsten. The paper is heavily referenced so that the reader can pursue his specific research interests in detail

  15. Study of the Local Environment of Mn Ions Implanted in GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolska, A.; Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Klepka, M.T.; Barcz, A.; Hallen, A.; Arvanitis, D.

    2010-01-01

    The first attempts to establish an implantation process leading to formation of ferromagnetic inclusions inside the GaSb matrix are presented. Gallium antimonide containing ferromagnetic MnSb precipitations is considered as a promising material for novel spintronic applications. It is possible to obtain such inclusions during the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. However, for commercial application it would be also important to find an optimal way of producing this kind of inclusions by Mn ions implantation. In order to achieve this goal, several parameters of implantation and post annealing procedures were tested. The ion energy was kept at 10 keV or 150 keV and four different ion doses were applied, as well as various annealing conditions. The analysis of X-ray absorption spectra allowed to estimate the local atomic order around Mn atoms. Depending on the implantation energy and annealing processes, the manganese oxides or manganese atoms located in a heavily defected GaSb matrix were observed. The performed analysis helped in indicating the main obstacles in formation of MnSb inclusions inside the GaSb matrix by Mn ion implantation. (author)

  16. Study of highly functionalized metal surface treated by plasma ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Masami; Miyagawa, Soji; Miyagawa, Yoshiko; Nakao, Setsuo; Masuda, Haruho; Saito, Kazuo; Ono, Taizou; Hayashi, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Technology for processing metal surfaces with hardness, low friction and free from foreign substances was developed with plasma ion implantation. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating is a most promising method for realization of hard and smooth metal surface. DLC coating was tested in a metal pipe with 10 mm diameter and 10 cm length by a newly developed plasma ion implantation instrument. The surface coated by DLC was proved to have characteristics equivalent to those prepared with other methods. A computer program simulating a formation process of DLC coating was developed. Experiments for fluorinating the DLC coating surface was performed. (Y. Kazumata)

  17. Fingerprinting diamonds using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVries, R.C.; Reihl, R.F.; Tuft, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    It is possible to ion implant patterns in diamond crystals at fluences below that which would impart visible damage and then to reveal those patterns by electrostatic charging and dusting. The charge distribution - and therefore the dust attachment - is related to the difference in electrical conductivity between the implanted region and the rest of the crystal. The technique may have applicability for ''fingerprinting'' or personalizing diamond gemstones. (author)

  18. Krypton ion implantation effect on selenium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Suresh; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Among the rapidly progressing interdisciplinary areas of physics, chemistry, material science etc. ion induced modifications of materials is one such evolving field. It has been realized in recent years that a material, in the form of an accelerated ion beam, embedded into a target specimen offers a most productive tool for transforming its properties in a controlled manner. In semiconductors particularly, where the transport behavior is determined by very small concentrations of certain impurities, implantation of ions may bring considerable changes. The present work is based on the study of the effect of krypton ion implantation on selenium nanowires. Selenium nanowires of diameter 80 nm were synthesized by template assisted electro deposition technique. Implantation of krypton ions was done at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The effect of implantation on structural, electrical and optical properties of selenium nanowires was investigated. XRD analysis of pristine and implanted nanowires shows no shifting in the peak position but there is a variation in the relative intensity with fluence. UV-Visible spectroscopy shows the decrease in the optical band gap with fluence. PL spectra showed emission peak at higher wavelength. A substantial rise in the current was observed from I-V measurements, after implantation and with the increase in fluence. The increase in current conduction may be due to the increase in the current carriers.

  19. Surface engineering by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Bjarne Roger

    1995-01-01

    Awidespread commercial applica tion iof particle accelerators is for ion implantation. Accelerator beams are used for ion implantation into metals, alloying a thin surface layer with foreign atoms to concentrations impossible to achieve by thermal processes, making for dramatic improvements in hardness and in resistance to wear and corrosion. Traditional hardening processes require high temperatures causing deformation; ion implantation on the other hand is a ''cold process'', treating the finished product. The ionimplanted layer is integrated in the substrate, avoiding the risk of cracking and delamination from normal coating processes. Surface properties may be ''engineered'' independently of those of the bulk material; the process does not use environmentally hazardous materials such as chromium in the surface coating. The typical implantation dose required for the optimum surface properties of metals is around 2 x 10 17 ion/cm 2 , a hundred times the typical doses for semiconductor processing. When surface areas of more than a few square centimetres have to be treated, the implanter must therefore be able to produce high beam currents (5 to 10 mA) to obtain an acceptable treatment time. Ion species used include nitrogen, boron, carbon, titanium, chromium and tantalum, and beam energies range from 50 to 200 keV. Since most components are three dimensional, it must be possible to rotate and tilt them in the beam, and control beam position over a large area. Examples of industrial applications are: - surface treatment of prostheses (hip and knee joints) to reduce wear of the moving parts, using biocompatible materials; - ion implantation into high speed ball bearings to protect against the aqueous corrosion in jet engines (important for service helicopters on oil rigs); - hardening of metal forming and cutting tools; - reduction of corrosive wear of plastic moulding tools, which are expensive to produce

  20. Ion implantation in semiconductor bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badawi, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ions are selectively implanted into layers of a semiconductor substrate of, for example, semi-insulating gallium arsenide via a photoresist implantation mask and a metallic layer of, for example, titanium disposed between the substrate surface and the photoresist mask. After implantation the mask and metallic layer are removed and the substrate heat treated for annealing purposes. The metallic layer acts as a buffer layer and prevents possible contamination of the substrate surface, by photoresist residues, at the annealing stage. Such contamination would adversely affect the electrical properties of the substrate surface, particularly gallium arsenide substrates. (author)

  1. Lattice location study of ion implanted Sn and Sn-related defects in Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Decoster, S; Wahl, U; Correia, J G; Vantomme, A

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a lattice location study of Sn in Ge. From emission channeling experiments, we determined the exact lattice location of ion implanted $^{121}$Sn atoms and compared the results to predictions from density-functional calculations. The majority of the Sn atoms are positioned on the substitutional site, as can be expected for an isovalent impurity, while a second significant fraction occupies the sixfold coordinated bond-centered site, which is stable up to at least 400 °C. Corroborated by ab initio calculations, we attribute this fraction of bond-centered Sn atoms to the Sn-vacancy defect complex in the split-vacancy configuration. Furthermore, we are able to assign specific defect complex geometries to resonances from earlier Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of Sn in Ge.

  2. An industrial application of 100 KeV ion beam accelerator: studies on N ion implanted stainless steel with respect to wear resistance to mild abrasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jae Sang; Sohn, Chang Won; Kil, Jae Geun

    2003-01-01

    We have built a 100 keV and 20 mA ion beam accelerator to apply for prolonged lifetime of metal parts subjected to mild abrasive environment. Studies were conducted on stainless steel which is often used for cutting blades. 70keV N ions of > 5x 10 16 /cm 2 were implanted into the surface polished stainless steel (SS420) with average surface roughness (Ra) of 0.04 μm. Then, wear resistance of N ion implanted specimen at the mild abrasive condition was investigated. When the beam incidence was 45 .deg. with respect to the specimen surfaces, the concentration of nitrogen in the near surface of the specimen was about 5 at% and detected up to at least 300 nm from the surface as measured with Auger electron spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that the implanted N formed mostly Cr 2 N without post irradiation annealing. Hardness profiles of the specimens were obtained with nano-indentation technique as a function of distance from the surface before and after ion implantations. The peak hardness of 14 Gpa formed at approx. 50 nm depth from the N ion implanted surface was about at least 2 times higher than non-irradiated specimen. Along with the hardness measurement, ball-on-disc wear resistance test was conducted. With 500 gf alumina ball, the wear track to the onset point of abrupt increase in the frictional coefficient was about 5 m for the N implanted specimen, while wear took place for the pristine as soon as the test started. On the other hand, when 1000 gf ball was used for the wear test, the difference in the wear track between the pristine and N implanted specimen was smaller than 500 gf ball, implying that the ion implantation is not suited to severe abrasive condition. After the ion beam irradiation, the surface roughness was reduced to Ra=0.02 μm. We found the ion implantation prolonged the lifetime of the metal parts subjected to mild abrasive environment like hair clipper blades

  3. Application of ion implantation in stevia breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Jin Wei; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1999-08-01

    Dry seed of stevia were implanted with 60-100 keV nitrogen ion and 75 keV carbon ion of various doses, and the effects of the composition and yield of stevioside were studied. The results showed that ion beam could induce variation in total stevioside yield and the composition of the plant. The best treatment was 75 keV nitrogen ion with 5 x 10 14 N + /cm 2 , the stevioside yield and Rebaudioside A (R-A) content were increased by 4.74% and 14.08% respectively. The effects induced by implantation of carbon ion were higher than those induced by implantation of nitrogen ion. Effects of Feng 1 x Ri Yuan and Ri Yuan x Feng 2 are higher than those of Ji Ning and Feng 2 . Seven mutation lines were selected from the mutation progenies. The stevioside composition of these lines were previously improved. The results suggest a potential application of ion implantation in stevia breeding

  4. Extreme implanting in Si: A study of ion-induced damage at high temperature and high dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, O.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ion-solid interactions near room temperature and below have been well studied in single-crystal Si. While this has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for nucleation and growth of lattice damage during irradiation, these studies have not, in general, been extended to high temperatures (e.g., >200 degrees C). This is the case despite the commercialization of ion beam technologies which utilize high-temperature processing, such as separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX). In this process, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material is produced by implanting a high dose of oxygen ions into a Si wafer to form a buried, stoichiometric oxide layer. Results will be presented of a study of damage accumulation during high-dose implantation of Si at elevated temperatures. In particular, O + -ions were used because of the potential impact of the results on the SIMOX technology. It will be shown that the nature of the damage accumulation at elevated temperatures is quite distinctive and portends the presence of a new mechanism, one which is only dominant under the extreme conditions encountered during ion beam synthesis (i.e., high temperature and high dose). This mechanism is discussed and shown to be quite general and not dependent on the chemical identity of the ions. Also, techniques for suppressing this mechanism by open-quotes defect engineeringclose quotes are discussed. Such techniques are technologically relevant because they offer the possibility of reducing the defect density of the SOI produced by SIMOX

  5. Studies of phase formation in CoSi2 buried layers fabricated using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaev, A.A.; Parkhomenko, Yu.N.; Podgornyi, D.A.; Shcherbachev, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    The processes of the formation of cobalt disilicide buried layers in silicon are studied under different conditions of implantation with Co. In particular, the effects of the implantation dose and the postimplantation annealing temperature on the state of the Co-implanted layer are considered. Two types of heteroepitaxial Si/CoSi 2 /Si structures are obtained with the conducting layers of thicknesses 70 and 90 nm buried at the depths 80 and 10 nm, respectively

  6. Moessbauer effect studies of the recovery of iron after heavy-ion implantation at 7 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reintsema, S.R.; Drentje, S.A.; Waard, H. de

    1978-01-01

    Moessbauer effect measurements were performed with sources of 133 Xe implanted at 7 K in polycrystalline iron foils by means of an isotope separator. Information about the direct environment of an implanted radioactive probe atom is obtained through the hyperfine interaction of the daughter nucleus ( 133 Cs) with its surroundings. The Moessbauer spectra were analyzed on the basis of an earlier model, assuming three visible spectral components with high, intermediate and low hyperfine fields and recoilless fractions, respectively, and a fourth, invisible component with a recoilless fraction very close to zero. Annealing experiments showed no evidence for post-implantation recovery stage I in the iron foils, while recovery stage II only gave rise to small changes in the site occupations. These results can be explained in terms of the high energy density locally deposited in the lattice by each implanted atom, leading to stage I recovery during the very short time that is necessary for the thermal dissipation of this energy. Quantitatively, these results are confirmed by calculations of Sigmund on heavy-ion induced elastic-collision spikes in solids. After annealing at room temperature the site occupations agree with those obtained directly with room temperature implanted sources. In previous experiments it has been shown that different results are obtained for annealing and for implantation at 200 0 C. From these results the authors estimate the migration energy of vacancies in iron at 1.27 +- 0.09 eV. (Auth.)

  7. Ion beam studies. Part 1. The retardation of ion beams to very low energies in an implantation accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Temple, W.; Beanland, D.; Gard, G.A.

    1976-02-01

    The design and operation of a compact electrostatic lens for the retardation and focussing of high intensity beams of heavy ions down to energies in the range 10 to 1,000 eV is described. The use of such beams for low-energy ion implantation and for the production of uniform ion-deposited layers is outlined. The practical behaviour of the lens is shown to be in agreement with computer calculations and the theoretical model is used to delineate and explain the boundary conditions under which the focussing behaviour becomes anomalous. The calculated and measured effects of space-charge repulsion on the quality of focussing are compared and it is demonstrated that a simple retardation lens design can be effectively employed at high flux. (author)

  8. A comparative evaluation of ion release from different commercially-available orthodontic mini-implants - an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Venkateswaran; Padmanabhan, Sridevi; Chitharanjan, Arun B

    2016-11-01

    Titanium alloy mini-implants have become popular in recent times and have been extensively used and studied. Although corrosion resistance of orthodontic materials has always been of concern, this property has been the least explored. The present study aimed to assess the composition, surface characterisation and corrosion resistance of five commercially available mini-implants by assaying ion release in artificial saliva. Ten mini-implants each from five companies were obtained: Group 1 - AbsoAnchor (Dentos Inc, South Korea); Group 2 - Microimplant Anchorage System (MIA, Biomaterials Korea); Group 3 - The Orthodontic Mini Anchorage System (TOMAS, Dentaurum, Germany); Group 4 - mini-implants (Denticon, Maharashtra, India); Group 5 - orthodontic mini-implants (lJ.Orthodontics, Kerala, India). One mini-implant from each group was subjected to characterisation and surface microstructure analysis using Energy Dispersive Atomic Spectrometry (EDAX) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), respectively. Ten mini- implants were immersed for 30 days in Fusayama-Meyer artificial saliva solution and the release of titanium, aluminium and vanadium ions was detected with Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for multi-variate analysis. In order to determine the significant differences between the groups on independent samples, the Mann-Whitney U test (bi-variate analysis) was applied. All groups showed machining defects but surface pitting after immersion was mostly evident in Group 4. Although the composition of all the implants was comparable, there was a statistically significant difference in the Ti, Al and V release between Group 4 - the group with maximum release - and Group 2, the group with least release.

  9. Biodegradable radioactive implants for glaucoma filtering surgery produced by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assmann, W. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: walter.assmann@lmu.de; Schubert, M. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Held, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany); Pichler, A. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Muenchen (Germany); Chill, A. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Kiermaier, S. [Zentralinstitut fuer Medizintechnik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schloesser, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Busch, H. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Schenk, K. [NTTF GmbH, 53619 Rheinbreitbach (Germany); Streufert, D. [Acri.Tec GmbH, 16761 Hennigsdorf (Germany); Lanzl, I. [Augenklinik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 81675 Munich (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    A biodegradable, {beta}-emitting implant has been developed and successfully tested which prevents fresh intraocular pressure increase after glaucoma filtering surgery. Ion implantation has been used to load the polymeric implants with the {beta}-emitter {sup 32}P. The influence of ion implantation and gamma sterilisation on degradation and {sup 32}P-fixation behavior has been studied by ion beam and chemical analysis. Irradiation effects due to the applied ion fluence (10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) and gamma dose (25 kGy) are found to be tolerable.

  10. Comparative study of 150 keV Ar+ and O+ ion implantation induced structural modification on electrical conductivity in Bakelite polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneesh Kumar, K. V.; Krishnaveni, S.; Asokan, K.; Ranganathaiah, C.; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    A comparative study of 150 keV argon (Ar+) and oxygen (O+) ion implantation induced microstructural modifications in Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector material at different implantation fluences have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). Positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime (τ3) and its intensity (I3) upon lower implantation fluences can be interpreted as the cross-linking and the increased local temperature induced diffusion followed by trapping of ions in the interior polymer voids. The increased o-Ps lifetime (τ3) at higher O+ ion implantation fluences indicates chain scission owing to the oxidation and track formation. This is also justified by the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) results. The modification in the microstructure and electrical conductivity of Bakelite materials are more upon implantation of O+ ions than Ar+ ions of same energy and fluences. The reduced electrical conductivity of Bakelite polymer material upon ion implantation of both the ions is correlated to the conducting pathways and cross-links in the polymer matrix. The appropriate energy and fluence of implanting ions might reduce the leakage current and hence improve the performance of Bakelite RPC detectors.

  11. Experimental study of precipitation in an ion-implanted metal: Sb in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, R.A.; Myers, S.M.; Picraux, S.T.

    1979-01-01

    The formation and evolution of AlSb precipitates in Sb-implanted Al has been investigated as a function of temperature, flux, and fluence. Implant temperatures of 23--300 0 C, fluxes of 6 x 10 11 to 1.3 x 10 13 Sb cm -2 sec -1 , and fluences of 5 x 10 15 to 2 x 10 17 Sb cm -2 were investigated, and transmission electron microscopy was used to detect the precipitates and to determine their size distributions. The AlSb precipitate mean size becomes larger and the number density decreases with increasing Sb implantation temperature, with increasing fluence, and with decreasing flux. The temperature and flux dependences of the evolution are large for 5 x 10 15 Sb cm -2 added to initially pure Al, and are much weaker at higher fluences where 1.5 x 10 15 Sb cm -2 has been added to a preexisting precipitate distribution. This indicates that flux and temperature affect the size distribution most strongly during nucleation and/or early growth. Ion damage has been demonstrated to be a significant factor in the precipitate evolution through Ar and Al bombardment of preexisting precipitates. At 300 0 C self-ion bombardment leads to ripening, whereas the precipitate size distribution is stable in the absence of implantation. At room temperature, Ar irradiation causes the AlSb diffraction pattern to disappear at approx.1 displacement per atom (dpa) independent of precipitate size, suggesting that here destruction of precipitates occurs due to disordering of the AlSb lattice. The results are discussed in terms of thermal and irradiation-induced processes

  12. Study of phosphorus implanted and annealed silicon by electrical measurements and ion channeling technique

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjersi, T; Zilabdi, M; Benazzouz, C

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the electrical activation of phosphorus implanted into silicon. The measurements performed using spreading resistance, four-point probe and ion channeling techniques have allowed us to establish the existence of two domains of variation of the electrical activation (350-700 deg. C) and (800-1100 deg. C). The presence of reverse annealing and the annihilation of defects have been put in a prominent position in the first temperature range. It has been shown that in order to achieve a complete electrical activation, the annealing temperature must belong to the second domain (800-1100 deg. C).

  13. Study of Cu+, Ag+ and Au+ ion implantation into silicate glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, B.; Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Kolitsch, A.; Machovič, V.; Stara, S.; Míka, M.; Špirková, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 356, 44-49 (2010), s. 2468-2472 ISSN 0022-3093. [XII International Conference on the Physics of Non-Crystalline Solids. Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil, 06.09.-09.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Ion implantation * Silicate glass es * Metal nanoparticles * RBS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2010

  14. A study of the structural and magnetic properties of ZnO implanted by Gd ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Sofer, Z.; Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Mikulics, M.; Wilhelm, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 332, AUG (2014), s. 80-84 ISSN 0168-583X. [21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Seattle, 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR GA13-20507S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : ZnO * Gd implantation * depth profiles * RBS Channelling * Raman spectroscopy * AFM Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  15. Doping of silicon carbide by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimbert, J.

    1999-01-01

    It appeared that in some fields, as the hostile environments (high temperature or irradiation), the silicon compounds showed limitations resulting from the electrical and mechanical properties. Doping of 4H and 6H silicon carbide by ion implantation is studied from a physicochemical and electrical point of view. It is necessary to obtain n-type and p-type material to realize high power and/or high frequency devices, such as MESFETs and Schottky diodes. First, physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide are presented and the interest of developing a process technology on this material is emphasised. Then, physical characteristics of ion implantation and particularly classical dopant implantation, such as nitrogen, for n-type doping, and aluminium and boron, for p-type doping are described. Results with these dopants are presented and analysed. Optimal conditions are extracted from these experiences so as to obtain a good crystal quality and a surface state allowing device fabrication. Electrical conduction is then described in the 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. Freezing of free carriers and scattering processes are described. Electrical measurements are carried out using Hall effect on Van der Panw test patterns, and 4 point probe method are used to draw the type of the material, free carrier concentrations, resistivity and mobility of the implanted doped layers. These results are commented and compared to the theoretical analysis. The influence of the technological process on electrical conduction is studied in view of fabricating implanted silicon carbide devices. (author)

  16. Influence of Ro radiation upon ion-implanted MOS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaschieva, S.; Djakov, A.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of Ro radiation with defects in ion-implanted MOS structures is studied using the method of thermally stimulated charge release and C/V method. It is shown that preliminary treatment with Ro radiation decreases the temperature of thermal annealing of the radiation defects introduced by ion-implantation up to 450 0 C. (author)

  17. Study of the effect of reactive-element addition by implanting metal ions in a preformed oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, P.Y.; Brown, I.G.; Stringer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of ion-implanted Y, Hf, Zr and Cr on the oxidation behavior of a Ni-25 wt.% Cr alloy at 1000degC has been investigated. The implantation dose was 5x10 16 ions/cm 2 . Two methods of implantation have been used. One was to implant ions directly into a clean alloy surface; the other was to implant into an approximately 0.6 μm thick Cr 2 O 3 layer formed at 1000degC on the alloy. In neither case did the Cr implantation show any beneficial effects. Implantations of Y, Hf and Zr produced all the reactive element effects, i.e. reduction in oxidation rate, elimination of base-metal oxide formation and improvement in scale adhesion, only if the ions were initially implanted in the alloy. When the ions were implanted into a preformed oxide, the subsequent oxidation process was altered to the same degree as before, but the scale adhesion was not affected. Implications of these results to the mechanism of the reactive-element effect are discussed. (orig.)

  18. High-energy ion implantation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    High-energy ion implantation is an extremely flexible type of surface treatment technique, in that it offers the possibility of treating almost any type of target material or product with ions of almost any chemical species, or combinations of chemical species. In addition, ion implantations can be combined with variations in temperature during or after ion implantation. As a result, the possibility of approaching a wide variety of surface-related materials science problems exists with ion implantation. This paper will outline factors pertinent to application of high-energy ion implantation to surface engineering problems. This factors include fundamental advantages and limitations, economic considerations, present and future equipment, and aspects of materials science

  19. Lattice defects in ion-implanted aluminium studied by means of perturbed angular correlations. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleiter, F.; Prasad, K.G.

    1984-01-01

    Migration and clustering of lattice defects after implantation of 111 In in Al and subsequent annealing at temperatures in the range from 80 to 800 K were investigated applying the DPAC technique. The effects of implantation dose, implantation temperature, laser irradiation, and plastic deformation were studied. The measurements on plastically deformed Al were complemented by positron lifetime measurements. Four In-defect clusters were observed that can be flagged by well-defined hyperfine interaction parameters, and their symmetry properties were determined by using single-crystal samples. Important conclusions are: (i) monovacancies are not trapped by In-atoms, (ii) small In-defect clusters are formed by direct trapping of divacancies and/or trivacancies, and (iii) extended In-defect clusters are very stable and anneal in the temperature range 600-700 K. Consequences for the interpretation of other measurements on dilute Al(In) alloys are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Ion Implantation in Ge: Structural and electrical investigation of the induced lattice damage & Study of the lattice location of implanted impurities

    CERN Document Server

    Decoster, Stefan; Wahl, Ulrich

    The past two decades, germanium has drawn international attention as one of the most promising materials to replace silicon in semiconductor applications. Due to important advantages with respect to Si, such as the increased electron and hole mobility, Ge is well on its way to become an important material in future high-speed integrated circuits. Although the interest in this elemental group IV semiconductor is increasing rapidly nowadays, the number of publications about this material is still relatively scarce, especially when compared to Si. The most widely used technique to dope semiconductors is ion implantation, due to its good control of the dopant concentration and profile, and the isotopic purity of the implanted species. However, there is a major lack of knowledge of the fundamental properties of ion implantation in Ge, which has triggered the research presented in this thesis. One of the most important and generally unwanted properties of ion implantation is the creation of damage to the crystal la...

  1. Defect characteristics by boron cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuo, Jiro; Takaoka, Gikan; Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2003-01-01

    Cluster ion implantation using decaborane (B 10 H 14 ) has been proposed as a shallow implantation technique for LSI devices with gate lengths of several-tens nanometers. Experiments and computer simulations of low-energy boron monomers and decaborane clusters implantation were performed. Molecular dynamics simulations of B 10 cluster implantation have shown similar implant depth but different damage density and damage structure compared to monomer (B 1 ) ion implantation with the same energy-per-atom. For monomer implantation, point-defects such as vacancy-interstitial pairs are mainly formed. On the other hand, B 10 generates large numbers of defects within a highly-amorphised region at the impact location. This difference in damage structure produced during implantation is expected to cause different annihilation processes

  2. Development of industrial ion implantation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Hwang, Churl Kew; Kim, Wan; Jin, Jung Tai; Jung, Ki Sok; Yoon, Su Ho; Shin, Won Churl; Kim, Jong Gook; Han, Jeon Geon; Chung, Ki Hyung

    1994-01-01

    On a cooperation between KAERI, Kurchatov Institute (Russia), and Mirae Co., development of a metal ion implanter and ion implantation technology is performed on a basic idea of popularization and refinement of ion implantation technology applied to the industrial components. The developed implanter is a two beam type: the mass separation line produces several mA of metal ion beams and the non-separation line produces several tens of mA gas ion beams, thus making the synergistic effect possible by the irradiation of beams from both lines. The target is made of a rotating plate of 60cm in radius and can treat various types of industrial components or parts. About 60 kinds of specimens were treated for the development of implantation technology. Two or five times lengthening of longevities were achieved on the PCB drills, razor blades, cutters, and precision dies. (Author)

  3. Ultra thin layer activation by recoil implantation of radioactive heavy ions. Applicability in wear and corrosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, O.; Sauvage, T.; Blondiaux, G.; Guinard, L.

    1997-07-01

    A new calibration procedure is proposed for the application of recoil implantation of radioactive heavy ions (energies between a few hundred keV and a few MeV) into the near surface of materials as part of a research programme on sub-micrometric wear or corrosion phenomena. The depth profile of implanted radioelements is performed by using ultra thin deposited films obtained by cathode sputtering under argon plasma. Two curves for 56 Co ion in nickel have been determined for implantation depths of 110 and 200 nm, respectively, and stress the feasibility and reproducibility of this method for such activated depths. The achieved surface loss detection sensitivities are about 1 and 2 nm respectively. The on line detection mode is performed directly on the sample of interest. A general description of the method is presented. A study of the reaction kinematics followed by a general treatment on the irradiation parameters to be adopted are also developed with the intention of using the ultra thin layer activation method (UTLA) to further applications in research and industry. (author)

  4. Studies on effect of N+ ion beam implantation on some drought tolerant characteristics of liquorice seedlings (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shenglin; Zhang Xiangsheng

    2004-01-01

    The taproot, lateral root and the growth of hypocotyl and root/shoot ratio of plant seedlings are important characteristics relevant to seedling drought tolerance. The N + ion beams with 25 keV energy and the doses of 600-3600 x 2.6 x 10 13 ·cm -2 were implanted into the liquorice dry seeds, among which 1800 x 2.6 x 10 13 · cm -2 could improve effectively the taproot growth of liquorice seedlings at period of 4d and root/shoot ratio (dry weight and fresh weight) and promote the development of lateral roots of liquorice seedlings at the period of 30d, and stimulate obviously the growth of hypocotyl and taproot and stem height of seedlings at the period of 6d and 30d. The parameters can be considered as those of energy and dose of N + ion beam irradiation whose M1 mutagenesis effect on liquorice plant vegetation in desert area is to be studied for reference. Within the implantation parameter ranges in this experiment, the response of N + implantation to drought tolerant characteristics of liquorice seedlings also shows the 'damage-repair-damage' effect. (authors)

  5. Influence of a chromium ion implantation on the passive behaviour of nickel in artificial sea-water: An EIS and XPS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girault, P.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.L.; Dinhut, J.F.; Marechal, L.

    2001-01-01

    The passive behaviour in artificial sea-water of Cr-implanted (4x10 16 ions/cm 2 , 60 keV) and non-implanted Ni was studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The transfer resistance obtained for the implanted specimen (R t ∼5586 kΩ cm 2 ) is extremely enhanced compared to the corresponding value of the non-implanted Ni (R t ∼94 kΩ cm 2 ) indicating a considerable increase in the protective efficiency of the implanted layer. The EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in the non-implanted Ni two distinct loops can be observed. These changes in EIS behaviour by the ion-implantation are related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a more stable passive layer. Equivalent circuits were proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters deduced. These findings were compared with the results obtained by analysis of the passive film formed on Ni, performed by XPS, and with previous investigations of similar alloys. It appears that the passive film formed on Ni consists of NiO and Ni(OH) 2 whereas the chromium implantation leads to the formation in the passive state of Cr oxides and hydroxides which are responsible of the large increase of the transfer resistance

  6. Spectroscopic ellipsometry study of N+ ion-implanted ethylene-norbornene films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šiljegović, M.; Kačarević-Popović, Z. M.; Stchakovsky, M.; Radosavljević, A. N.; Korica, S.; Novaković, M.; Popović, M.

    2014-05-01

    The optical properties of 150 keV N+ implanted ethylene-norbornene (TOPAS 6017S-04) copolymer were investigated using phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry (PMSE) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy in the ranges of 0.6-6.5 eV and of 1.5-6.2 eV, respectively. The single-effective-oscillator model was used to fit the calculated data to the experimental ellipsometric spectra. The results show that the oscillator and dispersion energies decrease with increasing ion fluence up to 1015 cm-2, and then these parameters increase with further fluence increasing. Analysis of the UV-Vis absorption spectra revealed the presence of indirect electronic transitions with the band gap energy in the range of 1.3 to 2.8 eV. It was found that both the band gap energy and the energy width of the distribution of localized band tail states decrease, while the values of Tauc coefficient increase with increasing the ion fluence. From the ellipsometric data we found that the real part of the dielectric function increased about 7% after irradiation with 1015 cm-2, and decreased about 10% in samples modified with 1016 cm-2.

  7. Amorphization of metals by ion implantation and ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, B.; Heera, V.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous metallic systems can be formed either by high-fluence ion implantation of glassforming species or by irradiation of layered metal systems with inert gas ions. Both techniques and experimental examples are presented. Empirical rules are discussed which predict whether a given system can be transformed into an amorphous phase. Influence of temperature, implantation dose and pre-existing crystalline metal composition on amorphization is considered. Examples are given of the implantation induced amorphous structure, recrystallization and formation of quasicrystalline structures. (author)

  8. Ion implantation induced defects in Fe-Cr alloys studied by conventional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krsjak, V [Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy, European Commission, PO Box 2, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Sojak, S; Slugen, V; Petriska, M, E-mail: vladimir.krsjak@ec.europa.eu [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, FEI, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-01-10

    The influence of chromium on the radiation damage resistance of the iron based alloys has been studied using conventional positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). Experimental data evaluation has been supported by the former theoretical calculation of positron lifetimes in the studied materials and well-defined types of defects. For this purpose, density functional theory (DFT) computation method has been applied. The spectrum of used {sup 22}Na positron source was decomposed into discrete fractions to better calculate efficiency of near surface layers study. For the experimental simulation of a-radiation and obtaining of defined cascade collisions in the materials, helium implantation was used. Different level of the implanted dose (6.24x10{sup 17} - 3.12x10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}) corresponds to local damage up to 90 DPA acquired in thin <1 {mu}m region. Experimental measurement has been performed using the PALS technique on the four different Fe-Cr binary alloys (2.36; 4.62; 8.39; 11.62 wt% of Cr). The results showed that chromium has a significant effect on the size and density of the implanted defects and specific Cr content should prevent the vacancy clusters formation.

  9. Study of structural modifications induced by ion implantation in austenitic stainless steel; Etude des modifications structurales induites par implantation ionique dans les aciers austenitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudognon, J

    2006-12-15

    Ion implantation in steels, although largely used to improve the properties of use, involves structural modifications of the surface layer, which remain still prone to controversies. Within this context, various elements (N, Ar, Cr, Mo, Ag, Xe and Pb) were implanted (with energies varying from 28 to 280 keV) in a 316LVM austenitic stainless steel. The implanted layer has a thickness limited to 80 nm and a maximum implanted element concentration lower than 10 % at. The analysis of the implanted layer by grazing incidence X ray diffraction highlights deformations of austenite lines, appearance of ferrite and amorphization of the layer. Ferritic phase which appears at the grain boundaries, whatever the implanted element, is formed above a given 'threshold' of energy (produced of fluency by the energy of an ion). The formation of ferrite as well as the amorphization of the implanted layer depends only on energy. In order to understand the deformations of austenite diffraction lines, a simulation model of these lines was elaborated. The model correctly describes the observed deformations (broadening, shift, splitting) with the assumption that the expansion of the austenitic lattice is due to the presence of implanted element and is proportional to the element concentration through a coefficient k'. This coefficient only depends on the element and varies linearly with its radius. (author)

  10. Effect of anomalous drift during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, P.A.; Baranova, E.K.; Beloshitskii, V.V.; Demakov, K.D.; Starostin, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented on Tl-ion implantation into hot silicon substrates (approx. 1200 0 C). a An anomalously large (by more than an order of magnitude) displacement of the peak position of the implanted impurity distribution into the bulk of the substrate is found. b) The conclusion is drawn that the basic process responsible for this displacement of the peak is radiation-enhanced diffusion (RED) due to nonequilibrium concentration of point defects produced in the heated target directly under implantation. c) The crystalline structure of the resulting ion-implanted layer indicates that in-situ annealing of the exposed layer occurs during high-temperature implantation. d) Experimental impurity distributions confirm the possibility of producing an implanted-impurity 'buried layer' below the layer of a single crystal silicon, the 'buried layer' depth depending on the implantation regime. (author)

  11. Cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation into Stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Mei; Wang Cailian; Chen Qiufang; Lu Ting; Shu Shizhen

    1997-01-01

    Dry seeds of Stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ion with various doses. The cytological effect on M 1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. However, there was no significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The cytological effect of nitrogen ion implantation was lower than that of γ-rays

  12. Modification of medical metals by ion implantation of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Y. Z.; Xiong, G. Y.; Liang, H.; Raman, S.; He, F.; Huang, Y.

    2007-10-01

    The effect of copper ion implantation on the antibacterial activity, wear performance and corrosion resistance of medical metals including 317 L of stainless steels, pure titanium, and Ti-Al-Nb alloy was studied in this work. The specimens were implanted with copper ions using a MEVVA source ion implanter with ion doses ranging from 0.5 × 10 17 to 4 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 at an energy of 80 keV. The antibacterial effect, wear rate, and inflexion potential were measured as a function of ion dose. The results obtained indicate that copper ion implantation improves the antibacterial effect and wear behaviour for all the three medical materials studied. However, corrosion resistance decreases after ion implantation of copper. Experimental results indicate that the antibacterial property and corrosion resistance should be balanced for medical titanium materials. The marked deteriorated corrosion resistance of 317 L suggests that copper implantation may not be an effective method of improving its antibacterial activity.

  13. Boron precipitates in ion implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, W.K.; Washburn, J.

    1975-03-01

    Long rod-like defects are observed in ion implanted silicon when boron is present either as a prior dopant addition or as the implanted species. Results of recent work indicates that these defects have the characteristics of narrow extrinsic dipoles or elongated dislocation loops and that there are two different types along each of the six (110) directions. An annealing kinetics method has been used to identify the nature of these defects formed during post-implantation annealing in boron ion (100 keV) implanted silicon irradiated at room temperature to a dose of 2 x 10 14 /cm 2 . It is concluded that at least two different kinds of rod-like defects exist in boron ion implanted silicon. From the activation energy for shrinkage, it is also concluded that one type (anti A) is composed largely of boron atoms. (U.S.)

  14. Prospects of ion implantation and ion beam mixing for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.K.; Munn, P.; Ensinger, W.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is very useful new low temperature treatment for improving the mechanical surface properties of materials without any dimensional changes. In addition also the corrosion properties of metals can be modified considerably by this technique. The long term corrosion behaviour of implanted metals, however, has been studied only for a very limited number of cases. In this contribution a survey of attempts to do this will be presented. As examples of promising systems for corrosion protection by ion beams iron, steel and titanium were examined with and without pretreatment by ion implantation and ion beam mixing. The corrosion rates of the systems have been obtained by neutron activation analysis and by electrochemical methods. Experimental results are presented on: Palladium implanted in titanium - crevice corrosion in salt solution; Palladium implanted in and deposited on titanium -corrosion in sulfuric acid; Platinum implanted in stainless steel -corrosion in sulfuric acid. (author)

  15. Paramagnetism in ion-implanted oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, Torben Esmann; Gíslason, Hafliði Pétur; Ólafsson, Sveinn

    This thesis describes the investigation on para-magnetism in dilute ion-implanted single-crystal oxide samples studied by on- and off-line $^{57}$Fe emission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The ion-implantation of the radioactive isotopes ( $^{57}$Mn and $^{57}$Co) was performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The off-line measurements were performed at Aarhus University, Denmark. Mössbauer spectroscopy is a unique method, giving simultaneously local information on valence/spin state of the $^{57}$Fe probe atoms, site symmetry and magnetic properties on an atomic scale. The utilisation of emission Mössbauer spectroscopy opens up many new possibilities compared with traditional transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. Among them is the possibility of working with a low concentration below 10$^{-4}$ –10$^{-3}$ at.%, where the implanted Mössbauer $^{57}$Fe probes are truly dilute impurities exclusively interacting with their nearest neighbours and therefore the possibility of crea...

  16. Silicon technologies ion implantation and thermal treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrant, Annie

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to remind new engineers in silicon foundry, the fundamental physical and chemical rules in major Front end treatments: oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion.

  17. Ion Implantation Processing Technologies for Telecommunications Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, T E

    2000-05-01

    The subject CRADA was a collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies (formerly AT and T Bell Laboratories) to explore the development of ion implantation technologies for silicon integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing.

  18. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  19. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    Original technical objectives of CRADA number PVI C-03-09 between BNL and Poole Ventura, Inc. (PVI) were to develop an intense, high charge state, ion source for MeV ion implanters. Present day high-energy ion implanters utilize low charge state (usually single charge) ion sources in combination with rf accelerators. Usually, a MV LINAC is used for acceleration of a few rnA. It is desirable to have instead an intense, high charge state ion source on a relatively low energy platform (de acceleration) to generate high-energy ion beams for implantation. This de acceleration of ions will be far more efficient (in energy utilization). The resultant implanter will be smaller in size. It will generate higher quality ion beams (with lower emittance) for fabrication of superior semiconductor products. In addition to energy and cost savings, the implanter will operate at a lower level of health risks associated with ion implantation. An additional aim of the project was to producing a product that can lead to long­ term job creation in Russia and/or in the US. R&D was conducted in two Russian Centers (one in Tomsk and Seversk, the other in Moscow) under the guidance ofPVI personnel and the BNL PI. Multiple approaches were pursued, developed, and tested at various locations with the best candidate for commercialization delivered and tested at on an implanter at the PVI client Axcelis. Technical developments were exciting: record output currents of high charge state phosphorus and antimony were achieved; a Calutron-Bemas ion source with a 70% output of boron ion current (compared to 25% in present state-of-the-art). Record steady state output currents of higher charge state phosphorous and antimony and P ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb {sup 4 +}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. Ultimate commercialization goals did not succeed (even though a number of the products like high

  20. Ion-implantation dense cascade data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterbon, K.B.

    1983-04-01

    A tabulation is given of data useful in estimating various aspects of ion-implantation cascades in the nuclear stopping regime, particularly with respect to nonlinearity of the cascade at high energy densities. The tabulation is restricted to self-ion implantation. Besides power-cross-section cascade dimensions, various material properties are included. Scaling of derived quantities with input data is noted, so one is not limited to the values assumed by the author

  1. Study of thermal treated a-Si implanted with Er and O ions

    CERN Document Server

    Plugaru, R; Piqueras, J; Tate, T J

    2002-01-01

    Visible luminescence of amorphous silicon layers either implanted with Er or co-implanted with Er and O and subsequently annealed in nitrogen has been investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL) in a scanning electron microscope. Co-implanted samples show a more intense luminescence, which is revealed by annealing at lower temperatures than the samples implanted only with erbium. Thermal treatments cause the formation of erbium oxide as well as Er-Si complexes or precipitates. Violet-blue luminescence has been found from CL images and spectra to be related to Er-Si precipitates. Emission in the green-red range is attributed to oxide species.

  2. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Gushenets, V I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Dugin, S; Oks, E M; Kulevoy, T V; Alexeyenko, O; Kozlov, A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Minaev, S; Vizir, A; Yushkov, G Yu

    2016-02-01

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C4H12B10O4) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH3 = P4 + 6H2; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P4(+) ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  3. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braceras, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.braceras@tecnalia.com [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Muñoz, Roberto [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (Ciber-BBN) (Spain); Maeztu, Miguel Ángel de [Private Practice, P° San Francisco, 43 A-1°, 20400 Tolosa (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm{sup 2}) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  4. Ion implantation induced nanotopography on titanium and bone cell adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Vera, Carolina; Ayerdi-Izquierdo, Ana; Muñoz, Roberto; Lorenzo, Jaione; Alvarez, Noelia; Maeztu, Miguel Ángel de

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Titanium surfaces modified by inert ion implantation affect cell adhesion through modification of the nanotopography in the same dimensional range of that of human bone inorganic phases. - Highlights: • Inert ion implantation on Ti modifies surface nanotopography and bone cell adhesion. • Ion implantation can produce nanostructured surfaces on titanium in the very same range as of those of the mineral phase of the human bone. • Appropriate tool for studying the relevance of nanostructured surfaces on bone mineralization and implant osseointegration. • Ion implantation induced nanotopography have a statistically significant influence on bone cell adhesion. - Abstract: Permanent endo-osseous implants require a fast, reliable and consistent osseointegration, i.e. intimate bonding between bone and implant, so biomechanical loads can be safely transferred. Among the parameters that affect this process, it is widely admitted that implant surface topography, surface energy and composition play an important role. Most surface treatments to improve osseointegration focus on micro-scale features, as few can effectively control the effects of the treatment at nanoscale. On the other hand, ion implantation allows controlling such nanofeatures. This study has investigated the nanotopography of titanium, as induced by different ion implantation surface treatments, its similarity with human bone tissue structure and its effect on human bone cell adhesion, as a first step in the process of osseointegration. The effect of ion implantation treatment parameters such as energy (40–80 keV), fluence (1–2 e17 ion/cm 2 ) and ion species (Kr, Ar, Ne and Xe) on the nanotopography of medical grade titanium has been measured and assessed by AFM and contact angle. Then, in vitro tests have been performed to assess the effect of these nanotopographies on osteoblast adhesion. The results have shown that the nanostructure of bone and the studied ion implanted

  5. Modification of polyethyleneterephtalate by implantation of nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svorcik, V.; Endrst, R.; Rybka, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Cerny, F.

    1994-01-01

    The implantation of 90 keV N + ions into polyethyleneterephtalate (PET) to fluences of 1 x 10 14 --1 x 10 17 cm -2 was studied. The changes in electrical sheet conductivity and polarity of ion-exposed PET were observed and the structural changes were examined using IR spectroscopy. One degradation process is a chain fission according to the Norrish II reaction. The sheet conductivity due to conjugated double bonds was increased by ten orders of magnitude as a result of ion implantation. The surface polarity of the PET samples increases slightly with increasing ion fluence

  6. Ion implantation in semiconductors and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guernet, G.; Bruel, M.; Gailliard, J.P.; Garcia, M.; Robic, J.Y.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of ion implantation techniques in the field of semiconductors and its extension to various fields such as metallurgy, mechanics, superconductivity and opto-electronics are considered. As for semiconductors ion implantation is evoked as: a means of predeposition of impurities at low doping level (10 11 to 10 14 cm -2 ); a means for obtaining profiles of controlled concentration; a means of reaching high doping levels with using 'strong current' implantation machines of the second generation. Some results obtained are presented [fr

  7. Studies on biological effects of low energy N+ on ion beam implantation rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songli; Huang Qunce; Wang Tiegu; Qin Guangyong

    2006-01-01

    Dry seeds of five varieties of rice were implanted by 25 KeV low energy N + with doses of 2.0 x 10 17 , 2.5 x 10 17 and 3.0 x 10 17 N + /cm 2 , respectively. Mutant plants were selected from their progenies and the biological effects of the mutant plants were studied. The results showed that chlorophyll content of mutant plants was higher than that of the control, and one of those is as high as 148.67% of chlorophyll content compared with the control. Isoenzyme activities (POD, CAT and SOD) of mutant plants were different from the control plants. And AFLP analysis showed that the similarity between variant plants and feminine control plants was higher than that between variant plants and masculine control plants. (authors)

  8. Study of low energy hydrogen ion implantation effects in silicon: electric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barhdadi, A.

    1985-07-01

    Several analysis methods have been developed: hydrogen distribution analysis by nuclear reaction, crystal disorder evaluation by R.B.S., chemical impurities identification by SIMS, optical measurements, electrical characterization of surface barriers, deep level spectroscopy DLTS, ... All these analyses have been made after implantation then after thermal annealing. A model explaining the effect of implantation then after thermal annealing. A model explaining the effect of implanted hydrogen is proposed, the implantation creates an important quantity of defects in a thin layer near the surface; a chemical attack removes them. In Schottky devices, this layer has a basic role on carrier transport phenomena. Other results are given, some of them allow to give an account of the passivation by hydrogen implantation [fr

  9. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Cell adhesion and growth on ion-implanted polymer surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Suk; Kaibara, M.; Iwaki, M.; Sasabe, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Kusakabe, M.

    1992-01-01

    The adhesion and growth of endothelial cells on ion-implanted polystyrene and segmented polyurethane surface were investigated. Ions of Na + , N 2 + , O 2 + , Ar + and Kr + were implanted to the polymer surface with ion fluences between 1 x 10 15 and 3 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 at energy of 150 KeV at room temperature. Ion-implanted polymers were characterized by FT-IR-ATR an Raman spectroscopies. The adhesion and proliferation of bovine aorta endothelial cells on ion-implanted polymer surface were observed by an optical microscope. The rate of growth of BAECs on ion-implanted PSt was faster than that on non-implanted PSt. Complete cell adhesion and growth were observed on ion-implanted SPU, whereas the adhesion and growth of BAECs on the non-implanted SPU was not observed. It was attempted to control the cell culture on the ion-implanted domain fabricated using a mask. (author)

  11. Comparative study of CAVET with dielectric and p-GaN gate and Mg ion-implanted current blocking layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Saptarshi; Agarwal, Anchal; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Mahadeva Bhat, K.; Laurent, Matthew A.; Keller, Stacia; Chowdhury, Srabanti

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a study of two different types of current aperture vertical electron transistor (CAVET) with ion-implanted blocking layer are presented. The device fabrication and performance limitation of a CAVET with a dielectric gate is discussed, and the breakdown limiting structure is evaluated using on-wafer test structures. The gate dielectric limited the device breakdown to 50V, while the blocking layer was able to withstand over 400V. To improve the device performance, an alternative CAVET structure with a p-GaN gate instead of dielectric is designed and realized. The pGaN gated CAVET structure increased the breakdown voltage to over 400V. Measurement of test structures on the wafer showed the breakdown was limited by the blocking layer instead of the gate p-n junction.

  12. A study of the behaviour of copper in different types of silicate glasses implanted with Cu+ and O+ ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, B.; Vařák, P.; Vytykačová, S.; Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Bottger, R.

    Roč. 406 , SEP (2017), s. 193-198 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015056; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : silicate glasses * ion implantation * copper Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  13. Study of UO2 mechanical behaviour implanted with helium ions using X-ray micro-diffraction and mechanical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Marcelle

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanical behavior of nuclear fuel during direct long term storage, UO 2 polycrystals were implanted with Helium ions at a thin surface layer (1 μm approximately), which leads to stress and strain fields in the layer. Strains were measured, at the grains scale, by X-ray micro-diffraction, using synchrotron radiation (ESRF). Image analysis methods were developed for an automatic analysis of the large number of diffraction patterns. Applying statistical tools to Laue patterns allows an automatic detection of low quality images, and enhances the measurement precision. At low layer thickness, the mechanical interaction between grains can be neglected. At higher thickness, experimental results showed a higher mechanical interaction near grain boundaries that can be modeled using finite elements method. Geostatistical tools were used to quantify these interactions. The swelling and the elastic constants in the implanted layer can be estimated through the measured strains on a large number of grains with different orientations. This work allows the determination of the swelling of nuclear fuel in irradiation conditions, as well as the modification of its elastic properties. (author) [fr

  14. Cathodoluminescence studies of anomalous ion implantation defect introduction in lightly and heavily doped liquid phase epitaxial GaAs:Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C.B.; Barnes, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    The anomalous postrange defect introduction produced by shallow ion implantation in GaAs has been investigated in Sn-doped liquid phase epitaxial (LPE) material using depth-resolved cathodoluminescence in conjunction with layer removal by chemical etching. 100-keV Ne + or 200-keV Zn + ions were implanted into lightly or heavily Sn-doped LPE layers at temperatures between 80 and 300 K. All implantations were subsequently annealed at 300 K. Although the projected ion ranges for the implants were on the order of 1000 A, significant postrange damage was observed at far greater depths. At depths up to several microns, the damage introduction produced severe nonradiative recombination but simultaneously caused an apparent increase in the concentration of incumbent luminescence centers responsible for an extrinsic band near 1.39 eV. A weak damage-related band near 1.2 eV could also be seen in one instance. At depths of 5--30 μm, the postrange damage had the opposite effect of annihilating incumbent 1.39-eV luminescence centers. The efficiency of the damage introduction has a complicated temperature dependence which is significantly different for the ion/substrate combinations investigated. However, no conditions were found for which the damage introduction could be inhibited. While our measurements are the most extensive to date concerning the anomalous ion implant damage introduction in GaAs, the detailed mechanisms responsible for this effect still remain obscure owing in part to the limited understanding of defects in GaAs

  15. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  16. High current pelletron for ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1984, when the first production MeV ion implanter (an NEC model MV-T30) went on-line, interest in versatile electrostatic accelerator systems for MeV ion implantation has grown. The systems use a negative ion source to inject a tandem megavolt accelerator. In early systems the 0.4 mA of charging current from the two Pelletron charging chains in the accelerator was sufficient for the low intensity of beams from the ion source. This 2-chain system, however, is no longer adequate for the much higher beam intensities from today's improved ion sources. A 4-chain charging system, which delivers 1.3 mA to the high voltage terminal, was developed and is in operation in new models of NEC S Series Pelletron accelerators. This paper describes the latest beam performance of 1 MV and 1.7 MW Pelletron accelerators with this new 4-chain charging system. (orig.)

  17. High current pelletron for ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, James B.

    1989-04-01

    Since 1984, when the first production MeV ion implanter (an NEC model MV-T30) went on-line, interest in versatile electrostatic accelerator systems for MeV ion implantation has grown. The systems use a negative ion source to inject a tandem megavolt accelerator. In early systems the 0.4 mA of charging current from the two Pelletron charging chains in the accelerator was sufficient for the low intensity of beams from the ion source. This 2-chain system, however, is no longer adequate for the much higher beam intensities from today's improved ion sources. A 4-chain charging system, which delivers 1.3 mA to the high voltage terminal, was developed and is in operation in new models of NEC S Series Pelletron accelerators. This paper describes the latest beam performance of 1 MV and 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerators with this new 4-chain charging system.

  18. Screening of lipid high producing mutant from rhodotorula glutinis by low ion implantation and study on optimization of fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shichang, Li; Pengpeng, Zhang; Shaobin, Gu; Hongxia, Liu; Ya, Liu; Shengnan, Liu

    2013-09-01

    In order to obtain lipid producing strain with high-yield, the wild type stain Rhodotorula glutinis was treated by low ion implantation, and optimization of fermentation medium for higher lipid yield was carried out using mutant strain. It was found that the strain had a higher positive mutation rate when the output power was 10 keV and the dose of N(+) implantation was 80 × 2.6 × 10(13) ions/cm(2). Then a high-yield mutant strain D30 was obtained through cid-heating coupling ultrasonic method and lipid yield was 3.10 g/L. Additionally, the surface response method was used to optimize fermentation medium. The three significant factors (glucose, peptone, KH2PO4) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimized parameters of fermentation medium were as follows: glucose 73.40 g/L, peptone 1.06 g/L and KH2PO4 3.56 g/L. Finally the fermentation characteristic of high-yield mutation strain D30 was studied, when fermentation time was 10 days, which lipid yield increased to 7.81 g/L. Fatty acid composition of the lipid was determined by GC, and the most represented fatty acids of mutant D30 were C16:0 (11.4 %), C16:1 (5.66 %), C18:1 (49.3 %), and C18:2 (27.0 %).

  19. Study rationale and protocol: prospective randomized comparison of metal ion concentrations in the patient's plasma after implantation of coated and uncoated total knee prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützner, Jörg; Dinnebier, Gerd; Hartmann, Albrecht; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Kirschner, Stephan

    2009-10-14

    Any metal placed in a biological environment undergoes corrosion. Thus, with their large metallic surfaces, TKA implants are particularly prone to corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions into the human body which may cause local and systemic toxic effects and hypersensitivity reactions, and increase cancer risk. To address this problem, a new 7-layer zirconium coating developed especially for cobalt-chrome orthopaedic implants was tested biomechanically and found to lower metal ion release. The purpose of the proposed clinical trial is to compare the metal ion concentration in patients' plasma before and after implantation of a coated or uncoated TKA implant. In this randomised controlled trial, 120 patients undergoing primary TKA will be recruited at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of the University Hospital in Dresden, Germany, and randomised to either the coated or uncoated prosthesis. Outcome assessments will be conducted preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 5 years postoperatively. The primary clinical endpoint will be the chromium ion concentration in the patient's plasma after 1 and 5 years. Secondary outcomes include cobalt, molybdenum and nickel ion concentrations after 1 and 5 years, allergy testing for hypersensitivity against one of these metals, the Knee Society Score to assess clinical and physical function of the knee joint, the self-assessment Oxford Score and the Short Form 36 quality of live questionnaire. The metal ion concentration in the patient's plasma has been shown to increase after TKA, its eventual adverse effects being widely debated. In the light of this discussion, ways to reduce metal ion release from orthopaedic implants should be studied in detail. The results of this investigation may lead to a new method to achieve this goal. TRIALS REGISTER: Clinicaltrials registry NCT00862511.

  20. Study rationale and protocol: prospective randomized comparison of metal ion concentrations in the patient's plasma after implantation of coated and uncoated total knee prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Klaus-Peter

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any metal placed in a biological environment undergoes corrosion. Thus, with their large metallic surfaces, TKA implants are particularly prone to corrosion with subsequent release of metal ions into the human body which may cause local and systemic toxic effects and hypersensitivity reactions, and increase cancer risk. To address this problem, a new 7-layer zirconium coating developed especially for cobalt-chrome orthopaedic implants was tested biomechanically and found to lower metal ion release. The purpose of the proposed clinical trial is to compare the metal ion concentration in patients' plasma before and after implantation of a coated or uncoated TKA implant. Methods/Design In this randomised controlled trial, 120 patients undergoing primary TKA will be recruited at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of the University Hospital in Dresden, Germany, and randomised to either the coated or uncoated prosthesis. Outcome assessments will be conducted preoperatively and at 3 months, 12 months and 5 years postoperatively. The primary clinical endpoint will be the chromium ion concentration in the patient's plasma after 1 and 5 years. Secondary outcomes include cobalt, molybdenum and nickel ion concentrations after 1 and 5 years, allergy testing for hypersensitivity against one of these metals, the Knee Society Score to assess clinical and physical function of the knee joint, the self-assessment Oxford Score and the Short Form 36 quality of live questionnaire. Discussion The metal ion concentration in the patient's plasma has been shown to increase after TKA, its eventual adverse effects being widely debated. In the light of this discussion, ways to reduce metal ion release from orthopaedic implants should be studied in detail. The results of this investigation may lead to a new method to achieve this goal. Trials register Clinicaltrials registry NCT00862511

  1. Silicon carbide layer structure recovery after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violin, Eh.E.; Demakov, K.D.; Kal'nin, A.A.; Nojbert, F.; Potapov, E.N.; Tairov, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    The process of recovery of polytype structure of SiC surface layers in the course of thermal annealing (TA) and laser annealing (LA) upon boron and aluminium implantation is studied. The 6H polytype silicon carbide C face (0001) has been exposed to ion radiation. The ion energies ranged from 80 to 100 keV, doses varied from 5x10 14 to 5x10 16 cm -2 . TA was performed in the 800-2000 K temperature range. It is shown that the recovery of the structure of silicon carbide layers after ion implantation takes place in several stages. Considerable effect on the structure of the annealed layers is exerted by the implantation dose and the type of implanted impurity. The recovery of polytype structure is possible only under the effect of laser pulses with duration not less than the time for the ordering of the polytype in question

  2. Studies of impurity deposition/implantation in JET divertor tiles using SIMS and ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likonen, J.; Lehto, S.; Coad, J.P.; Renvall, T.; Sajavaara, T.; Ahlgren, T.; Hole, D.E.; Matthews, G.F.; Keinonen, J.

    2003-01-01

    At the end of C4 campaign at JET, a 1% SiH 4 /99% D 2 mixture and pure 13 CH 4 were injected into the torus from the outer divertor wall and from the top of the vessel, respectively, in order to study material transport and scrape-off layer (SOL) flows. A set of MkIIGB tiles was removed during the 2001 shutdown for surface analysis. The tiles were analysed with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA). 13 C was detected in the inner divertor wall tiles implying material transport from the top of the vessel. Silicon was detected mainly at the outer divertor wall tiles and very small amounts were found in the inner divertor wall tiles. Si amounts in the inner divertor wall tiles were so low that rigorous conclusions about material transport from divertor outboard to inboard cannot be made

  3. Study on rice transformation mediated by low energy ion beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Wu Lifang; Yu Zengliang

    2001-01-01

    Delivery of foreign DNA into rice via ion beam was first reported in 1994. In recent years we have aimed to set up efficient transformation system mediated by low energy ion beam. The factors that influence the transformation including type of ion, parameters of ion energy, dose and dose rate, plant genotype, composition of media, concentration of hormones and antibiotics were carefully investigated. Treated with 25ke V Ar + , the transformation efficiencies of the mature embryos of rice variety 02428, Hua pei94-jian-09 and Minghui63 reached 11%, 11.4% and 7.1% measured by produced antibiotic resistant callus and l.52%, 1.87% and l.13% measured by regenerated plants respectively. PCR detection and Southern blot analysis showed that GUS report gene had inserted in rice genome. Low energy ion beam mediated gene transfer will be extended to other cereal recalcitrant to Agrobacterium tumefaciens as soon as methodological parameters were optimized. (authors)

  4. Implantation of D+ ions in niobium and deuterium gas reemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.A.; Tel'kovskij, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    This is a study of the implanting and reflex gasoisolation of D ions in niobium. It has been discovered that deutrium scope and gasoisolation are defined by several processes. An assumption is made that in ion bombarding conditions the implanting solutions are possible to exist and that deutrium can be replaced on the basis of niobium and hydrid compounds NbxDy. The portion of the particles entrained in the metal in one or another way depends on the ion energy. The dependence of the scope coefficient of n D + ions from the target temperature in the range of 290-1500 K was registered. An increase of the scope coefficient of the ions at high temperature with an increase of the ion energy was discovered

  5. Ion implantation induced martensite nucleation in SUS301 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Heishichiro; Gustiono, Dwi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Shibayama, Tamaki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2007-01-01

    Phase transformation behaviors of the austenitic 301 stainless steel was studied under Fe + , Ti + and Ar + ions implantation at room temperature with 100, 200 and 300 keV up to fluence of 1x10 21 ions/m 2 and the microstructures were observed by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The plane and cross-sectional observations of the implanted specimen showed that the induced-phases due to implantation from the γ matrix phase were identified as α' martensite phases with the orientation relationship of (11-bar0) α parallel (111-bar) γ and [111] α parallel [011] γ close to the Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S). The ion implantation induced phases nucleated near the surface region and the depth position of the nucleation changed depending on the ion accelerating energy and ion species. It was also found that the induced marten sites phases nucleate under the influence of the stress distribution, which is introduced due to the concentration of implanted ions, especially due to the stress gradient caused by the corresponding concentration gradient. (author)

  6. Modification of electrical properties of polymer membranes by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworecki, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Sudlitz, K.; Wasik, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the electrical properties of polymer ion irradiated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The polymer samples have been implanted with a variety of ions (O 5+ , N 4+ , Kr 9+ ) by the energy of 10 keV/q up to doses of 10 15 ions/cm 2 and then they were polarized in an electric field of 4.16x10 6 V/m at non-isothermal conditions. The electrical properties and the changes in the chemical structure of implanted membrane were measured by conductivity and discharge currents and FTIR spectra. Electrical conductivity of the membranes PET increases to 1-3 orders of magnitude after implantation and is determined by the charge transport caused by free space charge and by thermal detrapping of charge carriers. The spectra of thermally induced discharge current (TDC) shows that ion irradiated PET membranes are characterized by high ability to accumulate charge

  7. Evaluation of an expence of materials during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikov, M.G.; Zlobin, N.; Zotov, A.V.; Vasilev, V.I.; Vasilev, I.P.

    2003-01-01

    Ion implantation is used for a surface modification. The implantation dose must be sufficient to obtain the required properties of a processed surface, but should not be exceeded to prevent over-expenditure of implanted materials. The latter is especially important when noble metals are used as an implanted material. The ion implanter includes a vacuum chamber, source of metal ions (target) and a vacuum pumping-out system. Ions of a plasma-forming gas sputter the target and ions of metal are then accelerated and implanted into surface treated. Ion implantation dose can be calculated from operation parameters such as ion beam current density and duration of implanting. The presence of the plasma-forming gas in the ion flow makes it difficult to determine the expenditure of an implanted metal itself. The objective of this paper is the more accurate definition of an expense of an implanted metal. Mass- spectrometric analysis of an ion beam together with the weighing of the target was used to determine the expense of an implanted metal. It was found that, depending on the implantation parameters, on average around 50% of a total ion flow are metal ions. Results obtained allow more precise definition of an implantation dose. Thus, over- expenditure of implanted metals can be eliminated. (author)

  8. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  9. Nanoscale patterns produced by self-sputtering of solid surfaces: The effect of ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R. Mark [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Hofsäss, Hans [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-08-21

    A theory of the effect that ion implantation has on the patterns produced by ion bombardment of solid surfaces is introduced. For simplicity, the case of self-sputtering of an elemental material is studied. We find that implantation of self-ions has a destabilizing effect along the projected beam direction for angles of incidence θ that exceed a critical value. In the transverse direction, ion implantation has a stabilizing influence for all θ.

  10. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  11. Metal Ion Concentrations in Body Fluids after Implantation of Hip Replacements with Metal-on-Metal Bearing – Systematic Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. Objective To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Methods Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Results Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Discussion Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed „time out“ for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip

  12. Change of sheet resistance of high purity alumina ceramics implanted by Cu and Ti ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dexing; Zhang Jizhong; Yu Miao; Kang Jianchang; Li Wenzhi

    2005-01-01

    High purity alumina ceramics (99% Al 2 O 3 ) was implanted by copper ion and titanium ion in a metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) implanter, respectively. The influence of implantation parameters was studied varying ion fluence. The samples were implanted by 68 keV Cu ion and 82 keV Ti ion with fluences from 1 x 10 15 to 1 x 10 18 ions/cm 2 , respectively. The as-implanted samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), glancing X-ray diffraction (GXRD), scanning Auger microscopy (SAM), and four-probe method. Different morphologies were observed on the surfaces of the as-implanted samples and clearly related to implantation parameters. For both ion implantations, the sheet resistances of the alumina samples implanted with Cu and Ti ion fluences of 1 x 10 18 ions/cm 2 , respectively, reached the corresponding minimum values because of the surface metallization. The experimental results indicate that the high-fluence ion implantation resulted in conductive layer on the surface of the as-implanted high purity alumina ceramics

  13. Study of Er+ ion-implanted lithium niobate structure after an annealing procedure by RBS and RBS/channelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Švecová, B.; Nekvindová, P.; Groetzschel, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 268, 11-12 (2010), s. 2042-2045 ISSN 0168-583X. [19th International conference on Ion beam analysis. Cambridge, 07.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Lithium niobate * Erbium * Ion implantation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.042, year: 2010

  14. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    549. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation technology. MUKESH KUMAR*, RAJKUMAR†, DINESH KUMAR and P J GEORGE. Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India. †Semiconductor Complex Ltd., Industrial Area Phase 8, Mohali 160 059, India.

  15. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 25; Issue 6. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation technology ... Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India; Semiconductor Complex Ltd., Industrial Area Phase 8, Mohali 160 059, India ...

  16. Annealing behavior and selected applications of ion-implanted alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.M.

    Thermally activated processes cause ion-implanted metals to evolve from the initial state toward thermodynamic equilibrium. The degree of equilibration is strongly dependent upon temperature and is considered for three temperature regimes which are distinguished by the varying mobilities of interstitial and substitutional atoms. In addition, perturbations resulting from the irradiation environment are discussed. Examples are given of the use of implanted and annealed alloys in studies of diffusion, phase diagrams, and solute trapping

  17. Study of thin nuclear detectors, using passivation and ion implantation technologies and epitaxial silicon. Applications to heavy ions and synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavergne-Gosselin, L.

    1989-01-01

    Thin nuclear detectors using epitaxial silicon technology are described. The following manufacturing procedures are presented: the planar technology, which consists in the passivation of the surface for the background noise minimization and in ion implantation to obtain a PN junction; and the epitaxial silicon electrochemical machining, to obtain thin monocrystalline films. The detector's characterization is performed by means of alpha particles and x-rays, and their energy resolution is given. The results show that a suitable Z discrimination is obtained [fr

  18. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  19. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N., E-mail: Nbk-Takahashi@shi.co.jp; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T. [Technology Research Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P{sup +} beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P{sup +} beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH{sub 3} gas.

  20. Osteoconductivity of hydrophilic microstructured titanium implants with phosphate ion chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Jang, Je-Hee; Lee, Chong Soo; Hanawa, Takao

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the surface characteristics and bone response of titanium implants produced by hydrothermal treatment using H(3)PO(4), and compared them with those of implants produced by commercial surface treatment methods - machining, acid etching, grit blasting, grit blasting/acid etching or spark anodization. The surface characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and stylus profilometry. The osteoconductivity of experimental implants was evaluated by removal torque testing and histomorphometric analysis after 6 weeks of implantation in rabbit tibiae. Hydrothermal treatment with H(3)PO(4) and subsequent heat treatment produced a crystalline phosphate ion-incorporated oxide (titanium oxide phosphate hydrate, Ti(2)O(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2); TiP) surface approximately 5microm in thickness, which had needle-like surface microstructures and superior wettability compared with the control surfaces. Significant increases in removal torque forces and bone-to-implant contact values were observed for TiP implants compared with those of the control implants (p<0.001). After thorough cleaning of the implants removed during the removal torque testing, a considerable quantity of attached bone was observed on the surfaces of the TiP implants.

  1. Ion beam sputter implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    By means of ion beam atomizing or sputtering an integrally composed coating, the composition of which continuously changes from 100% of the substrate to 100% of the coating, can be surfaced on a substrate (e.g. molten quartz on plastic lenses). In order to do this in the facility there is directed a primary beam of accelerated noble gas ions on a target from the group of the following materials: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Corning Glass 7070, Corning Glass 7740 or borosilicate glass. The particles leaving the target are directed on the substrate by means of an acceleration potential of up to 10 KV. There may, however, be coated also metal layers (Ni, Co) on a mylar film resulting in a semireflecting metal film. (RW) [de

  2. Range and damage distribution in cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, I.; Matsuo, J.; Jones, E.C.; Takeuchi, D.; Aoki, T.

    1997-01-01

    Cluster ion implantation is an attractive alternative to conventional ion implantation, particularly for shallow junction formation. It is easy to obtain high current ion beams with low equivalent energy using cluster ion beams. The implanted boron distribution in 5 keV B 10 H 14 implanted Si is markedly shallower than that in 5 keV BF 2 ion implanted Si. The implanted depth is less than 0.04 μm, indicating that cluster ion implantation is capable of forming shallow junctions. The sheet resistance of 3 keV B 10 H 14 implanted samples falls below 500 Ω/sq after annealing at 1,000 C for 10s. Shallow implantation can be realized by a high energy cluster beam without space-charge problems in the incident beam. Defect formation, resulting from local energy deposition and multiple collisions, is unique for cluster ions. The thickness of the damaged layer formed by cluster ion bombardment increases with the size of the cluster, if implant energy and ion dose remain constant. This is one of the nonlinear cluster effects, which may allow some control over the implant damage distributions that accompany implanted ions, and which have been shown to have a great effect on dopant redistribution during annealing

  3. Effects of ion-implantation in magnetic garnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betsui, Keiichi; Komenou, Kazunari

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation in magnetic garnet film induces anisotropy field change, ΔH k . The primary origin of the ΔH k is the stress-induced anisotropy, but it was precisely reported that ion-implantation also induces non-magnetostrictive anisotropy change due to the growth-induced anisotropy suppression. The hydrogen ion-implantation induces a large ΔH k due to the chemical effects of the hydrogen in the implanted layer. The ΔH k in ion-implanted garnet is greatly enhanced by exposing implanted films to plasma of hydrogen or rare gases. These large anisotropy changes in hydrogen implantation and plasma exposure are attributed to the change in valence state of Fe-ions. This report reviews these recent developments on ion-implanted garnets. (author)

  4. Yttrium ion implantation on the surface properties of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.M.; Zeng, X.Q.; Wu, G.S.; Yao, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Owing to their excellent physical and mechanical properties, magnesium and its alloys are receiving more attention. However, their application has been limited to the high reactivity and the poor corrosion resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate the beneficial effects of ion-implanted yttrium using a MEVVA ion implanter on the surface properties of pure magnesium. Isothermal oxidation tests in pure O 2 at 673 and 773 K up to 90 min indicated that the oxidation resistance of magnesium had been significantly improved. Surface morphology of the oxide scale was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that the implanted layer was mainly composed of MgO and Y 2 O 3 , and the implanted layer with a duplex structure could decrease the inward diffusion of oxygen and reduce the outward diffusion of Mg 2+ , which led to improving the oxidation resistance of magnesium. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the implanted magnesium. The results show yttrium implantation could enhance the corrosion resistance of implanted magnesium compared with that of pure magnesium

  5. The recrystallization of ion-implanted silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulides, C.E.; Baragiola, R.A.; Chivers, D.; Grant, W.A.; Williams, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering and channeling (RBS) has been employed to investigate the annealing characteristics of ion-bombarded silicon for a wide range of implant species. The general recrystallization behaviour is that high levels of remnant disorder are observed for high-dose (typically > 10 15 ions cm -2 ) implants of all species investigated, and transmission electron microscopy indicates the presence of a polycrystalline reordered layer in such cases. The magnitude of the remnant disorder (misorientation of grains with respect to the underlying bulk substrate) is observed to increase with both implant dose and original amorphous-layer thickness and to exhibit a slight implant-mass dependence. Although the recrystallization behaviour is qualitatively similar for all species studied, certain species (mainly those soluble in silicon) are found to influence the regrowth process at low implant concentrations. It is suggested that stress/strain effects, attributed to high implanted concentrations, play a major role in the inhibition of epitaxial silicon recrystallization but that species effects can become dominant at lower implant concentrations. (author)

  6. Operation of low-energy ion implanters for Si, N, C ion implantation into silicon and glassy carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carder, D.A.; Markwitz, A.

    2009-01-01

    This report details the operation of the low-energy ion implanters at GNS Science for C, N and Si implantations. Two implanters are presented, from a description of the components through to instructions for operation. Historically the implanters have been identified with the labels 'industrial' and 'experimental'. However, the machines only differ significantly in the species of ions available for implantation and sample temperature during implantation. Both machines have been custom designed for research purposes, with a wide range of ion species available for ion implantation and the ability to implant two ions into the same sample at the same time from two different ion sources. A fast sample transfer capability and homogenous scanning profiles are featured in both cases. Samples up to 13 mm 2 can be implanted, with the ability to implant at temperatures down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. The implanters have been used to implant 28 Si + , 14 N + and 12 C + into silicon and glassy carbon substrates. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy has been used to analyse the implanted material. From the data a Si 30 C 61 N 9 layer was measured extending from the surface to a depth of about 77 ± 2 nm for (100) silicon implanted with 12 C + and 14 N + at multiple energies. Silicon and nitrogen ion implantation into glassy carbon produced a Si (40.5 %), C (38 %), N (19.5 %) and O (2%) layer centred around a depth of 50 ± 2 nm from the surface. (author). 8 refs., 20 figs

  7. Structure transformations in ion implanted anodic alumina films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenda, N.N.; Uglov, V.V.; Litvinovich, G.V.; Daniluyk, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ion implantation on aluminium oxide has been widely studied. The change of mechanical, electrical, optical and chemical properties were investigated. Most studies were performed on a single crystal (a- or c-oriented) α-Al 2 O 3 though polycrystalline α-Al 2 O 3 or amorphous aluminium oxide films were the subject of the investigation too. Porous anodic alumina films were the object of the investigation of this work. An unique structure, low cost, controllability and ease of production allow it application in developing of microelectronic devices. Earlier it was shown that implantation of metal ions in anodic alumina films decreases its surface resistance to tens of Ωm. The aim of this work was the investigation of anodic alumina films structure changes after implantation. The implantation of Ti and Cu ions was carried out using a MEVVA source with an impulse duration of 1 ms. The applied acceleration voltage was 80 kV, the ions current density - 53 μA/cm 2 , the doses -1·10 17 ions/cm 2 and 1.5·10 18 ions/cm 2 . Implantation was carried out into two types of crystalline structure: amorphous and γ-Al 2 O 3 . The latter structure was produced by annealing at 830 deg. C. A variety of techniques were used for phase and element composition investigations: X-ray diffraction analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering analysis and scanning electron microscopy. It was found that implantation into amorphous film results in the formation of γ-AO 2 O 3 while implantation into γ-Al 2 O 3 film - in the formation of an amorphous structure. Implantation both to amorphous and crystalline AA films also led to the formation of θ-Al 2 O 3 phase inclusions in the film structure. The whole structure of AA films with the thickness of 200 μm undergoes these transformations. Implantation also lead to sputtering of the surface barrier layer thus resulting in the shift of the ions depth profile to the surface at higher doses. Diffusion of Ti

  8. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. - Highlights: ► Mg ion was coated onto surface of SLA treated titanium via vacuum arc source ion implantation method. ► The morphological characteristics did not change after Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implanted SLA Ti is highly cytocompatible. ► Initial cell adhesion of MSCs is improved by Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implantation improved

  9. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Min [DIO Corporation, 66, Centum seo-ro, Haeundae-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bo-Young [Department of Oral and maxillofacial Surgery, Wonkwang University Daejeon Dental Hospital, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun, E-mail: omslee@wku.ac.kr [Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bonecell Biotech Inc., 77, Dunsan-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-830 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. - Highlights: ► Mg ion was coated onto surface of SLA treated titanium via vacuum arc source ion implantation method. ► The morphological characteristics did not change after Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implanted SLA Ti is highly cytocompatible. ► Initial cell adhesion of MSCs is improved by Mg ion implantation. ► Mg ion implantation

  10. Action of age-hardening on the copper single crystals after ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'ment'eva, O.P.; Kul'ment'ev, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    High-dose implantation (up to (1-5)·10 17 cm -2 ) of tantalum ions into a copper single crystal of (100), (110) and (111) orientation has been investigated. Modified properties just after ion implantation and subsequent age-hardening during ten years were studied. It was shown that ion implantation and subsequent masstransfer process results in sufficient long-term stable changes of the microhardness. (authors)

  11. Characterization of duplex hard coatings with additional ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Škorić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin fi lms which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD. In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N+2 ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of eff ects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densifi cation of the fi lms. The evolution of the microstructure from porous and columnar grains to densel packed grains is accompanied by changes in mechanical and physical properties. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, X-ray diff raction (XRD and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX.

  12. A study of the structural properties of GaN implanted by various rare-earth ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Sofer, Z.; Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Mikulics, M.; Wilhelm, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 307, č. 7 (2013), s. 446-451 ISSN 0168-583X. [18th International Conference on Ion Beam Modifications of Materials (IBMM). Qingdao, 02.09.2012-07.09.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : rare earth implantation * GaN * depth profiles * RBS * Raman spectroscopy * AFM Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X13000955

  13. Quantum effects in ion implanted devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Chan, V.; Hudson, F.E.; Andresen, S.E.; Yang, C.; Hopf, T.; Hearne, S.M.; Pakes, C.I.; Prawer, S.; Gauja, E.; Yang, C.; Dzurak, A.S.; Yang, C.; Clark, R.G.; Yang, C.

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale devices that exploit the rules of quantum mechanics to process information presents formidable technical challenges because it will be necessary to control quantum states at the level of individual atoms, electrons or photons. We have developed a pathway to the construction of quantum devices using ion implantation and demonstrate, using charge transport analysis, that the devices exhibit single electron effects. We construct devices that employ two P donors in Si by employing the technique of ion beam induced charge (IBIC) in which single 14 keV P ions can be implanted into ultra-pure silicon by monitoring on-substrate detector electrodes. We have used IBIC with a MeV nuclear microprobe to map and measure the charge collection efficiency in the development of the electrode structure and show that 100% charge collection efficiency can be achieved leading to the fabrication of prototype devices that display quantum effects in the transport of single charge quanta between the islands of implanted donors. (author). 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Quantum Hall samples prepared by helium-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruus, H.; Lindelof, P.E.; Veje, E.

    1990-01-01

    We have produced GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructure based quantum Hall samples with a wide range of electron mobilities using ion implantation. The purpose has been to optimize the samples for use in metrology. We have in particular studied the critical current and the non-ohmic behavior of our samples in the vicinity of a quantum Hall plateau. (orig.)

  15. Corrosion resistance of titanium ion implanted AZ91 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo; Zhao, J.; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-01-01

    Degradable metal alloys constitute a new class of materials for load-bearing biomedical implants. Owing to their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to improve the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy by titanium ion implantation. The surface characteristics of the ion implanted layer in the magnesium alloys are examined. The authors' results disclose that an intermixed layer is produced and the surface oxidized films are mainly composed of titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals that the oxide has three layers. The outer layer which is 10 nm thick is mainly composed of MgO and TiO 2 with some Mg(OH) 2 . The middle layer that is 50 nm thick comprises predominantly TiO 2 and MgO with minor contributions from MgAl 2 O 4 and TiO. The third layer from the surface is rich in metallic Mg, Ti, Al, and Ti 3 Al. The effects of Ti ion implantation on the corrosion resistance and electrochemical behavior of the magnesium alloys are investigated in simulated body fluids at 37±1 deg. C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit potential techniques. Compared to the unimplanted AZ91 alloy, titanium ion implantation significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP. This phenomenon can be ascribed to the more compact surface oxide film, enhanced reoxidation on the implanted surface, as well as the increased β-Mg 12 Al 17 phase

  16. Amorphous GaP produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, T.; Kato, Y.; Shiraki, Y.; Komatsubara, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of non-crystalline states ('disordered' and 'amorphous') of GaP were produced by using ion implantation and post annealing. A structural-phase-transition-like annealing behaviour from the 'disordered' state to the 'amorphous' state was observed. The ion dose dependence and the annealing behaviour of the atomic structure of GaP implanted with 200 keV -N + ions were studied by using electron diffraction, backscattering and volume change measurements. The electronic structure was also investigated by measuring optical absorption and electrical conductivity. The implanted layer gradually loses the crystalline order with the increase of the nitrogen dose. The optical absorption coefficient α and electric conductivity sigma of GaP crystals implanted with 200 keV -N + ions of 1 x 10 16 cm -2 were expressed as αhν = C(hν - E 0 )sup(n) and log sigma = A -BTsup(-1/4), respectively. Moreover, the volume of the implanted layer increased about three percent and the electron diffraction pattern was diffused halo whose intensity monotonically decreases along the radial direction. These results indicate that the as-implanted layer has neither a long range order or short range order ('disordered state'). In the sample implanted at 1 x 10 16 cm -2 , a structural phase-transition-like annealing stage was observed at around 400 0 C. That is, the optical absorption coefficient abruptly fell off from 6 x 10 4 to 7 x 10 3 cm -1 and the volume of the implanted layer decreased about 2% within an increase of less than 10 degrees in the anneal temperature. Moreover, the short range order of the lattice structure appeared in the electron diffraction pattern. According to the backscattering experiment, the heavily implanted GaP was still in the non-crystalline state even after annealing. These facts suggest that heavily implanted GaP, followed by annealing at around 400 0 C, is in the 'amorphous' state, although as-implanted GaP is not in the 'amorphous' state but in the

  17. Chemical characterization of 4140 steel implanted by nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino, Ely Dannier V.; Duran, Fernando; Pinto, Jose L.C.; Dugar-Zhabon, V.; Garnica, Hernan

    2010-01-01

    AISI-SAE 4140 sample surfaces of different roughness which are implanted by nitrogen ions of 20 keV and 30 keV at a dose of 10 17 ions/cm 2 through a three dimensional ion implantation technique are studied. Crystal phases of nitrogen compositions of the implanted samples, obtained with help of an x-ray diffraction method, are confronted with the data reported by the International Centre for Diffraction Data (ICDD), PDF-2. It is observed that the implanted into the metal nitrogen atoms produce changes in orientation of crystal planes that is manifested as variations of the intensity of the refracted rays and of cell dimensions (a displacement of 2 theta of the maximum intensity position). An analysis for determining nitrogen atoms implanted by high-voltage pulsed discharges at low pressures in the crystal structure of the solid surface was carried out by X-Ray Diffraction due to this technique permits to assess the possibility of formation of new compounds. (author)

  18. Biological effect of nitrogen ion implantation on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Chen Qiufang; Shu Shizhen

    1997-10-01

    Dry seed of stevia were implanted by 35∼150 keV nitrogen ions with various doses. The biological effect in M 1 was studied. The results showed that nitrogen ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with ion beam energy and dose added, but there was on significant linear regression relationship between ion dose and aberration rate. The results indicated the seedling height reduced with the increasing of dose for ion beam. The biological effect of nitrogen ion beam on M 1 stevia was lower than that of γ-rays. (6 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.)

  19. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P.

    1993-01-01

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress 1 . The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 μm square with 2.56 x 10 17 ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10 15 ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs

  20. Raman microprobe measurements of stress in ion implanted materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S.; Weiser, P.S.; Dooley, S.P. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Raman microprobe measurements of ion implanted diamond and silicon have shown significant shifts in the Raman line due to stresses in the materials. The Raman line shifts to higher energy if the stress is compressive and to lower energy for tensile stress{sup 1}. The silicon sample was implanted in a 60 {mu}m square with 2.56 x 10{sup 17} ions per square centimeter of 2 MeV Helium. This led to the formation of raised squares with the top 370mm above the original surface. In Raman studies of silicon using visible light, the depth of penetration of the laser beam into the sample is much less than one micron. It was found that the Raman line is due to the silicon overlying the damage region. The diamond sample was implanted with 2 x 10{sup 15} ions per square centimeter of 2.8 MeV carbon. It was concluded that the Raman spectrum could provide information concerning both the magnitude and the direction of stress in an ion implanted sample. It was possible in some cases to determine whether the stress direction is parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface. 1 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Amorphization and recrystallization in MeV ion implanted InP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, F.; Nieh, C.W.; Jamieson, D.N.; Vreeland, T. Jr.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive study of MeV- 15 N-ion-implanted InP by a variety of analytical techniques has revealed the physical processes involved in MeV ion implantation into III-V compound semiconductors as well as the influence of post-implantation annealing. It provides a coherent picture of implant distribution, structural transition, crystalline damage, and lattice strain in InP crystals induced by ion implantation and thermal annealing. The experimental results from the different measurements are summarized in this report. Mechanisms of amorphization by implantation and recrystallization through annealing in MeV-ion-implanted InP are proposed and discussed in light of the results obtained

  2. The effect of ion implantation on the fatigue properties of polycrystalline copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujore, A.; Chakrabortty, S.B.; Starke, E.A. Jr.; Legg, K.O.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of ion implantation (aluminium, boron or chromium) on the tensile and strain or stress controlled fatigue behavior of polycrystalline copper has been studied. The monotonic and cyclic stress-strain relationships, cyclic strain-life and stress-life relationships, cyclic deformation characteristics and crack nucleation behavior of implanted copper are compared with unimplanted copper. Monotonic and cyclic flow stresses are reduced by ion implantation. Life under strain controlled fatigue is improved by ion implantation. Aluminium implantation has the greatest effect on both flow-stress reduction and life improvement. Life under stress controlled fatigue may or may not be improved by implantation. Aluminium and chromium implantation produces a significant improvement whereas boron implantation causes a reduction in the resistance to stress-cycling. (orig.)

  3. Ion implantation planar in targets with semi-cylindrical grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filiz, Y.; Demokan, O.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental and numerical investigations suggest that the ion-matrix phase of the sheath evolution plays a crucial role in determining the ion flux to the target surfaces . It can easily be realized that conformal mapping of the target's surface by the sheath is questionable, or even inapplicable in the case of surfaces with fine irregularities or this continuities. The theoretical analysis of such cases is evidently quite complicated. On the other hand, most actual targets fall into this category, and hence, the understanding of the corresponding sheath behavior remains vital for accomplishing uniform implantation. The ion- matrix sheaths have been treated analytically by Conrad for planar, cylindrical and spherical targets successfully. Similar y, Sheridan and Zang et al. have investigated the ion matrix sheath in cylindrical bores, without and with axial electrodes, respectively. All these works assumed targets with infinite areas or length, Zeng et al. and Kwok et al. have started studying implantation into grooves, by carrying out simulations for the inner and outer races of bearings, which are modeled as semi- cylinders of infinite length. Finally, Demokan has presented the first analytic treatment of on matrix sheaths in two- dimensions, by considering targets with rectangular grooves of infinite length, representing a broad range of industrial items. In this work, ion-matrix sheath near infinite length are theoretically analysed. Understanding the sheath formation near such targets is essential for achieving successful ion implantation on the surfaces of a broad range of industrial products, including all types of bearings. The potential profiles both inside and outside the groove are derived and the consequent ion velocity higher plasma densities may improve the uniformity of implantation on the surfaces of such grooves. Furthermore, the sheath edge deformation due to the grooves, the variation of the angle of incidence on the surface of the groove

  4. Production of Endohedral Fullerenes by Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diener, M.D.; Alford, J. M.; Mirzadeh, S.

    2007-05-31

    The empty interior cavity of fullerenes has long been touted for containment of radionuclides during in vivo transport, during radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and radioimaging for example. As the chemistry required to open a hole in fullerene is complex and exceedingly unlikely to occur in vivo, and conformational stability of the fullerene cage is absolute, atoms trapped within fullerenes can only be released during extremely energetic events. Encapsulating radionuclides in fullerenes could therefore potentially eliminate undesired toxicity resulting from leakage and catabolism of radionuclides administered with other techniques. At the start of this project however, methods for production of transition metal and p-electron metal endohedral fullerenes were completely unknown, and only one method for production of endohedral radiofullerenes was known. They therefore investigated three different methods for the production of therapeutically useful endohedral metallofullerenes: (1) implantation of ions using the high intensity ion beam at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center (SMAC) and fullerenes as the target; (2) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following alpha decay; and (3) implantation of ions using the recoil energy following neutron capture, using ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) as a thermal neutron source. While they were unable to obtain evidence of successful implantation using the ion beam at SMAC, recoil following alpha decay and neutron capture were both found to be economically viable methods for the production of therapeutically useful radiofullerenes. In this report, the procedures for preparing fullerenes containing the isotopes {sup 212}Pb, {sup 212}Bi, {sup 213}Bi, and {sup 177}Lu are described. None of these endohedral fullerenes had ever previously been prepared, and all of these radioisotopes are actively under investigation for RIT. Additionally, the chemistry for

  5. Heavy ion time-of-flight ERDA of high dose metal implanted germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dytlewski, N.; Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics; Bunder, J. [New South Wales Univ., Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Wollongong Univ. Coll

    1996-12-31

    With the thick Ge substrates used in ion implantation, RBS can have difficulty in resolving the mass-depth ambiguities when analysing materials composed of mixtures of elements with nearly equal masses. Additional, and complimentary techniques are thus required. This paper reports the use of heavy ion time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF- ERDA), and conventional RBS in the analysis of Ge(100) implanted with high dose Ti and Cu ions from a MEWA ion source . Heavy ion ToF ERDA has been used to resolve, and profile the implanted transition metal species, and also to study any oxygen incorporation into the sample resulting from the implantation, or subsequential reactions with air or moisture. This work is part of a study on high dose metal ion implantation of medium atomic weight semiconductor materials. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  6. A Study of Shallow and Deep Damage in Cu after Implantation of 100 keV Cu and Ag Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, R.J.Th.; Boerma, D.O.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1983-01-01

    In a recent study we deduced the damage profiles in Cu and Al crystals due to self implantation from the measured dechanneling cross section. On the basis of this work a model for the observed shallow and deep damage was proposed. In the present work this model is tested by comparing the damage in

  7. Quantum effects in ion implanted devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D.N.; Chan, V.; Hudson, F.E.; Andresen, S.E.; Yang, C.; Hopf, T.; Hearne, S.M.; Pakes, C.I.; Prawer, S.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.S.; Clark, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    Fabrication of nanoscale devices that exploit the rules of quantum mechanics to process information presents formidable technical challenges because of the need to control quantum states at the level of individual atoms, electrons or photons. We have used ion implantation to fabricate devices on the scale of 10 nm that have allowed the development and test of nanocircuitry for the control of charge transport at the level of single electrons. This fabrication method is compatible with the construction of devices that employ counted P dopants in Si by employing the technique of ion beam induced charge (IBIC) in which single 14 keV P ions can be implanted into ultra-pure silicon substrates by monitoring on-substrate detector electrodes. We have used IBIC with a MeV nuclear microprobe to map and measure the charge collection efficiency in the development of the electrode structure and show that 100% charge collection efficiency can be achieved. Prototype devices fabricated by this method have been used to investigate quantum effects in the control and transport of single electrons with potential applications to solid state quantum information processing devices

  8. Wear properties of metal ion implanted 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Paoloni, F.J.

    1994-01-01

    AISI type 4140 (high tensile) steel has been implanted with tungsten and titanium using a metal vapour vacuum arc ion source. Doses in the range (1-5)x10 16 ionscm -2 were implanted to a depth of approximately 30nm. The relative wear resistance between non-implanted and implanted specimens has been estimated using pin-on-disc and abrasive wear tests. Implantation of titanium decreased the area of wear tracks by a factor of 5 over unimplanted steel. In some cases the steel was also hardened by a liquid carburization treatment before implantation. Abrasion tests revealed a further improvement in wear resistance on this material following ion irradiation. ((orig.))

  9. Coloration of natural beryl by iron ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaibullin, R.I. E-mail: rik@kfti.knc.ru; Lopatin, O.N.; Vagizov, F.G.; Bazarov, V.V.; Bakhtin, A.I.; Khaibullin, I.B.; Aktas, B

    2003-05-01

    Natural colorless crystals of Ural beryl were implanted at room temperature with 40 keV Fe{sup +} ions with fluences in the range of 0.5-1.5 x 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2}. As-implanted samples show dark-grey tone due to radiation damage of beryl crystal. Subsequent thermal annealing of irradiated crystals in oxygen at 600 deg. C for 30 min results in the color change, to yellowish or yellow-orange tones with golden luster, depending on value of iron fluence. The nature of beryl coloration was studied by optical absorption, Moessbauer and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectroscopes. It was established that the thermal treatment of iron-irradiated beryl lead to inward diffusive redistribution of iron ions. An appearance of optical absorption bands connected with charge-transfers O{sup 2-} {yields} Fe{sub VI}{sup 3+} and O{sup 2-} {yields} Fe{sub IV}{sup 2+}, Fe{sub IV}{sup 3+} determine the yellow tone in colored beryls. Most of implanted iron ions are founded in both tetrahedral Fe{sub IV}{sup 2+} and octahedral Fe{sub VI}{sup 3+} sites where they may substitute beryllium and aluminum host ions by isomorphic way.

  10. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite...... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...

  11. Ion implanted GaAs microwave FET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. S.; Blockley, E. G.; Dawsey, J. R.; Foreman, B. J.; Woodward, J.; Ball, G.; Beard, S. J.; Gaskell, J. M.; Allenson, M. B.

    1988-06-01

    The combination of ion implantation and photolithographic patterning techniques was applied to the fabrication of GaAs microwave FETs to provide a large number of devices having consistently predictable dc and high frequency characteristics. To validate the accuracy and repeatability of the high frequency device parameters, an X-band microwave circuit was designed and realized. The performance of this circuit, a buffered amplifier, is very close to the design specification. The availability of a large number of reproducible, well-characterized transistors enabled work to commence on the development of a large signal model for FETs. Work in this area is also described.

  12. Wear of nitrogen ion implanted copper with tribological Cu-Mo-S coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, Stanislav Yu.; Sergeev, Victor P.; Sungatulin, Alfred R.; Kalashnikov, Mark P.

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies the effect of nitrogen ion implantation in copper samples before depositing a solid lubricant Cu-Mo-S coating on their wear resistance during wear testing in pairs with a copper counterface in the argon atmosphere. It was found that wear resistance of samples with Cu-Mo-S coating decreased with the increase in fluence of nitrogen ion implantation.

  13. Formation of Schottky junctions in silicon by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollmann, J.; Klose, H.; Mertens, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the direct formation of a rectifying contact with Schottky junction properties low-energy high-dose silver ion implantations (E = 10 keV, D = 6 x 10 16 cm -2 ) were carried out in Czochralski-grown n- and p-type silicon (0.01 to 15 Ωcm) at 77 and 300 K, respectively. After the implantation an Al or Ag film was vacuum deposited in the same target chamber. The process-induced deep defect centers as well as their depth distribution and annealing behaviour were investigated by measuring electrical characteristics and deep level transient spectra

  14. Retention of ion-implanted deuterium in tungsten pre-irradiated with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimov, V.Kh.; Ertl, K.; Roth, J.; Schmid, K.

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium (D) ion implantation and retention at room temperature was studied in pure and carbon (C) implanted tungsten single crystals. Pre-implantation with C was done at 40 keV and D implantation at 10 keV with the range confined in the carbon modified layer and at 100 keV with the range exceeding the carbon modified layer. The range distributions were investigated in situ using 1 MeV 3 He ions analysing the energy distributions of α particles from the D( 3 He,p)α reaction while the total amount of retained D was obtained from the p-integral. The range distribution of carbon was obtained from the backscattered 3 He energy distribution. C pre-impantation influences the D retention only if the range of the D ions is confined within the carbon modified surface layer. In this case, D diffusion beyond the ion range distribution does not occur and the retained D amount is smaller than in the pure W crystal. At D energies exceeding the carbon modified layer the retention occurs in the dislocation zone up to 1 μm and the total retained amount is the same for carbon implanted and pure W samples

  15. The compaction of fused silica resulting from ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia); Leech, P.L. [Telstra Research Laboratories, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Ion implantation of fused silica results in compaction and consequently an increase in refractive index. This method of modifying the near-surface region has been shown as a potential means for fabricating single mode channel waveguides. This study has measured the compaction of the implanted regions for Si implantations as a function of dose (2x10{sup 12} - 6x10{sup l6} ions/cm{sup 2}), energy (1-9 MeV) and post-implantation annealing temperature (200-900 degree C). For a given energy, a dose-dependence of the step height (depth of compacted region) is observed for doses less than {approx}10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. At higher doses the step height saturates. For a given dose, a linear trend is evident for the step height as a function of energy suggesting that the major mechanism for this compaction is electronic stopping. As the annealing temperature increases, the step height gradually decreases from {approx}0.1-0.2 {mu} to -10-20% of the original value. From the annealing data, it is possible to extract an activation energy of 0.08 eV associated with the thermal removal of the compacted region. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10 10 cm -2 ). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Detection and reduction of tungsten contamination in ion implantation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polignano, M.L.; Galbiati, A.; Grasso, S.; Mica, I.; Barbarossa, F.; Magni, D. [STMicroelectronics, Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we review the results of some studies addressing the problem of tungsten contamination in implantation processes. For some tests, the implanter was contaminated by implantation of wafers with an exposed tungsten layer, resulting in critical contamination conditions. First, DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) measurements were calibrated to measure tungsten contamination in ion-implanted samples. DLTS measurements of tungsten-implanted samples showed that the tungsten concentration increases linearly with the dose up to a rather low dose (5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2}). Tungsten deactivation was observed when the dose was further increased. Under these conditions, ToF-SIMS revealed tungsten at the wafer surface, showing that deactivation was due to surface segregation. DLTS calibration could therefore be obtained in the linear dose regime only. This calibration was used to evaluate the tungsten contamination in arsenic implantations. Ordinary operating conditions and critical contamination conditions of the equipment were compared. A moderate tungsten contamination was observed in samples implanted under ordinary operating conditions. This contamination was easily suppressed by a thin screen oxide. On the contrary, implantations in critical conditions of the equipment resulted in a relevant tungsten contamination, which could be reduced but not suppressed even by a relatively thick screen oxide (up to 150 Aa). A decontamination process consisting of high dose implantations of dummy wafers was tested for its efficiency to remove tungsten and titanium contamination. This process was found to be much more effective for titanium than for tungsten. Finally, DLTS proved to be much more sensitive that TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) in detecting tungsten contamination. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Electrochemical investigations of ion-implanted oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, J.W.; Danzfuss, B.; Meyer, O.; Stimming, U.

    1985-01-01

    Oxide films (passive films) of 40-50 nm thickness were prepared by anodic polarization of hafnium and titanium electrodes up to 20 V. Multiple-energy ion implantation of palladium, iron and xenon was used in order to obtain modified films with constant concentration profiles of the implanted ions. Rutherford backscattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and electrochemical charging curves prove the presence of implanted ions, but electrochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements indicate that the dominating effect of ion implantation is the disordering of the oxide film. The capacity of hafnium electrodes increases as a result of an increase in the dielectric constant D. For titanium the Schottky-Mott analysis shows that ion implantation causes an increase in D and the donor concentration N. Additional electronic states in the band gap which are created by the implantation improve the conductivity of the semiconducting or insulating films. This is seen in the enhancement of electron transfer reactions and its disappearance during repassivation and annealing. Energy changes in the band gap are derived from photoelectrochemical measurements; the absorption edge of hafnium oxide films decreases by approximately 2 eV because of ion implantation, but it stays almost constant for titanium oxide films. All changes in electrochemical behavior caused by ion implantation show little variation with the nature of the implanted ion. Hence the dominating effect seems to be a disordering of the oxide. (Auth.)

  19. The influence of incidence angle on disorder production in Cl and Ar ion implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukirno; Carter, G.

    1989-01-01

    Cl and Ar ions have been implanted, at 30 keV and at various incidence angles, into Si substrates maintained at room temperature during implantation. Implantation induced Si disorder was measured using Rutherford backscattering channelling. The effects upon disorder of various incidence angles were studied over a fluence range of 10 12 -6·10 15 ions·cm -2 . The results show that, at low fluences Cl and Ar ion implantations generate a bimodal disorder-depth profile, whilst at higher fluences measurements of amorphised layer thickness as a function of ion incidence angle allow values of the standard deviation of the disorder profile parallel and transverse to the ion beam direction for each ion to be obtained in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The disorder-fluence behaviour under these conditions is ion species independent. (author)

  20. Polyatomic ions from a high current ion implanter driven by a liquid metal ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, W.; Laufer, P.; Tajmar, M.; Böttger, R.; Bischoff, L.

    2017-12-01

    High current liquid metal ion sources are well known and found their first application as field emission electric propulsion thrusters in space technology. The aim of this work is the adaption of such kind of sources in broad ion beam technology. Surface patterning based on self-organized nano-structures on, e.g., semiconductor materials formed by heavy mono- or polyatomic ion irradiation from liquid metal (alloy) ion sources (LMAISs) is a very promising technique. LMAISs are nearly the only type of sources delivering polyatomic ions from about half of the periodic table elements. To overcome the lack of only very small treated areas by applying a focused ion beam equipped with such sources, the technology taken from space propulsion systems was transferred into a large single-end ion implanter. The main component is an ion beam injector based on high current LMAISs combined with suited ion optics allocating ion currents in the μA range in a nearly parallel beam of a few mm in diameter. Different types of LMAIS (needle, porous emitter, and capillary) are presented and characterized. The ion beam injector design is specified as well as the implementation of this module into a 200 kV high current ion implanter operating at the HZDR Ion Beam Center. Finally, the obtained results of large area surface modification of Ge using polyatomic Bi2+ ions at room temperature from a GaBi capillary LMAIS will be presented and discussed.

  1. Low energy ion implantation and high energy heavy ion irradiation in C60 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.L.; Yamaguchi, M.; Dharmarasu, N.; Kojima, N.; Kanjilal, D.

    2001-01-01

    C 60 films have been bombarded with low energy boron ions and high energy swift heavy ions (SHI) of silver and oxygen at different doses. Raman scattering and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies were carried out on the virgin and irradiated films and the results are in good agreement with each other. The films subject to low energy boron ion implantation showed destruction of the bukky balls whereas the films subject to high energy ion irradiation did not show appreciable effects on their structure. These results indicate that C 60 films are more prone to defects by elastic collision and subsequent implantation at lower energy. Irradiation at higher energy was less effective in creating appreciable defects through electronic excitation by inelastic collisions at similar energy density

  2. SIMS analysis of isotopic impurities in ion implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, D.E.; Blunt, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    The n-type dopant species Si and Se used for ion implantation in GaAs are multi-isotopic with the most abundant isotope not chosen because of potential interferences with residual gases. SIMS analysis of a range of 29 Si implants produced by several designs of ion implanter all showed significant 28 Si impurity with a different depth distribution from that of the deliberately implanted 29 Si isotope. This effect was observed to varying degrees with all fifteen implanters examined and in every 29 Si implant analysed to date 29 Si + , 29 Si ++ and 30 Si implants all show the same effect. In the case of Se implantation, poor mass resolution results in the implantation of all isotopes with the same implant distribution (i.e. energy), whilst implants carried out with good mass resolution show the implantation of all isotopes with the characteristic lower depth distribution of the impurity isotopes as found in the Si implants. This effect has also been observed in p-type implants into GaAs (Mg) and for Ga implanted in Si. A tentative explanation of the effect is proposed. (author)

  3. Doping of silicon carbide by ion implantation; Dopage du carbure de silicium par implantation ionique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimbert, J

    1999-03-04

    It appeared that in some fields, as the hostile environments (high temperature or irradiation), the silicon compounds showed limitations resulting from the electrical and mechanical properties. Doping of 4H and 6H silicon carbide by ion implantation is studied from a physicochemical and electrical point of view. It is necessary to obtain n-type and p-type material to realize high power and/or high frequency devices, such as MESFETs and Schottky diodes. First, physical and electrical properties of silicon carbide are presented and the interest of developing a process technology on this material is emphasised. Then, physical characteristics of ion implantation and particularly classical dopant implantation, such as nitrogen, for n-type doping, and aluminium and boron, for p-type doping are described. Results with these dopants are presented and analysed. Optimal conditions are extracted from these experiences so as to obtain a good crystal quality and a surface state allowing device fabrication. Electrical conduction is then described in the 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. Freezing of free carriers and scattering processes are described. Electrical measurements are carried out using Hall effect on Van der Panw test patterns, and 4 point probe method are used to draw the type of the material, free carrier concentrations, resistivity and mobility of the implanted doped layers. These results are commented and compared to the theoretical analysis. The influence of the technological process on electrical conduction is studied in view of fabricating implanted silicon carbide devices. (author)

  4. Ion implantation reinforcement of the protective efficiency of nickel in artificial sea-water

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, L; Grosseau-Poussard, J L; Dinhut, J F

    2002-01-01

    Ni bulk specimens have been implanted with Cr, Cu and Ar ions (4x10 sup 1 sup 6 ions/cm sup 2 , 60 keV) in order to distinguish between chemical and radiation damage effects on protection corrosion. The corrosion behaviour in artificial sea-water of ion-implanted and pure Ni has been studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in pure Ni two distinct loops are observed. Moreover an important increase in the polarisation resistance is noticed for all implanted ions. Theses changes in EIS behaviour with implantation is related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity of the passive layer. Equivalent circuits are proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters are deduced.

  5. Ion implantation reinforcement of the protective efficiency of nickel in artificial sea-water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, L.; Girault, P.; Grosseau-Poussard, J.L.; Dinhut, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    Ni bulk specimens have been implanted with Cr, Cu and Ar ions (4x10 16 ions/cm 2 , 60 keV) in order to distinguish between chemical and radiation damage effects on protection corrosion. The corrosion behaviour in artificial sea-water of ion-implanted and pure Ni has been studied at room temperature by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS spectra of ion-implanted Ni exhibit one capacitance loop while in pure Ni two distinct loops are observed. Moreover an important increase in the polarisation resistance is noticed for all implanted ions. Theses changes in EIS behaviour with implantation is related to the increase of the superficial layer density resulting in a decrease of heterogeneity of the passive layer. Equivalent circuits are proposed to fit the impedance spectra and corresponding electrochemical parameters are deduced

  6. A novel method for effective sodium ion implantation into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qiuyuan; Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    Although sodium ion implantation is useful to the surface modification of biomaterials and nano-electronic materials, it is a challenging to conduct effective sodium implantation by traditional implantation methods due to its high chemical reactivity. In this paper, we present a novel method by coupling a Na dispenser with plasma immersion ion implantation and radio frequency discharge. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiling reveals that sodium is effectively implanted into a silicon wafer using this apparatus. The Na 1s XPS spectra disclose Na{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} bonds and the implantation effects are confirmed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy. Our setup provides a feasible way to conduct sodium ion implantation effectively.

  7. Dependence of the depth distribution of implanted silver ions on the temperature of irradiated glass

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, A L

    2001-01-01

    The peculiarities of the glass ion implantation by the silver ions in dependence on the substrate temperature within the interval of 20-100 deg C are studied. Modeling the profiles of the implanted ions distribution in depth with an account of the thermostimulated increase in the admixture diffusion mobility is carried out. It is shown, that increase in the substrate temperature leads to the diffusion wash-out of the introduced admixture ions distribution. The analysis of the modeling results indicates the necessity of strict control of the substrate temperature by the dielectrics implantation for obtaining the conditions for the metal nanoparticles synthesis

  8. Swept Line Electron Beam Annealing of Ion Implanted Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    a pre- liminary study using silicon solar cells. This work was undertaken in cooperation with Dr. J. Eguren of the Instituto De Energia Solar , Madrid...device fabrication has been attempted. To date, resistors, capacitors, diodes, bipolar transistors, MOSFEs, and solar cells have been fabricated with...34 " 48 *Si Solar Cells Ruby PL P+ Ion-Implanted 49 Ruby PL Pulsed Diffused 50 :C

  9. Copper nanoparticles synthesized in polymers by ion implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir; Nuzhdin, Vladimir; Valeev, Valerij

    2015-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and polyimide (PI) samples are implanted by 40 keV Cu+ ions with high fluences in order to synthesize copper nanoparticles in shallow polymer layers. The produced metal/polymer nanocomposites are studied using atomic force and scanning electron microscopies as well...... as optical transmission spectroscopy. It is found that copper nanoparticles nucleation and growth are strongly fluence dependent as well as they are affected by the polymer properties, in particular, by radiation stability yielding different nanostructures for the implanted PI and PMMA. Shallow synthesized...... nanoparticles are observed to partly tower above the sample surface due to a side effect of high-fluence irradiation leading to considerable sputtering of polymers. Implantation and particle formation significantly change optical properties of both polymers reducing transmittance in the UV-visible range due...

  10. Ion implantation induced blistering of rutile single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Bing-Xi [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Jiao, Yang [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Guan, Jing [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Wang, Lei [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2015-07-01

    The rutile single crystals were implanted by 200 keV He{sup +} ions with a series fluence and annealed at different temperatures to investigate the blistering behavior. The Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, optical microscope and X-ray diffraction were employed to characterize the implantation induced lattice damage and blistering. It was found that the blistering on rutile surface region can be realized by He{sup +} ion implantation with appropriate fluence and the following thermal annealing.

  11. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  12. Ion-implanted Si-nanostructures buried in a SiO{sub 2} substrate studied with soft-x-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.; Rubensson, J.E.; Eisebitt, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In recent years silicon nanostructures have gained great interest because of their optical luminescence, which immediately suggests several applications, e.g., in optoelectronic devices. Nanostructures are also investigated because of the fundamental physics involved in the underlying luminescence mechanism, especially attention has been drawn to the influence of the reduced dimensions on the electronic structure. The forming of stable and well-defined nanostructured materials is one goal of cluster physics. For silicon nanostructures this goal has so far not been reached, but various indirect methods have been established, all having the problem of producing less well defined and/or unstable nanostructures. Ion implantation and subsequent annealing is a promising new technique to overcome some of these difficulties. In this experiment the authors investigate the electronic structure of ion-implanted silicon nanoparticles buried in a stabilizing SiO{sub 2} substrate. Soft X-ray emission (SXE) spectroscopy features the appropriate information depth to investigate such buried structures. SXE spectra to a good approximation map the local partial density of occupied states (LPDOS) in broad band materials like Si. The use of monochromatized synchrotron radiation (MSR) allows for selective excitation of silicon atoms in different chemical environments. Thus, the emission from Si atom sites in the buried structure can be separated from contributions from the SiO{sub 2} substrate. In this preliminary study strong size dependent effects are found, and the electronic structure of the ion-implanted nanoparticles is shown to be qualitatively different from porous silicon. The results can be interpreted in terms of quantum confinement and chemical shifts due to neighboring oxygen atoms at the interface to SiO{sub 2}.

  13. Study of N ions implantation induced quantum well intermixing in GaInP/AlGaInP quantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Haoqing; Guo, Enmin; Sun, Ruijuan [Department of Electronic Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Duan, Yupeng [Department of Physics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China); Lin, Nan; Ma, Xiaoyu [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-11-25

    N ions implantation induced quantum well intermixing in GaInP/AlGaInP triple quantum-well laser structures was firstly reported in this work. N ions were implanted with the energy of 40 keV and dose of 1e17 ions/cm{sup 2}, and thereafter rapid thermal annealing process were performed at 750 °C from 40 s to 200 s to induce the intermixing. The photoluminescence wavelength blue-shifts were found increased with the increasing time and the largest blue-shift of 54.9 nm was obtained for 200 s annealing. Surface morphology results shows that the photoluminescence improvement in the annealing samples came from the restoration effect of the layer crystal and hetero-structure interfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy tests shows that the implanting N ions tend to form Ga–N bonding besides generating point defect to induce quantum well intermixing. - Highlights: • IIID induced QWI was firstly investigated in GaInP/AlGaInP 650 nm LD using N ion implantation. • Largest blue-shift of 54.9 nm was obtained with higher intensity and narrower FWHM. • The layer crystal and hetero-structure interfaces optimization improves the PL. • XPS results show that implanting N ions tend to form Ga–N besides inducing QWI.

  14. The effect of incidence angle on disorder production in ion implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukirno; Carter, G.

    1989-01-01

    Ne, Ar, Sb, and Xe ions have been implanted, at 30 keV or 80 keV and at various incidence angles, into Si substrates maintained at room temperature during implantation. Implantation-induced Si disorder was measured using Rutherford backscattering channelling. The effects upon disorder of various incidence angles were studied over a fluence range of 10 12 -10 16 ions·cm -2 . The results show that, at low fluences the lighter (Ne) and slightly heavier (Ar) ion implantations generate a bimodal disorder-depth profile, whilst at higher fluences measurements of amorphised layer thickness as a function of ion incidence angle allow values of the standard deviation of the disorder profile parallel and transverse to the ion beam direction for each ion to be obtained with good agreement to theoretical predictions. (author)

  15. Synthesis of dilute magnetic semiconductors by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunstein, G.H.; Dresselhaus, G.; Withrow, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    We have synthesized layers of CdMnTe by implantation of Mn into CdTe. Samples of CdTe have been implanted with Mn ions of 60 keV energy to fluences in the range 1 x 10 13 cm -2 to 2 x 10 16 cm -2 resulting in local concentrations of up to 10% at the maximum of the Mn distribution. Rutherford backscattering-channeling analysis has been used to study the radiation damage after implantation and after subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA). These experiments reveal that RTA for 15 sec at a temperature T greater than or equal to 700 0 C results in the complete recovery of the lattice order, without affecting the stoichiometry of CdTe. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of a sample showing complete annealing reveal an increase in the band gap corresponding to the synthesis of very dilute (x approx. = 0.004) Cd/sub 1-x/Mn/sub x/Te. A shift of the excitonic PL peak to lower energies is observed when a magnetic field H less than or equal to 1T is applied. These measurements provide clear evidence for the synthesis of a DMS by ion implantation of Mn into CdTe

  16. Applications of ion implantation for modifying the interactions between metals and hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musket, R. G.

    1989-04-01

    Ion implantations into metals have been shown recently to either reduce or enhance interactions with gaseous hydrogen. Published studies concerned with modifications of these interactions are reviewed and discussed in terms of the mechanisms postulated to explain the observed changes. The interactions are hydrogenation, hydrogen permeation, and hydrogen embrittlement. In particular, the results of the reviewed studies are (a) uranium hydriding suppressed by implantation of oxygen and carbon, (b) hydrogen gettered in iron and nickel using implantation of titanium, (c) hydriding of titanium catalyzed by implanted palladium, (d) tritium permeation of 304L stainless steel reduced using selective oxidation of implanted aluminum, and (e) hydrogen attack of a low-alloy steel accelerated by implantation of helium. These studies revealed ion implantation to be an effective method for modifying the interactions of hydrogen gas with metals.

  17. Applications of ion implantation for modifying the interactions between metals and hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musket, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Ion implantations into metals have been shown recently to either reduce or enhance interactions with gaseous hydrogen. Published studies concerned with modifications of these interactions are reviewed and discussed in terms of the mechanisms postulated to explain the observed changes. The interactions are hydrogenation, hydrogen permeation and hydrogen embrittlement. In particular, the results of the reviewed studies are 1. uranium hydriding suppressed by implantation of oxygen and carbon, 2. hydrogen gettered in iron and nickel using implantation of titanium, 3. hydriding of titanium catalyzed by implanted palladium, 4. tritium permeation of 304L stainless steel reduced using selective oxidation of implanted aluminum, and 5. hydrogen attack of a low-alloy steel accelerated by implantation of helium. These studies revealed ion implantation to be an effective method for modifying the interactions of hydrogen gas with metals. (orig.)

  18. Temperature behavior of damage in sapphire implanted with light ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, E. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal)], E-mail: ealves@itn.pt; Marques, C. [Ion Beam Laboratory, Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem 2686-953 (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal); Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); McHargue, Carl J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0750 (United States)

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we compare and discuss the defect behavior of sapphire single crystals implanted with different fluences (1 x 10{sup 16}-1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}) of carbon and nitrogen with 150 keV. The implantation temperatures were RT, 500 deg. C and 1000 deg. C to study the influence of temperature on the defect structures. For all the ions the Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) results indicate a surface region with low residual disorder in the Al-sublattice. Near the end of range the channeled spectrum almost reaches the random indicating a high damage level for fluences of 1 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photographs show a layered contrast feature for the C implanted sample where a buried amorphous region is present. For the N implanted sample the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) elemental mapping give evidence for the presence of a buried damage layer decorated with bubbles. Samples implanted at high temperatures (500 deg. C and 1000 deg. C) show a strong contrast fluctuation indicating a defective crystalline structure of sapphire.

  19. Electrical properties of polymer modified by metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji; Deng Zhiwei; Zhou Gu

    2000-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified by Ag, Cr, Cu and Si ion implantation with a dose range from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 ions cm -2 using a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source. The electrical properties of PET have been changed after metal ion implantation. The resistivity of implanted PET decreased obviously with an increase of ion dose. When metal ion dose of 2x10 17 cm -2 was selected, the resistivity of PET could be less than 10 Ω cm, but when Si ions are implanted, the resistivity of PET would be up to several hundred Ω cm. The results show that the conductive behavior of a metal ion implanted sample is obviously different from Si implantation one. The changes of the structure and composition have been observed with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface structure is varying after ion implantation and it is believed that the change would cause the improvement of the conductive properties. The mechanism of electrical conduction will be discussed

  20. The effect of lattice and grain boundary diffusion on the redistribution of Xe in metallic nuclear fuels: Implications for the use of ion implantation to study fission-gas-bubble nucleation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Wayne E.; Tumey, Scott J.; Rest, Jeffrey; Gilmer, George H.

    2011-01-01

    A multi-atom gas bubble-nucleation mechanism has been proposed as part of a predictive fission-gas release model for metallic nuclear fuels. Validation of this mechanism requires experimental measurement of fission-gas bubble-size distributions at well-controlled gas concentrations and temperatures. There are advantages to carrying out such a study using ion implantation as the source of gas atoms compared with neutron irradiations. In spite of previous successes using ion implantation to study fission-gas behavior in oxide fuels, there is significant uncertainty about the efficacy of using ion beams for metallic fuel studies. To address the question of the applicability of ion beams in experiments designed to study fission-gas behavior in metallic fuels, we developed and applied an exact model for the redistribution of implanted ions under annealing conditions. The conclusion is that, given the assumptions, the results from implantations at 1 MeV or less may be overwhelmed by the surface effects at all relevant temperatures. Implanting at 10 or 80 MeV can significantly diminish the influence of the surfaces and the steep concentration gradients. At 80 MeV, the location of the peak concentration profile remains stable with annealing time. Thus, it appears that ion implantation can be an appropriate tool to study the size distribution of Xe bubbles in metallic fuels. Of the conditions investigated, the best for the study are to implant at 80 MeV and carry out anneals at 773 K, 873 K, and 973 K for times less than 10,000 s.

  1. The protective effects of glycerine on mammalian cells in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Huiyun; Yu Lixiang; Liu Xinghai; Wu Lijun

    2002-03-01

    The discovery of bio-effects induced by ion implantation has opened a novel branch in the field of radiation biology-the low energy heavy ion biology. The experimental samples in the field have, however, been within the limits of plants and microbes because of the sample's vacuum-resistant ability. The mutation studying of mammalian cells with ion implantation hasn't been reported in the past years. Main reason for that is that it is difficult to keep mammalian cells alive in vacuum during ion implantation. In the present study, the tolerance of mammalian cells in vacuum was enhanced efficiently by pre-treatment with glycerin at low concentration and proper treatment time, which provide a new way for the study on the biological effects of ion beam implantation in the mammalian cells

  2. Ion-implantation-induced phase separation and crystallization in lithia-silica glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.; Peercy, P.S.; Doyle, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    Crystallization of annealed Li 2 O.2SiO 2 glasses implanted with inert ions and fused SiO 2 glass implanted with Li ions was monitored using infrared reflection spectroscopy. Elastic recoil detection analysis was used to study changes in the Li and H concentration induced in these glasses by implantation and annealing. Implantation of Li 2 O.2SiO 2 with inert ions results in Li depletion, accompanied by H indiffusion, in the implanted region. For Li-implanted SiO 2 , crystallization of α-quartz is accompanied by appreciable Li diffusion to the surface and attendant H migration to the Li-depleted region. The crystallization mechanisms are discussed in terms of phase separation in the lithia-silica system

  3. Enhancement of electrical conductivity of ion-implanted polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, S.

    1985-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of ion-implanted films of Nylon 66, Polypropylene (PP), Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (Teflon) and mainly Poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was determined by DC measurements at voltages up to 4500 V and compared with the corresponding values of pristine films. Measurements were made at 21 0 C +/- 1 0 C and 65 +/- 2% RH. The electrical conductivity of PET films implanted with F + , Ar + , or As + ions at energies of 50 keV increases by seven orders of magnitude as the fluence increases from 1 x 10 18 to 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 . The conductivity of films implanted with As + was approximately one order greater than those implanted with Ar + , which in turn was approximately one-half order greater than those implanted with F + . The conductivity of the most conductive film ∼1 S/m) was almost 14 orders of magnitude greater than the pristine PET film. Except for the three PET samples implanted at fluences near 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 with F + , Ar + , and As + ions, all implanted films were ohmic up to an electric field strength of 600 kV/m. The temperature dependence of the conductivity of the three PET films implanted near a fluence of 1 x 10 20 ions/m 2 was measured over the range of 80 K < T < 300 K

  4. Thin hydroxyapatite surface layers on titanium produced by ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, H; Bilger, G; Jones, D; Symietz, I

    2002-01-01

    In medicine metallic implants are widely used as hip replacement protheses or artificial teeth. The biocompatibility is in all cases the most important requirement. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is frequently used as coating on metallic implants because of its high acceptance by the human body. In this paper a process is described by which a HAp surface layer is produced by ion implantation with a continuous transition to the bulk material. Calcium and phosphorus ions are successively implanted into titanium under different vacuum conditions by backfilling oxygen into the implantation chamber. Afterwards the implanted samples are thermally treated. The elemental composition inside the implanted region was determined by nuclear analysis methods as (alpha,alpha) backscattering and the resonant nuclear reaction sup 1 H( sup 1 sup 5 N,alpha gamma) sup 1 sup 2 C. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of HAp. In addition a first biocompatibility test was performed to compare the growing of m...

  5. Metal ion implantation using a filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilek, M. M. M.; Evans, P.; Mckenzie, D. R.; McCulloch, D. G.; Zreiqat, H.; Howlett, C. R.

    2000-05-01

    When plasma immersion ion implantation is performed in the condensable plasma stream produced by a cathodic vacuum arc, deposition as well as implantation usually occurs. In this article we describe a method of achieving pure implantation by orienting the substrate so that it is shadowed from the plasma beam. Implantation depth profiles measured in glassy carbon and CR39 polymer using Rutherford backscattering are compared to illustrate the effectiveness of the technique for conducting and insulating substrates. Charging of the insulating substrate was found to cause a reduction in implantation depth compared to a conducting substrate. The depth profiles in glassy carbon were comparable to those achieved by conventional extracted ion beam implantation. Implantation of magnesium into hydroxyapatite and alumina was carried out to improve the bone cell adhesion onto these materials for prosthetic applications.

  6. Heavy doping of CdTe single crystals by Cr ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovych, Volodymyr D.; Böttger, Roman; Heller, Rene; Zhou, Shengqiang; Bester, Mariusz; Cieniek, Bogumil; Mroczka, Robert; Lopucki, Rafal; Sagan, Piotr; Kuzma, Marian

    2018-03-01

    Implantation of bulk CdTe single crystals with high fluences of 500 keV Cr+ ions was performed to achieve Cr concentration above the equilibrium solubility limit of this element in CdTe lattice. The structure and composition of the implanted samples were studied using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) to characterize the incorporation of chromium into the host lattice and to investigate irradiation-induced damage build-up. It was found that out-diffusion of Cr atoms and sputtering of the targets alter the depth distribution and limit concentration of the projectile ions in the as-implanted samples. Appearance of crystallographically oriented, metallic α-Cr nanoparticles inside CdTe matrix was found after implantation, as well as a strong disorder at the depth far beyond the projected range of the implanted ions.

  7. Modification of the hydriding of uranium using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musket, R.G.; Robinson-Weis, G.; Patterson, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    The hydriding of depleted uranium at 76 Torr hydrogen and 130 0 C has been significantly reduced by implantation of oxygen ions. The high-dose implanted specimens had incubation times for the initiation of the reaction after exposure to hydrogen that exceeded those of the nonimplanted specimens by more than a factor of eight. Furthermore, the nonimplanted specimens consumed enough hydrogen to cause macroscopic flaking of essentially the entire surface in times much less than the incubation time for the high-dose implanted specimens. In contrast, the ion-implanted specimens reacted only at isolated spots with the major fraction of the surface area unaffected by the hydrogen exposure

  8. Plasma source ion implantation research at southwestern institute of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhenkui; Geng Man; Tong Honghui

    1997-10-01

    The PSII-EX device and PSII-IM device for research and development of plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technology are described briefly. The functions, main technical specifications and properties of the devices are also discussed. After ion implantation by PSII, the improvements of the surface-mechanical properties (such as microhardness, wear-resistance, friction factor, biological compatibility, etc) for some materials, microanalysis and numerical simulation of modified layers of materials, the technical developments for the practical workpiece treatments and the preliminary experiments for plasma source ion implantation-enhanced deposition are introduced too. As last, the future work about PSII have been proposed

  9. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shuwen; Jiang Bin; Li Yan; Li Yanrong; Yin Guangfu; Zheng Changqiong

    2004-01-01

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy

  10. In-Situ Photoexcitation-Induced Suppression of Point Defect Generation in Ion Implanted Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C.R.; Rozgonyi, G.A.; Yarykin, N.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of vacancy-related defects in n-type silicon has been studied immediately after implantation of He, Si, or Ge ions at 85 K using in-situ DLTS. A-center concentrations in He-implanted samples reach a maximum immediately after implantation, whereas, with Si or Ge ion implanted samples they continuously increase during subsequent anneals. It is proposed that defect clusters, which emit vacancies during anneals, are generated in the collision cascades of Si or Ge ions. An illumination-induced suppression of A-center formation is seen immediately after implantation of He ions at 85 K. This effect is also observed with Si or Ge ions, but only after annealing. The suppression of vacancy complex formation via photoexcitation is believed to occur due to an enhanced recombination of defects during ion implantation, and results in reduced number of vacancies remaining in the defect clusters. In p-type silicon, a reduction in K-center formation and an enhanced migration of defects are concurrently observed in the illuminated sample implanted with Si ions. These observations are consistent with a model where the injection of excess carriers modifies the defect charge state and impacts their diffusion

  11. Cell adhesion control by ion implantation into extra-cellular matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro; Kaibara, Makoto; Iwaki, Masaya; Sasabe, Hiroyuki; Nishisaka, Tsuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    Cell adhesion control of polymer surfaces by ion implantation into polymers and extra-cellular matrix has been studied by means of in vitro adhesion measurements of the carcinoma of the cervix (HeLa cell). The specimens used were polystyrene (PS), oxygen plasma treated polystyrene (PS-O), extra-cellular matrix (Collagen: Type I) coated polystyrene (PS-C), and gelatin coated polystyrene (PS-G). Ne + , Na + , and Ar + implantations were performed with a fluence of 1x10 15 ions/cm 2 at energies of 50, 100 and 150 keV. The chemical and physical structures of ion implanted specimens have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR-ATR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Ion implanted PS demonstrated a dramatic improvement of adhesion of HeLa cell. HeLa cell adhered only to ion implanted circular domains of a diameter about 0.1 mm on PS. By contrast, ion implanted PS-C, PS-G and PS-O domains inhibited the cell adhesion. These phenomena were observed on Ne + , Na + , and Ar + implanted specimens at energies of 50, 100, and 150 keV. Ion implantation broke the original chemical bonds to form new radicals such as =C=O, condensed rings, C-C, C-O and OH radical. Ion implanted PS had a large amount of new radicals compared with that of PS-C, PS-G and PS-O. Ion implantation broke NH and NH 3 bonds originating from amino acid in PS-C and PS-G. OH and =C=O caused by oxygen treatment in PS-O were also destroyed by ion implantation. It is concluded that cell adhesion to ion implanted PS was caused by carbon structure and new radicals induced by ion implantation. The inhibition of HeLa cell adhesion on PS-C, PS-G and PS-O was caused by the destruction of cell adhesion properties of amino acid, OH and =C=O by radiation effects. ((orig.))

  12. Modification of polyvinyl alcohol surface properties by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pukhova, I.V., E-mail: ivpuhova@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Kurzina, I.A. [National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K.P. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Laput, O.A. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E.M. [Institute of High Current Electronics, 2/3 Akademichesky Ave, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    We describe our investigations of the surface physicochemical properties of polyvinyl alcohol modified by silver, argon and carbon ion implantation to doses of 1 × 10{sup 14}, 1 × 10{sup 15} and 1 × 10{sup 16} ion/cm{sup 2} and energies of 20 keV (for C and Ar) and 40 keV (for Ag). Infrared spectroscopy (IRS) indicates that destructive processes accompanied by chemical bond (−C=O) generation are induced by implantation, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates that the implanted silver is in a metallic Ag3d state without stable chemical bond formation with polymer chains. Ion implantation is found to affect the surface energy: the polar component increases while the dispersion part decreases with increasing implantation dose. Surface roughness is greater after ion implantation and the hydrophobicity increases with increasing dose, for all ion species. We find that ion implantation of Ag, Ar and C leads to a reduction in the polymer microhardness by a factor of five, while the surface electrical resistivity declines modestly.

  13. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intarasiri, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Bootkul, D.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented

  14. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Wijaikhum, A. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science (Gems and Jewelry), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L.D.; Singkarat, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-08-15

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented.

  15. Development of vertical compact ion implanter for gemstones applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarasiri, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Bootkul, D.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.; Singkarat, S.

    2014-08-01

    Ion implantation technique was applied as an effective non-toxic treatment of the local Thai natural corundum including sapphires and rubies for the enhancement of essential qualities of the gemstones. Energetic oxygen and nitrogen ions in keV range of various fluences were implanted into the precious stones. It has been thoroughly proved that ion implantation can definitely modify the gems to desirable colors together with changing their color distribution, transparency and luster properties. These modifications lead to the improvement in quality of the natural corundum and thus its market value. Possible mechanisms of these modifications have been proposed. The main causes could be the changes in oxidation states of impurities of transition metals, induction of charge transfer from one metal cation to another and the production of color centers. For these purposes, an ion implanter of the kind that is traditionally used in semiconductor wafer fabrication had already been successfully applied for the ion beam bombardment of natural corundum. However, it is not practical for implanting the irregular shape and size of gem samples, and too costly to be economically accepted by the gem and jewelry industry. Accordingly, a specialized ion implanter has been requested by the gem traders. We have succeeded in developing a prototype high-current vertical compact ion implanter only 1.36 m long, from ion source to irradiation chamber, for these purposes. It has been proved to be very effective for corundum, for example, color improvement of blue sapphire, induction of violet sapphire from low value pink sapphire, and amelioration of lead-glass-filled rubies. Details of the implanter and recent implantation results are presented.

  16. Titanium Nitride and Nitrogen Ion Implanted Coated Dental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Berzins

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials have been investigated since the mid-1980s and considered in various applications in dentistry such as implants, abutments, orthodontic wires, endodontic files, periodontal/oral hygiene instruments, and casting alloys for fixed restorations. Multiple methodologies have been employed to create the coatings, but detailed structural analysis of the coatings is generally lacking in the dental literature. Depending on application, the purpose of the coating is to provide increased surface hardness, abrasion/wear resistance, esthetics, and corrosion resistance, lower friction, as well as greater beneficial interaction with adjacent biological and material substrates. While many studies have reported on the achievement of these properties, a consensus is not always clear. Additionally, few studies have been conducted to assess the efficacy of the coatings in a clinical setting. Overall, titanium nitride and/or nitrogen ion implanted coated dental materials potentially offer advantages over uncoated counterparts, but more investigation is needed to document the structure of the coatings and their clinical effectiveness.

  17. Influence of ion implanted helium on deuterium trapping in Kh18N10T stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstolutskaya, G.D.; Ruzhitskij, V.V.; Kopanets, I.E.

    2004-01-01

    The results are presented on evolution of distribution profiles and helium and deuterium thermal desorption ion implanted in steel 18Cr10NiTi. Accumulation, trapping, retention and microstructure evolution are studied; effect helium and hydrogen simultaneous implantation on these processes is also studied

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF PRECIPITATES IN CUBIC SILICON CARBIDE IMPLANTED WITH 25Mg+ IONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Weilin; Spurgeon, Steven R.; Liu, Jia; Edwards, Danny J.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Yongqiang

    2016-09-26

    The aim of this study is to characterize precipitates in Mg+ ion implanted and high-temperature annealed cubic silicon carbide using scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and atom probe tomography.

  19. Decrease of Staphylococcal adhesion on surgical stainless steel after Si ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braceras, Iñigo; Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A.; Calzado-Martín, Alicia; Multigner, Marta; Vera, Carolina; Broncano, Luis Labajos-; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M.; González-Carrasco, José Luis; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Si ion implantation of AISI 316LVM medical grade alloy might reduce bacterial adhesion and colonization. • Si ion implantation does not impair the attachment, viability and matrix maturation of human mesenchymal stem cells. • Nano-topography and surface chemistry changes account for the Si ion implantation induced effects. - Abstract: 316LVM austenitic stainless steel is often the material of choice on temporal musculoskeletal implants and surgical tools as it combines good mechanical properties and acceptable corrosion resistance to the physiologic media, being additionally relatively inexpensive. This study has aimed at improving the resistance to bacterial colonization of this surgical stainless steel, without compromising its biocompatibility and resistance. To achieve this aim, the effect of Si ion implantation on 316LVM has been studied. First, the effect of the ion implantation parameters (50 keV; fluence: 2.5–5 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 ; angle of incidence: 45–90°) has been assessed in terms of depth profiling of chemical composition by XPS and nano-topography evaluation by AFM. The in vitro biocompatibility of the alloy has been evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus on these surfaces has been assessed. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on Si implanted 316LVM is dependent on the implantation conditions as well as the features of the bacterial strains, offering a promising implantable biomaterial in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical properties and resistance to bacterial colonization. The effects of surface composition and nano-topography on bacterial adhesion, directly related to ion implantation conditions, are also discussed

  20. Decrease of Staphylococcal adhesion on surgical stainless steel after Si ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braceras, Iñigo, E-mail: inigo.braceras@tecnalia.com [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A. [CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Universidad de Extremadura, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Av. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); Calzado-Martín, Alicia [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Multigner, Marta [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vera, Carolina [Tecnalia, Mikeletegi Pasealekua 2, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Broncano, Luis Labajos-; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M. [Universidad de Extremadura, Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Av. Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); González-Carrasco, José Luis [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vilaboa, Nuria [Hospital Universitario La Paz-IdiPAZ, Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); and others

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Si ion implantation of AISI 316LVM medical grade alloy might reduce bacterial adhesion and colonization. • Si ion implantation does not impair the attachment, viability and matrix maturation of human mesenchymal stem cells. • Nano-topography and surface chemistry changes account for the Si ion implantation induced effects. - Abstract: 316LVM austenitic stainless steel is often the material of choice on temporal musculoskeletal implants and surgical tools as it combines good mechanical properties and acceptable corrosion resistance to the physiologic media, being additionally relatively inexpensive. This study has aimed at improving the resistance to bacterial colonization of this surgical stainless steel, without compromising its biocompatibility and resistance. To achieve this aim, the effect of Si ion implantation on 316LVM has been studied. First, the effect of the ion implantation parameters (50 keV; fluence: 2.5–5 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}; angle of incidence: 45–90°) has been assessed in terms of depth profiling of chemical composition by XPS and nano-topography evaluation by AFM. The in vitro biocompatibility of the alloy has been evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus on these surfaces has been assessed. Reduction of bacterial adhesion on Si implanted 316LVM is dependent on the implantation conditions as well as the features of the bacterial strains, offering a promising implantable biomaterial in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical properties and resistance to bacterial colonization. The effects of surface composition and nano-topography on bacterial adhesion, directly related to ion implantation conditions, are also discussed.

  1. Bimodal distribution of damage morphology generated by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, K.R.C.; Jaraiz, M.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Rubio, J.E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Benistant, F.

    2005-01-01

    A nucleation and evolution model of damage based on amorphous pockets (APs) has recently been developed and implemented in an atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulator. In the model, APs are disordered structures (I n V m ), which are agglomerates of interstitials (I) and vacancies (V). This model has been used to study the composition and size distribution of APs during different ion implantations. Depending strongly on the dose rate, ion mass and implant temperature, the APs can evolve to a defect population where the agglomerates have a similar number of I and V (n ∼ m), or to a defect population with pure I (m ∼ 0) and pure V (n ∼ 0) clusters, or a mixture of APs and clusters. This behaviour corresponds to a bimodal (APs/clusters) distribution of damage. As the AP have different thermal stability compared to the I and V clusters, the same damage concentration obtained through different implant conditions has a different damage morphology and, consequently, exhibit a different resistance to subsequent thermal treatments

  2. Structural, electrical and catalytic properties of ion-implanted oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, B.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The potential application of ion implantation to modify the surfaces of ceramic materials is discussed. Changes in the chemical composition and microstructure result in important variations of the electrical and catalytic properties of oxides.

  3. Structural and electronic properties of ion-implanted superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernas, H.; Nedellec, P.

    1980-01-01

    Recent work on ion implanted superconductors is reviewed. In situ x-ray, channeling, resistivity, and electron tunneling experiments now approach the relation between lattice order (or disorder) and superconductivity

  4. Industrial applications of ion implantation into metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    The modern materials processing technique, ion implantation, has intriguing and attractive features that stimulate the imaginations of scientists and technologists. Success of the technique for introducing dopants into semiconductors has resulted in a stable and growing infrastructure of capital equipment and skills for use of the technique in the economy. Attention has turned to possible use of ion implantation for modification of nearly all surface related properties of materials - optical, chemical and corrosive, tribological, and several others. This presentation provides an introduction to fundamental aspects of equipment, technique, and materials science of ion implantation. Practical and economic factors pertaining to the technology are discussed. Applications and potential applications are surveyed. There are already available a number of ion-implanted products, including ball-and-roller bearings and races, punches-and-dies, injection screws for plastics molding, etc., of potential interest to the machine tool industry

  5. Carbon Ion Implantation: A Good Method to Enhance the Biocompatibility of Silicone Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Chen, Xing; Mao, Tong-cun; Li, Xiang; Shi, Xiao-hua; Fan, Dong-li; Zhang, Yi-ming

    2016-04-01

    Silicone rubber and silicone rubber-based materials have been used as medical tissue implants in the field of plastic surgery for many years, but there are still some reports of adverse reactions to long-term implants. Earlier studies have shown that ion implantation could enhance the biocompatibility of biomaterials. However, whether ion implantation has a good effect on silicone rubber is unknown. Three types of carbon ion silicone rubber were obtained by implanting three doses of carbon ions. Then, the antibacterial adhesion properties and the in vivo host responses were evaluated. The antibacterial adhesion properties were examined by plate colony counting, fluorescence staining, and scanning electron microscopic observation. The host responses were evaluated by surveying inflammation and fiber capsule formation that developed after subcutaneous implantation in Sprague-Dawley rats for 7, 30, 90, and 180 days. In addition, the possible mechanism by which ion implantation enhanced the biocompatibility of the biomaterial was investigated and discussed. Carbon ion silicone rubber exhibits less bacterial adhesion, less collagen deposition, and thinner and weaker tissue capsules. Immunohistochemical staining results for CD4, tumor necrosis factor-α, α-smooth muscle actin, and elastin showed the possible mechanism enhancing the biocompatibility of silicone rubber. These data indicate that carbon ion silicone rubber exhibits good antibacterial adhesion properties and triggers thinner and weaker tissue capsules. In addition, high surface roughness and high zeta potential may be the main factors that induce the unique biocompatibility of carbon ion silicone rubber. Ion implantation should be considered for further investigation and application, and carbon ion silicone rubber could be a better biomaterial to decrease silicone rubber-initiated complications.

  6. Modelling of ion implantation in SiC crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakarov, Ivan [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)]. E-mail: ivan.chakarov@silvaco.com; Temkin, Misha [SILVACO International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Building 2, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    An advanced electronic stopping model for ion implantation in SiC has been implemented within the binary collision approximation. The model has been thoroughly tested and validated for Al implantation into 4H-, 6H-SiC under different initial implant conditions. A very good agreement between calculated and experimental profiles has been achieved. The model has been integrated in an industrial technology CAD process simulator.

  7. Modelling of ion implantation in SiC crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakarov, Ivan; Temkin, Misha

    2006-01-01

    An advanced electronic stopping model for ion implantation in SiC has been implemented within the binary collision approximation. The model has been thoroughly tested and validated for Al implantation into 4H-, 6H-SiC under different initial implant conditions. A very good agreement between calculated and experimental profiles has been achieved. The model has been integrated in an industrial technology CAD process simulator

  8. Effect of H + ion implantation on structural, morphological, optical and dielectric properties of L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, K.; Babu, R. Ramesh; Kumar, P.; Bhagvannarayana, G.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2011-06-01

    L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystals have been implanted with 100 keV H + ions at different ion fluence ranging from 10 12 to 10 15 ions/cm 2. Implanted LAHCl single crystals have been investigated for property changes. Crystal surface and crystalline perfection of the pristine and implanted crystals were analyzed by atomic force microscope and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies, respectively. Optical absorption bands induced by colour centers, refractive index and birefringence, mechanical stability and dielectric constant of implanted crystals were studied at different ion fluence and compared with that of pristine LAHCl single crystal.

  9. SIMPLANT: analytic calculation of ion implantation within the Tadpance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.J.

    1988-04-01

    An analytic method for calculating the concentration distribution of dopant atoms introduced into a multilayer semiconductor device by ion beam implantation is explained. Computer software written to apply the method is described. The operation of the software within a semiconductor process and device modelling package is outlined. Implantation distributions generated by the software are illustrated. (author)

  10. Properties and applications of ion-implanted alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Ion implantation is a controlled and versatile means for near-surface alloying of metals. Supersaturated solutions, metastable compounds, amorphous phases, and equilibrium alloys have been produced. Uses include the investigation of new metastable phases, characterization of alloying reactions occurring in conventional materials, and improvement of surface properties such as hardness, wear, and corrosion. A brief review is given of the physical processes occurring during ion implantation, the types of alloys which result, and representative applications

  11. Development of industrial ion implantation and ion assisted coating processes: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legg, K.O.; Solnick-Legg, H.

    1989-01-01

    Ion beam processes have gone through a series of developmental stages, from being the mainstay of the semiconductor industry for production of integrated circuits, to new commercial processes for biomedical, aerospace and other industries. Although research is still continuing on surface modification using ion beam methods, ion implantation and ion assisted coatings for treatment of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites must now be considered viable industrial processes of benefit in a wide variety of applications. However, ion implantation methods face various barriers to acceptability, in terms not only of other surface treatment processes, but for implantation itself. This paper will discuss some of the challenges faced by a small company whose primary business is development and marketing of ion implantation and ion-assisted coating processes. (orig.)

  12. Channel waveguides formed by ion implantation of PECVD grown silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, P.W.; Faith, M.F.; Johnson, C.M.; Ridgway, M.C.; Bazylenko, M.

    1997-01-01

    Low loss channel waveguides have been formed in silica-on-silicon by implantation with 5 MeV Si and Ge ions. In these experiments, the substrate was comprised of an undoped layer of silica (30 μm thick) which was grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The optical loss characteristics of the waveguides, as measured at both λ 1300 and 1550 nm, were independent of the implanted ion species. A minimum in the attenuation loss (α) of ∼0.10-0.20 dB/cm was obtained following both a pre-implant (1050 o C) and a post-implant (400-500 o C) anneal of the waveguides. The ability to produce a minimum in α by pre-implant annealing has been attributed to the thermally induced relaxation of the densified structure in the as-grown layer. Only a comparatively small degree of compaction was measured for Si-implanted samples which did not receive a pre-implant anneal. In contrast, the much larger degree of compaction in the pre-implant annealed samples was similar in magnitiude to that observed in fused silica. These are the first reported examples of ion-implanted waveguides using a substrate of silica grown by PECVD. (author)

  13. Conduction in ion implanted single crystal diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunn, J.D.; Parikh, N.R.; Swanson, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    We have implanted sodium, phosphorus and arsenic into single crystal type IIa diamond as possible n-type dopants. Particular emphasis was applied to the implantation of sodium at different temperatures and doses; combined implantation energies of 55,80 and 120 keV were used to provide a uniformly doped layer over approximately 100 nm depth. The implanted layers exhibited semiconducting behavior with a single exponential activation energy between 0.40 and 0.48 eV, as determined by temperature dependent resistance measurements. A sample implanted to a concentration of 5.10 19 Na + /cm 3 at 550 degrees C exhibited a single activation energy of 0.415 eV over a temperature range from 25 to 500 degrees C. Thermal annealing above 900 degrees C was found to remove implantation damage as measured by optical absorption and RBS/channeling. However, concomitant increases in the resistance and the activation energy were observed. Implantation of 22 Ne was used to introduce a damage density equivalent to the 23 Na implant, while not introducing an electrically active species. The activation energy and electrical resistance were similar but higher than those produced by implantation with sodium. We conclude that the electrical properties of the Na-implanted samples were at least partly due to electrically active Na, but that residual implantation damage was still important

  14. Shallow nitrogen ion implantation: Evolution of chemical state and defect structure in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manojkumar, P.A., E-mail: manoj@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chirayath, V.A.; Balamurugan, A.K.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Ilango, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Amarendra, G.; Tyagi, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Raj, Baldev [National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Low energy nitrogen ion implantation in titanium was studied. • Chemical and defect states were analyzed using SIMS, XPS and PAS. • SIMS and depth resolved XPS data showed good agreement. • Depth resolved defect and chemical states information were revealed. • Formation of 3 layers of defect states proposed to fit PAS results. - Abstract: Evolution of chemical states and defect structure in titanium during low energy nitrogen ion implantation by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) process is studied. The underlying process of chemical state evolution is investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation induced defect structure evolution as a function of dose is elucidated using variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (PAS) and the results were corroborated with chemical state. Formation of 3 layers of defect state was modeled to fit PAS results.

  15. Scanning probe microscopy of single Au ion implants in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vines, L.; Monakhov, E.; Maknys, K.; Svensson, B.G.; Jensen, J.; Hallen, A.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied 5 MeV Au 2+ ion implantation with fluences between 7 x 10 7 and 2 x 10 8 cm -2 in Si by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM). The DLTS measurements show formation of electrically active defects such as the two negative charge states of the divacancy (V 2 (=/-) and V 2 (-/0)) and the vacancy-oxygen (VO) center. It is observed that the intensity of the V 2 (=/-) peak is lower compared to that of V 2 (-/0) by a factor of 5. This has been attributed to a highly localized distribution of the defects along the ion tracks, which results in trapping of the carriers at V 2 (-/0) and incomplete occupancy of V 2 (=/-). The SCM measurements obtained in a plan view show a random pattern of regions with a reduced SCM signal for the samples implanted with fluence above 2 x 10 8 cm -2 . The reduced SCM signal is attributed to extra charges associated with acceptor states, such as V 2 (-/0), formed along the ion tracks in the bulk Si. Indeed, the electron emission rate from the V 2 (-/0) state is in the range of 10 kHz at room temperature, which is well below the probing frequency of the SCM measurements, resulting in 'freezing' of electrons at V 2 (-/0)

  16. Phase and Microstructural Study of Surface Layers Produced by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation of Stainless Steel X6CrNiTi1810

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blawert, C.; Mordike, B. L.; Jirásková, Yvonna; Schneeweiss, Oldřich

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (1999), s. 1-7 ISSN 0267-0844. [International Plasma-Based Ion Implantation Workshop /4./. Dearborn, 02.06.1998-04.06.1998] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4032601; GA ČR GA202/97/0444 Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials

  17. Effective implantation of light emitting centers by plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam methods into nanosized diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himics, L.; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Tóth, A.; Koós, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Characteristics of nitrogen implantation of nanodiamond using two low ion energy ion implantation methods were compared. • Formation of complex nitrogen-related defect centers was promoted by subsequent helium implantation and heat treatments. • Depth profiles of the implanted ions and the generated vacancies were determined using SRIM calculations. • The presence of nitrogen impurity was demonstrated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic measurements. • A new nitrogen related band was detected in the photoluminescence spectrum of the implanted samples that was attributed to the N3 color center in nanodiamond. - Abstract: Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam, were used to introduce nitrogen ions into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of light emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp 2 carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon energies was observed in the light emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen ions and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation

  18. A collisional model for plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, V.; Lieberman, M.A.; Alves, M.V.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    In plasma immersion ion implantation, a target is immersed in a plasma and a series of negative short pulses are applied to it to implant the ions. A new analytical model is being developed for the high pressure regimes in which the motion of the ions is highly collisional. The model provides values for ion flux, average ion velocity at the target, and sheath edge motion as a function of time. These values are being compared with those obtained from simulation and show good agreement. A review is also given (for comparison) of the earlier work done at low pressures, where the motion of ions in the sheath is collisionless, also showing good agreement between analysis and simulation. The simulation code is PDP1 which utilizes particle-in-cell techniques plus Monte-Carlo simulation of electron-neutral (elastic, excitation and ionization) and ion-neutral (scattering and charge-exchange) collisions

  19. Thermal stress resistance of ion implanted sapphire crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.; Jamieson, D.N.; Szymanski, R.; Orlov, A.V.; Williams, J.S.; Conway, M.

    1999-01-01

    Monocrystals of sapphire have been subjected to ion implantation with 86 keV Si - and 80 keV Cr - ions to doses in the range of 5x10 14 -5x10 16 cm -2 prior to thermal stress testing in a pulsed plasma. Above a certain critical dose ion implantation is shown to modify the near-surface structure of samples by introducing damage, which makes crack nucleation easier under the applied stress. The effect of ion dose on the stress resistance is investigated and the critical doses which produce a noticeable change in the stress resistance are determined. The critical dose for Si ions is shown to be much lower than that for Cr - ions. However, for doses exceeding 2x10 16 cm -2 the stress resistance parameter decreases to approximately the same value for both implants. The size of the implantation-induced crack nucleating centers and the density of the implantation-induced defects are considered to be the major factors determining the stress resistance of sapphire crystals irradiated with Si - and Cr - ions

  20. Characterization of surface enhancement of carbon ion-implanted TiN coatings by metal vapor vacuum arc ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C L

    2002-01-01

    The modification of the surfaces of energetic carbon-implanted TiN films using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion implantation was investigated, by varying ion energy and dose. The microhardness, microstructure and chemical states of carbon, implanted on the surface layer of TiN films, were examined, as functions of ion energy and dose, by nanoindenter, transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results revealed that the microhardness increased from 16.8 up to 25.3 GPa and the friction coefficient decreased to approximately 0.2, depending on the implanted ion energy and dose. The result is attributed to the new microcrystalline phases of TiCN and TiC formed, and carbon concentration saturation of the implanted matrix can enhance the partial mechanical property of TiN films after MEVVA treatment. The concentration distribution, implantation depth and chemical states of carbon-implanted TiN coatings depended strongly on the ion dose and...

  1. Nitrogen ion implantation effect on friction coefficient of tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, N.I.; Udovenko, V.F.; Markus, A.M.; Presnyakova, G.N.; Gamulya, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of nitrogen molecular ion implantation into KhVSG steel on the friction coefficient in the air and vacuum is investigated. Irradiation is carried out by the N 2 + beam with energy 120 keV and flux density 5 μ/cm 2 at room temperature in vacuum 5x10 -4 Pa. The integral dose of irradiation is 10 17 particle/cm 2 . Nitrogen ion implantation is shown to provide the formation of the modified layer changing friction properties of steel. The friction coefficient can either increase or decrease depending on implantation and test conditions. 4 refs.; 2 figs

  2. Techniques for the implantation of ions in microelectronics. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, W.; Aceves, M.; Linares, M.; Fuentes, S.; Fuentes, I.; Landa, M.; Zuniga, C.; Remolina, J.; Peykov, P.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of ion implantation in the field of microelectronics is indispensable as tool for introducing dopant atoms in a semiconductor material surface. It is possible with sophisticated equipment for selecting and accelerating particle to control precisely the electronic behavior of devices and integrated circuits. At National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics a process has been developed for fabrication Metal Oxide Silicon integrated circuits which utilized a medium powered ion implanter. In this work a review is given of the functions of a basic implanter which is required in making electronic devices and the technique we developed in the department of microelectronics at National Institute of Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics. (Author)

  3. Ion beam studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, J.H.; Chivers, D.J.; Gard, G.A.; Temple, W.

    1977-04-01

    A description of techniques for the production of intense beams of heavy ions is given. A table of recommended operational procedures for most elements is included. The ionisation of boron is considered in some detail because of its particular importance as a dopant for ion implantation. (author)

  4. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokullu Urkac, E.; Oztarhan, A.; Tihminlioglu, F.; Kaya, N.; Ila, D.; Muntele, C.; Budak, S.; Oks, E.; Nikolaev, A.; Ezdesir, A.; Tek, Z.

    2007-08-01

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 1017 ion/cm2 and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  5. Thermal characterization of Ag and Ag + N ion implanted ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokullu Urkac, E. [Department of Materials Science, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey)]. E-mail: emelsu@gmail.com; Oztarhan, A. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Tihminlioglu, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Izmir High Technology Institute, Gulbahcekoyu Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Kaya, N. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Ila, D. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Muntele, C. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Budak, S. [Center for Irradiation of Materials, Alabama A and M University, Normal AL 35762 (United States); Oks, E. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, A. [H C Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ezdesir, A. [R and D Department, PETKIM Holding A.S., Aliaga, Izmir 35801 (Turkey); Tek, Z. [Department of Physics, Celal Bayar University, Manisa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Most of total hip joints are composed of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE ). However, as ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is too stable in a body, wear debris may accumulate and cause biological response such as bone absorption and loosening of prosthesis. In this study, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene samples were Ag and Ag + N hybrid ion implanted by using MEVVA ion implantation technique to improve its surface properties. Samples were implanted with a fluence of 10{sup 17} ion/cm{sup 2} and extraction voltage of 30 kV. Implanted and unimplanted samples were investigated by thermo-gravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy (OM) and contact Angle measurement. Thermal characterization results showed that the ion bombardment induced an increase in the % crystallinity, onset and termination degradation temperatures of UHMWPE.

  6. Modification of amorphous bright chromium deposited (ABCD) films by nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferber, H.; Hoflund, G.B.; Mount, C.K.; Hoshino, Shigeo

    1991-01-01

    The hardness of amorphous bright chromium deposited (ABCD) layers can be increased by annealing or N ion implantation. In this study the N ion implantation parameters which influence hardness have been systematically examined. These parameters include sample pretreatment, ion beam energy and total dose. The properties of the resulting films have been characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy coupled with ion sputtering depth profiling, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Knoop microhardness measurements. Auger depth profiles suggest the formation of a stoichiometric CrN subsurface layer after implantation of high N doses (>8x10 17 N/cm 2 ). With higher doses this layer broadens toward the surface and N retention values decrease rapidly. Implanting at elevated temperatures increases the retained N, causes N to migrate more deeply into the bulk, and yields high hardness values. (orig.)

  7. A review of recent developments in ion implantation for metallurgical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, Ron

    1994-01-01

    Ion implantation emerged during the 1970s as a possible tool for improving the wear and corrosion resistance of metals and alloys. This emergence led to a period of intense activity in the early 1980s, aimed at identifying opportunities for the industrial application of ion implantation. This paper reviews the progress which has been made towards establishing ion implantation as an effective and reliable technique for improving the wear resistance of engineering materials. Particular emphasis is placed on the implantation of nitrogen. It is shown how detailed metallurgical studies have elucidated the role played by the implanted nitrogen in enhancing the resistance to wear of a broad range of alloys. These studies have highlighted the fact that the thin nature of the implanted layer has been a prime factor in restricting the industrial usage of ion implantation to a narrow range of specialized applications. This has resulted in a shift to the development of duplex treatments involving two-stage processes or, more recently, new techniques which allow simultaneous implantation and thermochemical treatment. The capabilities of, and future prospects for, such techniques are discussed. ((orig.))

  8. Application of nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation to titanium nasal implants with nanonetwork surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ying-Sui; Yang, Wei-En [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Zhang, Lan [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhu, Hongqin [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Lan, Ming-Ying [Division of Rhinology, Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan and School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Wei [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, Her-Hsiung, E-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw [Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Department of Bioinformatics and Medical Engineering, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-15

    In nasal reconstruction, the response of cells to titanium (Ti) implants is mainly determined by surface features of the implant. In a pilot study, the authors applied electrochemical anodization to Ti surfaces in an alkaline solution to create a network of nanoscale surface structures. This nanonetwork was intended to enhance the responses of primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEpC) to the Ti surface. In this study, the authors then treated the anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surface using nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (NPIII) in order to further improve the HNEpC response to the Ti surface. Subsequently, surface characterization was performed to elucidate morphology, roughness, wettability, and chemistry of specimens. Cytotoxicity, blood, and HNEpC responses were also evaluated. Our results demonstrate that NPIII treatment led to the formation of a noncytotoxic TiN-containing thin film (thickness <100 nm) on the electrochemically anodized Ti surface with a nanonetwork-structure. NPIII treatment was shown to improve blood clotting and the adhesion of platelets to the anodized Ti surface as well as the adhesion and proliferation of hNEpC. This research spreads our understanding of the fact that a TiN-containing thin film, produced using NPIII treatment, could be used to improve blood and HNEpC responses to anodized, nanonetwork-structured Ti surfaces in nasal implant applications.

  9. Surface energy absorbing layers produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurarie, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    Single crystals of magnesia have been ion implanted with 80 keV Si and Cr ions at variable doses and then subjected to testing in a shock plasma. The peak surface temperature has been calibrated by measuring the size and temperature deformation of the fragments formed by multiple microcracking during thermal shock. the crack density curves for MgO crystals demonstrate that in a wide range of thermal shock intensity the ion implanted crystals develop a system of microcracks of a considerably higher density than the unimplanted ones. The high density of cracks nucleated in the ion implanted samples results in the formation of a surface energy absorbing layer which effectively absorbs elastic strain energy induced by thermal shock. As a consequence the depth of crack penetration in the layer and hence the degree of fracture damage are decreased. the results indicate that a Si implant decreases the temperature threshold of cracking and simultaneously increases the crack density in MgO crystals. However, in MgO crystals implanted with Cr a substantial increase in the crack density is achieved without a noticeable decrease in the temperature threshold of fracture. This effect is interpreted in terms of different Cr and Si implantation conditions and damage. The mechanical properties of the energy-absorbing layer and the relation to implantation-induced lattice damage are discussed. 11 refs., 4 figs

  10. Characterization of diamond amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal diamond has been implanted at 1 MeV with 2 x 10 20 Ar/m 2 . Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeled geometry revealed a broad amorphized region underlying a thin, partially crystalline layer. Raman spectroscopy disclosed modifications in the bonding characteristic of the appearance of non-diamond carbon. The complementary nature of the two analysis techniques is demonstrated. The Knoop hardness of the implanted diamond was reduced by implantation

  11. Fe doped Magnetic Nanodiamonds made by Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chienhsu; Cho, I. C.; Jian, Hui-Shan; Niu, H.

    2017-02-01

    Here we present a simple physical method to prepare magnetic nanodiamonds (NDs) using high dose Fe ion-implantation. The Fe atoms are embedded into NDs through Fe ion-implantation and the crystal structure of NDs are recovered by thermal annealing. The results of TEM and Raman examinations indicated the crystal structure of the Fe implanted NDs is recovered completely. The SQUID-VSM measurement shows the Fe-NDs possess room temperature ferromagnetism. That means the Fe atoms are distributed inside the NDs without affecting NDs crystal structure, so the NDs can preserve the original physical and chemical properties of the NDs. In addition, the ion-implantation-introduced magnetic property might make the NDs to become suitable for variety of medical applications.

  12. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M.; Lazaro, J.; Enriquez, L.; Bailon, L.; Barbolla, J.; Jaraiz, M.

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided

  13. Statistical 3D damage accumulation model for ion implant simulators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez-Mangas, J M; Enriquez, L E; Bailon, L; Barbolla, J; Jaraiz, M

    2003-01-01

    A statistical 3D damage accumulation model, based on the modified Kinchin-Pease formula, for ion implant simulation has been included in our physically based ion implantation code. It has only one fitting parameter for electronic stopping and uses 3D electron density distributions for different types of targets including compound semiconductors. Also, a statistical noise reduction mechanism based on the dose division is used. The model has been adapted to be run under parallel execution in order to speed up the calculation in 3D structures. Sequential ion implantation has been modelled including previous damage profiles. It can also simulate the implantation of molecular and cluster projectiles. Comparisons of simulated doping profiles with experimental SIMS profiles are presented. Also comparisons between simulated amorphization and experimental RBS profiles are shown. An analysis of sequential versus parallel processing is provided.

  14. Surface sputtering in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Microstructures and elemental distributions in high-dose Fe ion implanted Si were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Single crystalline Si(0 0 1) substrates were implanted at 350 deg. C with 120 keV Fe ions to fluences ranging from 0.1 x 10 17 to 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . Extensive damage induced by ion implantation was observed inside the substrate below 1.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 , while a continuous iron silicide layer was formed at 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 . It was found that the spatial distribution of Fe projectiles drastically changes at the fluence between 1.0 x 10 17 and 4.0 x 10 17 /cm 2 due to surface sputtering during implantation

  15. Surface disorder production during plasma immersion implantation and high energy ion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-sherbiny, M.A.; Khanh, N.Q.; Wormeester, Herbert; Fried, M.; Fried, M.; Lohner, T.; Lohner, T.; Pinter, I.; Gyulai, J.

    1996-01-01

    High-depth-resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) combined with channeling technique was used to analyze the surface layer formed during plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of single crystal silicon substrates. Single wavelength multiple angle of incidence ellipsometry (MAIE)

  16. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Ramakrishnan, V. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvanthapuram (India); Asokan, K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E{sub 2} (TO) and the A{sub 1} (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  17. Transition metal swift heavy ion implantation on 4H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. Ashraf; Kumar, J.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Asokan, K.

    2016-03-01

    This work reports on the realization of Quantum Ring (QR) and Quantum Dot (QD) like structures on 4H-SiC through SHI implantation and on their Raman studies. 4H-SiC is SHI implanted with Transition Metal (TM) Ni ion at different fluences. It is observed that a vibrational mode emerges as the result of Ni ion implantation. The E2 (TO) and the A1 (LO) are suppressed as the fluence increases. In this paper Raman and AFM studies have been performed at room temperature and the queer anomalies are addressed so new devices can be fabricated.

  18. Behavior of PET implanted by Ti, Ag, Si and C ion using MEVVA implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Yanwen; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji; Zhou Gu

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalane (PET) has been modified with Ti, Ag, Si and C ions from a metal vapor arc source (MEVVA). Ti, Ag, Si and C ions were implanted with acceleration voltage 40 kV to fluences ranging from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 cm -2 . The surface of implanted PET darkened with increasing ion dose, when the metal ion dose was greater than 1x10 17 cm -2 the color changed to metallic bright. The surface resistance decreases by 5-6 orders of magnitude with increasing dose. The resistivity is stable after long-term storage. The depth of Ti- and Ag-implanted layer is approximately 150 and 80 nm measured by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), respectively. TEM photos revealed the presence of Ti and Ag nano-meter particles on the surface resulting from the high-dose implantation. Ti and Ag ion implantations improved conductivity and wear resistance significantly. The phase and structural changes were obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It can be seen that nano-meter particles of Ti precipitation, TiO 2 and Ti-carbides have been formed in implanted layer. Nano-hardness of implanted PET has been measured by a nano-indenter. The results show that the surface hardness, modulus and wear resistance could be increased

  19. Hardness depth profile of lattice strained cemented carbide modified by high-energy boron ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Y.; Matsumura, A.; Higeta, K.; Inoue, T.; Shimizu, S.; Motonami, Y.; Sato, M.; Sadahiro, T.; Fujii, K.

    1991-07-01

    The hardness depth profiles of cemented carbides which were implanted with high-energy B + ions have been estimated using a dynamic microhardness tester. The B + implantations into (16% Co)-cemented WC alloys were carried out under conditions where the implantation energies were 1-3 MeV and the fluences 1 × 10 17-1 × 10 18ions/cm 2. The profiles show that the implanted layer becomes harder as fluences are chosen at higher values and there is a peak at a certain depth which depends on the implantation energy. In X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of the implanted surface the broadened refraction peaks of only WC and Co are detected and the increments of lattice strain and of residual stress in the near-surface region are observed. It is supposed that the hardening effect should be induced by an increase in residual stress produced by lattice strain. The hardness depth profile in successive implantation of ions with different energies agrees with the compounded profile of each one of the implantations. It is concluded that the hardness depth profile can be controlled under adequate conditions of implantation.

  20. Electrical conductivity enhancement of polyethersulfone (PES) by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridwell, L.B.; Giedd, R.E.; Wang Yongqiang; Mohite, S.S.; Jahnke, T.; Brown, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous polyethersulfone (PES) films have been implanted with a variety of ions (He, B, C, N and As) at a bombarding energy of 50 keV in the dose range 10 16 -10 17 ions/cm 2 . Surface resistance as a function of dose indicates a saturation effect with a significant difference between He and the other ions used. ESR line shapes in the He implanted samples changed from a mixed Gaussian/Lorentzian to a pure Lorentzian and narrowed with increasing dose. Temperature dependent resistivity indicates an electron hopping mechanism for conduction. Infrared results indicate cross-linking or self-cyclization occurred for all implanted ions with further destruction in the case of As. (orig.)

  1. Hardening of cutting tool inserts by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobin, V.N.; Bannikov, M.G.; Draper, P.H.; Zotov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Surface hardening has long been recognized as an important method of increasing the integrity and life of cutting tools. In this work we report preliminary investigations of hardening of conventional hard metal tools by ion implantation Three types of mixed carbide tool inserts were treated by bombardment with 40kV ions of Al, Ti, Zr or W in an ambient of Ar or N/sub 2/, with doses of up to 13*10/sup 17/ ions/cm/sup 2/. The samples were monitored by micro-hardness measurements. Complex behaviors as a function of the implantation dose/time have been observed, and are commented on in terms of the lattice disruption caused by the bombardment. Hardness increments of up to 22 % have been obtained using an ion implanter of industrial size, and cutting tests have shown an improvement, by a factor of three, in the life of these treated tools. (author)

  2. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Optical stability under photo-irradiation of urushi films by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awazu, Kaoru; Funada, Yoshinori; Kasamori, Masato; Sakamoto, Makoto; Ichikawa, Tachio

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen ions, argon ions and others were implanted in urushi-coated surfaces by using a simplified ion implantation apparatus, and the optical stability test was carried out by a sunshine weather meter. The rate of remaining luster on urushi-coated surfaces accompanying ultraviolet irradiation showed respective peculiar behavior according to the kinds of the implanted ions, the time of implantation, transparent and black urushi films, and the use of brightener or not. In electron beam irradiation, change hardly occurred. In urushi-coated products, the luster and the properties are maintained for long period, therefore recently, urushi coating has become to be applied to road sign panels and notice boards in addition to lacquer wares and applied fine art products, and the improvement of the optical stability of urushi films has become the subject. In this study, the experimental methods on urushi coating, ion implantation, the optical stability test and measuring method are explained. The changes of urushi film luster, transmittance, haze, lightness, and chromaticity by nitrogen ion implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Dislocation structures and strengthening of ion-implanted metals and alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkeev, Yu. P.; Didenko, A. N.; Kozlov, É. V.

    1994-05-01

    This article surveys the empirical data on the “long-range effect” (changes in defect structure and physicomechanical properties at distances considerably exceeding the mean free path of ions) seen in the ion implantation of metallic materials and semiconductors. Results are presented from electron-microscope studies of dislocation structures formed in ion-implanted metallic materials which are initially in different states. It is shown that the character of the dislocation structure and its quantitative characteristics in ion-implanted metals and alloys depend on the initial state of the target, the species and energy of the ions, and the radiation dose. Data obtained on the change in microstructure with depth is combined with data from other authors and correlated with the results of a study of macroscopic characteristics (wear resistance, microhardness). It is established that the “long-range effect” is seen in metallic materials which, in addition to having a low yield point or a high degree of plastic strain, also have a low dislocation density prior to ion implantation. Mechanisms by which the defect structure might be modified by ion implantation are explored.

  5. Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Rauwel, P.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.; Hallén, A.; Du, X. L.

    2014-01-01

    Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from 11 B to 209 Bi) to ion doses up to 2 × 10 16  cm −2 . The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600 °C, while co-implantation with B (via BF 2 ) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures ∼500 °C, while the second stage is characterized by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900 °C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability

  6. Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, A. Yu.; Hallén, A.; Du, X. L.; Rauwel, P.; Kuznetsov, A. Yu.; Svensson, B. G.

    2014-02-01

    Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from 11B to 209Bi) to ion doses up to 2 × 1016 cm-2. The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600 °C, while co-implantation with B (via BF2) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures ˜500 °C, while the second stage is characterized by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900 °C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability.

  7. Surface modification of austenitic stainless steel by titanium ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Hyvarinen, J.; Samandi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The wear properties of AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel implanted with Ti were investigated for ion doses in the range (2.3-5.4)x10 16 ionscm -2 and average ion energies of 60 and 90keV. The implanted layer was examined by Rutherford backscattering, from which the retained doses were determined, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. Following implantation, the surface microhardness was observed to increase with the greatest change occurring at higher ion energy. Pin-on-disc wear tests and associated friction measurements were also performed under both dry and lubricated conditions using applied loads of 2N and 10N. In the absence of lubrication, breakthrough of the implanted layer occurred after a short sliding time; only for a dose of 5.1x10 16 ionscm -2 implanted at an average energy of 90keV was the onset of breakthrough appreciably delayed. In contrast, the results of tests with lubrication showed a more gradual variation, with the extent of wear decreasing with implant dose at both 2N and 10N loads. Finally, the influence of Ti implantation on possible wear mechanisms is discussed in the light of information provided by several surface characterization techniques. ((orig.))

  8. Terahertz generation from Cu ion implantation into lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuhua, E-mail: wyh61@163.com [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Ruwu; Yuan, Jie [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan university of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Wang, Yumei [Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2014-03-15

    In this letter, the authors present first observation of terahertz generation from Cu implantation of lithium niobate crystal substrate. Lithium niobate single crystal is grown by Czochralski method. Metal nanoparticles synthesized by Cu ion implantation were implanted into lithium niobate single crystal using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source. 1 kHz, 35 fs laser pulse centred at 800 nm was focused onto the samples. The supercontinuum spectra of the sample are obtained. Terahertz was generated via this kind of sample and investigated using the electro-optical sampling technique. The findings suggest that under the investigated implantation parameter, a strong spectral component in excess of 0.46 THz emission was found from Cu ion implantation of lithium niobate. -- Highlights: • We first observation of terahertz generation from Cu implantation of lithium niobate crystal substrate. • Lithium niobate single crystal is grown by Czochralski method. Cu nanoparticles in lithium niobate have been formed by using MEVVA ion source. • The THz bandwidth and center from this kind of sample were determined.

  9. Formation of shallow junctions for VLSI by ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, several techniques were studied to form shallow junctions in silicon by ion implantation. These include ion implantation through thin layers of silicon dioxide and ion implantation through a thick polycrystalline silicon layer. These techniques can be used to reduce the junction depth. Their main disadvantage is dopant loss in the surface layer. As an alternative, preamorphization of the Si substrate prior to boron implantation to reduce boron channeling was investigated. The disadvantage of preamorphization is the radiation damage introduced into the Si substrate using the implant. Preamorphization by silicon self-implantation has been studied before. The goal of this study was to test Ge as an alternative amorphizing agent. It was found that good-quality p + -n junctions can be formed by both boron and BF 2 ion implantation into Ge-preamorphized Si provided that the preamorphization conditions are optimized. If the amorphous crystalline interface is sufficiently close to the surface, it is possible to completely remove the end-of-range damage. If these defects are not removed and are left in the depletion region, they can result in poor-quality, leaky junctions

  10. Modification of magnetic properties of polyethyleneterephthalate by iron ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukashevich, M.G.; Batlle, X.; Labarta, A.; Popok, V.N.; Zhikharev, V.A.; Khaibullin, R.I.; Odzhaev, V.B.

    2007-01-01

    Fe + ions (40 keV) were implanted into polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) films with fluences of (0.25-1.5) x 10 17 cm -2 . Magnetic properties of the synthesised Fe:PET composites were studied using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) technique in temperature range of 2-300 K. For range of fluences (0.5-0.75) x 10 17 cm -2 the samples reveal superparamagnetic behaviour at room temperature. At fluences above 0.75 x 10 17 cm -2 the strong increase of magnetisation and transition to ferromagnetic properties are registered. Analysis of the magnetic hysteresis loops suggests an easy plane magnetic anisotropy similar to that found for thin magnetic films. Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) temperature measurements of magnetisation are found to be in agreement with earlier observed formation of Fe nanoparticles (NPs) in the implanted layers. The growth and agglomeration of the NPs forming the quasi-continuous labyrinth-like structure in the polymer film at the highest implantation fluence of 1.5 x 10 17 cm -2 is an origin for the transition to the ferromagnetic properties

  11. Mixing of phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, H.L.; Lam, Y.W.; Wong, S.P.; Poon, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of mixing phosphorus and antimony ions in silicon by recoil implantation were examined. The electrical properties after ion mixing were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained using other techniques. Different degrees of activation were also studied, by investigating the annealing behaviour. (U.K.)

  12. Compression of self-ion implanted iron micropillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieveson, E.M.; Armstrong, D.E.J.; Xu, S.; Roberts, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Self-ion implantation used to cause cascade damage in pure iron. ► Increase in hardness measured in implanted region using nanoindentation. ► Micropillars manufactured and tested in both implanted and unimplanted material. ► Marked difference in deformation mechanisms in each set of pillars seen using scanning electron microscopy. ► No difference in yield stress seen, suggesting it is difficult to use micro-compression to understand bulk properties. - Abstract: Ion implantation causes displacement damage in materials, leading to the formation of small dislocation loops and can cause changes to the material’s mechanical properties. Samples of pure Fe were subjected to Fe + implantation at 275 °C, producing damage of ∼6 dpa to ∼1 μm depth. Nanoindentation into implanted material shows an increase in hardness compared to unimplanted material. Micropillars were manufactured in cross-section specimens of implanted and unimplanted material and compressed using a nanoindenter. The implanted pillars have a deformation mode which differs markedly from the unimplanted pillars but show no change in yield-stress. This suggests that the controlling mechanism for deformation is different between nanoindentation and micropillar compression and that care is needed if using micropillar compression to extract bulk properties of irradiated materials.

  13. Modification of ion implanted or irradiated single crystal sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yin; Zhang Chonghong; Wang Zhiguang; Zhao Zhiming; Yao Cunfeng; Zhou Lihong; Jin Yunfan

    2006-01-01

    Single crystal sapphire (Al 2 O 3 ) samples were implanted at 600 K by He, Ne and Ar ions with energy of 110 keV to doses ranging from 5 x 10 16 to 2 x 10 17 ion/cm 2 or irradiated at 320 K by 208 Pb 27+ ion with energy of 1.1 MeV/u to the fluences ranging from 1 x 10 12 to 5 x 10 14 ion/cm 2 . The modification of structure and optical properties induced by ion implantation or irradiation were analyzed by using photoluminescence (PL) and Fourier transformation infrared spectrum (FTIR) spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. The PL measurements showed that absorption peaks located at 375, 413 and 450 nm appeared in all the implanted or irradiated samples, the PL intensities reached up to the maximum for the 5 x 10 16 ion/cm 2 implanted samples. After Pb-ion irradiation, a new peak located at 390 nm formed. TEM analyses showed that small size voids (1-2 nm) with high density were formed in the region from the surface till to about 100 nm in depth and also large size Ne-bubble formed in the Ne-doped region. Form the obtained FTIR spectra, it was found that Pb-ion irradiation induced broadening of the absorption band in 460-510 cm -1 and position shift of the absorption band in 1000-1300 cm -1 towards to high wavenumber. The possible damage mechanism in single crystal sapphire induced by energetic ion implantation or irradiation was briefly discussed. (authors)

  14. Ion implantation and ion beam analysis of lithium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on implantations of He and Ti made into LiNbO 3 and the H and Li profiles determined by elastic recoil detection (ERD) techniques. The loss of Li and gain of H depends upon the supply of surface H (surface contaminants or ambient atmosphere). For 50 KeV He implants into LiNbO 3 through a 200 Angstrom Al film, the small Li loss is governed by the interface H. This is also the case for He implants into uncoated LiNbO 3 in a beam line with low hydrocarbon surface contamination; similar implants under conditions of greater hydrocarbon deposition result in proportionally larger Li loss and H gain in the implant damage region. The exchange is possible only for those He energies, i.e., 50 keV, where the damage profile intersects the surface. For Ti implants Li is lost with little H gain. For this case the Li loss is believed to result from radiation-enhanced diffusion. Where He implantation is used to establish waveguiding in LiNbO 3 , the presence or absence of H in the implanted region is crucial with regard to refractive index stability, due to the replacement of H by Li from the bulk

  15. Ion Implantation of In0.53Ga0.47As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almonte, Marlene Isabel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Studies of the effects of implanation in In0.53Ga0.47As due to damage by implantation of Ne+ ions and to compensation by implantation of Fe+ ions are reported in this thesis.

  16. N + surface doping on nanoscale polymer fabrics via ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Wong, Kenneth Kar; Zinke-Allmang, Martin; Wan, Wankei

    2006-08-01

    Non-woven poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fabrics composed of small diameter (∼110 nm) fibers have been spun by an electrospinning technique and then have been modified by ion implantation. 1.7 MeV N+ ion implantation with a dose of 1.2 × 1016 ions/cm2 was applied on the fabrics through a metal foil at room temperature. By using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), no surface morphology degradation has been observed on the fabric after the ion beam treatment. The diameter of the fibers has shrunk by 30% to about 74 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) show that nitrogen surface doping was achieved and the formation of two new functional chemical groups (N-Cdbnd O and C-N) in the PVA is observed.

  17. Magnetic patterning by means of ion irradiation and implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, J.; McCord, J.

    2008-01-01

    A pure magnetic patterning by means of ion irradiation which relies on a local modification of the magnetic anisotropy of a magnetic multilayer structure has been first demonstrated in 1998. Since then also other magnetic properties like the interlayer exchange coupling, the exchange bias effect, the magnetic damping behavior and the saturation magnetization to name a few have also been demonstrated to be affected by ion irradiation or ion implantation. Consequently, all these effects can be used if combined with a masking technique or employing direct focused ion beam writing for a magnetic patterning and thus an imprinting of an artificial magnetic domain structure, which subsequently modifies the integral magnetization reversal behavior or the magnetization dynamics of the film investigated. The present review will summarize how ion irradiation and implantation can affect the magnetic properties by means of structural modifications. The main part will cover the present status with respect to the pure magnetic patterning of micro- and nano structures

  18. Defects and defect generation in oxide layer of ion implanted silicon-silicon dioxide structures

    CERN Document Server

    Baraban, A P

    2002-01-01

    One studies mechanism of generation of defects in Si-SiO sub 2 structure oxide layer as a result of implantation of argon ions with 130 keV energy and 10 sup 1 sup 3 - 3.2 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 doses. Si-SiO sub 2 structures are produced by thermal oxidation of silicon under 950 deg C temperature. Investigations were based on electroluminescence technique and on measuring of high-frequency volt-farad characteristics. Increase of implantation dose was determined to result in spreading of luminosity centres and in its maximum shifting closer to boundary with silicon. Ion implantation was shown, as well, to result in increase of density of surface states at Si-SiO sub 2 interface. One proposed model of defect generation resulting from Ar ion implantation into Si-SiO sub 2

  19. Physical property of disordered-GaAs produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojima, Shunji

    1979-01-01

    The properties of disordered-GaAs produced by ion implantation and its annealing behaviors are investigated for ion species of H, Be, P, and As, from the viewpoints of both the electrical property and the physical structure of the disordered layer. From the study of the electron diffraction for implanted layers and of the conductivity due to defects as a function of dose, depth, measuring temperature, and annealing temperature, the following two facts are clarified: first, the conductivity due to defects can be a good measure for the degree of disorder in GaAs produced by ion implantation, when it is less than --1 Ω -1 cm -1 . Second, the localized states originating from defects are distributed with the same density in the high dose implanted layer, in spite of the degree of disorder in the physical structure. (author)

  20. CEMS and XRD studies on changing shape of iron nano-particles by irradiation of Au ions of Fe-implanted Al2O3 granular layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T.; Wakabayashi, H.; Hashimoto, M.; Toriyama, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Hayashi, N.; Sakamoto, I.

    2007-01-01

    In order to observe an inverse Ostwald ripening of Fe nano-particles in Fe-implanted Al 2 O 3 granular layers, 3 MeV Au ions were irradiated to Fe nano-particles in these layers with doses of 0.5x and 1.5x10 16 ions/cm 2 . It was found by Conversion Electron Mossbauer Spectroscopy (CEMS) that the inverse Ostwald ripening occurred by fractions of percentages and the magnetic anisotropy of Fe nano-particles was induced to the direction of Au ion beam, i.e. perpendicular to the granular plane. The average crystallite diameters of Fe nano-particles for Au ions unirradiated and irradiated samples were measured using Scherrer's formula from FWHM of Fe (110) X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns obtained by 2θ and 2θ/θ methods. It was confirmed that the average crystallite diameters of Fe nano-particles in Fe-implanted Al 2 O 3 granular layers were extended by Au ions irradiation. (author)

  1. Ion implantation for manufacturing bent and periodically bent crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo, E-mail: guidi@fe.infn.it; Mazzolari, Andrea; Paternò, Gianfranco [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1/c, 44122 Ferrara, Italy and INFN, Section of Ferrara (Italy); Mattei, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.mattei@unipd.it; Scian, Carlo [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lanzoni, Luca [Dipertimento di Economia e Tecnologia, Università degli Studi della Repubblica di San Marino, Salita alla Rocca, 44, 47890 San Marino Città (San Marino)

    2015-08-10

    Ion implantation is proposed to produce self-standing bent monocrystals. A Si sample 0.2 mm thick was bent to a radius of curvature of 10.5 m. The sample curvature was characterized by interferometric measurements; the crystalline quality of the bulk was tested by X-ray diffraction in transmission geometry through synchrotron light at ESRF (Grenoble, France). Dislocations induced by ion implantation affect only a very superficial layer of the sample, namely, the damaged region is confined in a layer 1 μm thick. Finally, an elective application of a deformed crystal through ion implantation is here proposed, i.e., the realization of a crystalline undulator to produce X-ray beams.

  2. Ion implantation of graphene-toward IC compatible technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangert, U; Pierce, W; Kepaptsoglou, D M; Ramasse, Q; Zan, R; Gass, M H; Van den Berg, J A; Boothroyd, C B; Amani, J; Hofsäss, H

    2013-10-09

    Doping of graphene via low energy ion implantation could open possibilities for fabrication of nanometer-scale patterned graphene-based devices as well as for graphene functionalization compatible with large-scale integrated semiconductor technology. Using advanced electron microscopy/spectroscopy methods, we show for the first time directly that graphene can be doped with B and N via ion implantation and that the retention is in good agreement with predictions from calculation-based literature values. Atomic resolution high-angle dark field imaging (HAADF) combined with single-atom electron energy loss (EEL) spectroscopy reveals that for sufficiently low implantation energies ions are predominantly substitutionally incorporated into the graphene lattice with a very small fraction residing in defect-related sites.

  3. Multifunctions of dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium on osteogenesis, angiogenesis and bacteria inhibition for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqiang; Jin, Guodong; Xue, Yang; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong; Sun, Jiao

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the osseointegration and long-term survival of dental implants, it is urgent to develop a multifunctional titanium surface which would simultaneously have osteogeneic, angiogeneic and antibacterial properties. In this study, a potential dental implant material-dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium (Zn/Mg-PIII) was developed via plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The Zn/Mg-PIII surfaces were found to promote initial adhesion and spreading of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) via the upregulation of the gene expression of integrin α1 and integrin β1. More importantly, it was revealed that Zn/Mg-PIII could increase Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations in rBMSCs by promoting the influx of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ and inhibiting the outflow of Zn 2+ , and then could enhance the transcription of Runx2 and the expression of ALP and OCN. Meanwhile, Mg 2+ ions from Zn/Mg-PIII increased Mg 2+ influx by upregulating the expression of MagT1 transporter in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and then stimulated the transcription of VEGF and KDR via activation of hypoxia inducing factor (HIF)-1α, thus inducing angiogenesis. In addition to this, it was discovered that zinc in Zn/Mg-PIII had certain inhibitory effects on oral anaerobic bacteria (Pg, Fn and Sm). Finally, the Zn/Mg-PIII implants were implanted in rabbit femurs for 4 and 12weeks with Zn-PIII, Mg-PIII and pure titanium as controls. Micro-CT evaluation, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis and push-out test consistently demonstrated that Zn/Mg-PIII implants exhibit superior capacities for enhancing bone formation, angiogenesis and osseointegration, while consequently increasing the bonding strength at bone-implant interfaces. All these results suggest that due to the multiple functions co-produced by zinc and magnesium, rapid osseointegration and sustained biomechanical stability are enhanced by the novel Zn/Mg-PIII implants, which have the potential

  4. Implantation and annealing studies of Tm-implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Wahl, U.; Monteiro, T.; Dalmasso, S.; Martin, R.W.; O'Donnell, K.P.; Vianden, R.

    2003-01-01

    Thulium ions were implanted into metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN films with different fluences at implantation temperatures of 20, 400 and 500 deg. C. Subsequent annealing of the samples was performed in a rapid thermal annealing apparatus. The lattice damage introduced by the implantation and the effect of post-implant annealing were investigated with the Rutherford backscattering (RBS)/channelling technique. We observe that implantation at 500 deg. C considerably reduces the induced lattice damage and increases the amorphisation threshold. The lattice-site location of the implanted ions was determined by performing detailed channelling measurements for the and crystal directions. The results show that Tm ions mainly occupy substitutional Ga-sites directly after implantation and after annealing. The optical properties of the ion-implanted GaN films have been studied by room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. Well-defined emission due to intra-4f shell transitions of the Tm 3+ ions are observed in the blue spectral range at 477 nm and in the near infra-red (IR) at 804 nm

  5. Surface modification of polymeric substrates by plasma-based ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuji, S.; Sekiya, M.; Nakabayashi, M.; Endo, H.; Sakudo, N.; Nagai, K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma-based ion implantation (PBII) as a tool for polymer modification is studied. Polymeric films have good performances for flexible use, such as food packaging or electronic devices. Compared with inorganic rigid materials, polymers generally have large permeability for gases and moisture, which causes packaged contents and devices to degrade. In order to add a barrier function, surface of polymeric films are modified by PBII. One of the advantageous features of this method over deposition is that the modified surface does not have peeling problem. Besides, micro-cracks due to mechanical stress in the modified layer can be decreased. From the standpoint of mass production, conventional ion implantation that needs low-pressure environment of less than 10-3 Pa is not suitable for continuous large-area processing, while PBII works at rather higher pressure of several Pa. In terms of issues mentioned above, PBII is one of the most expected techniques for modification on flexible substrates. However, the mechanism how the barrier function appears by ion implantation is not well explained so far. In this study, various kinds of polymeric films, including polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), are modified by PBII and their barrier characteristics that depend on the ion dose are evaluated. In order to investigate correlations of the barrier function with implanted ions, modified surface is analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It is assumed that the diffusion and sorption coefficients are changed by ion implantation, resulting in higher barrier function.

  6. Ion implantation artifacts observed in depth profiling boron in silicon by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, P.; Simons, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    A comparison study of depth profiling by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) was recently conducted. The specimens were portions of 5 cm diameter single crystal silicon slices in which B-10 had been implanted at various fluences and energies. NDP measurements were made on a 13 mm diameter area at the center of the wafers. SIMS measurements were taken from a 60 μm diameter area approximately 16 mm from the center of the wafer. One observation that emerged from this work was an apparent discrepancy between the profiles of B-10 measured by DNP and SIMS. The peaks of the SIMS profiles were typically deeper than those of NDP by as much as 30 nm, which is 10% of the projected range for a 70 keV implant. Moreover, the profiles could not be made to coincide by either a constant shift or a proportional change of one depth scale with respect to the other. The lateral inhomogeneity of boron that these experiments have demonstrated arises from the variable contribution of ion channeling during implantation

  7. Synergistic effects of iodine and silver ions co-implanted in 6H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhudzai, R. J.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; van der Berg, N. G.; Devaraj, A.; Zhu, Z.; Nandasiri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H-SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H-SiC and their subsequent annealing behaviour has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 °C for 30 h in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H-SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings.

  8. Development of a CMOS process using high energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolmeijer, A.

    1986-01-01

    The main interest of this thesis is the use of complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) in electronic technology. Problems in developing a CMOS process are mostly related to the isolation well of p-n junctions. It is shown that by using high energy ion implantation, it is possible to reduce lateral dimensions to obtain a rather high packing density. High energy ion implantation is also presented as a means of simplifying CMOS processing, since extended processing steps at elevated temperatures are superfluous. Process development is also simplified. (Auth.)

  9. Synergistic effect of nanotopography and bioactive ions on peri-implant bone response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yingmin Su,1 Satoshi Komasa,1 Peiqi Li,2 Mariko Nishizaki,1 Luyuan Chen,1 Chisato Terada,1 Shigeki Yoshimine,1 Hiroshi Nishizaki,1 Joji Okazaki1 1Department of Removable Prosthodontics and Occlusion, 2Department of Oral Implantology, Osaka Dental University, Hirakata, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Both bioactive ion chemistry and nanoscale surface modifications are beneficial for enhanced osseointegration of endosseous implants. In this study, a facile synthesis approach to the incorporation of bioactive Ca2+ ions into the interlayers of nanoporous structures (Ca-nano formed on a Ti6Al4V alloy surface was developed by sequential chemical and heat treatments. Samples with a machined surface and an Na+ ion-incorporated nanoporous surface (Na-nano fabricated by concentrated alkali and heat treatment were used in parallel for comparison. The bone response was investigated by microcomputed tomography assessment, sequential fluorescent labeling analysis, and histological and histomorphometric evaluation after 8 weeks of implantation in rat femurs. No significant differences were found in the nanotopography, surface roughness, or crystalline properties of the Ca-nano and Na-nano surfaces. Bone–implant contact was better in the Ca-nano and Na-nano implants than in the machined implant. The Ca-nano implant was superior to the Na-nano implant in terms of enhancing the volume of new bone formation. The bone formation activity consistently increased for the Ca-nano implant but ceased for the Na-nano implant in the late healing stage. These results suggest that Ca-nano implants have promising potential for application in dentistry and orthopedics. Keywords: surface modification, nanotopography, bioactive ion, osteoinduction, osseointegration

  10. Effect of ion implantation on thin hard coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auner, G.; Hsieh, Y.F.; Padmanabhan, K.R.; Chevallier, J.; Soerensen, G.

    1983-01-01

    The surface mechanical properties of thin hard coatings of carbides, nitrides and borides deposited by r.f. sputtering were improved after deposition by ion implantation. The thickness and the stoichiometry of the films were measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis before and after ion bombardment. The post ion bombardment was achieved with heavy inert ions such as Kr + and Xe + with an energy sufficient to penetrate the film and to reach the substrate. Both the film adhesion and the microhardness were consistently improved. In order to achieve a more detailed understanding, Rb + and Ni + ions were also used as projectiles, and it was found that these ions were more effective than the inert gas ions. (Auth.)

  11. Effects of sulphur ion implantation on the electrochemical behaviour of two stainless steels in sulphuric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader-Roux, J.; Becdelievre, A.M. de; Gaillard, F.; Roux, R.; Becdelievre, J. de

    1986-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour in sulphuric acid of two austenitic stainless steels (AISI 304 L and AISI 321) modified by sulphur ion implantation has been studied. Surface analysis of oxygen and sulphur by LEEIXS and XRFS were performed before and after polarization on unimplanted and on implanted samples. I/E curves with implanted steels reveal an important corrosion peak (α peak) recovering widely the active peak of unimplanted samples. For high implanted doses, another peak (β peak) appears in the passive range. High doses implanted steels polarized in the range of the α peak exhibit a sulphur enriched black surface layer. SEM examination of this layer shows it is constituted by flakes rolling up themselves. The formation of a superficial non-protective sulphide layer and the internal stresses of this layer explain the corrosion enhancement of sulphur implanted materials. After dissolution of this layer the behaviour of unimplanted steels is found again. (author)

  12. Synergistic effects of iodine and silver ions co-implanted in 6H–SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhudzai, R.J.; Malherbe, J.B.; Hlatshwayo, T.T.; Berg, N.G. van der; Devaraj, A.; Zhu, Z.; Nandasiri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the aim of understanding the release of fission products through the SiC coating of fuel kernels in modern high temperature nuclear reactors, a fundamental investigation is conducted to understand the synergistic effects of implanted silver (Ag) and iodine (I) in 6H–SiC. The implantation of the individual species, as well as the co-implantation of 360 keV ions of I and Ag at room temperature in 6H–SiC and their subsequent annealing behaviour has been investigated by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), Atom Probe Tomography (APT) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). SIMS and APT measurements indicated the presence of Ag in the co-implanted samples after annealing at 1500 °C for 30 h in sharp contrast to the samples implanted with Ag only. In samples implanted with Ag only, complete loss of the implanted Ag was observed. However, for I only implanted samples, some iodine was retained. APT of annealed co-implanted 6H–SiC showed clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters in SiC, which can be attributed to the observed I assisted retention of Ag after annealing. Such detailed studies will be necessary to identify the fundamental mechanism of fission products migration through SiC coatings. - Highlights: • Co-implantation of Ag and I ions in 6H–SiC was performed. • Clear spatial association of Ag and I clusters observed after annealing. • Complete loss of Ag after high temperature annealing of silver only sample. • Iodine was retained in iodine only sample after high temperature annealing. • Iodine was found to play a role in the retention of Ag in the co-implanted samples.

  13. Corrosion behavior of low energy, high temperature nitrogen ion-implanted AISI 304 stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoranneviss, M.; Shokouhy, A.; Larijani, M. M.; Haji Hosseini, S. H.; Yari, M.; Anvari, A.; Gholipur Shahraki, M.; Sari, A. H.; Hantehzadeh, M. R.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the results of a low-energy nitrogen ion implantation of AISI 304 type stainless steel (SS) at a moderate temperature of about 500°C. The nitrogen ions are extracted from a Kauffman-type ion source at an energy of 30 keV, and ion current density of 100 μA cm^{-2}. Nitrogen ion concentration of 6 × 10^{17}, 8 × 10^{17} and 10^{18} ions cm^{-2}, were selected for our study. The X-ray diffraction results show the formation of CrN polycrystalline phase after nitrogen bombardment and a change of crystallinity due to the change in nitrogen ion concentration. The secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) results show the formation of CrN phases too. Corrosion test has shown that corrosion resistance is enhanced by increasing nitrogen ion concentration.

  14. Application of TXRF for ion implanter dose matching experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, M. R.; French, M.; Harris, W.

    2004-06-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been utilized for many years to measure the dose of ion implants in silicon for the purpose of verifying the ability of ion implantation equipment to accurately and reproducibly implant the desired species at the target dose. The development of statistically and instrumentally rigorous protocols has lead to high confidence levels, particularly with regard to accuracy and short-term repeatability. For example, high-dose, high-energy B implant dosimetry can be targeted to within ±1%. However, performing dose determination experiments using SIMS does have undesirable aspects, such as being highly labor intensive and sample destructive. Modern total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) instruments are equipped with capabilities for full 300 mm wafer handling, automated data acquisition software and intense X-ray sources. These attributes enable the technique to overcome the SIMS disadvantages listed above, as well as provide unique strengths that make it potentially highly amenable to implanter dose matching. In this paper, we report on data collected to date that provides confidence that TXRF is an effective and economical method to perform these measurements within certain limitations. We have investigated a number of ion implanted species that are within the "envelope" of TXRF application. This envelope is defined by a few important parameters. Species: For the anode materials used in the more common X-ray sources on the market, each has its own set of elements that can be detected. We have investigated W and Mo X-ray sources, which are the most common in use in commercial instrumentation. Implant energy: In general, if the energy of the implanted species is too high (or more specifically, the distribution of the implanted species is too deep), the amount of dopant not detected by TXRF may be significant, increasing the error of the measurement. Therefore, for each species investigated, the implant energy cannot exceed a

  15. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    implantation technology. MUKESH KUMAR*, RAJKUMAR†, DINESH KUMAR and P J GEORGE. Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India. †Semiconductor Complex Ltd., Industrial Area Phase 8, Mohali 160 059, India. Abstract. Many semiconductor integrated circuit ...

  16. Large area buried nanopatterning by broad ion implantation without any mask or direct writing

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar, Prasanta; Satpati, Biswarup

    2013-01-01

    We have introduced here a simple, single step and cost effective broad ion beam technique for preparation of nanoscale electronic, magnetic, optical and mechanical devices without the need of resist, mask, or focused electron and ion beams. In this approach, broad beam ion implantation of desired atom on a prefabricated ion beam patterned surface promotes site selective deposition by adjusting the local angle of ion implantation. We show that implantation of Fe ions on an O+ induced pre fabri...

  17. Anticorrosion ion implantation of fragments of zirconium fuel can specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, B.A.; Osipov, V.V.; Volkov, N.V.; Khernov, V.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Aimed at the study of specific features of oxide film formation in the initial stage of Eh110 and Eh635 alloy fuel can oxidation the modification of tubular specimen surfaces is performed using an ion mixing technique, and the structure of oxide films produced in a steam-water environment is investigated. Using the method of vacuum vapor deposition the outer surface of specimens is coated with alloying element films irradiated by a polyenergetic Ar + ion beam with a 10 keV mean energy up to radiation doses of (7-10) x 10 17 ion/cm 2 . Monatomic (Al, Fe, Cu, Cr, Mo, Sn) or diatomic (Al-Fe, Al-Mo, Al-Sn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Mo, Fe-Sn, Cr-Mo, Cr-Sn) implantation into a zirconium cladding occurs under irradiation effect. The positive influence of combined intrusion of Al and other elements is revealed. The presence of Al atoms enhances the oxide film structure. The least ZeO 2 film thickness is observed when alloying with molybdenum, Al-Fe, Al-Mo and Al-Sn [ru

  18. Structure, morphology and melting hysteresis of ion-implanted nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, H.H.; Johnson, E.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations of nanosized metal and semimetal inclusions produced by ion implantation in aluminium are reviewed. The inclusions are from 1 nm to 15 nm in size and contain from 80 to 100,000 atoms. Embedded crystallites, which are topotactically aligned with the surrounding matrix, may not be produced in this size range by any other method. The inclusions offer unique possibilities for study of the influence of interfaces on the crystal structure of the inclusions as well as on their melting and solidification behaviour. Studies are made with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron- and x-ray diffraction and in situ RBS- channeling measurements. Bi, Cd, In, Pb and Tl inclusions all show a substantial melting/solidification temperature hysteresis, which, in all cases except for Bi, is placed around the bulk melting temperature, while bismuth melts below that temperature. (au) 46 refs

  19. The effect of MEVVA ion implantation on the tribological properties of PVD-TiN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manory, R.; Mollica, S.

    1998-01-01

    The present work is the first study in which the effects of metal evaporation vacuum (MEVVA) implantation are studied on TiN of the PVD type which is commercially available in Australia. The MEVVA ion implanter differs from the 'conventional' type of ion implanter in the fact that it has a high throughput of metal ions which are not mass analysed and therefore has more potential for industrial non-electronic applications. TiN-coated steel samples have been implanted with two types of species - one light and one heavy - C + and W + respectively. The samples were analysed by Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The tribological performance was assessed by pin-on-disc and microhardness. The results show that carbon implantation was very effective in improving the friction coefficient by the formation of a carbonaceous layer on the surface. XRD also shows formation of TiC in the near surface region. W implantation does not improve the friction coefficient but improves the lifetime of the coating. Unimplanted films fail in the pin-on-disk test after 7000 cycles, whereas implanted films are still well adhered after 18000 cycles

  20. Chemical effects induced by ion implantation in molecular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foti, G.; Calcagno, L. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Struttura della Materia); Puglisi, O. (Catania Univ. (Italy). Ist. Dipartimentale di Chimica e di Chimica Industriale)

    1983-05-01

    Ion implantation in molecular solids as ice, frozen noble gases, benzene and polymers produces a large amount of new molecules compared to the starting materials. Mass and energy analysis of ejected molecules together with the erosion yield, are discussed for several ion-target combinations at low temperature. The observed phenomena are analyzed in terms of deposited energy in electronic and nuclear collisions, for incoming beams, as helium or argon, in the range 10-2000 keV.

  1. Very broad beam metal ion source for large area ion implantation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Yao, X.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have made and operated a very broad beam version of vacuum arc ion source and used it to carry out high energy metal ion implantation of a particularly large substrate. A multiple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source was coupled to a 50 cm diameter beam extractor (multiple aperture, accel-decel configuration) operated at a net extraction voltage of up to 50 kV. The metal ion species chosen were Ni and Ta. The mean ion charge state for Ni and Ta vacuum arc plasmas is 1.8 and 2.9, respectively, and so the mean ion energies were up to about 90 and 145 keV, respectively. The ion source was operated in a repetitively pulsed mode with pulse length 250 μs and repetition rate several pulses per second. The extracted beam had a gaussian profile with FWHM about 35 cm, giving a nominal beam area of about 1,000 cm 2 . The current of Ni or Ta metal ions in the beam was up to several amperes. The targets for the ion implantation were a number of 24-inch long, highly polished Cu rails from an electromagnetic rail gun. The rails were located about 80 cm away from the ion source extractor grids, and were moved across a diameter of the vessel in such a way as to maximize the uniformity of the implant along the rail. The saturation retained dose for Ta was limited to about 4 x 10 16 cm -2 because of the rather severe sputtering, in accordance with the theoretical expectations for these implantation conditions. Here they describe the ion source, the implantation procedure, and the kinds of implants that can be produced in this way

  2. Materials science issues of plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastasi, M.; Faehl, R.J.; Elmoursi, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ion beam processing, including ion implantation and ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), are established surface modification techniques which have been used successfully to synthesize materials for a wide variety of tribological applications. In spite of the flexibility and promise of the technique, ion beam processing has been considered too expensive for mass production applications. However, an emerging technology, Plasma Source Ion Implantation (PSII), has the potential of overcoming these limitations to become an economically viable tool for mass industrial applications. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma and then pulsed-biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for intricate target geometries without complicated fixturing. If the bias is a relatively high negative potential (20--100 kV) ion implantation will result. At lower voltages (50--1,200 V), deposition occurs. Potential applications for PSII are in low-value-added products such as tools used in manufacturing, orthopedic devices, and the production of wear coatings for hard disk media. This paper will focus on the technology and materials science associated with PSII

  3. Single track regime in ion implanted polystyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licciardello, A.; Puglisi, O.; Calcagno, L.; Foti, G.

    1988-05-01

    The molecular weight distribution (MWD) of nearly monodisperse polystyrene thin films is heavily affected by ion bombardment. The main effect is an increase of the MW and is detectable at fluences as low as 10/sup 11/ ions cm/sup -2/ for 400 keV Ar/sup +/ bombardment. A statistical model, here outlined for the first time, allows us the predict the size distribution of these high MW components. From the analysis of the MWD curves one can extract useful information concerning the lateral dimensions of the ion tracks.

  4. On the nature of the disordered layer produced by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellama, K.; Germain, P.; Squelard, S.; Bourgoin, J.C.; Piaguet, J.; Robic, J.Y.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to compare some thermodynamic parameters measured in amorphous layers produced by evaporation and in disordered layers produced by ion implantation (which will be called implanted layers). The thermodynamics parameters studied are: the temperature of the annealing stages (reflecting the activation energies for atomic rearrangement) and the activation energy of the growth rate for crystallization. This investigation has been performed in germanium because the crystallization in this material has been extensively studied. (author)

  5. A study on irradiation damage of solid 5'-dTMP implanted by low energy N+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    1995-01-01

    The yields of inorganic phosphate and base released from 5'-dTMP irradiated by 30 keV N + ion beam were investigated. The fluence effects of these yields and the influence with 0.1 mol/L NaOH treatment on them were presented. It was shown that the alkali treatment would not only increase the yield of inorganic phosphate, but also damage and then split base released from the irradiated 5'-dTMP. When the irradiated samples were treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH immediately, the yield of inorganic phosphate was increased by a factor of 1.7 and the concentration of base decreased to half of that in the sample's water solution. Furthermore, the yield of inorganic phosphate would increase by a factor of 2.8 after 40 min of alkali treatment. Irradiation effects of ion beam were mainly direct ones and had a higher value of G(P i ), greater than 0.44 molecule/100 eV

  6. On the annealing behaviour of dysprosium ion implanted nickel: a combined study using Rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and total current spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadderton, L.T.; Johnson, E.

    1977-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in applications of the analytical method of Rutherford backscattering (RBS) to solid state physics it is recognized that more complete information can be obtained if other techniques - for example transmission electron microscopy (TEM) - are employed simultaneously. Experiments are described in which a combined RBS and TEM study of the annealing of nickel, rendered amorphous by implantation of 20 keV dysprosium ions is supplemented with a completely new technique - total current spectroscopy (TCS). In TCS low energy electrons (0-15 eV) are used to probe the damaged nickel. Observations have been made during annealing of both the reappearance of the bulk band structure of the metal and of a 'surface peak' which is highly sensitive to the recovery process. Changes in the height of the surface peak reveal three sharp annealing stages, the first two being preceded by reverse annealing which correlates well with RBS and TEM results. The first annealing stage - following the amorphous to crystalline transition - may be associated with electronic effects in the vicinity of the Curie point. Changes in the position of the surface peak allow one to trace the diffusion of dysprosium to the surface. Quantum mechanical resonances at the damage/crystal interface have also been followed throughout annealing. The initially amorphous layer (approximately 2.2nm) increases in thickness slightly during recovery. (Auth.)

  7. Adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms in ion implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    The distinction between adhesive and abrasive wear processes was introduced originally by Burwell during the nineteen-fifties, though some authors prefer to classify wear according to whether it is mild or severe. It is argued here that, on the basis of the performance of a variety of ion implanted metal surfaces, exposed to different modes of wear, the Burwell distinction is a valid one which, moreover, enables us to predict under which circumstances a given treatment will perform well. It is shown that, because wear rates under abrasive conditions are very sensitive to the ratio of the hardness of the surface to that of the abrasive particles, large increases in working life are attainable as a result of ion implantation. Under adhesive wear conditions, the wear rate appears to fall inversely as the hardness increases, and it is advantageous to implant species which will create and retain a hard surface oxide or other continuous film in order to reduce metal-metal contact. By the appropriate combination of physico-chemical changes in an implanted layer it has been possible to reduce wear rates by up to three orders of magnitude. Such rates compensate for the shallow depths achievable by ion implantation. (orig.)

  8. Damage and in-situ annealing during ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadana, D.K.; Washburn, J.; Byrne, P.F.; Cheung, N.W.

    1982-11-01

    Formation of amorphous (α) layers in Si during ion implantation in the energy range 100 keV-11 MeV and temperature range liquid nitrogen (LN)-100 0 C has been investigated. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) shows that buried amorphous layers can be created for both room temperature (RT) and LN temperature implants, with a wider 100 percent amorphous region for the LN cooled case. The relative narrowing of the α layer during RT implantation is attributed to in-situ annealing. Implantation to the same fluence at temperatures above 100 0 C does not produce α layers. To further investigate in situ annealing effects, specimens already containing buried α layers were further irradiated with ion beams in the temperature range RT-400 0 C. It was found that isolated small α zones (less than or equal to 50 diameter) embedded in the crystalline matrix near the two α/c interfaces dissolved into the crystal but the thickness of the 100 percent α layer was not appreciably affected by further implantation at 200 0 C. A model for in situ annealing during implantation is presented

  9. Lattice sites of ion-implanted Li in diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Restle, M.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Quintel, H.; Ronning, C. R.; Hofsäss, H. C.; Jahn, S. G.; Wahl, U.

    1995-01-01

    Published in: Appl. Phys. Lett. 66 (1995) 2733-2735 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: Radioactive Li ions were implanted into natural IIa diamonds at temperatures between 100 K and 900 K. Emission channelling patterns of a-particles emitted in the nuclear decay of 8Li (t1/2 =

  10. Extreme Precipitation Strengthening in Ion-Implanted Nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Myers, S.M.; Petersen, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Precipitation strengthening of nickel was investigated using ion-implantation alloying and nanoindentation testing for particle separations in the nanometer range and volume fractions extending above 10O/O. Ion implantation of either oxygen alone or oxygen plus aluminum at room temperature was shown to produce substantial strengthening in the ion-treated layer, with yield strengths near 5 GPa in both cases. After annealing to 550''C the oxygen-alone layer loses much of the benefit, with its yield strength reduced to 1.2 GP but the dual ion-implanted layer retains a substantially enhanced yield strength of over 4 GPa. Examination by transmission electron f microscopy showed very fine dispersions of 1-5 nm diameter NiO and y-A1203 precipitates in the implanted layers before annealing. The heat treatment at 550''C induced ripening of the NiO particles to sizes ranging from 7 to 20 nm, whereas the more stable -A1203 precipitates were little changed. The extreme strengthening we observe is in semiquantitative agreement with predictions based on the application of dispersion-hardening theory to these microstructure

  11. Surface ion implantation induced by laser-generated plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Wolowski, J.; Ullschmied, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 165, 6-10 (2010), s. 534-542 ISSN 1042-0150. [International Workshop on Pulsed Plasma Laser Ablation (PPLA)/4./. Monte Pieta, Messina, 18.06.2009-20.06.2009] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser ablation * laser plasma * ion implantation * RBS analysis Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.660, year: 2010

  12. Plasma effects for heavy ions in implanted silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Campisi, M.G.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; Filippo, E. De; Geraci, E.; Geraci, M.; Guazzoni, P.; Manno, M.C. Iacono; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Nigro, S. Lo; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sambataro, S.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Zetta, L.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma effects for heavy ions in implanted silicon detectors have been investigated for different detector characteristics as a function of type and energy of the detected particles. A new approach is presented and used to reproduce the effect of the plasma delay in the timing performances. The results are in good agreement with the present data and with previous measurements found in the literature

  13. Upgraded vacuum arc ion source for metal ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Savkin, K. P.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    Vacuum arc ion sources have been made and used by a large number of research groups around the world over the past twenty years. The first generation of vacuum arc ion sources (dubbed ''Mevva,'' for metal vapor vacuum arc) was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in the 1980s. This paper considers the design, performance parameters, and some applications of a new modified version of this kind of source which we have called Mevva-V.Ru. The source produces broad beams of metal ions at an extraction voltage of up to 60 kV and a time-averaged ion beam current in the milliampere range. Here, we describe the Mevva-V.Ru vacuum arc ion source that we have developed at Tomsk and summarize its beam characteristics along with some of the applications to which we have put it. We also describe the source performance using compound cathodes.

  14. Substitutionality of Ge atoms in ion implanted AlSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.M.; Moll, A.J.; Chan, N.; Walukiewicz, W.; Becla, P.

    1995-01-01

    The substitution of Ge atoms into ion implanted AlSb is investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Our results reveal that in the as-implanted material, the implanted Ge atoms are equally distributed between two specific sites, one surrounded by Al atoms and the other surrounded by Sb atoms. After annealing at 750 degree C for 5 s, the coordination number of the Ge atoms increases from ∼3 to ∼4 indicating solid phase regrowth of the implantation induced amorphous surface layer. Moreover, in the annealed AlSb, the substitution of Ge atoms into the Al sublattice dominates with an estimated Ge Al :[Ge Sb ]∼0.8:0.2. These results suggest that Ge atoms act preferentially as donor species in AlSb

  15. Negative-ion current density dependence of the surface potential of insulated electrode during negative-ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Okayama, Yoshio; Toyota, Yoshitaka; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki; Tanjyo, Masayasu; Matsuda, Kouji.

    1994-01-01

    Positive ion implantation has been utilized as the method of impurity injection in ultra-LSI production, but the problem of substrate charging cannot be resolved by conventional charge compensation method. It was forecast that by negative ion implantation, this charging problem can be resolved. Recently the experiment on the negative ion implantation into insulated electrodes was carried out, and the effect of negative ion implantation to this problem was proved. However, the dependence of charged potential on the increase of negative ion current at the time of negative ion implantation is a serious problem in large current negative ion implantation hereafter. The charged potential of insulated conductor substrates was measured by the negative ion implantation using the current up to several mA/cm 2 . The experimental method is explained. Medium current density and high current density negative ion implantation and charged potential are reported. Accordingly in negative ion implantation, if current density is optimized, the negative ion implantation without charging can be realized. (K.I.)

  16. Nanohardness, friction and wear properties of nitrogen ion implanted Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, V.C.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last few years a large amount of evidence has appeared in literature covering the effect of ion implantation on the wear behaviour of Ti-6A1-4V alloy, a material widely used in medical and aerospace applications. Recent studies have shown improved hardness and wear properties of this alloy in as-implanted condition only, and any post-implantation annealing treatment causes a reversal of this effect. In this paper the influence of higher energy and high dose nitrogen ion implantation followed by post-implantation annealing on the microhardness, friction and wear behaviour of polycrystalline Ti-6A1-4V alloy is demonstrated. Polycrystalline Ti-6A1-4V alloy samples were implanted with 150 kev N + ions, and the hardness, friction and wear behaviour was investigated before and after annealing at 705 deg C for 2 hours. The hardness was measured by an ultramicrohardness indentation system and wear and friction were evaluated by sliding 1.6 mm ruby ball against the discs. The results shows that the hardness increased by 150 % in as-implanted and 200 % in annealed sample, the coefficient of friction is reduced from 0.29 in virgin sample to 0.11 in as-implanted to 0.08 in annealed sample. Wear rate was reduced by 50 % in as-implanted and 67 % in annealed sample, while post-implantation annealing caused the formation of TiN phase at sub-surface of the sample. 4 refs., 3 figs

  17. Corrosion resistance of modified layer on uranium formed by plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Zhong; Liu Kezhao; Bai Bin; Yan Dongxu

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen ion was implanted into uranium surface using plasma immersion ion implantation, and the corrosion resistance of modified layer was studied by corrosion experiment. SEM was used to observe variety of samples surface. In atmosphere, the sample surface had not changed during five months. In heat-humid environment, there was dot-corrosion appearing after two months, but it did not influence the integrity of the modified layer. AES was used to study the diffusion of oxygen and nitrogen during hot-humid corrosion, in three months, both of two elements diffused to the substrate, but the diffusion was weak. The structure of modified layer was not changed. Experimental results show that the modified layer formed by plasma immersion ion implantation has good corrosion resistance.

  18. Ferromagnetism in ZnO doped with Co by ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, R.P. [CFMCUL, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: rpborges@fc.ul.pt; Pinto, J.V. [CFMCUL, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); LFI, Departamento de Fisica, ITN, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, R.C. da [LFI, Departamento de Fisica, ITN, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CFNUL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Goncalves, A.P. [CFMCUL, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Departamento de Quimica, ITN, Estrada Nacional 10, 2695-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Cruz, M.M. [CFMCUL, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Fac.Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Dep. Fisica, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Godinho, M. [CFMCUL, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Fac.Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, Dep. Fisica, Ed. C8, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-09-15

    The importance of doping ZnO with magnetic ions is associated with the fact that this oxide is a good candidate for the formation of a magnetic-diluted semiconductor. Most of the studies reported in Co-doped ZnO were carried out in thin films, but the understanding of the modification of the magnetic behaviour due to doping demands the study of single-crystalline samples. In this work, ZnO single crystals were doped at room temperature with Co by ion implantation with fluences ranging between 2x10{sup 16} and 1x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2} and implantation energy of 100 keV. As implanted samples show a superparamagnetic behaviour attributed to the formation of Co clusters, room temperature ferromagnetism is attained after annealing at 800 deg. C, but no magnetoresistance was detected in the temperature range from 10 to 300 K.

  19. Charging of dielectric substrate materials during plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiubo; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Chen Junying; Chu, Paul K.; Brown, Ian G.

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the electrostatic charging effects of dielectric substrate materials during plasma immersion ion implantation. The results demonstrate that the time-dependent surface potential (negative) may be reduced in magnitude due to the charging effect of the dielectric surface, leading in turn to a reduction in the energy of the incident ions and a broadening of the implanted ion energy spectrum. The charging effect is greater during the plasma immersion bias pulse rise-time, and the electrostatic potential charging may be as large as 75% of the total applied (pulse) potential. This is due to abundant charge movement both of ions and secondary electrons, and has been confirmed by computer simulation. The plasma sheath capacitance has a small influence on the surface potential, via the bias pulse rise-time. Processing parameters, for example voltage, pulse duration, plasma density, and pulse rise-time, have a critical influence on the charging effects. Short pulse duration, high pulse frequency and low plasma density are beneficial from the viewpoint of maximizing the implantation ion energy

  20. Broad-beam, high current, metal ion implantation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-07-01

    We have developed a high current metal ion implantation facility with which high current beams of virtually all the solid metals of the Periodic Table can be produced. The facility makes use of a metal vapor vacuum arc ion source which is operated in a pulsed mode, with pulse width 0.25 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, corresponding to an ion energy of up to several hundred keV because of the ion charge state multiplicity; beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Implantation is done in a broad-beam mode, with a direct line-of-sight from ion source to target. Here we describe the facility and some of the implants that have been carried out using it, including the 'seeding' of silicon wafers prior to CVD with titanium, palladium or tungsten, the formation of buried iridium silicide layers, and actinide (uranium and thorium) doping of III-V compounds. 16 refs., 6 figs

  1. The ion implanter of the Institute of Nuclear Physics and its application in the ion engineering; Implantator jonow IFJ i jego wykorzystanie w inzynierii jonowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drwiega, M.; Lipinska, E.; Lazarski, S.; Wierba, M.

    1993-09-01

    The device used for ion implantation is described in detail. It is built with the use of electromagnetic ion separator and consists of: ion source, ion beam system, ion mass analyzer and target chamber. The device parameters are also given. 14 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  2. Mechanical and tribological properties of AISI 304 stainless steel nitrided by glow discharge compared to ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, C. E.; Serbena, F. C.; da Silva, S. L. R.; Lepienski, C. M.; Siqueira, C. J. de M.; Ueda, M.

    2007-04-01

    Results about mechanical and tribological behavior of AISI 304 stainless steel nitrided by three different ion beam processes - glow discharge (GD), ion implantation (II) and plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) are reported. Expanded austenite γN and nitrides phases (Fe2+xN, γ‧-Fe4N and Cr-N) were identified as a function of nitriding conditions. Hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) profiles were obtained by instrumented penetration. The hardness reached values as high as 21 GPa by PI3. Tribological behavior was studied by reciprocating sliding tests with a WC (Co) ball at room temperature (RT) in dry condition. Different wear regimes were identified in the friction coefficient profiles. The profile form and the running-in distance are strongly dependent on the nitriding process. Adhesive and abrasive wear components can be inferred from these friction profiles. Hardness and tribological performance, after the nitriding processes, are discussed in terms of surface microstructure.

  3. Oxygen ion implantation induced microstructural changes and electrical conductivity in Bakelite RPC detector material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. V. Aneesh, E-mail: aneesh1098@gmail.com; Ravikumar, H. B., E-mail: hbr@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore-570006 (India); Ranganathaiah, C., E-mail: cr@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Govt. Research Centre, Sahyadri Educational Institutions, Mangalore-575007 (India); Kumarswamy, G. N., E-mail: kumy79@gmail.com [Department of Studies in Physics, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bangalore-560035 (India)

    2016-05-06

    In order to explore the structural modification induced electrical conductivity, samples of Bakelite Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) detector materials were exposed to 100 keV Oxygen ion in the fluences of 10{sup 12}, 10{sup 13}, 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Ion implantation induced microstructural changes have been studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Positron lifetime parameters viz., o-Ps lifetime and its intensity shows the deposition of high energy interior track and chain scission leads to the formation of radicals, secondary ions and electrons at lower ion implantation fluences (10{sup 12} to10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}) followed by cross-linking at 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} fluence due to the radical reactions. The reduction in electrical conductivity of Bakelite detector material is correlated to the conducting pathways and cross-links in the polymer matrix. The appropriate implantation energy and fluence of Oxygen ion on polymer based Bakelite RPC detector material may reduce the leakage current, improves the efficiency, time resolution and thereby rectify the aging crisis of the RPC detectors.

  4. Non-Contact Measurement of Thermal Diffusivity in Ion-Implanted Nuclear Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, F.; Mason, D. R.; Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A.; Dudarev, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of mechanical and physical property evolution due to irradiation damage is essential for the development of future fission and fusion reactors. Ion-irradiation provides an excellent proxy for studying irradiation damage, allowing high damage doses without sample activation. Limited ion-penetration-depth means that only few-micron-thick damaged layers are produced. Substantial effort has been devoted to probing the mechanical properties of these thin implanted layers. Yet, whilst key to reactor design, their thermal transport properties remain largely unexplored due to a lack of suitable measurement techniques. Here we demonstrate non-contact thermal diffusivity measurements in ion-implanted tungsten for nuclear fusion armour. Alloying with transmutation elements and the interaction of retained gas with implantation-induced defects both lead to dramatic reductions in thermal diffusivity. These changes are well captured by our modelling approaches. Our observations have important implications for the design of future fusion power plants.

  5. The effect of ion implantation on the tribomechanical properties of carbon fibre reinforced polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistica, R.; Sood, D.K.; Janardhana, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    Graphite fibre reinforced epoxy composite material (GFRP) is used extensively in the aerospace and other industries for structural application. The trend is to address the 20 to 30 year life endurance of this material in service. Mechanical joints in air crafts are exposed to dynamic loads during service and wear may be experienced by the composite material joint. Generally it has been shown that graphite fibre reinforced polymers have superior wear and friction properties as compared with the unfilled polymers. In the described experiment, ion implantation was used as a novel surface treatment. Wear and friction of a polymer composite material (GFRP) was studied and ion implantation was used in order to observe the effect on the tribomechanical properties of the material. It was found that ion implantation of C on GFRP sliding against Ti changes the tribological properties of the system, and in particular decreases the coefficient of friction and wear. 4 refs., 2 figs

  6. Use of low energy hydrogen ion implants in high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonash, S. J.; Singh, R.

    1985-01-01

    This program is a study of the use of low energy hydrogen ion implantation for high efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells. The first quarterly report focuses on two tasks of this program: (1) an examination of the effects of low energy hydrogen implants on surface recombination speed; and (2) an examination of the effects of hydrogen on silicon regrowth and diffusion in silicon. The first part of the project focussed on the measurement of surface properties of hydrogen implanted silicon. Low energy hydrogen ions when bombarded on the silicon surface will create structural damage at the surface, deactivate dopants and introduce recombination centers. At the same time the electrically active centers such as dangling bonds will be passivated by these hydrogen ions. Thus hydrogen is expected to alter properties such as the surface recombination velocity, dopant profiles on the emitter, etc. In this report the surface recombination velocity of a hydrogen emplanted emitter was measured.

  7. Plasma sheath physics and dose uniformity in enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liuhe; Li Jianhui; Kwok, Dixon T. K.; Chu, Paul K.; Wang Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the multiple-grid particle-in-cell code, an advanced simulation model is established to study the sheath physics and dose uniformity along the sample stage in order to provide the theoretical basis for further improvement of enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. At t=7.0 μs, the expansion of the sheath in the horizontal direction is hindered by the dielectric cage. The electron focusing effect is demonstrated by this model. Most of the ions at the inside wall of the cage are implanted into the edge of the sample stage and a relatively uniform ion fluence distribution with a large peak is observed at the end. Compared to the results obtained from the previous model, a higher implant fluence and larger area of uniformity are disclosed.

  8. The effect of ion implantation on the tribomechanical properties of carbon fibre reinforced polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistica, R.; Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Janardhana, M.N. [Deakin University, Geelong, VIC (Australia). School of Engineering and Technology

    1993-12-31

    Graphite fibre reinforced epoxy composite material (GFRP) is used extensively in the aerospace and other industries for structural application. The trend is to address the 20 to 30 year life endurance of this material in service. Mechanical joints in air crafts are exposed to dynamic loads during service and wear may be experienced by the composite material joint. Generally it has been shown that graphite fibre reinforced polymers have superior wear and friction properties as compared with the unfilled polymers. In the described experiment, ion implantation was used as a novel surface treatment. Wear and friction of a polymer composite material (GFRP) was studied and ion implantation was used in order to observe the effect on the tribomechanical properties of the material. It was found that ion implantation of C on GFRP sliding against Ti changes the tribological properties of the system, and in particular decreases the coefficient of friction and wear. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  9. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Nayak, B.B.; Mishra, B.K. [CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar 751013 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Cr and N ion implantation on natural rubies of low aesthetic quality. • Cr-ion implantation improves colour tone from red to deep red (pigeon eye red). • N-ion implantation at fluence of 3 × 10{sup 17} causes blue coloration on surface. • Certain extent of amorphization is observed in the case of N-ion implantation. - Abstract: Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV–Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 10{sup 17} N-ions/cm{sup 2} fluence, formation of colour centres (F{sup +}, F{sub 2}, F{sub 2}{sup +} and F{sub 2}{sup 2+}) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  10. Metallic oxide nano-clusters synthesis by ion implantation in high purity Fe10Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ce

    2015-01-01

    ODS (Oxide Dispersed Strengthened) steels, which are reinforced with metal dispersions of nano-oxides (based on Y, Ti and O elements), are promising materials for future nuclear reactors. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of these nano-oxides would improve manufacturing and mechanical properties of these ODS steels, with a strong economic impact for their industrialization. To experimentally study these mechanisms, an analytical approach by ion implantation is used, to control various parameters of synthesis of these precipitates as the temperature and concentration. This study demonstrated the feasibility of this method and concerned the behaviour of alloys models (based on aluminium oxide) under thermal annealing. High purity Fe-10Cr alloys were implanted with Al and O ions at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that the nano-oxides appear in the Fe-10Cr matrix upon ion implantation at room temperature without subsequent annealing. The mobility of implanted elements is caused by the defects created during ion implantation, allowing the nucleation of these nanoparticles, of a few nm in diameter. These nanoparticles are composed of aluminium and oxygen, and also chromium. The high-resolution experiments show that their crystallographic structure is that of a non-equilibrium compound of aluminium oxide (cubic γ-Al 2 O 3 type). The heat treatment performed after implantation induces the growth of the nano-sized oxides, and a phase change that tends to balance to the equilibrium structure (hexagonal α-Al 2 O 3 type). These results on model alloys are fully applicable to industrial materials: indeed ion implantation reproduces the conditions of milling and heat treatments are at equivalent temperatures to those of thermo-mechanical treatments. A mechanism involving the precipitation of nano-oxide dispersed in ODS alloys is proposed in this manuscript based on the obtained experimental results

  11. Industrial hygiene and control technology assessment of ion implantation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungers, L.J.; Jones, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation is a process used to create the functional units (pn junctions) of integrated circuits, photovoltaic (solar) cells and other semiconductor devices. During the process, ions of an impurity or a dopant material are created, accelerated and imbedded in wafers of silicon. Workers responsible for implantation equipment are believed to be at risk from exposure to both chemical (dopant compounds) and physical (ionizing radiation) agents. In an effort to characterize the chemical exposures, monitoring for chemical hazards was conducted near eleven ion implanters at three integrated circuit facilities, while ionizing radiation was monitored near four of these units at two of the facilities. The workplace monitoring suggests that ion implantation operators routinely are exposed to low-level concentrations of dopants. Although the exact nature of dopant compounds released to the work environment was not determined, area and personal samples taken during normal operating activities found concentrations of arsenic, boron and phosphorous below OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) for related compounds; area samples collected during implanter maintenance activities suggest that a potential exists for more serious exposures. The results of badge dosimetry monitoring for ionizing radiation indicate that serious exposures are unlikely to occur while engineering controls remain intact. All emissions were detected at levels unlikely to result in exposures above the OSHA standard for the whole body (1.25 rems per calendar quarter). The success of existing controls in preventing worker exposures is discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the differential exposures likely to be experienced by operators and maintenance personnel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Grain size effect on yield strength of titanium alloy implanted with aluminum ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yurev, Ivan, E-mail: yiywork@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the microstructure and phase state of commercially pure titanium VT1-0 implanted by aluminum ions. This study has been carried out before and after the ion implantation for different grain size, i.e. 0.3 µm (ultra-fine grain condition), 1.5 µm (fine grain condition), and 17 µm (polycrystalline condition). This paper presents details of calculations and analysis of strength components of the yield stress. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress. So, both before and after the ion implantation, the increase of the grain size leads to the decrease of the alloy hardening. Thus, hardening in ultra-fine and fine grain alloys increased by four times, while in polycrystalline alloy it increased by over six times.

  13. Effects of high-energy (MeV) ion implantation of polyester films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Keiji; Matsumoto, Yasuyo; Nishimiya, Nobuyuki; Noshiro, Mitsuru; Satou, Mamoru

    1991-01-01

    The effects of high-energy ion beam irradiation on polyester (PET) films using a 3 MeV tandem-type ion beam accelerator were studied. O, Ni, Pt, and Au as ion species were irradiated at 10 14 -10 15 ions/cm 2 on 50 μm thick PET films. Physical properties and molecular structure changes were studied by the surface resistivity measurements and RBS. The surface resistivity decreases with an increase in irradiation dose. At 10 15 ions/cm 2 irradiation, the surface resistivity is 10 8 Ω/□. According to RBS and XPS analyses, some carbon and oxygen atoms in the PET are replaced by implanted ions and the -C=O bonds are destroyed easily by the ion beam. (orig.)

  14. RTV silicone rubber surface modification for cell biocompatibility by negative-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenlong; Wang, Guangfu; Chu, Yingjie; Xu, Ya; Qiu, Menglin; Xu, Mi

    2016-03-01

    A negative cluster ion implantation system was built on the injector of a GIC4117 tandem accelerator. Next, the system was used to study the surface modification of room temperature vulcanization silicone rubber (RTV SR) for cell biocompatibility. The water contact angle was observed to decrease from 117.6° to 99.3° as the C1- implantation dose was increased to 1 × 1016 ions/cm2, and the effects of C1-, C2- and O1- implantation result in only small differences in the water contact angle at 3 × 1015 ions/cm2. These findings indicate that the hydrophilicity of RTV SR improves as the dose is increased and that the radiation effect has a greater influence than the doping effect on the hydrophilicity. There are two factors influence hydrophilicity of RTV: (1) based on the XPS and ATR-FTIR results, it can be inferred that ion implantation breaks the hydrophobic functional groups (Sisbnd CH3, Sisbnd Osbnd Si, Csbnd H) of RTV SR and generates hydrophilic functional groups (sbnd COOH, sbnd OH, Sisbnd (O)x (x = 3,4)). (2) SEM reveals that the implanted surface of RTV SR appears the micro roughness such as cracks and wrinkles. The hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect (Zhou Rui et al., 2009). These two factors cancel each other out and make the C-implantation sample becomes more hydrophilic in general terms. Finally, cell culture demonstrates that negative ion-implantation is an effective method to improve the cell biocompatibility of RTV SR.

  15. Implantation of titanium, chromium, yttrium, molybdenum, silver, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten and platinum ions generated by a metal vapor vacuum ion source into 440C stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Jun; Hayashi, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Kenji; Ichiko, Osami; Hashiguchi, Yoshihiro

    1992-01-01

    Titanium, yttrium, molybdenum, silver, chromium, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten and platinum ions generated by a metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source were implanted into 440C stainless steel in the dose region 10 17 ions cm -2 with extraction voltages of up to 70 kV. Glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS), friction coefficient, and Vickers microhardness of the specimens were studied. Grooves made by friction tests were investigated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). GDS showed incorporation of carbon in the yttrium, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten and platinum implanted specimens, as well as titanium implanted samples. A large amount of oxygen was observed in the yttrium implanted specimen. The friction coefficient was measured by reciprocating sliding of an unimplanted 440C ball without lubricant at a load of 0.245 N. The friction decreased and achieved a stable state after implantation of titanium, hafnium and tantalum. The friction coefficient of the platinum implanted specimen showed a gradual decrease after several cycles of sliding at high friction coefficient. The yttrium implanted sample exhibited a decreased but slightly unstable friction coefficient. Results from EPMA showed that the implanted elements, which gave decreased friction, remained even after sliding of 200 cycles. Implantation of chromium, molybdenum, silver and tungsten did not provide a decrease in friction and the implants were gone from the wear grooves after the sliding tests. (orig.)

  16. Amorphous Ge quantum dots embedded in SiO2 formed by low energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J. P.; Huang, D. X.; Jacobson, A. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Makarenkov, B.; Chu, W. K.; Bahrim, B.; Rabalais, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Under ultrahigh vacuum conditions, extremely small Ge nanodots embedded in SiO 2 , i.e., Ge-SiO 2 quantum dot composites, have been formed by ion implantation of 74 Ge + isotope into (0001) Z-cut quartz at a low kinetic energy of 9 keV using varying implantation temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images and micro-Raman scattering show that amorphous Ge nanodots are formed at all temperatures. The formation of amorphous Ge nanodots is different from reported crystalline Ge nanodot formation by high energy ion implantation followed by a necessary high temperature annealing process. At room temperature, a confined spatial distribution of the amorphous Ge nanodots can be obtained. Ge inward diffusion was found to be significantly enhanced by a synergetic effect of high implantation temperature and preferential sputtering of surface oxygen, which induced a much wider and deeper Ge nanodot distribution at elevated implantation temperature. The bimodal size distribution that is often observed in high energy implantation was not observed in the present study. Cross-sectional TEM observation and the depth profile of Ge atoms in SiO 2 obtained from x-ray photoelectron spectra revealed a critical Ge concentration for observable amorphous nanodot formation. The mechanism of formation of amorphous Ge nanodots and the change in spatial distribution with implantation temperature are discussed

  17. 4-rod RFQ linac for ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, Hiroshi; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka [Nisshin Electric Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A 34 MHz 4-rod RFQ linac system has been upgraded in both its rf power efficiency and beam intensity. The linac is able to accelerate in cw operation 0.83 mA of a B{sup +} ion beam from 0.03 to 0.91 MeV with transmission of 61 %. The rf power fed to the RFQ is 29 kW. The unloaded Q-value of the RFQ has been improved approximately 61 % to 5400 by copper-plating stainless steel cooling pipes in the RFQ cavity. (author)

  18. Ion Implantation of Wide Bandgap Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    u s i n g nomina l l v • S’~ xi lane in UHP argon and r o u g h ly eq u i va l e n t system cond it ions. We probably obtained a h o t t i t ’ of...dilute silane that is more c o nce n t rat e d han t he nomina l 1 .5Z reques ted . Both Auger ana l vs is and Rut her f o rd b ackscu t t er ing

  19. Surface modification technique of structural ceramics: ion implantation-assisted multi-arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zhijian; Miao Hezhuo; Si Wenjie; Qi Longhao; Li Wenzhi

    2003-01-01

    Through reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of the existed surface modification techniques, a new technique, ion implantation-assisted multi-arc ion plating, was proposed. Using the proposed technique, the surfaces of silicon nitride ceramics were modified by Ti ion implantation, and then three kinds of ternary coatings, (Ti,Al)N, (Ti,Zr)N and (Ti,Cr)N, were deposited on the as-implanted ceramics. The coatings prepared by this technique are of high-hardness and well adhesive to the ceramic substrates. The maximal hardness measured by nanoindentation tests is more than 40 GPa. The maximal critical load by nanoscratch tests is more than 60 mN. The cutting tools prepared by this technique with the presented coatings are of excellent performance in industrial applications. The technique may be promising for the surface modification of structural ceramics. (orig.)

  20. RTV silicone rubber surface modification for cell biocompatibility by negative-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Chenlong [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Wang, Guangfu, E-mail: 88088@bnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China); Beijing Radiation Center, 100875 Beijing (China); Chu, Yingjie; Xu, Ya; Qiu, Menglin; Xu, Mi [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875 Beijing (China)

    2016-03-01

    Highlights: • The radiation effect has a greater influence than doping effect on the hydrophilicity of RTV SR. • The implanted ions result in a new surface atomic bonding state and morphology. • Generating hydrophilic functional groups is a reason for the improved cell biocompatibility. • The micro roughness makes the hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect. • Cell culture demonstrates that negative-ion implantation can improve biocompatibility. - Abstract: A negative cluster ion implantation system was built on the injector of a GIC4117 tandem accelerator. Next, the system was used to study the surface modification of room temperature vulcanization silicone rubber (RTV SR) for cell biocompatibility. The water contact angle was observed to decrease from 117.6° to 99.3° as the C{sub 1}{sup −} implantation dose was increased to 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, and the effects of C{sub 1}{sup −}, C{sub 2}{sup −} and O{sub 1}{sup −} implantation result in only small differences in the water contact angle at 3 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. These findings indicate that the hydrophilicity of RTV SR improves as the dose is increased and that the radiation effect has a greater influence than the doping effect on the hydrophilicity. There are two factors influence hydrophilicity of RTV: (1) based on the XPS and ATR-FTIR results, it can be inferred that ion implantation breaks the hydrophobic functional groups (Si−CH{sub 3}, Si−O−Si, C−H) of RTV SR and generates hydrophilic functional groups (−COOH, −OH, Si−(O){sub x} (x = 3,4)). (2) SEM reveals that the implanted surface of RTV SR appears the micro roughness such as cracks and wrinkles. The hydrophilicity should be reduced due to the lotus effect (Zhou Rui et al., 2009). These two factors cancel each other out and make the C-implantation sample becomes more hydrophilic in general terms. Finally, cell culture demonstrates that negative ion-implantation is an effective method

  1. Long-wavelength germanium photodetectors by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, I.C.; Beeman, J.W.; Luke, P.N.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1990-11-01

    Extrinsic far-infrared photoconductivity in thin high-purity germanium wafers implanted with multiple-energy boron ions has been investigated. Initial results from Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) measurements have demonstrated that photodetectors fabricated from this material have an extended long-wavelength threshold near 192μm. Due to the high-purity substrate, the ability to block the hopping conduction in the implanted IR-active layer yields dark currents of less than 100 electrons/sec at temperatures below 1.3 K under an operating bias of up to 70 mV. Optimum peak responsivity and noise equivalent power (NEP) for these sensitive detectors are 0.9 A/W and 5 x 10 -16 W/Hz 1/2 at 99 μm, respectively. The dependence of the performance of devices on the residual donor concentration in the implanted layer will be discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs

  2. Rapid Thermal annealing of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenack, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The recrystallization behavior and the supression mechanisms of the residual defects of silicon layers amorphized by ion implantation, were investigated. The samples were annealed with the aid of a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system at temperature range from 850 to 1200 0 C, and annealing time up to 120 s. Random and aligned Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used to analyse the samples. Similarities in the recrystallization behavior for layers implanted with ions of the same chemical groups such as As or Sb; Ge, Sn or Pb, In or Ga, are observed. The results show that the effective supression of resisual defects of the recrystallired layers is vinculated to the redistribution of impurities via thermal diffusion. (author) [pt

  3. Radio-frequency linear accelerators for commercial ion implanters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavish, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    There is now a demand for production-type ion implanters capable of delivering high beam current at energies in the MeV range. Hitherto, this application has been fulfilled only with dc machines of somewhat limited beam current. A recently developed radio-frequency linear accelerator has produced much higher beam currents yet is just as flexible as a dc machine in the sense that within seconds it can be programmed to accelerate any particle in the range of boron to antimony, to any selected final energy. Included in this review is a discussion of the general principles of rf acceleration including factors which determine the accelerating voltage gradient, energy spread, space charge limits, radial focusing, and the flexibility derived from independent rf phase control of individual rf accelerating cells. Various structures such as the 'two gap' resonator and the rf quadrupole are considered in relation to ion implantation applications. (orig.)

  4. The air oxidation behavior of lanthanum ion implanted zirconium at 500 deg. C

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, D Q; Chen, X W; Zhou, Q G

    2003-01-01

    The beneficial effect of lanthanum ion implantation on the oxidation behavior of zirconium at 500 deg. C has been studied. Zirconium specimens were implanted by lanthanum ions using a MEVVA source at energy of 40 keV with a fluence range from 1x10 sup 1 sup 6 to 1x10 sup 1 sup 7 ions/cm sup 2 at maximum temperature of 130 deg. C, The weight gain curves were measured after being oxidized in air at 500 deg. C for 100 min, which showed that a significant improvement was achieved in the oxidation behavior of zirconium ion implanted with lanthanum compared with that of the as-received zirconium. The valence of the oxides in the scale was analyzed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy; and then the depth distributions of the elements in the surface of the samples were obtained by Auger electron spectroscopy. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction at 0.3 deg. incident angles was employed to examine the modification of its phase transformation because of the lanthanum ion implantation in the oxide films. It was obviously fou...

  5. Mechanical properties of ion-beam-textured surgical implant alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    An electron-bombardment Hg ion thruster was used as an ion source to texture surfaces of materials used to make orthopedic and/or dental prostheses or implants. The materials textured include 316 stainless steel, titanium-6% aluminum, 4% vanadium, and cobalt-20% chromium, 15% tungsten. To determine the effect of ion texturing on the ultimate strength and yield strength, stainless steel and Co-Cr-W alloy samples were tensile tested to failure. Three types of samples of both materials were tested. One type was ion-textured (the process also heats each sample to 300 C), another type was simply heated to 300 C in an oven, and the third type was untreated. Stress-strain diagrams, 0.2% offset yield strength data, total elongation data, and area reduction data are presented. Fatigue specimens of ion textured and untextured 316 stainless steel and Ti-6% Al-4% V were tested. Included as an ion textured sample is a Ti-6% Al-4% V sample which was ion machined by means of Ni screen mask so as to produce an array of 140 mu m x 140 mu m x 60 mu m deep pits. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the ion textured surfaces.

  6. Radioactive ion implantation as a tool for wear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagger, C.; Soerensen, G.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with ion implantation of radioactive krypton ions in surfaces with aim of measuring wear of different magnetic materials in sound-heads. The technique is especially suited for a relatively fast comparison of wear-characteristics of materials of varying composition in small inaccessible areas. In the present case utilisation of a 60 KeV accelerator allows determination of a total wear as small as 0.05 μm with an accuracy of 10%. Further the technique yields information of the time dependence of the wear process with an accuracy less than 0.001 μm. (author)

  7. Nanocrystalline SnO2 formation by oxygen ion implantation in tin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondkar, Vidya; Rukade, Deepti; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Metallic tin thin films of thickness 100 nm are deposited on fused silica substrates by thermal evaporation technique. These films are implanted with 45 keV oxygen ions at fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. The energy of the oxygen ions is calculated using SRIM in order to form embedded phases at the film-substrate interface. Post-implantation, films are annealed using a tube furnace for nanocrystalline tin oxide formation. These films are characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of single rutile phase of SnO2. The size of the nanocrystallites formed decreases with an increase in the ion fluence. The nanocrystalline SnO2 formation is also confirmed by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  8. Erbium ion implantation into different crystallographic cuts of lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nekvindová, P.; Švecová, B.; Cajzl, J.; Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Oswald, Jiří; Kolitsch, A.; Špirková, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2012), s. 652-659 ISSN 0925-3467 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA ČR GA106/09/0125; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/10/1477 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : Lithium niobate * Erbium * Ion implantation * Luminescence Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.918, year: 2012

  9. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delle Side, D., E-mail: domenico.delleside@le.infn.it [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L. [LEAS, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio de Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S.M. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  10. Highly antibacterial UHMWPE surfaces by implantation of titanium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Giuffreda, E.; Velardi, L.; Alifano, P.; Talà, A.; Tredici, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The spreading of pathogens represents a serious threat for human beings. Consequently, efficient antimicrobial surfaces are needed in order to reduce risks of contracting severe diseases. In this work we present the first evidences of a new technique to obtain a highly antibacterial Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) based on a non-stoichiometric titanium oxide coating, visible-light responsive, obtained through ion implantation.

  11. Plasma source ion implantation of ammonia into electroplated chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuer, J.T.; Walter, K.C.; Rej, D.J.; Nastasi, M.; Blanchard, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) has been used as a nitrogen source for plasma source ion implantation processing of electroplated chromium. No evidence was found of increased hydrogen concentrations in the bulk material, implying that ammonia can be used without risking hydrogen embrittlement. The retained nitrogen dose of 2.1 x 10 17 N-at/cm 2 is sufficient to increase the surface hardness of electroplated Cr by 24% and decrease the wear rate by a factor of 4

  12. Er+ medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švecová, B.; Nekvindová, P.; Macková, Anna; Oswald, Jiří; Vacík, Jiří; Grotzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 267, 8-9 (2009), s. 1332-1335 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041; GA AV ČR IAA200480702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : lithium niobate * erbium * ion implantation Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.156, year: 2009

  13. Effect of H{sup +} ion implantation on structural, morphological, optical and dielectric properties of L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangeetha, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Babu, R. Ramesh, E-mail: rampap2k@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Kumar, P. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, P.O. Box 10502, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Bhagvannarayana, G. [Materials Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-06-15

    L-arginine monohydrochloride monohydrate (LAHCl) single crystals have been implanted with 100 keV H{sup +} ions at different ion fluence ranging from 10{sup 12} to 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Implanted LAHCl single crystals have been investigated for property changes. Crystal surface and crystalline perfection of the pristine and implanted crystals were analyzed by atomic force microscope and high-resolution X-ray diffraction studies, respectively. Optical absorption bands induced by colour centers, refractive index and birefringence, mechanical stability and dielectric constant of implanted crystals were studied at different ion fluence and compared with that of pristine LAHCl single crystal.

  14. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Yanjie [College of Agronomy, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210095 (China); Wu Lijun; Wu Yuejin [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Wang Qingya [College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095 (China); Tang Canming [College of Agronomy, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing Jiangsu 210095 (China)], E-mail: tang20@jlonline.com

    2008-09-15

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar 'Sumian 22' pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 x 10{sup -3} Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 x 10{sup 16} to 0.78 x 10{sup 16} N{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N{sup +} ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  15. The damaging effects of nitrogen ion beam implantation on upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) pollen grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanjie; Wu, Lijun; Wu, Yuejin; Wang, Qingya; Tang, Canming

    2008-09-01

    With the aim to study the effects of an ion beam on plant cells, upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar "Sumian 22" pollen grains were irradiated in vacuum (7.8 × 10-3 Pa) by low-energy nitrogen ions with an energy of 20 keV at various fluences ranging from 0.26 × 1016 to 0.78 × 1016 N+/cm2. The irradiation effects on pollen grains were tested, considering the ultrastructural changes in the exine and interior walls of pollen grains, their germination rate, the growth speed of the pollen tubes in the style, fertilization and boll development after the pistils were pollinated by the pollen grains which had been implanted with nitrogen ions. Nitrogen ions entered the pollen grains by etching and penetrating the exine and interior walls and destroying cell structures. A greater percentage of the pollen grains were destroyed as the fluence of N+ ions increased. Obviously, the nitrogen ion beam penetrated the exine and interior walls of the pollen grains and produced holes of different sizes. As the ion fluence increased, the amount and the density of pollen grain inclusions decreased and the size of the lacuna and starch granules increased. Pollen grain germination rates decreased with increasing ion fluence. The number of pollen tubes in the style declined with increased ion implantation into pollen grains, but the growth speed of the tubes did not change. All of the pollen tubes reached the end of the style at 13 h after pollination. This result was consistent with that of the control. Also, the weight and the diameter of the ovary decreased and shortened with increased ion beam implantation fluence. No evident change in the fecundation time of the ovule was observed. These results indicate that nitrogen ions can enter pollen grains and cause a series of biological changes in pollen grains of upland cotton.

  16. Target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by method of stable ion beam implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Panteleev, V.N; Fedorov, D.V; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.Yu; Volkov, Yu.M

    The ionization efficiency is one of the most important parameters of an on-line used target-ion source system exploited for production of exotic radioactive beams. The ionization efficiency value determination as a characteristic of a target-ion source unit in the stage of its normalizing before on-line use is a very important step in the course of the preparation for an on-line experiment. At the IRIS facility (Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina) a reliable and rather precise method of the target-ion source unit ionization efficiency measurement by the method of stable beam implantation has been developed. The method worked out exploits an off-line mass-separator for the implantation of the ion beams of selected stable isotopes of different elements into a tantalum foil placed inside the Faraday cup in the focal plane of the mass-separator. The amount of implanted ions has been measured with a high accuracy by the current integrator connected to the Faraday cup. After the implantation of needed a...

  17. Architecture and control of a high current ion implanter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, E.H.; Paul, L.F.; Kranik, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an ion implant system for use in production requires that special attention be given to areas of design which normally are not emphasized on research or development type ion implanters. Manually operated, local controls are replaced by remote controls, automatic sequencing, and digital displays. For ease of maintenance and replication the individual components are designed as simply as possible and are contained in modules of separate identities, joined only by the beam line and electrical interconnections. A production environment also imposes requirements for the control of contamination and maintainability of clean room integrity. For that reason the major portion of the hardware is separated from the clean operator area and is housed in a maintenance core area. The controls of a production system should also be such that relatively unskilled technicians are able to operate the system with optimum repeatability and minimum operator intervention. An extensive interlock system is required. Most important, for use in production the ion implant system has to have a relatively high rate of throughput. Since the rate of throughput at a given dose is a function of beam current, pumpdown time and wafer handling capacity, design of components affecting these parameters has been optimized. Details of the system are given. (U.K.)

  18. Homojunction silicon solar cells doping by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milési, Frédéric; Coig, Marianne; Lerat, Jean-François; Desrues, Thibaut; Le Perchec, Jérôme; Lanterne, Adeline; Lachal, Laurent; Mazen, Frédéric

    2017-10-01

    Production costs and energy efficiency are the main priorities for the photovoltaic (PV) industry (COP21 conclusions). To lower costs and increase efficiency, we are proposing to reduce the number of processing steps involved in the manufacture of N-type Passivated Rear Totally Diffused (PERT) silicon solar cells. Replacing the conventional thermal diffusion doping steps by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing allows reducing the number of steps from 7 to 3 while maintaining similar efficiency. This alternative approach was investigated in the present work. Beamline and plasma immersion ion implantation (BLII and PIII) methods were used to insert n-(phosphorus) and p-type (boron) dopants into the Si substrate. With higher throughput and lower costs, PIII is a better candidate for the photovoltaic industry, compared to BL. However, the optimization of the plasma conditions is demanding and more complex than the beamline approach. Subsequent annealing was performed on selected samples to activate the dopants on both sides of the solar cell. Two annealing methods were investigated: soak and spike thermal annealing. Best performing solar cells, showing a PV efficiency of about 20%, was obtained using spike annealing with adapted ion implantation conditions.

  19. Comparison of boron and neon damage effects in boron ion-implanted resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacIver, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    Boron and neon damage implants were used in fabricating integrated-circuit resistors in silicon. Resistor properties were studied as functions of damaging ion species and dose. Sheet resistances in the 10 000 Ω/square range were obtained with low temperature and voltage sensitivities and d.c. isolation. (author)

  20. Blistering in alloy Ti–6Al–4V from H + ion implantation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6Al–4V, was studied, following H+ ion implantation of 150 keV and 250 keV energy to fluence of 2.6 × 1018 cm-2 and 2.5 × 1019 cm-2, respectively at ambient temperature. No detectable change was observed in surface features of either of the ...

  1. Modification of the iron mechanical- and corrosion features by ion implantation in surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The physical mechanisms responsable by the tin ion implantation in the iron surface at moderated doses are studied. Several techniques are used such as alpha-particle Rutherford backscattering, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. (L.C.) [pt

  2. I. Heteroepitaxy on Silicon. I. Ion Implantation in Silicon and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Gang

    The themes of this thesis, heteroepitaxy and ion implantation, are two areas that have been very actively researched in the last two decades. Heterostructures made of III-V compound semiconductors by MBE and OMVPE have been used extensively in the fabrication of optoelectronics devices such as high-speed transistors and semiconductor lasers. Heterostructures on Si, which is the focus of part I of this thesis, have the advantage of compatibility with Si-based VLSI and promise to have impact on the microelectronics industry. Studies on the structural, elastic, thermal, and electrical properties of heteroepitaxial CoSi_2, ReSi _2, and GeSi films grown on Si constitute the backbone of this thesis. Some new characteristics of heterostructures were discovered as a result of this investigation. Among them are the observation and modeling of misorientation effects on an epitaxial film grown on a vicinal substrate; the misorientation induced by interfacial misfit dislocation arrays; the experimental measurements and phenomenological analysis of thermal strain, dislocation generation, and strain relaxation; and illustrative measurements of elastic, thermal, and structural properties of epitaxial films. Ion implantation is an important process in the fabrication of integrated circuits. The second part of this thesis deals with the production and annealing of damage produced by ion implantation in semiconductors. The defect production, stability, microstructure, and the induced strain in implanted bulk Si crystals were quantitatively investigated as a function of ion species, dose, and implantation temperature. Many new features, such as the rapid rise of damage near the amorphization threshold, the correlation between the strain and defect concentration, and the scaling behavior of the damage with ion species and implantation temperature, are revealed. The last chapter concerns the effects of ion implantation in CoSi_2, ReSi_2 , and GeSi/Si heterostructures, which is a

  3. Tuning of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of xenon ion implanted zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B.; Ray, Sekhar C.; Pattanaik, Shreenu; Sarma, Sweety; Mishra, Dilip K.; Pontsho, Mbule; Pong, W. F.

    2018-03-01

    A correlation between the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ZnO single crystals (ZnO SCs) and 300 keV xenon ion (Xe3+) implanted ZnO SCs has been studied using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, valence band photoemission spectroscopy (VB-PES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and a superconducting quantum interference device-type magnetometer. The XANES studies revealed that the number of unoccupied p-states in the implanted ZnO SCs is higher than in the pristine ZnO SCs. In the implanted ZnO SCs, the binding energy of the Zn 2p 3/2 core level peak shifted to higher energy which further confirmed the increase in the valence band maximum (VBM) energy level. The VBM of the xenon ion (Xe3+) implanted ZnO SCs increased from 3.17–3.49 eV, obtained from UPS (He-I) measurements. A VB-PES study revealed that the number of electrons in the valence band of the O 2p–Zn 4sp hybridized states of the implanted ZnO SCs is higher than in the pristine ZnO SCs. The magnetic M–H loops demonstrated enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in the Xe implanted ZnO SCs, attributable to the increasing number of surface defects and native defect sites in oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials.

  4. Surface modification of the hard metal tungsten carbide-cobalt by boron ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrotchek, I.

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis ion beam implantation of boron is studied as method for the increasement of the hardness and for the improvement of the operational characteristics of cutting tools on the tungsten carbide-cobalt base. For the boron implantation with 40 keV energy and ∼5.10 17 ions/cm 2 fluence following topics were shown: The incoerporation of boron leads to a deformation and remaining strain of the WC lattice, which possesses different stregth in the different directions of the elementary cell. The maximum of the deformation is reached at an implantation temperature of 450 C. The segregation of the new phases CoWB and Co 3 W was detected at 900 C implantation temperature. At lower temperatures now new phases were found. The tribological characteristics of WC-Co are improved. Hereby the maxiaml effect was measured for implantation temperatures from 450 C to 700 C: Improvement of the microhardness by the factor 2..2.5, improvement of the wear resistance by the factor 4. The tribological effects extend to larger depths than the penetration depth of the boron implantation profile. The detected property improvements of the hard metal H3 show the possibility of a practical application of boron ion implantation in industry. The effects essential for a wer decreasement are a hardening of the carbide phase by deformation of the lattice, a hardening of the cobalt binding material and the phase boundaries because of the formation of a solid solution of the implanted boron atoms in Co and by this a blocking of the dislocation movement and the rupture spreading under load

  5. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for applications in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, Christian; Feldmann, Frank; Müller, Ralph; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.; Reedy, Robert C.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Passivated contacts (poly-Si/SiO x /c-Si) doped by shallow ion implantation are an appealing technology for high efficiency silicon solar cells, especially for interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells where a masked ion implantation facilitates their fabrication. This paper presents a study on tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by low-energy ion implantation into amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers and examines the influence of the ion species (P, B, or BF 2 ), the ion implantation dose (5 × 10 14  cm −2 to 1 × 10 16  cm −2 ), and the subsequent high-temperature anneal (800 °C or 900 °C) on the passivation quality and junction characteristics using double-sided contacted silicon solar cells. Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit voltages (iV oc ) of 725 and 720 mV, respectively. For p-type passivated contacts, BF 2 implantations into intrinsic a-Si yield well passivated contacts and allow for iV oc of 690 mV, whereas implanted B gives poor passivation with iV oc of only 640 mV. While solar cells featuring in-situ B-doped selective hole contacts and selective electron contacts with P implanted into intrinsic a-Si layers achieved V oc of 690 mV and fill factor (FF) of 79.1%, selective hole contacts realized by BF 2 implantation into intrinsic a-Si suffer from drastically reduced FF which is caused by a non-Ohmic Schottky contact. Finally, implanting P into in-situ B-doped a-Si layers for the purpose of overcompensation (counterdoping) allowed for solar cells with V oc of 680 mV and FF of 80.4%, providing a simplified and promising fabrication process for IBC solar cells featuring passivated contacts

  6. Ti-O/TiN films synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition on 316L: Study of deformation behavior and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, G.J.; Huang, N.; Yang, P.; Leng, Y.X.; Sun, H.; Chen, J.Y.; Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Ti-O/TiN gradient films have been synthesized on 316L stainless steel using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). The coated samples were subjected to tensile testing and observed in situ by scanning electron microscopy. No delamination, peeling or cracking was found on the film after plastic deformation of 0.16 mm residual displacement. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests revealed that the prepared films possess high nanohardness and good adhesion strength to the metal substrate. The mechanical properties of the synthesized Ti-O/TiN films are thought to be attributed to the good nanostructure, high density, smooth surface, slow transition from Ti-O to TiN and broad film/matrix interface achieved by the PIII-D process

  7. Si-nanoparticle synthesis using ion implantation and MeV ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulapakorn, T.; Wolff, M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Possnert, G. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Sychugov, I.; Suvanam, S.S.; Linnros, J. [Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hallen, A. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, P.O. Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, P.O. Box Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-12-15

    A dielectric matrix with embedded Si-nanoparticles may show strong luminescence depending on nanoparticles size, surface properties, Si-excess concentration and matrix type. Ion implantation of Si ions with energies of a few tens to hundreds of keV in a SiO{sub 2} matrix followed by thermal annealing was identified as a powerful method to form such nanoparticles. The aim of the present work is to optimize the synthesis of Si-nanoparticles produced by ion implantation in SiO{sub 2} by employing MeV ion irradiation as an additional annealing process. The luminescence properties are measured by spectrally resolved photoluminescence including PL lifetime measurement, while X-ray reflectometry, atomic force microscopy and ion beam analysis are used to characterize the nanoparticle formation process. The results show that the samples implanted at 20%-Si excess atomic concentration display the highest luminescence and that irradiation of 36 MeV {sup 127}I ions affects the luminosity in terms of wavelength and intensity. It is also demonstrated that the nanoparticle luminescence lifetime decreases as a function of irradiation fluence. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Effect of cathodic hydrogenation on the mechanical properties of AISI 304 stainless steel nitrided by ion implantation, glow discharge and plasma immersion ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, C. E.; Souza, J. F. P.; Silva, C. A.; Ueda, M.; Kuromoto, N. K.; Serbena, F. C.; Silva, S. L. R.; Lepienski, C. M.

    2007-04-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels is restricted to the surface due to the low hydrogen diffusion in austenitic structures. The effect of three different nitriding processes: ion implantation (II), plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) and glow discharge (GD), on the mechanical and structural properties of cathodically hydrogenated AISI 304 stainless steel were studied in the present work. Cathodic hydrogenation was made on untreated and nitrided samples. Surface microstructure after nitriding and hydrogenation was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Mechanical properties were measured by instrumented indentation. Surface crack formation and hardness decrease was observed in non-nitrided samples after cathodic hydrogenation. Hardness of nitrided samples decreases after hydrogen degassing but still has values higher than untreated samples. Comparative analysis of nitriding processes and working conditions indicated that glow discharge plasma nitriding process at 400 °C or 450 °C is the most adequate to avoid crack formation in steel surface after cathodic hydrogenation.

  9. Electronic Transport and Raman Spectroscopy Characterization in Ion-Implanted Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R. F.; Turatti, A. M.; Camargo, B. C.; da Silva, R. R.; Kopelevich, Y.; Behar, M.; Balzaretti, N. M.; Gusmão, M. A.; Pureur, P.

    2018-02-01

    We report on Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity, and in-plane magnetoresistance experiments in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) implanted with As and Mn. A pristine sample was also studied for comparison. Two different fluences were applied, φ = 0.5× 10^{16} {ions}/{cm}2 and φ = 1.0× 10^{16} {ions}/{cm}2. The implantations were carried out with 20 keV ion energy at room temperature. The Raman spectroscopy results reveal the occurrence of drastic changes of the HOPG surface as a consequence of the damage caused by ionic implantation. For the higher dose, the complete amorphization limit is attained. The resistivity and magnetoresistance results were obtained placing electrical contacts on the irradiated sample surface. Owing to the strong anisotropy of HOPG, the electrical current propagates mostly near the implanted surface. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in the magnetoresistance at low temperatures. These results allow the extraction of the fundamental SdH frequencies and the carriers' effective masses. In general, the resistivity and magnetoresistance results are consistent with those obtained from Raman measurements. However, one must consider that the electrical conduction in our samples occurs as in a parallel association of a largely resistive thin sheet at the surface strongly modified by disorder with a thicker layer where damage produced by implantation is less severe. The SdH oscillations do not hint to significant changes in the carrier density of HOPG.

  10. Effects of ion implantation on corrosion of zirconium and zirconium base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, V.F.; Petel'guzov, I.A.; Rekova, L.P.; Rodak, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of He and Ar ion bombardment on the corrosion of Zr and Zr-1%Nb and Zr-2.5%Nb alloys is investigated with the aims of finding the irradiation influence laws, obtaining the dependences of the effect of increasing the corrosiuon resistance on the type and dose of bombarding ions and of finding the conditions for the maximum effect. The prolonged corrosion test of specimens (3500 hours) have shown that the strongest effect is obtained for the irradiation with Ar ions up to the dose 1x10 16 ion/cm 2 . The kinetics of ion thermosorption after corrosion of irradiated materials is studied, the temperature threshold of implanted ion stability in zirconium and its alloys is found to be 400 deg C

  11. Effects of ion-implanted C on the microstructure and surface mechanical properties of Fe alloys implanted with Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Pope, L.E.; Yost, F.G.; Picraux, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructural and tribological effects of ion implanting C into Ti-implanted, Fe-based alloys are examined and compared to the influence of C introduced by vacuum carburization during Ti implantation alone. The amorphous surface alloy formed by Ti implantation of pure Fe increases in thickness when additional C is implanted at depths containing Ti but beyond the range of carburization. Pin-on-disc tests of 15-5 PH stainless steel show that implantation of both Ti and C reduces friction significantly under conditions where no reduction is obtained by Ti implantation alone; wear depths are also less when C is implanted. All available experimental results can be accounted for by consideration of the thickness and Ti concentration of the amorphous Fe-Ti-C alloy. The thicker amorphous layer on samples implanted with additional C extends tribological benefits to more severe wear regimes

  12. Analysis of Accumulating Ability of Heavy Metals in Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Improved by Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianhua; Wang Naiyan; Zhang Fengshou

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals have seriously contaminated soil and water, and done harm to public health. Academician WANG Naiyan proposed that ion-implantation technique should be exploited for environmental bioremediation by mutating and breeding plants or microbes. By implanting N + into Taikonglian No.1, we have selected and bred two lotus cultivars, Jingguang No.1 and Jingguang No.2. The present study aims at analyzing the feasibility that irradiation can be used for remediation of soil and water from heavy metals. Compared with parent Taikonglian No.1, the uptaking and accumulating ability of heavy metals in two mutated cultivars was obviously improved. So ion implantation technique can indeed be used in bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water, but it is hard to select and breed a cultivar which can remedy the soil and water from all the heavy metals.

  13. Ion implantation of Cd and Ag into AlN and GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Sérgio M C; Correia, João Guilherme; Vianden, Reiner; Johnston, Karl; Alves, Eduardo; Lorenz, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    GaN and AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium (Cd) or silver (Ag), to fluences ranging from 1×1013 to 1.7 × 1015 at/cm$^{2}$. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 ºC under flowing nitrogen. While implantation damage could be fully removed for the lowest fluences, for higher fluences the crystal quality was only partially recovered. For the high fluence samples the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/ channelling (RBS/C). Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional cation sites (Al or Ga) while Ag is slightly displaced from this position. To further investigate the incorporation sites, Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements were performed and the electric field gradients at the site of the probe nuclei were determined.

  14. A Mutant of Bacillus Subtilis with High-Producing Surfactin by Ion Beam Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingmei; Yuan Hang; Wang Jun; Gong Guohong; Zhou Wei; Fan Yonghong; Wang Li; Yao Jianming; Yu Zengliang

    2006-01-01

    In order to generate a mutant of Bacillus subtilis with enhanced surface activity through low energy nitrogen ion beam implantation, the effects of energy and dose of ions implanted were studied. The morphological changes in the bacteria were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optimum condition of ions implantation, 20 keV of energy and 2.6x10 15 N + /cm 2 in dose, was determined. A mutant, B.s-E-8 was obtained, whose surface activity of 50-fold and 100-fold diluted cell-free Landy medium was as 5.6-fold and 17.4-fold as the wild strain. The microbial growth and biosurfactant production of both the mutant and the wild strain were compared. After purified by ultrafiltration and SOURCE 15PHE, the biosurfactant was determined to be a complex of surfactin family through analysis of electrospray ionization mass spectrum (ESI/MS) and there was an interesting finding that after the ion beam implantation the intensities of the components were different from the wild type strain

  15. Nano-size metallic oxide particle synthesis in Fe-Cr alloys by ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Delauche, L.; Arnal, B.

    2017-10-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels reinforced with metal oxide nanoparticles are advanced structural materials for nuclear and thermonuclear reactors. The understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides can help in improving mechanical properties of ODS steels, with a strong impact for their commercialization. A perfect tool to study these mechanisms is ion implantation, where various precipitate synthesis parameters are under control. In the framework of this approach, high-purity Fe-10Cr alloy samples were consecutively implanted with Al and O ions at room temperature and demonstrated a number of unexpected features. For example, oxide particles of a few nm in diameter could be identified in the samples already after ion implantation at room temperature. This is very unusual for ion beam synthesis, which commonly requires post-implantation high-temperature annealing to launch precipitation. The observed particles were composed of aluminium and oxygen, but additionally contained one of the matrix elements (chromium). The crystal structure of aluminium oxide compound corresponds to non-equilibrium cubic γ-Al2O3 phase rather than to more common corundum. The obtained experimental results together with the existing literature data give insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides in ODS alloys.

  16. A kinetic Monte Carlo annealing assessment of the dominant features from ion implant simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin-Bragado, I.; Jaraiz, M.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Rubio, J.E.; Barbolla, J.

    2004-01-01

    Ion implantation and subsequent annealing are essential stages in today's advanced CMOS processing. Although the dopant implanted profile can be accurately predicted by analytical fits calibrated with SIMS profiles, the damage has to be estimated with a binary collision approximation implant simulator. Some models have been proposed, like the '+n', in an attempt to simplify the anneal simulation. We have used the atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo dados to elucidate which are the implant modeling features most relevant in the simulation of transient enhanced diffusion (TED). For the experimental conditions studied we find that the spatial correlation of the I, V Frenkel pairs is not critical in order to yield the correct I supersaturation, that can be simulated just taking into account the net I-V excess distribution. In contrast to, simulate impurity clustering/deactivation when there is an impurity concentration comparable to the net I-V excess, the full I and V profiles have to be used

  17. Optical, chemical and mechanical modifications induced by ion implantation on glass surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinellato, V.; Nicoletti, F.; Polato, P.; Gottardi, V.

    1982-01-01

    Soda-lime glasses have been implanted with 50 keV Ar ions. Modifications induced on the glass surface have been studied as a function of implanted dose, with particular regard to optical, chemical, and mechanical properties. Optical measurements indicate a reduction of the refractive index, connected to the surface sodium content. The sodium profile has been measured using the Na 23 (p,α)Ne 20 nuclear reaction. An improvement of the mechanical resistance has been observed at low implantation dose, together with a change of the chemical durability. An expansion of glass has been observed by S.E.M. and interferometric microscopy for 80 keV implantation energy. (author)

  18. Modification of anti-bacterial surface properties of textile polymers by vacuum arc ion source implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, A.G., E-mail: nik@opee.hcei.tsc.ru [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G.Yu.; Oks, E.M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Oztarhan, A. [Izmir University, Izmir 35140 (Turkey); Akpek, A.; Hames-Kocabas, E.; Urkac, E.S. [Bioengineering Department, Ege University, Bornova 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94708 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Ion implantation. • Anti-bacterial properties. • Textile polymer. • Vacuum arc ion source. - Abstract: Ion implantation provides an important technology for the modification of material surface properties. The vacuum arc ion source is a unique instrument for the generation of intense beams of metal ions as well as gaseous ions, including mixed metal–gas beams with controllable metal:gas ion ratio. Here we describe our exploratory work on the application of vacuum arc ion source-generated ion beams for ion implantation into polymer textile materials for modification of their biological cell compatibility surface properties. We have investigated two specific aspects of cell compatibility: (i) enhancement of the antibacterial characteristics (we chose to use Staphylococcus aureus bacteria) of ion implanted polymer textile fabric, and (ii) the “inverse” concern of enhancement of neural cell growth rate (we chose Rat B-35 neuroblastoma cells) on ion implanted polymer textile. The results of both investigations were positive, with implantation-generated antibacterial efficiency factor up to about 90%, fully comparable to alternative conventional (non-implantation) approaches and with some potentially important advantages over the conventional approach; and with enhancement of neural cell growth rate of up to a factor of 3.5 when grown on suitably implanted polymer textile material.

  19. Procedure for the ion implantation of semiconductor wafers coated with insulating layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.; Tunnat, K.

    1987-01-01

    This invention is directed to the ion implantation of semiconductor wafers coated with insulating layers. The aim is to limit the spark puncturing by the ion beam due to electric charge and thus to protect the component structures. A conductive contact between semiconductor wafer and wafer carrier of the ion implantation facility is established by the partial removal of the insulating layer. 4 figs

  20. Nitrogen ion implantation: Barriers to industrial acceptance and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Nitrogen ion implantation has been used to improve the wear and fatigue resistance of metals in industrial applications since the process was developed at the UK Harwell Laboratory in the 1970s. However, implantation service companies like Ion Surface Technology have found so far that the market for nitrogen implantation is limited. Both market and technical barriers exist to more widespread acceptance in industry. Market factors include cost, industrial conservatism, and production priorities in manufacturing. Technical factors include the size of available implanters, the line-of-sight limitation of ion implantation, sputtering, and other process limitations such as shallow penetration depth. Several recent technical developments that should greatly increase market acceptance are described: 1. large-scale nitrogen implanters, 2. the non-line-of-sight plasma source ion implantation process, and 3. ion assisted coating techniques. (orig.)

  1. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  2. Ion microanalysis and implantation applied to fusion surface research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vook, F.L.; Doyle, B.L.; Picraux, S.T.

    1978-01-01

    Ion microanalysis and implantation have been used to investigate and analyze plasma-surface interactions relevant to fusion plasma materials. Previous results for pure metals are reviewed and new results are presented for TiB 2 coatings for Tokamak surfaces. Enhanced trapping of implanted, low-energy hydrogen has been shown to occur at room temperature in W, Au, Pd, Mo, Nb, and TiB 2 for He or other ion predamage. Hydrogen depth profiles obtained using 1 H( 19 F,αγ) 16 O resonant nuclear reaction show that the H decorates the He damage profiles at traps whose concentration is proportional to the He-induced damage. For room temperature implantation in TiB 2 , H is trapped at the end of range, and isochronal annealing indicates that the H is lost by release from traps followed by rapid diffusion. For He predamaged samples, annealing at 400 0 C causes the H to be retrapped in the region of the He-induced damage at traps whose cross section is approx. = 1.8 x 10 -18 cm 2 /trap

  3. Thermal annealing behavior of nano-size metal-oxide particles synthesized by ion implantation in Fe-Cr alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Gentils, A.; Ribis, J.; Borodin, V. A.; Descoins, M.; Mangelinck, D.; Dalle, F.; Arnal, B.; Delauche, L.

    2017-05-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are promising structural materials for the next generation nuclear reactors, as well as fusion facilities. The detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in the precipitation of nano-oxides during ODS steel production would strongly contribute to the improvement of the mechanical properties and the optimization of manufacturing of ODS steels, with a potentially strong economic impact for their industrialization. A useful tool for the experimental study of nano-oxide precipitation is ion implantation, a technique that is widely used to synthesize precipitate nanostructures in well-controlled conditions. Earlier, we have demonstrated the feasibility of synthesizing aluminum-oxide particles in the high purity Fe-10Cr alloy by consecutive implantation with Al and O ions at room temperature. This paper describes the effects of high-temperature annealing after the ion implantation stage on the development of the aluminum based oxide nanoparticle system. Using transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography experiments, we demonstrate that post-implantation heat treatment induces the growth of the nano-sized oxides in the implanted region and nucleation of new oxide precipitates behind the implantation zone as a result of the diffusion driven broadening of implant profiles. A tentative scenario for the development of metal-oxide nano-particles at both ion implantation and heat treatment stages is suggested based on the experimental observations.

  4. Defect structures of ion-implanted α-tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.W.; Weyer, G.; Damgaard, S.; Nielsen, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystalline and polycrystalline α-tin has been implanted at the room temperature 80-keV ions of radioactive sup(119m)Sn, 119 Sb, and sup(119m)Te. The radioactive nuclei decay to the Moessbauer level of 119 Sn. Moessbauer spectra of the emitted 24-keV γ radiation have been measured for different source temperatures by resonance counting techniques. Five individual lines in the spectra are characterized mainly by their isomer shifts and Debye temperatures. From these parameters the radiogenic 119 Sn atoms are concluded to be located in regular substitutional and interstitial lattice sites and in defect complexes. Simple models for the defects are proposed: A Sn-vacancy pair consists of Sn atoms on (nearly) substitutional sites with a dangling bond into an adjacent vacancy. In a complex oxygen-containing defect the Sn atoms have approximately a 5s 2 configuration with p-bonds to two nearest neighbour atoms. Sn atoms, having an atomic 5s 2 5p 2 configuration and large vibrational amplitudes, are concluded to be in non-bonding regular interstitial sites. For special implantation conditions minor fractions of SnO 2 molecules are formed in the bulk, The interstitial 119 Sn and the 119 Sn-vacancy pairs are proposed to represent elementary point defects in α-tin. Conclusions are also drawn concerning the lattice location and the defects created in the implantation process by the implanted parent isotopes. (orig.)

  5. The effect of metal ion implantation on the surface mechanical properties of Mylar (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, W.; Sood, D.K. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Yao, X.; Brown, I.G. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Lawrence Berkeley Lab.

    1993-12-31

    Ion implantation of polymers leads to the formation of new carbonaceous materials, the revolution during implantation of various species consists of (1) ion beam induced damage: chain scission, crosslinking, molecular emission of volatile elements and compounds, stoichiometric change in the surface layer of pristine polymers; and (2) chemical effect between ion and target materials: microalloying and precipitation. Literature regarding ion implanted polymers shows that the reorganisation of the carbon network after implantation can dramatically modify several properties of pristine polymers solubility, molecular weight, and electrical, optical and mechanical properties. However, ion implantation of polymers is actually a very complex interaction which depends on not only ion species, implantation condition, but also polymer type and specific structure. In this paper the effect of Ag or Ti ions implantation on surface mechanical properties of PET (polyethylenne terephthalate) polymer is reported. There was a clear deterioration in wear resistance after implantation of both Ag and Ti ions. It is suggested that the increment of wear after implantation may result from not only ion damage but also chemical effect between ion and target material. 3 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  6. Effect of surface modification by ion implantation on the fatigue behavior in metastable β-phase Ti-24V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fatigue response of ion implanted Ti-24V alloy was studied under strain and stress controlled fatigue conditions. The structural changes by ion implantation were investigated using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nitrogen and boron implantation resulted in surface regions having a fine titanium nitride and dense titanium boride, respectively. A metastable substitutional solid solution was produced through vanadium implantation. These modifications in surface structure altered the surface deformation modes and crack initiation response and the related fatigue life under strain controlled fatigue conditions. Nitrogen and vanadium implantation resulted in a beneficial effect in strain controlled fatigue. The improvement contributed to enhancement of crack nucleation resistance through strain homogenization for nitrogen implanted surfaces and an increase of slip reversibility for vanadium implanted specimens. The inhomogeneous coarse slip resulting from boron implantation induced early crack initiation under strain controlled conditions and thereby reduced the fatigue life. Under stress controlled fatigue conditions, fatigue life and endurance limit were enhanced following ion implantation with nitrogen, boron, and vanadium

  7. Laser activation of Ultra Shallow Junctions (USJ) doped by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervisch, Vanessa; Larmande, Yannick; Delaporte, Philippe; Sarnet, Thierry; Sentis, Marc; Etienne, Hasnaa; Torregrosa, Frank; Cristiano, Fuccio; Fazzini, Pier Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Today, the main challenges for the realization of the source/drain extensions concern the ultra-low energy implantation and the activation of the maximum amount of dopants with a minimized diffusion. Among the different annealing processes, one solution is the laser thermal annealing. Many studies [F. Torregrosa, C. Laviron, F. Milesi, M. Hernandez, H. Faik, J. Venturini, Proc. 14th International Conference on Ion Implant Technology, 2004; M. Hernandez, J. Venturini, D. Zahorski, J. Boulmer, D. Débarre, G. Kerrien, T. Sarnet, C. Laviron, M.N Semeria, D. Camel, J.L Santailler, Appl. Surf. Sci. 208-209 (2003) 345-351] have shown that the association of Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) and Laser Thermal Process (LTP) allows to obtain junctions of a few nanometers with a high electrical activation. All the wafers studied have been implanted by PULSION ® (PIII implanter developed by Ion Beam Services) with an acceleration voltage of 1 kV and a dose of 6 × 10 15 at./cm 2. In this paper, we compare the annealing process achieved with three excimer lasers: ArF, KrF and XeCl with a wavelength of respectively 193, 248 and 308 nm. We analyse the results in terms of boron activation and junction depth. To complete this study, we have observed the effect of pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) before PIII process on boron implantation and boron activation. We show that Ge PAI implanted by classical beam line allows a decrease of the junction depth from 20 down to 12 nm in the as-implanted condition. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses were performed in order to study the structure of pre-amorphized silicon and to estimate the thickness of the amorphous layer. In order to determine the sheet resistance ( Rs) and the junction depth ( Xj), we have used the four-point probe technique (4PP) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis. To complete the electrical characterizations some samples have been analyzed by non-contact optical measurements. All

  8. Characterization of low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters having gold absorbers with implanted $^{163}$Ho ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gastaldo, L.; von Seggern, F.; Porst, J.-P.; Schäfer, S.; Pies, C.; Kempf, S.; Wolf, T.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Herlert, A.; Johnston, K.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time we have investigated the behavior of fully micro-fabricated low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) after undergoing an ion-implantation process. This experiment had the aim to show the possibility to perform a high precision calorimetric measurement of the energy spectrum following the electron capture of $^{163}$Ho using MMCs having the radioactive $^{163}$Ho ions implanted in the absorber. The implantation of $^{163}$Ho ions was performed at ISOLDE-CERN. The performance of a detector that underwent an ion-implantation process is compared to the one of a detector without implanted ions. The results show that the implantation dose of ions used in this experiment does not compromise the properties of the detector. In addition an optimized detector design for future $^{163}$Ho experiments is presented.

  9. Synthesis of optical waveguides in SiO2 by silver ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, H.; Salazar, D.; Rangel-Rojo, R.; Angel-Valenzuela, J. L.; Vázquez, G. V.; Flores-Romero, E.; Rodríguez-Fernández, L.; Oliver, A.

    2013-03-01

    Optical waveguides have been obtained by silver ion implantation on fused silica substrates. Silver ion implantation profiles were calculated in a SiO2 matrix with different energies of implantation from 125 keV to 10 MeV. Refractive index change (Δn) of the ion implanted waveguides was calculated as a function of their chemical composition. Optical absorption spectra of waveguides obtained by 9 MeV silver ion implantation, at a dose of 5 × 1016 ions/cm2, exhibit the typical absorption band associated to the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. Effective refractive indices of the propagation modes and waveguide propagation losses of silver ion implanted waveguides are also presented.

  10. Electrochemical behavior and biological response of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on cp-Ti after N-ions implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizwan, M.; Ahmad, A. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, 54890 Lahore (Pakistan); Deen, K.M. [Corrosion Control Research Cell, Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, CEET, University of the Punjab, 54590 Lahore (Pakistan); Haider, W., E-mail: haiderw@utpa.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Texas Pan American, Edinburg, TX 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted on cp-Ti. • Increase in surface roughness with increase in ions dose was confirmed by AFM. • TiN{sub 0.3} and Ti{sub 3}N{sub 2−x} nitride phases were formed and validated by XRD. • The ions implantation reduced the corrosion rate and stabilized the passive film. • Surface roughness greatly affected the morphology and growth of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. - Abstract: Titanium and its alloys are most widely used as implant materials due to their excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this study Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted over cp-Ti by Pelletron accelerator with beam energy of 0.25 MeV.The atomic force microscopy of bare and nitrogen implanted specimens confirmed increase in surface roughness with increase in nitrogen ions concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns of ions implanted surfaces validated the formation of TiN{sub 0.3} and Ti{sub 3}N{sub 2-x}nitride phases. The tendency to form passive film and electrochemical behavior of these surfaces in ringer lactate (RL) solution was evaluated by Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy respectively. It is proved that nitrogen ions implantation was beneficial to reduce corrosion rate and stabilizing passive film by increasing charge transfer resistance in RL. It was concluded that morphology and proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on nitrogen ions implanted surfaces strongly depends on surface roughness and nitride phases.

  11. Planar transistors and impatt diodes with ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorendorf, H.; Glawischnig, H.; Grasser, L.; Hammerschmitt, J.

    1975-03-01

    Low frequency planar npn and pnp transistors have been developed in which the base and emitter have been fabricated using ion implantation of boron and phosphorus by a drive-in diffusion. Electrical parameters of the transistors are comparable with conventionally produced transistors; the noise figure was improved and production tolerances were significantly reduced. Silicon-impatt diodes for the microwave range were also fabricated with implanted pn junctions and tested for their high frequency characteristics. These diodes, made in an improved upside down technology, delivered output power up to 40 mW (burn out power) at 30 GHz. Reverse leakage current and current carrying capability of these diodes were comparable to diffused structures. (orig.) 891 ORU 892 MB [de

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of Sn+ ion-implanted silica glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Y.; Hioki, T.; Motohiro, T.; Noda, S.; Kurauchi, T.

    1994-01-01

    The absolute value of the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility, vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke , of Sn + ion-implanted silica glass was found to be similar 10 -6 esu. This value is as large as those reported for semiconductor-doped glasses. Silica glass substrates were implanted with Sn + ions at an acceleration energy of 400 keV to a dose of 2x10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature. Metallic Sn microcrystallites of 4-20 nm in diameter were found to be embedded in the silica glass matrix. The average volume fraction of the Sn microcrystallites was evaluated to be 28%. vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke and the imaginary part of the dielectric function, Im ε, had peaks at the same wavelength of 500 nm owing to surface plasmon resonance. The peak width of vertical stroke χ (3) vertical stroke was nearly half of that of Im ε, which can be explained by an effective medium theory. ((orig.))

  13. Ion Implantation Hampers Pollen Tube Growth and Disrupts Actin Cytoskeleton Organization in Pollen Tubes of Pinus thunbergii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoping; Yang Lusheng; Huang Qunce; Qin Guangyong

    2008-01-01

    Pollen grains of Pinus thunbergii Parl. (Japanese black pine) were implanted with 30 keV nitrogen ion beams and the effects of nitrogen ion implantation on pollen tube growth in vitro and the organization of actin cytoskeleton in the pollen tube cell were investigated using a confocal laser scanning microscope after fluorescence labeling. Treatment with ion implantation significantly blocked pollen tube growth. Confocal microscopy showed that ion implantation disrupted actin filament cytoskeleton organization in the pollen tube. It was found that there was a distinct correlation between the inhibition of pollen tube growth and the disruption of actin cytoskeleton organization, indicating that an intact actin cytoskeleton is essential for continuous pollen tube elongation in Pinus thunbergii. Although the detailed mechanism for the ion-implantation-induced bioeffect still remains to be elucidated, the present study assumes that the cytoskeleton system in pollen grains may provide a key target in response to ion beam implantation and is involved in mediating certain subsequent cytological changes.

  14. The influence of ion implantation on the surface properties of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, W.A.; Carter, G.

    1975-10-01

    The report falls into three sections: (1) annealing behaviour of high dose rare gas (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) implantations into silicon; (2) measurement of projected and lateral range parameters for low energy heavy ions (Ar, Cu, Kr, Cd, Xe, Cs, Dy, W, Au, Pb, Bi) in silicon by Rutherford backscattering; (3) surface chemistry of ion implanted solids (e.g. corrosion, catalysis, oxidation, synthesis of compounds in ion implanted layers). (U.K.)

  15. Application of Coaxial Ion Gun for Film Generation and Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Mikio; Asai, Tomohiko; Kurumi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kaoru; Hirose, Hideharu; Masutani, Shigeyuki

    A magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) is here utilized for deposition on high-melting-point metals. MCPGs have hitherto been studied mostly in the context of nuclear fusion research, for particle and magnetic helicity injection and spheromak formation. During spheromak formation, the electrode materials are ionized and mixed into the plasmoid. In this study, this ablation process by gun-current sputtering is enhanced for metallic thin-film generation. In the proposed system geometry, only ionized materials are electromagnetically accelerated by the self-Lorentz force, with ionized operating gas as a magnetized thermal plasmoid, contributing to the thin-film deposition. This reduces the impurity and non-uniformity of the deposited thin-film. Furthermore, as the ions are accelerated in a parallel direction to the injection axis, vertical implantation of the ions into the substrate surface is achieved. To test a potential application of the developed system, experiments were conducted involving the formation of a buffer layer on hard ceramics, for use in dental materials.

  16. Ge nano-layer fabricated by high-fluence low-energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Tiecheng; Dun Shaobo; Hu Qiang; Zhang Songbao; An Zhu; Duan Yanmin; Zhu Sha; Wei Qiangmin; Wang Lumin

    2006-01-01

    A Ge nano-layer embedded in the surface layer of an amorphous SiO 2 film was fabricated by high-fluence low-energy ion implantation. The component, phase, nano-structure and luminescence properties of the nano-layer were studied by means of Rutherford backscattering, glancing incident X-ray diffraction, laser Raman scattering, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. The relation between nano-particle characteristics and ion fluence was also studied. The results indicate that nano-crystalline Ge and nano-amorphous Ge particles coexist in the nano-layer and the ratio of nano-crystalline Ge to nano-particle Ge increases with increasing ion fluence. The intensity of photoluminescence from the nano-layer increases with increasing ion fluence also. Prepared with certain ion fluences, high-density nano-layers composed of uniform-sized nano-particles can be observed

  17. Surface modification by metal ion implantation forming metallic nanoparticles in an insulating matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvadori, M.C.; Teixeira, F.S.; Sgubin, L.G.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal nanoparticles can be produced through metallic ion implantation in insulating substrate, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. • The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile, that can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN. • Nanocomposites, obtained by this way, can be produced in different insulator materials. More specifically we have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. • The nanocomposites were characterized by measuring the resistivity of the composite layer as function of the dose implanted, reaching the percolation threshold. • Excellent agreement was found between the experimental results and the predictions of the theory. - Abstract: There is special interest in the incorporation of metallic nanoparticles in a surrounding dielectric matrix for obtaining composites with desirable characteristics such as for surface plasmon resonance, which can be used in photonics and sensing, and controlled surface electrical conductivity. We have investigated nanocomposites produced by metal ion implantation into insulating substrates, where the implanted metal self-assembles into nanoparticles. The nanoparticles nucleate near the maximum of the implantation depth profile (projected range), which can be estimated by computer simulation using the TRIDYN code. TRIDYN is a Monte Carlo simulation program based on the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) code that takes into account compositional changes in the substrate due to two factors: previously implanted dopant atoms, and sputtering of the substrate surface. Our study show that the nanoparticles form a bidimentional array buried a few nanometers below the substrate surface. We have studied Au/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate), Pt/PMMA, Ti/alumina and Au/alumina systems. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted samples show that metallic nanoparticles form in

  18. Seeding of silicon by copper ion implantation for selective electroless copper plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhansali, S.; Sood, D.K.; Zmood, R.B. [Microelectronic and Materials Technology Centre, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technolgy, Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    We report on the successful use of copper(self) ion implantation into silicon to seed the electroless plating of copper on silicon (100) surfaces. Copper ions have been implanted to doses of 5E14-6.4E16 ions/cm{sup 2} using a MEEVA ion implanter at extraction voltage of 40kV. Dose was varied in fine steps to determine the threshold dose of 2E15 Cu ions/cm{sup 2} for `seed` formation of copper films on silicon using a commercial electroless plating solution. Plated films were studied with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, EDX and profilometry . The adhesion of films was measured by `scotch tape test`. The adhesion was found to improve with increasing dose. However thicker films exhibited rather poor adhesion and high internal stress. SEM results show that the films grow first as isolated islands which become larger and eventually impinge into a continuous film as the plating time is increased. (authors). 5 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  19. Effects of low-energy argon ion implantation on the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton during maize pollen germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, F; Zhu, S W; Wu, L J; Cheng, B J

    2010-04-27

    The relationship between pollen germination and the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination is a central theme in plant reproductive biology research. Maize (Zea mays) pollen grains were implanted with 30 keV argon ion (Ar(+)) beams at doses ranging from 0.78 x 10(15) to 13 x 10(15) ions/cm(2). The effects of low-energy ion implantation on pollen germination viability and the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination were studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Maize pollen germination rate increased remarkably with Ar(+) dose, in the range from 3.9 x 10(15) to 6.5 x 10(15) ions/cm(2); the germination rate peaked at an Ar(+) dose of 5.2 x 10(15) ions/cm(2). When the implantation dose exceeded 7.8 x 10(15) ions/cm(2), the rate of pollen germination decreased sharply. The actin filaments assembled in pollen grains implanted with 5.2 x 10(15) ions/cm(2) Ar(+) much earlier than in controls. The actin filaments organized as longer parallel bundles and extended into the emerging pollen tube in treated pollen grains, while they formed random and loose fine bundles and were gathered at the pollen aperture in the control. The reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in the pollen implanted with 9.1 x 10(15) ions/cm(2) Ar(+) was slower than in controls. There was a positive correlation between pollen germination and the dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton during pollen germination. Ion implantation into pollen did not cause changes in the polarization of actin filaments and organelle dynamics in the pollen tubes. The effects of Ar(+) implantation on pollen germination could be mediated by changes in the polymerization and rearrangement of actin polymers.

  20. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Z. M.; Tian, X. B.; Chu, P. K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C2H2) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C2H2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel.

  1. Ion enhanced deposition by dual titanium and acetylene plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Z.M.; Tian, X.B.; Chu, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D) offers a non-line-of-sight fabrication method for various types of thin films on steels to improve the surface properties. In this work, titanium films were first deposited on 9Cr18 (AISI440) stainless bearing steel by metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (MePIII-D) using a titanium vacuum arc plasma source. Afterwards, carbon implantation and carbon film deposition were performed by acetylene (C 2 H 2 ) plasma immersion ion implantation. Multiple-layered structures with superior properties were produced by conducting Ti MePIII-D + C 2 H 2 PIII successively. The composition and structure of the films were investigated employing Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that the mixing for Ti and C atoms is much better when the target bias is higher during Ti MePIII-D. A top diamond-like carbon layer and a titanium oxycarbide layer are formed on the 9Cr18 steel surface. The wear test results indicate that this dual PIII-D method can significantly enhance the wear properties and decrease the surface friction coefficient of 9Cr18 steel

  2. Productivity Improvement for the SHX--SEN's Single-Wafer High-Current Ion Implanter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninomiya, Shiro; Ochi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yasuhiko; Yumiyama, Toshio; Kudo, Tetsuya; Kurose, Takeshi; Kariya, Hiroyuki; Tsukihara, Mitsukuni; Ishikawa, Koji; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Equipment productivity is a critical issue for device fabrication. For ion implantation, productivity is determined both by ion current at the wafer and by utilization efficiency of the ion beam. Such improvements not only result in higher fabrication efficiency but also reduce consumption of both electrical power and process gases. For high-current ion implanters, reduction of implant area is a key factor to increase efficiency. SEN has developed the SAVING system (Scanning Area Variation Implantation with Narrower Geometrical pattern) to address this opportunity. In this paper, three variations of the SAVING system are introduced along with discussion of their effects on fab productivity.

  3. Measurement of Adhesion Strength of DLC Film Prepared by Utilizing Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yoshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Mitsuyasu

    High-adhesion diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was prepared by a hybrid process of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition using superimposed RF and high-voltage pulses. The adhesion strength of DLC film on a stainless steel (SUS304) was enhanced by the carbon ion implantation to the substrate. Furthermore, ion implantation of mixed carbon and silicon led to considerable enhancement of adhesion strength above the resin glue strength. The adhesion strength of DLC film on the aluminum alloy (A-5052) was improved above the resin glue strength only by the carbon ion implantation to the substrate.

  4. Development of EL element by ion implanting into aluminium film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeno, Tomokazu; Tanizaki, Yoshiyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Inst. (Japan); Morisaki; Shigeki

    1999-01-01

    Rare earth elements were added to a barrier type anodized aluminium film by an ion implantation method, and then the film was reoxidized with direct current. EL characteristic properties by adding elements were observed by reoxidation. Red, blue and green were shown by adding Eu, Tm and Tb, respectively. The EL characteristics of barrier type film were affected by the surface pretreatment. The film treated with degreasing showed that the EL intensity increased much more from lower reanodizing voltage than that of film treated with electropolishing. The film with some elements showed each peculiar color without interference. So that we can see the mixed colors of them. (S.Y.)

  5. Simulation and visualization of ion-implantation in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Joan; Silverman, Amihai; Ierushalmi, Niv; Sorkin, Anastassia; Kalish, Rafi

    2014-01-01

    We have explored aspects of ion implantation in diamonds with molecular dynamics and tightbinding atomistic simulations. Relevant experiments and their potential applications as well as our computer models and computational approaches are described. Our simulations have been designed to answer questions proposed by experimental researchers concerning optimal laboratory schedules for the preparation of samples with potential applications to diamond membranes and NV centers for quantum computers. Simulation and visualization of results enable us to peek inside samples where experimental techniques cannot tread. In order to provide the requisite Brazilian component a new connection between these models and bootstrap percolation is made

  6. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Raman scattering in silicon disordered by gold ion implantation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vacík, Jiří; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Voseček, Václav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 247, č. 8 (2010), s. 2022-2026 ISSN 0370-1972. [8th International Conference on Optics of Surfaces and Interfaces (OSI-VIII). Ischia, 07.09.2009-11.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200480702; GA AV ČR IAA400100701; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400480701; GA ČR GA106/09/1264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ion implantation * Raman spectra * Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2010

  8. Production of solid deuterium targets by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikai, J.; Szegedi, S.; Olah, L.; El-Megrab, A.M.; Molla, N.I.; Rahman, M.M.; Miah, R.U.; Habbani, F.; Shaddad, I.

    1997-01-01

    Solid metal, semiconductor and metallic glass samples were irradiated with deuteron atomic ions between 60 and 180 keV incident energies. Accumulation rates of deuterons in different targets were recorded by the detection of protons and neutrons via the 2 H(d,p) and 2 H(d,n) reactions. A simple analytical expression is given to describe the kinetics of the accumulation. The dependence of the reaction rate on the deuteron energy gives information on the concentration profile in addition to the neutron flux density spectra. A varying distortion of the implanted deuteron profiles by a change in the beam energy were also observed for different targets. (orig.)

  9. Titanium and aluminium ions implanted by plasma on polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, G.J.; Olayo, M.G.; Lopez, R.; Granda, E.; Munoz, A.; Valencia, R.; Morales, J.

    2007-01-01

    The ion implantation by plasma of titanium and aluminum on polyethylene thin films (PE) is presented. The results indicate that the polymers reacted firstly with the oxygen and/or nitrogen carrying gases, and later its received the metallic particles that formed thin films. The stainless steel and the titanium formed a single phase. The metallic layers grew in the interval of 1 to 2 nm/min, its are thin, but enough to change the hardness of the polymer that it is increased in more of 20 times. (Author)

  10. The Breeding of a Pigment Mutant Strain of Steroid Hydroxylation Aspergillus Flavus by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Hui; Ma Jingming; Feng Chun; Cheng Ying; Zhu Suwen; Cheng Beijiu

    2009-01-01

    In the process of the fermentation of steroid C 11 α-hydroxylgenation strain Aspergillus flavus AF-ANo208, a red pigment is derived, which will affect the isolation and purification of the target product. Low energy ion beam implantation is a new tool for breeding excellent mutant strains. In this study, the ion beam implantation experiments were performed by infusing two different ions: argon ion (Ar + ) and nitrogen ion (N + ). The results showed that the optimal ion implantation was N + with an optimum dose of 2.08 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 , with which the mutant strain AF-ANm16 that produced no red pigment was obtained. The strain had high genetic stability and kept the strong capacity of C11α-hydroxylgenation, which could be utilized in industrial fermentation. The differences between the original strain and the mutant strain at a molecular level were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results indicated that the frequency of variation was 7.00%, which would establish the basis of application investigation into the breeding of pigment mutant strains by low energy ion implantation. (ion beam bioengineering)

  11. Ion beam synthesis of IrSi3 by implantation of 2 MeV Ir ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, T.P.; Chisholm, M.F.; Hinneberg, H.J.

    1992-11-01

    Formation of a buried IrSi 3 layer in (111) oriented Si by ion implantation and annealing has been studied at an implantation energy of 2 MeV for substrate temperatures of 450--550C. Rutherford backscattering (RBS), ion channeling and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that a buried epitaxial IrSi 3 layer is produced at 550C by implanting ≥ 3.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 and subsequently annealing for 1 h at 1000C plus 5 h at 1100C. At a dose of 3.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 , the thickness of the layer varied between 120 and 190 nm and many large IrSi 3 precipitates were present above and below the film. Increasing the dose to 4.4 x 10 17 Ir/cm 2 improved the layer uniformity at the expense of increased lattice damage in the overlying Si. RBS analysis of layer formation as a function of substrate temperature revealed the competition between the mechanisms for optimizing surface crystallinity vs. IrSi 3 layer formation. Little apparent substrate temperature dependence was evident in the as-implanted state but after annealing the crystallinity of the top Si layer was observed to deteriorate with increasing substrate temperature while the precipitate coarsening and coalescence improved

  12. Ion implantation and mass transport in YBa2Cu3O7-δ films and substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilner, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This review discusses our previous work, covering the topic of keV-MeV ion implantation into YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) thin film/substrate combinations and bulk oxide samples. This includes 50 keV 2 H + implantation (10 12 /cm 2 and 10 16 /cm 2 ), 200 keV O + implantation (10 12 16 O/cm 2 , 5 x 10 14 18 O/cm 2 and 5 x 10 16 18 O/cm 2 ), 200 keV 20 Ne + implantation (5 x 10 14 /cm 2 ), and 1.5 MeV 197 Au + implantation (5 x 10 15 /cm 2 ) at room temperature. The experimental results show that the electrical properties of YBCO films are very sensitive to irradiation damage. Implantation at very low dose (i.e. a damage level up to 4.2 x 10 -4 dpa) can result in an increase of the critical current, J c , at lower temperatures. A damage level of about 0.06 dpa destroys the superconductivity in YBCO films, whereas a damage level of about 0.18 dpa renders a film amorphous. SIMS depth profiling was used to check the range data of the ion implantation and to obtain the diffusion coefficients of H, O, and Au in the YBCO films. The implanted 18 O starts to migrate into the deeper undamaged layers of a YBCO film at a temperature between 250 C and 300 C. The apparent diffusion coefficient of oxygen, in the c-direction of a c-axis oriented film, is located between the c-axis value and the a-b plane value for a bulk single crystal. Short-circuit diffusion is thought to play an important role in determining this high mobility of oxygen. The ion implantation is shown to be a valuable method for determining the diffusion coefficient in YBCO thin films. Our studies have shown that the diffusion coefficients of implanted species follow the order H>O>Au. (orig.)

  13. Surface potential measurement of negative-ion-implanted insulators by analysing secondary electron energy distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyota, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Nagumo, Syoji; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki.

    1994-01-01

    The negative ion implantation method we have proposed is a noble technique which can reduce surface charging of isolated electrodes by a large margin. In this paper, the way to specify the surface potential of negative-ion-implanted insulators by the secondary electron energy analysis is described. The secondary electron energy distribution is obtained by a retarding field type energy analyzer. The result shows that the surface potential of fused quartz by negative-ion implantation (C - with the energy of 10 keV to 40 keV) is negatively charged by only several volts. This surface potential is extremely low compared with that by positive-ion implantation. Therefore, the negative-ion implantation is a very effective method for charge-up free implantation without charge compensation. (author)

  14. Biological effect of 20 keV N+ ion implantation on Stevia rebaudianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Tingting; Yang Tingting; Ji Guohong; Xiang Xingjia; Chen Xuetao; Wang Yu; Wu Yaojin

    2010-01-01

    The germinability and gemination rate of Stevia rebaudianum seeds implanted with 20 keV N + ions in doses of 0 (CK), 100 x 2500, 400 x 2500 and 1000 x 2500 N + /cm 2 were studied by analyzing the differences in seed germinability and gemination rate between the groups. By statistical analysis, the germinability and gemination rate were affected at the level of α=0.05 by the implantation dose. The results showed that the germinability and gemination rate increased with the dose first and then decreased. At 400 x 2500 N + /cm 2 , the seeds had the largest germinability and the gemination rate. (authors)

  15. Modification of the Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films by Plasma-Immersion Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Burdyukh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of doping with hydrogen and tungsten by means of plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII on the properties of vanadium dioxide and hydrated vanadium pentoxide films. It is shown that the parameters of the metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin films depend on the hydrogen implantation dose. Next, we explore the effect of PIII on composition, optical properties, and the internal electrochromic effect (IECE in V2O5·nH2O films. The variations in the composition and structure caused by the hydrogen insertion, as well as those caused by the electrochromic effect, are studied by nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray structural analysis. It is shown that the ion implantation-induced hydrogenation can substantially enhance the manifestation and performance of the IECE in V2O5 xerogel films. Finally, the effect of PIII-assisted doping with W on the parameters of electrical switching in Au/V2O5·nH2O/Au sandwich structures is examined. It is shown that implanting small tungsten doses improves the switching parameters after forming. When implanting large doses, switching is observed without electroforming, and if electroforming is applied, the switching effect, on the contrary, disappears.

  16. Zinc-ion implanted and deposited titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Streptococccus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Juan; Ding Gang; Li Jinlu; Yang Shenhui; Fang Bisong; Sun Hongchen; Zhou Yanmin

    2010-01-01

    While titanium (Ti) is a commonly used dental implant material with advantageous biocompatible and mechanical properties, native Ti surfaces do not have the ability to prevent bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bacterial adhesive properties of zinc (Zn) ion implanted and deposited Ti surfaces (Zn-PIIID-Ti) as potential dental implant materials. Surfaces of pure Ti (cp-Ti) were modified with increasing concentrations of Zn using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID), and elemental surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). To evaluate bacterial responses, Streptococcus mutans were seeded onto the modifiedTi surfaces for 48 h and subsequently observed by scanning electron microscopy. Relative numbers of bacteria on each surface were assessed by collecting the adhered bacteria, reculturing and counting colony forming units after 48 h on bacterial grade plates. Ti, oxygen and carbon elements were detected on all surfaces by XPS. Increased Zn signals were detected on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces, correlating with an increase of Zn-deposition time. Substantial numbers of S. mutans adhered to cp-Ti samples, whereas bacterial adhesion on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces signficantly decreased as the Zn concentration increased (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PIIID can successfully introduce Zn onto a Ti surface, forming a modified surface layer bearing Zn ions that consequently deter adhesion of S. mutans, a common bacterium in the oral environment.

  17. Zinc-ion implanted and deposited titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Streptococccus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Juan, E-mail: doctorxue@126.com [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China) and Stomatological Hospital, Urumqi, Xinjiang (China); Ding Gang [Department of Stomatology, Yidu Central Hospital, Weifang, Shandong (China); Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Li Jinlu; Yang Shenhui; Fang Bisong [Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Sun Hongchen, E-mail: hcsun@jlu.edu.cn [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China); Zhou Yanmin, E-mail: zhouym62@126.com [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    While titanium (Ti) is a commonly used dental implant material with advantageous biocompatible and mechanical properties, native Ti surfaces do not have the ability to prevent bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bacterial adhesive properties of zinc (Zn) ion implanted and deposited Ti surfaces (Zn-PIIID-Ti) as potential dental implant materials. Surfaces of pure Ti (cp-Ti) were modified with increasing concentrations of Zn using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID), and elemental surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). To evaluate bacterial responses, Streptococcus mutans were seeded onto the modifiedTi surfaces for 48 h and subsequently observed by scanning electron microscopy. Relative numbers of bacteria on each surface were assessed by collecting the adhered bacteria, reculturing and counting colony forming units after 48 h on bacterial grade plates. Ti, oxygen and carbon elements were detected on all surfaces by XPS. Increased Zn signals were detected on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces, correlating with an increase of Zn-deposition time. Substantial numbers of S. mutans adhered to cp-Ti samples, whereas bacterial adhesion on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces signficantly decreased as the Zn concentration increased (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PIIID can successfully introduce Zn onto a Ti surface, forming a modified surface layer bearing Zn ions that consequently deter adhesion of S. mutans, a common bacterium in the oral environment.

  18. Synthesis of Ag ion-implanted TiO2 thin films for antibacterial application and photocatalytic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xinggang; Ma, Huiyan; Liu, Feng; Deng, Jianhua; Ai, Yukai; Zhao, Xinlei; Mao, Dong; Li, Dejun; Liao, Bin

    2015-12-15

    TiO2 thin films were deposited by spin coating method. Silver ions were implanted into the films using a Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc implanter. The antibacterial ability of implanted films was tested using Escherichia coli removal under fluorescent irradiation and in the dark. The concentration of E. coli was evaluated by plating technique. The photocatalytic efficiency of the implanted films was studied by degradation of methyl orange under fluorescent illumination. The surface free energy of the implanted TiO2 films was calculated by contact angle testing. Vitamin C was used as radical scavengers to explore the antibacterial mechanism of the films. The results supported the model that both generation of reactive oxygen species and release of silver ions played critical roles in the toxic effect of implanted films against E. coli. XPS experimental results demonstrated that a portion of the Ag(Ag(3+)) ions were doped into the crystalline lattice of TiO2. As demonstrated by density functional theory calculations, the impurity energy level of subtitutional Ag was responsible for enhanced absorption of visible light. Ag ion-implanted TiO2 films with excellent antibacterial efficiency against bacteria and decomposed ability against organic pollutants could be potent bactericidal surface in moist environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a simple, low cost, indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion implanters, accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K.; Balaji, S.; Saravanan, K.; Navas, J.; David, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2018-02-01

    We developed a simple, low cost user-friendly automated indirect ion beam fluence measurement system for ion irradiation and analysis experiments requiring indirect beam fluence measurements unperturbed by sample conditions like low temperature, high temperature, sample biasing as well as in regular ion implantation experiments in the ion implanters and electrostatic accelerators with continuous beam. The system, which uses simple, low cost, off-the-shelf components/systems and two distinct layers of in-house built softwarenot only eliminates the need for costly data acquisition systems but also overcomes difficulties in using properietry software. The hardware of the system is centered around a personal computer, a PIC16F887 based embedded system, a Faraday cup drive cum monitor circuit, a pair of Faraday Cups and a beam current integrator and the in-house developed software include C based microcontroller firmware and LABVIEW based virtual instrument automation software. The automatic fluence measurement involves two important phases, a current sampling phase lasting over 20-30 seconds during which the ion beam current is continuously measured by intercepting the ion beam and the averaged beam current value is computed. A subsequent charge computation phase lasting 700-900 seconds is executed making the ion beam to irradiate the samples and the incremental fluence received by the sampleis estimated usingthe latest averaged beam current value from the ion beam current sampling phase. The cycle of current sampling-charge computation is repeated till the required fluence is reached. Besides simplicity and cost-effectiveness, other important advantages of the developed system include easy reconfiguration of the system to suit customisation of experiments, scalability, easy debug and maintenance of the hardware/software, ability to work as a standalone system. The system was tested with different set of samples and ion fluences and the results were verified using

  20. The effects of ion implantation on the beaks of orthodontic pliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, E.; Cleaton-Jones, P.E.; Luyckz, S.; Fatti, L.P. (University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa))

    1991-06-01

    The surface of stainless steel may be hardened by bombarding the material with a stream of nitrogen ions generated by a nuclear accelerator. In the present study this technique was used to determine the hardening effect of ion implantation on the beaks of stainless steel orthodontic pliers. Ten orthodontic pliers (Dentarum 003 094) were divided into two equal groups, designated control and experimental. The beaks of the experimental pliers were subjected to ion implantation, after which the tips of the beaks of all the pliers were stressed in an apparatus attached to an Instron testing machine. A cyclical load of 500 N was applied to the handles of the pliers, while a 0.9 mm (0.036 inch) round, stainless steel wire was held between the tips of the beaks. The effect of the stress was assessed by measurement with a traveling microscope of the gap produced between the tips of the beaks. Measurements were taken before loading and after 20, 40, 60, and 80 cycles. Statistical analysis of variance and the two-sample t tests indicated that there was a significant increase in the size of the gap as the pliers were stressed from 0 to 80 cycles (p less than 0.001). Furthermore, the mean gap was significantly greater in the control group than in the experimental group (p less than 0.001). This study suggests that ion implantation increases the hardness of the tips of the beaks of orthodontic pliers.

  1. Peripheral nerve regeneration through a silicone chamber implanted with negative carbon ions: Possibility to clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether a tube with its inner surface implanted with negative-charged carbon ions (C- ions) would enable axons to extend over a distance greater than 10 mm. The tube was found to support nerves regenerating across a 15-mm-long inter-stump gap. We also investigated whether a C- ion-implanted tube pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. The C- ion implanted tube accelerated nerve regeneration, and this effect was enhanced by bFGF. Silicone treated with C- ions showed increased hydrophilic properties and cellular affinity, and axon regeneration was promoted with this increased biocompatibility.

  2. Platelet adhesion and plasma protein adsorption control of collagen surfaces by He+ ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurotobi, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Suzuki, H.; Iwaki, M.

    2003-01-01

    He + ion implanted collagen-coated tubes with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 were exhibited antithrombogenicity. To investigate the mechanisms of antithrombogenicity of these samples, plasma protein adsorption assay and platelet adhesion experiments were performed. The adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and von Willebrand factor (vWf) was minimum on the He + ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . Platelet adhesion (using platelet rich plasma) was inhibited on the He + ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 and was accelerated on the untreated collagen and ion implanted collagen with fluences of 1 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 15 and 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . Platelet activation with washed platelets was observed on untreated collagen and He + ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 and was inhibited with fluences of 1 x 10 13 , 1 x 10 15 and 1 x 10 16 ions/cm 2 . Generally, platelets can react with a specific ligand inside the collagen (GFOGER sequence). The results of platelets adhesion experiments using washed platelets indicated that there were no ligands such as GFOGER on the He + ion implanted collagen over a fluence of 1 x 10 13 ions/cm 2 . On the 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 implanted collagen, no platelet activation was observed due to the influence of plasma proteins. >From the above, it is concluded that the decrease of adsorbed Fg and vWf caused the antithrombogenicity of He + ion implanted collagen with a fluence of 1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 and that plasma protein adsorption took an important role repairing the graft surface

  3. Industrial plasma immersion ion implanter and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Hong Hui; Huo Yan Feng; Wang Ke; Mu Li Lan; Feng Tie Min; Zhao Jun; Yan Bing; Geng Man

    2002-01-01

    A new generation industrial plasma immersion ion implanter was developed recently in South-western Institute of Physics and some experimental results are reported. The vacuum chamber with 900 mm in diameter and 1050 mm in height stands vertically. The pumping system includes turbo -pump and mechanical pump and it can be automatically controlled by PLC. The background pressure is less than 4 x 10 sup - sup 4 Pa. The plasma in the chamber can be generated by hot-filament discharge and three high-efficiency magnetic filter metal plasma sources, so that the plasma immersion ion implantation and enhanced deposition can be done. The maximum pulse voltage output is 80 kV, maximum pulse current is 60 A, repetition frequency is 50-500 Hz, and the pulse rise time is less than 2 mu s. The power modulator can operate in the pulse bunching mode if necessary. In general, the plasma density is 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 3 , the film deposition rate is 0.1-0.5 nm/s

  4. Comprehensive modeling of ion-implant amorphization in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mok, K.R.C.; Jaraiz, M.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Rubio, J.E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Benistant, F.

    2005-01-01

    A physically based model has been developed to simulate the ion-implant induced damage accumulation up to amorphization in silicon. Based on damage structures known as amorphous pockets (AP), which are three-dimensional, irregularly shaped agglomerates of interstitials (I) and vacancies (V) surrounded by crystalline silicon, the model is able to reproduce a wide range of experimental observations of damage accumulation and amorphization with interdependent implantation parameters. Instead of recrystallizing the I's and V's instantaneously, the recrystallization rate of an AP containing nI and mV is a function of its effective size, defined as min(n, m), irrespective of its internal spatial configuration. The parameters used in the model were calibrated using the experimental silicon amorphous-crystalline transition temperature as a function of dose rate for C, Si, and Ge. The model is able to show the superlinear damage build-up with dose, the extent of amorphous layer and the superadditivity effect of polyatomic ions

  5. Ion-implantation and analysis for doped silicon slot waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallum J. C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We have utilised ion implantation to fabricate silicon nanocrystal sensitised erbium-doped slot waveguide structures in a Si/SiO2/Si layered configuration and photoluminescence (PL and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS to analyse these structures. Slot waveguide structures in which light is confined to a nanometre-scale low-index region between two high-index regions potentially offer significant advantages for realisation of electrically-pumped Si devices with optical gain and possibly quantum optical devices. We are currently investigating an alternative pathway in which high quality thermal oxides are grown on silicon and ion implantation is used to introduce the Er and Si-ncs into the SiO2 layer. This approach provides considerable control over the Er and Si-nc concentrations and depth profiles which is important for exploring the available parameter space and developing optimised structures. RBS is well-suited to compositional analysis of these layered structures. To improve the depth sensitivity we have used a 1 MeV α beam and results indicate that a layered silicon-Er:SiO2/silicon structure has been fabricated as desired. In this paper structural results will be compared to Er photoluminescence profiles for samples processed under a range of conditions.

  6. Experimental and numerical optical characterization of plasmonic copper nanoparticles embedded in ZnO fabricated by ion implantation and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Khai Q. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hoa Sen University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Nguyen, Hieu P.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ 07102 (United States); Ngo, Quang Minh [Institute of Material Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Canimoglu, Adil [Nigde University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, Nigde (Turkey); Can, Nurdogan, E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-05

    Here we describe the successfully fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting copper (Cu) ions into single zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals with ion energy of 400 keV at ion doses of 1 × 10{sup 16} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation and post-annealing treatment, the Cu implanted ZnO produces a broad range of luminescence emissions, ranging from green to yellow. A green luminescence peak at 550 nm could be ascribed to the isolated Cu ions. The changes in luminescence emission bands between the initial implant and annealed suggest that the implants give rise to clustering Cu nanoparticles in the host matrix but that the annealing process dissociates these. Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed to simulate their optical properties including the extinction cross section, electron energy loss spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence. We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances corresponding to the generation of multiple resonances, while the isolation of nanoparticles results in intensity amplification. - Highlights: • We present the fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting Cu into ZnO. • The luminescence properties were studied at different annealing temperature. • Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed. • We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances.

  7. Electrochemical behavior and biological response of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on cp-Ti after N-ions implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Deen, K. M.; Haider, W.

    2014-11-01

    Titanium and its alloys are most widely used as implant materials due to their excellent biocompatibility, mechanical properties and chemical stability. In this study Nitrogen ions of known dosage were implanted over cp-Ti by Pelletron accelerator with beam energy of 0.25 MeV.The atomic force microscopy of bare and nitrogen implanted specimens confirmed increase in surface roughness with increase in nitrogen ions concentration. X-ray diffraction patterns of ions implanted surfaces validated the formation of TiN0.3 and Ti3N2-xnitride phases. The tendency to form passive film and electrochemical behavior of these surfaces in ringer lactate (RL) solution was evaluated by Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy respectively. It is proved that nitrogen ions implantation was beneficial to reduce corrosion rate and stabilizing passive film by increasing charge transfer resistance in RL. It was concluded that morphology and proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on nitrogen ions implanted surfaces strongly depends on surface roughness and nitride phases.

  8. Photoluminescence of magnesium-associated color centers in LiF crystals implanted with magnesium ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebogin, S. A.; Ivanov, N. A.; Bryukvina, L. I.; V. Shipitsin, N.; E. Rzhechitskii, A.; Papernyi, V. L.

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the effect of magnesium nanoparticles implanted in a LiF crystal on the optical properties of color centers is studied. The transmittance spectra and AFM images demonstrate effective formation of the color centers and magnesium nanoparticles in an implanted layer of ∼ 60-100 nm in thickness. Under thermal annealing, a periodical structure is formed on the surface of the crystal and in the implanted layer due to self-organization of the magnesium nanoparticles. Upon excitation by argon laser with a wavelength of 488 nm at 5 K, in a LiF crystal, implanted with magnesium ions as well as in heavily γ-irradiated LiF: Mg crystals, luminescence of the color centers at λmax = 640 nm with a zero-phonon line at 601.5 nm is observed. The interaction of magnesium nanoparticles and luminescing color centers in a layer implanted with magnesium ions has been revealed. It is shown that the luminescence intensity of the implanted layer at a wavelength of 640 nm is by more than two thousand times higher than that of a heavily γ-irradiated LiF: Mg crystal. The broadening of the zero-phonon line at 601.5 nm in the spectrum of the implanted layer indicates the interaction of the emitting quantum system with local field of the surface plasmons of magnesium nanoparticles. The focus of this work is to further optimize the processing parameters in a way to result in luminescence great enhancement of color centers by magnesium nanoparticles in LiF.

  9. Measurement of electron emission due to energetic ion bombardment in plasma source ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, M. M.; Scheuer, J. T.; Fetherston, R. P.; Conrad, J. R.

    1991-11-01

    An experimental procedure has been developed to measure electron emission due to energetic ion bombardment during plasma source ion implantation. Spherical targets of copper, stainless steel, graphite, titanium alloy, and aluminum alloy were biased negatively to 20, 30, and 40 kV in argon and nitrogen plasmas. A Langmuir probe was used to detect the propagating sheath edge and a Rogowski transformer was used to measure the current to the target. The measurements of electron emission coefficients compare well with those measured under similar conditions.

  10. Stoichiometric carbon nitride synthesized by ion beam sputtering and post nitrogen ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valizadeh, R.; Colligon, J.S. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom). DMM Institute; Katardiev, I.V. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Angstrom Laboratory; Faunce, C.A.; Donnelly, S.E. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom). Science Institute

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Carbon nitride films have been deposited on Si (100) by ion beam sputtering a vitreous graphite target with nitrogen and argon ions with and without concurrent N2 ion bombardment at room temperature. The sputtering beam energy was 1000 eV and the assisted beam energy was 300 eV with ion / atom arrival ratio ranging from 0.5 to 5. The carbon nitride films were deposited both as single layer directly on silicon substrate and as multilayer between two layers of stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and polycrystalline titanium nitride. The deposited films were implanted ex-situ with 30 keV nitrogen ions with various doses ranging from 1E17 to 4E17 ions.cm{sup -2} and 2 GeV xenon ion with a dose of 1E12 ions.cm{sup -2} . The nitrogen concentration of the films was measured with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) and Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (PEELS). The nitrogen concentration for as deposited sample was 34 at% and stoichiometric carbon nitride C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was achieved by post nitrogen implantation of the multi-layered films. Post bombardment of single layer carbon nitride films lead to reduction in the total nitrogen concentration. Carbon K edge structure obtained from PEELS analysis suggested that the amorphous C{sub 3}N{sub 4} matrix was predominantly sp{sup 2} bonded. This was confirmed by Fourier Transforrn Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the single CN layer which showed the nitrogen was mostly bonded with carbon in nitrile (C{identical_to}N) and imine (C=N) groups. The microstructure of the film was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which indicated that the films were amorphous.

  11. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  12. Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Christoph D.

    2011-10-04

    Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.

  13. Proteome Changes in Maize Embryo (Zea mays L) Induced by Ion Beam Implantation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongliang; Tang, Jihua; Qin, Guangyong; Huo, Yuping; Tian, Shuangqi

    2009-08-01

    Low energy ion beam implantation was applied to the maize (Zea mays L) embryo proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein profile analysis detected more than 1100 protein spots, 72 of which were determined to be expressed differently in the treated and control (not exposed to ion beam implantation) embryos. Of the 72 protein spots, 53 were up-regulated in the control and 19 were more abundantly expressed in the ion beam-treated embryos. The spots of up- or down-regulated proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among the identified proteins, 11 were up-regulated in the treated embryos. Four of these up-regulated proteins were antioxidant molecules, three were related to stress response, two to sugar metabolism and two were associated with heat shock response. Of the five proteins up-regulated in the control embryos, three were functionally related to carbohydrate metabolism; the functions of the remaining two proteins were unknown. The data collected during this study indicate that treatment of maize embryos with low energy ion beam implantation induces changes in stress tolerance enzymes/proteins, possibly as a result of alterations in metabolism.

  14. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide ion implantation in AISI 304 stainless steel for corrosion protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, A.; Decker, M.; Klein, O.; Karl, H.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of highly chemically inert titanium dioxide synthesized by ion beam implantation for corrosion protection of AISI 304 stainless steel in sodium chloride solution. More specifically, the prevention of galvanic corrosion between carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and AISI 304 was investigated. Corrosion performance of TiO2 implanted AISI 304 - examined for different implantation and annealing parameters - is strongly influenced by implantation fluence. Experimental results show that a fluence of 5 × 1016 cm-2 (Ti+) and 1 × 1017 cm-2 (O+) is sufficient to prevent pitting corrosion significantly, while galvanic corrosion with CFRP can already be noticeably reduced by an implantation fluence of 5 × 1015 cm-2 (Ti+) and 1 × 1016 cm-2 (O+). Surface roughness, implantation energy and annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C show only little influence on the corrosion behavior. TEM analysis indicates the existence of stoichiometric TiO2 inside the steel matrix for medium fluences and the formation of a separated metal oxide layer for high fluences.

  15. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide ion implantation in AISI 304 stainless steel for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartwig, A.; Decker, M.; Klein, O.; Karl, H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of highly chemically inert titanium dioxide synthesized by ion beam implantation for corrosion protection of AISI 304 stainless steel in sodium chloride solution. More specifically, the prevention of galvanic corrosion between carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and AISI 304 was investigated. Corrosion performance of TiO 2 implanted AISI 304 – examined for different implantation and annealing parameters – is strongly influenced by implantation fluence. Experimental results show that a fluence of 5 × 10 16 cm −2 (Ti + ) and 1 × 10 17 cm −2 (O + ) is sufficient to prevent pitting corrosion significantly, while galvanic corrosion with CFRP can already be noticeably reduced by an implantation fluence of 5 × 10 15 cm −2 (Ti + ) and 1 × 10 16 cm −2 (O + ). Surface roughness, implantation energy and annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C show only little influence on the corrosion behavior. TEM analysis indicates the existence of stoichiometric TiO 2 inside the steel matrix for medium fluences and the formation of a separated metal oxide layer for high fluences.

  16. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide ion implantation in AISI 304 stainless steel for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, A.; Decker, M.; Klein, O.; Karl, H., E-mail: helmut.karl@physik.uni-augsburg.de

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of highly chemically inert titanium dioxide synthesized by ion beam implantation for corrosion protection of AISI 304 stainless steel in sodium chloride solution. More specifically, the prevention of galvanic corrosion between carbon-fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) and AISI 304 was investigated. Corrosion performance of TiO{sub 2} implanted AISI 304 – examined for different implantation and annealing parameters – is strongly influenced by implantation fluence. Experimental results show that a fluence of 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} (Ti{sup +}) and 1 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} (O{sup +}) is sufficient to prevent pitting corrosion significantly, while galvanic corrosion with CFRP can already be noticeably reduced by an implantation fluence of 5 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup −2} (Ti{sup +}) and 1 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2} (O{sup +}). Surface roughness, implantation energy and annealing at 200 °C and 400 °C show only little influence on the corrosion behavior. TEM analysis indicates the existence of stoichiometric TiO{sub 2} inside the steel matrix for medium fluences and the formation of a separated metal oxide layer for high fluences.

  17. Search for superconductivity in ion-implanted Pb-Ge films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawislak, F.C.; Bernas, H.; Mendoza-Zelis, L.; Travers, A.; Chaumont, J.; Dumoulin, L.

    1980-01-01

    We have studied the dose and the temperature dependence of the resistivity in thin coevaporated films (500-600 A) of Pbsub(0.3) Gesub(0.7) and Pbsub(0.7) Gesub(0.3) implanted at 6K with up to 2x10 15 Ge/cm 2 of 90 and 140 keV. The composition and uniformity of the films were controlled via in situ Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements, as functions of the implanted dose and the annealing temperature. The following results were obtained: a) a sharp Tsub(c) very close to the Tsub(c) of pure Pb was measured for the Pbsub(0.7) Gesub(0.3) film and no change in Tsub(c) was observed as a function of dose; b) for the Pbsub(0.3)Gesub(0.7) film the Tsub(c) decreased from about 6.8K before implantation to about 3.5 K after implantation of 2x10 15 ions/cm 2 ; c) the RBS spectra revealed that the alloy homogeneity was larger implantation at 6 K than before implantation and that precipitation for Pb occured during annealing

  18. Characterization of junctions produced by medium-energy ion implantation in silicon; Caracterisation de jonctions obtenues par implantation d'ions de moyenne energie dans le silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfret, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    Characteristics of diodes made by implanting 20 keV boron and phosphorus ions into silicon are reviewed. Special features of theses diodes are presented, and correlation with technology is studied. This paper includes three parts: - in the first part, the theory of range distribution is considered for both amorphous and single-crystal targets, - In the second part, a brief description of the experimental conditions is given. - In the third part, the experimental results are presented. The results lead to a schematic model of the component. They also show the influence of cleaning and annealing treatments from which optimized process of fabrication can be determined. In this study, the influence of a two stage annealing process is shown. For phosphorus and boron implants, the first stage is performed at 150 deg. C while the second stage is 450 deg. C for phosphorus and 550 deg. C for boron implants. The implanted diodes are found to exhibit good electrical characteristics. Comparisons with standard diffused diodes are quite favourable. (author) [French] On examine les caracteristiques de diodes obtenues par implantation d'ions bore et phosphore de 20 keV dans le silicium. On met en evidence le comportement particulier de ces diodes et on presente certaines correlations avec la technologie. L'expose comprend trois parties: - la premiere partie est consacree au calcul du profil de dopage en mode canalise ou non. - Dans la deuxieme partie, on decrit l'appareillage et les conditions experimentales d'implantation. - Dans la troisieme partie, on presente les resultats experimentaux. On propose un modele schematique pour expliquer le comportement des tenues en tension des diodes. L'etude des courants de fuite en fonction de la preparation des echantillons et des traitements thermiques permet de determiner des conditions optimales d'elaboration. Au cours de cette etude on met en evidence l'influence de deux stades de recuit: le premier a

  19. Influence of Ar-ion implantation on the structural and mechanical properties of zirconia as studied by Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpaska, L.; Jasinski, J.; Wyszkowska, E.; Nowakowska-Langier, K.; Sitarz, M.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, structural and nanomechanical properties of zirconia polymorphs induced by ion irradiation were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation techniques. The zirconia layer have been produced by high temperature oxidation of pure zirconium at 600 °C for 5 h at normal atmospheric pressure. In order to distinguish between the internal and external parts of zirconia, the spherical metallographic sections have been prepared. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with 150 keV Ar+ ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 ions/cm2. The main objective of this study was to distinguish and confirm different structural and mechanical properties between the interface layer and fully developed scale in the internal/external part of the oxide. Conducted studies suggest that increasing ion fluence impacts Raman bands positions (especially characteristic for tetragonal phase) and increases the nanohardness and Young's modulus of individual phases. This phenomenon has been examined from the point of view of stress-induced hardening effect and classical monoclinic → tetragonal (m → t) martensitic phase transformation.

  20. Semiconductor nanocrystals formed in SiO2 by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.G.; White, C.W.; Budai, J.D.; Withrow, S.P.; Chen, Y.

    1994-11-01

    Nanocrystals of group IV (Si, Ge and SiGe), III-V (GaAs), and II-VI (CdSe) semiconductor materials have been fabricated inside SiO 2 by ion implantation and subsequent thermal annealing. The microstructure of these nanocrystalline semiconductor materials has been studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanocrystals form in near-spherical shape with random crystal orientations in amorphous SiO 2 . Extensive studies on the nanocrystal size distributions have been carried out for the Ge nanocrystals by changing the implantation doses and the annealing temperatures. Remarkable roughening of the nanocrystals occurs when the annealing temperature is raised over the melting temperature of the implanted semiconductor material. Strong red photoluminescence peaked around 1.67 eV has been achieved in samples with Si nanocrystals in SiO 2

  1. Effect of ion-implantation on surface characteristics of nickel titanium and titanium molybdenum alloy arch wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and frictional features of ′ion-implanted nickel titanium (NiTi and titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA arch wires′ from its conventional types in an in-vitro laboratory set up. Materials and Methods: ′Ion-implanted NiTi and low friction TMA arch wires′ were assessed for surface roughness with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and 3 dimensional (3D optical profilometry. Frictional forces were studied in a universal testing machine. Surface roughness of arch wires were determined as Root Mean Square (RMS values in nanometers and Frictional Forces (FF in grams. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean values of RMS and FF were compared by Student′s ′t′ test and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: SEM images showed a smooth topography for ion-implanted versions. 3D optical profilometry demonstrated reduction of RMS values by 58.43% for ion-implanted NiTi (795.95 to 330.87 nm and 48.90% for TMA groups (463.28 to 236.35 nm from controls. Nonetheless, the corresponding decrease in FF was only 29.18% for NiTi and 22.04% for TMA, suggesting partial correction of surface roughness and disproportionate reduction in frictional forces with ion-implantation. Though the reductions were highly significant at P < 0.001, relations between surface roughness and frictional forces remained non conclusive even after ion-implantation. Conclusion: The study proved that ion-implantation can significantly reduce the surface roughness of NiTi and TMA wires but could not make a similar reduction in frictional forces. This can be attributed to the inherent differences in stiffness and surface reactivity of NiTi and TMA wires when used in combination with stainless steel brackets, which needs further investigations.

  2. Enhancement of interaction of L-929 cells with functionalized graphene via COOH+ ion implantation vs. chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-li; Liu, Xiao-qi; Cao, Ye; Li, Xi-fei; Li, De-jun; Sun, Xue-liang; Gu, Han-qing; Wan, Rong-xin

    2016-01-01

    Low hydrophilicity of graphene is one of the major obstacles for biomaterials application. To create some hydrophilic groups on graphene is addressed this issue. Herein, COOH+ ion implantation modified graphene (COOH+/graphene) and COOH functionalized graphene were designed by physical ion implantation and chemical methods, respectively. The structure and surface properties of COOH+/graphene and COOH functionalized graphene were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact angle measurement. Compared with graphene, COOH+/graphene and COOH functionalized graphene revealed improvement of cytocompatibility, including in vitro cell viability and morphology. More importantly, COOH+/graphene exhibited better improvement effects than functionalized graphene. For instance, COOH+/graphene with 1 × 1018 ions/cm2 showed the best cell-viability, proliferation and stretching. This study demonstrated that ion implantation can better improve the cytocompatibility of the graphene. PMID:27845420

  3. Effect of disorder and defects in ion-implanted semiconductors electrical and physiochemical characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, Robert K; Christofides, Constantinos; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Defects in ion-implanted semiconductors are important and will likely gain increased importance in the future as annealing temperatures are reduced with successive IC generations. Novel implant approaches, such as MdV implantation, create new types of defects whose origin and annealing characteristics will need to be addressed. Publications in this field mainly focus on the effects of ion implantation on the material and the modification in the implanted layer afterhigh temperature annealing.Electrical and Physicochemical Characterization focuses on the physics of the annealing kine

  4. Multi-dimensional microanalysis of masklessly implanted atoms using focused heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokuno, Yoshiaki; Iiorino, Yuji; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kiuchi, Masato; Fujii, Kanenaga; Satou, Mamoru

    1992-01-01

    Multi-dimensional structure fabricated by maskless MeV gold implantation in silicon wafer was analyzed by 3 MeV carbon ion microprobe using a microbeam line developed at GIRIO. The minimum line width of the implanted region was estimated to be about 5 μm. The advantages of heavy ions for microanalysis were demonstrated. (author)

  5. The third generation multi-purpose plasma immersion ion implanter for surface modification of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tang Bao Yin; Wang Xiao Feng; Gan Kong Yin; Wang Song Yan; Chu, P K; Huang Nian Ning; Sun Hong

    2002-01-01

    The third generation multi-purpose plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) equipment has been successfully used for research and development of surface modification of biomedical materials, metals and their alloys in the Southwest Jiaotong University. The implanter equipped with intense current, pulsed cathodic arc metal plasma sources which have both strong coating function and gas and metal ion implantation function. Its pulse high voltage power supply can provide big output current. It can acquire very good implantation dose uniformity. The equipment can both perform ion implantation and combine ion implantation with sputtering deposition and coating to form many kinds of synthetic surface modification techniques. The main design principles, features of important components and achievement of research works in recent time have been described

  6. Effects on cuytoskeleton system in pollen tube of pinus thunbergii induced by ion beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qunce; Liang Qiuxia; Li Guopin

    2008-01-01

    The damage of the cytoskeleton system in the pollen and the pollen tube of Pinus thunbergii induced by ion beam implantation were researched. The results showed that the disorganization of the micro-tubules in the pollen tube was produced by N + implantation. The abnormal states of the pollen tube in morphology were very correlative with the abnormality of the cytoskeleton system. N + implantation was responsible for morphological abnormalities in the pollen tubes. There was a distinct correlation between the damage effects and the ion implantation dose. The add of dose caused more obvious damage effects. Furthermore, the state of the cytoskeleton system in the pollen tube was influenced by the ion implantation. The impact grade depended also on the ion implantation dose. (authors)

  7. Production and characterization of thin 7Li targets fabricated by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, J.; Fonseca, M.; Luis, H.; Mateus, R.; Marques, H.; Jesus, A.P.; Ribeiro, J.P.; Teodoro, O.M.N.D.; Rolfs, C.

    2009-01-01

    Very high fluence implantation of 7 Li + ions was used to promote the formation of a thin and high density 7 Li target in the surface region of Al samples. The implanted volume was characterized by particle induced gamma-ray emission, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis, revealing that the implanted surface is a combination of Li 2 CO 3 , metallic lithium, LiOH and C, with almost no Al present. Radiation damage effects by proton beams were studied by observing the evolution of the 7 Li(p, α) 4 He nuclear reaction yield with the accumulated charge, at different proton energies, revealing high stability of the produced Li target.

  8. Ion implantation in compound semiconductors for high-performance electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolper, J.C.; Baca, A.G.; Sherwin, M.E.; Klem, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced electronic devices based on compound semiconductors often make use of selective area ion implantation doping or isolation. The implantation processing becomes more complex as the device dimensions are reduced and more complex material systems are employed. The authors review several applications of ion implantation to high performance junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) that are based on compound semiconductors, including: GaAs, AlGaAs, InGaP, and AlGaSb

  9. Large area diamond-like carbon coatings by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.R.; Proctor, G.; Jones, A.M.; Bull, S.J.; Chivers, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited onto large geometry components in the Harwell Blue Tank ion implantation facility. To modify the substrate surface and to crack the low vapour pressure oil which is evaporated and condensed onto the surface, a 40 Kev nitrogen ion bucket ion source is used. The coating of areas up to 1 metre in diameter is common and with component manipulation larger areas may be coated. Since the component temperature never exceeds 80 o C during the process, a wide range of materials may be coated including specialist tool steels and even certain high density polymers. In order to produce hard wear resistant coatings with extremely low coefficients of friction (0.02-0.15) and a range of mechanical and electrical properties, various oil precursors have been investigated. The production and assessment of such coatings, including measurements of their tribiological performance, is presented. Applications for wear resistance, corrosion protection and electrically conducting coatings are discussed with examples drawn from engineering, electronics and biomedicine. (7 figures, 13 references). (UK)

  10. Formation of an A1N continuous layer by nitrogen ion implantation in aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denanot, M.F.; Delafond, J.; Grilhe, J.

    1986-01-01

    Nitrogen ion implantations at doses from 10 17 ions cm -2 up to 6 x 10 17 ions cm -2 in pure A1 and an Au 4 G industrial alloy are studied by electron microscopy investigations. In these two materials, we observe the formation of AlN precipitates with an orientation relationship between the two lattices. The highest dose leads to the formation of a continuous layer of AlN with a very good crystallographic quality, but there are blisters due to gas bubbles. It seems that the dose of 3 x 10 17 ions cm -2 is optimum to have a good AlN continuous layer and thus to improve the surface qualities of the materials. (author)

  11. Modification of electrical properties of polymer membranes by ion implantation (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworecki, K.; Hasegawa, T.; Sudlitz, K.; Slezak, A.; Wasik, S.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work we report on the results of an experimental study of the electrical properties of polymer ion irradiated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membranes. The polymer samples have been implanted under vacuum at room temperature with a variety of ions (C 4+ , O 6+ , S 7+ ) at energy of 10 keV/q up to the dose of 10 15 ions/cm 2 and then they were polarized in an electric field of 4.16x10 6 V/m at non-isothermal conditions. The electrical properties and changes in chemical structure of ion implanted membranes were studied by the conductivity and discharge currents measurements, FTIR spectra and differential thermal analysis. The electrical conductivity of the PET membranes is determined by the charge transport caused by free space charge and by thermal releasing of charge carriers. The spectra of thermally induced discharge current (TDC) shows that ion irradiated PET membranes are characterized by high ability of charge accumulation

  12. Investigation of low-resistivity from hydrogenated lightly B-doped diamond by ion implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Xia Yan et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have implanted boron (B ions (dosage: 5×1014 cm-2 into diamond and then hydrogenated the sample by implantating hydrogen ions at room temperature. A p-type diamond material with a low resistivity of 7.37 mΩ cm has been obtained in our experiment, which suggests that the hydrogenation of B-doped diamond results in a low-resistivity p-type material. Interestingly, inverse annealing, in which carrier concentration decreased with increasing annealing temperature, was observed at annealing temperatures above 600 °C. In addition, the formation mechanism of a low-resistivity material has been studied by density functional theory calculation using a plane wave method.

  13. Dose-rate and temperature dependent statistical damage accumulation model for ion implantation into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain)]. E-mail: jesus.hernandez.mangas@tel.uva.es; Arias, J. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Marques, L.A. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Ruiz-Bueno, A. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain); Bailon, L. [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Campus Miguel Delibes, Valladolid E-47011 (Spain)

    2005-01-01

    Currently there are extensive atomistic studies that model some characteristics of the damage buildup due to ion irradiation (e.g. L. Pelaz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 2038-2040). Our interest is to develop a novel statistical damage buildup model for our BCA ion implant simulator (IIS) code in order to extend its ranges of applicability. The model takes into account the abrupt regime of the crystal-amorphous transition. It works with different temperatures and dose-rates and also models the transition temperature. We have tested it with some projectiles (Ge, P) implanted into silicon. In this work we describe the new statistical damage accumulation model based on the modified Kinchin-Pease model. The results obtained have been compared with existing experimental results.

  14. Dose-rate and temperature dependent statistical damage accumulation model for ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Mangas, J.M.; Arias, J.; Marques, L.A.; Ruiz-Bueno, A.; Bailon, L.

    2005-01-01

    Currently there are extensive atomistic studies that model some characteristics of the damage buildup due to ion irradiation (e.g. L. Pelaz et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 2038-2040). Our interest is to develop a novel statistical damage buildup model for our BCA ion implant simulator (IIS) code in order to extend its ranges of applicability. The model takes into account the abrupt regime of the crystal-amorphous transition. It works with different temperatures and dose-rates and also models the transition temperature. We have tested it with some projectiles (Ge, P) implanted into silicon. In this work we describe the new statistical damage accumulation model based on the modified Kinchin-Pease model. The results obtained have been compared with existing experimental results

  15. Depth profiling of ion-implanted AlInN using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and cathodoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.W.; Nogales, E.; Amabile, D.; Wang, K.; Katchkanov, V.; Trager-Cowan, C.; O'Donnell, K.P.; Rading, D.; Kersting, R.; Tallarek, E.; Watson, I.M.; Matias, V.; Vantomme, A.; Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.

    2006-01-01

    Investigation of the depth profiles and luminescence of Eu and Er-ions implanted into AlInN/GaN bilayers differentiates between ions located in the two different III-N hosts. Differences between samples implanted using channeling or off-axis geometries are studied using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. A fraction of ions have crossed the AlInN layer (either 130 or 250 nm thick) and reached the underlying GaN. Cathodoluminescence spectra as a function of incident electron energy and photoluminescence excitation data distinguish between ions within AlInN and GaN. The RE emission from the AlInN is broader and red-shifted and the dependence of the intensity on host is discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Depth profiling of ion-implanted AlInN using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.W.; Nogales, E.; Amabile, D.; Wang, K.; Katchkanov, V.; Trager-Cowan, C.; O' Donnell, K.P. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Rading, D. [ION-TOF GmbH, Gievenbecker Weg 15, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Kersting, R.; Tallarek, E. [Tascon GmbH, Gievenbecker Weg 15, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Watson, I.M. [Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Matias, V.; Vantomme, A. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, K.U. Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lorenz, K.; Alves, E. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, EN10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2006-06-15

    Investigation of the depth profiles and luminescence of Eu and Er-ions implanted into AlInN/GaN bilayers differentiates between ions located in the two different III-N hosts. Differences between samples implanted using channeling or off-axis geometries are studied using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. A fraction of ions have crossed the AlInN layer (either 130 or 250 nm thick) and reached the underlying GaN. Cathodoluminescence spectra as a function of incident electron energy and photoluminescence excitation data distinguish between ions within AlInN and GaN. The RE emission from the AlInN is broader and red-shifted and the dependence of the intensity on host is discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Impact of He and H relative depth distributions on the result of sequential He+ and H+ ion implantation and annealing in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkashin, N.; Daghbouj, N.; Seine, G.; Claverie, A.

    2018-04-01

    Sequential He++H+ ion implantation, being more effective than the sole implantation of H+ or He+, is used by many to transfer thin layers of silicon onto different substrates. However, due to the poor understanding of the basic mechanisms involved in such a process, the implantation parameters to be used for the efficient delamination of a superficial layer are still subject to debate. In this work, by using various experimental techniques, we have studied the influence of the He and H relative depth-distributions imposed by the ion energies onto the result of the sequential implantation and annealing of the same fluence of He and H ions. Analyzing the characteristics of the blister populations observed after annealing and deducing the composition of the gas they contain from FEM simulations, we show that the trapping efficiency of He atoms in platelets and blisters during annealing depends on the behavior of the vacancies generated by the two implants within the H-rich region before and after annealing. Maximum efficiency of the sequential ion implantation is obtained when the H-rich region is able to trap all implanted He ions, while the vacancies it generated are not available to favor the formation of V-rich complexes after implantation then He-filled nano-bubbles after annealing. A technological option is to implant He+ ions first at such an energy that the damage it generates is located on the deeper side of the H profile.

  18. Evolution of arsenic in high fluence plasma immersion ion implanted silicon: Behavior of the as-implanted surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishwanath, V. [Applied Materials, 3225 Oakmead Village Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95052 (United States); Demenev, E. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, Ca’Foscari University, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice (Italy); Giubertoni, D., E-mail: giuberto@fbk.eu [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Vanzetti, L. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Koh, A.L. [Stanford Nanocharacterization Laboratory, Stanford University, 476 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Steinhauser, G. [Colorado State University, Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States); Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Radioökologie und Strahlenschutz, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Pepponi, G.; Bersani, M. [Center for Materials and Microsystems, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Via Sommarive 18, 38123 Povo, Trento (Italy); Meirer, F., E-mail: f.meirer@uu.nl [Inorganic Chemistry and Catalysis, Utrecht University, Utrecht 3584 CG (Netherlands); Foad, M.A. [Applied Materials, 3225 Oakmead Village Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95052 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Samples prepared by high fluence, low-energy PIII of AsH{sub 3}{sup +} on Si(1 0 0) were studied. • PIII is of high technological interest for ultra-shallow doping and activation. • We used a multi-technique approach to study the As-implanted surface. • We show that PIII presents a new set of problems that needs to be tackled. • The presented study goes toward understanding the root mechanisms involved. - Abstract: High fluence (>10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}) low-energy (<2 keV) plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of AsH{sub 3}{sup +} on (1 0 0) silicon was investigated, with the focus on stability and retention of the dopant. At this dose, a thin (∼3 nm) amorphous layer forms at the surface, which contains about 45% arsenic (As) in a silicon and oxygen matrix. The presence of silicon indicates that the layer is not only a result of deposition, but predominantly ion mixing. High fluence PIII introduces high concentration of arsenic, modifying the stopping power for incoming ions resulting in an increased deposition. When exposed to atmosphere, the arsenic rich layer spontaneously evolves forming arsenolite As{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro-crystals at the surface. The micro-crystal formation was monitored over several months and exhibits typical crystal growth kinetics. At the same time, a continuous growth of native silicon oxide rich in arsenic was observed on the exposed surface, suggesting the presence of oxidation enhancing factors linked to the high arsenic concentration at the surface.

  19. Ion beam sputter modification of the surface morphology of biological implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, A. J.; Banks, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    The surface chemistry and texture of materials used for biological implants may significantly influence their performance and biocompatibility. Recent interest in the microscopic control of implant surface texture has led to the evaluation of ion beam sputtering as a potentially useful surface roughening technique. Ion sources, similar to electron bombardment ion thrusters designed for propulsive applications, are used to roughen the surfaces of various biocompatible alloys or polymer materials. These materials are typically used for dental implants, orthopedic prostheses, vascular prostheses, and artificial heart components. Masking techniques and resulting surface textures are described along with progress concerning evaluation of the biological response to the ion beam sputtered surfaces.

  20. Electrical conduction in 100 keV Kr+ ion implanted poly (ethylene terephthalate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P. K.; Kumar, V.; Gupta, Renu; Mahendia, S.; Anita, Kumar, S.

    2012-06-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples have been implanted to 100 keV Kr+ ions at the fluences 1×1015-- 1×1016 cm-2. From I-V characteristics, the conduction mechanism was found to be shifted from ohmic to space charge limited conduction (SCLC) after implantation. The surface conductivity of these implanted samples was found to increase with increasing implantation dose. The structural alterations in the Raman spectra of implanted PET samples indicate that such an increase in the conductivity may be attributed to the formation of conjugated double bonded carbonaceous structure in the implanted layer of PET.

  1. A simple ion implanter for material modifications in agriculture and gemmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singkarat, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Wijaikhum, A. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Bootkul, D. [Department of General Science, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Phanchaisri, B.; Techarung, J. [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Rhodes, M.W.; Suwankosum, R.; Rattanarin, S. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@thep-center.org [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    In our efforts in developing ion beam technology for novel applications in biology and gemmology, an economic simple compact ion implanter especially for the purpose was constructed. The designing of the machine was aimed at providing our users with a simple, economic, user friendly, convenient and easily operateable ion implanter for ion implantation of biological living materials and gemstones for biotechnological applications and modification of gemstones, which would eventually contribute to the national agriculture, biomedicine and gem-industry developments. The machine was in a vertical setup so that the samples could be placed horizontally and even without fixing; in a non-mass-analyzing ion implanter style using mixed molecular and atomic nitrogen (N) ions so that material modifications could be more effective; equipped with a focusing/defocusing lens and an X–Y beam scanner so that a broad beam could be possible; and also equipped with a relatively small target chamber so that living biological samples could survive from the vacuum period during ion implantation. To save equipment materials and costs, most of the components of the machine were taken from decommissioned ion beam facilities. The maximum accelerating voltage of the accelerator was 100 kV, ideally necessary for crop mutation induction and gem modification by ion beams from our experience. N-ion implantation of local rice seeds and cut gemstones was carried out. Various phenotype changes of grown rice from the ion-implanted seeds and improvements in gemmological quality of the ion-bombarded gemstones were observed. The success in development of such a low-cost and simple-structured ion implanter provides developing countries with a model of utilizing our limited resources to develop novel accelerator-based technologies and applications.

  2. A simple ion implanter for material modifications in agriculture and gemmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singkarat, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Phanchaisri, B.; Techarung, J.; Rhodes, M. W.; Suwankosum, R.; Rattanarin, S.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In our efforts in developing ion beam technology for novel applications in biology and gemmology, an economic simple compact ion implanter especially for the purpose was constructed. The designing of the machine was aimed at providing our users with a simple, economic, user friendly, convenient and easily operateable ion implanter for ion implantation of biological living materials and gemstones for biotechnological applications and modification of gemstones, which would eventually contribute to the national agriculture, biomedicine and gem-industry developments. The machine was in a vertical setup so that the samples could be placed horizontally and even without fixing; in a non-mass-analyzing ion implanter style using mixed molecular and atomic nitrogen (N) ions so that material modifications could be more effective; equipped with a focusing/defocusing lens and an X-Y beam scanner so that a broad beam could be possible; and also equipped with a relatively small target chamber so that living biological samples could survive from the vacuum period during ion implantation. To save equipment materials and costs, most of the components of the machine were taken from decommissioned ion beam facilities. The maximum accelerating voltage of the accelerator was 100 kV, ideally necessary for crop mutation induction and gem modification by ion beams from our experience. N-ion implantation of local rice seeds and cut gemstones was carried out. Various phenotype changes of grown rice from the ion-implanted seeds and improvements in gemmological quality of the ion-bombarded gemstones were observed. The success in development of such a low-cost and simple-structured ion implanter provides developing countries with a model of utilizing our limited resources to develop novel accelerator-based technologies and applications.

  3. A simple ion implanter for material modifications in agriculture and gemmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singkarat, S.; Wijaikhum, A.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Intarasiri, S.; Bootkul, D.; Phanchaisri, B.; Techarung, J.; Rhodes, M.W.; Suwankosum, R.; Rattanarin, S.; Yu, L.D.

    2015-01-01

    In our efforts in developing ion beam technology for novel applications in biology and gemmology, an economic simple compact ion implanter especially for the purpose was constructed. The designing of the machine was aimed at providing our users with a simple, economic, user friendly, convenient and easily operateable ion implanter for ion implantation of biological living materials and gemstones for biotechnological applications and modification of gemstones, which would eventually contribute to the national agriculture, biomedicine and gem-industry developments. The machine was in a vertical setup so that the samples could be placed horizontally and even without fixing; in a non-mass-analyzing ion implanter style using mixed molecular and atomic nitrogen (N) ions so that material modifications could be more effective; equipped with a focusing/defocusing lens and an X–Y beam scanner so that a broad beam could be possible; and also equipped with a relatively small target chamber so that living biological samples could survive from the vacuum period during ion implantation. To save equipment materials and costs, most of the components of the machine were taken from decommissioned ion beam facilities. The maximum accelerating voltage of the accelerator was 100 kV, ideally necessary for crop mutation induction and gem modification by ion beams from our experience. N-ion implantation of local rice seeds and cut gemstones was carried out. Various phenotype changes of grown rice from the ion-implanted seeds and improvements in gemmological quality of the ion-bombarded gemstones were observed. The success in development of such a low-cost and simple-structured ion implanter provides developing countries with a model of utilizing our limited resources to develop novel accelerator-based technologies and applications.

  4. Hardening by ion implantation of VT1-0 alloy having different grain size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikonenko, Alisa, E-mail: aliska-nik@mail.ru; Kurzina, Irina, E-mail: kurzina99@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Popova, Natalya, E-mail: natalya-popova-44@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk Russia (Russian Federation); Nikonenko, Elena, E-mail: vilatomsk@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Str., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kalashnikov, Mark, E-mail: kmp1980@mail.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, SB RAS, 2/4, Akademicheskii Ave., 634021, Tomsk Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The paper presents a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of the structural and phase state of commercially pure titanium implanted by aluminum ions. TEM study has been carried out for two types of grains, namely coarse (0.4 µm) and small (0.5 µm). This paper presents details of the yield stress calculations and the analysis of strength components for the both grain types in two areas of the modified layer: at a distance of 0-150 nm (surface area I) and ∼300 nm (central area II) from the irradiated surface. It is shown that the ion implantation results in a considerable hardening of the entire thickness of the implanted layer in the both grain types. The grain size has, however, a different effect on the yield stress in areas I and II. Thus, near the ion-alloyed layer, the yield stress decreases with the increase of the grain size, whilst area II demonstrates its increase. Moreover, the contribution to the general hardening of the alloy made by certain hardening mechanisms differs from contributions made by each of these mechanisms in each certain case.

  5. Silicon-ion-implanted PMMA with nanostructured ultrathin layers for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichristov, G. B.; Ivanov, Tz E.; Marinov, Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    Being of interest for plastic electronics, ion-beam produced nanostructure, namely silicon ion (Si+) implanted polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) with ultrathin nanostructured dielectric (NSD) top layer and nanocomposite (NC) buried layer, is examined by electric measurements. In the proposed field-effect organic nanomaterial structure produced within the PMMA network by ion implantation with low energy (50 keV) Si+ at the fluence of 3.2 × 1016 cm-2 the gate NSD is ion-nanotracks-modified low-conductive surface layer, and the channel NC consists of carbon nanoclusters. In the studied ion-modified PMMA field-effect configuration, the gate NSD and the buried NC are formed as planar layers both with a thickness of about 80 nm. The NC channel of nano-clustered amorphous carbon (that is an organic semiconductor) provides a huge increase in the electrical conduction of the material in the subsurface region, but also modulates the electric field distribution in the drift region. The field effect via the gate NSD is analyzed. The most important performance parameters, such as the charge carrier field-effect mobility and amplification of this particular type of PMMA- based transconductance device with NC n-type channel and gate NSD top layer, are determined.

  6. Thermoluminescence of ion-implanted SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) has been measured from room temperature to 500 0 C for ion-implanted fused silica glasses, crystalline synthetic quartz and rf-sputtered SiO 2 films. Measurements of the TL spectra for widely varying values of electronic and atomic energy depositions, along with the known impurity concentrations of the various systems, has allowed some of the TL features to be identified. In particular, (1) a TL peak at 150 0 C in fused silica has been identified with defects formed by structural modification, (2) a 330 0 C peak in crystalline quartz and relatively impure fused silica is tentatively assigned to a center involving Al, (3) a 100 0 C peak, common to all silicas may be related to oxygen vacancies, and (4) an approximately 200 0 C peak may be the analog of the 245 nm impurity absorption band seen in some fused silica glasses

  7. Focussed MeV ion beam implanted waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Bibra, M.L.; Roberts, A.; Nugent, K.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Single mode buried optical waveguides have been fabricated in fused silica by MeV proton implantation using a focussed hydrogen ion beam. The technique has the potential to direct write waveguide devices and produce multi-layered structures, without the need for intermediate steps such as mask fabrication or layered depositions. A micron resolution Confocal Raman Spectrometer has been used to map the distribution of atomic vacancies that forms the waveguiding region. The results are compared with theoretical calculations. Losses of 3 dB cm{sup -1} have been measured in unannealed samples, which decreases to less than 0.5 dB cm{sup -1} after annealing at 500 degrees Celsius. We describe methods for determining the refractive index distribution of single mode buried waveguides from their output intensity distributions via an inversion of the scalar wave equation. (authors). 5 figs.

  8. Persistent photoconductivity in hydrogen ion-implanted KNbO3 bulk single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruoka, R.; Shinkawa, A.; Nishimura, T.; Tanuma, C.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.

    2017-06-01

    Persistent Photoconductivity (PPC) in hydorogen-ion implanted (001) oriented KNbO3 bulk single crystals (perovskite structure at room temperature; ferroelectric with a band gap of 3.16 eV) is studied in air at room temperature to prevent the crystallinity degradation caused by the phase transition. Hydrogen is implanted into KNbO3 bulk single crystals using the energy (the peak ion fluence) of 500 keV (5.0 × 1015 cm-2). The resistivity varies from ∼108 Ω/□ for an un-implanted KNbO3 sample to 2.3 × 105 Ω/□ for as-implanted one. suggesting the presence of donors consisting of hydrogen interstitial and oxygen vacancy. The PPC is clearly observed with ultraviolet and blue LEDs illumination rather than green and infrared, suggesting the release of electrons from the metastable conductive state below the conduction band relating to the charge states of the oxygen vacancy as observed in electron irradiated ZnO.

  9. Study of high dose nitrogen implantation into graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanovskij, E.A.; Bespalova, O.V.; Borisov, A.M.; Goryaga, N.G.; Zatekin, V.V.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Sukharev, V.G.

    1997-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used for the study of high dose (35 keV)N + ions implantation into graphites and glassy carbon. Quantitative date on depth profiles and its dependences on irradiation fluence and ion beam flux were obtained for all elements. The stationary cupola-shaped depth profile with maximum nitrogen concentration 22-27% (at.) is reached at sufficiently large fluence. The obtained results are discussed in the frame of high dose implantation models and compared with results of another methods of carbon nitride synthesis

  10. Synthesis of Ag ion-implanted TiO{sub 2} thin films for antibacterial application and photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xinggang, E-mail: hou226@mail.tjnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Ma, Huiyan; Liu, Feng; Deng, Jianhua; Ai, Yukai; Zhao, Xinlei; Mao, Dong; Li, Dejun [Department of Physics, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liao, Bin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Implanted TiO{sub 2} films with excellent antibacterial and photocatalytic ability was prepared. • Bactericidal effect of released Ag ions was confirmed using VC as radical scavenger. • Excitation of TiO{sub 2} to visible region is attributed to subtitutional Ag. • Synergetic effect of Ag{sup 3+} and Ag{sup +} accounts for the enhanced ability of TiO{sub 2}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} thin films were deposited by spin coating method. Silver ions were implanted into the films using a Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc implanter. The antibacterial ability of implanted films was tested using Escherichia coli removal under fluorescent irradiation and in the dark. The concentration of E. coli was evaluated by plating technique. The photocatalytic efficiency of the implanted films was studied by degradation of methyl orange under fluorescent illumination. The surface free energy of the implanted TiO{sub 2} films was calculated by contact angle testing. Vitamin C was used as radical scavengers to explore the antibacterial mechanism of the films. The results supported the model that both generation of reactive oxygen species and release of silver ions played critical roles in the toxic effect of implanted films against E. coli. XPS experimental results demonstrated that a portion of the Ag(Ag{sup 3+}) ions were doped into the crystalline lattice of TiO{sub 2}. As demonstrated by density functional theory calculations, the impurity energy level of subtitutional Ag was responsible for enhanced absorption of visible light. Ag ion-implanted TiO{sub 2} films with excellent antibacterial efficiency against bacteria and decomposed ability against organic pollutants could be potent bactericidal surface in moist environment.

  11. Development of a keV single-ion-implanter for nanofabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Jamieson, D.N.; Hopf, T.; Tamanyan, G.; Spizziri, P.; Pakes, C.; Andresen, S.E.; Hudson, F.; Gauja, E.; Dzurak, A.; Clark, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional methods of doping semiconductors have a difficulty meeting the demand for high precision doping due to large statistical fluctuations in the numbers of dopant atoms introduced in the ever shrinking volume in micro- and nano-electronics devices, especially when the fabrication process approaches the nanometre scale. The statistical fluctuations in doping semiconductors for the fabrication of devices with a very small feature size may lead to inconsistent and unreliable performance. This paper describes the adaptation of a commercial ion implanter into a single-ion-implantation system for the accurate delivery of dopants into a nanometre or micrometre area in a silicon substrate. All the implanted ions can be accurately counted with near 100% certainty through online detection using the silicon substrate itself as an ion detector. A variety of ion species including B + , N + , P + at the energy range of 10-15 keV can be delivered in the single ion implantation system. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  12. Characterization of Nitride Layers Formed by Nitrogen Ion Implantation into Surface Region of Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudjatmoko; Subki, M. Iyos R.

    2000-01-01

    Ion implantation is a convenient means of modifying the physical and chemical properties of the near-surface region of materials. The nitrogen implantation into pure iron has been performed at room temperature with ion dose of 1.310 17 to 1.310 18 ions/cm 2 and ion energy of 20 to 100 keV. The optimum dose of nitrogen ions implanted into pure iron was around 2.2310 17 ions/cm 2 in order to get the maximum wear resistant. SEM micrographs and EDX show that the nitride layers were found on the surface of substrate. The nitrogen concentration profile was measured using EDX in combination with spot technique, and it can be shown that the depth profile of nitrogen implanted into substrate was nearly Gaussian. (author)

  13. Tribological properties and surface structures of ion implanted 9Cr18Mo stainless steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengbin, Liu; Guohao, Fu; Yan, Cui; Qiguo, Sun; Min, Qu; Yi, Sun

    2013-07-01

    The polished quenched-and-tempered 9Cr18Mo steels were implanted with N ions and Ti ions respectively at a fluence of 2 × 1017 ions/cm2. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by using nanoindenter and tribometer. The results showed that the ion implantations would improve the nanohardness and tribological property, especially N ion implantation. The surface analysis of the implanted samples was carried out by using XRD, XPS and AES. It indicated that the surface exhibits graded layers after ion implantation. For N ion implantation, the surface about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of supersaturated interstitial N solid solution, oxynitrides, CrxCy phase and metal nitrides. In the subsurface region, the metal nitrides dominate and the other phases disappear. For Ti ion implantation, the surface of about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of titanium oxides and carbon amorphous phase, the interstitial solid solution of Ti in Fe is abundant in the subsurface region. The surface components and structures have significant contributions to the improved mechanical properties.

  14. Tribological properties and surface structures of ion implanted 9Cr18Mo stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fengbin, Liu; Guohao, Fu; Yan, Cui; Qiguo, Sun; Min, Qu; Yi, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The polished quenched-and-tempered 9Cr18Mo steels were implanted with N ions and Ti ions respectively at a fluence of 2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated by using nanoindenter and tribometer. The results showed that the ion implantations would improve the nanohardness and tribological property, especially N ion implantation. The surface analysis of the implanted samples was carried out by using XRD, XPS and AES. It indicated that the surface exhibits graded layers after ion implantation. For N ion implantation, the surface about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of supersaturated interstitial N solid solution, oxynitrides, Cr x C y phase and metal nitrides. In the subsurface region, the metal nitrides dominate and the other phases disappear. For Ti ion implantation, the surface of about 20 nm thickness is mainly composed of titanium oxides and carbon amorphous phase, the interstitial solid solution of Ti in Fe is abundant in the subsurface region. The surface components and structures have significant contributions to the improved mechanical properties

  15. N and Cr ion implantation of natural ruby surfaces and their characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. Sudheendra; Sahoo, Rakesh K.; Dash, Tapan; Magudapathy, P.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Nayak, B. B.; Mishra, B. K.

    2016-04-01

    Energetic ions of N and Cr were used to implant the surfaces of natural rubies (low aesthetic quality). Surface colours of the specimens were found to change after ion implantation. The samples without and with ion implantation were characterized by diffuse reflectance spectra in ultra violet and visible region (DRS-UV-Vis), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and nano-indentation. While the Cr-ion implantation produced deep red surface colour (pigeon eye red) in polished raw sample (without heat treatment), the N-ion implantation produced a mixed tone of dark blue, greenish blue and violet surface colour in the heat treated sample. In the case of heat treated sample at 3 × 1017 N-ions/cm2 fluence, formation of colour centres (F+, F2, F2+ and F22+) by ion implantation process is attributed to explain the development of the modified surface colours. Certain degree of surface amorphization was observed to be associated with the above N-ion implantation.

  16. Co+ -ion implantation induced doping of nanocrystalline CdS thin films: structural, optical, and vibrational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, S.; Sarangi, S.N.; Majumder, S.; Som, T.; Kanjilal, A.; Sathyamoorthy, R.

    2009-01-01

    -Raman spectroscopic studies show that the implanted cobalt atoms are likely to occupy the cationic sites in the CdS lattice. An attempt has been made to correlate the changes in lattice vibrational properties with the microstructure. The results would be discussed in the light of ion-solid interaction. These results show the efficacy of ion implantation technique for synthesis of Co-doped CdS thin films which would be useful for synthesis of CdS based devices

  17. Development of pulsed processes for the manufacture of solar cells. [Ion implantation and annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnucci, J.A.

    1978-12-01

    This report describes the results of a 1-year program to develop the processes required for low-energy ion implantation for the automated production of silicon solar cells. The program included (1) demonstrating state-of-the-art ion implantation equipment and designing an automated ion implanter, (2) making efforts to improve the performance of ion-implanted solar cells to 16.5 percent AM1, (3) developing a model of the pulse annealing process used in solar cell production, and (4) preparing an economic analysis of the process costs of ion implantation. During the program, phosphorus ions at an energy of 10 keV and dose of 2 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ were implanted in silicon solar cells to produce junctions, while boron ions at 25 keV and 5 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ were implanted in the cells to produce effective back surface fields. An ion implantation facility with a beam current up to 4 mA and a production throughput of 300 wafers per hour was designed and installed. A design was prepared for a 100-mA, automated implanter with a production capacity of 100 MW/sub e/ per year. A Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) economic analysis of the automated process steps of ion implantation and pulse annealing indicated that junctions can be formed and annealed at a cost of less than 3 cents per watt. The efforts during this program represent a major advancement in developing the automated production of silicon solar cells with efficiencies greater than 16 percent AM1.

  18. Near-surface recrystallization of the amorphous implanted layer of ion implanted 6H-SiC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhudzai, R. J.; van der Berg, N. G.; Malherbe, J. B.; Hlatshwayo, T. T.; Theron, C. C.; Buys, A. V.; Botha, A. J.; Wendler, E.; Wesch, W.

    2014-08-01

    The recrystallization and subsequent crystal growth during annealing of amorphous surface layers on 6H-SiC produced by ion implantation is investigated. Amorphous surface layers were produced by ion implantation of 360 keV ions of iodine, silver, xenon, cesium and strontium into single crystalline 6H-silicon carbide samples. The ion fluence for all the implantations were in the order of 1016 cm-2. Vacuum annealing of the damaged silicon carbide samples was then performed. The microstructure of SiC surfaces before and after annealing was investigated using a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM analysis was complimented by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). SEM images acquired by an in-lens detector using an accelerating voltage of 2 kV show nano-crystallites developed for all implanted samples after annealing. Larger and more faceted crystallites along with elongated thin crystallites were observed for iodine and xenon implanted 6H-SiC. Crystallites formed on surfaces implanted with strontium and cesium were smaller and less faceted. Strontium, silver and cesium implanted samples also exhibited more cavities on the surface. AFM was used to evaluate the effect of annealing on the surface roughness. For all the amorphous surfaces which were essentially featureless, the root mean square (rms) roughness was approximately 1 nm. The roughness increased to approximately 17 nm for the iodine implanted sample after annealing with the surface roughness below this value for all the other samples. AFM also showed that the largest crystals grew to heights of about 17, 20, 45, 50 and 65 nm for Sr, Cs, Ag, Xe and I implanted samples after annealing at 1200 °C for 5 h respectively. SEM images and AFM analysis suggest that iodine is more effective in promoting crystal growth during the annealing of bombardment-induced amorphous SiC layers than the rest of the ions we implanted. In samples of silicon carbide co-implanted with iodine and silver, few

  19. New approach to the elucidation of corrosion mechanism of ceramics by the ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, J.; Hayashi, K.; Tachi, Y.; Kano, S.

    1998-08-01

    Ceramics possessing high temperature strength are promising materials for the structural application in severe environment. The development of ceramics has been carried out in order to use them in FBR environment such as liquid sodium. In particular, corrosion behavior of ceramics has been investigated to improve the corrosion resistance in liquid sodium. However, the corrosion mechanism of ceramics was not comprehended in detail even now. Because corrosion products which were deposited on the surface of test pieces during corrosion test and played an important role in corrosion behavior, were not detected distinctly after thr corrosion test. In this study, an ion implantation technique was applied to understand the corrosion mechanism of ceramics in stead of the conventional corrosion test. Sodium ions were implanted in ceramics (100 keV, 1.9 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 ) and then heat treatment was performed at either 923 K or 823 K for 36 ks in argon atmosphere. After that, products on the surface were analyzed using SEM and TEM observation and X-ray diffraction. Consequently, the corrosion products were not identified exactly, but their presence was confirmed on the surface. It was caused by the minute amount of corrosion products. In future, it is necessary to carry systematically out the implantation and heat treatment under various conditions. Therefore, it seems that the beneficial information will be obtained to understand the corrosion mechanism of ceramics. (author)

  20. High Curie temperature drive layer materials for ion-implanted magnetic bubble devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratello, V. J.; Wolfe, R.; Blank, S. L.; Nelson, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ion implantation of bubble garnets can lower the Curie temperature by 70 C or more, thus limiting high temperature operation of devices with ion-implanted propagation patterns. Therefore, double-layer materials were made with a conventional 2-micron bubble storage layer capped by an ion-implantable drive layer of high Curie temperature, high magnetostriction material. Contiguous disk test patterns were implanted with varying doses of a typical triple implant. Quality of propagation was judged by quasistatic tests on 8-micron period major and minor loops. Variations of magnetization, uniaxial anisotropy, implant dose, and magnetostriction were investigated to ensure optimum flux matching, good charged wall coupling, and wide operating margins. The most successful drive layer compositions were in the systems (SmDyLuCa)3(FeSi)5O12 and (BiGdTmCa)3(FeSi)5O12 and had Curie temperatures 25-44 C higher than the storage layers.

  1. Effect of disorder and defects in ion-implanted semiconductors optical and photothermal characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Willardson, R K; Christofides, Constantinos; Ghibaudo, Gerard

    1997-01-01

    Defects in ion-implanted semiconductors are important and will likely gain increased importance as annealing temperatures are reduced with successive IC generations. Novel implant approaches, such as MdV implantation, create new types of defects whose origin and annealing characteristics will need to be addressed. Publications in this field mainly focus on the effects of ion implantation on the material and the modification in the implanted layer after high temperature annealing. The editors of this volume and Volume 45 focus on the physics of the annealing kinetics of the damaged layer. An overview of characterization tehniques and a critical comparison of the information on annealing kinetics is also presented. Key Features * Provides basic knowledge of ion implantation-induced defects * Focuses on physical mechanisms of defect annealing * Utilizes electrical, physical, and optical characterization tools for processed semiconductors * Provides the basis for understanding the problems caused by the defects g...

  2. Etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Rodriguez, A.; Romano-Rodriguez, A.; Morante, J.R.; Acero, M.C. Esteve, J.; Montserrat, J.; El-Hassani, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this work the etch-stop behavior of buried layers formed by substoichiometric nitrogen ion implantation into silicon is studied as a function of the processing parameters, the implantation dose and temperature, and the presence of capping layers during implantation. Etching characteristics have been probed using tetramethylammonium hydroxide or KOH solutions for different times up to 6 h. Results show that, after annealing, the minimum dose required for the formation of an efficient etch-stop layer is about 4 x 10 17 cm -2 , for an implantation energy of 75 keV. This is defined as a layer with an efficient etch selectivity in relation to Si of s ≥ 100. For larger implantation doses efficient etch selectivities larger than 100 are obtained. However, for these doses a considerable density of pits is observed in the etch-stop layer. These are related to the presence of nitrogen poor Si regions in the buried layer after annealing, due to a partial separation of silicon and silicon nitride phases during the annealing process. The influence of this separation of phases as well as nitrogen gettering in the buried layer on the etch-stop behavior is discussed as a function of the processing parameters

  3. Investigation of Steel Surfaces Treated by a Hybrid Ion Implantation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuther, H.; Richter, E.; Prokert, F.; Ueda, M.; Beloto, A. F.; Gomes, G. F.

    2004-01-01

    Implantation of nitrogen ions into stainless steel in combination with oxidation often results in a decrease or even complete removal of the chromium in the nitrogen containing outermost surface layer. While iron nitrides can be formed easily by this method, due to the absence of chromium, the formation of chromium nitrides is impossible and the beneficial influence of chromium in the steel for corrosion resistance cannot be used. To overcome this problem we use the following hybrid technique. A thin chromium layer is deposited on steel and subsequently implanted with nitrogen ions. Chromium can be implanted by recoil into the steel surface and thus the formation of iron/chromium nitrides should be possible. Both beam line ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation are used. Due to the variation of the process parameters, different implantation profiles and different compounds are produced. The produced layers are characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The obtained results show that due to the variation of the implantation parameters, the formation of iron/chromium nitrides can be achieved and that plasma immersion ion implantation is the most suitable technique for the enrichment of chromium in the outermost surface layer of the steel when compared to the beam line implantation.

  4. Surface potential measurement of the insulator with secondary electron caused by negative ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Toyota, Yoshitaka; Nagumo, Syoji; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki; Tanjyo, Masayasu; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1994-01-01

    Ion implantation has the merit of the good controllability of implantation profile and low temperature process, and has been utilized for the impurity introduction in LSI production. However, positive ion implantation is carried out for insulator or insulated conductor substrates, their charged potential rises, which is a serious problem. As the requirement for them advanced, charge compensation method is not the effective means for resolving it. The negative ion implantation in which charging is little was proposed. When the experiment on the negative ion implantation into insulated conductors was carried out, it was verified that negative ion implantation is effective as the implantation process without charging. The method of determining the charged potential of insulators at the time of negative ion implantation by paying attention to the energy distribution of the secondary electrons emitted from substrates at the time was devised. The energy analyzer for measuring the energy distribution of secondary electrons was made, and the measurement of the charged potential of insulators was carried out. The principle of the measurement, the measuring system and the experimental results are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Effects of ion implantation on the abrasive wear of WC-Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci Luyckx, S.; Sellschop, J.P.F.

    1988-01-01

    An explanation of the improved abrasive wear resistance of ion-implanted WC-Co components has been sought. X-ray analysis is reported of scratches produced on polished implanted and non-implanted WC-Co surfaces by a single pass scratch test. It can be inferred from the results that extrusion of cobalt from a WC-Co surface under the stress of an abrading diamond is easier in the non-implanted than in the implanted case; this is the first stage of the abrasion wear process. Transmission electron diffraction of a WC-Co foil, before and after implantation by nitrogen ions, indicated the formation of Co 2 N microprecipitates during implantation. Precipitation hardening, hindering cobalt extrusion, is offered therefore as the explanation of the improved service life of the components. (U.K.)

  6. Quartz modification by Zn ion implantation and swift Xe ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privezentsev, Vladimir [Institute of Physics and Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, Vaclav [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Didyk, Alexander; Skuratov, Vladimir [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Steinman, Edward; Tereshchenko, Alexey; Kolesnikov, Nikolay [Institute of Solid-State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Trifonov, Alexey; Sakharov, Oleg [National Research University ' ' MIET' ' , Zelenograd, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ksenich, Sergey [National University of Science and Technology ' ' MISiS' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-15

    The quartz slides were implanted by {sup 64}Zn{sup +} ions with dose of 5 x 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 100 keV. After implantation, the amorphous metallic Zn nanoparticles with an average radius of 3.5 nm were created. The sample surface becomes nonuniform, its roughness is increased and its values rise up to 6 nm compared to virgin state, and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.8 nm. The surface is made up of valleys and hillocks which have a round shape with an average diameter about 200 nm. At the center of these hillocks are pores with a depth up to 6 nm and a diameter of about 20 nm. After implantation in UV-vis diapason, the optical transmission decreases while PL peak (apparently due to oxygen deficient centers) at wavelength of 400 nm increases. Then the samples were subjected to swift Xe ion irradiation with the fluences of 1 x 10{sup 12}-7.5 x 10{sup 14}/cm{sup 2} and energy of 167 MeV. After Xe irradiation, the sample surface roughness shat down to values of 0.5 nm and the roughness maximum is at a value of about 0.1 nm. Optical transmission in UV-vis diapason increases. The PL peak at wavelength of 400 nm is decreased while a PL peak at wavelength of 660 nm is raised. This peak is presumably due to non-bridging oxygen hole centers or/and NPs with structure Si(core)/SiO{sub 2}(shell). HRTEM image of Zn-implanted quartz subsurface layer. One can see the Zn amorphous nanoparticles, which confirms the electron diffraction pattern (insert). (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Lattice location of platinum ions implanted into single crystal zirconia and their annealing behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, D.X. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Sood, D.K. [Academia Sinica, Shanghai, SH (China). Shanghai Inst. of Nuclear Research; Brown, I.G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Single crystal samples of (100) oriented cubic zirconia stabilised with 9.5 mol % yttria were implanted with platinum ions, using a metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) high current ion implanter, to a nominal dose of 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The implanted samples were annealed isothermally in air ambient at 1200 deg C, from 1-24 hours. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Channeling (RBSC) of 2 MeV He ions are employed to determine depth distributions of ion damage, Pt ions and substitutionality of Pt ions before and after annealing. The damage behaviour, Pt migration and lattice location are discussed in terms of metastable phase formation and solid solubility considerations. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  8. The Effects of Ion Implantation on Friction and Wear of Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    34The Effect of Ion Implatation on the Corrosion Behavior of Fe," Proc. of the International Conf. on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors and Other...al., "The Effects of Yttrium Ion -146- Implatation Upon the Oxidation Behavior of an Austenitic Stainless Steel," Proc. of the International Conf. on

  9. Study and implant of a new beam detector at Ganil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignet, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report explains the principle, study and installation of a new beam detector implanted at Ganil. This new detector uses the ionization by the beam of residual gas. It is formed of an accelerator (to canalize ions), an amplifier composed of 2 microchannel plates and of localization lattice (strips)

  10. H+ ion-implantation energy dependence of electronic transport properties in the MeV range in n-type silicon wafers using frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chinhua; Mandelis, Andreas; Tolev, Jordan; Burchard, Bernd; Meijer, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Industrial n-type Si wafers (resistivity of 5-10 Ω cm) were H + ion implanted with energies between 0.75 and 2.00 MeV, and the electronic transport properties of the implanted layer (recombination lifetime, carrier diffusion coefficient, and front-surface and implanted-interface recombination velocities s 1 and s 2 ) were studied using photocarrier radiometry (PCR). A quantitative fitting procedure to the diffusing photoexcited free-carrier density wave was introduced using a relatively simple two-layer PCR model in lieu of the more realistic but substantially more complicated three-layer model. The experimental trends in the transport properties of H + -implanted Si layers extracted from the PCR amplitude and phase data as functions of implantation energy corroborate a physical model of the implanted layer in which (a) overlayer damage due to the light H + ions decreases with increased depth of implantation at higher energies (b) the implanted region damage close to the interface is largely decoupled from the overlayer crystallinity, and (c) the concentration of implanted H + ions decreases at higher implantation energies at the interface, thus decreasing the degree of implantation damage at the interface proper

  11. The effects of ion implantation upon the mechanical properties of metals and cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ion implantation has been successful in producing significant improvements in the wear resistance and fatigue endurance of metals such as steel, titanium, copper and electrodeposited chromium. Models to explain this behaviour in terms of the pinning of mobile dislocations are presented. Friction coefficients are also modified by ion implantation, and in the composite material cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide this effect is very strong, and is accompanied by a reduction in wear. Examples of the range of tools which have been improved by nitrogen ion implantation are given, and the review concludes with a description of the equipment developed for the industrial application of this process. (author)

  12. Comparison of iron ion implantation effects in bubble ga